WorldWideScience

Sample records for modulation dlc thin

  1. Ion beam deposition of DLC and nitrogen doped DLC thin films for enhanced haemocompatibility on PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Tang, Y.; Li, Y.S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and N-doped DLC (DLC:N) thin films have been synthesized on polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) and silicon wafers using ion beam deposition. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structural and morphological properties of the coated surface. The results show that the ion beam deposited DLC thin films exhibit high hardness and Young's modulus, low coefficient of friction and high adhesion to the substrate. Low concentration of nitrogen doping in DLC improves the mechanical properties and reduces the surface roughness. DLC coating decreases the surface energy and improves the wettability of PTFE. The platelet adhesion results show that the haemocompatibility of DLC coated PTFE, especially DLC:N coated PTFE, has been significantly enhanced as compared with uncoated PTFE. SEM observations show that the platelet reaction on the DLC and DLC:N coated PTFE was minimized as the platelets were much less aggregated and activated.

  2. Effect of surface structure and wettability of DLC and N-DLC thin films on adsorption of glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mukhtar H.; Byrne, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is known to have excellent biocompatibility. Various samples of DLC and nitrogen-doped DLC thin films (N-DLC) were deposited onto silicon substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Subsequently, the adsorption of amino acid glycine onto the surfaces of the thin films was investigated to elucidate the mechanisms involved in protein adhesion. The physicochemical characteristics of the surfaces, before and after adsorption of glycine, were investigated using Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and contact angle (θ). The Raman study highlighted decrease slightly in the ID/IG ratio at low levels of N (5.4 at.%), whilst increasing the nitrogen dopant level (>5.4 at.%) resulted in a increase of the ID/IG ratio, and the FTIR band at related to C=N. Following exposure to glycine solutions, the presence of Raman bands at 1727 cm -1 and 1200 cm -1 , and FTIR bands at 1735 cm -1 indicates that the adsorption of glycine onto the surfaces has taken place. These results which obtained from SE and surface free energy, show that low levels of nitrogen doping in DLC enhances the adsorption of the amino acid, while, increased doping led to a reduced adsorption, as compared to undoped DLC. Glycine is bound to the surface of the DLC films via both de-protonated carboxyl and protonated amino groups while, in the case of N-DLC gylcine was bound to the surface via anionic carboxyl groups and the amino group did not interact strongly with the surface. Doping of DLC may allow control of protein adsorption to the surface.

  3. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sekhar C.; Pong, W.F.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp"3 network to sp"2 as evidenced by an increase of the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp"3-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp"3 and sp"2 contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  4. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sekhar C., E-mail: Raysc@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pong, W.F. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [Nanotechnology and Integrated Bio-Engineering Centre, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp{sup 3} network to sp{sup 2} as evidenced by an increase of the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp{sup 3}-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  5. Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of polypropylene meshes coated with metal-containing DLC thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalini, Elisa M; Miyakawa, Walter; Teodoro, Guilherme R; Sobrinho, Argemiro S S; Matieli, José E; Massi, Marcos; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y

    2017-06-01

    A promising strategy to reduce nosocomial infections related to prosthetic meshes is the prevention of microbial colonization. To this aim, prosthetic meshes coated with antimicrobial thin films are proposed. Commercial polypropylene meshes were coated with metal-containing diamond-like carbon (Me-DLC) thin films by the magnetron sputtering technique. Several dissimilar metals (silver, cobalt, indium, tungsten, tin, aluminum, chromium, zinc, manganese, tantalum, and titanium) were tested and compositional analyses of each Me-DLC were performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Antimicrobial activities of the films against five microbial species (Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis) were also investigated by a modified Kirby-Bauer test. Results showed that films containing silver and cobalt have inhibited the growth of all microbial species. Tungsten-DLC, tin-DLC, aluminum-DLC, zinc-DLC, manganese-DLC, and tantalum-DLC inhibited the growth of some strains, while chromium- and titanium-DLC weakly inhibited the growth of only one tested strain. In-DLC film showed no antimicrobial activity. The effects of tungsten-DLC and cobalt-DLC on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation were also assessed. Tungsten-DLC was able to significantly reduce biofilm formation. Overall, the experimental results in the present study have shown new approaches to coating polymeric biomaterials aiming antimicrobial effect.

  6. The thickness of DLC thin film affects the thermal conduction of HPLED lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming Seng; Huang, Jen Wei; Shyu, Feng Lin

    2016-09-01

    Thermal dissipation had an important influence in the quantum effect and life of light emitting diodes (LED) because it enabled heat transfer away from electric devices to the aluminum plate for heat removal. In the industrial processing, the quality of the thermal dissipation was decided by the gumming technique between the PCB and aluminum plate. In this study, we made the ceramic thin films of diamond like carbon (DLC) by vacuum sputtering between the substrate and high power light emitting diodes (HPLED) light to check the influence of heat transfer by DLC thin films. The ceramic dielectric coatings were characterized by several subsequent analyses, especially the measurement of real work temperature of HPLEDs. The X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) patterns revealed that ceramic phases were successfully grown onto the substrate. At the same time, the real work temperatures showed the thickness of DLC thin film coating effectively affected the thermal conduction of HPLEDs.

  7. A FED Prototype Using Patterned DLC Thin Films as the Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Feng, T.; Mao, D. S.; Wang, X.; Liu, X. H.; Zou, S. C.; Zhu, Y. K.; Li, Q.; Xu, J. F.; Jin, S.; Zheng, J. S.

    In our study, diamond-like-carbon (DLC) thin films were prepared by filtered arc deposition (FAD), which provided a way to deposit DLC thin films on large areas at room temperature. Glass slides coated 100nm chromium or titanium thin films were used as cathode substrates. Millions of rectangular holes with sizes of 5 × 5μm were made on the DLC films using a routine patterning process. Here a special reactive ion beam etching method was applied to etch the DLC films. The anodes of the devices were made by electrophoretic deposition. ZnO:Zn phosphor (P15) was employed, which has a broad band bluish green (centered at 490nm). Before electrophoretic deposition, the anode substrates (ITO glass slides) had been patterned into 50 anode electrodes. In order to improve the adherence of phosphor layers, the as-deposited screens were treated in Na2SiO3 solution for 24h to add additional binder. A kind of matrix-addressed diode FED prototype was designed and packaged. 50-100μm-thick glass slides were used as spacers and getters were applied to maintain the vacuum after the exhaustion. The applied DC voltage was ranged in 0-3000V and much higher current density was measured in the cathode-patterned prototypes than the unpatterned ones during the test. As a result, characters could be well displayed.

  8. DLC and AlN thin films influence the thermal conduction of HPLED light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming Seng; Hsu, Ching Yao; Huang, Jen Wei; Shyu, Feng Lin

    2015-08-01

    Thermal dissipation had an important influence in the effect and life of light emitting diodes (LED) because it enables transfer the heat away from electric device to the aluminum plate that can be used for heat removal. In the industrial processing, the quality of the thermal dissipation decides by the gumming technique between the PCB and aluminum plate. In this study, we fabricated double layer ceramic thin films of diamond like carbon (DLC) and alumina nitride (AlN) by vacuum sputtering soldered the substrate of high power light emitting diodes (HPLED) light to check the heat conduction. The ceramic dielectric coatings were characterized by several subsequent analyses, especially the measurement of real work temperature. The X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) patterns reveal those ceramic phases were successfully grown onto the substrate. The work temperatures show DLC and AlN films coating had limited the heat transfer by the lower thermal conductivity of these ceramic films. Obviously, it hadn't transferred heat and limited work temperature of HPLED better than DLC thin film only.

  9. Formation of thin DLC films on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate using FCVAD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootkul, D. [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Centre of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Centre of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Aramwit, C.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP), Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP), Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Centre of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate are attractive for novel sensitive and selective chemical sensors. According to the almost never ending of size reduction, a nm-thickness layer of the film is greatly required. However, formation of such a very thin DLC film on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate is challenging. In this experiment, DLC films were formed using our in-house Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition (FCVAD) facility by varying the bias voltage of 0 V, −250 V and −450 V with the arc voltage of 350 V, 450 V, 550 V, 650 V and 750 V for 10 min. Raman spectroscopy was applied for characterization of the film qualities and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was applied for cross sectional analysis. Results showed that films of thickness ranging from 10–50 nm were easily acquired depending on deposition conditions. Deconvolution of Raman spectra of these samples revealed that, when fixing the substrate bias but increasing the arc voltage from 350 to 750 V, the ratio between D-peak and G-peak intensity, namely I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio, tended to reduce up to the arc voltage of 450 V, then increased up to the arc voltage of 650 V and finally decreased again. On the other hand, when fixing the arc voltage, the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio tended to decrease continuously as the increasing of bias voltage. It can be concluded that the bonding structure would evolve from a graphitic-like structure to a diamond-like structure as the substrate bias increases. Additionally, the sp{sup 3} site should be maximized at the arc voltage ∼450 V for fixed bias voltage. It is expected that, at −450 V bias and 450 V arc, sp{sup 3} fractions could be higher than 60%. However, in some cases, e.g. at low arc voltages, voids formed between the film and the amorphous SiO{sub 2} substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the C edge across the DLC indicated that the thicker DLC film had uniform chemistry and structure, whereas the thin DLC

  10. Formation of thin DLC films on SiO2/Si substrate using FCVAD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootkul, D.; Intarasiri, S.; Aramwit, C.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on SiO 2 /Si substrate are attractive for novel sensitive and selective chemical sensors. According to the almost never ending of size reduction, a nm-thickness layer of the film is greatly required. However, formation of such a very thin DLC film on SiO 2 /Si substrate is challenging. In this experiment, DLC films were formed using our in-house Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition (FCVAD) facility by varying the bias voltage of 0 V, −250 V and −450 V with the arc voltage of 350 V, 450 V, 550 V, 650 V and 750 V for 10 min. Raman spectroscopy was applied for characterization of the film qualities and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was applied for cross sectional analysis. Results showed that films of thickness ranging from 10–50 nm were easily acquired depending on deposition conditions. Deconvolution of Raman spectra of these samples revealed that, when fixing the substrate bias but increasing the arc voltage from 350 to 750 V, the ratio between D-peak and G-peak intensity, namely I D /I G ratio, tended to reduce up to the arc voltage of 450 V, then increased up to the arc voltage of 650 V and finally decreased again. On the other hand, when fixing the arc voltage, the I D /I G ratio tended to decrease continuously as the increasing of bias voltage. It can be concluded that the bonding structure would evolve from a graphitic-like structure to a diamond-like structure as the substrate bias increases. Additionally, the sp 3 site should be maximized at the arc voltage ∼450 V for fixed bias voltage. It is expected that, at −450 V bias and 450 V arc, sp 3 fractions could be higher than 60%. However, in some cases, e.g. at low arc voltages, voids formed between the film and the amorphous SiO 2 substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the C edge across the DLC indicated that the thicker DLC film had uniform chemistry and structure, whereas the thin DLC film showed changes in the edge shape

  11. Grey fuzzy logic approach for the optimization of DLC thin film coating process parameters using PACVD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadai, R. K.; Das, P. P.; Shivakoti, I.; Mondal, S. C.; Swain, B. P.

    2017-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are widely used in medical, manufacturing and aerospace industries due to their excellent mechanical, biological, optical and tribological properties. The selection of optimal process parameters for efficient characteristics of DLC film is always a challenging issue for the materials science researchers. The optimal combination of the process parameters involved in the deposition of DLC films provide a better result, which subsequently help other researchers to choose the process parameters. In the present work Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) and Fuzzy-logic are being used for the optimization of process parameters in DLC film coating by using plasma assist chemical vapour deposition (PACVD) technique. The bias voltage, bias frequency, deposition pressure, gas composition are considered as input process parameters and hardness (GPa), Young's modulus (GPa), ratio between diamond to graphic fraction, (Id/Ig) ratio are considered as response parameters. The input parameters are optimized by grey fuzzy analysis. The contribution of individual input parameter is done by ANOVA. In this analysis found that bias voltage having the least influence and gas composition has highest influence in the PACVD deposited DLC films. The grey fuzzy analysis results indicated that optimum results for bias voltage, bias frequency, deposition pressure, gas composition for the DLC thin films are -50 V, 6 kHz, 4 μbar and 60:40 % respectively.

  12. Depth profiling of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) film: Localized fluorine in the top-most thin layer can enhance the non-thrombogenic properties of F-DLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, Terumitsu [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Tachikawa Hospital, 4-2-22, Nishiki-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8531 (Japan)], E-mail: teru_hasebe@hotmail.com; Nagashima, So [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Kamijo, Aki [Department of Transfusion Medicine, the University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Yoshimura, Taichi; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Yoshimoto, Yukihiro; Yohena, Satoshi; Kodama, Hideyuki; Hotta, Atsushi [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Takahashi, Koki [Department of Transfusion Medicine, the University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Suzuki, Tetsuya [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2007-12-03

    Fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) has recently drawn a great deal of attention as a more non-thrombogenic coating than conventional DLC for blood-contacting medical devices. We conducted quantitative depth profiling of F-DLC film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the effects of fluorine and fluorine distribution in F-DLC film in connection with the prevention of surface blood adhesion. F-DLC films were prepared on silicon substrates using the radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, and the thickness of films was {approx} 50 nm. 50-nm-thick F-DLC film samples were etched at 10-nm thickness intervals using argon plasma, and each surface was examined by XPS. Thereafter, each etched film layer was incubated with platelet-rich plasma isolated from human whole blood, and the platelet-covered area per unit area was evaluated for each surface. XPS spectra showed the localization of doped fluorine in the top-most thin layer of the film. Platelet-covered areas represented progressively larger portions of the surfaces of deeper etched layers, corresponding to the decreasing fluorine content in such sample surfaces. These results indicate that the localized fluorine in the top-most thin layer is one of the key factors in the promotion of the non-thrombogenicity of F-DLC film.

  13. Effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of DLC/TiC multilayer films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhaoying; Sun, H.; Leng, Y.X.; Li, Xueyuan; Yang, Wenmao; Huang, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods at same modulation ratio 1:1 were deposited by FCVA. • The residual stress of DLC/TiC multilayer films decreases with the modulation periods decrease. • The hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreases with modulation periods increasing. - Abstract: The high stress of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film limits its thickness and adhesion on substrate. Multilayer structure is one approach to overcome this disadvantage. In this paper, the DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods (80 nm, 106 nm or 160 nm) at same modulation ratio of 1:1 were deposited on Si(1 0 0) wafer and Ti-6Al-4V substrate by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindention and wear test were employed to investigate the effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the multilayer films. The results showed that the residual stress of the DLC/TiC multilayer films could be effectively reduced and the residual stress decreased with the modulation periods decreasing. The hardness of the DLC/TiC multilayer films increased with modulation periods decreasing. The DLC/TiC multilayer film with modulation period of 106 nm had the best wear resistance due to the good combination of hardness, ductility and low compressive stress

  14. Evolution of the mechanical and tribological properties of DLC thin films doped with low-concentration hafnium on 316L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Xiao, Jianrong; Gong, Chenyang; Jiang, Aihua; Chen, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Low concentrations (stainless steel and silicon (1 0 0) substrates by magnetron sputtering to attain superior mechanical and tribological properties. Ar and CH4 were used as source gases. The microstructure, chemical composition, and morphology of the Hf-DLC thin films in various concentrations were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results showed that Hf species transferred from the particulate microstructure to Hf carbide phases, and the surface roughness increased monotonically with increasing Hf concentration. Moreover, the hardness and elastic modulus exhibited high values when the doped Hf concentration was 0.42 at%. Similarly, the tribological behaviors and wear life of Hf-DLC thin films had a low friction coefficient and excellent wear resistance at 0.42 at% Hf concentration. Therefore, 0.42 at% Hf is an optimal doping concentration to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of DLC thin films. Generally, the use of low-concentration Hf doping into DLC thin films is novel, and the present results provide guidance for the selection of suitable and effective concentration to optimize Hf-DLC thin films with superior performance.

  15. Laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy as a diagnostic for the characterisation of diamond and diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, C.

    1990-10-01

    Invariably when manufacturing an artificial diamond film a mixture of carbon is deposited - tetragonally bonded (diamond), trigonally bonded (graphite) and other allotropic crystalline forms and amorphous carbons. This imposes a need for careful analysis to determine exactly what carbon types constitute the films. Raman spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to crystal and atomic structure and has a number of advantages which make it one of the most useful techniques for interrogating diamond and DLC thin films. Although Raman spectroscopy alone cannot fully characterise the film, it can give more information than simply what particular form of carbon or other impurities are present in the film. It can be used to determine the ratio of sp 2 to sp 3 bonding within the film, and to some extent the crystallite or domain size and the internal stress of the film. The use of laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in the analysis of diamond and DLC thin films is demonstrated for a variety of carbon films on various substrates and the characterisation of these films is discussed. (author)

  16. Effect of titanium incorporation on the structural, mechanical and biocompatible properties of DLC thin films prepared by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathy, P. Vijai [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Nataraj, D., E-mail: de.natraj@gmail.com [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Chu, Paul K.; Wang, Huaiyu [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Kiran, M.S.R.N. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Andra Pradesh (India); Silvestre-Albero, J. [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados, Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Mangalaraj, D. [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) and titanium incorporated diamond like carbon (Ti-DLC) thin films were deposited by using reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method. The effects of Ti incorporation and target bias voltage on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited films were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nano-indentation. It was found that the Ti content in Ti-DLC films gets increased with increasing target bias voltage. At about 4.2 at.% of Ti, uniform sized well dispersed nanocrystals were seen in the DLC matrix. Using FFT analysis, a facility available in the TEM, it was found that the nanocrystals are in cubic TiC phase. Though at the core, the incorporated Ti atoms react with carbon to form cubic TiC; most of the surface exposed Ti atoms were found to react with the atmospheric oxygen to form weakly bonded Ti-O. The presence of TiC nanocrystals greatly modified the sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridized bonding ratio and is reflected in mechanical hardness of Ti-DLC films. These films were then tested for their biocompatibility by an invitro cell culturing test. Morphological observation and the cell proliferation test have demonstrated that the human osteoblast cells well attach and proliferate on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC films, suggesting possible applications in bone related implant coatings.

  17. Effect of titanium incorporation on the structural, mechanical and biocompatible properties of DLC thin films prepared by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathy, P. Vijai; Nataraj, D.; Chu, Paul K.; Wang, Huaiyu; Yang, Q.; Kiran, M.S.R.N.; Silvestre-Albero, J.; Mangalaraj, D.

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) and titanium incorporated diamond like carbon (Ti-DLC) thin films were deposited by using reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method. The effects of Ti incorporation and target bias voltage on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited films were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nano-indentation. It was found that the Ti content in Ti-DLC films gets increased with increasing target bias voltage. At about 4.2 at.% of Ti, uniform sized well dispersed nanocrystals were seen in the DLC matrix. Using FFT analysis, a facility available in the TEM, it was found that the nanocrystals are in cubic TiC phase. Though at the core, the incorporated Ti atoms react with carbon to form cubic TiC; most of the surface exposed Ti atoms were found to react with the atmospheric oxygen to form weakly bonded Ti-O. The presence of TiC nanocrystals greatly modified the sp 3 /sp 2 hybridized bonding ratio and is reflected in mechanical hardness of Ti-DLC films. These films were then tested for their biocompatibility by an invitro cell culturing test. Morphological observation and the cell proliferation test have demonstrated that the human osteoblast cells well attach and proliferate on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC films, suggesting possible applications in bone related implant coatings.

  18. Transmission photocathodes based on stainless steel mesh and quartz glass coated with N-doped DLC thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Huran, J.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Arbet, J.

    2016-03-01

    The influence was investigated of N-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films properties on the quantum efficiency of a prepared transmission photocathode. N-doped DLC thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, a stainless steel mesh and quartz glass (coated with 5 nm thick Cr adhesion film) by reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and gas mixture Ar, 90%N2+10%H2. The elements' concentration in the films was determined by RBS and ERD. The quantum efficiency was calculated from the measured laser energy and the measured cathode charge. For the study of the vectorial photoelectric effect, the quartz type photocathode was irradiated by intensive laser pulses to form pin-holes in the DLC film. The quantum efficiency (QE), calculated at a laser energy of 0.4 mJ, rose as the nitrogen concentration in the DLC films was increased and rose dramatically after the micron-size perforation in the quartz type photocathodes.

  19. Nanostructures based in boro nitride thin films deposited by PLD onto Si/Si3N4/DLC substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, W S; Riascos, H; Caicedo, J C; Ospina, R; Tirado-MejIa, L

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon and boron nitride were deposited like nanostructered bilayer on Si/Si 3 N 4 substrate, both with (100) crystallographic orientation, these films were deposited through pulsed laser technique (Nd: YAG: 8 Jcm -2 , 9ns). Graphite (99.99%) and boron nitride (99.99%) targets used to growth the films in argon atmosphere. The thicknesses of bilayer were determined with a perfilometer, active vibration modes were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), finding bands associated around 1400 cm -1 for B - N bonding and bands around 1700 cm -1 associated with C=C stretching vibrations of non-conjugated alkenes and azometinic groups, respectively. The crystallites of thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determinated the h-BN (0002), α-Si 3 N 4 (101) phases. The aim of this study is to relate the dependence on physical and chemical characteristics of the system Si/Si 3 N 4 /DLC/BN with gas pressure adjusted at the 1.33, 2.67 and 5.33 Pa values.

  20. Laser micromachining of sputtered DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.Q.; Luo, J.K.; Flewitt, A.J.; Ong, S.E.; Zhang, S.; Milne, W.I.

    2006-01-01

    DLC films with different thicknesses (from 100 nm to 1.9 μm) were deposited using sputtering of graphite target in pure argon atmosphere without substrate heating. Film microstructures (sp 2 /sp 3 ratio) and mechanical properties (modulus, hardness, stress) were characterized as a function of film thickness. A thin layer of aluminum about 60 nm was deposited on the DLC film surface. Laser micromachining of Al/DLC layer was performed to form microcantilever structures, which were released using a reactive ion etching system with SF 6 plasma. Due to the intrinsic stress in DLC films and bimorph Al/DLC structure, the microcantilevers bent up with different curvatures. For DLC film of 100 nm thick, the cantilever even formed microtubes. The relationship between the bimorph beam bending and DLC film properties (such as stress, modulus, etc.) were discussed in details

  1. Characterisation of thin films by phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Das, N.C.

    1998-07-01

    A wide variety of thin film coatings, deposited by different techniques and with potential applications in various important areas, have been characterised by the Phase Modulated Spectroscopic Ellipsometer, installed recently in the Spectroscopy Division, B.A.R.C. The Phase Modulated technique provides a faster and more accurate data acquisition process than the conventional ellipsometry. The measured Ellipsometry spectra are fitted with theoretical spectra generated assuming an appropriate model regarding the sample. The fittings have been done objectively by minimising the squared difference (χ 2 ) between the measured and calculated values of the ellipsometric parameters and thus accurate information have been derived regarding the thickness and optical constants (viz, the refractive index and extinction coefficient) of the different layers, the surface roughness and the inhomogeneities present in the layers. Measurements have been done on (i) ion-implanted Si-wafers to investigate the formation of SiC layers, (ii) phenyl- silane coating on glass to investigate the surface modifications achieved for better adsorption of rhodamine dye on glass, (iii) GaN films on quartz to investigate the formation of high quality GaN layers by sputtering of GaAs targets, (iv) Diamond-like-coating (DLC) samples prepared by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) to investigate the optical properties which would ultimately lead to an accurate estimation of the ratio of sp 3 and sp 2 bonded carbon atoms in the films and (v) SS 304 under different surface treatments to investigate the growth of different passive films. (author)

  2. NANOINDENTATION TEST FOR DLC COATING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tischler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report the effects of the substrate on the microhardness of Diamond like carbon (DLC thin films were investigated. The DLC coatings were deposited by Radio Frequency Plasma Actived Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF PACVD; 13,56 MHz process on three mechanically polished substrates, which were chosen for comparison; hardened molybdenum high speed steel AISI M2, unhardened tool steel AISI L2 and titanium alloy TiAl6V4. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of substrates on microhardness and other mechanical properties of DLC layer. These properties especially microhardness were studied and compared from nanoindentation load – displacement curves. Results show that the hardness of the substrate is the crucial value for the hardness of the DLC films.

  3. Nanostructures based in boro nitride thin films deposited by PLD onto Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/DLC substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, W S; Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma, Laser y Aplicaciones, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Caicedo, J C [Grupo de PelIculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Ospina, R [Laboratorio de Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Manizales (Colombia); Tirado-MejIa, L, E-mail: hriascos@utp.edu.c [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon and boron nitride were deposited like nanostructered bilayer on Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrate, both with (100) crystallographic orientation, these films were deposited through pulsed laser technique (Nd: YAG: 8 Jcm{sup -2}, 9ns). Graphite (99.99%) and boron nitride (99.99%) targets used to growth the films in argon atmosphere. The thicknesses of bilayer were determined with a perfilometer, active vibration modes were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), finding bands associated around 1400 cm{sup -1} for B - N bonding and bands around 1700 cm{sup -1} associated with C=C stretching vibrations of non-conjugated alkenes and azometinic groups, respectively. The crystallites of thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determinated the h-BN (0002), alpha-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (101) phases. The aim of this study is to relate the dependence on physical and chemical characteristics of the system Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/DLC/BN with gas pressure adjusted at the 1.33, 2.67 and 5.33 Pa values.

  4. DLC coated textile vascular prostheses tested in sheep

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Podlaha, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 647, JAN (2013), 20-24 ISSN 1022-6680 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : DLC * PLD * thin films * vascular prosthesis * pre-clinical study * in vivo Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  5. Study of the Thermal Decomposition of PFPEs Lubricants on a Thin DLC Film Using Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic Potential Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb Nath, S.K.; Deb Nath, S.K.; Wong, C.H.; Deb Nath, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoro polyethers (PFPEs) are widely used as hard disk lubricants for protecting carbon overcoat reducing friction between the hard disk interface and the head during the movement of head during reading and writing data in the hard disk. Due to temperature rise of PFPE Zdol lubricant molecules on a DLC surface, how polar end groups are detached from lubricant molecules during coating is described considering the effect of temperatures on the bond/break density of PFPE Zdol using the coarse-grained bead spring model based on finitely extensible nonlinear elastic potential. As PFPE Z contains no polar end groups, effects of temperature on the bond/break density (number of broken bonds/total number of bonds) are not so significant like PFPE Zdol. Effects of temperature on the bond/break density of PFPE Z on DLC surface are also discussed with the help of graphical results. How bond/break phenomenon affects the end bead density of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on DLC surface is discussed elaborately. How the overall bond length of PFPE Zdol increases with the increase of temperature which is responsible for its decomposition is discussed with the help of graphical results. At HAMR condition, as PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol are not suitable lubricant on a hard disk surface, it needs more investigations to obtain suitable lubricant. We study the effect of breaking of bonds of nonfunctional lubricant PFPE Z, functional lubricants such as PFPE Zdol and PFPE Ztetrao, and multi dented functional lubricants such as Ar-DS, ARJ-DD, and OHJ-DS on a DLC substrate with the increase of temperature when heating of all of the lubricants on a DLC substrate is carried out isothermally using the coarse-grained bead spring model by molecular dynamics simulations and suitable lubricant is selected which is suitable on a DLC substrate at high temperature.

  6. Study of the Thermal Decomposition of PFPEs Lubricants on a Thin DLC Film Using Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic Potential Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Deb Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs are widely used as hard disk lubricants for protecting carbon overcoat reducing friction between the hard disk interface and the head during the movement of head during reading and writing data in the hard disk. Due to temperature rise of PFPE Zdol lubricant molecules on a DLC surface, how polar end groups are detached from lubricant molecules during coating is described considering the effect of temperatures on the bond/break density of PFPE Zdol using the coarse-grained bead spring model based on finitely extensible nonlinear elastic potential. As PFPE Z contains no polar end groups, effects of temperature on the bond/break density (number of broken bonds/total number of bonds are not so significant like PFPE Zdol. Effects of temperature on the bond/break density of PFPE Z on DLC surface are also discussed with the help of graphical results. How bond/break phenomenonaffects the end bead density of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on DLC surface is discussed elaborately. How the overall bond length of PFPE Zdol increases with the increase of temperature which is responsible for its decomposition is discussed with the help of graphical results. At HAMR condition, as PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol are not suitable lubricant on a hard disk surface, it needs more investigations to obtain suitable lubricant. We study the effect of breaking of bonds of nonfunctional lubricant PFPE Z, functional lubricants such as PFPE Zdol and PFPE Ztetrao, and multidented functional lubricants such as ARJ-DS, ARJ-DD, and OHJ-DS on a DLC substrate with the increase of temperature when heating of all of the lubricants on a DLC substrate is carried out isothermally using the coarse-grained bead spring model by molecular dynamics simulations and suitable lubricant is selected which is suitable on a DLC substrate at high temperature.

  7. Dual laser deposition of Ti: DLC composite for implants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Mikšovský, Jan; Písařík, Petr; Jurek, Karel; Tolde, Z.; Trávníčková, Martina; Vandrovcová, Marta; Filová, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 105605. ISSN 1054-660X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : DLC * dopation * dual PLD * implants * Ti:DLC * thin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BO - Biophysics (FGU-C) Impact factor: 1.328, year: 2016

  8. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radue, C.; Dyk, E.E. van

    2009-01-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P MAX ) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 ∼30% and a total degradation of ∼42%. For Si-2 the initial P MAX was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of ∼10% and a total degradation of ∼17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  9. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C., E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  10. DLC-Si protective coatings for polycarbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a-C:H:Si (DLC-Si films were produced onto crystalline silicon and polycarbonate substrates by the rf-PACVD technique from gaseous mixtures of CH4 + SiH4 and C2H2 + SiH4. The effects of self-bias and gas composition upon mechanical and optical properties of the films were investigated. Micro-hardness, residual stress, surface roughness and refractive index measurements were employed for characterization. By incorporating low concentrations of silicon and by exploring the more favorable conditions for the rf-PACVD deposition technique, highly adherent DLC-Si thin films were produced with reduced internal stresses (lower than 1 GPa, high hardness (around 20 GPa and high deposition rates (up to 10 µm/h. Results that show the technological viability of this material for application as protective coatings for polycarbonates are also discussed.

  11. Characterization of coating probe with Ti-DLC for electrical scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shia Xiaolei; Guo Liqiu; Bai Yang; Qiao Lijie

    2011-01-01

    In electrical scanning probe microscope (ESPM) applications, the wear and conductivity of the probe are undoubtedly serious concerns since they affect the integrity of the measurements. This study investigates the characterization of Ti doped diamond-like-carbon (DLC) as coating material on a silicon cantilever for ESPM. We deposited a layer of Ti-DLC thin film on the surface of Si cantilever by magnetron sputtering. The morphology and composition of the Ti-DLC films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. We also compared the wear resistance, electric conductivity and scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes with those of commercially available conductive probes. The results showed that the electric conductivity and the scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes were the same as the commercial conductive probes, while the wear resistance and service life was significantly better.

  12. Removal of DLC film on polymeric materials by low temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Fumiyuki; Kasai, Yoshiyuki; Sahara, Junki; Asai, Tomohiko; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Takatsu, Mikio; Koguchi, Haruhisa

    2017-10-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film has various excellent functions. For example, high hardness, abrasion resistance, biocompatibility, etc. Because of these functionalities, DLC has been applied in various fields. Removal method of DLC has also been developed for purpose of microfabrication, recycling the substrate and so on. Oxygen plasma etching and shot-blast are most common method to remove DLC. However, the residual carbon, high cost, and damage onto the substrate are problems to be solved for further application. In order to solve these problems, removal method using low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been developed in this work. The removal effect of this method has been demonstrated for DLC on the SUS304 substrate. The principle of this method is considered that oxygen radical generated by plasma oxidize carbon constituting the DLC film and then the film is removed. In this study, in order to widen application range of this method and to understand the mechanism of film removal, plasma irradiation experiment has been attempted on DLC on the substrate with low heat resistance. The DLC was removed successfully without any significant thermal damage on the surface of polymeric material.

  13. Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Dispersed DLC/PDMS Substrates and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture(Researches)

    OpenAIRE

    伴, 雅人; Masahito, Ban

    2016-01-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) dispersed DLC (diamond-like carbon) thin film deposited PDMS substrates were fabricated with plasma treatments and dip coating methods. It was found from cell culture tests using the substrates as scaffolds human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) indicated larger F-actin areas compared with the substrates without GO and/or DLC.

  14. Mass productions of thin film silicon PV modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawada, Y.; Yamagishi, H.; Yamamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Mass production technologies of a-Si single junction and a-Si/poly-Si hybrid modules with stable 8% and 10% efficiency were developed in the Shiga factory of Kaneka Corporation. Kaneka instituted Kaneka Solartech Corporation (KST) as a subsidiary company of 100% shareholder and invested 20 MW production plant in Toyooka City in 1999. There are fully automatic thin film fabrication equipments. KST started the manufacturing amorphous silicon PV modules in 1999 and those of hybrid type PV modules in 2001. The largest size glass substrates used for these modules are 95x98 cm and variable size of modules are being produced by cutting these large area base modules. Recent production yields are higher than 98%. Production technologies of a-Si, thin c-Si and solar cells, performances of modules, applications to the rooftop PV systems will be presented. We estimate the production cost of a-Si solar modules and a-Si/thin c-Si hybrid solar modules. The future business plan of our new type solar modules and our production lines will be discussed. (author)

  15. The MTT assays of bovine retinal pericytes and human microvascular endothelial cells on DLC and Si-DLC-coated TCPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpalugo, T I T; McKenna, E; Magee, A C; McLaughlin, J; Brown, N M D

    2004-11-01

    MTT (Tetrazolium)-assay suggests that diamond-like carbon (DLC) and silicon-doped DLC (Si-DLC) films obtained under appropriate deposition parameters are not toxic to bovine retinal pericytes, and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC). The observed frequency distributions of the optical density (OD) values indicative of cell viability are near Gaussian-normal distribution. One-way ANOVA indicates that at 0.05 levels the population means are not significantly different for the coated and control samples. The observed OD values depend on the cell line (cell growth/metabolic rate), possibly cell cycle stage, the deposition parameters-bias voltage, ion energy, pressure, argon precleaning, and the dopant. For colored thin films like DLC with room temperature photoconductivity and photoelectric effects, it is important to account for the OD contribution from the coating itself. MTT assay, not surprisingly, seems not to be highly sensitive to interfacial cellular interaction resulting from the change in the film's nanostructure, because the tetrazolium metabolism is mainly intracellular and not interfacial. The thin films were synthesized by 13.56 MHz RF-PECVD using argon and acetylene as source gases, with tetramethylsilane (TMS) vapor introduced for silicon doping. This study could be relevant to biomedical application of the films in the eye, peri-vascular, vascular compartments, and for cell-tissue engineering. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Development of thin-film Si HYBRID solar module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Akihiko; Gotoh, Masahiro; Sawada, Toru; Fukuda, Susumu; Yoshimi, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nomura, Takuji [Kaneka Corporation, 2-1-1, Hieitsuji, Otsu, Shiga 520-0104 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The device current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of thin-film silicon stacked tandem solar modules (HYBRID modules), consisting of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) cell and a thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell ({mu}c-Si), have been investigated under various spectral irradiance distributions. The performance of the HYBRID module varied periodically in natural sunlight due to the current-limiting property of the HYBRID module and the environmental effects. The behavior based on the current-limiting property was demonstrated by the modelling of the I-V curves using the linear interpolation method for each component cell. The improvement of the performance for the HYBRID module in natural sunlight will also be discussed from the viewpoint of the device design of the component cells. (author)

  17. The study of adhesion and nanomechanical properties of DLC films deposited on tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited onto a steel substrate. By using the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technique, a nitrogen layer was formed on the steel surface before depositing the DLC films. This PIII formed nitrogen layer, which acts as the buffer layer, has apparently increased the adhesion between the DLC film and the steel substrate. The microstructures, the nanomechanical properties, and the adhesion of the DLC were investigated by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindentation, and nanoscratch. Results show that the hardness and Young's modulus were significantly improved, up to 2 to 9 times; while the implantation depth and the microstructure of the nitrogen layers vary with nitrogen/hydrogen ratio (N:H = 1:0, 1:1, 1:3). Raman analyses indicate that the I(D)/I(G) ratio increases with the thickness of DLC film. By using the PIII technique in the steel substrate, the adhesion of the DLC film onto the substrate is greatly enhanced, and wear resistance is elevated if the DLC film is sufficiently thick.

  18. Application of composition modulated thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Film produced by evaporating two components through a rotating pinwheel shutter which cuts off the vapor first from one source and then the other are evaluated. These films have a modulated composition rather than a layered structure. Mechanical properties were determined using a bulge tester

  19. Thin film silicon modules on plastic superstrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; Liu, Y; Borreman, A.; Hamers, E.A.G.; Schlatmann, R.; Jongerden, G.J.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to fabricate high efficiency a-Si/μc-Si tandem solar cell modules on flexible (polymer) superstrates using the Helianthos concept. As a first step we began by depositing the top cell which contains an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) i-layer of 350 nm made by VHF PECVD at 50

  20. New features in MADX thin-lens tracking module

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Y; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we introduce several new features of the MADX thin-lens tracking module, which include the new element AC dipole, the new feature ‘NOISE’ attached to the class ‘multipole’, and the offset of the ‘aperture’ model. We also present simulation results for the benchmark between different codes, and some applications with examples.

  1. New features in MADX thin-lens tracking module

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, YP; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we introduce several new features of the MADX thin-lens tracking module, which include the new element AC dipole, the new feature ‘NOISE’attached to the class ‘multipole’, and the offset of the ‘aperture’ model. We also present simulation results for the benchmark between different codes, and some applications with examples.

  2. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules

    KAUST Repository

    Rowell, Michael W.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power conversion efficiency. Reflection, absorption, resistive losses and lost active area either from the scribed interconnect region in monolithically integrated modules or from the shadow losses of a metal grid in standard modules typically reduce the efficiency by 10-25%. Here, we perform calculations to show that a competitive TC must have a transparency of at least 90% at a sheet resistance of less than 10 Ω/sq (conductivity/absorptivity ≥ 1 Ω -1) for monolithically integrated modules. For standard modules, losses are much lower and the performance of alternative lower cost TC materials may already be sufficient to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Tribological properties of duplex MAO/DLC coatings on magnesium alloy using combined microarc oxidation and filtered cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jun; Wang Peng; Hu Litian; Hao Jingcheng

    2007-01-01

    The combined microarc oxidation (MAO) and filtered cathode arc deposition process was used to deposit duplex MAO/DLC coating on AM60B magnesium alloy. The microstructure and composition of the resulting duplex coating were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tribological behaviors of the duplex coating were studied by ball-on-disk friction testing. It is found that the Ti-doped DLC thin film could be successfully deposited onto the polished MAO coating. The duplex MAO/DLC coating exhibits a better tribological property than the DLC or MAO monolayer on Mg alloy substrate, owing to the MAO coating served as an intermediate layer provides improved load support for the soft Mg alloy substrate and the DLC top coating exhibits low friction coefficient

  4. XPS and TEM study of W-DLC/DLC double-layered film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Takanori; Komiyama, Takao; Miki, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Aoyama, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    A double-layered film of tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) and DLC, (W-DLC)/DLC, was investigated. A film of 1.6 μm in thickness was deposited onto silicon substrate. The investigate double-layered coating was deposited by using the combination of PECVD and co-sputtering of tungsten metal target. Structure, interface and chemical bonding state of the investigated film were analyzed by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From the results of the analyses, the structure of double-layered film is that amorphous phase of carbon is continued from DLC to W-DLC and tungsten metal clusters are dispersed in W-DLC layer.

  5. Scale-up issues of CIGS thin film PV modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Photovoltaics cost has been declining following a 70% learning curve. Now the challenge is to bring down the cost of solar electricity to make it competitive with conventional sources within the next decade. In the long run, the module efficiencies tend to reach 80% of the champion cell efficiencies. Using a semiempirical methodology, it has been shown earlier that while the triple junction a-Si:H thin film technology is competitive, CIGS and CdTe thin film module technologies are highly competitive and presently offer the best approach for significantly exceeding the cost/performance levels of standard and non-standard crystalline Si PV technologies. Since 2006, the production of thin film solar cell in the U.S. has surpassed that of c-Si. At present, the production of CIGS PV modules lags considerably behind that of CdTe PV modules. This is mainly because of its complexity. Scale-up issues related to various CIGS preparation technologies such as co-evaporation, metallic precursor deposition by magnetron sputtering and non-vacuum techniques such as ink-jet printing, electroplating or doctor-blade technology followed by their selenization/sulfurization are discussed so as to assist the CIGS technology to attain its full potential. Besides the welcome announcements of large volume production, it is essential to achieve the production cost below $1/Wp in the near term and attain production speeds comparable to CdTe production speeds. Comparable production speeds are expected to be achieved within the next decade. This will enable reduction of CIGS module production costs to {proportional_to}65 cents /Wp that would be comparable to the CdTe module projected production cost. Additionally CIGS will have a higher efficiency premium. (author)

  6. A comparison of the tribological behaviour of steel/steel, steel/DLC and DLC/DLC contact when lubricated with mineral and biodegradable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Kalin, Mitjan; Vižintin, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, which can nowadays be applied to many highly loaded mechanical components, sometimes need to operate under lubricated conditions. It is reasonable to expect that in steel/DLC contacts, at least the steel counter body will behave according to conventional lubrication mechanisms and will interact with lubricants and additives in the contact. However, in DLC/DLC contacts, such mechanisms are still unclear. For example, the "inertness" of DLC coatings raises se...

  7. Chromium-doped DLC for implants prepared by laser-magnetron deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zemek, Josef; Mikšovský, Jan; Kubinová, Šárka; Remsa, Jan; Kopeček, Jaromir; Jurek, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are frequently used for coating of implants. The problem of DLC layers lies in bad layer adhesion to metal implants. Chromium is used as a dopant for improvement of adhesion of DLC films. DLC and Cr-DLC layers were deposited on silicon, Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo substrates by a hybrid technology using combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering. The topology of layers was studied using SEM, AFM and mechanical profilometer. Carbon and chromium content and concentration of trivalent and toxic hexavalent chromium bonds were determined by XPS and WDS. It follows from the scratch tests that Cr doping improved adhesion of DLC layers. Ethylene glycol, diiodomethane and deionized water were used to measure the contact angles. The surface free energy (SFE) was calculated. The antibacterial properties were studied using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The influence of SFE, hydrophobicity and surface roughness on antibacterial ability of doped layers is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition of DLC coating for modification of orthodontic magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongsarat, W.; Sarapirom, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S.; Jotikasthira, D.; Boonyawan, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to use the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) technique to form diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on orthodontic magnets to solve the corrosion problem. To search for the optimal material modification effect, PIII-D conditions including gases, processing time, and pulsing mode were varied. The formation of DLC films was confirmed and characterized with Raman spectra. The intensity of the remnant magnetic field of the magnets and the hardness, adhesion and thickness of the thin films were then measured. A corrosion test was carried out using clinic dental fluid. Improved benefits including a satisfying hardness, adhesion, remnant magnetic strength and corrosion resistance of the DLC coating could be achieved by using a higher interrupting time ratio and shorter processing time.

  9. Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition of DLC coating for modification of orthodontic magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsarat, W. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Aukkaravittayapun, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Jotikasthira, D. [Department of Odontology-Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to use the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) technique to form diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on orthodontic magnets to solve the corrosion problem. To search for the optimal material modification effect, PIII-D conditions including gases, processing time, and pulsing mode were varied. The formation of DLC films was confirmed and characterized with Raman spectra. The intensity of the remnant magnetic field of the magnets and the hardness, adhesion and thickness of the thin films were then measured. A corrosion test was carried out using clinic dental fluid. Improved benefits including a satisfying hardness, adhesion, remnant magnetic strength and corrosion resistance of the DLC coating could be achieved by using a higher interrupting time ratio and shorter processing time.

  10. Circuit analysis method for thin-film solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a thin-film solar cell module is dependent on the probability of occurrence of pinhole shunt defects. Using known or assumed defect density data, dichotomous population statistics can be used to calculate the number of defects expected in a module. Probability theory is then used to assign the defective cells to individual strings in a selected series-parallel circuit design. Iterative numerical calculation is used to calcuate I-V curves using cell test values or assumed defective cell values as inputs. Good and shunted cell I-V curves are added to determine the module output power and I-V curve. Different levels of shunt resistance can be selected to model different defect levels.

  11. Influence of ion bombardment on growth and properties of PLD created DLC films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Písařík, Petr; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zemek, Josef; Lukeš, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2013), s. 943-947 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : DLC * ion bombardment * sp3 /sp2 * thin films * PLD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.694, year: 2013

  12. Formation and retention of staphylococcal biofilms on DLC and its hybrids compared to metals used as biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllymaa, Katja; Levon, Jaakko; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Myllymaa, Sami; Soininen, Antti; Korhonen, Hannu; Kaivosoja, Emilia; Lappalainen, Reijo; Konttinen, Yrjö Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus cause most of the implant-related infections. Antibiotic treatment often fails and cure requires surgical intervention. It was hypothesized that biomaterial coatings resistant to biofilms offer a preventive option. Physical vapour deposited diamond-like carbon (DLC) and its polytetrafluoroethylene (DLC-PTFE-h) and polydimethylsiloxane (DLC-PDMS-h) hybrids were compared to titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta) and chromium (Cr) thin films on silicon wafers for their resistance against formation and/or retention of biofilms produced by S. epidermidis and S. aureus in vitro. Sample surfaces were characterized for surface topography, contact angle and zeta-potential, because such properties might affect the biofilm. Biofilm was stained using calcofluor white and analysed in fluorescence microscopy using morphometry. Sixteen hour incubation was selected in pilot tests; at this checkpoint Ti, Ta, Cr and DLC-PDMS-h were almost fully covered by biofilm, but DLC and DLC-PTFE-h were only partially biofilm coated by S. epidermidis (88±26%, pDLC and its PTFE hybrid offer a potential biofilm hostile surface coating for implants and medical devices. This ability to resist biofilm formation and attachment could not be explained by only one factor, but it seems to be related to a combination of various properties, with electrokinetic streaming potential and protein coating being particularly important for its outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The microstructure and mechanical properties of multilayer diamond-like carbon films with different modulation ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhaoying; Zheng, Y.J.; Jiang, F.; Leng, Y.X.; Sun Hong; Huang Nan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The multilayer DLC films with different modulation ratios have been fabricated by FCVA. ► The multilayer DLC films can effectively decrease the residual stress of the DLC films. ► The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 shows the best wear resistance. - Abstract: The multilayer DLC films consisting of sp 2 -rich DLC layers (soft DLC) and sp 3 -rich DLC layers (hard DLC) with different modulation ratios (thickness ratio of the hard DLC to soft DLC) ranging from 2:1, 1:1 to 1:2 had been deposited on Si (1 0 0) wafer and Ti–6Al–4V alloy substrates by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition. The effect of modulation ratio on the microstructure and properties of the multilayer DLC films including sp 3 content, residual stress, mechanical properties, adhesion strength and wear resistance were studied by Raman spectroscopy, profilometry technique, nanoindenter, Vickers indentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ball-on-disc reciprocating friction test. The results showed that the sp 3 content and the hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreased with modulation ratios decreasing. The stress of the multilayer DLC films could be effectively reduced and the stress decreased with the modulation ratio decreasing. The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 had the best wear resistance due to a balance between hardness and residual stress.

  14. Tribochemistry and Wear Life Improvement in Liquid-Lubricated H-DLC-Coated Bearings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lince, J. R; Kim, H. I; Bertrand, P. A; Eryilmaz, O. L; Erdemir, A

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to typical DLC coatings, hydrogenated DLC (H-DLC) coatings exhibit extremely low friction in vacuum and dry atmospheres, suggesting their potential importance for spacecraft applications...

  15. Tribochemistry of Multiply-Alkylated Cyclopentane Oils on DLC-Coated Thrust Bearings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lince, Jeffrey R; Bertrand, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to typical DLC coatings, hydrogenated DLC (H-DLC) coatings exhibit extremely low friction in vacuum and dry atmospheres, suggesting their potential importance for spacecraft applications...

  16. Preparation of copper doped DLC films by DC PE-CVD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, M.; Vojs, M.; Kotlar, M.; Michniak, P.; Flickyngerova, S.; Vesely, M.; Redhammer, R.

    2012-01-01

    We used PECVD method for deposition of Cu incorporated DLC thin films from CH 4 /Ar gas mixture. The size of nanoparticles varied with changing the deposition conditions in the range of tenth to hundreds of nm. After annealing process, new small Cu particles appeared in the space between the as deposited ones, and all the particles were distributed more homogenous within the films. The resistivity of the DLC films decreased first with adding of copper to 10 to 6·10 3 Ωcm, and second with the annealing process to 4·10 -2 to 3 Ωcm. Raman spectra show the tendency of DLCs to become more graphitic with increasing annealing temperature, which may be one possible contribution to increased conductivity of the annealed Cu-DLC films. (authors)

  17. Tribological study of lubricious DLC biocompatible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, M; Garcia-Luis, A; Viviente, J L; Braceras, I; Oñate, J I

    2002-12-01

    DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings have remarkable tribological properties due mainly to their good frictional behavior. These coatings can be applied in many industrial and biomedical applications, where sliding can generate wear and frictional forces on the components, such as orthopaedic metal implants. This work reports on the development and tribological characterization of functionally gradient titanium alloyed DLC coatings. A PVD-magnetron sputtering technique has been used as the deposition method. The aim of this work was to study the tribological performance of the DLC coating when metal to metal contact (cobalt chromium or titanium alloys) takes place under dry and lubricated test conditions. Prior work by the authors demonstrates that the DLC coating reduced considerably the wear of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The DLC coating during mechanical testing exhibited a high elastic recovery (65%) compared to the values obtained from Co-Cr-Mo (15%) and Ti-6Al-4V (23%). The coating exhibited an excellent tribo-performance against the Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys, especially under dry conditions presenting a friction value of 0.12 and almost negligible wear. This coating has passed biocompatibility tests for implant devices on tissue/bone contact according to international standards (ISO 10993).

  18. Wettability control by DLC coated nanowire topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihui; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2011-04-01

    Here we have developed a convenient method to fabricate wettability controllable surfaces that can be applied to various nanostructured surfaces with complex shapes for different industrial needs. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on titanium substrate with a nanowire structured surface using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The nanostructure of the DLC films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and found to grow in a rippling layer-by-layer manner. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the different bonding presented in the DLC films. To determine the wettability of the samples, water contact angles were measured and found to vary in the range of 50°-141°. The results indicated that it was critical to construct a proper surface topography for high hydrophobicity, while suitable ID/IG and sp2/sp3 ratios of the DLC films had a minor contribution. Superhydrophobicity could be achieved by further CF4 implantation on suitably structured DLC films and was attributed to the existence of fluorine. In order to maintain the nanostructure during CF4 implantation, it was favorable to pre-deposit an appropriate carbon content on the nanostructure, as a nanostructure with low carbon content would be deformed during CF4 implantation due to local accumulation of surface charge and the following discharge resulting from the low conductivity.

  19. Thin-film filament-based solar cells and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J. R.; Cole, E. D.; Berens, T. A.; Alleman, J.; Keane, J.

    1997-04-01

    This concept paper describes a patented, novel photovoltaic (PV) technology that is capable of achieving near-term commercialization and profitability based upon design features that maximize product performance while minimizing initial and future manufacturing costs. DayStar Technologies plans to exploit these features and introduce a product to the market based upon these differential positions. The technology combines the demonstrated performance and reliability of existing thin-film PV product with a cell and module geometry that cuts material usage by a factor of 5, and enhances performance and manufacturability relative to standard flat-plate designs. The target product introduction price is 1.50/Watt-peak (Wp). This is approximately one-half the cost of the presently available PV product. Additional features include: increased efficiency through low-level concentration, no scribe or grid loss, simple series interconnect, high voltage, light weight, high-throughput manufacturing, large area immediate demonstration, flexibility, modularity.

  20. Magnetic studies of Fe-Y compositionally modulated thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia, F.; Ferrater, C.; Lousa, A.; Martinez, B.; Labarta, A.; Tejada, J.

    1990-01-01

    Compositionally modulated thin films of Y/Fe have been studied by using SQUID magnetometry. Samples were grown by electron-beam evaporation onto Kapton substrates. In the low applied field regime, the samples show irreversible behavior when they are submitted to ZFC-FC magnetization processes, increasing the irreversibility zone as the thickness of the Fe layers increases. In the high applied magnetic field regime (H≥10 000 Oe), samples show ferromagnetic behavior. The temperature dependence of the saturation magnetization has been studied, and it was found that both spin-wave excitations and Stoner excitations occur at temperatures higher than 40 K, and a marked deviation from the T 3/2 law was noted below 30 K

  1. Electrical properties of multilayer (DLC-TiC) films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawajji, Raad A.; Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Nima, Zeid A.; Kelly, Nigel; Watanabe, Fumiya; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, pulsed laser deposition was used to produce a multilayer diamond like carbon (ML (DLC-TiC)) thin film. The ML (DLC-TiC) films were deposited on Si (100) and glass substrates at various substrate temperatures in the range of 20-450 °C. Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy were utilized to characterize the prepared films. Raman analysis revealed that as the substrate temperature increased, the G-peak position shifted to a higher raman shift and the full width at half maximum of the G and D bands decreased. XPS analysis indicated a decrease in sp3/sp2 ratio and an increase in Ti-C bond intensity when the substrate temperature was increased. Additionally, the surface roughness of ML (DLC-TiC) filmswas affected by the type and temperature of the substrate. The electrical measurement results indicated that the electrical resistivity of the ML (DLC-TiC) film deposited on Si and glass substrates showed the same behavior-the resistivity decreased when substrate temperature increased. Furthermore, the ML (DLC-TiC) films deposited on silicon showed lower electrical resistivity, dropping from 8.39E-4 Ω-cm to 5.00E-4 Ω-cm, and, similarly, the films on the glass substrate displayed a drop in electrical resistivity from 1.8E-2 Ω-cm to 1.2E-3 Ω-cm. These enhanced electrical properties indicate that the ML (DLC-TiC) films have widespread potential as transducers for biosensors in biological research; electrochemical electrodes, because these films can be chemically modified; biocompatible coatings for medicals tools; and more.

  2. Electrical and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nickel incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, B., E-mail: pandey.beauty@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Das, D. [UGC-DAE CSR, Sector III/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Kar, A.K. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electrical and magnetic properties of DLC and Ni-DLC thin films are studied. • The ohmicity and conductivity of DLC films rise with nickel addition. • The ohmicity of Ni-DLC is enhanced with increase in dilution of electrolyte. • Dielectric loss is high for Ni-DLC and decreases with frequency till 100 kHz. • (m–H) and (m–T) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior. - Abstract: Nanocomposite diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films have been synthesized by incorporating nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in DLC matrix with varying concentration of nickel. DLC and Ni-DLC thin films have been deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing low voltage electrodeposition method. Electrical properties of the samples were studied by measuring current–voltage characteristics and dielectric properties. The current approaches toward an ohmic behavior with metal addition. This tendency of increasing ohmicity is enhanced with increase in dilution of the electrolyte. The conductivity increases with Ni addition and interestingly it continues to increase with dilution of Ni concentration in the electrolyte in the range of our study. Magnetic properties for DLC and Ni-DLC thin film samples were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. g-Value for DLC is 2.074, whereas it decreases to 2.055 with Ni addition in the electrolyte. This decrement arises from the increased sp{sup 2} content in DLC matrix. The magnetic moment vs. magnetic field (m–H) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior which may be due to ferromagnetic contribution from the incorporated nickel nanoparticles in the DLC matrix. The ZFC curve of Ni-DLC after the blocking temperature shows a combined contribution of ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic and paramagnetic nature of the materials persisting up to 300 K.

  3. Cu incorporated amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) composites: An efficient electron field emitter over a wide range of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sk Faruque; Alam, Md Shahbaz; Mukherjee, Nillohit

    2018-03-01

    The effect of temperature on the electron field emission properties of copper incorporated amorphous diamond like carbon (a-Cu:DLC) thin films have been reported. The a-Cu:DLC thin films have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and silicon substrate by the radio frequency sputtering process. The chemical composition of the films was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the micro structure was established using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The sp2 and sp3 bonding ratio in the a-Cu:DLC have been analyzed by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy studies. The material showed excellent electron field emission properties; which was optimized by varying the copper atomic percentage and temperature of the films. It was found that the threshold field and effective emission barrier were reduced significantly by copper incorporation as well as temperature and a detailed explanation towards emission mechanism has been provided.

  4. Vessel fluence evaluation for SMART using DLC-23 and DLC-185 data libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Youn; Cho, Byung Oh; Joo, Han Gyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    In this report, it was performed the vessel fluence evaluation for SMART using nuclear cross-section libraries of DLC-23/CASK and DLC-185/BUGLE-96 and it was compared with the results. It was shown that the maximum neutron fluences for the inner surface of SMART vessel, which has 60 years lifetime and 90% capacity factor, resulted from using DLC-23/CASK and DLC-185/BUGLE-96 are 2.88x10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2} and 1.98 x10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. It is concluded that the fast neutron fluence at the reactor pressure vessel of SMART is far less than 1.0x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} which is specified by the requirement of 10 CFR 50.61 and the SMART has the preservation of reactor vessel integrity throughout the reactor lifetime. Also, it was shown that the result using DLC-23/CASK has conservatism of about 30% comparing with the result using DLC-185/BUGLE-96. 15 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  5. The study and fabrication of DLC micropattern on roll mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Dong; Park, Yeong Min; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Jin Kon; Kim, Tae Gyu

    2015-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is becoming a promising protective coating layers due to its superior properties. In this study, instead of protective coating, DLC film was applied as the only component for micropattern then etched with lithography and lift-off process selectively. Furthermore, DLC film has been fabricated on aluminum roll mold. Then UV curing resin was applied to form the pattern on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. The dimension and formation of the DLC micropattern on roll mold were analyzed. Moreover, the Raman spectroscopic of nitrogen-doped DLC film was analyzed.

  6. Effects of excitation intensity on the photocurrent response of thin film silicon solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Q.; Shumka, A.; Trask, J.

    1986-01-01

    Photocurrent responses of amorphous thin film silicon solar modules at room temperature were studied at different excitation intensities using various monochromatic light sources. Photocurrent imaging techniques have been effectively used to locate rapidly, and non-destructively, failure and defect sites in the multilayer thin film device. Differences observed in the photocurrent response characteristics for two different cells in the same amorphous thin film silicon solar module suggest the possibility of the formation of dissimilarly active devices, even though the module is processed in the same fabrication process. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Wrinkled, dual-scale structures of diamond-like carbon (DLC) for superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawan, Yudi; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2010-01-05

    We present a simple two-step method to fabricate dual-scale superhydrophobic surfaces by using replica molding of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) micropillars, followed by deposition of a thin, hard coating layer of a SiO(x)-incorporated diamond-like carbon (DLC). The resulting surface consists of microscale PDMS pillars covered by nanoscale wrinkles that are induced by residual compressive stress of the DLC coating and a difference in elastic moduli between DLC and PDMS without any external stretching or thermal contraction on the PDMS substrate. We show that the surface exhibits superhydrophobic properties with a static contact angle over 160 degrees for micropillar spacing ratios (interpillar gap divided by diameter) less than 4. A transition of the wetting angle to approximately 130 degrees occurs for larger spacing ratios, changing the wetting from a Cassie-Cassie state (C(m)-C(n)) to a Wenzel-Cassie state (W(m)-C(n)), where m and n denote micro- and nanoscale roughness, respectively. The robust superhydrophobicity of the Cassie-Cassie state is attributed to stability of the Cassie state on the nanoscale wrinkle structures of the hydrophobic DLC coating, which is further explained by a simple mathematical theory on wetting states with decoupling of nano- and microscale roughness in dual scale structures.

  8. Adhesive B-doped DLC films on biomedical alloys used for bone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The addition of a thin interfacial layer such as Si, Ti, TiN, Mo and Cu/Cr and/or adding additives such as Si, F, N, O, W, V, Co, Mo, Ti or their combinations to the DLC films has been found to increase the adhesion strength substantially. In our study, grade 316L stainless steel and grade 5 titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) were used ...

  9. The cutting properties and wear of the knives with DLC and W-DLC coatings, deposited by PVD methods, applied for wood and wood-based materials machining

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pancielejko; A. Czyżniewski; A. Gilewicz; V. Zavaleyev; W. Szymański

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Performance of DLC and W-DLC coated woodworking knives was investigated. The results of testing DLC and W-DLC coating properties as well as the results of life-time tests in the form of wear of HSS and HM knives with these coatings is presents.Design/methodology/approach: DLC coating was deposited by MCVA method, and W-DLC coating was deposited by pulsed RMS. Tests of knives coated with DLC and W-DLC as uncoated ones was made by machining: MDF board, pinewood slats and floorboard - u...

  10. Modulated surface textures for enhanced scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isabella, O.; Battaglia, C.; Ballif, C.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-scale randomly textured front transparent oxides are superposed on micro-scale etched glass substrates to form modulated surface textures. The resulting enhanced light scattering is implemented in single and double junction thin-film silicon solar cells.

  11. DLC as a Marketing Tool in the Video Game Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Brádlerová, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the phenomenon of DLC in the context of marketing communication. DLC or downloadable content expanding the basic game, is a relatively new concept in the video game industry and its role is increasingly important in marketing communication in video games. The main focus of this thesis is to map DLC and analyze its importance in marketing communication and public relations of video game titles of various genres. Theoretical part of the thesis is focused on explaining the...

  12. Investigation of the degradation of a thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photovoltaic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dyk, E.E.; Audouard, A.; Meyer, E.L. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Woolard, C.D. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2007-01-23

    The degradation of a thin-film hydrogenated single-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photovoltaic (PV) module has been studied. We investigated the different modes of electrical and physical degradation of a-Si:H PV modules by employing a degradation and failure assessment procedure used in conjunction with analytical techniques, including, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry. This paper reveals that due to their thickness, thin films are very sensitive to the type of degradation observed. Moreover, this paper deals with the problems associated with the module encapsulant, poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA). The main objective of this study was to establish the influence of outdoor environmental conditions on the performance of a thin-film PV module comprising a-Si:H single-junction cells. (author)

  13. Preparation of multi-layer film consisting of hydrogen-free DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC for conductive hard coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yushi; Harigai, Toru; Isono, Ryo; Degai, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Yasui, Haruyuki; Kaneko, Satoru; Kunitsugu, Shinsuke; Kamiya, Masao; Taki, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Conductive hard-coating films have potential application as protective films for contact pins used in the electrical inspection process for integrated circuit chips. In this study, multi-layer diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared as conductive hard-coating films. The multi-layer DLC films consisting of DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC (N-DLC) film were prepared using a T-shape filtered arc deposition method. Periodic DLC/N-DLC four-layer and eight-layer films had the same film thickness by changing the thickness of each layer. In the ball-on-disk test, the N-DLC mono-layer film showed the highest wear resistance; however, in the spherical polishing method, the eight-layer film showed the highest polishing resistance. The wear and polishing resistance and the aggressiveness against an opponent material of the multi-layer DLC films improved by reducing the thickness of a layer. In multi-layer films, the soft N-DLC layer between hard DLC layers is believed to function as a cushion. Thus, the tribological properties of the DLC films were improved by a multi-layered structure. The electrical resistivity of multi-layer DLC films was approximately half that of the DLC mono-layer film. Therefore, the periodic DLC/N-DLC eight-layer film is a good conductive hard-coating film.

  14. Microstructure, mechanical and tribological characterization of CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer coating with improved adhesive wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xudong; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Shuaituo; Yang, Jun; Hao, Junying

    2018-05-01

    Adhesive wear is one of the major reasons for the failure of components during various tribological application, especially for rubbing with viscous materials. This study presents CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer composite coatings prepared on a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) device with the close field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating (CFUBMSIP) technique. SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the structure of multilayer coatings. It was found that the multilayer coatings are composed by the alternating CrN and DLC layers. Compared with the single CrN coatings, the friction coefficient of the CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer coating decreases about more than seven times after sliding a distance of 500 m. This helps to reduce the adhesive wear of multilayer coatings. Compared with the single CrN and DLC coating, the wear rate of the CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer coating is reduced by an order of magnitude to 7.10 × 10-17 (sliding with AISI 440C) and 2.64 × 10-17 (sliding with TC4) m3/(N m). The improved tribological performance of multilayer coatings mainly attributes to the introduction of lubricant DLC and hard support CrN layers, the enhancement of crack propagation inhibition, and the increment of elastic recovery value We (71.49%) by multilayer design method.

  15. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, K., E-mail: ozeki@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, 162-1 Shirakata, Toukai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Hirakuri, K.K. [Applied Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Ishizaka, Hatoyama, Hiki, Saitama 350-0394 (Japan); Masuzawa, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO{sub 2} films and DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO{sub 2}-coated and the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO{sub 2} coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO{sub 2} film was covered with the DLC film.

  16. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K.K.; Masuzawa, T.

    2011-01-01

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO 2 films and DLC/TiO 2 /DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO 2 -coated and the DLC/TiO 2 /DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO 2 coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO 2 /DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO 2 /DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO 2 film was covered with the DLC film.

  17. Spectroelectrochemical properties of ultra-thin indium tin oxide films under electric potential modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xue, E-mail: x0han004@louisville.edu; Mendes, Sergio B., E-mail: sbmend01@louisville.edu

    2016-03-31

    In this work, the spectroscopic properties of ultra-thin ITO films are characterized under an applied electric potential modulation. To detect minute spectroscopic features, the ultra-thin ITO film was coated over an extremely sensitive single-mode integrated optical waveguide, which provided a long pathlength with more than adequate sensitivity for optical interrogation of the ultra-thin film. Experimental configurations with broadband light and several laser lines at different modulation schemes of an applied electric potential were utilized to elucidate the nature of intrinsic changes. The imaginary component of the refractive index (absorption coefficient) of the ultra-thin ITO film is unequivocally shown to have a dependence on the applied potential and the profile of this dependence changes substantially even for wavelengths inside a small spectral window (500–600 nm). The characterization technique and the data reported here can be crucial to several applications of the ITO material as a transparent conductive electrode, as for example in spectroelectrochemical investigations of surface-confined redox species. - Highlights: • Optical waveguides are applied for spectroscopic investigations of ultra-thin films. • Ultra-thin ITO films in aqueous environment are studied under potential modulation. • Unique spectroscopic features of ultra-thin ITO films are unambiguously observed.

  18. Surface analysis of DLC coating on cam-tappet system

    OpenAIRE

    FOUVRY, Siegfried; PAGNOUX, Geoffrey; PEIGNEY, Michael; DELATTRE, Benoit; MERMAT-ROLLET, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Tribomechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings make them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. But although DLC coatings show a generally high wear resistance, they sometimes can exhibit severe multiple wear. In this study, a surface analysis of worn coated tappets is performed, leading to a complete coupled wear scenario.

  19. Practical issues for testing thin film PV modules at standard test conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Marín González, Omar; Raga Arroyo, Manuela Pilar; Alonso Garcia, M. Carmen; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic (TF) modules have gained importance in the photovoltaic (PV) market. New PV plants increasingly use TF technologies. In order to have a reliable sample of a PV module population, a huge number of modules must be measured. There is a big variety of materials used in TF technology. Some of these modules are made of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon. Other are made of CIS or CdTe. Not all these materials respond the same under standard test conditions (STC) of power...

  20. Electrical and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nickel incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B.; Das, D.; Kar, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Nanocomposite diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films have been synthesized by incorporating nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in DLC matrix with varying concentration of nickel. DLC and Ni-DLC thin films have been deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing low voltage electrodeposition method. Electrical properties of the samples were studied by measuring current-voltage characteristics and dielectric properties. The current approaches toward an ohmic behavior with metal addition. This tendency of increasing ohmicity is enhanced with increase in dilution of the electrolyte. The conductivity increases with Ni addition and interestingly it continues to increase with dilution of Ni concentration in the electrolyte in the range of our study. Magnetic properties for DLC and Ni-DLC thin film samples were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. g-Value for DLC is 2.074, whereas it decreases to 2.055 with Ni addition in the electrolyte. This decrement arises from the increased sp2 content in DLC matrix. The magnetic moment vs. magnetic field (m-H) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior which may be due to ferromagnetic contribution from the incorporated nickel nanoparticles in the DLC matrix. The ZFC curve of Ni-DLC after the blocking temperature shows a combined contribution of ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic and paramagnetic nature of the materials persisting up to 300 K.

  1. The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Ozaki, Kimihiro

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on the open-circuit voltage generated by thin-film thermoelectric modules of Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 (p-type) and Bi 2 Te 2.7 Se 0.3 (n-type) materials was investigated. A Cr buffer layer, whose thickness generally needs to be optimized to improve adhesion depending on the substrate surface condition, such as roughness, was deposited between thermoelectric thin films and glass substrates. When the Cr buffer layer was 1 nm thick, the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivity of 1 µm thermoelectric thin films with the buffer layers were approximately equal to those of the thermoelectric films without the buffer layers. When the thickness of the Cr buffer layer was 1 µm, the same as the thermoelectric films, the Seebeck coefficients of the bilayer films were reduced by an electrical current flowing inside the Cr buffer layer and the generation of Cr 2 Te 3 . The open-circuit voltage of the thin-film thermoelectric modules decreased with an increase in the thickness of the Cr buffer layer, which was primarily induced by the electrical current flow. The reduction caused by the Cr 2 Te 3 generation was less than 10% of the total voltage generation of the modules without the Cr buffer layers. The voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules could be controlled by the Cr buffer layer thickness. (paper)

  2. Estimating the Effects of Module Area on Thin-Film Photovoltaic System Costs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Xingshu [Purdue University; Alam, Muhammad A [Purdue University

    2018-03-29

    We investigate the potential effects of module area on the cost and performance of photovoltaic systems. Applying a bottom-up methodology, we analyzed the costs associated with thin-film modules and systems as a function of module area. We calculate a potential for savings of up to 0.10 dollars/W and 0.13 dollars/W in module manufacturing costs for CdTe and CIGS respectively, with large area modules. We also find that an additional 0.04 dollars/W savings in balance-of-systems costs may be achieved. Sensitivity of the dollar/W cost savings to module efficiency, manufacturing yield, and other parameters is presented. Lifetime energy yield must also be maintained to realize reductions in the levelized cost of energy; the effects of module size on energy yield for monolithic thin-film modules are not yet well understood. Finally, we discuss possible non-cost barriers to adoption of large area modules.

  3. Correction for Metastability in the Quantification of PID in Thin-film Module Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental change in the analysis for the accelerated stress testing of thin-film modules is proposed, whereby power changes due to metastability and other effects that may occur due to the thermal history are removed from the power measurement that we obtain as a function of the applied stress...... in standardized tests, the method is demonstrated and discussed for potential-induced degradation testing in view of the physical mechanisms that can lead to confounding power changes in the module....

  4. Investigation of Physical Properties and Electrochemical Behavior of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanakorn Saensak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports characterizations of diamond-like carbon (DLC films used as electrodes for electrochemical applications. DLC thin films are prepared on glass slides and silicon substrates by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD using a gas mixture of methane and hydrogen. In addition, the DLC films are doped with nitrogen in order to reduce electrical resistivity. Compared to the undoped DLC films, the electrical resistivity of nitrogen-doped (N-doped DLC films is decreased by three orders of magnitude. Raman spectroscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy analyses show the structural transformation in N-doped DLC films that causes the reduction of band gap energy. Contact angle measurement at N-doped DLC films indicates increased hydrophobicity. The results obtained from the cyclic voltammetry measurements with Fe(CN63-/Fe(CN64- redox species exhibit the correlation between the physical properties and electrochemical behavior of DLC films.

  5. Thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism in Fe-doped epitaxial HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Ruyi; Ma, Rong; Wang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial tetragonal Fe-doped Hf0.95Fe0.05O2 (FHO) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on (001)-oriented NdCaAlO4 (NCAO) substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system. The crystal structure and epitaxial nature of the FHO thin films were confirmed by typical x-ray diffraction (XRD) θ-2θ scan and reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The results indicate that two sets of lattice sites exist with two different crystal orientations [(001) and (100)] in the thicker FHO thin films. Further, the intensity of the (100) direction increases with the increase in thicknesses, which should have a significant effect on the anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films. Meanwhile, all the FHO thin films possess a tetragonal phase structure. An anisotropy behavior in magnetization has been observed in the FHO thin films. The anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films is slowly weakened as the thickness increases. Meanwhile, the saturation magnetization (Ms) of both in-plane and out-of-plane decreases with the increase in the thickness. The change in the anisotropic magnetization and Ms is attributed to the crystal lattice and the variation in the valence of Fe ions. These results indicate that the thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism of the tetragonal FHO epitaxial thin films is of potential use for the integration of metal-oxide semiconductors with spintronics.

  6. Presence and future of thin-film photovoltaics modules; Gegenwart und Zukunft von Duennschichtphotovoltaikmodulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voswinckel, Sebastian [Fachhochschule Nordhausen (Germany). Inst. fuer Regenerative Energietechnik (in.RET)

    2012-07-01

    The thin-film photovoltaics is a technology with a high level of future potential of the solar energy industry. An enhanced potential of expense reduction and technical development provided a massive development of production capacities. The thin-film photovoltaics has advantageous technical properties such as a pronounced low-light behaviour and an enhanced efficiency at higher temperatures. In contrast, there are technical challenges. Beside the lower efficiency, an irreversible degradation of the transparent front contact may result especially in the case of amorphous silicon modules under certain circumstances. Effective measures for the protection of the so-called TCO corrosion have to be developed and implemented on module level and system level. Similarly, time-saving and cost-saving test methods for the evaluation of the damage potential have to be developed. The growing pricing pressure of crystalline solar cells put the thin-film industry under pressure. With respect to the technical and economic expectations aroused in the past as well as with respect to partly unsolved problems of the thin-film technology, the author of the contribution under consideration tries to present an outlook on the future chances and threats of this technology. Advantages and disadvantages of thin-film photovoltaics modules as well as possible approaches of a solution of technical difficulties are presented.

  7. Modulation of magnetic coercivity in Ni thin films by reversible control of strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Chin, E-mail: wclin@ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chia-Wei; Ting, Yi-Chieh; Lo, Fang-Yuh [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Chern, Ming-Yau [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the magnetoelectric control of magnetic thin films. (111)-textured Pd/Ni/Pd thin films were prepared on mica/lead zirconium titanate (PZT) substrates for the investigation. The reversible modulation of magnetic coercivity in Ni films was observed through the electric-voltage-controlled strain variation from the PZT substrate. For 14 nm Ni film, the applied electric field of ±350 V/m led to ±0.5% strain variation of PZT, which was transferred to ±0.4% strain variation of Pd/Ni/Pd thin films on mica, and resulted in ∓17 Oe (∓5% of the preliminary magnetic coercivity). The reversible modulation of magnetic coercivity is supposed to be caused by the voltage-controlled strain through the magneto-elastic effect. - Highlights: • The magnetoelectric control of the magnetic coercivity of Pd/Ni/Pd thin films was demonstrated. • The ±0.4% strain variation of 14 nm Ni thin films resulted in ±17 Oe change of H{sub c}. • The reversible modulation of H{sub c} is supposed to be caused by the magneto-elastic effect.

  8. Osteoblast interaction with DLC-coated Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Feng; Mathis, Nicolas; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Meunier, Cathy; Hildebrand, Hartmut F

    2008-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is a convenient means of modifying material surfaces that are sensitive to wear, such as titanium and silica substrates. This work aims to evaluate the osteoblast-like cells' response to DLC-coated Si (Si-DLC), which was treated under different conditions. DLC and deuterated DLC films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to obtain a 200-nm-thick layer on all the samples. Three types of precursor gas were applied for deposition: pure methane (CH(4)), pure deuterated methane (CD(4)) and their half/half mixture. All surface treatments were performed under two different self-bias voltages (V(sb)): -400 and -600V. The modified surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray reflectometry and the sessile-drop method. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured on the Si-DLC wafers for 3 and 6 days. Biological tests to measure cell proliferation, cell vitality, cell morphology and cell adhesion were performed. All DLC coatings produced a slightly more hydrophobic state than non-treated Si. Certain types of amorphous DLC coating, such as the surface treated under the V(sb) of -600V in pure methane (600CH(4)) or in pure deuterated methane (600CD(4)), offered a significantly higher cell proliferation rate to Si substrate. Scanning electron microscopy observations confirmed that the optimal cell adhesion behavior, among all the treated surfaces, occurred on the surface of the 600CH(4) and 600CD(4) groups, which showed increased amounts of filopodia and microvilli to enhance cell-environment exchange. In conclusion, DLC coating on Si could produce better surface stability and improved cellular responses.

  9. Correction for Metastability in the Quantification of PID in Thin-film Module Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental change in the analysis for the accelerated stress testing of thin-film modules is proposed, whereby power changes due to metastability and other effects that may occur due to the thermal history are removed from the power measurement that we obtain as a function of the applied stres...

  10. Development and synthesis nanocompositions DLC coatings with orientation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, V.A.; Novoselova, N.V.; Matveenko, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of volume modelling and a detailed experimental research of physical and chemical properties nanocompositions DLC with one-dimensional highly orientationally the carbon structure on interphase border of section with lubricant as models tribological knot, proves typical models of synthesis new nanocompositions the DLC possessing high tribological properties (by high wear resistance, low of a friction, etc.). The influence mechanism orientation properties of a surface of the synthesized coatings on molecular in a boundary lubricant layer is investigated. On basis tribological experimental batch tests nanocompositions the carbon coatings possessing orientation effect, the synthesis mechanism highly orientationally DLC coatings with optimum tribological properties is developed.

  11. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  12. Transparent Patch Antenna on a-Si Thin Film Glass Solar Module

    OpenAIRE

    Roo Ons, Maria; Shynu, S.; Ammann, Max; McCormack, Sarah; Norton, Brian

    2011-01-01

    An optically transparent microstrip patch mounted on the surface of a commercially available solar module is proposed. The patch comprises a thin sheet of clear polyester with a conductive coating. The amorphous silicon solar cells in the module are used as both photovoltaic generator and antenna ground plane. The proposed structure provides a peak gain of 3.96 dBi in the 3.4-3.8 GHz range without significantly compromising the light transmission in the module. A comparison between copper and...

  13. Cost reduction by using micro-fingers in thin film silicon modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Bosman, J.; Loffler, J.; Budel, T. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    A finite element electrical model is described that can be used to calculate the performance of monolithic thin film photovoltaic modules. The model is suitable for all type of thin film modules, like e.g. p-i-n a-Si:H, CIGS and polymer based modules and it includes losses due to interconnection. Using this model a parameter study is performed for a-Si:H cells with the aim to reduce metal consumption in the cell and interconnection. It is shown that a reduction in metal consumption by a factor 1.3 can be achieved with only marginal loss in performance if short cell are used with very short fingers.

  14. Micro and macro scratch and microhardness study of biocompatible DLC and TiO.sub.2./sub. films prepared by laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšovský, Jan; Lukeš, J.; Tolde, Z.; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 647, JAN (2013), 25-29 ISSN 1022-6680 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thin films * adhesion * scratch test * microhardness * Young ´s modulus * diamond-like-carbon (DLC) * titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  15. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  16. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, F.-G., E-mail: franz-georg.simon@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.3 Contaminant Transfer and Environmental Technologies, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Holm, O.; Berger, W. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.3 Contaminant Transfer and Environmental Technologies, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  17. Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

    2011-09-01

    The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

  18. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, F.-G.; Holm, O.; Berger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources

  19. Evaluation of the tribological properties of DLC for engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, S D A; Fitzpatrick, M E; Hainsworth, S V

    2007-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are used in automotive engines for decreasing friction and increasing durability. There are many variants of DLC films which provide a wide range of mechanical, physical and tribological properties. The films can be extremely hard (>90 GPa), give low coefficients of friction against a number of counterfaces and exhibit low wear coefficients. The films are often considered to be chemically inert. The properties of DLC films depend to a large degree on the relative proportions of graphitically- (sp 2 ) and diamond-like (sp 3 )-bonded carbon but the inclusion of elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, silicon, tungsten, titanium, fluorine and sulphur can dramatically change their tribological response. Two different types of DLC, a WC/C amorphous hydrogenated DLC (WC/C a-C : H) coating and an amorphous hydrogenated DLC (a-C : H) have been investigated. The mechanical and tribological properties have been evaluated by nanoindentation, scratch and wear testing and friction testing in an instrumented cam-tappet testing rig. The deformation mechanisms and wear processes have been evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The results show that the harder a-C : H film was more wear resistant than the softer WC/C a-C : H film and performed better in the cam-tappet testing rig

  20. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  1. Characterisation of DLC films deposited using titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT) at different flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, R; Ali, N; Ghumman, C A A; Teodoro, O M N D; Ahmed, W

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the search for advanced biomaterials for biomedical applications, such as human implants and surgical cutting tools. It is known that both carbon and titanium exhibit good biocompatibility and have been used as implants in the human body. It is highly desirable to deposit biocompatible thin films onto a range of components in order to impart biocompatibility and to minimise wear in implants. Diamond like carbon (DLC) is a good candidate material for achieving biocompatibility and low wear rates. In this study, thin films of diamond-like-carbon DLC were deposited onto stainless steel (316) substrates using C2H2, argon and titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT) precursors. Argon was used to generate the plasma in the plasma enhanced vapour deposition (PECVD) system. A critical coating feature governing the performance of the component during service is film thickness. The as-grown films were in the thickness range 90-100 nm and were found to be dependent on TIPOT flow rate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterise the surface roughness of the samples. As the flow rate of TIPOT increased the average roughness was found to increase in conjunction with the film thickness. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical structure of amorphous carbon matrix. Surface tension values were calculated using contact angle measurements. In general, the trend of the surface tension results exhibited an opposite trend to that of the contact angle. The elemental composition of the samples was characterised using a VG ToF SIMS (IX23LS) instrument and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surprisingly, SIMS and XPS results showed that the DLC samples did not show evidence of titanium since no peaks representing to titanium appeared on the SIMS/XPS spectra.

  2. Correction for Metastability in the Quantification of PID in Thin-film Module Testing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnston, Steven [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spataru, Sergiu [Aalborg University

    2017-10-01

    A fundamental change in the analysis for the accelerated stress testing of thin-film modules is proposed, whereby power changes due to metastability and other effects that may occur due to the thermal history are removed from the power measurement that we obtain as a function of the applied stress factor. The power of reference modules normalized to an initial state - undergoing the same thermal and light- exposure history but without the applied stress factor such as humidity or voltage bias - is subtracted from that of the stressed modules. For better understanding and appropriate application in standardized tests, the method is demonstrated and discussed for potential-induced degradation testing in view of the parallel-occurring but unrelated physical mechanisms that can lead to confounding power changes in the module.

  3. Osteogenic differentiation on DLC-PDMS-h surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Antti; Kaivosoja, Emilia; Sillat, Tarvo; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Tiainen, Veli-Matti

    2014-10-01

    The hypothesis was that anti-fouling diamond-like carbon polydimethylsiloxane hybrid (DLC-PDMS-h) surface impairs early and late cellular adhesion and matrix-cell interactions. The effect of hybrid surface on cellular adhesion and cytoskeletal organization, important for osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC), where therefore compared with plain DLC and titanium (Ti). hMSCs were induced to osteogenesis and followed over time using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and hydroxyapatite (HA) staining. SEM at 7.5 hours showed that initial adherence and spreading of hMSC was poor on DLC-PDMS-h. At 5 days some hMSC were undergoing condensation and apoptotic fragmentation, whereas cells on DLC and Ti grew well. DAPI-actin-vinculin triple staining disclosed dwarfed cells with poorly organized actin cytoskeleton-focal complex/adhesion-growth substrate attachments on hybrid coating, whereas spread cells, organized microfilament bundles, and focal adhesions were seen on DLC and in particular on Ti. Accordingly, at day one ToF-SIMS mass peaks showed poor protein adhesion to DLC-PDMS-h compared with DLC and Ti. COL1A1, ALP, OP mRNA levels at days 0, 7, 14, 21, and/or 28 and lack of HA deposition at day 28 demonstrated delayed or failed osteogenesis on DLC-PDMS-h. Anti-fouling DLC-PDMS-h is a poor cell adhesion substrate during the early protein adsorption-dependent phase and extracellular matrix-dependent late phase. Accordingly, some hMSCs underwent anoikis-type apoptosis and failed to complete osteogenesis, due to few focal adhesions and poor cell-to-ECM contacts. DLC-PDMS-h seems to be a suitable coating for non-integrating implants/devices designed for temporary use. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sealing of hard CrN and DLC coatings with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Emma; Kolev, Ivan; Díaz, Belén; Swiatowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Marcus, Philippe; Fenker, Martin; Toth, Lajos; Radnoczi, György; Vehkamäki, Marko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-02-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique that is based on alternating and saturating surface reactions of two or more gaseous precursors. The excellent conformality of ALD thin films can be exploited for sealing defects in coatings made by other techniques. Here the corrosion protection properties of hard CrN and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on low alloy steel were improved by ALD sealing with 50 nm thick layers consisting of Al2O3 and Ta2O5 nanolaminates or mixtures. In cross sectional images the ALD layers were found to follow the surface morphology of the CrN coatings uniformly. Furthermore, ALD growth into the pinholes of the CrN coating was verified. In electrochemical measurements the ALD sealing was found to decrease the current density of the CrN coated steel by over 2 orders of magnitude. The neutral salt spray (NSS) durability was also improved: on the best samples the appearance of corrosion spots was delayed from 2 to 168 h. On DLC coatings the adhesion of the ALD sealing layers was weaker, but still clear improvement in NSS durability was achieved indicating sealing of the pinholes.

  5. Low temperature synthesis of Mo2C/W2C superlattices via ultra-thin modulated reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Johnson, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The authors report here a synthesis method of preparing carbide superlattices using ultra-thin modulated reactants. Initial investigations into the synthesis of the binary systems, Mo 2 C and W 2 C using ultra-thin modulated reactants revealed that both can be formed at relatively low temperatures (500 and 600 C respectively). DSC and XRD data suggested a two step reaction pathway involving interdiffusion of the initial modulated reactant followed by crystallization of the final product, if the modulation length is on the order of 10 angstrom. This information was used to form Mo 2 C/W 2 C superlattices using the structure of the ultra-thin modulated reactant to control the final superlattice period. Relatively large superlattice modulations were kinetically trapped by having several repeat units of each binary within the total repeat of the initial reactant. DSC and XRD data again are consistent with a two step reaction pathway leading to the formation of carbide superlattices

  6. Properties of titanium-alloyed DLC layers for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, Ludek; Fojt, Jaroslav; Cvrcek, Ladislav; Brezina, Vitezslav

    2014-01-01

    DLC-type layers offer a good potential for application in medicine, due to their excellent tribological properties, chemical resistance, and bio-inert character. The presented study has verified the possibility of alloying DLC layers with titanium, with coatings containing three levels of titanium concentration prepared. Titanium was present on the surface mainly in the form of oxides. Its increasing concentration led to increased presence of titanium carbide as well. The behavior of the studied systems was stable during exposure in a physiological saline solution. Electrochemical impedance spectra practically did not change with time. Alloying, however, changed the electrochemical behavior of coated systems in a significant way: from inert surface mediating only exchange reactions of the environment in the case of unalloyed DLC layers to a response corresponding rather to a passive surface in the case of alloyed specimens. The effect of DLC layers alloying with titanium was tested by the interaction with a simulated body fluid, during which precipitation of a compound containing calcium and phosphorus - basic components of the bone apatite - occurred on all doped specimens, in contrast to pure DLC. The results of the specimens' surface colonization with cells test proved the positive effect of titanium in the case of specimens with a medium and highest content of this element. PMID:25093457

  7. Cosmic ray test system for the ATLAS thin gap chamber modules at KOBE

    CERN Document Server

    Suigmoto, T; Arataki, Y; Bando, T; Homma, Y; Ichimiya, R; Ikeno, M; Ishii, K; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Kurashige, H; Mima, T; Miyazaki, Y; Nakagawa, Y; Nakaune, Y; Nozaki, M; Ohshita, H; Okumura, K; Sasaki, O; Suzuki, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Uda, J; Yokoyama, C

    2004-01-01

    Thin gap chamber modules giving function of forward muon trigger to the ATLAS detector in the LHC experiment have been constructed at High Energy Research Organization (KEK) in Japan and their performances have been checked at Kobe University. A large-scale test system specially designed for measuring uniformity of the detection efficiencies and the timing resolution of 8 TGC modules at the same time was successfully operated. Each TGC module had 72 anode wire channels and 64 cathode strip channels (in total 1088 readout channels for 8 modules). Drift tubes consisted of 12 layers (total 428 tubes), between which the TGC modules are put, determined trajectories of cosmic rays. Hit pattern and timing of all detector signals (Trigger counter. Drift tubes and TGCs) were measured by using VME modules. In regular data acquisition situation, i.e. about effective 19 Hz trigger rate from scintillation counters and 73% tracking efficiency by the drift tubes, the detection efficiency of each layer by 5 mm * 5 mm region ...

  8. Thermal–Hydrodynamic Behaviour of Coated Pivoted Pad Thrust Bearings: Comparison between Babbitt, PTFE and DLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Katsaros

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic lubrication and thermal analysis of tilting pad thrust bearings has been a major subject for many studies in the field of tribology. There is only a limited number of studies regarding thrust bearings with coated surfaces. The purpose of this study is to build a parametric, iterative algorithm in order to perform a complete thermal and hydrodynamic lubrication analysis for pivoted pad thrust bearings with coatings. The analytical model is mainly based on the energy, continuity and Navier–Stokes equations, which are solved numerically with the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations Consistent (SIMPLEC method. The analysis focuses on a single pivoted pad of the thrust bearing. The thermal properties of the coating material are taken into account and the resulting thermal and flow fields are solved. The basic hydrodynamic and tribological characteristics are calculated for an uncoated, a Babbitt coated, a PTFE coated and a diamond like carbon (DLC coated pivoted pad thrust bearing. The pressure and the film thickness distribution, as well as the load capacity and the frictional forces, are determined for several pad positions and velocities of the rotor. A mineral oil lubricant is used to estimate the shear thinning or thickening effects on the pad tribological performance. The results indicate that pads coated with PTFE and DLC show lower friction forces compared to the common steel and Babbitt applications. At the same time, the DLC coating seems to affect the bearing’s flow and thermal fields less than the PTFE, making it more suitable for thrust bearings applications.

  9. Chemico-physical characterisation and in vivo biocompatibility assessment of DLC-coated coronary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Micaela; Stolojan, Vlad; Virga, Alessandro; Rovere, Massimo; Cabiale, Karine; Galloni, Marco R; Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of stent thrombosis occurs in the acute and sub-acute phases and is more common in patients with acute coronary syndromes, due to the thrombotic milieu where stent struts are positioned. Stent thrombosis is likely due to incomplete tissue coverage of metallic stents as the contact between metallic stents and blood elements may lead to platelet adhesion and trigger vessel thrombosis. If a stent is covered after 7 days, the risk that it will be found uncovered at later stages is very low (DLC) coatings, deposited by physical vapour deposition, promote rapid endothelisation of coronary stent devices, with very low platelets activation, reducing thrombotic clots. We relate these behaviours to the surface and bulk material properties of the DLC films, subjected to a comprehensive chemico-physical characterisation using several techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy, Raman and dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). In vivo studies, conducted on 24 pigs, have shown complete endothelisation after 7 days, with no fibrin mesh and with only rare monocytes scattered on the endothelial layer while 30 and 180 days tests have shown reduced inflammatory activation and a complete stabilisation of the vessel healing, with a minimal neointimal proliferation. The integral and permanent DLC film coating improves haemo- and bio-compatibility and leads to an excellent early vessel healing of the stent whilst the extremely thin strut thickness reduces the amount of late neointima and consequently the risk of late restenosis. These data should translate into a reduced acute and sub-acute stent thrombosis.

  10. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: measurements and energy prediction improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A; Arnesano, A; Vergallo, P

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m(2). About 37,000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m(2) and from -1 to 40 W/m(2) from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  11. Research progress on large-area perovskite thin films and solar modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organometal halide perovskites have exhibited a bright future as photovoltaic semiconductor in next generation solar cells due to their unique and promising physicochemical properties. Over the past few years, we have witnessed a tremendous progress of efficiency record evolution of perovskite solar cells (PSCs. Up to now, the highest efficiency record of PSCs has reached 22.1%; however, it was achieved at a very small device area of <0.1 cm2. With the device area increasing to mini-module scale, the efficiency record dropped dramatically. The inherent causes are mainly ascribed to inadequate quality control of large-area perovskite thin films and insufficient optimization of solar module design. In current stage of PSCs research and development, to overcome these two obstacles is in urgent need before this new technology could realize scale-up industrialization. Herein, we present an overview of recently developed strategies for preparing large-area perovskite thin films and perovskite solar modules (PSMs. At last, cost analysis and future application directions of PSMs have also been discussed.

  12. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of DLC coated microdimples on hip prosthesis heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Ay Ching, Hee; Mamat, Azuddin Bin; Cizek, Jan; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Vrbka, Martin; Hartl, Martin; Krupka, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) is applied as a thin film onto substrates to obtain desired surface properties such as increased hardness and corrosion resistance, and decreased friction and wear rate. Microdimple is an advanced surface modification technique enhancing the tribological performance. In this study, DLC coated microdimples were fabricated on hip prosthesis heads and their mechanical, material and surface properties were characterized. An Electro discharge machining (EDM) oriented microdrilling was utilized to fabricate a defined microdimple array (diameter of 300 µm, depth of 70 µm, and pitch of 900 µm) on stainless steel (SS) hip prosthesis heads. The dimpled surfaces were then coated by hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (Ta-C) layers by using a magnetron sputtering technology. A preliminary tribology test was conducted on these fabricated surfaces against a ceramic ball in simulated hip joint conditions. It was found that the fabricated dimples were perpendicular to the spherical surfaces and no cutting-tools wear debris was detected inside the individual dimples. The a-C:H and Ta-C coatings increased the hardness at both the dimple edges and the nondimpled region. The tribology test showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient for coated surfaces regardless of microdimple arrays: the lowest friction coefficient was found for the a-C:H samples (µ = 0.084), followed by Ta-C (µ = 0.119), as compared to the SS surface (µ = 0.248). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Thin film solar modules: the low cost, high throughput and versatile alternative to Si wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedus, S. [Delaware Univ., Inst. of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Thin film solar cells (TFSC) have passed adolescence and are ready to make a substantial contribution to the world's electricity generation. They can have advantages over c-Si solar modules in ease of large area, lower cost manufacturing and in several types of applications. Factors which limit TFSC module performance relative to champion cell performance are discussed along with the importance of increased throughput and yield. The consensus of several studies is that all TFSC can achieve costs below 1 $/W if manufactured at sufficiently large scale >100 MW using parallel lines of cloned equipment with high material utilization and spray-on encapsulants. There is significant new commercial interest in TFSC from small investors and large corporations, validating the thin film approach. Unique characteristics are discussed which give TFSC an advantage over c-Si in two specific markets: small rural solar home systems and building integrated photovoltaic installations. TFSC have outperformed c-Si in annual energy production (kWhrs/kW), have demonstrated outdoor durability comparable to c-Si and are being used in MW scale installations worldwide. The merits of the thin film approach cannot be judged on the basis of efficiency alone but must also account for module performance and potential for low cost. TFSC advocates should promote their unique virtues compared to c-Si: lower cost, higher kWhr/kW output, higher battery charging current, attractive visual appearance, flexible substrates, long-term stability comparable to c-Si, and multiple pathways for deposition with room for innovation and evolutionary improvement. There is a huge market for TFSC even at today's efficiency if costs can be reduced. A brief window of opportunity exists for TFSC over the next few years due the Si shortage. The demonstrated capabilities and advantages of TFSC must be proclaimed more persistently to funding decision-makers and customers without minimizing the remaining

  15. Refractive index modulation of Sb70Te30 phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Kai; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Minghui; Wu, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the controllable effective refractive index modulation of Sb 70 Te 30 phase-change thin films between amorphous and crystalline states was achieved experimentally by multiple femtosecond laser pulses. The modulation mechanism was analyzed comprehensively by a spectral ellipsometer measurement, surface morphology observation, and two-temperature model calculations. We numerically demonstrate the application of the optically modulated refractive index of the phase-change thin films in a precisely adjustable color display. These results may provide further insights into ultrafast phase-transition mechanics and are useful in the design of programmable photonic and opto-electrical devices based on phase-change memory materials.

  16. Thin-film VO2 submillimeter-wave modulators and polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.C.C.; Fetterman, H.R.; Bachner, F.J.; Zavracky, P.M.; Parker, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave modulators and switchable polarizers have been fabricated from VO 2 thin films deposited on sapphire substrates. By passing electric current pulses through elements made from these films, the films can be thermally cycled through the insulator-to-metal transition that occurs in VO 2 at about 65 degreeC. In the insulating state, the films are found to have negligible effect on the transmission at submillimeter wavelengths, while above the phase transition the transmission is strongly reduced by the free-electron effects characteristic of a metal. Other possible applications of such switchable VO 2 elements include variable bandpass filters and diffraction grating beam-steering devices

  17. Thin Film CIGS Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Modules, and the Problems of Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the results regarding a nonvacuum technique to fabricate CIGS thin films for solar cells by means of single-step electrodeposition, we focus on the methodological problems of modeling at cell structure and photovoltaic module levels. As a matter of fact, electrodeposition is known as a practical alternative to costly vacuum-based technologies for semiconductor processing in the photovoltaic device sector, but it can lead to quite different structural and electrical properties. For this reason, a greater effort is required to ensure that the perspectives of the electrical engineer and the material scientist are given an opportunity for a closer comparison and a common language. Derived parameters from ongoing experiments have been used for simulation with the different approaches, in order to develop a set of tools which can be used to put together modeling both at single cell structure and complete module levels.

  18. Reliability and Engineering of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules. Research forum proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr. (Editor); Royal, E. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A Research Forum on Reliability and Engineering of Thin Film Photovoltaic Modules, under sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project and the U.S. Department of Energy, was held in Washington, D.C., on March 20, 1985. Reliability attribute investigations of amorphous silicon cells, submodules, and modules were the subjects addressed by most of the Forum presentations. Included among the reliability research investigations reported were: Arrhenius-modeled accelerated stress tests on a Si cells, electrochemical corrosion, light induced effects and their potential effects on stability and reliability measurement methods, laser scribing considerations, and determination of degradation rates and mechanisms from both laboratory and outdoor exposure tests.

  19. Thermal radiative properties of a DLC coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzelka, Pavel; Králík, Tomáš; Mašková, A.; Musilová, Věra; Vyskočil, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, 9-10 (2008), s. 455-457 ISSN 0011-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : thin films * heat transfer * radiant properties * cryostats Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2008

  20. A study of DLC coatings for ironing of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    severe lubrication conditions by adopting strip reduction testing to replicate industrial ironing production of deep drawn, stainless steel cans. Three DLC coatings are investigated; multi-layer, double layer and single layer. Experiments revealed that the double layer coating worked successful, i...

  1. Haemocompatibility evaluation of DLC- and SiC-coated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin N.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC and silicon carbide (SiC coatings are attractive because of low friction coefficient, high hardness, chemical inertness and smooth finish, which they provide to biomedical devices. Silicon wafers (Siwaf and silicone rubber (Sirub plates were coated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD techniques. This article describes: 1- the characterization of modified surfaces using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR and contact angle measurements, 2- the results of three in-vitro haemocompatibility assays. Coated surfaces were compared to uncoated materials and various substrates such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polyethylene (LDPE, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and medical steel (MS. Thrombin generation, blood platelet adhesion and complement convertase activity tests revealed the following classification, from the most to the least heamocompatible surface: Sirub/ DLC-Sirub/ DLC-Siwaf/ LDPE/ PDMS/ SiC-Siwaf/ Siwaf/ PMMA/ MS. The DLC coating surfaces delayed the clotting time, tended to inhibit the platelet and complement convertase activation, whereas SiC-coated silicon wafer can be considered as thrombogenic. This study has taken into account three events of the blood activation: coagulation, platelet activation and inflammation. The response to those events is an indicator of the in vitro haemocompatibility of the different surfaces and it allows us to select biomaterials for further in vivo blood contacting investigations.

  2. A study of DLC coatings for ironing of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    Stamping of sheet metal components without lubrication or using minimum amount of hazard free lubricant is a possible solution to diminish health hazards to personnel and environmental impact and to reduce production costs. This paper studies the application of diamond-like coating (DLC) under...

  3. Tribological behavior of W-DLC coated rubber seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) coatings have been deposited on FKM (fluorocarbon) and HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubbers via unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering from a WC target in a C2H2/Ar plasma. The surface morphology and fracture cross sections of uncoated and

  4. Erosion–corrosion and corrosion properties of DLC coated low temperature Erosion–corrosion and corrosion properties of DLC coated low temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Christiansen, Thomas; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    of AISI 316 as substrate for DLC coatings are investigated. Corrosion and erosion–corrosion measurements were carried out on low temperature nitrided stainless steel AISI 316 and on low temperature nitrided stainless steel AISI 316 with a top layer of DLC. The combination of DLC and low temperature...... nitriding dramatically reduces the amount of erosion–corrosion of stainless steel under impingement of particles in a corrosive medium....

  5. Synthesis of Ag-doped hydrogenated carbon thin films by a hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci., Vol. 37, No. 7, December 2014, pp. 1669–1676. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of ... PVD–PECVD deposition process ... Processing parameters (working pressure, .... prepared using the hydrocarbon ion beam without oper- .... Figure 5. Comparison of FTIR spectra obtained from the DLC and Ag-DLC thin.

  6. Sliding Wear and Fretting Wear of DLC-Based, Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pohlchuck, B.; Street, Kenneth W.; Zabinski, J. S.; Sanders, J. H.; Voevodin, A. a.; Wu, R. L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Improving the tribological functionality of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films--developing, good wear resistance, low friction, and high load-carrying capacity-was the aim of this investigation. Nanocomposite coatings consisting of an amorphous DLC (a-DLC) top layer and a functionally graded titanium-titanium carbon-diamondlike carbon (Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC) underlayer were produced on AISI 440C stainless steel substrates by the hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The resultant DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface profilometry. Two types of wear experiment were conducted in this investioation: sliding friction experiments and fretting wear experiments. Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted to examine the wear behavior of an a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC-coated AISI 440C stainless steel disk in sliding contact with a 6-mm-diameter AISI 440C stainless steel ball in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, and humid air. Although the wear rates for both the coating and ball were low in all three environments, the humid air and dry nitrogen caused mild wear with burnishing, in the a-DLC top layer, and the ultrahigh vacuum caused relatively severe wear with brittle fracture in both the a-DLC top layer and the Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC underlayer. For reference, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (H-DLC) films produced on a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coatings by using an ion beam were also examined in the same manner. The H-DLC films markedly reduced friction even in ultrahigh vacuum without sacrificing wear resistance. The H-DLC films behaved much like the a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coating in dry nitrogen and humid air, presenting low friction and low wear. Fretting wear experiments were conducted in humid air (approximately 50% relative humidity) at a frequency of 80 Hz and an amplitude of 75 micron on an a-DLC

  7. Experiences on the integration of thin film photovoltaic modules in a Mediterranean greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena, R.; Perez, J.; Carreno, A.; Callejon, A.J.; Vazquez, F.J. [Almeria Univ., Almeria (Spain). Dept. of Rural Engineering; Perez, M. [Almeria Univ., Almeria (Spain). CIESOL Research Center on Solar Energy

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of photovoltaic (PV) thin film modules in solar based energy generation systems in greenhouses in Spain, where feed-in tariffs for renewable energy sources serve to increase the yearly income of such agricultural exploitations. Experiments were performed at the University of Almeria, where a 1000 m{sup 2} pilot installation was built and monitored to analyze the key features of the system design and functionalities in terms of overall electricity injected into the grid as well as crop productivity. The installation involved dividing the greenhouse sections into 2 identical and contiguous sections, where one of the roof sections was equipped with a set of carefully designed thin film PV module strips. Both sections were grown under similar conditions for a period of 6 months. Continuous monitoring of the power injected to the grid showed that such a system is feasible. In terms of greenhouse crop results, this study showed that there is need for further research regarding the impact of changes in optical properties to the roof by the PV strips that reduced the available PV active radiation (PAR light) for crops.

  8. Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, H.; Thumm, W.; Freitag, R.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Chapin, R.

    1994-01-01

    Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical e.g. leachability and biological parameters e.g. EC 50 in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats

  9. Prospects of DLC coating as environment friendly surface treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Kim, S G

    2011-06-01

    After first commercialization in 90's, the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been significantly expanded to tool, automobile parts, machineries and moulds to enhance wear and friction properties. Although DLC has many advantages like high hardness, low friction electrical insulating and chemical stability and has the possible market, its application in the field is still very limited due to the gaps of understanding between end-user and developer of its advantage of costing. Recently, one of the most popular issues in the surface modification is providing the long lasting super-hydrophilic or -hydrophobic properties on the material surface for the outdoor usage. A lot of material loss is caused due to water corrosion which has to do with the flow and contacts of water like fuel cell separator and air conditioner parts. The consequence of development of functional surface based on the hydrophilic or hydrophobic design for the important parts would be really helpful for materials to be cleaner and more energy effective. Here, we first reviewed the DLC technology and then examined the kind of surface modification as well as its merits and disadvantage. We also looked at how we can improve super-hydrophilic and super hydrophobic for the DLC coating layer as well as current status of technology and arts of DLC. In the end, we would like to suggest it as one of the environmental friendly industrial technology. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Solution structure of tensin2 SH2 domain and its phosphotyrosine-independent interaction with DLC-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Dai

    Full Text Available Src homology 2 (SH2 domain is a conserved module involved in various biological processes. Tensin family member was reported to be involved in tumor suppression by interacting with DLC-1 (deleted-in-liver-cancer-1 via its SH2 domain. We explore here the important questions that what the structure of tensin2 SH2 domain is, and how it binds to DLC-1, which might reveal a novel binding mode.Tensin2 SH2 domain adopts a conserved SH2 fold that mainly consists of five β-strands flanked by two α-helices. Most SH2 domains recognize phosphorylated ligands specifically. However, tensin2 SH2 domain was identified to interact with nonphosphorylated ligand (DLC-1 as well as phosphorylated ligand.We determined the solution structure of tensin2 SH2 domain using NMR spectroscopy, and revealed the interactions between tensin2 SH2 domain and its ligands in a phosphotyrosine-independent manner.

  11. Improvement of corrosion protection property of Mg-alloy by DLC and Si-DLC coatings with PBII technique and multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masami, Ikeyama; Setsuo, Nakao; Tsutomu, Sonoda; Junho, Choi

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been considered as one of the most promising light weight materials with potential applications for automobile and aircraft components. Their poor corrosion resistance, however, has to date prevented wider usage. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and silicon-incorporated DLC (Si-DLC) coatings are known to provide a high degree of corrosion protection, and hold accordingly promise for enhancing the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloys. In this work we have studied the effect of coating conditions of DLC coatings as well as Si incorporation into coating on corrosion resistance, deposited onto AZ91 magnesium alloy substrates by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). The influences of a Ti interlayer beneath the DLC, Si-DLC and Ti incorporated DLC (Ti-DLC) coatings fabricated by multi-target direct-current radio-frequency (DC-RF) magnetron sputtering were also examined on both the adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the materials. We have also examined the effect of the Si content in the Si-DLC coatings made by magnetron sputtering on the alloys' corrosion resistance. The results of potentiodynamic polarization measurements demonstrate that Si-DLC coating deposited by PBII exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in an aqueous 0.05 M NaCl solution. Although Ti layer is helpful in increasing adhesion between DLC coating and AZ91 substrate, it also influences adversely corrosion protection. The ozone treatment of the magnesium alloy's surface before the formation of coatings has been found to improve both adhesion strength and corrosion resistance.

  12. Improvement of corrosion protection property of Mg-alloy by DLC and Si-DLC coatings with PBII technique and multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masami, Ikeyama; Setsuo, Nakao; Tsutomu, Sonoda; Junho, Choi

    2009-05-01

    Magnesium alloys have been considered as one of the most promising light weight materials with potential applications for automobile and aircraft components. Their poor corrosion resistance, however, has to date prevented wider usage. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and silicon-incorporated DLC (Si-DLC) coatings are known to provide a high degree of corrosion protection, and hold accordingly promise for enhancing the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloys. In this work we have studied the effect of coating conditions of DLC coatings as well as Si incorporation into coating on corrosion resistance, deposited onto AZ91 magnesium alloy substrates by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). The influences of a Ti interlayer beneath the DLC, Si-DLC and Ti incorporated DLC (Ti-DLC) coatings fabricated by multi-target direct-current radio-frequency (DC-RF) magnetron sputtering were also examined on both the adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the materials. We have also examined the effect of the Si content in the Si-DLC coatings made by magnetron sputtering on the alloys' corrosion resistance. The results of potentiodynamic polarization measurements demonstrate that Si-DLC coating deposited by PBII exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in an aqueous 0.05 M NaCl solution. Although Ti layer is helpful in increasing adhesion between DLC coating and AZ91 substrate, it also influences adversely corrosion protection. The ozone treatment of the magnesium alloy's surface before the formation of coatings has been found to improve both adhesion strength and corrosion resistance.

  13. Characterization of a high performance ultra-thin heat pipe cooling module for mobile hand held electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Mohammad Shahed; Saito, Yuji; Mashiko, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masataka

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, heat pipes have been widely used in various hand held mobile electronic devices such as smart phones, tablet PCs, digital cameras. With the development of technology these devices have different user friendly features and applications; which require very high clock speeds of the processor. In general, a high clock speed generates a lot of heat, which needs to be spreaded or removed to eliminate the hot spot on the processor surface. However, it is a challenging task to achieve proper cooling of such electronic devices mentioned above because of their confined spaces and concentrated heat sources. Regarding this challenge, we introduced an ultra-thin heat pipe; this heat pipe consists of a special fiber wick structure named as "Center Fiber Wick" which can provide sufficient vapor space on the both sides of the wick structure. We also developed a cooling module that uses this kind of ultra-thin heat pipe to eliminate the hot spot issue. This cooling module consists of an ultra-thin heat pipe and a metal plate. By changing the width, the flattened thickness and the effective length of the ultra-thin heat pipe, several experiments have been conducted to characterize the thermal properties of the developed cooling module. In addition, other experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of changes in the number of heat pipes in a single module. Characterization and comparison of the module have also been conducted both experimentally and theoretically.

  14. Commercial production of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brog, T.K. [Golden Photon, Inc., CO (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents a general overview of progress made in Golden Photon Inc.`s commercial production of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. It describes the improvement in the number of batch runs processed through substrate deposition, all inter-connection, and encapsulation process steps; a progressive increase in the total number of panels processed each month; an improvement in cumulative process yields; and the continual attention given to modifying operating parameters of each major process step. The report also describes manpower status and staffing issues. The description of the status of subcontract progress includes engineering design; process improvement and development; cost improvement and raw materials; environment, safety, and health; and manufacturing cost and productivity optimization. Milestones and deliverables are also described.

  15. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogiso, Hisato; Yoshida, Mikiko; Nakano, Shizuka; Yasui, Haruyuki; Awazu, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase

  16. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiso, Hisato [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yoshida, Mikiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Nakano, Shizuka [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yasui, Haruyuki [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan); Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase.

  17. A study of DLC coatings for ironing of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, M. H.; Christiansen, P.; Bay, N.

    2017-09-01

    Stamping of sheet metal components without lubrication or using minimum amount of hazard free lubricant is a possible solution to diminish health hazards to personnel and environmental impact and to reduce production costs. This paper studies the application of diamond-like coating (DLC) under severe lubrication conditions by adopting strip reduction testing to replicate industrial ironing production of deep drawn, stainless steel cans. Three DLC coatings are investigated; multi-layer, double layer and single layer. Experiments revealed that the double layer coating worked successful, i.e. with no sign of galling using no lubrication even at elevated tool temperature, while the other two coatings peeled off and resulted in severe galling unless lubrication was applied.

  18. Thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, N.; Bergbreiter, L.; Breuer, J.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Terzo, S.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will undergo a major upgrade of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen to start around 2025. Thin planar pixel modules are promising candidates to instrument the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. New designs of the pixel cells, with an optimized biasing structure, have been implemented in n-in-p planar pixel productions with sensor thicknesses of 270 μm. Using beam tests, the gain in hit efficiency is investigated as a function of the received irradiation fluence. The outlook for future thin planar pixel sensor productions will be discussed, with a focus on thin sensors with a thickness of 100 and 150 μm and a novel design with the optimized biasing structure and small pixel cells (50×50 and 25×100 μm"2). These dimensions are foreseen for the new ATLAS read-out chip in 65 nm CMOS technology and the fine segmentation will represent a challenge for the tracking in the forward region of the pixel system at HL-LHC. To predict the performance of 50×50 μm"2 pixels at high η, FE-I4 compatible planar pixel sensors have been studied before and after irradiation in beam tests at high incidence angle with respect to the short pixel direction. Results on cluster shapes, charge collection- and hit efficiency will be shown.

  19. Thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, N., E-mail: natascha.savic@mpp.mpg.de; Bergbreiter, L.; Breuer, J.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Terzo, S.

    2017-02-11

    The ATLAS experiment will undergo a major upgrade of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen to start around 2025. Thin planar pixel modules are promising candidates to instrument the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. New designs of the pixel cells, with an optimized biasing structure, have been implemented in n-in-p planar pixel productions with sensor thicknesses of 270 μm. Using beam tests, the gain in hit efficiency is investigated as a function of the received irradiation fluence. The outlook for future thin planar pixel sensor productions will be discussed, with a focus on thin sensors with a thickness of 100 and 150 μm and a novel design with the optimized biasing structure and small pixel cells (50×50 and 25×100 μm{sup 2}). These dimensions are foreseen for the new ATLAS read-out chip in 65 nm CMOS technology and the fine segmentation will represent a challenge for the tracking in the forward region of the pixel system at HL-LHC. To predict the performance of 50×50 μm{sup 2} pixels at high η, FE-I4 compatible planar pixel sensors have been studied before and after irradiation in beam tests at high incidence angle with respect to the short pixel direction. Results on cluster shapes, charge collection- and hit efficiency will be shown.

  20. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface. Annual technical progress report, November 1, 1991--October 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  1. DLC coating of textile blood vessels using PLD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Zemek, Josef; Janča, T.; Žížková, V.; Podlaha, J.; Popov, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2008), s. 627-632 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MPO FI-IM2/068; GA ČR GA202/06/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : blood vessels * PLD * DLC * sp2 * sp3 Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.884, year: 2008

  2. Electron field emission from undoped and doped DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakhovskoi, A G; Evtukh, A A; Felter, T E; Klyui, N I; Kudzinovsky, S Y; Litovchenko, V G; Litvin, Y M

    1999-01-01

    Electron field emission and electrical conductivity of undoped and nitrogen doped DLC films have been investigated. The films were grown by the PE CVD method from CH(sub 4):H(sub 2) and CH(sub 4):H(sub 2):N(sub 2) gas mixtures, respectively. By varying nitrogen content in the gas mixture over the range 0 to 45%, corresponding concentrations of 0 to 8% (atomic) could be achieved in the films. Three different gas pressures were used in the deposition chamber: 0.2, 0.6 and 0.8 Torr. Emission current measurements were performed at approximately 10(sup -6) Torr using the diode method with emitter-anode spacing set at 20(micro)m. The current - voltage characteristics of the Si field electron emission arrays covered with DLC films show that threshold voltage (V(sub th)) varies in a complex manner with nitrogen content. As a function of nitrogen content, V(sub th) initially increases rapidly, then decreases and finally increases again for the highest concentration. Corresponding Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots follow F-N tunneling over a wide range. The F-N plots were used for determination of the work function, threshold voltage, field enhancement factor and effective emission area. For a qualitative explanation of experimental results, we treat the DLC film as a diamond-like (sp(sup 3) bonded) matrix with graphite-like inclusions

  3. Adhesion enhancement of diamond-like carbon thin films on Ti alloys by incorporation of nanodiamond particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.Z.; Tang, Y.; Li, Y.S.; Yang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Coating adherent diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films directly on Ti alloys is technologically difficult. This research incorporates nanodiamond particles to form a diamond/DLC composite interlayer to enhance the adhesion of DLC thin films on Ti6Al4V substrates. Initially, nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a methane–hydrogen gas mixture. A DLC thin film was then deposited, on top of the nanodiamond particles, by direct ion beam deposition. Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the microstructure and chemical bonding of the deposited particles and films, and Rockwell indentation testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the deposited films. The results indicate that the pre-deposited nanodiamond particles significantly enhance the interfacial adhesion between the DLC thin film and the Ti6Al4V substrate, possibly by enhanced interfacial bonding, mechanical interlocking, and stress relief. - Highlights: ► Nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V before DLC deposition. ► Diamond/DLC composite film was formed by incorporation of nanodiamond particles. ► Greatly enhanced adhesion of diamond/DLC composite film on Ti6Al4V was achieved. ► Enhanced adhesion is by increased interfacial bonding and mechanical interlocking

  4. Adhesion enhancement of diamond-like carbon thin films on Ti alloys by incorporation of nanodiamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.Z.; Tang, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A9 (Canada); Li, Y.S. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5E2 (Canada); Yang, Q., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Coating adherent diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films directly on Ti alloys is technologically difficult. This research incorporates nanodiamond particles to form a diamond/DLC composite interlayer to enhance the adhesion of DLC thin films on Ti6Al4V substrates. Initially, nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a methane–hydrogen gas mixture. A DLC thin film was then deposited, on top of the nanodiamond particles, by direct ion beam deposition. Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the microstructure and chemical bonding of the deposited particles and films, and Rockwell indentation testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the deposited films. The results indicate that the pre-deposited nanodiamond particles significantly enhance the interfacial adhesion between the DLC thin film and the Ti6Al4V substrate, possibly by enhanced interfacial bonding, mechanical interlocking, and stress relief. - Highlights: ► Nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V before DLC deposition. ► Diamond/DLC composite film was formed by incorporation of nanodiamond particles. ► Greatly enhanced adhesion of diamond/DLC composite film on Ti6Al4V was achieved. ► Enhanced adhesion is by increased interfacial bonding and mechanical interlocking.

  5. Economic viability of thin-film tandem solar modules in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Sarah E.; Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Weiss, Dirk N.; Stanbery, Billy J.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Peters, I. Marius

    2018-05-01

    Tandem solar cells are more efficient but more expensive per unit area than established single-junction (SJ) solar cells. To understand when specific tandem architectures should be utilized, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different II-VI-based thin-film tandem solar cells and compare them to the SJ subcells. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and energy yield are calculated for four technologies: industrial cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium selenide, and their hypothetical two-terminal (series-connected subcells) and four-terminal (electrically independent subcells) tandems, assuming record SJ quality subcells. Different climatic conditions and scales (residential and utility scale) are considered. We show that, for US residential systems with current balance-of-system costs, the four-terminal tandem has the lowest LCOE because of its superior energy yield, even though it has the highest US per watt (US W-1) module cost. For utility-scale systems, the lowest LCOE architecture is the cadmium telluride single junction, the lowest US W-1 module. The two-terminal tandem requires decreased subcell absorber costs to reach competitiveness over the four-terminal one.

  6. Electric-field modulation of ferromagnetism in hexagonal chromium telluride thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Ryota; Oikawa, Haruyoshi; Yamawaki, Kazuma; Kuroda, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    We report the electric-field modulation of magnetism of a hexagonal Cr 1-δ Te thin film. A gate voltage V G is ap-plied in the field effect capacitor (FEC) structure consisting of electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) of an ion liquid and a 2nm-thick Cr 1-δ Te layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and the magnetization of the layer is directly measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer in the both configurations with magnetic fields perpendicular or parallel to the film plane. As a result, we observe a clear change in the magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) curves by applying VG at a low temperature of 15 K in the perpendicular field configuration; the magnetization increases and the coercivity decreases by applying either positive or negative gate voltage. When the temperature is increased up to 160K, slightly lower than the Curie temperature, or the magnetization was measured in the in-plane field configuration, the magnetization increases similarly by applying either positive or negative gate voltage, but the amount of the increase becomes much smaller. A possible mechanism of the electric-field modulation is discussed in relation to the Cr vacancies in the Cr 1-δ Te layer. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Electric-field modulation of ferromagnetism in hexagonal chromium telluride thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Ryota; Oikawa, Haruyoshi; Yamawaki, Kazuma; Kuroda, Shinji [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    We report the electric-field modulation of magnetism of a hexagonal Cr{sub 1-δ}Te thin film. A gate voltage V{sub G} is ap-plied in the field effect capacitor (FEC) structure consisting of electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) of an ion liquid and a 2nm-thick Cr{sub 1-δ}Te layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and the magnetization of the layer is directly measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer in the both configurations with magnetic fields perpendicular or parallel to the film plane. As a result, we observe a clear change in the magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) curves by applying VG at a low temperature of 15 K in the perpendicular field configuration; the magnetization increases and the coercivity decreases by applying either positive or negative gate voltage. When the temperature is increased up to 160K, slightly lower than the Curie temperature, or the magnetization was measured in the in-plane field configuration, the magnetization increases similarly by applying either positive or negative gate voltage, but the amount of the increase becomes much smaller. A possible mechanism of the electric-field modulation is discussed in relation to the Cr vacancies in the Cr{sub 1-δ}Te layer. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Investigation of thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, N.; Beyer, J.; Rosa, A. La; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), planned to start around 2023–2025, the ATLAS experiment will undergo a replacement of the Inner Detector. A higher luminosity will imply higher irradiation levels and hence will demand more radiation hardness especially in the inner layers of the pixel system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to instrument this region, also thanks to its cost-effectiveness because it only requires a single sided processing in contrast to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. In addition, thin sensors were found to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. An overview is given of recent results obtained with not irradiated and irradiated n-in-p planar pixel modules. The focus will be on n-in-p planar pixel sensors with an active thickness of 100 and 150 μm recently produced at ADVACAM. To maximize the active area of the sensors, slim and active edges are implemented. The performance of these modules is investigated at beam tests and the results on edge efficiency will be shown.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of boron incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.L.; Yang, Q.; Tang, Y.; Yang, L.; Zhang, C.; Hu, Y.; Cui, X.

    2015-01-01

    Boron incorporated diamond-like carbon (B-DLC) (up to 8 wt.% boron) thin films were synthesized on silicon wafers using biased target ion beam deposition technique, where diamond-like carbon (DLC) was deposited by ion beam deposition and boron (B) was simultaneously incorporated by biased target sputtering of a boron carbide (B 4 C) target under different conditions. Pure DLC films and B–C films were also synthesized by ion beam deposition and biased target sputtering of B 4 C under similar conditions, respectively, as reference samples. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the synthesized films have been characterized by various technologies. It has been found that B exists in different states in B-DLC, including carbon-rich and B-rich boron carbides, boron suboxide and boron oxide, and the oxidation of B probably occurs during the film deposition. The incorporation of B into DLC leads to the increase of sp 3 bonded carbon in the films, the increase of both film hardness and elastic modulus, and the decrease of both surface roughness and friction coefficient. Furthermore, the content of sp 3 bonded carbon, film hardness and elastic modulus increase, and the film surface roughness and friction coefficient decrease with the increase of B-rich carbide in the B-DLC films. - Highlights: • Biased target ion beam deposition technique is promising to produce high quality DLC based thin films; • Boron exists in different states in B-DLC thin films; • The incorporation of B to DLC with different levels leads to improved film properties; • The fraction of sp 3 bonded C in B-DLC thin films increase with the increase of B-rich carbide content in the films

  10. Direct current modulation of spin-Hall-induced spin torque ferromagnetic resonance in platinum/permalloy bilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Shigeyuki; Mitani, Seiji; Otani, YoshiChika; Kasai, Shinya

    2018-06-01

    We examined the spin-Hall-induced spin torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in platinum/permalloy bilayer thin films under bias direct current (DC). The bias DC modulated the symmetric components of the ST-FMR spectra, while no dominant modulation was found in the antisymmetric components. A detailed analysis in combination with simple model calculations clarified that the major origin of the modulation can be attributed to the DC resistance change under the precessional motion of magnetization. This effect is the second order contribution for the precession angle, even though the contribution can be comparable to the rectification voltage under some specific conditions.

  11. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy treated by Fine Particle Peening/DLC Hybrid Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanbu H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.

  12. Mechanism analysis of improved DLC films friction behaviors with liquid sulfidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qunfeng; Yu Fei; Dong Guangneng; Mao Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Liquid sulfidation is applied to treat DLC films. ► Sulfur atoms are chemically bonded and the graphitization presented in the treated films. ► The treated films exhibited much lower coefficient of friction than the untreated films under dry friction condition. ► The sulfidation mechanisms are supposed as surface chemical reaction and surface diffusion. ► The presence of sulfur-containing materials and graphitization are beneficial to improve anti-friction behaviors of the treated films. - Abstract: Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were treated by liquid sulfidation to improve their friction behaviors. Friction behaviors of DLC films were experimentally evaluated in ambient air under dry friction using GCr15 steel ball sliding over DLC-coated steel flat in a ball-on-disk tribometer system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to identify the chemical composition and structure of DLC films. It was found that the content of sp 2 carbon bond increased and G peak shifted to high wave number after sulfidation treatment. The measurement results showed that sulfur atoms were chemically bonded and the graphitization occurred in the treated DLC films. It was indicated that the treated DLC films exhibited much better friction behaviors than the untreated films, especially for DLC films deposited with high nitrogen ratio. In this paper, we proposed the possible sulfidation mechanism of sulfurized DLC films. Sulfidation mechanism is postulated that thiourea reacted with oxygen to form sulfur-containing organic compounds which included CSSC, CSOH and (NH 2 )NH=CSO 2 H and surface diffusion during sulfidation treatment. The anti-friction behaviors of the treated DLC films can be attributed to the production of the compounds containing sulfur on the DLC film surface, the reduce of oxygen content and the presence of graphitization of DLC films.

  13. Nd:YOV4 laser surface texturing on DLC coating: Effect on morphology, adhesion, and dry wear behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surfaro, Maria; Giorleo, Luca; Montesano, Lorenzo; Allegri, Gabriele; Ceretti, Elisabetta; La Vecchia, Giovina Marina

    2018-05-01

    The surface of structural components is usually subjected to higher stresses, greater wear or fatigue damage, and more direct environmental exposure than the inner parts. For this reason, the interest to improve superficial properties of items is constantly increasing in different fields as automotive, electronic, biomedical, etc. Different approaches can be used to achieve this goal: case hardening by means of superficial heat treatments like carburizing or nitriding, deposition of thin or thick coatings, roughness modification, etc. Between the available technologies to modify components surface, Laser Surface Texturing (LST) has already been recognized in the last decade as a process, which improves the tribological properties of various parts. Based on these considerations the aim of the present research work was to realize a controlled laser texture on a Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) thin coating (about 3 µm thick) without damaging both the coating itself and the substrate. In particular, the effect of laser process parameters as marking speed and loop cycle were investigated in terms of texture features modifications. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the texture were executed by using a scanning electron microscope and a laser probe system to select the proper laser parameters. Moreover, the effect of the selected texture on the DLC nanohardness, adhesion and wear behavior was pointed out.

  14. Regulation of white and brown adipocyte differentiation by RhoGAP DLC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Kiat Sim

    Full Text Available Adipose tissues constitute an important component of metabolism, the dysfunction of which can cause obesity and type II diabetes. Here we show that differentiation of white and brown adipocytes requires Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1, a Rho GTPase Activating Protein (RhoGAP previously studied for its function in liver cancer. We identified Dlc1 as a super-enhancer associated gene in both white and brown adipocytes through analyzing the genome-wide binding profiles of PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis. We further observed that Dlc1 expression increases during differentiation, and knockdown of Dlc1 by siRNA in white adipocytes reduces the formation of lipid droplets and the expression of fat marker genes. Moreover, knockdown of Dlc1 in brown adipocytes reduces expression of brown fat-specific genes and diminishes mitochondrial respiration. Dlc1-/- knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts show a complete inability to differentiate into adipocytes, but this phenotype can be rescued by inhibitors of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK and filamentous actin (F-actin, suggesting the involvement of Rho pathway in DLC1-regulated adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, PPARγ binds to the promoter of Dlc1 gene to regulate its expression during both white and brown adipocyte differentiation. These results identify DLC1 as an activator of white and brown adipocyte differentiation, and provide a molecular link between PPARγ and Rho pathways.

  15. Thick-to-Thin Filament Surface Distance Modulates Cross-Bridge Kinetics in Drosophila Flight Muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Miller, Mark S. (IIT); (Vermont); (BU)

    2012-09-19

    The demembranated (skinned) muscle fiber preparation is widely used to investigate muscle contraction because the intracellular ionic conditions can be precisely controlled. However, plasma membrane removal results in a loss of osmotic regulation, causing abnormal hydration of the myofilament lattice and its proteins. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of varied myofilament lattice spacing and protein hydration on cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle, using x-ray diffraction to compare the lattice spacing of dissected, osmotically compressed skinned fibers to native muscle fibers in living flies. Osmolytes of different sizes and exclusion properties (Dextran T-500 and T-10) were used to differentially alter lattice spacing and protein hydration. At in vivo lattice spacing, cross-bridge attachment time (t{sub on}) increased with higher osmotic pressures, consistent with a reduced cross-bridge detachment rate as myofilament protein hydration decreased. In contrast, in the swollen lattice, t{sub on} decreased with higher osmotic pressures. These divergent responses were reconciled using a structural model that predicts t{sub on} varies inversely with thick-to-thin filament surface distance, suggesting that cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment are modulated more by myofilament lattice geometry than protein hydration. Generalizing these findings, our results suggest that cross-bridge cycling rates slow as thick-to-thin filament surface distance decreases with sarcomere lengthening, and likewise, cross-bridge cycling rates increase during sarcomere shortening. Together, these structural changes may provide a mechanism for altering cross-bridge performance throughout a contraction-relaxation cycle.

  16. Activities of the task group 8 on thin film PV module reliability (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being used increasingly to provide renewable energy to schools, residences, small businesses and utilities. At this time, the home owners and small businesses have considerable difficulty in detecting module and/or system degradation and especially enforcing warranty. It needs to be noted that IEC 61215-1 (test req.), -2 (test proc.) and -1-1 (c-Si) are forecasted to be circulated end of Feb 2016 and only editorial changes would be possible. 61215 series does include thin film technologies and would be replacing 61646. Moreover, IEC 61215-1, section 7.2 power output and electric circuitry does contain significant changes to acceptance criteria regarding rated label values, particularly rated power. Even though it is believed that consensus could be achieved within IEC TC82 WG2, some of the smaller players that do not participate actively in IEC TC82 - may not be surprised and must be informed. The other tech specific parts 61215-1-2 (CdTe), -1-3 (a-Si, µc-Si) and -1-4 (CIS, CIGS) are out for comments. The IEC closing date was January 29, 2016. The additions alternative damp heat (DH) test proposed Solar Frontier is being reviewed. In the past, only 600 V systems were permitted in the grid-connected residential and commercial systems in the US. The US commercial systems can now use higher voltage (1,000-1500V) in order to reduce BOS component costs. It is believed that there would not be any problems. The Task Group 8 is collecting data on higher voltage systems.

  17. Tribochemical interactions of Si-doped DLC film against steel in sliding contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eui Sung; Pham, Duc Cuong; Ahn, Hyo Sok; Oh, Jae Eung

    2007-01-01

    This study concerns the effects of tribochemical interactions at the interface of Si-DLC (silicon-doped diamond-like carbon) film and steel ball in sliding contact on tribological properties of the film. The Si-DLC film was over-coated on pure DLC coating by radio frequency plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (r.f. PACVD) with different Si concentration. Friction tests against steel ball using a reciprocating type tribotester were performed in ambient environment. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were used to study the chemical characteristics and elemental composition of the films and mating balls after tests. Results showed a darkgray film consisting of carbon, oxygen and silicon on the worn steel ball surface with different thickness. On the contrary, such film was not observed on the surface of the ball slid against pure DLC coating. The oxidation of Si-DLC surface and steel ball was also found at particular regions of contact area. This demonstrates that tribochemical interactions occurred at the contact area of Si-DLC and steel ball during sliding to form a tribofilm (so called transfer film) on the ball specimen. While the pure DLC coating exhibited high coefficient of friction (∼0.06), the Si-DLC film showed a significant lower coefficient of friction (∼0.022) with the presence of tribofilm on mating ball surface. However, the Si-DLC film possesses a very high wear rate in comparison with the pure DLC. It was found that the tribochemical interactions strongly affected tribological properties of the Si-DLC film in sliding against steel

  18. Intrinsic stress modulation in diamond like carbon films with incorporation of gold nanoparticles by PLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Madhusmita; Krishnan, R.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Madapu, Kishore K.; Kamruddin, M.

    2018-04-01

    Intrinsic stress modulation in the diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with incorporation of gold nanoparticles was studied qualitatively from Raman shift. The films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates by using Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of pure pyrolytic graphite target and with a gold foil on it. Films compositional and chemical behavior was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Visible Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The sp3 content obtained from XPS shows dramatic variation in DLC, DLC-Au(100), DLC-Au(200) and DLC-Au(300) as 39%, 41%, 47% and 66% with various gold contentsas 0%, 12%, 7.3% and 4.7%, respectively. The Raman spectra of DLC/Au films showed G-peak shift towards lower wavenumber indicating the reduction of intrinsic stress (internal compressive stress). The sp2, sp3 fraction in the films are also determined from FWHM (G-Peak).

  19. Glass transition in thin supported polystyrene films probed by temperature-modulated ellipsometry in vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Mikhail Yu; Kiyanova, Anna V; Last, Julie; Soofi, Shauheen S; Thode, Christopher; Nealey, Paul F

    2012-08-01

    Glass transition in thin (1-200 nm thick) spin-cast polystyrene films on silicon surfaces is probed by ellipsometry in a controlled vacuum environment. A temperature-modulated modification of the method is used alongside a traditional linear temperature scan. A clear glass transition is detected in films with thicknesses as low as 1-2 nm. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) shows no substantial dependence on thickness for coatings greater than 20 nm. Thinner films demonstrate moderate T(g) depression achieving 18 K for thicknesses 4-7 nm. Less than 4 nm thick samples are excluded from the T(g) comparison due to significant thickness nonuniformity (surface roughness). The transition in 10-20 nm thick films demonstrates excessive broadening. For some samples, the broadened transition is clearly resolved into two separate transitions. The thickness dependence of the glass transition can be well described by a simple 2-layer model. It is also shown that T(g) depression in 5 nm thick films is not sensitive to a wide range of experimental factors including molecular weight characteristics of the polymer, specifications of solvent used for spin casting, substrate composition, and pretreatment of the substrate surface.

  20. Investigation of thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Savic, Natascha

    2016-01-01

    In view of the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), planned to start around 2023-2025, the ATLAS experiment will undergo a replacement of the Inner Detector. A higher luminosity will imply higher irradiation levels and hence will demand more ra- diation hardness especially in the inner layers of the pixel system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to instrument this region, also thanks to its cost-effectiveness because it only requires a single sided processing in contrast to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. In addition, thin sensors were found to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. An overview is given of recent results obtained with not irradiated and irradiated n-in-p planar pixel modules. The focus will be on n-in-p planar pixel sensors with an active thickness of 100 and 150 {\\mu}m recently produced at ADVACAM. To maximize the active area of the sensors, slim and active edges are implemented. The performance of th...

  1. Optical Modulation of BST/STO Thin Films in the Terahertz Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying; Shi, Songjie; Zhou, Ling; Ling, Furi; Yao, Jianquan

    2018-04-01

    The {Ba}_{0.7} {Sr}_{0.3} {TiO}3 (BST) thin film (30.3 nm) deposited on a {SrTiO}3 (STO) film/silicon substrate sample was modulated by 532 nm continuous-wave laser in the range of 0.2-1 THz at room temperature. The refractive index variation was observed to linearly increase at the highest 3.48 for 0.5 THz with the pump power increasing to 400 mW. It was also found that the BST/STO sample had a larger refractive index variation and was more sensitive to the external optical field than a BST monolayer due to the epitaxial strain induced by the STO film. The electric displacement-electric field loops results revealed that the increasing spontaneous polarization with the STO film that was induced was responsible for the larger refractive index variation of the BST/STO sample. In addition, the real and imaginary part of the permittivity were observed increasing along with the external field increasing, due to the soft mode hardening.

  2. Acceptor-modulated optical enhancements and band-gap narrowing in ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ali; Jin, Yuhua; Irfan, Muhammad; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-03-01

    Fermi-Dirac distribution for doped semiconductors and Burstein-Moss effect have been correlated first time to figure out the conductivity type of ZnO. Hall Effect in the Van der Pauw configuration has been applied to reconcile our theoretical estimations which evince our assumption. Band-gap narrowing has been found in all p-type samples, whereas blue Burstein-Moss shift has been recorded in the n-type films. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) analysis shows that both p-type and n-type films have almost same granular-like structure with minor change in average grain size (˜ 6 nm to 10 nm) and surface roughness rms value 3 nm for thickness ˜315 nm which points that grain size and surface roughness did not play any significant role in order to modulate the conductivity type of ZnO. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been employed to perform the structural, chemical and elemental analysis. Hexagonal wurtzite structure has been observed in all samples. The introduction of nitrogen reduces the crystallinity of host lattice. 97% transmittance in the visible range with 1.4 × 107 Ω-1cm-1 optical conductivity have been detected. High absorption value in the ultra-violet (UV) region reveals that NZOs thin films can be used to fabricate next-generation high-performance UV detectors.

  3. Acceptor-modulated optical enhancements and band-gap narrowing in ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermi-Dirac distribution for doped semiconductors and Burstein-Moss effect have been correlated first time to figure out the conductivity type of ZnO. Hall Effect in the Van der Pauw configuration has been applied to reconcile our theoretical estimations which evince our assumption. Band-gap narrowing has been found in all p-type samples, whereas blue Burstein-Moss shift has been recorded in the n-type films. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM analysis shows that both p-type and n-type films have almost same granular-like structure with minor change in average grain size (∼ 6 nm to 10 nm and surface roughness rms value 3 nm for thickness ∼315 nm which points that grain size and surface roughness did not play any significant role in order to modulate the conductivity type of ZnO. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS have been employed to perform the structural, chemical and elemental analysis. Hexagonal wurtzite structure has been observed in all samples. The introduction of nitrogen reduces the crystallinity of host lattice. 97% transmittance in the visible range with 1.4 × 107 Ω-1cm-1 optical conductivity have been detected. High absorption value in the ultra-violet (UV region reveals that NZOs thin films can be used to fabricate next-generation high-performance UV detectors.

  4. Improved Laser Scribing of Transparent Conductive Oxide for Fabrication of Thin-Film Solar Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, F. S.; Kukin, A. V.; Terukov, E. I.; Titov, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Nonuniform thickness of the front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for fabrication of thin-film solar module (TFSM) based on micromorphic technology affects P1 laser scribing (P1 scribing on the TCO front layer). A method for improvement of the thickness uniformity of the front TCO using modification of the existing system for gas supply of the LPCVD (TCO1200) vacuum setup with the aid of gasdistributing tubes is proposed. The thickness nonuniformity of the deposition procedure is decreased from 15.2 to 11.4% to improve uniformity of the resistance of the front TCO and light-scattering factor of TFSM. In addition, the number of P1 laser scribes with inadmissible resistance of insulation (less than 2 MΩ) is decreased by a factor of 7. A decrease in the amount of melt at the P1 scribe edges leads to an increase in the TFSM shunting resistance by 56 Ω. The TFSM output power is increased by 0.4 W due to improvement of parameters of the front TCO related to application of gas-distributing tubes.

  5. Production and characterization of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 micron thin silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H.G; Nisius, R; Richter, R.H; Terzo, S; Weigell, P

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. T...

  6. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  7. Degradation of gas-phase trichloroethylene over thin-film TiO2 photocatalyst in multi-modules reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lee, Jun Yub; Kim, Gyung Soo; Hong, Sung Chang

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examined the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE) over thin-film TiO 2 . A large-scale treatment of TCE was carried out using scale-up continuous flow photo-reactor in which nine reactors were arranged in parallel and series. The parallel or serial arrangement is a significant factor to determine the special arrangement of whole reactor module as well as to compact the multi-modules in a continuous flow reactor. The conversion of TCE according to the space time was nearly same for parallel and serial connection of the reactors.

  8. Mo doped DLC nanocomposite coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X.S. [School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Wang, H.J.; Feng, L. [School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Shao, L.X. [School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Zou, C.W., E-mail: qingyihaiyanas@163.com [School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang 524048 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Mo doped diamond like carbon coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering. • The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was observed through platelet adhesion. • The amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC is much less than that of pyrolytic carbon. - Abstract: Mo (molybdenum) doped diamond like carbon (Mo-DLC) coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The undoped and Mo-doped DLC coatings were analyzed by various characterization techniques such as Raman spectra, Atomic force microscopy, and temperature-dependent frictional wear testing. The results showed that the Mo-DLC coating with low Mo concentration was a effective protective coating with reduced residual stress and increased cohesive strength, and kept good wear resistance at the ambient temperature of 500 °C. The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was investigated by platelet adhesion. The results showed that the amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings was much less than that of thrombus on pyrolytic carbon films. The Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings would be a new kind of promising materials applied to artificial heart valve and endovascula stent.

  9. Tribological Behaviour of W-DLC against an Aluminium Alloy Subjected to Lubricated Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhowmick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC coatings mitigate aluminium adhesion and reduce friction under the ambient conditions but their tribological behaviour under lubricated sliding need to be further investigated. In this study, tribological tests were performed to evaluate the friction and wear characteristics of W-DLC and H-DLC coatings sliding against an aluminium alloy (319 Al under unlubricated (40 % RH and lubricated sliding conditions. For unlubricated sliding, coefficient of friction (COF values of H-DLC and W-DLC were 0.15 and 0.20. A lower COF value of 0.11 was observed when W-DLC was tested using lubricant oil incorporating sulphur while the H-DLC’s COF remained almost unchanged. The mechanisms responsible for the low friction of W-DLC observed during lubricated sliding were revealed by studying the compositions of the coating surfaces and the transfer layers formed on 319 Al. Micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the transfer layers formed during lubricated sliding of W-DLC incorporated tungsten disulphide (WS2.

  10. Mo doped DLC nanocomposite coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, X.S.; Wang, H.J.; Feng, L.; Shao, L.X.; Zou, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mo doped diamond like carbon coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering. • The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was observed through platelet adhesion. • The amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC is much less than that of pyrolytic carbon. - Abstract: Mo (molybdenum) doped diamond like carbon (Mo-DLC) coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The undoped and Mo-doped DLC coatings were analyzed by various characterization techniques such as Raman spectra, Atomic force microscopy, and temperature-dependent frictional wear testing. The results showed that the Mo-DLC coating with low Mo concentration was a effective protective coating with reduced residual stress and increased cohesive strength, and kept good wear resistance at the ambient temperature of 500 °C. The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was investigated by platelet adhesion. The results showed that the amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings was much less than that of thrombus on pyrolytic carbon films. The Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings would be a new kind of promising materials applied to artificial heart valve and endovascula stent

  11. Wear resistance of DLC coating deposited on pretreated AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgornik, B.; Vizintin, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Centre of Tribology and Technical Diagnostics; Ronkainen, H.; Holmberg, K. [VTT Manufacturing Technology (Finland). Operational Reliability

    2000-07-01

    In the last few years, the application of nitrided steels as substrates for hard coatings has been increasingly reported. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, in particular, have attracted significant attention owing to their desirable tribological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibilities of using hard DLC coatings on softer substrates, such as AISI 4140 steel. (orig.)

  12. Raman Spectroscopy of DLC/a-Si Bilayer Film Prepared by Pulsed Filtered Cathodic Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Srisang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available DLC/a-Si bilayer film was deposited on germanium substrate. The a-Si layer, a seed layer, was firstly deposited on the substrate using DC magnetron sputtering and DLC layer was then deposited on the a-Si layer using pulsed filtered cathodic arc method. The bilayer films were deposited with different DLC/a-Si thickness ratios, including 2/2, 2/6, 4/4, 6/2, and 9/6. The effect of DLC/a-Si thickness ratios on the sp3 content of DLC was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The results show that a-Si layer has no effect on the structure of DLC film. Furthermore, the upper shift in G wavenumber and the decrease in ID/IG inform that sp3 content of the film is directly proportional to DLC thickness. The plot modified from the three-stage model informed that the structural characteristics of DLC/a-Si bilayer films are located close to the tetrahedral amorphous carbon. This information may be important for analyzing and developing bilayer protective films for future hard disk drive.

  13. Solar Spectral and Module Temperature Influence on the Outdoor Performance of Thin Film PV Modules Deployed on a Sunny Inland Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nofuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at analysing the influence of both module temperature and solar spectrum distribution on the outdoor performance of the following thin film technologies: hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H, cadmium telluride (CdTe, copper indium gallium selenide sulfide (CIGS, and hydrogenated amorphous silicon/hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon hetero-junction (a-Si:H/μc-Si:H. A 12-month experimental campaign carried out in a sunny inland site in which a module of each one of these technologies was tested and measured outdoors has provided the necessary empirical data. Results show that module temperature exerts a limited influence on the performance of the tested a-Si:H, CdTe, and a-Si:H/μc-Si:H modules. In contrast, the outdoor behaviour of the CIGS module is the most affected by its temperature. Blue-rich spectra enhance the outdoor behaviour of the a-Si:H and a-Si:H/μc-Si:H modules while it is the other way round for the CIGS module. However, the CdTe specimen shows little sensitivity to the solar spectrum distribution. Anyway, spectral effects are scarcely relevant on an annual basis, ranging from gains for the CIGS module (1.5% to losses for the a-Si:H module (1.0%. However, the seasonal impact of the spectrum shape is more noticeable in these two materials; indeed, spectral issues may cause performance gains or losses of up to some 4% when winter and summer periods are considered.

  14. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO 2 thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO 2 samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  15. Direct Load Control (DLC) Considering Nodal Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate (NIEAR) in Restructured Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    is used as the bids from the ACL customers, is utilized to determine the direct monetary compensation to the ACL customers. The proposed scheme was investigated for the PoolCo electricity market. The optimal DLC scheme is determined based on the minimum system operating cost which is comprised......A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which...... of the system energy cost, the system spinning reserve cost and the compensation cost to the ACL customers. Dynamic programming (DP) was used to obtain the optimal DLC scheme. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) was studied to illustrate the proposed DLC scheme....

  16. Ultra Low Friction of DLC Coating with Lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, M; Yoshida, K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find a trigger to make clear a mechanism of the ultra low friction by evaluating the friction property of DLC-DLC combination under lubrication with the simple fluid. The Pin-on-disc reciprocating and rotating sliding tests were conducted to evaluate the friction property. The super low friction property of pure sliding with the ta-C(T) pair coated by the filtered arc deposition process under oleic acid lubrication was found at the mixed lubrication condition. It was thought that the low share strength tribofilm composed of water and acid seemed to be formed on ta-C sliding interface. Additionally, the smooth sliding surface formed on ta-C(T) was seemed to be required to keep this tribofilm. Then, the super low friction was thought to be obtained by this superlubrication condition. Although the accurate and direct experimental data must be required to make clear this super low friction mechanism, the advanced effect obtained by the simple material combination is expected to be applied on the large industrial fields in near future.

  17. Design and fabrication of inner-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber modules for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng; Li, Bofan; Yang, Tianshi; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to harvest the renewable osmotic energy from salinity gradients. There are great progresses in the fabrication of PRO membranes in the last decade. Thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fibers have been widely studied and demonstrated superior performance. However, the lack of effective TFC hollow fiber modules hinders the commercialization of the PRO technology. Knowledge and experiences to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules remain limited in the open literature. In this study, we aim to reveal the engineering and science on how to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules including the formation of inner-selective polyamide layers and the repair of leakages. TFC-PES hollow fiber modules with 30% and 50% packing densities have been successfully fabricated, showing peak power densities of 20.0 W/m2 and 19.4 W/m2, respectively, at 20 bar using 1 M NaCl solution and DI water as feeds. The modules may be damaged during handling and high pressure testing. The repaired modules have a power density of 18.2 W/m2, 91% of the power densities of the undamaged ones. This study would make up the gap between TFC membrane fabrication and TFC membrane module fabrication in the membrane industry. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Design and fabrication of inner-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber modules for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2016-08-03

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to harvest the renewable osmotic energy from salinity gradients. There are great progresses in the fabrication of PRO membranes in the last decade. Thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fibers have been widely studied and demonstrated superior performance. However, the lack of effective TFC hollow fiber modules hinders the commercialization of the PRO technology. Knowledge and experiences to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules remain limited in the open literature. In this study, we aim to reveal the engineering and science on how to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules including the formation of inner-selective polyamide layers and the repair of leakages. TFC-PES hollow fiber modules with 30% and 50% packing densities have been successfully fabricated, showing peak power densities of 20.0 W/m2 and 19.4 W/m2, respectively, at 20 bar using 1 M NaCl solution and DI water as feeds. The modules may be damaged during handling and high pressure testing. The repaired modules have a power density of 18.2 W/m2, 91% of the power densities of the undamaged ones. This study would make up the gap between TFC membrane fabrication and TFC membrane module fabrication in the membrane industry. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  19. The stability of DLC film on nitrided CoCrMo alloy in phosphate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.F.; Liu, B.; Wu, B.J.; Liu, J.; Sun, H.; Leng, Y.X.; Huang, N.

    2014-01-01

    CoCrMo alloy is often used as the material for metal artificial joint, but metal debris and metal ions are the main concern on tissue inflammation or tissue proliferation for metal prosthesis. In this paper, nitrogen ion implantation and diamond like carbon (DLC) film composite treatment was used to reduce the wear and ion release of biomedical CoCrMo substrate. The mechanical properties and stability of N-implanted/DLC composite layer in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was evaluated to explore the full potential of N-implanted/DLC composite layer as an artificial joint surface modification material. The results showed that the DLC film on N implanted CoCrMo (N-implanted/DLC composite layer) had the higher surface hardness and wear resistance than the DLC film on virgin CoCrMo alloy, which was resulted from the strengthen effect of the N implanted layer on CoCrMo alloy. After 30 days immersion in PBS, the structure of DLC film on virgin CoCrMo or on N implanted CoCrMo had no visible change. But the adhesion and corrosion resistance of DLC on N implanted CoCrMo (N-implanted/DLC composite layer) was weakened due to the dissolution of the N implanted layer after 30 days immersion in PBS. The adhesion reduction of N-implanted/DLC composite layer was adverse for in vivo application in long term. So researcher should be cautious to use N implanted layer as an inter-layer for increasing CoCrMo alloy load carrying capacity in vivo environment.

  20. NEXAFS Study of the Annealing Effect on the Local Structure of FIB-CVD DLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikubo, Akihiko; Kato, Yuri; Igaki, Jun-ya; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Shinji; Kometani, Reo

    2007-01-01

    Annealing effect on the local structure of diamond like carbon (DLC) formed by focused ion beam-chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) was investigated by the measurement of near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra. Carbon K edge absorption NEXAFS spectrum of FIB-CVD DLC was measured in the energy range of 275-320 eV. In order to obtain the information on the location of the gallium in the depth direction, incidence angle dependence of NEXAFS spectrum was measured in the incident angle range from 0 deg. to 60 deg. . The peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s→σ* originating from carbon-gallium increased from the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 400 deg. C and decreased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Especially, the intensity of this peak remarkably enhanced in the NEXAFS spectrum of the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 400 deg. C at the incident angle of 60 deg. . On the contrary, the peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s→π* originating from carbon double bonding of emission spectrum decreased from the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to that at 400 deg. C and increased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Gallium concentration in the FIB-CVD DLC decreased from ≅2.2% of the as-deposited FIB-CVD DLC to ≅1.5% of the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 600 deg. C from the elementary analysis using EDX. Both experimental results indicated that gallium atom departed from FIB-CVD DLC by annealing at the temperature of 600 deg. C

  1. A study for anticorrosion and tribological behaviors of thin/thick diamond-like carbon films in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yewei; Jia, Shujuan; Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Haichao

    2018-03-01

    The thin and thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique on 304L stainless steels and (100) silicon wafers. Microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and tribological properties were systematically investigated by SEM, Raman, nanoindenter, scratch tester, modulab electrochemical workstation and R-tec multifunctional tribological tester. Results showed that the adhesion force presented a descending trend with the growth in soaking time. The adhesion force of the thin DLC film with high residual compressive stress (‑3.72 GPa) was higher than that of the thick DLC film (‑2.96 GPa). During the corrosion test, the thick DLC film showed a higher impendence and a lower corrosion current density than the thin DLC film, which is attributed to the barrier action of large thickness. Compared to bare 304L substrate, the friction coefficients and wear rates of DLC films in seawater were obviously decreased. Meanwhile, the thin DLC film with ideal residual compressive stress, super adhesion force and good plastic deformation resistance revealed an excellent anti-wear ability in seawater.

  2. Nanosecond Time-Resolved Microscopic Gate-Modulation Imaging of Polycrystalline Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Kamata, Toshihide; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2018-02-01

    We develop a time-resolved microscopic gate-modulation (μ GM ) imaging technique to investigate the temporal evolution of the channel current and accumulated charges in polycrystalline pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs). A time resolution of as high as 50 ns is achieved by using a fast image-intensifier system that could amplify a series of instantaneous optical microscopic images acquired at various time intervals after the stepped gate bias is switched on. The differential images obtained by subtracting the gate-off image allows us to acquire a series of temporal μ GM images that clearly show the gradual propagation of both channel charges and leaked gate fields within the polycrystalline channel layers. The frontal positions for the propagations of both channel charges and leaked gate fields coincide at all the time intervals, demonstrating that the layered gate dielectric capacitors are successively transversely charged up along the direction of current propagation. The initial μ GM images also indicate that the electric field effect is originally concentrated around a limited area with a width of a few micrometers bordering the channel-electrode interface, and that the field intensity reaches a maximum after 200 ns and then decays. The time required for charge propagation over the whole channel region with a length of 100 μ m is estimated at about 900 ns, which is consistent with the measured field-effect mobility and the temporal-response model for organic TFTs. The effect of grain boundaries can be also visualized by comparison of the μ GM images for the transient and the steady states, which confirms that the potential barriers at the grain boundaries cause the transient shift in the accumulated charges or the transient accumulation of additional charges around the grain boundaries.

  3. Health, safety and environmental risks from the operation of CdTe and CIS thin-film modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, Hartmut

    1998-01-01

    This paper identifies the materials embedded in on a type of CIS (Copper indium diselenide) and four different types of CdTe (cadmium telluride) thin-film modules. It refers to the results of our outdoor leaching experiments on photovoltaic (PV) samples broken into small fragments. Estimations for modules accidents on the roof or in the garden of a residential house, e.g. leaching of hazardous materials into water or soil, are given. The outcomes of our estimations show some module materials released into water or oil during leaching accidents. In a worst-case scenario for CdTe modules the leached cadmium concentration in the collected water is estimated to be no higher than the German drinking water limit concentration. For the CIS module scenario the estimated leached element concentrations are about one to two orders of magnitude below the German drinking water limit concentration. For broken CIS and CdTe modules on the ground no critical increase of the natural element concentration is observed after leaching into the soil for 1 year. (Author)

  4. Anti-sticking behavior of DLC-coated silicon micro-molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B; Tor, S B; Liu, E; Khun, N W; Hardt, D E; Chun, J H

    2009-01-01

    Pure carbon- (C), nitrogen- (N) and titanium- (Ti) doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited on silicon (Si) micro-molds by dc magnetron sputtering deposition to improve the tribological performance of the micro-molds. The coated and uncoated Si molds were used in injection molding for the fabrication of secondary metal-molds, which were used for the replication of micro-fluidic devices. The bonding structure, surface roughness, surface energy, critical load and friction coefficient of the DLC coatings were characterized with micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, microscratch and ball-on-disc sliding wear tests, respectively. It was observed that the doping conditions had significant effects on Raman peak positions, mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings. The G peak shifted toward a lower position with N and Ti doping. The DLC coating deposited with 1 sccm N 2 flow rate showed the lowest G peak position and the smoothest surface. The surface energies of the pure carbon and Ti-doped DLC coatings were lower than that of the N-doped DLC, which was more significant at a higher N 2 flow rate. In terms of adhesion and friction coefficient, it was observed that the Ti-doped DLC coating had the best performance. Ti incorporated in the DLC coating decreased the residual stress of the coating, which improved the adhesive strength of the coating with the Si substrate

  5. Adsorption mechanisms for fatty acids on DLC and steel studied by AFM and tribological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simič, R.; Kalin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are known to affect the friction and wear of steel contacts via adsorption onto the surface, which is one of the fundamental boundary-lubrication mechanisms. The understanding of the lubrication mechanisms of polar molecules on diamond-like carbon (DLC) is, however, still insufficient. In this work we aimed to find out whether such molecules have a similar effect on DLC coatings as they do on steel. The adsorption of hexadecanoic acid in various concentrations (2–20 mmol/l) on DLC was studied under static conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The amount of surface coverage of the adsorbed fatty-acid molecules was analysed. In addition, tribological tests were performed to correlate the wear and friction behaviours in tribological contacts with the adsorption of molecules on the surface under static conditions. A good correlation between the AFM results and the tribological behaviour was observed. We confirmed that fatty acids can adsorb onto the DLC surfaces and are, therefore, potential boundary-lubrication agents for DLC coatings. The adsorption of the fatty acid onto the DLC surfaces reduces the wear of the coatings, but it is less effective in reducing the friction. Tentative adsorption mechanisms that include an environmental species effect, a temperature effect and a tribochemical effect are proposed for DLC and steel surfaces based on our results and few potential mechanisms found in literature.

  6. Adsorption mechanisms for fatty acids on DLC and steel studied by AFM and tribological experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simič, R.; Kalin, M., E-mail: mitjan.kalin@tint.fs.uni-lj.si

    2013-10-15

    Fatty acids are known to affect the friction and wear of steel contacts via adsorption onto the surface, which is one of the fundamental boundary-lubrication mechanisms. The understanding of the lubrication mechanisms of polar molecules on diamond-like carbon (DLC) is, however, still insufficient. In this work we aimed to find out whether such molecules have a similar effect on DLC coatings as they do on steel. The adsorption of hexadecanoic acid in various concentrations (2–20 mmol/l) on DLC was studied under static conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The amount of surface coverage of the adsorbed fatty-acid molecules was analysed. In addition, tribological tests were performed to correlate the wear and friction behaviours in tribological contacts with the adsorption of molecules on the surface under static conditions. A good correlation between the AFM results and the tribological behaviour was observed. We confirmed that fatty acids can adsorb onto the DLC surfaces and are, therefore, potential boundary-lubrication agents for DLC coatings. The adsorption of the fatty acid onto the DLC surfaces reduces the wear of the coatings, but it is less effective in reducing the friction. Tentative adsorption mechanisms that include an environmental species effect, a temperature effect and a tribochemical effect are proposed for DLC and steel surfaces based on our results and few potential mechanisms found in literature.

  7. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh; Mahboubi, Farzad; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza

    2016-12-01

    The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  8. Investigations on the role of alkali to obtain modulated defect concentrations for Cu{sub 2}O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.chowdhury@gmail.com [Research and Development, Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, 831001 (India); Bijalwan, Pavan Kumar [Research and Development, Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, 831001 (India); Sahu, Ranjan Kumar [MST Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, 831007 (India)

    2014-01-15

    An economic successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method has been investigated for depositing thin Cu{sub 2}O layers on steel. The mole ratios of the Cu{sup +} ions to OH{sup −} ions in the alkali bath were varied and the changes in the properties were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy techniques. The increase in the binding energy values of the Cu 2p peaks in XPS established that an optimum copper vacancy concentration can be obtained for a Cu{sup +}/OH{sup −} mole ratio between 1:10 and 1:15; SEM studies confirmed a dense, uniform microstructure for Cu{sub 2}O thin films coated with these compositions. The strongest absolute peak intensity counts in PL for the peak at 580 nm along with low energy peaks (1.2–1.4 eV) due to Cu vacancy was found to be most prominent for thin film made with Cu{sup +}/OH{sup −} mole ratio 1:15. The role of alkali concentration has been explained in relation to create a stable Cu{sub 2−δ}O structure with optimum copper vacancy. This is an easy way to modulate surface reactivity of the Cu{sub 2}O thin layers and the concept can be utilised for large area device integrations for various electrical and mechanical applications.

  9. Study on analytical modelling approaches to the performance of thin film PV modules in sunny inland climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ramírez, M.; Nofuentes, G.; Silva, J.P.; Silvestre, S.; Muñoz, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at verifying that analytical modelling approaches may provide an estimation of the outdoor performance of TF (thin film) PV (photovoltaic) technologies in inland sites with sunny climates with adequate accuracy for engineering purposes. Osterwald's and constant fill factor methods were tried to model the maximum power delivered and the annual energy produced by PV modules corresponding to four TF PV technologies. Only calibrated electrical parameters at STC (standard test conditions), on-plane global irradiance and module temperature are required as inputs. A 12-month experimental campaign carried out in Madrid and Jaén (Spain) provided the necessary data. Modelled maximum power and annual energy values obtained through both methods were statistically compared to the experimental ones. In power terms, the RMSE (root mean square error) stays below 3.8% and 4.5% for CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules, respectively, while RMSE exceeds 5.4% for a-Si (amorphous silicon) or a-Si:H/μc-Si PV modules. Regarding energy terms, errors lie below 4.0% in all cases. Thus, the methods tried may be used to model the outdoor behaviour of the a-Si, a-Si:H/μc-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV modules tested – ordered from the lowest to the highest accuracy obtained – in sites with similar spectral characteristics to those of the two sites considered. - Highlights: • Simple analytical methods to model the outdoor behaviour of thin film PV (photovoltaic) technologies. • 8 PV modules were deployed outdoors over a 12-month period in two sunny inland sites. • RMSE (root mean square error) values stay below 3.8% and 4.5% in CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules. • Errors remain below 4.0% for all the PV modules and sites in energy terms. • Simple methods: suitable estimation of PV outdoor behaviour for engineering purposes

  10. Refractive index modulation of Sb{sub 70}Te{sub 30} phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Kai; Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@siom.ac.cn; Jiang, Minghui; Wu, Yiqun [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-05-07

    In this study, the controllable effective refractive index modulation of Sb{sub 70}Te{sub 30} phase-change thin films between amorphous and crystalline states was achieved experimentally by multiple femtosecond laser pulses. The modulation mechanism was analyzed comprehensively by a spectral ellipsometer measurement, surface morphology observation, and two-temperature model calculations. We numerically demonstrate the application of the optically modulated refractive index of the phase-change thin films in a precisely adjustable color display. These results may provide further insights into ultrafast phase-transition mechanics and are useful in the design of programmable photonic and opto-electrical devices based on phase-change memory materials.

  11. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  12. Structure, morphology and optical properties of CuInS2 thin films prepared by modulated flux deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M.T.; Briones, F.

    2005-01-01

    The structure, morphology and optical properties of copper indium sulfide thin films prepared by a novel modulated flux deposition procedure have been investigated for layers from 200 to 400 nm thickness. These polycrystalline CuInS 2 films grown onto glass substrates showed CuAu-like structure, similar to epitaxial CuInS 2 films grown onto monocrystalline substrates, and direct band gap values Eg=1.52-1.55 eV, optimum for single-junction photovoltaic applications. The increase in the layer thickness leads to growth of the average crystallite size and increases slightly the surface roughness and the absorption coefficient

  13. Preparation and characterization of DLC/SiO2/Al2O3 nanofiltration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 12 July 2012; revised 27 September 2012 ... support were deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposi- ... the nanofiltration membrane with DLC/SiO2/Al2O3 were observed at various annealing temperatures.

  14. Optimization and characterization of adhesion properties of DLC coatings on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, B; Alam, S; Irfan, M; Shahid, M; Soomro, B D; Hashim, S; Iqbal, R

    2014-01-01

    The Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC) are gaining prime importance in the field of surface engineering especially cutting tools technology. The self lubricating property of these coatings makes them unique among other coatings like TiN, TiAlN, CrN etc. Unlike other coatings, DLC coatings give better surface finish and their self lubrication reduces the wear of a part to large extent. In present work, different substrates were selected to study the wear and adhesion behavior of DLC coatings. The coating was produced by physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique and the adhesive properties of DLC coatings were analyzed under ambient conditions using nano Scratch testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the scratches and their mechanisms

  15. Optimization and characterization of adhesion properties of DLC coatings on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, B.; Alam, S.; Irfan, M.; Shahid, M.; Soomro, B. D.; Hashim, S.; Iqbal, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC) are gaining prime importance in the field of surface engineering especially cutting tools technology. The self lubricating property of these coatings makes them unique among other coatings like TiN, TiAlN, CrN etc. Unlike other coatings, DLC coatings give better surface finish and their self lubrication reduces the wear of a part to large extent. In present work, different substrates were selected to study the wear and adhesion behavior of DLC coatings. The coating was produced by physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique and the adhesive properties of DLC coatings were analyzed under ambient conditions using nano Scratch testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the scratches and their mechanisms. (author)

  16. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CR-DLC LAYERS PREPARED BY HYBRID LASER TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Písařík

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC layers have excellent biological properties for use in medicine for coating implants, but poor adhesion to biomedical alloys. The adhesion can be improved by doping the DLC layer by chromium, as described in this article. Chromium doped diamond like carbon layers (Cr‑DLC were deposited by hybrid deposition system using KrF excimer laser and magnetron sputtering. Carbon and chromium contents were determined by wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Hardness and reduced Young's modulus reached 31.2 GPa and 271.5 GPa, respectively. Films adhesion was determined by scratch test and reached 19 N for titanium substrates. Good adhesion to biomedical alloys and high DLC hardness will help to progress in the field of implantology.

  17. Characteristics of diamond – like carbon(DLC film deposited by PACVD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lukaszkowicz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Diamond – like carbon (DLC film is promising materials for many technical and engineering applications. DLC films are used in many different industries for example: in medicine, in electronics, in optics and the automotive industry. They have excellent tribological properties (low friction coefficient, chemical inertness and high mechanical hardness. This paper provides an analysis of the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of DLC films. In the study of the coating used several surface sensitive techniques and methods, i.e. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy and tribological tests like ball-on-disc. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of DLC layer. In sliding dry friction conditions the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.02-0.03. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a good adhesion to the substrate.

  18. Transparent Si–DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeyama, Masami, E-mail: ikeyama3@aist.go.jp; Sonoda, Tsutomu, E-mail: tsutomu.sonoda@aist.go.jp

    2013-07-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si–DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si–DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si–DLC coating’s thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si–DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si–DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si–DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si–DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings.

  19. Production and characterisation of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 μm thin silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andricek, L. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Nisius, R., E-mail: Richard.Nisius@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2014-09-11

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 μm thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 μm thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a usage at the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator called HL-LHC, the results were obtained before and after irradiation up to fluences of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Significance of genetic variants in DLC1 and their association with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIE, CHENG-RONG; SUN, HONG-GUANG; SUN, YU; ZHAO, WEN-XIU; ZHANG, SHENG; WANG, XIAO-MIN; YIN, ZHEN-YU

    2015-01-01

    DLC1 has been shown to be downregulated or absent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is associated with tumorigenesis and development. However, only a small number of studies have focused on genetic variations of DLC1. The present study performed exon sequencing for the DLC1 gene in HCC tissue samples from 105 patients to identify functional genetic variation of DLC1 and its association with HCC susceptibility, clinicopathological features and prognosis. A novel missense mutation and four non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3816748, rs11203495, rs3816747 and rs532841) were identified. A significant correlation of rs3816747 polymorphisms with HCC susceptibility was identified. Compared to individuals with the GG genotype of rs3816747, those with the GA (odds ratio (OR)=0.486; P=0.037) or GA+AA genotype (OR=0.51; P=0.039) were associated with a significantly decreased HCC risk. Furthermore, patients with the GC+CC genotype of rs3816748, the TC+CC genotype of rs11203495 or the GA+AA genotype of rs3816747 had small-sized tumors compared with those carrying the wild-type genotype. No significant association of DLC1 SNPs with the patients' prognosis was found. These results indicated that genetic variations in the DLC1 gene may confer a risk for HCC. PMID:26095787

  1. The Barrier Properties of PET Coated DLC Film Deposited by Microwave Surface-Wave PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lianhua; Chen, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we report the investigation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by microwave surface-wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) web for the purpose of the barrier property improvement. In order to characterize the properties of DLC coatings, we used several substrates, silicon wafer, glass, and PET web and KBr tablet. The deposition rate was obtained by surface profiler based on the DLC deposited on glass substrates; Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was carried out on KBr tablets to investigate chemical composition and bonding structure; the morphology of the DLC coating was analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM) on Si substrates. For the barrier properties of PET webs, we measured the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) after coated with DLC films. We addressed the film barrier property related to process parameters, such as microwave power and pulse parameter in this work. The results show that the DLC coatings can greatly improve the barrier properties of PET webs.

  2. Tribological Behaviour of Ti:Ta-DLC Films Under Different Tribo-Test Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efeoglu, İhsan; Keleş, Ayşenur; Totik, Yaşar; Çiçek, Hikmet; Emine Süküroglu, Ebru

    2018-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are suitable applicants for cutting tools due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient and wear rate. Doping metals in DLC films have been improved its tribological properties. In this study, titanium and tantalum doped hydrogenated DLC films were deposited by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system onto M2 high speed steels in Ar/N2/C2H2 atmosphere. The friction and wear properties of Ti:Ta-DLC film were investigated under different tribo-test conditions including in atmospheric pressure, distilled water, commercial oil and Ar atmosphere. The coated specimens were characterized by SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques. The bonding state of C-C (sp3) and C=C (sp2) were obtained with XPS. The tribological properties of Ti:Ta-DLC were investigated with pin-on-disc wear test. Hardness measurements performed by micro-indentation. Our results suggest that Ti:Ta-doped DLC film shows very dense columnar microstructure, high hardness (38.2 GPa) with low CoF (µ≈0.02) and high wear resistance (0.5E-6 mm3/Nm).

  3. Influence of environmental parameters on the frictional behavior of DLC coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Erdemir, A.; Meletis, E.I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-05-01

    In a previous studies it was shown that diamond like carbon (DLC) films possess low friction coefficient (f) and excellent wear resistance. The reduction in f was found to be consistent with a ``wear induced graphitization`` mechanism of the DLC structure. A recent study showed that operational parameters (sliding velocity and loading level) influence the tribological behavior of DLC film through control of the kinetics of the graphitization process. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of environmental parameters (humidity and temperature) on the tribological behavior of DLC film and provide further support to the wear induced graphitization mechanism. Ion beam deposition was utilized to deposit DLC on a SiC substrate. Pin-on-disc experiments were conducted by varying humidity (0%, 40% and 100%) and temperature ({minus}10 C and 25 C). As-deposited DLC and wear debris was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that lower humidity increases the graphitization rate more than likely due to the reduction in the effect by the water molecules. A decreased graphitization rate was observed at lower temperature and higher humidity and can be attributed to suppression of temperature rise at hot spots. The present findings are consistent with and further verify the wear induced graphitization mechanism.

  4. Study of Flux Ratio of C60 to Ar Cluster Ion for Hard DLC Film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, K.; Toyoda, N.; Kanda, K.; Matsui, S.; Kitagawa, T.; Yamada, I.

    2003-01-01

    To study the influence of the flux ratio of C60 molecule to Ar cluster ion on (diamond like carbon) DLC film characteristics, DLC films deposited under various flux ratios were characterized with Raman spectrometry and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS). From results of these measurements, hard DLC films were deposited when the flux ratio of C60 to Ar cluster ion was between 0.7 and 4. Furthermore the DLC film with constant sp2 content was obtained in the range of the ratio from 0.7 to 4, which contents are lower values than that of conventional films such as RF plasma. DLC films deposited under the ratio from 1 to 4 had hardness from 40 to 45GPa. It was shown that DLC films with stable properties of low sp2 content and high hardness were formed even when the fluxes were varied from 1 to 4 during deposition. It was indicated that this process was useful in the view of industrial application

  5. Effect of Surface Modification on Corrosion Resistance of Uncoated and DLC Coated Stainless Steel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scendo, Mieczyslaw; Staszewska-Samson, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion resistance of 4H13 stainless steel (EN-X46Cr13) surface uncoated and coated with an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) film [diamond-like carbon (DLC)] in acidic chloride solution was investigated. The DLC films were deposited on steel surface by a plasma deposition, direct current discharge (PDCD) method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was used to determine the chemical groups existing on DLC films. The surface of the specimens was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tribological properties of the both materials were examined using a ball-on disk tribometer. The microhardness (HV) of diamond-like carbon film increased over five times in relation to the 4H13 stainless steel without of DLC coating. Oxidation kinetic parameters were determined by gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The high value of polarization resistance indicates that the DLC film on substrate was characterized by low electrical conductivity. The corrosion rate of 4H13 stainless steel with of DLC film decreased about eight times in relation to uncoated surface of 4H13 stainless steel.

  6. FIB and TEM studies of damage mechanisms in DLC coatings sliding against aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng-Burany, X.; Alpas, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    Material transfer and adhesion phenomena during sliding contact of non-hydrogenated diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings against an aluminum-silicon (319 Al) counterface tested in vacuum were studied using TEM investigations of the cross-sectional microstructures of the wear tracks. Site-specific focused ion beam (FIB) lift-out method was used to prepare the sections at the precise locations where aluminum pieces were adhered to the DLC surface. The dense amorphous structure of DLC coatings with nanocrystalline graphite platelets is confirmed by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The focused ion channeling contrast images obtained from the cross-sections of the wear track indicated that in some sections of DLC coatings considerable wear was inflicted by aluminum, reducing the coating thickness. The aluminum that was transferred on the DLC coatings' contact surfaces consisted of nanocrystalline grains of less than 100 nm. TEM examination of the contact surface of the 319 Al pin has revealed that the initial aluminum grain size was also reduced to the nanocrystalline scale and this was accompanied with a hardness increase. These observations revealed that local severe plastic deformation accompanied the aluminum adhesion process to DLC coating surfaces

  7. Biological responses of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with different structures in biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, T T; Zhang, T F; Li, S S; Deng, Q Y; Wu, B J; Zhang, Y Z; Zhou, Y J; Guo, Y B; Leng, Y X; Huang, N

    2016-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are potential candidates for artificial joint surface modification in biomedical applications, and the influence of the structural features of DLC surfaces on cell functions has attracted attention in recent decades. Here, the biocompatibility of DLC films with different structures was investigated using macrophages, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. The results showed that DLC films with a low ratio of sp(2)/sp(3), which tend to have a structure similar to that of diamond, led to less inflammatory, excellent osteogenic and fibroblastic reactions, with higher cell viability, better morphology, lower release of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IL-6 (interleukin-6), and higher release of IL-10 (interleukin-10). The results also demonstrated that the high-density diamond structure (low ratio of sp(2)/sp(3)) of DLC films is beneficial for cell adhesion and growth because of better protein adsorption without electrostatic repulsion. These findings provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying inhibition of an inflammatory response and the promotion of osteoblastogenesis and fibrous propagation, and effectively build a system for evaluating the biocompatibility of DLC films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microstructure and properties of duplex (Ti:N)-DLC/MAO coating on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei; Ke, Peiling [Ningbo Key Laboratory of Marine Protection Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Fang, Yong [Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhe Jiang University, Zhejiang 310016 (China); Zheng, He [Ningbo Key Laboratory of Marine Protection Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Key Laboratory of Marine Protection Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Ti and N co-doped diamond-like carbon ((Ti:N)-DLC) film was deposited on the MAO coated substrate using a hybrid beam deposition system, which consists of a DC magnetron sputtering of Ti target and a linear ion source (LIS) with C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} precursor gas. The microstructure and properties of the duplex (Ti:N)-DLC/MAO coating were investigated. Results indicate that the (Ti:N)-DLC top film with TiN crystalline phase was formed. Ti and N co-doping resulted in the increasing I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio. The significant improvement in the wear and corrosion resistance of duplex (Ti:N)-DLC/MAO coating was mainly attributed to the increased binding strength, lubrication characteristics and chemical inertness of (Ti:N)-DLC top film. The superior low-friction and anti-corrosion properties of duplex (Ti:N)-DLC/MAO coating make it a good candidate as protective coating on magnesium alloy.

  9. Mechanical properties of fluorinated DLC and Si interlayer on a Ti biomedical alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Chau-Chang; Wu, Yi-Yang; Lee, Jyh-Wei; Huang, Jen-Ching; Yeh, Chi-Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Fluorinated amorphous diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf PECVD) technique using a mixture of methane (CH 4 ) and tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ) gasses. A 100 nm Si interlayer was coated in advance by physical vapor deposition (PVD) process to improve the adhesion between F-DLC and Ti alloy. The structure and surface properties of F-DLC coatings, prepared by various fluorine flow ratios, were investigated by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were evaluated by nano-indentation, and the adhesion, by micro-scratch. The results showed that a moderate incorporation of the fluorine content in the DLC films can still maintain acceptable mechanical properties, which, on the other hand, obtains remarkable benefits of blood compatibility and anti-corrosion. - Highlights: ► F-DLC’s sp2 carbon cluster increases with the precursors’ CF 4 /CH 4 ratio. ► F-DLC’s reduced elastic modulus and hardness decrease with the CF 4 /CH 4 ratio. ► F-DLC film’s adhesion strength degrades as the CF 4 /CH 4 ratio elevated. ► An F-DLC deposited Ti6Al4V produced by a smaller CF 4 /CH 4 ratio, 1-3, is suggested

  10. Light management in large area thin-film silicon solar modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Losio, P.A.; Caglar, O.; Cashmore, J.S.; Hötzel, J.E.; Ristau, S.; Holovský, Jakub; Remeš, Zdeněk; Sinicco, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, Dec (2015), s. 375-385 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : micromorph * thin-film silicon solar cells * light management * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.732, year: 2015

  11. A display module implemented by the fast high-temperatue response of carbon nanotube thin yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yang; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan

    2012-05-09

    Suspending superaligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films were processed into CNT thin yarns, about 1 μm in diameter, by laser cutting and an ethanol atomization bath treatment. The fast high-temperature response under a vacuum was revealed by monitoring the incandescent light with a photo diode. The thin yarns can be electrically heated up to 2170 K in 0.79 mS, and the succeeding cool-down time is 0.36 mS. The fast response is attributed to the ultrasmall mass of the independent single yarn, large radiation coefficient, and improved thermal conductance through the two cool ends. The millisecond response time makes it possible to use the visible hot thin yarns as light-emitting elements of an incandescent display. A fully sealed display with 16 × 16 matrix was successfully fabricated using screen-printed thick electrodes and CNT thin yarns. It can display rolling characters with a low power consumption. More applications can be further developed based on the addressable CNT thermal arrays.

  12. Optical properties of diamond like carbon nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Shahbaz; Mukherjee, Nillohit; Ahmed, Sk. Faruque

    2018-05-01

    The optical properties of silicon incorporated diamond like carbon (Si-DLC) nanocomposite thin films have been reported. The Si-DLC nanocomposite thin film deposited on glass and silicon substrate by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) process. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of different bonding within the deposited films and deconvolution of FTIR spectra gives the chemical composition i.e., sp3/sp2 ratio in the films. Optical band gap calculated from transmittance spectra increased from 0.98 to 2.21 eV with a variation of silicon concentration from 0 to 15.4 at. %. Due to change in electronic structure by Si incorporation, the Si-DLC film showed a broad photoluminescence (PL) peak centered at 467 nm, i.e., in the visible range and its intensity was found to increase monotonically with at. % of Si.

  13. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh; Mahboubi, Farzad; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of pulsed DC PACVD deposition temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear rate and durability of DLC films was studied. • Results show that wear rate of the DLC films, reduced from 14×E-4 mm3/Nm to 1×E-6 mm3/Nm with increasing the duty cycle from 50% to 80%. • In low duty cycle (around 50%), wear rate increases with increasing in Argon/CH4 flow ratio. • Oxidation, fatigue, abrasion and graphitization are main wear mechanisms in the DLC film. - Abstract: The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH_4 flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH_4 ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH_4 flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  14. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 1875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahboubi, Farzad, E-mail: mahboubi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 1875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza [Research Laboratory of Green Organic Synthesis and Polymers, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16846, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Effect of pulsed DC PACVD deposition temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear rate and durability of DLC films was studied. • Results show that wear rate of the DLC films, reduced from 14×E-4 mm3/Nm to 1×E-6 mm3/Nm with increasing the duty cycle from 50% to 80%. • In low duty cycle (around 50%), wear rate increases with increasing in Argon/CH4 flow ratio. • Oxidation, fatigue, abrasion and graphitization are main wear mechanisms in the DLC film. - Abstract: The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH{sub 4} flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH{sub 4} ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH{sub 4} flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  15. Isotonic force modulates force redevelopment rate of intact frog muscle fibres: evidence for cross-bridge induced thin filament activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, Rene; Hannon, James D; Sieck, Gary C

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that force-velocity history modulates thin filament activation, as assessed by the rate of force redevelopment after shortening (+dF/dtR). The influence of isotonic force on +dF/dtR was assessed by imposing uniform amplitude (2.55 to 2.15 μm sarcomere−1) but different speed releases to intact frog muscle fibres during fused tetani. Each release consisted of a contiguous ramp- and step-change in length. Ramp speed was changed from release to release to vary fibre shortening speed from 1.00 (2.76 ± 0.11 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1) to 0.30 of maximum unloaded shortening velocity (Vu), thereby modulating isotonic force from 0 to 0.34 Fo, respectively. The step zeroed force and allowed the fibre to shorten unloaded for a brief period of time prior to force redevelopment. Although peak force redevelopment after different releases was similar, +dF/dtR increased by 81 ± 6% (P < 0.05) as fibre shortening speed was reduced from 1.00 Vu. The +dF/dtR after different releases was strongly correlated with the preceding isotonic force (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Results from additional experiments showed that the slope of slack test plots produced by systematically increasing the step size that followed each ramp were similar. Thus, isotonic force did not influence Vu (mean: 2.84 ± 0.10 μm half-sarcomere−1 s−1, P < 0.05). We conclude that isotonic force modulates +dF/dtR independent of change in Vu, an outcome consistent with a cooperative influence of attached cross-bridges on thin filament activation that increases cross-bridge attachment rate without alteration to cross-bridge detachment rate. PMID:12205189

  16. DLC nano-dot surfaces for tribological applications in MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R. Arvind; Na, Kyounghwan; Yi, Jin Woo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Yoon, Eui-Sung

    2011-01-01

    With the invention of miniaturized devices like micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), tribological studies at micro/nano-scale have gained importance. These studies are directed towards understanding the interactions between surfaces at micro/nano-scales, under relative motion. In MEMS devices, the critical forces, namely adhesion and friction restrict the smooth operation of the elements that are in relative motion. These miniaturized devices are traditionally made from silicon (Si), whose tribological properties are not good. In this paper, we present a short investigation of nano- and micro-tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) nano-dot surfaces. The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential of these surfaces for their possible application to the miniaturized devices. The tribological evaluation of the DLC nano-dot surfaces was done in comparison with bare Si (1 0 0) surfaces and DLC coated silicon surfaces. A commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure adhesion and friction properties of the test materials at the nano-scale, whereas a custom-built micro-tribotester was used to measure their micro-friction property. Results showed that the DLC nano-dot surfaces exhibited superior tribological properties with the lowest values of adhesion force, and friction force both at the nano- and micro-scales, when compared to the bare Si (1 0 0) surfaces and DLC coated silicon surfaces. In addition, the DLC nano-dot surfaces showed no observable wear at the micro-scale, unlike the other two test materials. The superior tribological performance of the DLC nano-dot surfaces is attributed to their hydrophobic nature and the reduced area of contact projected by them.

  17. DLC nano-dot surfaces for tribological applications in MEMS devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R. Arvind; Na, Kyounghwan [Nano-Bio Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jin Woo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol [Computational Science Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eui-Sung, E-mail: esyoon@kist.re.kr [Nano-Bio Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-01

    With the invention of miniaturized devices like micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), tribological studies at micro/nano-scale have gained importance. These studies are directed towards understanding the interactions between surfaces at micro/nano-scales, under relative motion. In MEMS devices, the critical forces, namely adhesion and friction restrict the smooth operation of the elements that are in relative motion. These miniaturized devices are traditionally made from silicon (Si), whose tribological properties are not good. In this paper, we present a short investigation of nano- and micro-tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) nano-dot surfaces. The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential of these surfaces for their possible application to the miniaturized devices. The tribological evaluation of the DLC nano-dot surfaces was done in comparison with bare Si (1 0 0) surfaces and DLC coated silicon surfaces. A commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure adhesion and friction properties of the test materials at the nano-scale, whereas a custom-built micro-tribotester was used to measure their micro-friction property. Results showed that the DLC nano-dot surfaces exhibited superior tribological properties with the lowest values of adhesion force, and friction force both at the nano- and micro-scales, when compared to the bare Si (1 0 0) surfaces and DLC coated silicon surfaces. In addition, the DLC nano-dot surfaces showed no observable wear at the micro-scale, unlike the other two test materials. The superior tribological performance of the DLC nano-dot surfaces is attributed to their hydrophobic nature and the reduced area of contact projected by them.

  18. Neutron-reflectometry study of alcohol adsorption on various DLC coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalin, M., E-mail: mitjan.kalin@tint.fs.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, Bogišićeva 8, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simič, R. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, Bogišićeva 8, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hirayama, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Miyakodani, Tatara, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Geue, T.; Korelis, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen – PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are notable for their excellent tribological properties. Our understanding of the lubrication of DLC coatings has improved drastically over the past decade. However, only a few details are known about the properties of the adsorbed layers on DLC, which crucially affect their tribological properties under lubricated conditions. In this work we used neutron reflectometry to determine the thickness and the density of adsorbed layers of alcohol molecules on several different types of DLC coatings, i.e., non-hydrogenated (a-C) and hydrogenated, of which both non-doped (a-C:H) and doped (a-C:H:F and a-C:H:Si) coatings were used. The results showed that a 0.9-nm-thick and relatively dense (≈45%) layer of alcohol adsorbed on the a-C coating. In contrast, no adsorption layer was found on the a-C:H, confirming the important role of hydrogen, which predominantly acts as a dangling-bond passivation source and affects the reactivity and tribochemistry of DLC coatings. The incorporation of F into a DLC coating also did not cause an increase in the adsorption ability with respect to alcohol molecules. On the contrary, the incorporation of Si increased the reactivity of the DLC coating so that a 1.3-nm-thick alcohol layer with a 35% bulk density was detected on the surface. We also discuss the very good agreement of the current results with the surface energy of selected coatings found in these experiments.

  19. Macrophages adhesion rate on Ti-6Al-4V substrates: polishing and DLC coating effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Diniz dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Various works have shown that diamond-like carbon (DLC coatings are able to improve the cells adhesion on prosthesis material and also cause protection against the physical wear. On the other hand there are reports about the effect of substrate polishing, in evidence of that roughness can enhance cell adhesion. In order to compare and quantify the joint effects of both factors, i.e, polishing and DLC coating, a commonly prosthesis material, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, was used as raw material for substrates in our studies of macrophage cell adhesion rate on rough and polished samples, coated and uncoated with DLC. Methods The films were produced by PECVD technique on Ti-6Al-4V substrates and characterized by optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The amount of cells was measured by particle analysis in IMAGE J software. Cytotoxicity tests were also carried out to infer the biocompatibility of the samples. Results The results showed that higher the surface roughness of the alloy, higher are the cells fixing on the samples surface, moreover group of samples with DLC favored the cell adhesion more than their respective uncoated groups. The cytotoxity tests confirmed that all samples were biocompatible independently of being polished or coated with DLC. Conclusion From the observed results, it was found that the rougher substrate coated with DLC showed a higher cell adhesion than the polished samples, either coated or uncoated with the film. It is concluded that the roughness of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy and the DLC coating act complementary to enhance cell adhesion.

  20. Dlc1 interaction with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9 and Rac1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad G. Sabbir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Deleted in liver cancer 1 (Dlc1 gene codes for a Rho GTPase-activating protein that also acts as a tumour suppressor gene. Several studies have consistently found that overexpression leads to excessive cell elongation, cytoskeleton changes and subsequent cell death. However, none of these studies have been able to satisfactorily explain the Dlc1-induced cell morphological phenotypes and the function of the different Dlc1 isoforms. Therefore, we have studied the interacting proteins associated with the three major Dlc1 transcriptional isoforms using a mass spectrometric approach in Dlc1 overexpressing cells. We have found and validated novel interacting partners in constitutive Dlc1-expressing cells. Our study has shown that Dlc1 interacts with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9, plectin and spectrin proteins in different multiprotein complexes. Overexpression of Dlc1 led to increased phosphorylation of Myh9 protein and activation of Rac1 GTPase. These data support a role for Dlc1 in induced cell elongation morphology and provide some molecular targets for further analysis of this phenotype.

  1. In vitro and in vivo investigations into the biocompatibility of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M; Myer, B; Rushton, N

    2001-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) shows great promise as a durable, wear- and corrosion-resistant coating for biomedical implants. The effects of DLC coatings on the musculoskeletal system have not been investigated in detail. In this study, DLC coatings were deposited on polystyrene 24-well tissue culture plates by fast-atom bombardment from a hexane precursor. Two osteoblast-like cell lines were cultured on uncoated and DLC-coated plates for periods of up to 72 h. The effects of DLC coatings on cellular metabolism were investigated by measuring the production of three osteoblast-specific marker proteins: alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen. There was no evidence that the presence of the DLC coating had any adverse effect on any of the parameters measured in this study. In a second series of experiments, DLC-coated cobalt-chromium cylinders were implanted in intramuscular locations in rats and in transcortical sites in sheep. Histologic analysis of specimens retrieved 90 days after surgery showed that the DLC-coated specimens were well tolerated in both sites. These data indicate that DLC coatings are biocompatible in vitro and in vivo, and further investigations into their long-term biological and tribological performance are now warranted. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Influence of silver incorporation on the structural and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Carey, J David; Tripathi, R K; Malik, Hitendra K; Dalai, M K

    2013-04-10

    A simple approach is proposed for obtaining low threshold field electron emission from large area diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films by sandwiching either Ag dots or a thin Ag layer between DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC films. The introduction of silver and nitrogen is found to reduce the threshold field for emission to under 6 V/μm representing a near 46% reduction when compared with unmodified films. The reduction in the threshold field is correlated with the morphology, microstructure, interface, and bonding environment of the films. We find modifications to the structure of the DLC films through promotion of metal-induced sp2 bonding and the introduction of surface asperities, which significantly reduce the value of the threshold field. This can lead to the next-generation, large-area simple and inexpensive field emission devices.

  3. Plasmonic modulator based on thin metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide with gain core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We focus on plasmonic modulators with a gain core to be implemented as active nanodevices in photonic integrated circuits. In particular, we analyze metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) waveguides with InGaAsP-based active material layers. A MSM waveguide enables high field localization and therefore...

  4. Very Thin Flexible Coupled Inductors for PV Module Integrated GaN Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acanski, Milos; Ouyang, Ziwei; Popovic-Gerber, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    converter integrated directly into a low cost flexible PV module. Additional problems arise in this case, specifically in magnetics design, due to the requirements for very low profile flexible construction and limited thermal headroom. Overcoming these limitations presents a challenge, but can lead...... to a cost effective, reliable solution for PV systems with improved integration level and power density....

  5. Field-modulation spectroscopy of pentacene thin films using field-effect devices: Reconsideration of the excitonic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Simon; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2010-10-01

    We report pure electric-field effects on the excitonic absorbance of pentacene thin films as measured by unipolar field-effect devices that allowed us to separate the charge accumulation effects. The field-modulated spectra between 1.8 and 2.6 eV can be well fitted with the first derivative curve of Frenkel exciton absorption and its vibronic progression, and at higher energy a field-induced feature appears at around 2.95 eV. The results are in sharp contrast to the electroabsorption spectra reported by Sebastian in previous studies [Chem. Phys. 61, 125 (1981)10.1016/0301-0104(81)85055-0], and leads us to reconsider the excitonic structure including the location of charge-transfer excitons. Nonlinear π -electronic response is discussed based on second-order electro-optic (Kerr) spectra.

  6. The effect of fluoroalkylsilanes on tribological properties and wettability of Si-DLC coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrzycka, E.; Prowizor, M.; Piwoński, I.; Kisielewska, A.; Batory, D.; Jędrzejczak, A.; Dudek, M.; Kozłowski, W.; Cichomski, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon-containing diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) coatings were prepared on silicon wafers by Radio Frequency Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF-PECVD) method using methane/hexamethyl-disiloxane atmosphere. Herein, we report that Si-DLC coatings can be effectively modified by fluoroalkylsilanes which results in significant enhancement of frictional and wettability properties. Two types of fluoroalkylsilanes differing in the length of fluorocarbon chains were deposited on Si-DLC coatings with the use of Vapor Phase Deposition (VPD) method. The chemical composition of Si-DLC coatings and effectiveness of modification with fluoroalkylsilanes were confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Frictional properties in microscale were investigated with the use of ball-on-flat apparatus operating at millinewton (mN) load range. It was found that the presence of silicon enhances the chemisorption of fluoroalkylsilanes on Si-DLC coatings by creating adsorption anchoring centers. In consequence, a decrease of adhesion and an increase of hydrophobicity along with a decrease of coefficient of friction were observed. Experimental results indicate, that tribological properties are correlated with dispersive and acid-base components of the surface free energy as well as with the work of adhesion.

  7. DLC coating on stainless steel by pulsed methane discharge in repetitive plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.; Qayyum, A.; Ahmad, S.; Mahmood, S.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H)/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been achieved on AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) substrates by employing energetic ions emitted from a repetitive plasma focus operated in CH 4 discharge. The Raman spectroscopy of the coatings exhibits the evolution of a-C:H/DLC coatings with clearly observed D and G peaks centered about 1320–1360 and 1560–1620 cm −1 respectively. The diamond character of the coatings is influenced by the ion flux and repetition rate of the focus device. The repetitive discharge mode of plasma focus has led to the formation of a-C:H/DLC coatings in short duration of time. The coatings transform from a-C to a-C:H depending upon substrate angular position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of DLC coating owing to stress-induced restructuring in SS. The estimated crystallite size is found to be ∼40–50 nm. Field emission scanning electron micrographs exhibit a layered granular surface morphology of the coatings. The Vickers surface hardness of the DLC coated SS samples has been significantly improved.

  8. DLC coating on stainless steel by pulsed methane discharge in repetitive plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M., E-mail: hassanjh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, BLK7, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Qayyum, A.; Ahmad, S. [National Tokamak Fusion Program, 3329 Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, S. [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, BLK7, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi (Pakistan); Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Lee, P.; Rawat, R.S. [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, BLK7, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2014-06-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H)/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been achieved on AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) substrates by employing energetic ions emitted from a repetitive plasma focus operated in CH{sub 4} discharge. The Raman spectroscopy of the coatings exhibits the evolution of a-C:H/DLC coatings with clearly observed D and G peaks centered about 1320–1360 and 1560–1620 cm{sup −1} respectively. The diamond character of the coatings is influenced by the ion flux and repetition rate of the focus device. The repetitive discharge mode of plasma focus has led to the formation of a-C:H/DLC coatings in short duration of time. The coatings transform from a-C to a-C:H depending upon substrate angular position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of DLC coating owing to stress-induced restructuring in SS. The estimated crystallite size is found to be ∼40–50 nm. Field emission scanning electron micrographs exhibit a layered granular surface morphology of the coatings. The Vickers surface hardness of the DLC coated SS samples has been significantly improved.

  9. Deposition of DLC Film on Stainless Steel Substrates Coated by Nickel Using PECVD Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Zahra; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Vaghri, Elnaz; Saghaleini, Amir; Diudea, Mircea V

    2012-06-01

    Research on diamond-like carbon (DLC) films has been devoted to find both optimized conditions and characteristics of the deposited films on various substrates. In the present work, we investigate the quality of the DLC films grown on stainless steel substrates using different thickness of the nickel nanoparticle layers on the surface. Nickel nanoparticles were sputtered on the stainless steel substrates at 200 °C by a DC-sputtering system to make a good adherence between DLC coating and steel substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize the surface roughness and distribution function of the nickel nanoparticles on the substrate surface. Diamond like carbon films were deposited on stainless steel substrates coated by nickel using pure acetylene and C2H2/H2 with 15% flow ratio by DC-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) systems. Microstructural analysis by Raman spectroscopy showed a low intensity ratio ID/IG for DLC films by increasing the Ni layer thickness on the stainless steel substrates. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) evidenced the peaks attributed to C-H bending and stretching vibration modes in the range of 1300-1700 cm-1 and 2700-3100 cm-1, respectively, in good agreement with the Raman spectroscopy and confirmed the DLC growth in all samples.

  10. Preparation of diamond like carbon thin film on stainless steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diamond-like carbon; buffer layer; plasma CVD; surface characterization; biomedical applications. Abstract. We report the formation of a very smooth, continuous and homogeneous diamond-like carbon DLC thin coating over a bare stainless steel surface without the need for a thin Si/Cr/Ni/Mo/W/TiN/TiC interfacial layer.

  11. Manipulating femtosecond laser interactions in bulk glass and thin-film with spatial light modulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadian, Ehsan; Ho, Stephen; Ertorer, Erden; Gherghe, Sebastian; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2017-03-01

    Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) are emerging as a power tool for laser beam shaping whereby digitally addressed phase shifts can impose computer-generated hologram patterns on incoming laser light. SLM provide several additional advantages with ultrashort-pulsed lasers in controlling the shape of both surface and internal interactions with materials. Inside transparent materials, nonlinear optical effects can confine strong absorption only to the focal volume, extend dissipation over long filament tracks, or reach below diffraction-limited spot sizes. Hence, SLM beam shaping has been widely adopted for laser material processing applications that include parallel structuring, filamentation, fiber Bragg grating formation and optical aberration correction. This paper reports on a range of SLM applications we have studied in femtosecond processing of transparent glasses and thin films. Laser phase-fronts were tailored by the SLM to compensate for spherical surface aberration, and to further address the nonlinear interactions that interplay between Kerr-lens self-focusing and plasma defocusing effects over shallow and deep focusing inside the glass. Limits of strong and weak focusing were examined around the respective formation of low-loss optical waveguides and long uniform filament tracks. Further, we have employed the SLM for beam patterning inside thin film, exploring the limits of phase noise, resolution and fringe contrast during interferometric intra-film structuring. Femtosecond laser pulses of 200 fs pulse duration and 515 nm wavelength were shaped by a phase-only LCOS-SLM (Hamamatsu X10468-04). By imposing radial phase profiles, axicon, grating and beam splitting gratings, volume shape control of filament diameter, length, and uniformity as well as simultaneous formation of multiple filaments has been demonstrated. Similarly, competing effects of spherical surface aberration, self-focusing, and plasma de-focusing were studied and delineated to enable formation

  12. Characterisation of novel thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, J.-C.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Savic, N.; Taibah, R.

    2018-01-01

    In view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) to start operation around 2026, a major upgrade of the tracker system for the ATLAS experiment is in preparation. The expected neutron equivalent fluence of up to 2.4×1016 1 MeV neq./cm2 at the innermost layer of the pixel detector poses the most severe challenge. Thanks to their low material budget and high charge collection efficiency after irradiation, modules made of thin planar pixel sensors are promising candidates to instrument these layers. To optimise the sensor layout for the decreased pixel cell size of 50×50 μm2, TCAD device simulations are being performed to investigate the charge collection efficiency before and after irradiation. In addition, sensors of 100-150 μm thickness, interconnected to FE-I4 read-out chips featuring the previous generation pixel cell size of 50×250 μm2, are characterised with testbeams at the CERN-SPS and DESY facilities. The performance of sensors with various designs, irradiated up to a fluence of 1×1016 neq./cm2, is compared in terms of charge collection and hit efficiency. A replacement of the two innermost pixel layers is foreseen during the lifetime of HL-LHC . The replacement will require several months of intervention, during which the remaining detector modules cannot be cooled. They are kept at room temperature, thus inducing an annealing. The performance of irradiated modules will be investigated with testbeam campaigns and the method of accelerated annealing at higher temperatures.

  13. Impact of laser power density on tribological properties of Pulsed Laser Deposited DLC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, S.; Kumar, N.; Krishnan, R.; AmirthaPandian, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sridharan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fabrication of wear resistant and low friction carbon films on the engineered substrates is considered as a challenging task for expanding the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. In this paper, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used to deposit DLC films on two different types of technologically important class of substrates such as silicon and AISI 304 stainless steel. Laser power density is one of the important parameter used to tailor the fraction of sp2 bonded amorphous carbon (a-C) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) made by sp3 domain in the DLC film. The I(D)/I(G) ratio decreases with the increasing laser power density which is associated with decrease in fraction of a-C/ta-C ratio. The fraction of these chemical components is quantitatively analyzed by EELS which is well supported to the data obtained from the Raman spectroscopy. Tribological properties of the DLC are associated with chemical structure of the film. However, the super low value of friction coefficient 0.003 is obtained when the film is predominantly constituted by a-C and sp2 fraction which is embedded within the clusters of ta-C. Such a particular film with super low friction coefficient is measured while it was deposited on steel at low laser power density of 2 GW/cm2. The super low friction mechanism is explained by low sliding resistance of a-C/sp2 and ta-C clusters. Combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties of wear resistance and super low friction coefficient of DLC films is desirable for engineering applications. Moreover, the high friction coefficient of DLC films deposited at 9GW/cm2 is related to widening of the intergrain distance caused by transformation from sp2 to sp3 hybridized structure.

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ti-doped DLC films by a hybrid PVD/PECVD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeong Ju; Zhang, Teng Fei; Son, Myoung Jun; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2018-03-01

    Low electrical conductivity and poor adhesion to metallic substrates are the main drawbacks of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films when used in electrode applications. In this study, Ti-doped DLC films with various Ti contents were synthesized on metal Ti substrates by a hybrid PVD/PECVD process, where PECVD was used for deposition of DLC films and PVD was used for Ti doping. The effects of the Ti doping ratio on the microstructure, adhesion strength, and electrical and electrochemical properties of the DLC films were systematically investigated. An increase in the Ti content led to increased surface roughness and a higher sp2/sp3 ratio of the Ti-DLC films. Ti atoms existed as amorphous-phase Ti carbide when the Ti doping ratio was less than 2.8 at.%, while the nanocrystalline TiC phase was formed in DLC films when the Ti doping ratio was exceeded 4.0 at.%. The adhesion strength, electrical resistivity, electrochemical activity and reversibility of the DLC films were greatly improved by Ti doping. The influence of Ti doping ratio on the electrical and electrochemical properties of the DLC films were also investigated and the best performance was obtained at a Ti content of 2.8 at.%.

  15. Optical characterization of hydrogen-free CeO2 doped DLC films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenyu; Zhou Hongxiu; Guo Dongming; Gao Hang; Kang Renke

    2008-01-01

    A novel kind of hydrogen-free CeO 2 doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with thickness of 180-200 nm were deposited on silicon by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Reduced reflectance and increased lifetime are expected with respect to pure DLC films, making these coatings good candidates as optical protective coatings for IR windows and solar cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that CeO 2 is formed within the DLC films. Auger electron spectroscopy exhibits that the C, O, and Ce elements distribute uniformly across the film thickness, and C element diffuses into the Si substrate at the interface between the substrate and film. AFM shows that nanoparticles with diameter of around 50 nm are formed on the surface of deposited films, whose surface roughness is in the range of 1.3-2.3 nm. Raman spectra show the CeO 2 doped DLC films are amorphous DLC films, and both the G frequency and relative intensity ratio I D /I G are higher than those of pure DLC films. The photoluminescence of CeO 2 doped DLC films is obviously more intense than that of a pure DLC film, which indicates a promising potential as optical protective films for solar cells and IR window

  16. Investigation of corrosion behavior of nitrogen doped and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon thin films in Hank's solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2011-01-01

    Undoped (DLC), nitrogen-doped (N-DLC) and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon (PtRu-DLC) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system. The chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch test, respectively. The corrosion behavior of the films in a Hank's solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test. The corrosion results revealed that the PtRu-DLC film had the highest corrosion potential among the films used in this study. Highlights: → DLC thin films were deposited on Si substrates via dc magnetron sputtering. → Some DLC films were doped with N and/or Pt/Ru. → The film corrosion behavior was studied in a Hank solution with polarization test. → The PtRu-DLC film showed the highest corrosion potential among the films studied.

  17. Investigation of corrosion behavior of nitrogen doped and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon thin films in Hank's solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E., E-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.sg

    2011-10-10

    Undoped (DLC), nitrogen-doped (N-DLC) and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon (PtRu-DLC) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system. The chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch test, respectively. The corrosion behavior of the films in a Hank's solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test. The corrosion results revealed that the PtRu-DLC film had the highest corrosion potential among the films used in this study. Highlights: {yields} DLC thin films were deposited on Si substrates via dc magnetron sputtering. {yields} Some DLC films were doped with N and/or Pt/Ru. {yields} The film corrosion behavior was studied in a Hank solution with polarization test. {yields} The PtRu-DLC film showed the highest corrosion potential among the films studied.

  18. Endothermic decompositions of inorganic monocrystalline thin plates. II. Displacement rate modulation of the reaction front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Comperat, M.; Lallemant, M.

    1980-09-01

    Copper sulfate pentahydrate dehydration into trihydrate was investigated using monocrystalline platelets with (110) crystallographic orientation. Temperature and pressure conditions were selected so as to obtain elliptical trihydrate domains. The study deals with the evolution, vs time, of elliptical domain dimensions and the evolution, vs water vapor pressure, of the {D}/{d} ratio of ellipse axes and on the other hand of the interface displacement rate along a given direction. The phenomena observed are not basically different from those yielded by the overall kinetic study of the solid sample. Their magnitude, however, is modulated depending on displacement direction. The results are analyzed within the scope of our study of endothermic decomposition of solids.

  19. Solar cells based upon multicrystalline Si with DLC antireflection and passivating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyui, N.; Litovchenko, V.; Neselevska, L.; Kostylyov, V.; Sarikov, A.; Taraschenko, N.; Kittler, M.; Seifert, W.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of multicrystalline Si solar cells covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC) antireflection coatings been experimentally studied. It has been shown that this kind of coating provides a significant increase of the efficiency of solar cells mainly due to the increase of the short-circuit current density. The effects of antireflection and of the surface and bulk passivation on the SC current-voltage characteristics due to the DLC deposition have been investigated theoretically. Physical mechanisms underlying the observed effects have been proposed

  20. The characterisation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond - like carbon (DLC for endoprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gałuszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of DLC coating of a - C:H type obtained by using a technique of physical vapor deposition (PVD on the surface of CoCrMo alloy, commonly used for the elements of the endoprosthesis. The surface has been observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Analysis of the chemical composition and distribution of the different elements were performed using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry analysis (GDOES. It has been shown that the DLC elements are characterized by high hardness and good adhesion to the substrate.

  1. Properties of DLC coatings deposited by dc and dc with superimposed pulsed vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaleyev, V.; Walkowicz, J.; Aksyonov, D.S.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Reshetnyak, E.N.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of DLC coatings deposited in DC and DC with superimposed high current pulse modes of operation vacuum-arc plasma source with the graphite cathode are presented. Imposition the pulses of high current on DC vacuum-arc discharge allows both increase the deposition rate of DLC coating and reduce the residual compressive stress in the coatings what promotes substantial improvement the adhesion to the substrate. Effect of vacuum arc plasma filtration with Venetian blind filter on the deposition rate and tribological characteristics of the coatings analyzed.

  2. Research of electrosurgical unit with novel antiadhesion composite thin film for tumor ablation: Microstructural characteristics, thermal conduction properties, and biological behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yun-Dun; Lin, Li-Hsiang; Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Ou, Keng-Liang; Cheng, Han-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use surface functionalization to evaluate the antiadhesion property and thermal injury effects on the liver when using a novel electrosurgical unit with nanostructured-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC-Cu) thin films for tumor ablations. The physical and chemical properties of DLC-Cu thin films were characterized by contact angle goniometer, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. Three-dimensional (3D) hepatic models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance imaging to simulate a clinical electrosurgical operation. The results indicated a significant increase of the contact angle on the nanostructured DLC-Cu thin films, and the antiadhesion properties were also observed in an animal model. Furthermore, the surgical temperature in the DLC-Cu electrosurgical unit was found to be significantly lower than the untreated unit when analyzed using 3D models and thermal images. In addition, DLC-Cu electrodes caused a relatively small injury area and lateral thermal effect. The results indicated that the nanostructured DLC-Cu thin film coating reduced excessive thermal injury and tissue adherence effect in the liver. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of thin film poly-crystalline solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a high throughput forming technology and a modularization technology for thin film poly-crystalline solar cell modules. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the high throughput forming technology for a high-quality thin film, research has been made on a low-cost VEST process to re-utilize substrates by separating the thin film from the substrate. In the melting re-crystallization process, it was discovered that plasticity deformation of the substrate can be reduced greatly by raising the substrate heating temperatures. It was also found out that substrate warping amount can be reduced to about one-fifth of the conventional amount by making the thickness greater than 1.5 mm and raising the heating temperatures higher than 1300 degree C. In developing the thin film modularization technology, it was indicated that the property improving effect remains the same even if the hydrogen passivation method is changed from the hydrogen ion injection to the hydrogen plasma processing. In the trial fabrication of the thin film modules, a conversion efficiency of 13.1% was achieved in nine-cell structured modules. (NEDO)

  4. Preparation of multilayered nanocrystalline thin films with composition-modulated interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, D.; Barna, P.B.; Szekely, L.; Geszti, O.; Hattori, T.; Devenyi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of multilayer thin film structures depend on the morphology and structure of interfaces. A broad interface, in which the composition is varying, can enhance, e.g., the hardness of multilayer thin films. In the present experiments multilayers of TiAlN and CrN as well as TiAlN, CrN and MoS 2 were studied by using unbalanced magnetron sputter sources. The sputter sources were arranged side by side on an arc. This arrangement permits development of a transition zone between the layers, where the composition changes continuously. The multilayer system was deposited by one-fold oscillating movement of substrates in front of sputter sources. Thicknesses of layers could be changed both by oscillation frequency and by the power applied to sputter sources. Ti/Al: 50/50 at%, pure chromium and MoS 2 targets were used in the sputter sources. The depositions were performed in an Ar-N 2 mixture at 0.22 Pa working pressure. The sputtering power of the TiAl source was feed-back adjusted in fuzzy-logic mode in order to avoid fluctuation of the TiAl target sputter rate due to poisoning of the target surface. Structure characterization of films deposited on Si wafers covered by thermally grown SiO 2 was performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. At first a 100 nm thick Cr base layer was deposited on the substrate to improve adhesion, which was followed by a CrN transition layer. The CrN transition layer was followed by a 100 nm thick TiAlN/CrN multilayer system. The TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system was deposited on the surface of this underlayer system. The underlayer systems Cr, CrN and TiAlN/CrN were crystalline with columnar structure according to the morphology of zone T of the structure zone models. The column boundaries contained segregated phases showing up in the under-focused TEM images. The surface of the underlayer system was wavy due to dome-shaped columns. The nanometer-scaled TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system followed this waviness

  5. Scalability and stability of very thin roll-to-roll processed large area indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Gevorgyan, Suren; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2013-01-01

    Polymer solar cell modules were prepared directly on thin flexible barrier polyethylene terephthalate foil. The performance of the modules was found to be scalable from a single cell with an area of 6 cm2 to modules with a total area of up to 186 cm2. The substrate thickness was also explored...... employing P3HT:PCBM as the active material and were found to exhibit a total area efficiency of >1% (1000 W/m2; AM1.5G) with a typical active-area efficiency in the 1.5–1.6% for total module area of >110 cm2 due to high fill factors in excess of 50%. The modules were also found to have an active...

  6. A DLC-Punch Array to Fabricate the Micro-Textured Aluminum Sheet for Boiling Heat Transfer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhio Aizawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A diamond-like carbon (DLC film, coated on an SKD11 (alloy tool steel substrate, was shaped by plasma oxidation to form an assembly of DLC macro-pillars and to be used as a DLC-punch array that is micro-embossed into aluminum sheets. First, the SKD11 steel die substrate was prepared and DLC-coated to have a film thickness of 10 μm. This DLC coating worked as a punch material. The two-dimensional micro-patterns were printed onto this DLC film by maskless lithography. The unprinted DLC films were selectively removed by plasma oxidation to leave the three-dimensional DLC-punch array on the SKD11 substrate. Each DLC punch had a head of 3.5 μm × 3.5 μm and a height of 8 μm. This DLC-punch array was fixed into the cassette die set for a micro-embossing process using a table-top servo-stamper. Furthermore, through numerically controlled micro-embossing, an alignment of rectangular punches was transcribed into a micro-cavity array in the aluminum sheet. The single micro-cavity had a bottom surface of 3.2 μm × 3.2 μm and an average depth of 7.5 μm. A heat-transfer experiment in boiling water was also performed to investigate the effect of micro-cavity texture on bubbling behavior and the boiling curve.

  7. Hydrogen reduction in GaAsN thin films by flow rate modulated chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Nishimura, K.; Suzuki, H.; Ohshita, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of residual H in the GaAsN film grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) can be decreased by flow rate modulation growth. Many H atoms in the films grown by CBE exist as N-H or N-H 2 structures. Although a higher growth temperature was required for decreasing the H concentration ([H]), it caused a decrease in the N concentration ([N]). A reduction in [H] while keeping [N] constant was necessary. By providing an intermittent supply of Ga source while continuously supplying As and N sources, [H] effectively decreased in comparison with the [H] value in the film grown at the same temperature by conventional CBE without reducing [N

  8. All-optical short pulse translation through cross-phase modulation in a VO₂ thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardad, Shima; Das, Susobhan; Salandrino, Alessandro; Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Wu, Judy; Hui, Rongqing

    2016-01-15

    VO2 is a promising material for reconfigurable photonic devices due to the ultrafast changes in electronic and optical properties associated with its dielectric-to-metal phase transition. Based on a fiber-optic, pump-probe setup at 1550 nm wavelength window, and by varying the pump-pulse duration, we show that the material phase transition is primarily caused by the pump-pulse energy. For the first time, we demonstrate that the instantaneous optical phase modulation of probe during pump leading edge can be utilized to create short optical pulses at probe wavelength, through optical frequency discrimination. This circumvents the impact of long recovery time well known for the phase transition of VO2.

  9. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of thin-film polycrystalline solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to realize the practical application of the above-named solar module expected to exhibit higher efficiency and reliability and achieve cost reduction through consumption of less materials. In fiscal 1998, 1) technologies were developed to reduce substrate warpage during recrystallization for the higher-throughput fabrication of high-quality thin films and 2) technologies were also developed for the realization of higher-throughput fabrication of thin films and for efficiency improvement for thin-film modules. Under item 1), experiments were conducted by simulation for reducing warpage to occur in thin-film polycrystalline Si substrates during fabrication by melting and recrystallization. Under item 2), for the development of thin-film cell high-throughput technologies, studies were started on a more practical hydrogen plasma process to challenge the conventional process of crystal defect inactivation by hydrogen ion injection with which achievement of high throughputs is difficult. For the development of technologies for the enhancement of thin-film module efficiency, efforts were exerted to realize a 10cm times 10cm square shape for the enhancement of efficiency in the process of filling modules with cells. These efforts achieved a great step toward future practical application. (NEDO)

  10. Comparison of efficiency degradation in polycrystalline-Si and CdTe thin-film PV modules via accelerated lifecycle testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, T.; Potter, B. G.; Simmons-Potter, K.

    2017-08-01

    Thin-film solar cells normally have the shortest energy payback time due to their simpler mass-production process compared to polycrystalline-Si photovoltaic (PV) modules, despite the fact that crystalline-Si-based technology typically has a longer total lifetime and a higher initial power conversion efficiency. For both types of modules, significant aging occurs during the first two years of usage with slower long-term aging over the module lifetime. The PV lifetime and the return-on-investment for local PV system installations rely on long-term device performance. Understanding the efficiency degradation behavior under a given set of environmental conditions is, therefore, a primary goal for experimental research and economic analysis. In the present work, in-situ measurements of key electrical characteristics (J, V, Pmax, etc.) in polycrystalline-Si and CdTe thin-film PV modules have been analyzed. The modules were subjected to identical environmental conditions, representative of southern Arizona, in a full-scale, industrial-standard, environmental degradation chamber, equipped with a single-sun irradiance source, temperature, and humidity controls, and operating an accelerated lifecycle test (ALT) sequence. Initial results highlight differences in module performance with environmental conditions, including temperature de-rating effects, for the two technologies. Notably, the thin-film CdTe PV module was shown to be approximately 15% less sensitive to ambient temperature variation. After exposure to a seven-month equivalent compressed night-day weather cycling regimen the efficiency degradation rates of both PV technology types were obtained and will be discussed.

  11. Chromium-doped DLC for implants prepared by laser-magnetron deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zemek, Josef; Mikšovský, Jan; Kubinová, Šárka; Remsa, Jan; Kopeček, Jaromír; Jurek, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, Jan (2015), 381-386 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33056S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : DLC * chromium * hybrid PLD * adhesion * antibacterial properties * toxicity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.420, year: 2015

  12. Tribological behavior of DLC films deposited on nitrided and post-oxidized stainless steel by PACVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalibon, E. L.; Brühl, S. P.; Heim, D.

    2012-06-01

    In this work, the tribological behavior and adhesion of DLC films deposited by PACVD on AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel was evaluated. Prior to DLC deposition, the samples were nitrided and some of them also post-oxidized. The films were characterized by Raman and EDS, microhardness was assessed with Vickers indenter and the microstructure was analyzed by OM, SEM, FIB. Fretting and linear reciprocating sliding tests were performed using a WC ball as counterpart, and the adhesion of the DLC films was characterized using the Scratch Test and Rockwell C indentation. Corrosion behavior was evaluated by the Salt Spray Fog Test. The film showed a hardness of only about 1500 HV but it was about 15-20 microns thick. The results of the mechanical tests showed that pre-treatments (nitriding and oxidizing) of the substrate did not have a big influence in the tribological behavior of the coating. However, the nitriding treatment before the DLC coating process reduced the interface stress and enhanced the adhesion. Additionally, all the films evidenced good corrosion resistance in a saline environment, better than the AISI 420 itself.

  13. Tribological properties of Ti-doped DLC coatings under ionic liquids lubricated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xin; Xia Yanqiu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, titanium doped diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) coatings were prepared onto AISI 52100 steel substrates using medium frequency magnetic sputtering process, and were analyzed using the Raman and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Two kinds of 1,3-dialkyl imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized and evaluated as lubricants for Ti-DLC/steel contacts at room temperature, and PFPE as comparison lubricant. The tribological properties of the ILs were investigated using a ball-on-disk type UMT reciprocating friction tester. The results indicated that the ILs have excellent friction-reducing properties, the friction coefficient kept at a relatively stable value of 0.07-0.06, which was reduced approximately by 47% compared with perfluoropolyether (PFPE). The worn surfaces of Ti-DLC coatings were observed and analyzed using a MICROXAM-3D non-contact surface profiler, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ti-DLC coatings using ionic liquids lubricating systems are considered as potential lubricating system in vacuum and space moving friction pairs.

  14. Magnetron reactively sputtered Ti-DLC coatings on HNBR rubber : The influence of substrate bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, X.L.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Ti-containing diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) coatings have been deposited on HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubber and also on Si wafer as reference via unbalanced magnetroli reactive sputtering from a Ti target in C2H2/Ar plasma. The deposition rates of coatings on rubber and Si

  15. Microstructure and chemical bonding of DLC films deposited on ACM rubber by PACVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martinez, D.; Schenkel, M.; Pei, Y.T.; Sánchez-López, J.C.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and chemical bonding of DLC films prepared by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition on acrylic rubber (ACM) are studied in this paper. The temperature variation produced by the ion impingement during plasma cleaning and subsequent film deposition was used to modify the film

  16. Corrosion behavior of aluminum doped diamond-like carbon thin films in NaCl aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2010-07-01

    Aluminum doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:Al) thin films were deposited on n-Si(100) substrates by co-sputtering a graphite target under a fixed DC power (650 W) and an aluminum target under varying DC power (10-90 W) at room temperature. The structure, adhesion strength and surface morphology of the DLC:Al films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-scratch testing and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The corrosion performance of the DLC:Al films was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization testing in a 0.6 M NaCl aqueous solution. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DLC:Al films increased from about 18 to 30.7 k(omega) though the corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values with increased Al content in the films.

  17. Electrochemical studies and growth of apatite on molybdenum doped DLC coatings on titanium alloy β-21S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandan, C.; Mohan, L.; Babu, P. Dilli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Titanium alloy β21S was coated with Mo doped DLC. • XRD, XPS and micro Raman show that Mo is present in the form of carbide. • Mo doping facilitates apatite growth on DLC during immersion in Hanks’ solution. • Mo doped DLC sample shows better passivation behavior in Hanks’ solution. - Abstract: Titanium alloy β-21S (Ti–15Mo–3Nb–3Al–0.2Si) was coated with molybdenum doped DLC by Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and sputtering. XRD, XPS and Raman spectroscopy show that Mo is present in the form of carbide in the coating. XPS of samples immersed in Hanks’ solution shows presence of calcium, phosphorous and oxygen in hydroxide/phosphate form on the substrate and Mo-doped DLC. Potentiodynamic polarization studies show that the corrosion resistance and passivation behavior of Mo-doped DLC is better than that of substrate. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies show that Mo-doped DLC samples behave like an ideal capacitor in Hanks’ solution

  18. Electrochemical studies and growth of apatite on molybdenum doped DLC coatings on titanium alloy β-21S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandan, C., E-mail: canandan@nal.res.in; Mohan, L.; Babu, P. Dilli

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Titanium alloy β21S was coated with Mo doped DLC. • XRD, XPS and micro Raman show that Mo is present in the form of carbide. • Mo doping facilitates apatite growth on DLC during immersion in Hanks’ solution. • Mo doped DLC sample shows better passivation behavior in Hanks’ solution. - Abstract: Titanium alloy β-21S (Ti–15Mo–3Nb–3Al–0.2Si) was coated with molybdenum doped DLC by Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and sputtering. XRD, XPS and Raman spectroscopy show that Mo is present in the form of carbide in the coating. XPS of samples immersed in Hanks’ solution shows presence of calcium, phosphorous and oxygen in hydroxide/phosphate form on the substrate and Mo-doped DLC. Potentiodynamic polarization studies show that the corrosion resistance and passivation behavior of Mo-doped DLC is better than that of substrate. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies show that Mo-doped DLC samples behave like an ideal capacitor in Hanks’ solution.

  19. Thin concentrator photovoltaic module with micro-solar cells which are mounted by self-align method using surface tension of melted solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Terauchi, Masaharu; Aya, Youichirou; Kanayama, Shutetsu; Nishitani, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Takase, Michihiko

    2017-09-01

    We are developing a thin and lightweight CPV module using small size lens system made from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a short focal length and micro-solar cells to decrease the transporting and the installing costs of CPV systems. In order to achieve high conversion efficiency in CPV modules using micro-solar cells, the micro-solar cells need to be mounted accurately to the irradiated region of the concentrated sunlight. In this study, we have successfully developed self-align method thanks to the surface tension of the melted solder even utilizing commercially available surface-mounting technology (SMT). Solar cells were self-aligned to the specified positions of the circuit board by this self-align method with accuracy within ±10 µm. We actually fabricated CPV modules using this self-align method and demonstrated high conversion efficiency of our CPV module.

  20. Degradation of gas-phase trichloroethylene over thin-film TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst in multi-modules reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Bum [New and Renewable Energy Team, Environment and Energy Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Yub, E-mail: ljy02191@hanafos.com [Power Engineering Research Institute, Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc. (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyung Soo [New and Renewable Energy Team, Environment and Energy Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Chang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-30

    The present paper examined the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE) over thin-film TiO{sub 2}. A large-scale treatment of TCE was carried out using scale-up continuous flow photo-reactor in which nine reactors were arranged in parallel and series. The parallel or serial arrangement is a significant factor to determine the special arrangement of whole reactor module as well as to compact the multi-modules in a continuous flow reactor. The conversion of TCE according to the space time was nearly same for parallel and serial connection of the reactors.

  1. Reduction in static friction by deposition of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Daishiro; Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontics, a reduction in static friction between the brackets and wire is important to enable easy tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the whole surfaces of slots in stainless steel orthodontic brackets on reducing the static friction between the brackets and the wire. The DLC coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurements, and SEM observations. Rectangular stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy wires with two different sizes were employed, and the static friction between the brackets and wire was measured under dry and wet conditions. The DLC coating had a thickness of approximately 1.0 μm and an amorphous structure was identified. The results indicated that the DLC coating always led to a reduction in static friction.

  2. Effect of Coil Current on the Properties of Hydrogenated DLC Coatings Fabricated by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Xianying; Bian, Baoan; Ying, Minju; Jianwu, Liu

    2018-01-01

    We successfully prepared hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) with a thickness higher than 25 μm on stainless steel using a filtered cathode vacuum arc (FCVA) technique. The structural and mechanical properties of DLC were systematically analyzed using different methods such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness, nanohardness, and friction and wear tests. The effect of coil current on the arc voltage, ion current, and mechanical properties of resultant films was systematically investigated. The novelty of this study is the fabrication of DLC with Vickers hardness higher than 1500 HV, in the meanwhile with the thickness higher than 30 μm through varying the coil current with FCVA technique. The results indicated that the ion current, deposition rate, friction coefficient, and Vickers hardness of DLC were significantly affected by the magnetic field inside the filtered duct.

  3. Study on tribological behavior and cutting performance of CVD diamond and DLC films on Co-cemented tungsten carbide substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongcan; Shen Bin; Sun Fanghong

    2010-01-01

    The tribological behaviors of diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films play a major role on their machining and mechanical applications. In this study, diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are deposited on the cobalt cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate respectively adopting the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique and the vacuum arc discharge with a graphite cathode, and their friction properties are evaluated on a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer with counterfaces of silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) ceramic, cemented tungsten carbide (WC) and ball-bearing steel materials, under the ambient air without lubricating condition. Moreover, to evaluate their cutting performance, comparative turning tests are conducted using the uncoated WC-Co and as-fabricated CVD diamond and DLC coated inserts, with glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) composite materials as the workpiece. The as-deposited HFCVD diamond and DLC films are characterized with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry. Furthermore, Rocwell C indentation tests are conducted to evaluate the adhesion of HFCVD diamond and DLC films grown onto WC-Co substrates. SEM and 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry are also used to investigate the worn region on the surfaces of diamond and DLC films. The friction tests suggest that the obtained friction coefficient curves that of various contacts exhibit similar evolution tendency. For a given counterface, DLC films present lower stable friction coefficients than HFCVD diamond films under the same sliding conditions. The cutting tests results indicate that flank wear of the HFCVD diamond coated insert is lower than that of DLC coated insert before diamond films peeling off.

  4. Effect of ZDDP concentration on the thermal film formation on steel, hydrogenated non-doped and Si-doped DLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, S. [Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovač, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kalin, M., E-mail: mitjan.kalin@tint.fs.uni-lj.si [Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The effect of the ZDDP concentrations onto the steel, H-DLC and Si-DLC surfaces is investigated. • ZDDP film structure on the DLC coatings is different from steel. • Different concentrations of ZDDP do not affect the final chemical structure of the ZDDP film on any of the studied surfaces. • The thickness of the thermal film is linear with the concentration for a given surface. • The reactivity of the ZDDP film is higher on the steel surface than on the DLC coatings. - Abstract: This work focuses on the ZDDP concentration (1, 5 and 20 wt%) to form a ZDDP film on surfaces during static thermal tests at 150 °C. Silicon-doped and hydrogenated DLC coatings, as well as steel as reference, were studied using Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that, on the three surfaces, the structure of the ZDDP thermal film consists of identical groups of pyrophosphate and zinc oxide, while the sulphuric groups are dissimilar. On the steel surface, the sulphuric part consists of a mixture of organic sulphide and sulphohydryl groups, but on H-DLC and Si-DLC only organic sulphide groups are found; there are no sulphohydryl groups. Moreover, both ATR-FTIR and XPS show that different concentrations of ZDDP do not affect the final chemical structure of the ZDDP thermal film on any of the studied surfaces. In addition, the XPS results show that the thickness of the thermal film is linear with the concentration for the whole range from 1 to 20 wt%, supporting also its uniform chemical structure. These thicknesses further show that the reactivity of the ZDDP film is higher on the steel surface than on the DLC coatings.

  5. Antibacterial, mechanical and surface properties of Ag-DLC films prepared by dual PLD for medical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písařík, Petr; Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Mikšovský, Jan; Zemek, Josef; Jurek, Karel; Kubinová, Šárka; Lukeš, J.; Šepitka, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, Aug (2017), s. 955-962 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S; GA MŠk LO1409 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : DLC * silver doped DLC * antibacterial properties * mechanical properties * dual PLD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  6. Comparative study of dlc coatings by pvd against cvd technique on textile dents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Alam, S.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond like Carbon (DLC) film is a hard amorphous carbon hydride film formed by Physical or Chemical vapor deposition (PVD or CVD) techniques. Due to its unique properties especially high hardness, lower coefficient of friction and lubricious nature, these coatings are not only used to extend the life of cutting tools but also for non cutting applications such as for forming dies, molds and on many functional parts of textile. In the present work two techniques were employed i.e. PVD and CVD for deposition of diamond like carbon film on textile dents. These dents are used as thread guider in high speed weaving machine. The measurement of coating thickness, adhesion, hardness and roughness values indicates that overall properties of DLC coating developed by PVD LARC technology reduces abrasion and increases the workability and durability of textile dents as well as suppress the need of lubricants. (author)

  7. Influence of residual Ar+ in Ar cluster ion beam for DLC film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Teruyuki; Miyauchi, Kazuya; Toyoda, Noriaki; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tokumi; Tsubakino, Harushige; Matsuo, Jiro; Matsui, Shinji; Yamada, Isao

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the influences of residual Ar monomer ion (Ar + ) on sp 2 content and hardness of diamond like carbon (DLC) films formed by Ar cluster ion beam assisted deposition, Ar cluster ion, Ar + and their mixed ions (Ar cluster ion and Ar + ) bombardments were performed during evaporation of C 60 . From near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and Raman spectroscopy measurements, lower sp 2 content in the carbon films was obtained with Ar cluster ion bombardment than that with Ar + and mixed ion. Furthermore higher hardness and smooth surface were shown with Ar cluster ion bombardments. Therefore it was important to reduce Ar + in Ar cluster ion beams to obtain hard DLC films with flat surface

  8. The interaction between diamond like carbon (DLC coatings and ionic liquids under boundary lubrication conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Milewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse antiwear DLC coatings produced by physical vapour deposition. The a-C:H coatings were deposited on steel elements designed to operate under friction conditions. The coating structure was studied by observing the surface topography with a scanning electron microscope (SEM and a profilometer. The friction and wear properties of the coatings were examined using a ball-on-disc tribotester. The lubricants tested were two types of ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethy-lsulphonyl amide. The experimental data was used to select ionic liquids with the best tribological properties to operate under lubricated friction conditions and interact with DLC coatings.

  9. Films with discrete nano-DLC-particles as the field emission cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengqi; Bu Haijun; Wan Jianguo; Wang Guanghou; Zhou Feng; He Longbing; Han Min; Zhou Jianfeng; Wang Xiaoshu

    2008-01-01

    Films with discrete diamond-like-carbon (DLC) nanoparticles were prepared by the deposition of the carbon nanoparticle beam. Their morphologies were imaged by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanoparticles were found to be distributed on the silicon (1 0 0) substrate discretely. Hemispherical shapes of the nanoparticles were demonstrated by the AFM line profile. Electron energy loss spectra were measured and an sp 3 ratio as high as 86% was found. Field-induced electron emission of the as-prepared cascade (nanoDLC/ Si) was tested and a current density of 1 mA cm -2 was achieved at 10.2 V μm -1 . (fast track communication)

  10. Preservation of plasmonic interactions in DLC protected robust organic-plasmonic hybrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cielecki, Pawel Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been previously shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating [1]. In this work, we investigate...... the influence of such protective layers on plasmonic interactions in organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. We consider systems, consisting of 1-Cyano-quaterphenylene nanofibers on top of gold nano-square plasmonic arrays [2], coated with protective layers of varying thickness. We investigate the spectral position...... response of organic nanofibers. Subsequently, we experimentally characterize the plasmonic coupling between organic nanofibers and underlying substrates by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our findings reveal that the optimal thickness for DLC coating, in terms of mechanical protection while...

  11. Deposition of boron doped DLC films on TiNb and characterization of their mechanical properties and blood compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liza, Shahira; Hieda, Junko; Akasaka, Hiroki; Ohtake, Naoto; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Nagai, Akiko; Hanawa, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) material is used in blood contacting devices as the surface coating material because of the antithrombogenicity behavior which helps to inhibit platelet adhesion and activation. In this study, DLC films were doped with boron during pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to improve the blood compatibility. The ratio of boron to carbon (B/C) was varied from 0 to 0.4 in the film by adjusting the flow rate of trimethylboron and acetylene. Tribological tests indicated that boron doping with a low B/C ratio of 0.03 is beneficial for reducing friction (μ = 0.1), lowering hardness and slightly increasing wear rate compared to undoped DLC films. The B/C ratio in the film of 0.03 and 0.4 exhibited highly hydrophilic surface owing to their high wettability and high surface energy. An in vitro platelet adhesion experiment was conducted to compare the blood compatibility of TiNb substrates before and after coating with undoped and boron doped DLC. Films with highly hydrophilic surface enhanced the blood compatibility of TiNb, and the best results were obtained for DLC with the B/C ratio of 0.03. Boron doped DLC films are promising surface coatings for blood contacting devices.

  12. Controlled Distribution and Clustering of Silver in Ag-DLC Nanocomposite Coatings Using a Hybrid Plasma Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, M; Turgeon, S; Busby, Y; Tatoulian, M; Pireaux, J-J; Mantovani, D

    2016-08-17

    Incorporation of selected metallic elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) has emerged as an innovative approach to add unique functional properties to DLC coatings, thus opening up a range of new potential applications in fields as diverse as sensors, tribology, and biomaterials. However, deposition by plasma techniques of metal-containing DLC coatings with well-defined structural properties and metal distribution is currently hindered by the limited understanding of their growth mechanisms. We report here a silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon coating (Ag-DLC) prepared in a hybrid plasma reactor which allowed independent control of the metal content and the carbon film structure and morphology. Morphological and chemical analyses of Ag-DLC films were performed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The vertical distribution of silver from the surface toward the coating bulk was found to be highly inhomogeneous due to top surface segregation and clustering of silver nanoparticles. Two plasma parameters, the sputtered Ag flux and ion energy, were shown to influence the spatial distribution of silver particles. On the basis of these findings, a mechanism for Ag-DLC growth by plasma was proposed.

  13. Bonding and bio-properties of hybrid laser/magnetron Cr-enriched DLC layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Vandrovcová, Marta; Bačáková, Lucie; Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Písařík, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, Jan (2016), s. 1217-1224 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05864S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : DLC * chromium * hybrid PLD * hexavalent chromium * trivalent chromium * cell adhesion * cell proliferation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BO - Biophysics (FGU-C) Impact factor: 4.164, year: 2016

  14. CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN Coatings for Solid Film Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    When the main criteria for judging coating performance were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.1 and 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m, respectively, carbon- and nitrogen-ion-implanted, fine-grain CVD diamond and DLC ion beam deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond met the requirements regardless of environment (vacuum, nitrogen, and air).

  15. Effect of Structure, Composition, and Micromorphology on the Hydrophobic Property of F-DLC Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated diamond-like carbon (F-DLC films were prepared by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique with CF4 and CH4 as source gases under different deposition conditions. The chemical bonding structure and composition of the films were detected by Raman, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrometry (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS characterization. The micromorphology and surface roughness of the film were observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results indicated that all the prepared films presented a diamond-like carbon structure. The relative content of fluorine in the films increased, containing more CF2 groups. The ratio of hybrid structure sp3/sp2 decreased. The surface roughness of the films increased when the gas flow ratio R (R = CF4/[CH4 + CF4] or the deposition power increased. The contact angle of water with the surface of the F-DLC film was measured with a static drop-contact angle/surface tension measuring instrument. The hydrophobic property of the F-DLC films was found to be dependent on the sp2 structure, fluorine content, and surface roughness of the films. The contact angle increased when the relative content of fluorine in the films and sp2 content increased, whereas the contact angle first increased and then decreased with the surface roughness.

  16. Field emission properties of ring-shaped Si ridges with DLC coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommesberger, Christian; Ławrowski, Robert; Langer, Christoph; Mecani, Mirgen; Huang, Yifeng; She, Juncong; Schreiner, Rupert

    2017-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and the emission characterization of single ring-shaped Si ridges with a coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC). The reactive ion etching and the subsequent inductively coupled plasma step were adjusted to realize ring-shaped Si ridges with a height of 7.5 μm respectively 15 μm and an apex radius of 20 - 25 nm. The samples were coated with a DLC layer (thickness ≈ 2 - 5 nm) by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition system in order to lower the work function of the emitter and to improve the field emission characteristics. The field emission characterizations were done in diode configuration with cathode and anode separated by a 50 μm thick mica spacer. A higher emission current was carried out for the ring-shaped Si ridge in comparison to the point-shaped Si tips due to the increased emission area. The highest emission current of 0.22 μA at 1000 V was measured on a DLC-coated sample with the highest aspect ratio. No degradation of the emission current was observed in the plateau regime during a measurement period of 6 h. Finally, no decreasing performance of the field emission properties was found due to changes in the geometry or destructions.

  17. Compositionally modulated multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings with AlTiSi multi-doping by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Jingmao; Kwon, Se-Hun; Wang, Qimin

    2017-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with AlTiSi multi-doping were prepared by a reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering with using a gas mixture of Ar and C2H2 as precursor. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, and mechanical property of the as-deposited DLC coatings were studied systemically by using SEM, XPS, TEM, Raman spectrum, stress-tester, and nanoindentation as a function of the Ar fraction. The results show that the doping concentrations of the Al, Ti and Si atoms increased as the Ar fraction increased. The doped Ti and Si preferred to bond with C while the doped Al mainly existed in oxidation state without bonding with C. As the doping concentrations increased, TiC carbide nanocrystals were formed in the DLC matrix. The microstructure of coatings changed from an amorphous feature dominant AlTiSi-DLC to a carbide nanocomposite AlTiSi-DLC with TiC nanoparticles embedding. In addition, the coatings exhibited the compositionally modulated multilayer consisting of alternate Al-rich layer and Al-poor layer due to the rotation of the substrate holder and the diffusion behavior of the doped Al which tended to separate from C and diffuse towards the DLC matrix surface owing to its weak interactions with C. The periodic Al-rich layer can effectively release the compressive stress of the coatings. On the other hand, the hard TiC nanoparticles were conducive to the hardness of the coatings. Consequently, the DLC coatings with relatively low residual stress and high hardness could be acquired successfully through AlTiSi multi-doping. It is believed that the AlCrSi multi-doping may be a good way for improving the comprehensive properties of the DLC coatings. In addition, we believe that the DLC coatings with Al-rich multilayered structure have a high oxidation resistance, which allows the DLC coatings application in high temperature environment.

  18. Modification of rubber surface with hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y. T.; Bui, X. L.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Laudon, M; Romanowicz, B

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) for reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals, by sputtering graphite targets in C(2)H(2)/Ar plasma. The wax removal and pre-deposition

  19. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated on rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are the major source of friction in lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. Our solution is to coat rubbers with flexible diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film by which the coefficient of friction is reduced from above 1.5 to below 0.15.

  20. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 75% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film, by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  1. Bonding and bio-properties of hybrid laser/magnetron Cr-enriched DLC layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, Miroslav, E-mail: jelinek@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, nam. Sitna 3105, 27201 Kladno (Czech Republic); Zemek, Josef [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta; Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Písařík, Petr [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, nam. Sitna 3105, 27201 Kladno (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-01

    Chromium-enriched diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers were prepared by a hybrid technology using a combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering. XRD revealed no chromium peaks, indicating that the layers are mostly amorphous. Carbon (sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} bonds) and chromium bonds were determined by XPS from C 1s, O 1s, and Cr 2p photoelectron peaks. Depending on the deposition conditions, the concentration of Cr in DLC layers moved from zero to 10 at.% for as-received sample surfaces, and to about 31 at.% after mild sputter-cleaning by argon ion cluster beam. It should be noted that the most stable Cr{sup 3+} bonding state is in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr(OH){sub 3}, and that there is the toxic Cr{sup 6+} state in CrO{sub 3}. The surface content of hexavalent chromium in the Cr 2p3/2 spectra is rather low, but discernible. The population density of Saos-2 cells was the highest in samples containing higher concentrations of chromium 7.7 and 10 at.%. This means that higher concentrations of chromium supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. In addition, as revealed by a LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit, the cells on all Cr-containing samples maintained high viability (96 to 99%) on days 1 and 3 after seeding. However, this seemingly positive cell behavior could be associated with the risk of dedifferentiation and oncogenic transformation of cells. - Highlights: • DLC and chromium-enriched DLC layers were prepared by hybrid laser–magnetron deposition. • The content of chromium in DLC varied up to 10 at.% (31 at.% after ion beam sputtering). • The surface content of toxic hexavalent chromium in the Cr 2p3/2 spectra is rather low but discernible. • Higher concentrations of chromium supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. • Cells on all Cr-containing samples maintained high viability (96 to 99%).

  2. SERS activity of Ag decorated nanodiamond and nano-β-SiC, diamond-like-carbon and thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntumalla, Mohan Kumar; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva; Ravulapalli, Satyavathi; Gangadharini, Upender; Ojha, Harish; Desai, Narayana Rao; Bansal, Chandrahas

    2015-09-07

    In the recent past surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based bio-sensing has gained prominence owing to the simplicity and efficiency of the SERS technique. Dedicated and continuous research efforts have been made to develop SERS substrates that are not only stable, durable and reproducible but also facilitate real-time bio-sensing. In this context diamond, β-SiC and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) and other related thin films have been promoted as excellent candidates for bio-technological applications including real time bio-sensing. In this work, SERS activities of nanodiamond, nano-β-SiC, DLC, thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces were examined. DLC and thermally annealed diamond thin films were found to show SERS activity without any metal nanostructures on their surfaces. The observed SERS activities of the considered surfaces are explained in terms of the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism and charge transfer resonance process.

  3. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  4. Effects of texture diameter and depth on the tribological performance of DLC coating under lubricated sliding condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Varman, M.; Kalam, M. A.; Quazi, M. M.; Al Mahmud, K. A. H.; Gulzar, M.; Habibullah, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect of surface texturing parameters on the tribological performance of amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) under oil lubrication has been investigated. Micro dimples were created on a substrate by using a picosecond laser. After surface texturing was performed, amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating was deposited through magnetron sputtering. Dimple diameter varied from 50 μm to 300 μm, and dimple depth varied from 6 μm to 30 μm. Results show that at respective dimple diameter and depth of 100 μm and 6 μm, surface texturing improved the tribological performance of the amorphous hydrogenated DLC coating. Whereas, at a higher dimple diameter of 300 μm and dimple depth of 30 μm, the tribological performance of textured amorphous hydrogenated DLC was worse than that of un-textured amorphous hydrogenated DLC. The performance enhancement in the case of dimple diameter and depth of 100 μm and 6 μm can be due to micro textures, which can serve as a lubricant reservoir at the interface during sliding and remove wear particles from the contact. However, this beneficial mechanism could be obtained at an optimum texture diameter and depth.

  5. Characterization of Thin Pixel Sensor Modules Interconnected with SLID Technology Irradiated to a Fluence of 2$\\cdot 10^{15}$\\,n$_{\\mathrm{eq}}$/cm$^2$

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00237859; Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    A new module concept for future ATLAS pixel detector upgrades is presented, where thin n-in-p silicon sensors are connected to the front-end chip exploiting the novel Solid Liquid Interdiffusion technique (SLID) and the signals are read out via Inter Chip Vias (ICV) etched through the front-end. This should serve as a proof of principle for future four-side buttable pixel assemblies for the ATLAS upgrades, without the cantilever presently needed in the chip for the wire bonding. The SLID interconnection, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It is characterized by a very thin eutectic Cu-Sn alloy and allows for stacking of different layers of chips on top of the first one, without destroying the pre-existing bonds. This paves the way for vertical integration technologies. Results of the characterization of the first pixel modules interconnected through SLID as well as of one sample irradiated to $2\\cdot10^{15}$\\,\

  6. Characterization of Thin Pixel Sensor Modules Interconnected with SLID Technology Irradiated to a Fluence of 2⋅10 15 $n_{eq}$ /cm 2

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, P; Beimforde, M; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H

    2011-01-01

    A new module concept for future ATLAS pixel detector upgrades is presented, where thin n-in-p silicon sensors are connected to the front-end chip exploiting the novel Solid Liquid Interdiffusion technique (SLID) and the signals are read out via Inter Chip Vias (ICV) etched through the front-end. This should serve as a proof of principle for future four-side buttable pixel assemblies for the ATLAS upgrades, without the cantilever presently needed in the chip for the wire bonding. The SLID interconnection, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It is characterized by a very thin eutectic Cu-Sn alloy and allows for stacking of different layers of chips on top of the first one, without destroying the pre-existing bonds. This paves the way for vertical integration technologies. Results of the characterization of the first pixel modules interconnected through SLID as well as of one sample irradiated to 2⋅10 15 \\,\

  7. Oxygen content modulation by nanoscale chemical and electrical patterning in epitaxial SrCoO3-δ (0 < δ ≤ 0.5) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Seidel, J.

    2016-08-01

    Fast controllable redox reactions in solid materials at room temperature are a promising strategy for enhancing the overall performance and lifetime of many energy technology materials and devices. Easy control of oxygen content is a key concept for the realisation of fast catalysis and bulk diffusion at room temperature. Here, high quality epitaxial brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 thin films have been oxidised to perovskite (P) SrCoO3 with NaClO. X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed to investigate the structural and electronic changes of the material. The oxidised thin films were found to exhibit distinct morphological changes from an atomically flat terrace structure to forming small nanosized islands with boundaries preferentially in [100] or [010] directions all over the surface, relaxing the in-plane strain imposed by the substrate. The conductivity, or oxygen content, of each single island is confined by these textures, which can be locally patterned even further with electric poling. The high charging level at the island boundaries indicates a magnified electric capacity of SCO thin films, which could be exploited in future device geometries. This finding represents a new way of oxygen modulation with associated self-assembled charge confinement to nanoscale boundaries, offering interesting prospects in nanotechnology applications.

  8. Tribocorrosion studies of metallic biomaterials: The effect of plasma nitriding and DLC surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Hua; Aune, Ragnhild E; Espallargas, Nuria

    2016-10-01

    The medical grade pure titanium, stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy have been utilized as biomaterials for load-bearing orthopedic prosthesis. The conventional surgery metals suffer from a combined effect of wear and corrosion once they are implanted, which may significantly accelerate the material degradation process. In this work, the tribocorrosion performance of the metallic biomaterials with different surface modifications was studied in the simulated body fluid for the purpose of investigating the effect of the surface treatments on the tribocorrosion performance and eventually finding the most suitable implantation materials. The metals were subjected to surface modifications by plasma nitriding in different treatment temperatures or physical vapor deposition (PVD) to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating, respectively. The dry wear and tribocorrosion properties of the samples were evaluated by using a reciprocating ball-on-disc tribometer equipped with an electrochemical cell. Prior to the tribocorrosion tests, their electrochemical behavior was measured by the potentiodynamic polarization in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at room temperature. Both stainless steel and CoCrMo after low temperature nitriding kept their passive nature by forming an expanded austenite phase. The DLC coated samples presented the low anodic corrosion current due to the chemical inertness of the carbon layer. During the tribocorrosion tests at open circuit potential, the untreated and low temperature nitrided samples exhibited significant potential drop towards the cathodic direction, which was a result of the worn out of the passive film. Galvanic coupling was established between the depassivated (worn) area and the still passive (unworn) area, making the materials suffered from wear-accelerated corrosion. The DLC coating performed as a solid lubricant in both dry wear and tribocorrosion tests, and the resulting wear after the tests was almost negligible. Copyright

  9. Thermal stability of diamond-like carbon–MoS{sub 2} thin films in different environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niakan, H., E-mail: hamid.niakan@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Zhang, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Hu, Y. [Canadian Light Source, 101 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Szpunar, J.A.; Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) based coatings are ideal for low friction and wear resistant applications. For those tribological applications, the coatings may expose to high temperature environments. Therefore, the thermal stability of the coating is very important for its long-term performance. In this work, DLC–MoS{sub 2} composite thin films were synthesized using biased target ion beam deposition technique in which MoS{sub 2} was produced by sputtering a MoS{sub 2} target using Ar ion beams while DLC was deposited by an ion source with CH{sub 4} gas as carbon source. DLC films without MoS{sub 2} deposited under similar conditions were used as reference samples. After the deposition, DLC and DLC–MoS{sub 2} thin films were heat-treated in ambient air and low pressure environments at different temperatures ranging from 100 to 600 °C for 2 h. The effect of annealing on the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of the resulting films were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and ball-on-disk testing. The results showed that the structure, hardness, Young's modulus, friction coefficient and wear coefficient of the DLC films were stable up to 200 °C annealing in air and 300 °C in low pressure. At higher temperature, the annealing led to the transformation of sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2}, which degraded the mechanical and tribological properties of the thin films. Comparing with the DLC films, the DLC–MoS{sub 2} thin films showed a slower rate of graphitization and higher structure stability throughout the range of annealing temperatures, indicating a relatively higher thermal stability. - Highlights: • Thermal stability of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC–MoS{sub 2} films were evaluated. • DLC–MoS{sub 2} films can be synthesized by biased target ion beam deposition technique. • Comparing with DLC films, the DLC–MoS{sub 2} thin films showed higher

  10. With the sun through thick and thin? Photovoltaic modules; Mit der Sonne durch dick oder duenn? Photovoltaikmodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Two technologies quarrel over the ‚place in the sun': The classical silicon panels are considered to be efficient and reliable. Instead of this, new thin-film plates provide maximal performance also at weak light and heat. Which method ranks first? The authors of the contribution under consideration highlight the advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Innovative Characterization of Amorphous and Thin-Film Silicon for Improved Module Performance: 1 February 2005 - 31 July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P. C.; Williams, G. A.

    2009-09-01

    Electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance was done on amorphous silicon samples (modules with a-Si:H and a-SixGe1-x:H intrinsic layer) to study defects that contribute to Staebler-Wronski effect.

  12. The effect of DLC-coating deposition method on the reliability and mechanical properties of abutment's screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Dimorvan; Coelho, Paulo G; Bergamo, Edmara T P; Bonfante, Estevam A; Witek, Lukasz; Del Bel Cury, Altair A

    2018-04-10

    To characterize the mechanical properties of different coating methods of DLC (diamond-like carbon) onto dental implant abutment screws, and their effect on the probability of survival (reliability). Seventy-five abutment screws were allocated into three groups according to the coating method: control (no coating); UMS - DLC applied through unbalanced magnetron sputtering; RFPA-DLC applied through radio frequency plasma-activated (n=25/group). Twelve screws (n=4) were used to determine the hardness and Young's modulus (YM). A 3D finite element model composed of titanium substrate, DLC-layer and a counterpart were constructed. The deformation (μm) and shear stress (MPa) were calculated. The remaining screws of each group were torqued into external hexagon abutments and subjected to step-stress accelerated life-testing (SSALT) (n=21/group). The probability Weibull curves and reliability (probability survival) were calculated considering the mission of 100, 150 and 200N at 50,000 and 100,000 cycles. DLC-coated experimental groups evidenced higher hardness than control (p1 indicating that fatigue contributed to failure. High reliability was depicted at a mission of 100N. At 200N a significant decrease in reliability was detected for all groups (ranging from 39% to 66%). No significant difference was observed among groups regardless of mission. Screw fracture was the chief failure mode. DLC-coating have been used to improve titanium's mechanical properties and increase the reliability of dental implant-supported restorations. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Excellent durability of DLC film on carburized steel (JIS-SCr420) under a stress of 3.0 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakabe, F; Kumagai, M; Kuwahara, H; Ochiai, S; Jinbo, Y; Horiuchi, T

    2008-01-01

    To improve durability of transmission gears, Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) film coated on roller was estimated as well as TiN film. These films were coated on JIS-SCr420 steel, which was carburized, quenched, and tempered. DLC and TiN films were deposited by PCVD and PVD process, respectively. These surface modified rollers were estimated by usual metallurgical methods (observation of microstructure by optical microscope, SEM, and TEM, measurement of hardness by Vickers hardness tester and nano-indentator), measurement of friction coefficient by ball-on-disk in dry atmosphere, analysis of carbon by Raman spectroscopy and hydrogen by EDRA, and lifetime of pitting by the roller-pitting test. The hardness values were 21 GPa and 26 GPa, the elasticity coefficients were 192 GPa and 336 GPa, the friction coefficients were 0.1∼0.15 and 0.5∼0.6 for DLC and TiN films, respectively. The present DLC was a typical DLC called as hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C: H). The hydrogen content was about 20%. The surface fatigue resistance of DLC-coated specimen had 100 times longer life than that the carburized and quenched one even under Hertzian contact stress of 3.0 GPa. TiN coated specimen was failed at 3.0 GPa by 5.17·10 5 cycles despite that the strength of the surface of the substrate was reduced due to the exposure at higher temperature in the coating process than the temperature for tempering

  14. START-GAP3/DLC3 is a GAP for RhoA and Cdc42 and is localized in focal adhesions regulating cell morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Katsuhisa; Kiyota, Minoru; Seike, Junichi; Deki, Yuko; Yagisawa, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    In the human genome there are three genes encoding RhoGAPs that contain the START (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer)-domain. START-GAP3/DLC3 is a tumor suppressor gene similar to two other human START-GAPs known as DLC1 or DLC2. Although expression of START-GAP3/DLC3 inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells, its molecular function is not well understood. In this study we carried out biochemical characterization of START-GAP3/DLC3, and explored the effects of its expression on cell morphology and intracellular localization. We found that START-GAP3/DLC3 serves as a stimulator of PLCδ1 and as a GAP for both RhoA and Cdc42 in vitro. Moreover, we found that the GAP activity is responsible for morphological changes. The intracellular localization of endogenous START-GAP3/DLC3 was explored by immunocytochemistry and was revealed in focal adhesions. These results indicate that START-GAP3/DLC3 has characteristics similar to other START-GAPs and the START-GAP family seems to share common characteristics

  15. Uncovering the Rare Variants of DLC1 Isoform 1 and Their Functional Effects in a Chinese Sporadic Congenital Heart Disease Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Tan, Huilian; Kong, Xianghua; Shu, Yang; Zhang, Yuchao; Huang, Yun; Zhu, Yufei; Xu, Heng; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ping; Ning, Guang; Kong, Xiangyin; Hu, Guohong; Hu, Landian

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect affecting the structure and function of fetal hearts. Despite decades of extensive studies, the genetic mechanism of sporadic CHD remains obscure. Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) gene, encoding a GTPase-activating protein, is highly expressed in heart and essential for heart development according to the knowledge of Dlc1-deficient mice. To determine whether DLC1 is a susceptibility gene for sporadic CHD, we sequenced the coding region of DLC1 isoform 1 in 151 sporadic CHD patients and identified 13 non-synonymous rare variants (including 6 private variants) in the case cohort. Importantly, these rare variants (8/13) were enriched in the N-terminal region of the DLC1 isoform 1 protein. Seven of eight amino acids at the N-terminal variant positions were conserved among the primates. Among the 9 rare variants that were predicted as “damaging”, five were located at the N-terminal region. Ensuing in vitro functional assays showed that three private variants (Met360Lys, Glu418Lys and Asp554Val) impaired the ability of DLC1 to inhibit cell migration or altered the subcellular location of the protein compared to wild-type DLC1 isoform 1. These data suggest that DLC1 might act as a CHD-associated gene in addition to its role as a tumor suppressor in cancer. PMID:24587289

  16. Nm-scale diamond-like-carbon (DLC) templates for use in soft lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.S.; Myhra, S.; Brown, C.L.; Watson, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    An emerging set of methods known collectively as soft lithography is now being utilised for a large variety of applications including micromolding, microfluidic networks and microcontact printing. In particular stamps and elastomeric elements can be formed by exposure of a polymer to a template. Established lithographic techniques used in the microelectronic industry, such as photolithography, are generally used to fabricate such master templates at the micron scale. In this study we demonstrate the use of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) as a template for producing polymer micro/nano stamps and 3D polymer structures. Intricate surface relief patterns can be formed on the DLC surface from lithographic techniques by atomic force microscopy (AFM) operated in the electrical conductivity mode. A number of polymers can be used to transfer patterns. One of the most widely used polymers for pattern transfer has been polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The elastomer is chemically resistant, has a low surface energy and readily conforms to different surface topographies. Obtaining a master is the limiting factor in the production of PDMS replicas. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  17. Adsorption of alcohols and fatty acids onto hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simič, R.; Kalin, M.; Kovač, J.; Jakša, G.

    2016-02-01

    Information about the interactions between lubricants and DLC coatings is scarce, despite there having been many studies over the years. In this investigation we used ToF-SIMS, XPS and contact-angle analyses to examine the adsorption ability and mechanisms with respect to two oiliness additives, i.e., hexadecanol and hexadecanoic acid, on an a-C:H coating. In addition, we analyzed the resistance of the adsorbed films to external influences like solvent cleaning. The results show that both molecules adsorb onto surface oxides and hydroxides present on the initial DLC surface and shield these structures with their hydrocarbon tails. This makes the surfaces less polar, which is manifested in a smaller polar component of the surface energy. We also showed that ultrasonic cleaning in heptane has no significant effect on the quantity of adsorbed molecules or on their chemical state. This not only shows the relatively strong adsorption of these molecules, but also provides useful information for future experimental work. Of the two examined molecules, the acid showed a greater adsorption ability than the alcohol, which explains some of the previously reported better tribological properties in the case of the acid with respect to the alcohol.

  18. A novel tribological study on DLC-coated micro-dimpled orthopedics implant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Urban, Filip; Vrbka, Martin; Hartl, Martin; Krupka, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates a tribological performance of diamond like carbon (DLC) coated micro dimpled prosthesis heads against ceramic cups in a novel pendulum hip joint simulator. The simulator enables determining friction coefficient and viscous effects of a concave shaped specimen interface (conformal contact). Two types of DLC such as hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (Ta-C) and one set of micro dimple (diameter of 300µm, depth of 70µm, and pitch of 900µm) were fabricated on metallic prosthesis heads. The experiment results reveal a significant friction coefficient reduction to the 'dimpled a-C:H/ceramic' prosthesis compared to a 'Metal (CoCr)/ceramic' prosthesis because of their improved material and surface properties and viscous effect. The post-experiment surface analysis displays that the dimpled a-C:H yielded a minor change in the surface roughness, and generated a larger sizes of wear debris (40-200nm sized, equivalent diameter), a size which could be certainly stored in the dimple, thus likely to reducing their possible third body abrasive wear rate. Thus, dimpled a:C-H can be used as a 'metal on ceramic hip joint interface', whereas the simulator can be utilized as an advanced bio-tribometer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microscopic hole-transfer efficiency in organic thin-film transistors studied with charge-modulation spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Ishino, Yuuta; Watanabe, Kazuya; Uemura, Takafumi; Takeya, Jun; Sugimoto, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu

    2015-01-01

    While the microscopic transfer properties of carriers are of primary importance for carrier transport of organic semiconductors, the mesoscopic features including the morphologies of grains and the structure of grain boundaries limit the overall carrier transport particularly in polycrystalline organic thin films. Thus the conventional evaluation methods of carrier mobility that rely on macroscopic properties such as I−V curves of devices are not capable to determine carrier transfer probabil...

  20. High-Performance and Omnidirectional Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Modules Achieved by 3D Geometry Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongliang; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Zhang, Hanzhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Che, Jianfei; Li, Dongdong

    2015-11-01

    High-performance thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells are achieved by combining macroscale 3D tubular substrates and nanoscaled 3D cone-like antireflective films. The tubular geometry delivers a series of advantages for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics, such as omnidirectional performance, easier encapsulation, decreased wind resistance, and easy integration with a second device inside the glass tube. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. ZZ DLC-11 RITTS, 121-Group Coupled Cross-Section for ANISN, DOT, MORSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A - Nature of physical problem solved: Format: ANISN, DTF-4, DOT and MORSE. Number of groups: 100 neutron energy groups (14.92 MeV to thermal) 21 gamma-ray energy groups (14.0 to 0.01 MeV) Nuclides: H, C, O, N, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca, (microscopic cross sections) and 9 organic materials including 11-element standard man, 4-element standard man, skin, bone, tissue, brain, lung, red marrow, and muscle (macroscopic cross sections). Origin: ENDF/B for H, C, N, O, Na, and Mg; O5R library for Ca, S, and K; GAM-2 library for Cl; Evaluation by J.J. Ritts for P. Weighting spectrum: 1/E for the top 99 groups and Maxwellian for the thermal group values. DLC-11 data is suitable for neutron, gamma-ray, or coupled neutron and gamma-ray transport calculations. It is intended for use in multigroup discrete ordinates or Monte Carlo transport codes which treat anisotropic scattering by Legendre expansion up to order P3. DLC-11 is a collection of multigroup cross section data which were compiled by J. J. Ritts for use in depth-dose calculations in anthropomorphic phantoms. For convenience the data are grouped as follows - 1. A coupled 121-group (100 neutron, 21 gamma-ray) set of data for the 11 elements H, C, O, N. Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca. This set includes P3 coupled 121-group microscopic cross sections plus 121-group kerma factors for the 11 elements. 2. A 100-group set of neutron cross sections for the 11 elements. 3. A coupled 121-group set of macroscopic cross sections for 9 organic materials including 11-element standard man, 4-element standard man, skin, bone, tissue, brain, lung, red marrow, and muscle. B - Method of solution: The basic data sources were ENDF/B for H, C, N, O, Na, and Mg, the O5R library for Ca, S, and K, the GAM-2 library for Cl and an evaluation by Ritts for P. A 1/E spectrum was assumed for averaging the top 99 groups and a Maxwellian for averaging the thermal group values. The gamma-ray cross sections were computed from DLC-3/HPIC using MUG. The

  2. Studies of tantalum nitride thin film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Backscattering of 2-MeV He ions was used to correlate the electrical properties of sputtered TaN/sub x/ thin-film resistors with their N content. The properties measured were sheet resistance, differential Seebeck potential (DSP), thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR), and stability. Resistivity and DSP are linearly dependent on N content for N/Ta ratios of 0.25 to 0.55. TCR decreases sharply below N/Ta = 0.35 and is relatively constant from 0.35 to 0.55. Stability is independent of N content. (DLC)

  3. Defect study of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 thin film absorbers using photoluminescence and modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianzhong; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Levcenko, Sergiu; Dittrich, Thomas; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Kretzschmar, Steffen; Unold, Thomas; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Defect states in Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 thin films with x = 0.28, 0.36, and 1 were studied by combining photoluminescence (PL) and modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. A single broad band emission in the PL spectra was observed and can be related to quasi-donor-acceptor pair transitions. The analysis of the temperature dependent quenching of the PL band (x = 0.28, 0.36, and 1) and SPV (x = 0.28) signals resulted in activation energies below 150 meV for PL and about 90 and 300 meV for SPV. Possible intrinsic point defects that might be associated with these observed activation energies are discussed.

  4. Characterization of deep nanoscale surface trenches with AFM using thin carbon nanotube probes in amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of deep surface trenches with atomic force microscopy (AFM) presents significant challenges due to the sharp step edges that disturb the instrument and prevent it from faithfully reproducing the sample topography. Previous authors have developed AFM methodologies to successfully characterize semiconductor surface trenches with dimensions on the order of tens of nanometers. However, the study of imaging fidelity for features with dimensions smaller than 10 nm has not yet received sufficient attention. Such a study is necessary because small features in some cases lead to apparently high-quality images that are distorted due to tip and sample mechanical deformation. This paper presents multi-scale simulations, illustrating common artifacts affecting images of nanoscale trenches taken with fine carbon nanotube probes within amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation AFM (AM-AFM and FFM-AFM, respectively). It also describes a methodology combining FFM-AFM with a step-in/step-out algorithm analogous to that developed by other groups for larger trenches, which can eliminate the observed artifacts. Finally, an overview of the AFM simulation methods is provided. These methods, based on atomistic and continuum simulation, have been previously used to study a variety of samples including silicon surfaces, carbon nanotubes and biomolecules

  5. Research Leading to High Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Module: Phase I Annual Report, October 2003 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R. C.; Meyers, P. V.

    2004-02-01

    Work under this subcontract contributes to the overall manufacturing operation. During Phase I, average module efficiency on the line was improved from 7.1% to 7.9%, due primarily to increased photocurrent resulting from a decrease in CdS thickness. At the same time, production volume for commercial sale increased from 1.5 to 2.5 MW/yr. First Solar is committed to commercializing CdTe-based thin-film photovoltaics. This commercialization effort includes a major addition of floor space and equipment, as well as process improvements to achieve higher efficiency and greater durability. This report presents the results of Phase I of the subcontract entitled''Research Leading to High Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules.'' The subcontract supports several important aspects needed to begin high-volume manufacturing, including further development of the semiconductor deposition reactor, advancement of accelerated life testing methods and understanding, and improvements to th e environmental, health, and safety programs. Progress in the development of the semiconductor deposition reactor was made in several areas. First, a new style of vapor transport deposition distributor with simpler operational behavior and the potential for improved cross-web uniformity was demonstrated. Second, an improved CdS feed system that will improve down-web uniformity was developed. Third, the core of a numerical model of fluid and heat flow within the distributor was developed, including flow in a 3-component gas system at high temperature and low pressure and particle sublimation.

  6. Investigation of structure, adhesion strength, wear performance and corrosion behavior of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films with respect to film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sputtered PtRuN-DLC thin films were fabricated with different film thicknesses. → The graphitization of the films increased with increased film thickness. → The wear resistance of the films increased though their adhesion strength decreased. → The corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values. → However, the corrosion currents of the films decreased. - Abstract: In this study, the corrosion performance of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (PtRuN-DLC) thin films deposited on p-Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system in a 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test in terms of film thickness. The effect of the film thickness on the chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology, adhesion strength and wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-scratch test and ball-on-disc tribotest, respectively. It was found that the wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films apparently increased with increased film thickness though the adhesion strength of the films decreased. The corrosion results revealed that the increased concentration of sp 2 bonds in the PtRuN-DLC films with increased film thickness shifted the corrosion potentials of the films to more negative values but the decreased porosity density in the films significantly decreased the corrosion currents of the films.

  7. Effect of sputtering power on structure, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2011-06-01

    Nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) thin films were deposited on highly conductive p-Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system. The DLC:N films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement and micro-scratch test. The XPS and Raman results indicated that the sputtering power significantly influenced the properties of the films in terms of bonding configuration in the films. The corrosion performance of the DLC:N films was investigated in a 0.6 M NaCl solution by means of potentiodynamic polarization testing. It was found that the corrosion performance of the films could be enhanced by higher sputtering powers.

  8. Silicon solar cell performance deposited by diamond like carbon thin film ;Atomic oxygen effects;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Abbas Ail; Eshaghi, Akbar; Karami, Esmaeil

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a diamond-like carbon thin film was deposited on p-type polycrystalline silicon solar cell via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method by using methane and hydrogen gases. The effect of atomic oxygen on the functioning of silicon coated DLC thin film and silicon was investigated. Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the DLC thin film. Photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the silicon solar cell were carried out using a solar simulator. The results showed that atomic oxygen exposure induced the including oxidation, structural changes, cross-linking reactions and bond breaking of the DLC film; thus reducing the optical properties. The photocurrent-voltage characteristics showed that although the properties of the fabricated thin film were decreased after being exposed to destructive rays, when compared with solar cell without any coating, it could protect it in atomic oxygen condition enhancing solar cell efficiency up to 12%. Thus, it can be said that diamond-like carbon thin layer protect the solar cell against atomic oxygen exposure.

  9. The influence of the structures and compounds of DLC coatings on the barrier properties of PET bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Zhen-Duo, Wang; Shou-Ye, Zhang; Li-Zhen, Yang; Qiang, Chen

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the oxygen transmission rate through a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle (an organic plastic) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the inner surface of the PET bottle were deposited by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology with C 2 H 2 as the source of carbon and Ar as the diluted gas. As the barrier layer to humidity and gas permeation, this paper analyses the DLC film structure, composition, morphology and barrier properties by Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and oxygen transmission rate in detail. From the spectrum, it is found that the DLC film mainly consists of sp 3 bonds. The barrier property of the films is significantly relevant to the sp 3 bond concentration in the coating, the film thickness and morphology. Additionally, it is found that DLC film deposited in an inductively coupled plasma enhanced capacitively coupled plasma source shows a compact, homogeneous and crack-free surface, which is beneficial for a good gas barrier property in PET bottles. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  10. INFLUENCE OF PLASMA NITRIDING ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOUR AND ADHESION OF DLC COATINGS DEPOSITED ON AISI 420 STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N. Pecina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the corrosion behavior and adhesion of two DLC (“Diamond Like Carbon” films (“Soft” and “Hard” were studied. Both coatings were deposited by PACVD (“Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition” on plasma-nitrided and non-nitrided AISI 420 stainless steel. Raman spectroscopy was conducted and surface hardness was measured. The microstructure by OM and SEM, was observed. Adhesion tests were performed with C. Rockwell indentation test. Salt Spray and immersion were performed in HCl. The “Soft” coating was 20 μm thick, the “Hard” film was about 2.5 μm. The hardness was of 500 HV in the “Soft” DLC and 1400 HV in the “Hard” DLC. Both coatings presented low friction coefficient and good adhesion when they were deposited on nitrided steel. Also presented good resistance to atmospheric corrosion. HCl DLC degradation slowed rapidly introduced uncoated samples.

  11. The Influence of Chemical Alloying on the High Temperature Wear Resistance of H-Free DLC Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan, D.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.T.M. De; Cavaleiro, A.; Chandra, T; Tsuzaki, K; Militzer, M; Ravindran, C

    2007-01-01

    A commercial RF-sputtering deposition rig was employed to deposit H-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings. The influence of alloying elements such as Ti and Si on the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings was investigated. The coating was observed in cross section and

  12. Effect of ZDDP concentration on the thermal film formation on steel, hydrogenated non-doped and Si-doped DLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, S.; Kovač, J.; Kalin, M.

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the ZDDP concentration (1, 5 and 20 wt%) to form a ZDDP film on surfaces during static thermal tests at 150 °C. Silicon-doped and hydrogenated DLC coatings, as well as steel as reference, were studied using Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that, on the three surfaces, the structure of the ZDDP thermal film consists of identical groups of pyrophosphate and zinc oxide, while the sulphuric groups are dissimilar. On the steel surface, the sulphuric part consists of a mixture of organic sulphide and sulphohydryl groups, but on H-DLC and Si-DLC only organic sulphide groups are found; there are no sulphohydryl groups. Moreover, both ATR-FTIR and XPS show that different concentrations of ZDDP do not affect the final chemical structure of the ZDDP thermal film on any of the studied surfaces. In addition, the XPS results show that the thickness of the thermal film is linear with the concentration for the whole range from 1 to 20 wt%, supporting also its uniform chemical structure. These thicknesses further show that the reactivity of the ZDDP film is higher on the steel surface than on the DLC coatings.

  13. Surface interactions of a W-DLC-coated biomedical AISI 316L stainless steel in physiological solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Renato A; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Rizzutto, Márcia de Almeida; Higa, Olga Zazuco; Saiki, Mitiko; Costa, Isolda

    2013-04-01

    The corrosion stability of a W-DLC coated surgical AISI 316L stainless steel in Hanks' solution has been evaluated. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements were performed to evaluate the incorporation of potentially bioactive elements from the physiological solution. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The wear behavior was assessed using the sphere-on-disc geometry. The in vitro biocompatibility of the W-DLC film was evaluated by cytotoxicity tests. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel substrate decreased in the presence of the PVD layer. EIS measurements suggest that this behavior was closely related to the corrosion attack through the coating pores. PIXE measurements revealed the presence of Ca and P in the W-DLC film after immersion in Hanks' solution. This result shows that the PIXE technique can be applied to identify and evaluate the incorporation of bioactive elements by W-DLC films. The film showed good wear resistance and biocompatibility.

  14. Alternative nano-structured thin-film materials used as durable thermal nanoimprint lithography templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, M.; Boussey, J.; Le Drogoff, B.; Chaker, M.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoimprint templates made of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) thin films and fluorine-doped associated materials, i.e. F-DLC and F-SiC were investigated in the context of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with respect to their release properties. Their performances in terms of durability and stability were evaluated and compared to those of conventional silicon or silica molds coated with antisticking molecules applied as a self-assembled monolayer. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition parameters were firstly tuned to optimize mechanical and structural properties of the DLC and SiC thin films. The impact of the amount of fluorine dopant on the deposited thin films properties was then analyzed. A comparative analysis of DLC, F-DLC as well as SiC and F-SiC molds was then carried out over multiple imprints, performed into poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thermo-plastic resist. The release properties of un-patterned films were evaluated by the measurement of demolding energies and surface energies, associated with a systematic analysis of the mold surface contamination. These analyses showed that the developed materials behave as intrinsically easy-demolding and contamination-free molds over series of up to 40 imprints. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a large number of imprints has been considered within an exhaustive comparative study of materials for NIL. Finally, the developed materials went through standard e-beam lithography and plasma etching processes to obtain nanoscale-patterned templates. The replicas of those patterned molds, imprinted into PMMA, were shown to be of high fidelity and good stability after several imprints.

  15. Tribological performance of an H-DLC coating prepared by PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, J., E-mail: jsolis@ittla.edu.mx [IFS, University of Leeds, School of Mechanical Engineering, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); SEP/SES/TecNM/IT de Tlalnepantla, DEPI-Mechanical Engineering, 54070, Edo. Méx. (Mexico); Zhao, H.; Wang, C. [IFS, University of Leeds, School of Mechanical Engineering, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Verduzco, J.A. [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, UMSNH, P.O. Box 888, 58000, Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Bueno, A.S. [IFS, University of Leeds, School of Mechanical Engineering, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, 170 Praça Frei Orlando, 36307-352 São João Del Rei (Brazil); Neville, A. [IFS, University of Leeds, School of Mechanical Engineering, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Duplex hydrogenated Diamond-like Carbon was produced and characterised. • Friction and wear under dry condition of H-DLC/steel tribopair was assessed. • Adhesive strength of the coating was 80N after the scratch tests under dry condition. • Maximum and minimum values of average coefficient of friction were 0.21 and 0.13. • A protective transferred layer on the counterpart produced a carbon-carbon contact. - Abstract: Carbon-based coatings are of wide interest due to their application in machine elements subjected to continuous contact where fluid lubricant films are not permitted. This paper describes the tribological performance under dry conditions of duplex layered H-DLC coating sequentially deposited by microwave excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on AISI 52100 steel. The architecture of the coating comprised Cr, WC, and DLC (a-C:H) with a total thickness of 2.8 μm and compressive residual stress very close to 1 GPa. Surface hardness was approximately 22 GPa and its reduced elastic modulus around 180 GPa. Scratch tests indicated a well adhered coating achieving a critical load of 80 N. The effect of normal load on the friction and wear behaviours were investigated with steel pins sliding against the actual coating under dry conditions at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) and 35–50% RH. The results show that coefficient of friction of the coating decreased from 0.21 to 0.13 values with the increase in the applied loads (10–50 N). Specific wear rates of the surface coating also decrease with the increase in the same range of applied loads. Maximum and minimum values were 14 × 10{sup −8} and 5.5 × 10{sup −8} mm{sup −3}/N m, respectively. Through Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy it was confirmed the carbon-carbon contact, due to the tribolayer formation on the wear scars of the coating and pin. In order to further corroborate the experimental observations regarding the graphitisation behaviour, the

  16. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Juknius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique. The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile.

  17. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknius, Tadas; Ružauskas, Modestas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šiugždinienė, Rita; Juknienė, Indrė; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Jurkevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag)-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique). The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile. PMID:28773494

  18. Replication performance of Si-N-DLC-coated Si micro-molds in micro-hot-embossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B; Tor, S B; Liu, E; Khun, N W; Hardt, D E; Chun, J H

    2010-01-01

    Micro-hot-embossing is an emerging technology with great potential to form micro- and nano-scale patterns into polymers with high throughput and low cost. Despite its rapid progress, there are still challenges when this technology is employed, as demolding stress is usually very high due to large friction and adhesive forces induced during the process. Surface forces are dominating parameters in micro- and nano-fabrication technologies because of a high surface-to-volume ratio of products. This work attempted to improve the surface properties of Si micro-molds by means of silicon- and nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (Si-N-DLC) coatings deposited by dc magnetron cosputtering on the molds. The bonding structure, surface roughness, surface energy, adhesive strength and tribological behavior of the coated samples were characterized with micro Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement, microscratch test and ball-on-disk sliding tribological test, respectively. It was observed that the doping condition had a great effect on the performance of the coatings. The Si-N-DLC coating deposited with 5 × 10 −6 m 3 min −1 N 2 had lowest surface roughness and energy of about 1.2 nm and 38.2 × 10 −3 N m −1 , respectively, while the coatings deposited with 20 × 10 −6 and 25 × 10 −6 m 3 min −1 N 2 showed lowest friction coefficients. The uncoated and Si-N-DLC-coated Si micro-molds were tested in a micro-hot-embossing process for a comparative study of their replication performance and lifetime. The experimental results showed that the performance of the Si micro-molds was improved by the Si-N-DLC coatings, and well-defined micro-features with a height of about 100 µm were fabricated successfully into cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) sheets using the Si-N-DLC-coated micro-molds.

  19. A comparative study of tribological characteristics of hydrogenated DLC film sliding against ceramic mating materials for helium applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daheng; Ren, Siming; Pu, Jibin; Lu, Zhibin; Zhang, Guangan; Wang, Liping

    2018-05-01

    The tribological behaviors of hydrogenated DLC film sliding against Al2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4 and WC mating balls have been comparatively investigated by a ball-on-disk tribometer at 150 °C under helium and air (RH = 6%) conditions. The results showed that the mating material influenced the friction and wear behavior remarkably in helium atmosphere, where the wear rates were in inversely proportional to the friction coefficients (COF) of those tribo-pairs. Compared to the tests in helium, the tribological performance of DLC film significantly improved in air. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy were performed to study the friction behavior and wear mechanism of the film under different conditions. It suggested that the severe abrasion was caused by the strong interaction between the tribo-pairs in helium atmosphere at 150 °C, whereas the sufficient passivation of the dangling bonds of carbon atoms at sliding interface by chemically active molecules, such as water and oxygen, dominated the ultralow friction under air condition. Meanwhile, Hertz analysis was used to further elucidate the frictional mechanism of DLC film under helium and air conditions. It showed that the coefficient of friction was consistent with the varied tendency of the contact radius, namely, higher friction coefficient corresponded to the larger contact radius, which was the same with the relationship between the wear rate and the contact pressure. All of the results made better understanding of the essential mechanism of hydrogenated DLC film sliding against different pairs, which were able to guide the further application of DLC film in the industrial fields of helium atmosphere.

  20. Preparation and properties of DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings for high humidity tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Lu, Zhibin; Wu, Guizhi; Zhang, Guangan; Wang, Liping; Xue, Qunji

    2016-06-01

    The DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings with different modulus ratios were deposited by magnetron sputtering in this study. The morphology, structure, composition, mechanical properties and tribological properties were investigated using several analytical techniques (FESEM, AFM, TEM, AES, XPS, nanoindentation and high humidity tribological test). The results showed that the well-defined multilayer coatings were composed of densely packed particles in which many nanocrystallines with some kinds of defects were distributed in matrix. The incorporation of oxygen into the lattice led to the degraded chemical stability. The coating’s hardness and elastic modulus were almost in the same range. Moderate improvement on the high humidity tribological properties were obtained, which was important for the extension of the service life of MoS2 in humid air.

  1. Development, characterization and testing of tungsten doped DLC coatings for dry rotary swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasselbruch Henning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of lubricant during rotary swaging is particularly required for a good surface finish of the work piece and the reduction of tool wear. Abandonment of lubricant would improve the ecological process-balance and could also accelerate for further work piece refinements. Also cleaning of the manufactured components becomes obsolete. Thus, a dry machining is highly innovative, consequently new strategies to substitute the lubricant functions become necessary. To encounter the changed tribological conditions due to dry rotary swaging, low friction, tungsten doped, hard DLC coatings and structured surfaces are the most promising approaches. In this work the development of hard coating by means of reactive magnetron sputtering is presented, a promising layer variant is deposited on a set of tools and then tested and investigated in real use.

  2. Investigation of spectral characteristics of tunnel photodiodes based on DLC nanofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Aban'shin, Nickolay P.; Avetisyan, Yuri A.; Akchurin, Georgy G.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Yakunin, Alexander N.

    2018-04-01

    The tunneling photo effect has been studied in a microdiode with an electrostatic field localized at an emitter based on a nanosized DLC structure. It is established the photocurrent, when the carbon nanoemitter is exposed by laser and tunable low-coherent radiation in the spectral range from UV to near IR with photons of low energy (below work function). A linear dependence of the photocurrent on the level of optical power in the range of micro- and milliwatt power is established. The effect of saturation of the current-voltage characteristics of the tunnel photocurrent associated with a finite concentration of non-equilibrium photoelectrons is observed. The observed spectral Watt-Amper characteristics can be adequately interpreted using a modified Fowler-Nordheim equation for non-equilibrium photoelectrons.

  3. Tribological performance of an H-DLC coating prepared by PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, J.; Zhao, H.; Wang, C.; Verduzco, J. A.; Bueno, A. S.; Neville, A.

    2016-10-01

    Carbon-based coatings are of wide interest due to their application in machine elements subjected to continuous contact where fluid lubricant films are not permitted. This paper describes the tribological performance under dry conditions of duplex layered H-DLC coating sequentially deposited by microwave excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on AISI 52100 steel. The architecture of the coating comprised Cr, WC, and DLC (a-C:H) with a total thickness of 2.8 μm and compressive residual stress very close to 1 GPa. Surface hardness was approximately 22 GPa and its reduced elastic modulus around 180 GPa. Scratch tests indicated a well adhered coating achieving a critical load of 80 N. The effect of normal load on the friction and wear behaviours were investigated with steel pins sliding against the actual coating under dry conditions at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) and 35-50% RH. The results show that coefficient of friction of the coating decreased from 0.21 to 0.13 values with the increase in the applied loads (10-50 N). Specific wear rates of the surface coating also decrease with the increase in the same range of applied loads. Maximum and minimum values were 14 × 10-8 and 5.5 × 10-8 mm-3/N m, respectively. Through Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy it was confirmed the carbon-carbon contact, due to the tribolayer formation on the wear scars of the coating and pin. In order to further corroborate the experimental observations regarding the graphitisation behaviour, the existing mathematical relationships to determine the graphitisation temperature of the coating/steel contact as well as the flash temperature were used.

  4. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications - Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Komorowski, Piotr; Batory, Damian; Szymanski, Witold; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof; Jakubowski, Witold

    2015-11-01

    The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal properties. What is more, considering very good mechanical parameters of these Ag including gradient a-C:H/Ti coatings, they constitute an excellent material for biomedical application in e.g. orthopedics or dentistry.

  5. Characterization of the corrosion behavior of an austenitic stainless steel for biomedical applications coated with Ti N, Ti CN And DLC PVD coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2006-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials must present a combination of properties such as corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and mechanical resistance. Austenitic stainless steels, especially AISI 316L combine these properties with the easy of fabrication at low cost. However, they are prone to corrosion in physiological solutions. Furthermore, their corrosion products may lead to infectious ou allergenic reactions in the tissues around the implant device. In the present work, coatings produced by physical vapour deposition (PVD) methods have been applied on the surface of a 316L stainless steel to increase its corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Three thin films were tested: titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbonitride (TiCN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC). These materials present high hardness, wear resistance and intrinsic biocompatibility that are key features when considering biomedical applications. The characterization of the electrochemical behavior of the stainless steel coated with the three different films showed that the presence of surface defects are deleterious to the corrosion resistance of the substrate. These defects were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The evolution of the electrochemical behavior of the coated steel was explained through a mechanism based on the experimental results obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two different passivation treatments were carried out on the stainless steel surface, either in sulfuric or nitric acid solutions, to increase its corrosion resistance. The results suggested que these treatments were not efficient, but may be modified to improve its performance. The electronic properties of the passive films of the non-passivated and passivated stainless steel were studied using the Mott-Schottky approach. The films presented a duplex character. Below the flat band potential the behavior is typical of a highly doped type-p semiconductor. Above the flat band potential is typical of a highly

  6. Optimization of thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Beyer, J.; Rosa, A. La; Nisius, R.; Savic, N.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will undergo around the year 2025 a replacement of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with a new 5-layer pixel system. Thin planar pixel sensors are promising candidates to instrument the innermost region of the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. The sensors of 50-150 μm thickness, interconnected to FE-I4 read-out chips, have been characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests. In particular active edge sensors have been investigated. The performance of two different versions of edge designs are compared: the first with a bias ring, and the second one where only a floating guard ring has been implemented. The hit efficiency at the edge has also been studied after irradiation at a fluence of 10 15  n eq /cm 2 . Highly segmented sensors will represent a challenge for the tracking in the forward region of the pixel system at HL-LHC. In order to reproduce the performance of 50x50 μm 2 pixels at high pseudo-rapidity values, FE-I4 compatible planar pixel sensors have been studied before and after irradiation in beam tests at high incidence angles with respect to the short pixel direction. Results on the hit efficiency in this configuration are discussed for different sensor thicknesses.

  7. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon/thin film poly-crystalline silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon / usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Developmental research has been performed on large-area low-cost manufacturing technologies on hybrid thin film solar cells of amorphous silicon and poly-crystalline silicon. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a texture construction formed naturally on silicon surface, and thin film poly-crystalline silicon cells with STAR structure having a rear side reflection layer to increase light absorption. The research achievements during the current fiscal year may be summarized as follows: the laser scribing technology for thin film poly-crystalline silicon was established, which is important for modularization, making fabrication of low-cost and large-area modules possible; a stabilization efficiency of 11.3% was achieved in a hybrid mini module comprising of ten-stage series integrated amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystalline silicon; structures different hybrid modules were discussed, whereas an initial efficiency of 10.3% (38.78W) was achieved in a sub-module having a substrate size of 910 mm times 455 mm; and feasibility of forming large-area hybrid modules was demonstrated. (NEDO)

  8. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Cost and Throughput Improvements for Thin Film CIGS-Based Modules: Final Technical Report, July 1998 -- September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes the marked improvements made of the production line under the PVMaT program: successfully developed a high-speed, all-laser, monolithic integration process for CIGS-based modules on polyimide substrates; exceeded PVMaT goals for scribing rate and total interconnect width; developed robust, well-controlled techniques for selective scribing; improved CIGS evaporation sources to allow uniform, controllable delivery; completed foundation required to integrate higher CIGS deposition rates into the production line; developed well-controlled Se delivery system to minimize Se consumption; successfully integrated the parallel-detector spectroscope ellipsometer (PDSE) into a production CIGS deposition chamber; collected useful, in-situ data with PDSE; validated the performance of the X-ray fluorescometry (XRF) sensor in the production CIGS deposition chamber; and successfully incorporated the XRF sensor into the control architecture of the production CIGS deposition chamber .

  9. Characterization of SiC in DLC/a-Si films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc using Raman spectroscopy and XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisang, C.; Asanithi, P.; Siangchaew, K.; Pokaipisit, A.; Limsuwan, P.

    2012-01-01

    DLC/a-Si films were deposited on germanium substrates. a-Si film was initially deposited as a seed layer on the substrate using DC magnetron sputtering. DLC film was then deposited on the a-Si layer via a pulsed filtered cathodic arc (PFCA) system. In situ ellipsometry was used to monitor the thicknesses of the growth films, allowing a precise control over the a-Si and DLC thicknesses of 6 and 9 nm, respectively. It was found that carbon atoms implanting on a-Si layer act not only as a carbon source for DLC formation, but also as a source for SiC formation. The Raman peak positions at 796 cm -1 and 972 cm -1 corresponded to the LO and TO phonon modes of SiC, respectively, were observed. The results were also confirmed using TEM, XPS binding energy and XPS depth profile analysis.

  10. Sliding Wear Behaviour and Corosion Resistance to Ringer’s Solution of Uncoated and DLC Coated X46Cr13 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scendo M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding wear properties and corrosion resistance in Ringer’s solution of uncoated and diamond-like carbon (DLC coated X46Cr13 steel was tested. The Raman spectra showed that the DLC film was successfully coated by plasma assisted CVD method onto the steel surface. The wear test, carried out using a ball-on disk tribometer, revealed that the DLC coating show better resistance to sliding wear and lower friction coefficient against a 100Cr6 steel ball than five times softer X46Cr13 steel. The oxidation kinetic parameters were determined by means of both the gravimetric and electrochemical method. It was found that the DLC coating markedly decreased the rate of corrosion of the X46Cr13 steel, irrespective of the corrosion mechanism involved.

  11. Large modulation of carrier transport by grain-boundary molecular packing and microstructure in organic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2009-11-08

    Solution-processable organic semiconductors are central to developing viable printed electronics, and performance comparable to that of amorphous silicon has been reported for films grown from soluble semiconductors. However, the seemingly desirable formation of large crystalline domains introduces grain boundaries, resulting in substantial device-to-device performance variations. Indeed, for films where the grain-boundary structure is random, a few unfavourable grain boundaries may dominate device performance. Here we isolate the effects of molecular-level structure at grain boundaries by engineering the microstructure of the high-performance n-type perylenediimide semiconductor PDI8-CN 2 and analyse their consequences for charge transport. A combination of advanced X-ray scattering, first-principles computation and transistor characterization applied to PDI8-CN 2 films reveals that grain-boundary orientation modulates carrier mobility by approximately two orders of magnitude. For PDI8-CN 2 we show that the molecular packing motif (that is, herringbone versus slip-stacked) plays a decisive part in grain-boundary-induced transport anisotropy. The results of this study provide important guidelines for designing device-optimized molecular semiconductors. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Description of the DLC-99/HUGO package of photon interaction data in ENDF/B-V format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussin, R.W.; Knight, J.R.; Hubbell, J.H.; Howerton, R.J.

    1983-12-01

    A new photon interaction data library, DLC,-99/HUGO, is described. The library was prepared by incorporating newly evaluated data from the National Bureau of Standards with that from an existing data library, DLC-7F/HPICE, which is the ENDF/B-IV photon interaction data. It contains pair and triplet cross sections, photoelectric cross sections, and atomic form factors and the corresponding coherent scattering cross sections. Evaluated data in INDF/B-V format are provided for elements Z=1 to 100. The data package, available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will be submitted to CSEWG for consideration as the ENDF/B-V Photon Interaction Library. Two computer codes, EDPHOT for selectively printing the data and COMP23 for comparing two photon interaction libraries, are also provided

  13. Electrochemical Evaluation of Si-Incorporated Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) Coatings Deposited on STS 316L and Ti Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Gu; Lee, Kwang Ryeol; Kim, Young Sik; Hwang, Woon Suk

    2007-01-01

    DLC coatings have been deposited onto substrate of STS 316L and Ti alloy using r.f. PACVD (plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) with a mixture of C 6 H 6 and SiH 4 as the process gases. Corrosion performance of DLC coatings was investigated by electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and surface analysis (scanning electron microscopy). the electrolyte used in this test was a 0.89% NaCl solution of pH 7.4 at temperature 37 .deg. C. The porosity and protective efficiency of DLC coatings were obtained using potentiodynamic polarization test. Moreover, the delamination area and volume fraction of water uptake of DLC coatings ass a function of immersion time were calculated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study provides the reliable and quantitative data for assessment of the effect of substrate on corrosion performance of Si-DLC coatings. the results showed that Si-DLC coating on Ti alloy could improve corrosion resistance more than that on STS 316L in the simulated body fluid environment. This could be attributed to the formation of a dense and low-porosity coating, which impedes the penetration of water and ions

  14. Surface composition variation and high-vacuum performance of DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coatings: Influence of space irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiufang; Wang Liping; Pu Jibin; Xue Qunji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricated a DLC/ionic liquid (DLC/ILs) solid-liquid lubricating coating and investigated the effect of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV), proton and electron irradiations on composition, structure, morphology and tribological properties of the DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coatings. A ground-based simulation facility was employed to carry out the irradiation experiments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), Raman spectra, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyzed the structure and composition changes of DLC film and IL lubricant before and after irradiations. The tribological behavior of the DLC/ILs solid-liquid lubricating coating before and after irradiations was investigated by a vacuum tribometer with the pressure of 10 -5 Pa. The experimental results revealed that irradiations induced the structural changes, including oxidation, bond break and crosslinking reactions of DLC film and IL lubricant. The damage of proton and AO irradiations to lubricating materials were the most serious, and UV irradiation was the slightest. After irradiations, the friction coefficient of the solid-liquid lubricating coatings decreased (except for AO irradiation), but the disc wear rate increased compared with non-irradiation coatings.

  15. Modulation of the operational characteristics of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors by In2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Tae Il; Park, Jee Ho; Baik, Hong Koo; Myoung, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung Han; Chae, Gee Sung; Jun, Myung Chul; Hwang, Yong Kee; Lee, Woong

    2012-01-01

    The structure of thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) was modified by spin coating a suspension of In 2 O 3 nanoparticles on a SiO 2 /p ++ Si layered wafer surface prior to the deposition of IGZO layer by room-temperature sputtering. The number of particles per unit area (surface density) of the In 2 O 3 nanoparticles could be controlled by applying multiple spin coatings of the nanoparticle suspension. During the deposition of IGZO, the In 2 O 3 nanoparticles initially located on the substrate surface migrated to the top of the IGZO layer indicating that they were not embedded within the IGZO layer, but they supplied In to the IGZO layer to increase the In concentration in the channel layer. As a result, the channel characteristics of the a-IGZO TFT were modulated so that the device showed an enhanced performance as compared with the reference device prepared without the nanoparticle treatment. Such an improved device performance is attributed to the nano-scale changes in the structure of (InO) n ordering assisted by increased In concentration in the amorphous channel layer. (paper)

  16. High temperature tribological behaviour of carbon based (B{sub 4}C and DLC) coatings in sliding contact with aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharam, A. Abou, E-mail: abougha@uwindsor.c [Mechanical Automotive and Materials Engineering Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B3P4 (Canada); Lukitsch, M.J.; Balogh, M.P. [Chemical Sciences and Materials Systems Laboratory, General Motors R and D Center, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States); Alpas, A.T. [Mechanical Automotive and Materials Engineering Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B3P4 (Canada)

    2010-12-30

    Carbon based coatings, particularly diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are known to resist aluminum adhesion and reduce friction at room temperature. This attractive tribological behaviour is useful for applications such as tool coatings used for aluminum forming and machining. However, for those operations that are performed at elevated temperatures (e.g. hot forming) or that generate frictional heat during contact (e.g. dry machining) the suitable coatings are required to maintain their tribological properties at high temperatures. Candidates for these demanding applications include boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and DLC coatings. An understanding of the mechanisms of friction, wear and adhesion of carbon based coatings against aluminum alloys at high temperatures will help in designing coatings with improved high temperature tribological properties. With this goal in mind, this study focused on B{sub 4}C and a hydrogenated DLC coatings sliding against a 319 grade cast aluminum alloy by performing pin-on-disk experiments at temperatures up to 400 {sup o}C. Experimental results have shown that the 319 Al/B{sub 4}C tribosystem generated coefficient of friction (COF) values ranging between 0.42 and 0.65, in this temperature range. However, increased amounts of aluminum adhesion were detected in the B{sub 4}C wear tracks at elevated temperatures. Focused ion beam (FIB) milled cross sections of the wear tracks revealed that the coating failed due to shearing along the columnar grain boundaries of the coating. The 319 Al/DLC tribosystem maintained a low COF (0.15-0.06) from room temperature up to 200 {sup o}C. This was followed by an abrupt increase to 0.6 at 400 {sup o}C. The deterioration of friction behaviour at T > 200 {sup o}C was attributed to the exhaustion of hydrogen and hydroxyl passivants on the carbon transfer layer formed on the Al pin.

  17. Effect of structure and deposition technology on tribological properties of DLC coatings alloyed with VIA group metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrushchov, M.; Levin, I.; Marchenko, E.; Avdyukhina, V.; Petrzhik, M.

    2016-07-01

    The results of a comprehensive research on atomic structure, phase composition, micromechanical and tribological characteristics of alloyed DLC coatings have been presented. The coatings have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in acetylene-nitrogen gas mixtures of different compositions (a-C:H:Cr), by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in atmospheres of silicone-organic precursor gases (a-C:H:Mo:Si), and by nonreactive magnetron sputtering of a composite target (a-C:H:W).

  18. Micro-texturing into DLC/diamond coated molds and dies via high density oxygen plasma etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunata Ersyzario Edo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD-diamond films have been widely utilized not only as a hard protective coating for molds and dies but also as a functional substrate for bio-MEMS/NEMS. Micro-texturing into these hard coated molds and dies provides a productive tool to duplicate the original mother micro-patterns onto various work materials and to construct any tailored micro-textures for sensors and actuators. In the present paper, the high density oxygen plasma etching method is utilized to make micro-line and micro-groove patterns onto the DLC and diamond coatings. Our developing oxygen plasma etching system is introduced together with characterization on the plasma state during etching. In this quantitative plasma diagnosis, both the population of activated species and the electron and ion densities are identified through the emissive light spectroscopy and the Langmuir probe method. In addition, the on-line monitoring of the plasmas helps to describe the etching process. DLC coated WC (Co specimen is first employed to describe the etching mechanism by the present method. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD diamond coated WC (Co is also employed to demonstrate the reliable capacity of the present high density oxygen plasma etching. This oxygen plasma etching performance is discussed by comparison of the etching rates.

  19. Genesis and stability of tribolayers in solid lubrication: case of pair DLC-stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Berti Salvaro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphology, dimensions and chemical composition of tribolayers strongly depend on the pressures and temperatures acting on the contact. They are formed by reactions between surfaces in contact with each other as well as with the atmosphere, lubricants and possible contaminants. In this paper, the influence of test time (180, 500, 1000 and 2500 h on the formation and characteristics of tribolayers in pairs of DLC-stainless steel that were tested under an atmosphere of refrigerant gas R134a and without lubricating oil was analyzed. The characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS (morphology and chemical composition and white light interferometry (thickness. The tribolayer thicknesses ranged from 100 to 500 nm, and they were composed of elements originating from mutual transfers between the tribological pairs, as well as oxides that were more pronounced on the stainless steel surface. The results show that the tribolayers are chemically stable, maintaining the same composition over time, and their thicknesses remained constant after 1000 h of testing.

  20. Deposition and Tribological Properties of Sulfur-Doped DLC Films Deposited by PBII Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutthanun Moolsradoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-doped diamond-like carbon films (S-DLC fabricated from C2H2 and SF6 mixtures were used to study the effects of sulfur content and negative pulse bias voltage on the deposition and tribological properties of films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation (PBII. The structure and relative concentration of the films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Hardness and elastic modulus of films were measured by nanoindentation hardness testing. Tribological characteristics of films were performed using a ball-on-disk friction tester. The results indicate that with the increasing sulfur content, the hardness and elastic modulus decrease. Additionally, by changing the negative pulse bias voltage from 0 kV to −5 kV, the hardness and elastic modulus increase, while the friction coefficient and specific wear rate tends to decrease. Moreover, at a negative pulse bias voltage of −5 kV and flow-rate ratio of 1 : 2, there is considerable improvement in friction coefficient of 0.05 under ambient air is due to the formation of a transfer films on the interface. The decrease in the friction coefficient of films doped with 4.9 at.% sulfur is greater under high vacuum (0.03 than under ambient air (>0.1.

  1. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications – Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bociaga, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.bociaga1@gmail.com [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Functional Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Komorowski, Piotr [Division of Biophysics, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); BioNanoPark Laboratories of Lodz Regional Park of Science and Technology, Lodz (Poland); Batory, Damian [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Functional Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Szymanski, Witold [Division of Biophysics, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Functional Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, Witold [Division of Biophysics, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The DLC coatings with interlayer improving adhesion were manufactured using the author's method in dual RF/MS PCVD system. • The Ag ions were incorporated into DLC matrix using ion beam implantation method. • The morphology, chemical structure and composition of coatings were examined. • Viability, cytotoxicity of human cells and the formation of bacterial biofilm on the samples surface were evaluated. • <5% of Ag in DLC coating is efficient to make it bactericidal and biocompatible. - Abstract: The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal

  2. Characteristics of CrAlSiN + DLC coating deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc PVD and PACVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszkowicz, Krzysztof, E-mail: krzysztof.lukaszkowicz@polsl.pl [Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego St. 18A, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Sondor, Jozef, E-mail: j.sondor@liss.cz [LISS, a.s., Dopravni 2603, 756 61 Roznov p.R. (Czech Republic); Balin, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.balin@us.edu.pl [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physic, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kubacki, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.kubacki@us.edu.pl [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physic, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • The chemical composition of the CrAlSiN + DLC coatings was studied. • The coatings have nanostructural character with fine crystallites. • Their average size grain is less than 10 nm. • The coatings demonstrate friction coefficient within the range 0.05–0.07. • The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate. - Abstract: Coating system composed of CrAlSiN film covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based lubricant, deposited on hot work tool steel substrate was the subject of the research. The CrAlSiN and DLC layers were deposited by PVD lateral rotating ARC-cathodes (LARC) and PACVD technology on the X40CrMoV5-1 respectively. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of DLC layer. It was found that the tested CrAlSiN layer has a nanostructural character with fine crystallites while their average size is less than 10 nm. Based on the XRD pattern of the CrAlSiN, the occurrence of fcc phase was only observed in the coating, the texture direction 〈3 1 1〉 is perpendicular to the sample surface. Combined SEM, AES and ToF-SIMS studies confirmed assumed chemical composition and layered structure of the coating. The chemical distribution of the elements inside the layers and at the interfaces was analyzed by SEM and AES methods. It was shown that additional CrN layer is present between substrate and CrAlSiN coating. The atomic concentration of the particular elements of DLC and CrAlSiN layer was calculated from the XPS measurements. In sliding dry friction conditions the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.05 and 0.07. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate.

  3. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications – Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Komorowski, Piotr; Batory, Damian; Szymanski, Witold; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof; Jakubowski, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The DLC coatings with interlayer improving adhesion were manufactured using the author's method in dual RF/MS PCVD system. • The Ag ions were incorporated into DLC matrix using ion beam implantation method. • The morphology, chemical structure and composition of coatings were examined. • Viability, cytotoxicity of human cells and the formation of bacterial biofilm on the samples surface were evaluated. • <5% of Ag in DLC coating is efficient to make it bactericidal and biocompatible. - Abstract: The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal

  4. Nitrogen doping for adhesion improvement of DLC film deposited on Si substrate by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Supsermpol, B.; Saenphinit, N. [Western Digital Company, Ayutthaya 13160 (Thailand); Aramwit, C. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been used in many applications due to their attractive combination of properties including chemical inertness, corrosion protection, biocompatibility, high hardness, and low wear rates. However, they still have some limitations such as high internal stresses and low toughness which lead to poor adhesion of films. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped DLC (N-DLC) offers the possibility of overcoming these limitations. In this study, DLC films, namely tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and nitrogen doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:N) were deposited on single crystalline Si wafer substrates using the Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique. Film characterizations were carried out by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), triboindenter tester and nano-scratch tester. Measurement results showed that intentionally doping with nitrogen reduced the carbon sp{sup 3} content and increased the surface roughness in comparison with that of pure ta-C films. The hardness measurement confirmed the Raman and AFM analyses that adding nitrogen in ta-C films decreased the hardness, especially with high nitrogen content. However, the nano-scratch test revealed the increasing of the critical load with nitrogen. This work, then, extended its scope to investigate the properties of double-layer ta-C films which were composed of ta-C:N interlayer of various thickness around 10–30 nm and ta-C top-layer with thickness of around 80 nm. Microstructure characterization demonstrated that a ta-C:N interlayer gradually decreased the sp{sup 3} fraction in the films and increased film roughness whenever the ta-C:N interlayer thickness increased. In this structure, the tribological property in terms of adhesion to the Si substrate was significantly improved by about 20–90%, but the mechanical property in terms of hardness was gradually degraded by about 2–10%, compared to pure ta-C film, when the ta

  5. Functional Layer-by-Layer Thin Films of Inducible Nitric Oxide (NO) Synthase Oxygenase and Polyethylenimine: Modulation of Enzyme Loading and NO-Release Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Bhagya; Abou Diwan, Charbel; Altawallbeh, Ghaith; Kalil, Haitham; Maher, Shaimaa; Xu, Song; Bayachou, Mekki

    2018-03-07

    Nitric oxide (NO) release counteracts platelet aggregation and prevents the thrombosis cascade in the inner walls of blood vessels. NO-release coatings also prevent thrombus formation on the surface of blood-contacting medical devices. Our previous work has shown that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) films release NO fluxes upon enzymatic conversion of the substrate l-arginine. In this work, we report on the modulation of enzyme loading in layer-by-layer (LbL) thin films of inducible nitric oxide synthase oxygenase (iNOSoxy) on polyethylenimine (PEI). The layer of iNOSoxy is electrostatically adsorbed onto the PEI layer. The pH of the iNOSoxy solution affects the amount of enzyme adsorbed. The overall negative surface charge of iNOSoxy in solution depends on the pH and hence determines the density of adsorbed protein on the positively charged PEI layer. We used buffered iNOSoxy solutions adjusted to pHs 8.6 and 7.0, while saline PEI solution was used at pH 7.0. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the outermost layer shows higher protein adsorption with iNOSoxy at pH 8.6 than with a solution of iNOSoxy at pH 7.0. Graphite electrodes with PEI/iNOSoxy films show higher catalytic currents for nitric oxide reduction mediated by iNOSoxy. The higher enzyme loading translates into higher NO flux when the enzyme-modified surface is exposed to a solution containing the substrate and a source of electrons. Spectrophotometric assays showed higher NO fluxes with iNOSoxy/PEI films built at pH 8.6 than with films built at pH 7.0. Fourier transform infrared analysis of iNOSoxy adsorbed on PEI at pH 8.6 and 7.0 shows structural differences of iNOSoxy in films, which explains the observed changes in enzymatic activity. Our findings show that pH provides a strategy to optimize the NOS loading and enzyme activity in NOS-based LbL thin films, which enables improved NO release with minimum layers of PEI/NOS.

  6. Investigation and optimization of series connection of thin-film silicon solar modules; Untersuchung und Optimierung der Serienverschaltung von Silizium-Duennschicht-Solarmodulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    The integrated series connection is an important and elementary part of a thin-film silicon solar module. The series connection leads to a reduction of Ohmic losses and an increase of the module voltage. After their deposition the different functional layers of a solar module must be patterned selectively to form a series connection. First the front contact, then the absorber, and finally the back contact is locally removed. The first step and the last step are needed to separate the contact layers (isolation step), the absorber patterning is used to expose the front contact and prepare the series interconnection. Usually laser ablation is used for patterning. The patterning of the front contact is overall a noncritical step. Therefore, this thesis exclusively investigates mechanisms that limit the process window of the absorber patterning and the back contact patterning. Especially for the absorber patterning on SnO{sub 2}-substrates the process window is very narrow. As too high pulse energies create a barrier layer on the SnO{sub 2}-window layer, which restricts the current flow in a series connected module. This barrier layer probably consists of SiO{sub 2} or an alloy of (Sn,Si)O{sub 2}. It arrises from redeposition of evaporated silicon. Ablation of the absorber without creating a barrier layer is only possible, when the silicon is not evaporated. Here the ablation is induced by the explosive out-diffusion of hydrogen from the silicon layer. On ZnO-substrates no significant barrier formation occurs. For this reason the process window is very broad. Patterning the back contact is the last isolation step. It is mainly restricted by an unavoidable deterioration of the absorber as well as a possible ablation of the window layer. The deterioration of the absorber in the vicinity of the patterning groove leads to parasitic dark currents for amorphous and for microcrystalline solar cells. The parasitic dark currents decrease the efficiency {eta} of a patterned

  7. Impact of the difference in power frequency on diamond-like carbon thin film coating over 3-dimensional objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, Masaki, E-mail: m-nakaya@kirin.co.jp [Packaging Technology Development Center, Technology Development Department, Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-8682 (Japan); Shimizu, Mari [Packaging Technology Development Center, Technology Development Department, Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-8682 (Japan); Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    With a type of capacitatively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, where two specially designed electrodes face to each other, the inner surface of hollow 3-dimensional objects such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles can be coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. DLC-coated PET bottles obtained with this technique have an enhanced gas barrier property, and therefore are applicable to industrial use such as for the extension of the shelf-life of contents sensitive to gas permeation. In this paper, the impact of power frequency ranging from 2.5 to 13.56 MHz was studied in order to research the behavior of plasma inside PET bottles and resultant properties. Different power frequency turned out to be influential on gas barrier property, the overall and distribution of tint, and adhesion between DLC and PET substrate. In addition, positron annihilation turned out to be powerful tool for the comparison of different coating conditions because it clarifies the homogeneity of DLC thin films through providing information on overall structure and thickness of them. These findings can be used for the optimization not only in the beverage PET bottle application, but also in other capacitatively coupled PECVD devices. - Highlights: • We demonstrated an effective methodology for the homogeneity of thin films. • We described the influence of power frequency on plasma and resultant thin film. • Diamond-like carbon coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles was used. • Different frequency provided homogenous thin films based on the above methodology. • For the industrial performance of the bottles, optimization was found at 6 MHz.

  8. Impact of the difference in power frequency on diamond-like carbon thin film coating over 3-dimensional objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Masaki; Shimizu, Mari; Uedono, Akira

    2014-01-01

    With a type of capacitatively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, where two specially designed electrodes face to each other, the inner surface of hollow 3-dimensional objects such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles can be coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. DLC-coated PET bottles obtained with this technique have an enhanced gas barrier property, and therefore are applicable to industrial use such as for the extension of the shelf-life of contents sensitive to gas permeation. In this paper, the impact of power frequency ranging from 2.5 to 13.56 MHz was studied in order to research the behavior of plasma inside PET bottles and resultant properties. Different power frequency turned out to be influential on gas barrier property, the overall and distribution of tint, and adhesion between DLC and PET substrate. In addition, positron annihilation turned out to be powerful tool for the comparison of different coating conditions because it clarifies the homogeneity of DLC thin films through providing information on overall structure and thickness of them. These findings can be used for the optimization not only in the beverage PET bottle application, but also in other capacitatively coupled PECVD devices. - Highlights: • We demonstrated an effective methodology for the homogeneity of thin films. • We described the influence of power frequency on plasma and resultant thin film. • Diamond-like carbon coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles was used. • Different frequency provided homogenous thin films based on the above methodology. • For the industrial performance of the bottles, optimization was found at 6 MHz

  9. Photovoltaic manufacturing cost and throughput improvements for thin-film CIGS-based modules: Phase 1 technical report, July 1998--July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.G.

    2000-03-01

    The primary objectives of the Global Solar Energy (GSE) Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are directed toward reducing cost and expanding the production rate of thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS)-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. In Phase 1, GSE has successfully attacked many of the highest risk aspects of each task. All-laser, selective scribing processes for CIGS have been developed, and many end-of-contract goals for scribing speed have been exceeded in the first year. High-speed ink-jet deposition of insulating material in the scribes now appears to be a viable technique, again exceeding some end-of-contract goals in the first year. Absorber deposition of CIGS was reduced corresponding to throughput speeds of up to 24-in/min, also exceeding an end-of-contract goal. Alternate back-contact materials have been identified that show potential as candidates for replacement of higher-cost molybdenum, and a novel, real-time monitoring technique (parallel-detector spectroscopic ellipsometry) has shown remarkable sensitivity to relevant properties of the CIGS absorber layer for use as a diagnostic tool. Currently, one of the bilayers has been baselined by GSE for flexible CIGS on polymeric substrates. Resultant back-contacts meet sheet-resistance goals and exhibit much less intrinsic stress than Mo. CIGS has been deposited, and resultant devices are comparable in performance to pure Mo back-contacts. Debris in the chamber has been substantially reduced, allowing longer roll-length between system cleaning.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of CrCN–DLC composite coatings by cathodic arc ion-plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.Y. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, L.L. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, H.D. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yan, S.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Y.M. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Fu, D.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, B., E-mail: toyangbing@163.com [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2013-07-15

    CrCN–DLC composite coatings were deposited onto silicon (1 0 0) and cemented carbides substrates using pure Cr targets under C{sub 2}H{sub 2} ambient by cathodic arc ion plating system. The influence of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate on the structure and mechanical properties of the coatings was investigated systemically. The coatings structure and bonding state were characterized by XRD, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical composition was measured by EDS. The mechanical performance and tribological behaviour of the coatings were studied by a hardness tester and ball-on-disc wear tester. The results showed that with increasing C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate from 50 to 100 sccm, the corresponding hardness of coatings increased firstly and then decreased with further addition of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate. The coatings deposited at lower C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate (less than 200 sccm) exhibited a relatively higher hardness value (more than HV{sub 0.025}2000) and then the hardness decrease with increasing C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate. The friction coefficient also exhibited similar variation trend, when the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate was higher than 100 sccm, the friction coefficient decreased and then maintained in a relatively lower value from 0.18 to 0.24, which may be attribute to the increasing carbon content and the coating exhibited more diamond-like structure.

  11. New solutions for effective access powerline solutions. The European smart grid project DLC+VIT4IP; Neue Ansaetz fuer leistungsfaehige Access-Powerline-Loesungen. Das Europaeische Smart-Grid Projekt DLC+VIT4IP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Georg [devolo AG, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    By the European DLC+VIT4IP project the development of innovative smart grid solutions for a better handling of energy resources is forced. Smart grid ensures the stable operation of a decentralized electric supply network, where more and more small suppliers contribute by solar or wind energy technology. Business customers as well as private customers benefit from smart grid, as they get instant information about their actual consumption by the Internet. Covered by the project there will be developed new approaches of access powerline communications which provide an effective, IPv6 based communication e.g. between electric meters at home and the power net station. (orig.)

  12. Effect of aqueous solution and load on the formation of DLC transfer layer against Co-Cr-Mo for joint prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feifei; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hua, Meng; Dong, Guangneng

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating exhibits excellent mechanical properties such as high hardness, low friction and wear, which offer a promising solution for the metal-on-metal hip joint implants. In the study, the hydrogen-free DLC coating with the element Cr as the interlay addition was deposited on the surface of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy by a unbalanced magnetron sputtering method. The coating thickness was controlled as 2 µm. Nano-indentation test indicated the hardness was about 13 GPa. DLC coated Co-Cr-Mo alloy disc against un-coated Co-Cr-Mo alloy pin (spherical end SR9.5) comprised the friction pairs in the pin-on-disc tribotest under bovine serum albumin solution (BSA) and physiological saline(PS).The tribological behavior under different BSA concetrations(2-20 mg/ml), and applied load (2-15N) was investigated.DLC transfer layer did not form under BSA solution, even though different BSA concetration and applied load changed. The coefficient of friction(COF) under 6 mg/ml BSA at 10 N was the lowest as 0.10. A higher COF of 0.13 was obtained under 20 mg/ml BSA. The boundary absorption layer of protein is the main factor for the counterparts. However, the continous DLC transfer layer was observed under PS solution, which make a lower COF of 0.08. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood compatibility of gas plasma-treated diamond-like carbon surface-Effect of physicochemical properties of DLC surface on blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Akira; Ogawa, Tatsuhisa; Okamoto, Keishi; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki; Nitta, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    From the knowledge that zwitterion-type polymers show good blood compatibility, the introduction of both cationic and anionic functional groups onto diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface is expected to improve blood compatibility. Thus, DLC films were treated with oxygen and ammonia gas plasmas. The surfaces were characterized in terms of chemical composition by XPS, contact angle, and zeta potential. XPS analysis showed the introductions of a carboxyl group by oxygen plasma treatment and nitrogen atoms by ammonia plasma treatment. The evaluation of blood compatibility for the DLC surfaces was carried out in terms of platelets and the coagulation system. Excellent improvement of platelet compatibility was observed by the treatment with the gas plasmas, regardless of the plasma species. As for the compatibility with the coagulation system, DLC surfaces with a high concentration of carboxyl groups (COOH) markedly activated the system via the intrinsic pathway. However, the surfaces treated with ammonia plasma did not activate the system even though they had high COOH concentration. Measurement of the zeta potential revealed that the ammonia plasma treatment raised the potential from a negative value to a positive one. Though the introduction of amino groups to the surface was not detected directly, the treatment of ammonia plasma changed the electrical state of the DLC surface having COOH group, causing a difference in blood compatibility among the DLCs obtained by various plasma conditions.

  14. Structure, adhesive strength and electrochemical performance of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films deposited via DC magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E; Krishna, M D

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering with different nitrogen flow rates at a substrate temperature of about 100 degrees C. The chemical bonding structure of the films was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The adhesive strength and surface morphology of the films were studied using micro-scratch tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical performance of the films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization testing and linear sweep voltammetry. The electrolytes used for the electrochemical tests were deaerated and unstirred 0.47 M KCl aqueous solution for potentiodynamic polarization testing and 0.2 M KOH and 0.1 M KCl solutions for voltammetric analysis. It was found that the DLC:N films could well passivate the underlying substrates though the corrosion resistance of the films decreased with increased nitrogen content in the films. The DLC:N films showed wide potential windows in the KOH solution, in which the detection ability of the DLC:N films to trace lead of about 1 x 10(-3) M Pb(2+) was also tested.

  15. A study of the performance and properties of diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited by plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for two stroke engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tither, D. [BEP Grinding Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Ahmed, W.; Sarwar, M.; Penlington, R. [Univ. of Northumbria, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using microwave and RF plasma is arguably the most successful technique for depositing diamond and diamond like carbon (DLC) films for various engineering applications. However, the difficulties of depositing diamond are nearly as extreme as it`s unique combination of physical, chemical and electrical properties. In this paper, the modified low temperature plasma enhanced CVD system is described. The main focus of this paper will be work related to deposition of DLC on metal matrix composite materials (MMCs) for application in two-stroke engine components and results will be presented from SEM, mechanical testing and composition analysis studies. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of depositing DLC on MMCs for the first time using a vacuum deposition process.

  16. Ellipsometry with phase and azimuth modulation: Investigation of the dielectric constant of thin films of Th and Ag deposited onto Au electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, F; Costa, M

    1981-08-07

    Ellipsometry with phase and azimuth modulation was used to measure the variations with coverage in the dielectric constant epsilonsub(f) = epsilon/sub 1/ - iepsilon/sub 2/ of thin films of thallium and silver deposited onto polycrystalline gold electrodes. In the underpotential deposition (UPD) zone the epsilon/sub 2/ versus theta curves for both systems present maxima at theta approx. equal to 0.5 which are associated with points of inflexion on the epsilon/sub 1/ versus theta curves; these may correspond to a transition between two two-dimensional structures, one of which occurs for theta < 0.5 and the other for theta > 0.5. A change in the direction of the variations in epsilon/sub 1/ versus theta and epsilon/sub 2/ versus theta corresponds to the beginning of nucleation. It takes place at theta approx. equal to 1 for the Tl/sup +/ - Au system and at theta approx. equal to 0.5 for Ag/sup +/ - Au. For silver coverage, the more condensed two-dimensional structure seems to include metallic nuclei. When theta > 1, at the same coverage different values of epsilon/sub 1/ and epsilon/sub 2/ are observed according to the rate of deposition, i.e. according to the size of the crystallites. The limiting values of epsilonsub(f) are in good agreement with the values determined in vacuum and reported in the literature. For wavelengths lambda > 500 nm, the results are interpreted quantitatively through Drude relations assuming that both the surface density N of the free electrons and their relaxation time tau vary with theta. For Tl/sup +/ - Au the variation of N in the UPD zone corresponds to a residual charge q = 0.29 on the thallium adatom (..delta..N = 5.8 x 10/sup 22/ cm/sup -3/ for theta = 1), whereas for Ag/sup +/ - Au the residual charge on the adatom is negligible. For the thallium film the variation in tau implies an increase in the surface diffusivity with theta in the UPD zone and a decrease after the first monolayer. For the silver films the specularity of the

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/Al co-doped DLC films: Dependence on sputtering current, source gas, and substrate bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ting; Kong, Cuicui; Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Peng; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Aiying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti/Al co-doped diamond-like carbon films were fabricated by a hybrid ion beam method. • Process parameters affected the structure and chemical state of co-doped Ti and Al. • The relation between microstructure and properties was investigated systematically. • The guidance to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance was provided. - Abstract: Co-doping two metal elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can reach the desirable combined properties, but the preparation and commercialized application of metal co-doped DLC films with well-defined structural properties are currently hindered by the non-comprehensive understanding of structural evolutions under different process parameters. Here, we fabricated the Ti/Al-DLC films using a unique hybrid ion beam system which enabled the independent control of metal content and carbon structure. The evolutions of microstructure, residual compressive stress and mechanical properties induced by the different process parameters including sputtering currents, C_2H_2 or CH_4 source gases and bias voltages were investigated systematically in order to perform in-depth analysis on the relation between the structure and properties in Ti/Al-DLC films. Results revealed that the variations of process parameters seriously affected the concentration and chemical bond state of co-doped Ti/Al atoms in amorphous carbon matrix or incident energies of C ions, which brought the complicated effect on amorphous carbon structures, accounting for the change of residual compressive stress, hardness and toughness. The present results provide the guidance for suitable, effective parameters selection to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance for further applications.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/Al co-doped DLC films: Dependence on sputtering current, source gas, and substrate bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ting [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kong, Cuicui [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Ningbo University, Ningbo 315201 (China); Li, Xiaowei, E-mail: lixw@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Guo, Peng; Wang, Zhenyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Ti/Al co-doped diamond-like carbon films were fabricated by a hybrid ion beam method. • Process parameters affected the structure and chemical state of co-doped Ti and Al. • The relation between microstructure and properties was investigated systematically. • The guidance to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance was provided. - Abstract: Co-doping two metal elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can reach the desirable combined properties, but the preparation and commercialized application of metal co-doped DLC films with well-defined structural properties are currently hindered by the non-comprehensive understanding of structural evolutions under different process parameters. Here, we fabricated the Ti/Al-DLC films using a unique hybrid ion beam system which enabled the independent control of metal content and carbon structure. The evolutions of microstructure, residual compressive stress and mechanical properties induced by the different process parameters including sputtering currents, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} source gases and bias voltages were investigated systematically in order to perform in-depth analysis on the relation between the structure and properties in Ti/Al-DLC films. Results revealed that the variations of process parameters seriously affected the concentration and chemical bond state of co-doped Ti/Al atoms in amorphous carbon matrix or incident energies of C ions, which brought the complicated effect on amorphous carbon structures, accounting for the change of residual compressive stress, hardness and toughness. The present results provide the guidance for suitable, effective parameters selection to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance for further applications.

  19. Development of process technology for large-area thin-film solar modules based on compound semiconductors. Final report; Entwicklung der technologischen Grundlagen fuer grosse Photovoltaikmodule auf Basis von Duennschicht-Verbindungshalbleitern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, H.; Lechner, P.; Geyer, R.; Ruebel, H.; Schade, H.; Psyk, W.; Frammelsberger, W.; Berthold, W.; Eichner, C.; Heckel, E.; Huber, R.; Labudde-Eibl, H.; Raith, S.; Schenk, B.; Ullrich, H.

    1998-06-01

    A cooperative effort of the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) and Phototronics Solartechnik GmbH (PST) aimed at the transfer of highly efficient solar cells developed on a laboratory scale, to large-area thin-film solar modules suitable for production. This work was based on research and development at the Institute for Physical Electronics (IPE) of Stuttgart University and ZSW on one hand, and on the know-how of PST in regard to large-area module fabrication on the other hand. The various thin-film layers of the cells and modules comprize molybdenum as rear contact, copper-indium(gallium)-diselenide (CIGS) as absorber material, the combination of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and ZnO as window layer. To produce these layers on large areas (30x30 cm{sup 2}), equipment was constructed and procedures were developed. Monolithic series connection of cells, used in other thin-film technologies, was studied and optimized by suitable patterning procedures, such as laser-scribing, mechanical scribing or lift-off techniques. Central to the PST efforts was the large-area deposition of Mo followed by patterning for the monolithic series connection, and furthermore important contributions in regard to the ZnO window layer as well as aspects of the module technology. The latter include film removal along the module edges, contacting and cable attachment, lamination, module measurements and temperature/humidity tests. The main goal, namely the basic development of equipment and procedures to fabricate large-area (30x30 cm{sup 2}) modules with an efficiency of 10-12%, was reached (best module with 11.7% efficiency referenced to the aperature area). (orig.) [Deutsch] Um die im Labormassstab entwickelten hocheffizienten Solarzellen in industriell relevante grossflaechige Duennschichtmodule umzusetzen, arbeiteten das Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Baden-Wuerttemberg und die Phototronics Solartechnik GmbH (PST) zusammen. Ausgangsbasis waren

  20. Surface characterization and biological evaluation of silver-incorporated DLC coatings fabricated by hybrid RF PACVD/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociąga, Dorota; Jakubowski, Witold; Komorowski, Piotr; Sobczyk-Guzenda, Anna; Jędrzejczak, Anna; Batory, Damian; Olejnik, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Since the biological response of the body towards an implanted material is mainly governed by its surface properties, biomaterials are improved by various kinds of coatings. Their role is to provide good mechanical and biological characteristics, and exclude some disadvantages like post-implantation infections. This phenomenon may be reduced by introduction of silver as an antibacterial agent. This study evaluates the Ag-DLC films synthesized by the hybrid RF PACVD/MS method according to the patent number PL401955-A1 worked out inter alia by the authors. Such tests as XPS, SEM, EDS, AFM, FTIR, Raman and ICP-TOF-MS were used to determine surface properties of the coatings. The obtained results were correlated with the biological response estimated on the basis of cells viability assay (osteoblast cells line Saos-2) and bacterial colonization test (Escherichia coli strain DH5α). Results showed that the hybrid RF PACVD/MS method allows one to get tight coating preventing the diffusion of harmful elements from the metallic substrate. Ag concentration increases with the growing power density, it occurs in metallic state, does not create chemical bonds and is evenly dispersed within the DLC matrix in the form of nanoscale silver clusters. Increasing silver content above 2at.% improves bactericidal properties, but decreases cell viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihtsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a technology to manufacture CIS-based thin film solar cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the research of a large-area light absorbing layer manufacturing technology, investigation was made on light absorbing layers in manufacturing sub-modules with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. With regard to the temperature condition in the light absorbing layer forming process, it was found that the cooling rate affects particularly the adhesion in the connecting interface of the light absorbing layer and the Mo rear electrode layer. In addition, it was revealed that the sulfur take-in amount can be increases by extending the retention time at the sulfurizing temperature and by decreasing the temperature to turn the gas phase into selenium. In the research of elementary technologies to establish the mass production process, developments were performed on the high-resistance buffer layer manufacturing technology, the high-quality window layer film manufacturing technology, and the technology to manufacture rear electrode layer made of high-quality metals. In developing the patterning technology, two kinds of the existing patterning devices were modified and adjusted for patterning the substrates with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. In addition, a processing device was installed in the conventional manually operated process for module finishing. (NEDO)

  2. The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN/DLC1/LC8) binding does not inhibit the NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, a key step in NO synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhad, Swapnil S.; Jaiswal, Deepa; Ray, Krishanu; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent neurotransmitter. Although previous studies have indicated that the dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) binding to nNOS could inhibit the NO synthesis, the claim is challenged by contradicting reports. Thus, the mechanism of nNOS regulation remained unclear. nNOS has a heme-bearing, Cytochrome P450 core, and the functional enzyme is a dimer. The electron flow from NADPH to Flavin, and finally to the heme of the paired nNOS subunit within a dimer, is facilitated upon calmodulin (CaM) binding. Here, we show that DLC1 binding to nNOS-CaM complex does not affect the electron transport from the reductase to the oxygenase domain. Therefore, it cannot inhibit the rate of NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, which results in L-Arginine oxidation. Also, the NO release activity does not decrease with increasing DLC1 concentration in the reaction mix, which further confirmed that DLC1 does not inhibit nNOS activity. These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell. - Highlights: • The effect of interaction of nNOS with DLC1 has been debatable with contradicting reports in literature. • Purified DLC1 has no effect on electron transport between reductase and oxygenase domain of purified nNOS-CaM. • The NO release activity of nNOS was not altered by DLC1, supporting that DLC1 does not inhibit the enzyme. • These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell.

  3. The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN/DLC1/LC8) binding does not inhibit the NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, a key step in NO synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parhad, Swapnil S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Jaiswal, Deepa [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, 21 Brundavan Colony, Narsingi, Hyderabad 500075 (India); Ray, Krishanu, E-mail: krishanu@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Mazumdar, Shyamalava, E-mail: shyamal@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2016-03-25

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent neurotransmitter. Although previous studies have indicated that the dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) binding to nNOS could inhibit the NO synthesis, the claim is challenged by contradicting reports. Thus, the mechanism of nNOS regulation remained unclear. nNOS has a heme-bearing, Cytochrome P450 core, and the functional enzyme is a dimer. The electron flow from NADPH to Flavin, and finally to the heme of the paired nNOS subunit within a dimer, is facilitated upon calmodulin (CaM) binding. Here, we show that DLC1 binding to nNOS-CaM complex does not affect the electron transport from the reductase to the oxygenase domain. Therefore, it cannot inhibit the rate of NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, which results in L-Arginine oxidation. Also, the NO release activity does not decrease with increasing DLC1 concentration in the reaction mix, which further confirmed that DLC1 does not inhibit nNOS activity. These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell. - Highlights: • The effect of interaction of nNOS with DLC1 has been debatable with contradicting reports in literature. • Purified DLC1 has no effect on electron transport between reductase and oxygenase domain of purified nNOS-CaM. • The NO release activity of nNOS was not altered by DLC1, supporting that DLC1 does not inhibit the enzyme. • These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell.

  4. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system with these low-voltage panels was installed and its performance ratio has been simulated and projected to be 92.1%, which is 20% more than the crystalline silicon and CdTe counterparts.

  5. Thin films: Past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  6. Investigation of structure, adhesion strength, wear performance and corrosion behavior of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films with respect to film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, N.W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, E., E-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sputtered PtRuN-DLC thin films were fabricated with different film thicknesses. {yields} The graphitization of the films increased with increased film thickness. {yields} The wear resistance of the films increased though their adhesion strength decreased. {yields} The corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values. {yields} However, the corrosion currents of the films decreased. - Abstract: In this study, the corrosion performance of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (PtRuN-DLC) thin films deposited on p-Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system in a 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test in terms of film thickness. The effect of the film thickness on the chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology, adhesion strength and wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-scratch test and ball-on-disc tribotest, respectively. It was found that the wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films apparently increased with increased film thickness though the adhesion strength of the films decreased. The corrosion results revealed that the increased concentration of sp{sup 2} bonds in the PtRuN-DLC films with increased film thickness shifted the corrosion potentials of the films to more negative values but the decreased porosity density in the films significantly decreased the corrosion currents of the films.

  7. Environmental impact of thin-film GaInP/GaAs and multicrystalline silicon solar modules produced with solar electricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohr, N.; Meijer, A.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope: The environmental burden of photovoltaic (PV) solar modules is currently largely determined by the cumulative input of fossil energy used for module production. However, with an increased focus on limiting the emission of CO2 coming from fossil fuels, it is expected that

  8. Effect of various nitrogen flow ratios on the optical properties of (Hf:N-DLC films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Qi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hf and N co-doped diamond-like carbon [(Hf:N-DLC] films were deposited on 316L stainless steel and glass substrates through reactive magnetron sputtering of hafnium and carbon targets at various nitrogen flow ratios (R=N2/[N2+CH4+Ar]. The effects of chemical composition and crystal structure on the optical properties of the (Hf:N-DLC films were studied. The obtained films consist of uniform HfN nanocrystallines embedded into the DLC matrix. The size of the graphite clusters with sp2 bonds (La and the ID/IG ratio increase to 2.47 nm and 3.37, respectively, with increasing R. The optical band gap of the films decreases from 2.01 eV to 1.84 eV with increasing R. This finding is consistent with the trends of structural transformations and could be related to the increase in the density of π-bonds due to nitrogen incorporation. This paper reports the influence of nitrogen flow ratio on the correlation among the chemical composition, crystal structure, and optical properties of (Hf:N-DLC films.

  9. Modified DLC coatings prepared in a large-scale reactor by dual microwave/pulsed-DC plasma-activated chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, C.; Bialuch, I.; Kleinschmidt, M.; Bewilogua, K.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) films find abundant applications as hard and protective coatings due to their excellent mechanical and tribological performances. The addition of new elements to the amorphous DLC matrix tunes the properties of this material, leading to an extension of its scope of applications. In order to scale up their production to a large plasma reactor, DLC films modified by silicon and oxygen additions have been grown in an industrial plant of 1m 3 by means of pulsed-DC plasma-activated chemical vapour deposition (PACVD). The use of an additional microwave (MW) source has intensified the glow discharge, partly by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), accelerating therefore the deposition process. Hence, acetylene, tetramethylsilane (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) constituted the respective gas precursors for the deposition of a-C:H (DLC), a-C:H:Si and a-C:H:Si:O films by dual MW/pulsed-DC PACVD. This work presents systematic studies of the deposition rate, hardness, adhesion, abrasive wear and water contact angle aimed to optimize the technological parameters of deposition: gas pressure, relative gas flow of the monomers and input power. This study has been completed with measures of the atomic composition of the samples. Deposition rates around 1 μm/h, typical for standard processes held in the large reactor, were increased about by a factor 10 when the ionization source has been operated in ECR mode

  10. Soft electronic structure modulation of surface (thin-film) and bulk (ceramics) morphologies of TiO{sub 2}-host by Pb-implantation: XPS-and-DFT characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatsepin, D.A. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Boukhvalov, D.W., E-mail: danil@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics Department, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, N.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A.F. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Shur, V.Ya.; Esin, A.A. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Ave, 620000 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kim, S.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kurmaev, E.Z. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Experiment and theory demonstrate significant difference between patterns of Pb-ion implantation in TiO{sub 2}. • In bulk TiO{sub 2} Pb-impurities leads formation of PbO phase. • On the surface of TiO{sub 2}:Pb occur formation of PbxOy configurations. • In both bulk and surface TiO{sub 2}:Pb occur decreasing of the bandgap by shift of valence band about 1 eV up. - Abstract: The results of combined experimental and theoretical study of substitutional and clustering effects in the structure of Pb-doped TiO{sub 2}-hosts (bulk ceramics and thin-film morphologies) are presented. Pb-doping of the bulk and thin-film titanium dioxide was made with the help of pulsed ion-implantation without posterior tempering (Electronic Structure Modulation Mode). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) qualification of core-levels and valence bands and Density-Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were employed in order to study the yielded electronic structure of Pb-ion modulated TiO{sub 2} host-matrices. The combined XPS-and-DFT analysis has agreed definitely with the scenario of the implantation stimulated appearance of PbO-like structures in the bulk morphology of TiO{sub 2}:Pb, whereas in thin-film morphology the PbO{sub 2}-like structure becomes dominating, essentially contributing weak O/Pb bonding (Pb{sub x}O{sub y} defect clusters). The crucial role of the oxygen hollow-type vacancies for the process of Pb-impurity “insertion” into the structure of bulk TiO{sub 2} was pointed out employing DFT-based theoretical background. Both experiment and theory established clearly the final electronic structure re-arrangement of the bulk and thin-film morphologies of TiO{sub 2} because of the Pb-modulated deformation and shift of the initial Valence Base-Band Width about 1 eV up.

  11. Oxygen content modulation by nanoscale chemical and electrical patterning in epitaxial SrCoO3-δ (0 < δ ≤ 0.5) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S; Seidel, J

    2016-08-12

    Fast controllable redox reactions in solid materials at room temperature are a promising strategy for enhancing the overall performance and lifetime of many energy technology materials and devices. Easy control of oxygen content is a key concept for the realisation of fast catalysis and bulk diffusion at room temperature. Here, high quality epitaxial brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 thin films have been oxidised to perovskite (P) SrCoO3 with NaClO. X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed to investigate the structural and electronic changes of the material. The oxidised thin films were found to exhibit distinct morphological changes from an atomically flat terrace structure to forming small nanosized islands with boundaries preferentially in [100] or [010] directions all over the surface, relaxing the in-plane strain imposed by the substrate. The conductivity, or oxygen content, of each single island is confined by these textures, which can be locally patterned even further with electric poling. The high charging level at the island boundaries indicates a magnified electric capacity of SCO thin films, which could be exploited in future device geometries. This finding represents a new way of oxygen modulation with associated self-assembled charge confinement to nanoscale boundaries, offering interesting prospects in nanotechnology applications.

  12. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Volume 1. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules and survey and research on analyzing how to put products into practical use); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to assist research and development to put thin film solar cells for power use into practical use and a research to put thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies into practical use, survey and research have been performed on trends in the technologies inside and outside the country. Characteristic points in thin film solar cells during the current fiscal year include: expansion of production scale of amorphous silicon solar cells, rapid progress in poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cell technologies, and enhancement of performance in large-area modules in the a-Si, CIGS, and CdTe systems. In the trends in research and development of amorphous systems, expectation is heightening on elucidation of optical deterioration phenomena, and establishment of suppression technologies thereof. Although the highest efficiency was not renewed in thin film solar cells of small areas, progress was seen in the post-stabilization efficiency in large-area modules. A thin film solar cell manufacturing plant having an annual production capacity of 20 MW was put into operation in October in Japan. Micro (poly) crystalline silicon based solar cells have high possibility of being compatible in cost reduction and performance improvement, and energetic researches are being carried out on them in recent years as the most promising candidate of the next generation solar cells. (NEDO)

  13. Modulation of optical and electrical properties of sputtering-derived amorphous InGaZnO thin films by oxygen partial pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.F. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); He, G., E-mail: hegang@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Liu, M., E-mail: mliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanostructure, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, J.W.; Deng, B.; Wang, P.H.; Zhang, M. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, J.G. [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230061 (China); Sun, Z.Q. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Sputtering-derived a-IGZO thin films were grown on Si and glass substrates in a mixed atmosphere of Ar and O{sub 2}. • XRD measurements have shown that the as-deposited thin films are all amorphous. • Blue shift in band gap and reduction in n with increasing the O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio have been detected. • Reduction of oxygen vacancies is suggested to be the cause of the band gap and resistivity increase. - Abstract: Sputtering-derived amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin films were grown on Si and glass substrates in a mixed ambient of Ar and O{sub 2} at fixed 0.5 Pa working pressure. The influence of O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio on the optical and electrical properties of a-IGZO thin films has been systematically investigated by means of characterization from spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), UV–vis spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. Results have shown that the band gap of the as-deposited IGZO films increases from 3.45 eV to 3.75 eV as the O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio increases from 0% to 20%. Blue shift in band gap and reduction in reactive index with increasing the O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio have been detected. Electrical measurements have indicated the increase in resistivity at higher O{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratio. Related mechanics about the increase in band gap and resistivity have been discussed in detail.

  14. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  15. Synthesis of Ti-doped DLC film on SS304 steels by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique for tribological improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootkul, D.; Saenphinit, N.; Supsermpol, B.; Aramwit, C.; Intarasiri, S.

    2014-08-01

    Currently, stainless steels are widely used in various industrial applications due to their excellence in toughness and corrosion resistance. But their resistance to wear needs to be improved for appropriate use in tribological applications. The Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) is a superior technique for forming a high-density film structure of amorphous carbon, especially for a tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) type, because it can produce a plasma of highly energetic ions that can penetrate into a growing coating, resulting in densification of the film. However, this technique tends to generate high internal stress, due to serious accumulation of energy in the film structure that then leads to film delamination. In general, there are numerous solutions that have been used to reduce the internal stress. DLC with various additive elements such as Ti, Cr or W as strong-carbide-forming (SCF) metals is one of the popular methods to provide attractive combinations of properties of wear resistance and film adhesion as well as reducing the internal stress. The present study was focused on investigation of titanium-doped DLC coating on SS304 steel, mainly for adhesion improvement in optimizing for tribological applications. The synthesized films were formed by the FCVA technique at normal substrate temperature. In the experimental set-up, the films were produced by mixing the titanium and carbon ions generated by dual cathode plasma source operating in synchronous pulsed mode. Their compositions were adjusted by varying the relative duration of the pulse length from each cathode. Titanium doping concentration was varied from pure DLC deposition as the control group to titanium and graphite trigger pulses ratios of 1:16, 1:12, 1:10, 1:8 and 1:4, as the Ti-doped DLC group. The results showed that by increasing titanium trigger pulses ratio from 1:16, 1:12, 1:10 and 1:8, respectively, the film adhesion was increased while the wear rate did not change significantly as

  16. Elucidating PID Degradation Mechanisms and In Situ Dark I-V Monitoring for Modeling Degradation Rate in CdTe Thin-Film Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve

    2016-01-01

    A progression of potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms are observed in CdTe modules, including shunting/junction degradation and two different manifestations of series resistance depending on the stress level and water ingress. The dark I-V method for in-situ characterization of Pmax bas...

  17. XPS-and-DFT analyses of the Pb 4f — Zn 3s and Pb 5d — O 2s overlapped ambiguity contributions to the final electronic structure of bulk and thin-film Pb-modulated zincite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatsepin, D.A. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Boukhvalov, D.W., E-mail: danil@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics Department, Ural Federal University,Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, N.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurmaev, E.Z. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A.F. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Cui, L. [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Shur, V. Ya.; Esin, A.A. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Ave, 620000 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Two modes of ZnO:Pb in the bulk and surface morphologies were established: the high- and low-interaction. • It was shown the ambiguity contribution of Pb 4f − Zn 3s and Pb 5d − O 2s states into final electronic structure. • The main type of defects is PbO-like with some PbO{sub 2}-like contributions. • An applied wurzite-like structural model well agrees with experimental data obtained for zincite. - Abstract: The electronic structures of zincite Pb-modulated bulk and thin-films were studied via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) techniques. Both XPS data and DFT-calculations allowed the derivation of two different Pb-embedding scenarios into the ZnO-hosts. These included the high-interaction mode of Pb-impurity with initial zinc-oxygen host-lattice for the bulk morphology, accompanied with low Pb-metal losses; and the low-interaction mode for thin-films, where there was intake of Pb-impurities into the hollows of the surface. Despite dissimilar mechanisms of Pb-impurity accumulation and distribution in the bulk and thin-films zincite host-matrices, the strong Pb 4f — Zn 3s and Pb 5d — O 2s overlapped ambiguity contribution to the appropriate core-level structure and valence bands was established by XPS analysis and reproduced with the help of DFT-calculations. It was shown that the microscopic structure of the embedded lead-impurity played a crucial role in the Pb ion-beam stimulated synthesis of secondary lead-oxygen phases via large-area defect fabrication, and the difference among zincite and wurzite polymorphs played almost no role in this case.

  18. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules, development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells (development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was made with an objective to achieve conversion efficiency of 13% in a 30 cm times 30 cm size submodule of a CIS-based thin film solar cell, and to develop a manufacturing technology that can achieve 140 yen/Wp. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. In fiscal 1997, based on the achievements reached during the previous year, a submodule with a size of 10 cm times 30 cm was fabricated for an attempt of improving the open voltage and short circuit current density. Simultaneously, the applicability thereof to a module with an area as large as 30 cm times 30 cm was evaluated. As a result of experimental discussions, enhancement in the open voltage was verified by increasing amount of Ga or sulfur, but it was not possible to achieve 600 mV or higher. In the research of component technologies to establish a mass production process, research and development was made on a high-resistance buffer layer film forming technology, a high-quality window layer film forming technology, a high-quality metallic rear electrode film forming technology, and patterning technologies. The outdoor exposure test was continued on laminated mini-modules with a size of 10 cm times 10 cm. (NEDO)

  19. Influence of ion irradiation on internal residual stress in DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaseov, Platon A., E-mail: platon.karaseov@rphf.spbstu.r [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Podsvirov, Oleg A.; Karabeshkin, Konstantin V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, Andrei Ya. [Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute RAS, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 195252 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Azarov, Alexander Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Karasev, Nikita N. [State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Sablinskaya Str. 14, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Titov, Andrei I.; Smirnov, Alexander S. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-01

    The dependence of internal residual stress in thin diamond-like carbon films grown on Si substrate by PECVD technique on most important growth parameters, namely RF-power, DC bias voltage and substrate temperature, is described. Results show that compressive stress reaches the highest value of 2.7 GPa at low RF-power and DC bias. Increase of substrate temperature from 250 to 350 {sup o}C leads to nonlinear increase of stress value. Inhomogeneity of residual stress along the film surface disappears when film is deposited at temperatures above 275 {sup o}C. Post-growth film irradiation by P{sup +} and In{sup +} ions cause decrease of compressive stress followed by its inversion to tensile. For all ion energy combinations used residual stress changes linearly with normalized fluence up to 0.2 DPA with slope (8.7 {+-} 1.3) GPa/DPA.

  20. On the modulation of oxygen sensitivity of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films: effects of moisture and dc bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yihao; Koley, Goutam [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Oxygen sensing characteristics of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film at room temperature have been investigated through conductivity measurements using interdigitated metal finger patterned devices. We observed that the O{sub 2} sensitivity gets affected very significantly in presence of moisture, as well as with applied dc bias. The O{sub 2} sensitivity was found to increase several times in moist ambient compared to dry ambient condition. Higher dc bias also dramatically improved the sensitivity, which varied more than two orders of magnitude as the dc bias was increased from 0.5 to 10 V. We propose that the observed increase in sensitivity in presence of moisture is caused by enhanced surface electron density on In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film resulting from the donation of electrons caused by the chemisorbed water molecules. The adsorption of O{sub 2} molecules, which subsequently formed O{sub 2}{sup -} ions, leads to chemical gating of the sensor devices, which under larger dc bias produced a higher fractional change in current leading to higher sensitivity. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2006-07-01

    The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

  2. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Annual Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--30 September 2003 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Shea, S. P.

    2004-04-01

    The goal of BP Solar's Crystalline PVMaT program is to improve the present polycrystalline silicon manufacturing facility to reduce cost, improve efficiency, and increase production capacity. Key components of the program are: increasing ingot size; improving ingot material quality; improving material handling; developing wire saws to slice 100 ..mu..m thick silicon wafers on 200 ..mu..m centers; developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers; developing cell processes using 100 ..mu..m thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%; expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control; establishing a 50 MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology; and facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock.

  3. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Annual Subcontract Report, 1 October 2003--30 September 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2005-03-01

    The major objectives of this program are to continue the advancement of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The program includes work in the following areas: Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations; developing wire saws to slice 100- m-thick silicon wafers on 290- m centers; developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers; developing cell processes using 100- m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%; expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control; establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology; facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock.

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell / low-cost and large-area module / next-generation thin-film solar cell (Manufacture of thin-film polycrystalline solar module); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fiscal 1997 is the first year of another 4-year-long research and development phase. In addition to researches for improving on thin-film polycrystalline Si cell efficiency that have been under way, new efforts are started, which include the development of practicality-conscious thin film producing technologies aiming at higher throughput and yield and the development of modularization process technologies which are necessary for putting thin-film cells to practical use. Concerning the formation of a power generation layer on a polycrystalline Si thin film formed by the ZMR (zone-melting recrystallization) process, studies are conducted for improvement on its throughput and yield using a new CVD (chemical vapor deposition) unit. A method of modularization is evaluated, which involves a laminate of a thin-film cell attached to a resin-coated, reinforced glass substrate and an EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) back film. A remarkable achievement is earned toward the practicalization of technologies of thin film formation enhanced in quality and throughput and technologies of thin film modularization. (NEDO)

  5. Scale-Up of the Electrodeposition of ZnO/Eosin Y Hybrid Thin Films for the Fabrication of Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bittner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The low-temperature fabrication of flexible ZnO photo-anodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs by templated electrochemical deposition of films was performed in an enlarged and technical simplified deposition setup to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale-up of the deposition process. After extraction of eosin Y (EY from the initially deposited ZnO/EY hybrid films, mesoporous ZnO films with an area of about 40 cm2 were reproducibly obtained on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO-glass as well as flexible indium tin oxide (ITO–polyethylenterephthalate (PET substrates. With a film thickness of up to 9 µm and a high specific surface area of up to about 77 m2·cm−3 the ZnO films on the flexible substrates show suitable properties for DSSCs. Operative flexible DSSC modules proved the suitability of the ZnO films for use as DSSC photo-anodes. Under a low light intensity of about 0.007 sun these modules achieved decent performance parameters with conversion efficiencies of up to 2.58%. With rising light intensity the performance parameters deteriorated, leading to conversion efficiencies below 1% at light intensities above 0.5 sun. The poor performance of the modules under high light intensities can be attributed to their high series resistances.

  6. Scale-Up of the Electrodeposition of ZnO/Eosin Y Hybrid Thin Films for the Fabrication of Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oekermann, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    The low-temperature fabrication of flexible ZnO photo-anodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by templated electrochemical deposition of films was performed in an enlarged and technical simplified deposition setup to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale-up of the deposition process. After extraction of eosin Y (EY) from the initially deposited ZnO/EY hybrid films, mesoporous ZnO films with an area of about 40 cm2 were reproducibly obtained on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)-glass as well as flexible indium tin oxide (ITO)–polyethylenterephthalate (PET) substrates. With a film thickness of up to 9 µm and a high specific surface area of up to about 77 m2·cm−3 the ZnO films on the flexible substrates show suitable properties for DSSCs. Operative flexible DSSC modules proved the suitability of the ZnO films for use as DSSC photo-anodes. Under a low light intensity of about 0.007 sun these modules achieved decent performance parameters with conversion efficiencies of up to 2.58%. With rising light intensity the performance parameters deteriorated, leading to conversion efficiencies below 1% at light intensities above 0.5 sun. The poor performance of the modules under high light intensities can be attributed to their high series resistances. PMID:29393910

  7. Controllable synthesizing DLC nano structures as a super hydrophobic layer on cotton fabric using a low-cost ethanol electrospray-assisted atmospheric plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Eshghabadi, M.; Mohsenpour, T.

    2018-06-01

    The surface modification of cotton samples was carried out using a liquid (ethanol) electrospray-assisted atmospheric pressure plasma jet. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman analysis confirmed the successful deposition of diamond like carbon (DLC) nano structures on the cotton surface. The super hydrophobic state of the samples was probed by contact angle measurements. The water repellency of the layers was tuned by controlling the voltage applied to the electrospray electrode. An investigation of the morphological and chemical structures of the samples by field emission scanning microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and XPS indicated that the physical shape, distribution and amorphization of the DLC structures were successfully adjusted and improved by applying a voltage to the electrospray electrode. Finally wash durability of the best sample was tested for 35 cycles. In this work, the use of a well-developed atmospheric pressure plasma jet for DLC nano structures deposition can enable a promising environmentally friendly and low-cost approach for modifying cotton fabrics for super water-repellent fabric applications.

  8. Design and rapid prototyping of DLC coated fractal surfaces for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Lantada, A; Mosquera, A; Endrino, J L; Lafont, P

    2010-01-01

    Several medical devices (both implantable and for in vitro diagnosis) benefit greatly from having microtextured surfaces that help to improve and promote phenomena such as osteointegracion and cell / tissue growth on the surface of a device. Normally, the use of abrasives or chemical attacks are employed for obtaining such surface microtextures, however, it is sometimes difficult to precisely control the final surface characteristics (porosity, roughness, among others) and consequently the related biological aspects. In this work, we propose an alternative process based on the use of fractal surface models for designing special surfaces, which helps controlling the desired contact properties (from the design stage) in multiple applications within biomedical engineering, especially regarding tissue engineering tasks. Manufacturing can be directly accomplished by means of rapid prototyping technologies. This method supposes a focus change from a conventional 'top-down' to a more versatile 'bottom-up' approach. Finally, in order to improve the possible biological response, the surfaces of the designed devices were coated with hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films, known to be highly biocompatible materials. The films were deposited at room temperature using the vacuum filter cathodic arc technique. Our first prototypes have helped verify the viability of the approach and to validate the design, manufacturing and coating processes.

  9. Design and rapid prototyping of DLC coated fractal surfaces for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Lantada, A; Mosquera, A; Endrino, J L; Lafont, P, E-mail: adiaz@etsii.upm.es

    2010-11-01

    Several medical devices (both implantable and for in vitro diagnosis) benefit greatly from having microtextured surfaces that help to improve and promote phenomena such as osteointegracion and cell / tissue growth on the surface of a device. Normally, the use of abrasives or chemical attacks are employed for obtaining such surface microtextures, however, it is sometimes difficult to precisely control the final surface characteristics (porosity, roughness, among others) and consequently the related biological aspects. In this work, we propose an alternative process based on the use of fractal surface models for designing special surfaces, which helps controlling the desired contact properties (from the design stage) in multiple applications within biomedical engineering, especially regarding tissue engineering tasks. Manufacturing can be directly accomplished by means of rapid prototyping technologies. This method supposes a focus change from a conventional 'top-down' to a more versatile 'bottom-up' approach. Finally, in order to improve the possible biological response, the surfaces of the designed devices were coated with hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films, known to be highly biocompatible materials. The films were deposited at room temperature using the vacuum filter cathodic arc technique. Our first prototypes have helped verify the viability of the approach and to validate the design, manufacturing and coating processes.

  10. Caracterización de recubrimientos DLC/Si bajo la influencia de un fluido biológico simulado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Vargas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los materiales más usados como biomaterial es el acero 316LVM; sin embargo, presenta complicaciones al trabajarlo como reemplazo permanente, debido a que libera iones metálicos a los tejidos, generando aumento en el número de intervenciones que deben realizarse; ante esto, se estudia cómo mejorar el comportamiento de materiales convencionales mediante recubrimientos que elevan sus propiedades mecánicas y anticorrosivas, incrementando su vida útil. Se evaluó el comportamiento ante el fenómeno de micro-abrasión-corrosión de recubrimientos DLC/Si depositados mediante la técnica de deposición química de vapor asistida por plasma en contacto con solución de Ringer, simulando un ambiente biológico. Los resultados indican que el recubrimiento experimenta un aumento en el volumen de desgaste cuando se encuentra sometido al mecanismo de micro-abrasión-corrosión en relación con la prueba de solo microabrasión, además, la pérdida más significativa se encuentra en el sustrato sin recubrimiento; esto demuestra el efecto protector del recubrimiento.

  11. Effect of additional sample bias in Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) on microstructural, surface and mechanical properties of Si-DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Mingzhong [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Tian, Xiubo, E-mail: xiubotian@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Muqin [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Gong, Chunzhi [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Ronghua [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition is proposed. • The deposited Si-DLC films possess denser structures and high deposition rate. • It is attributed to ion bombardment of the deposited films. • The ion energy can be independently controlled by an additional bias (novel set up). - Abstract: Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) using cage-like hollow cathode discharge is a modified process of conventional PIID, but it allows the deposition of thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films (up to 50 μm) at a high deposition rate (up to 6.5 μm/h). To further improve the DLC film properties, a new approach to the MPIID process is proposed, in which the energy of ions incident to the sample surface can be independently controlled by an additional voltage applied between the samples and the metal meshed cage. In this study, the meshed cage was biased with a pulsed DC power supply at −1350 V peak voltage for the plasma generation, while the samples inside the cage were biased with a DC voltage from 0 V to −500 V with respect to the cage to study its effect. Si-DLC films were synthesized with a mixture of Ar, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and tetramethylsilane (TMS). After the depositions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to study the morphology, surface roughness, chemical bonding and structure, and the surface hardness as well as the modulus of elasticity of the Si-DLC films. It was observed that the intense ion bombardment significantly densified the films, reduced the surface roughness, reduced the H and Si contents, and increased the nanohardness (H) and modulus of elasticity (E), whereas the deposition rate decreased slightly. Using the H and E data, high values of H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} and H/E were obtained on the biased films, indicating the potential excellent mechanical and tribological properties of the films. In this

  12. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  13. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  14. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  15. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of (Pb, Sn)Te Thermoelectric Modules with Cu Electrodes Using a Thin-Film Sn Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. H.; Lin, H. J.; Chuang, C. H.; Yeh, W. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    A (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element plated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer has been joined with a Cu electrode coated with Ag and Sn thin films using a solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding method. This method allows the interfacial reaction between Ag and Sn such that Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds form at low temperature and are stable at high temperature. In this study, the bonding strength was about 6.6 MPa, and the specimens fractured along the interface between the (Pb, Sn)Te thermoelectric element and the Ni barrier layer. Pre-electroplating a film of Sn with a thickness of about 1 μm on the thermoelectric element and pre-heating at 250°C for 3 min ensures the adhesion between the thermoelectric material and the Ni barrier layer. The bonding strength is thus increased to a maximal value of 12.2 MPa, and most of the fractures occur inside the thermoelectric material. During the bonding process, not only the Ag3Sn intermetallics but also Cu6Sn5 forms at the Ag3Sn/Cu interface, which transforms into Cu3Sn with increases in the bonding temperature or bonding time.

  16. Optimization of laser scribing for thin-film PV modules. Final technical progress report, 12 April 1995--11 October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A.D.; Matulionis, I.; Nakade, S. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This report covers the work done by the University of Toledo under this subcontract. Researchers determined the threshold power densities for the onset of ablation from thin films of CdTe, CuInSe{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}:F, ZnO:Al, gold, and molybdenum for 12 different wavelength laser systems using wide variations of laser pulse durations. Optimum energy density for the most efficient removal of material during scribing strongly depends on the wavelength of the laser and, to a smaller extent, on the pulse duration. The optimum energy densities range from 0.5 J/sq cm for the 532-nm, 8-nsec YAG pulse on CdTe to 0.2 J/sq cm for the excimer laser at 308 nm on CIS. Poor scribing of CdTe was seen with the 1064-nm beam, ZnO was scribed poorly by all lasers except for the excimer laser. Excellent scribe profiles were observed with the 308-nm excimer lasers on all materials including ZnO.

  17. FY 1999 research and development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies for production of thin-film solar cells and low-cost, large-area modules (Development of technologies for high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for production of low-cost, large-area modules of CdTe solar cells by the high-quality film-making process and high-function patterning, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The research program for the large-area TCO film-making technologies involves investigations on improvement of SnO{sub 2} film quality by the mist method and continuous film-making, which lead to continuous, stable production of 34 substrates of low resistance of 9.7{omega} on the average. The program for production of the large-area, thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells involves production of TCO and CdS by the mist method, and patterning of the laminated TCO/CdS film by laser scribing. The CdTe film is formed by the atmospheric pressure CSS method, and treated with CdCl{sub 2} to improve its crystallinity. The CdTe film is patterned by sand blasting, and provided with the carbon and silver electrodes by screen printing, to complete the cell. The process is totally effected at the atmospheric pressure, needing no vacuum device. The CdTe solar cell assembly (130 cells connected in series, opening area: 5,413cm{sup 2}), fabricated on a trial basis, achieves a conversion efficiency of 10%. (NEDO)

  18. Technology support for initiation of high-throughput processing of thin-film CdTe PV modules. Phase 1 technical report, March 14, 1995--March 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasala, R.; Powell, R.; Dorer, G. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Progress has been made in the important areas of stability, advanced deposition techniques, efficiency, the back contact, no-contact film diagnostics (photoluminescence) and Cd waste control. The progress in stability has been in both the demonstration of devices maintaining at least 90% of the initial efficiency for over 19,000 hours of continuous light soak and the development of methods which can accurately predict long term behavior based on the first 5,000--10,000 hours of life. Experiments were conducted to determine if device behavior could be accelerated with thermal or voltage stresses. Notable achievements in deposition technology include depositing CdTe on a 3,600 cm{sup 2} substrate at 600 torr and designing and fabricating a new deposition feed system with a remote semiconductor source. The efficiency has been increased on small area devices to 13.3% by decreasing the thickness of the CdS and of the glass substrate. Work also focused on using a high resistivity SnO{sub 2} buffer layer between the TCO and thin CdS to help preserve the open-circuit voltage while increasing the current-density. The back contacting process has been simplified by replacing the wet post-deposition etch with a vapor Te deposition step on small area devices. Results show that the devices perform comparably in efficiency but better in stability under light-soaking and open-circuit conditions. Preliminary studies of the correlation between CdS photoluminescence after the chloride treatment and the final device efficiency have shown a positive correlation which may be applicable for in-line quality control. The final area of progress was through the successful demonstration of preventing at least 99.9% of all incoming Cd from leaving in an uncontrolled manner through the land, air or water.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells/development of technology to manufacture low-cost large-area modules/development of technology to manufacture next generation thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction); 1997 nendo tiayoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module esizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A thin film single crystal silicon solar cell module is developed, in which a porous silicon layer is formed on the surface of a long-sized single crystal silicon substrate, a single crystal silicon film is integrated on the layer by epitaxially growing the film thereon to form a solar cell, and the solar cell is peeled off from the silicon substrate and transferred to a plastic film substrate. The achievements during this fiscal year may be summarized as follows: simultaneous formation of a porous silicon layer on a silicon substrate, reduction of anode formation current density from 200 mA/cm{sup 2} to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, development of a silicon epitaxial device using a carbon heater, and attainment of aperture conversion efficiency of 11.8% in a thin film single crystal silicon solar cell. Three kinds of methods were developed to peel off the solar cell. A method was developed to grind silicon substrate surface from which the solar cell has been peeled off. A technology was developed to obtain a long-sized silicon substrate of about 30 cm times 10 cm times 0.1 cm from a 4-inch silicon ingot by using a wire saw. (NEDO)

  20. Enhancement of TE polarized light extraction efficiency in nanoscale (AlN)m /(GaN)n (m>n) superlattice substitution for Al-rich AlGaN disorder alloy: ultra-thin GaN layer modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xin-he; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhong, Hong-xia; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-min; Yu, Tong-jun; Shen, Bo; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xihua

    2014-01-01

    The problem of achieving high light extraction efficiency in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N is of paramount importance for the realization of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) optoelectronic devices. To solve this problem, we investigate the microscopic mechanism of valence band inversion and light polarization, a crucial factor for enhancing light extraction efficiency, in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N alloy using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof hybrid functional, local-density approximation with 1/2 occupation, and the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof functional, in which the spin–orbit coupling effect is included. We find that the microscopic Ga-atom distribution can effectively modulate the valence band structure of Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N. Moreover, we prove that the valence band arrangement in the decreasing order of heavy hole, light hole, and crystal-field split-off hole can be realized by using nanoscale (AlN) m /(GaN) n (m>n) superlattice (SL) substituting for Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N disorder alloy as the active layer of optoelectronic devices due to the ultra-thin GaN layer modulation. The valence band maximum, i.e., the heavy hole band, has p x - and p y -like characteristics and is highly localized in the SL structure, which leads to the desired transverse electric (TE) polarized (E⊥c) light emission with improved light extraction efficiency in the DUV spectral region. Some important band-structure parameters and electron/hole effective masses are also given. The physical origin for the valence band inversion and TE polarization in (AlN) m /(GaN) n SL is analyzed in depth. (paper)

  1. Technology support for initiation of high-throughput processing of thin-film CdTe PV modules. Phase 3 final technical report, 14 March 1997--1 April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.C.; Dorer, G.L.; Jayamaha, U.; Hanak, J.J. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Thin-film PV devices based on cadmium telluride have been identified as one of the candidates for high-performance, low-cost source of renewable electrical energy. Roadblocks to their becoming a part of the booming PV market growth have been a low rate of production and high manufacturing cost caused by several rate-limiting process steps. Solar Cells Inc. has focused on the development of manufacturing processes that will lead to high volume and low-cost manufacturing of solar cells and on increasing the performance of the present product. The process research in Phase 3 was concentrated on further refinement of a newly developed vapor transport deposition (VTD) process and its implementation into the manufacturing line. This development included subsystems for glass substrate transport, continuous feed of source materials, generation of source vapors, and uniform deposition of the semiconductor layers. As a result of this R and D effort, the VTD process has now achieved a status in which linear coating speeds in excess of 8 ft/min have been achieved for the semiconductor, equal to about two modules per minute, or 144 kW per 24 hour day. The process has been implemented in a production line, which is capable of round-the-clock continuous production of coated substrates 120 cm x 60 cm in size at a rate of 1 module every four minutes, equal to 18 kW/day. Currently the system cycle time is limited by the rate of glass introduction into the system and glass heating, but not by the rate of the semiconductor deposition. A new SCI record efficiency of 14.1% has been achieved for the cells.

  2. Enhanced tunability of electrical and magnetic properties in (La,Sr)MnO3 thin films via field-assisted oxygen vacancy modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hon Fai; Ng, Sheung Mei; Cheng, Wang Fai; Liu, Yukuai; Chen, Xinxin; von Nordheim, Danny; Mak, Chee Leung; Dai, Jiyan; Ploss, Bernd; Leung, Chi Wah

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the tunability of the transport and magnetic properties in 7.5 nm La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) epitaxial films in a field effect geometry with the ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate insulator. Two different switching behaviors were observed upon application of gate voltages with either high or low magnitudes. The application of single voltage pulses of alternating polarity with an amplitude high enough to switch the remanent polarization of the ferroelectric copolymer led to a 15% change of the resistance of the LSMO channel at temperature 300 K (but less than 1% change at 20 K). A minimal shift of the peak in the resistance-temperature plot was observed, implying that the Curie temperature TC of the manganite layer is not changed. Alternatively, the application of a chain of low voltage pulses was found to shift TC by more than 16 K, and a change of the channel resistance by a 45% was obtained. We attribute this effect to the field-assisted injection and removal of oxygen vacancies in the LSMO layer, which can occur across the thickness of the oxide film. By controlling the oxygen migration, the low-field switching route offers a simple method for modulating the electric and magnetic properties of manganite films.

  3. The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN/DLC1/LC8) binding does not inhibit the NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, a key step in NO synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhad, Swapnil S; Jaiswal, Deepa; Ray, Krishanu; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2016-03-25

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent neurotransmitter. Although previous studies have indicated that the dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) binding to nNOS could inhibit the NO synthesis, the claim is challenged by contradicting reports. Thus, the mechanism of nNOS regulation remained unclear. nNOS has a heme-bearing, Cytochrome P450 core, and the functional enzyme is a dimer. The electron flow from NADPH to Flavin, and finally to the heme of the paired nNOS subunit within a dimer, is facilitated upon calmodulin (CaM) binding. Here, we show that DLC1 binding to nNOS-CaM complex does not affect the electron transport from the reductase to the oxygenase domain. Therefore, it cannot inhibit the rate of NADPH-dependent heme reduction in nNOS, which results in l-Arginine oxidation. Also, the NO release activity does not decrease with increasing DLC1 concentration in the reaction mix, which further confirmed that DLC1 does not inhibit nNOS activity. These findings suggest that the DLC1 binding may have other implications for the nNOS function in the cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. TiO2-NT electrodes modified with Ag and diamond like carbon (DLC) for hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Evrim; Baz, Zeynep; Esen, Ramazan; Yazici Devrim, Birgül

    2017-10-01

    In present work, the two-step anodization technique was applied for synthesis of TiO2 nanotube (NT). Silver and diamond like carbon (DLC) were coated on the surface of as prepared TiO2-NT using chemical reduction method and MW ECR plasma system. The morphology, composition and structure of the electrodes were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that Ag nanoparticles, having size in the range of 48-115 nm, are evenly distributed on the top, inside and outside surface of TiO2-NT and when DLC was coated on the surface of TiO2-NT and TiO2-NT-Ag, the top of nanotubes were partially open and the pore diameter of hexagonal structure decreased from 165 nm to of 38-80 nm. On the other hand, the microhardness test and contact angle measurements revealed that additions of Ag and diamond like carbon have a positive effect on the mechanical properties of TiO2-NT film. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) were investigated by the electrochemical measurements recorded in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, long-term durability of electrodes towards HER and the energy consumption of alkaline electrolysis were investigated. The energy requirement showed that while the deposition of silver provides approximately 14.95% savings of the energy consumption, the DLC coating causes increase in energy consumption.

  5. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (production technology for amorphous silicon solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of amorphous Si solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On process technology for prototype film substrate solar cells, an advanced preprocessing equipment for film substrates, stepping roll type film forming technology, and prototype submodules were studied. A conversion efficiency of 7.2% was achieved by use of the submodule formed in an effective region of 40 {times} 40cm{sup 2}. (2) On efficiency improvement technology for film substrate solar cells, p/i and n/i interfaces, forming condition for Ag film electrodes, film thickness of transparent electrode ITO, and optimum transmissivity were studied. (3) On technology for advanced solar cells, high-quality a-SiGe: H film, ion control in plasma CVD, and a-Si film formation by plasma CVD using SiH2Cl2 were studied as production technology of narrow gap materials. (4) On advanced two-layer tandem solar cells, the defect density in optical degradation of a-Si cells by reverse bias dark current was evaluated, and outdoor exposure data were analyzed. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (CdS/CdTe solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (CdTe taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of CdS/CdTe solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology for high-efficiency large-area solar cells, high-quality CdTe active layer was studied. S content taken in the active layer at sintering of CdTe decreased with an increase in formed CdTe, resulting in improvement of Voc of cells. (2) On the window layer with wide band gap, the solar cell superior in collection efficiency and photoelectric characteristics could be obtained using the newly developed mixed crystal film of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)S. (3) On the forming technology of large-area coating/sintering films, improvement of CdS film quality was studied by pressurized processing of printed CdS films. As a result, improvement of film density and light transmissivity was confirmed. (4) On the leveling process technology of CdTe films, smooth surface films were obtained by experiment using an equipment simultaneously exciting samples in all directions as one of uniform coating methods of films. 7 figs.

  7. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - Development of production technology of thin film solar cells. Development of production technology of low-cost/large-area modules (Development of production technology of application type new structure thin film solar cells/Development of production technology of amorphous silicon-thin film polycrystal silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Oyogata shinkozo hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Amorufasusilicon hakumaku takessho silicon hybrid hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the application type new structure thin film solar cell that is low-cost, high-efficient and practical, a developmental study was made of production technology of amorphous silicon/thin film polycrystal silicon hybrid thin film solar cells, and the FY 2000 results were reported. In the study of the heightening of efficiency of the small area hybrid cell, a structure was adopted in which a transparent intermediate layer was installed between a-Si cell and bottom poly-Si cell, and the initial efficiency of 14.0% was obtained in the small area cell 1cm square. As to the large area hybrid module, the initial efficiency of 11.7% and maximum output of 44.9W were achieved in the large area substrate module with a size of 910 x 455mm. In the indoor/outdoor evaluation of the output of hybrid modules, conducted were the outdoor measurement and the output measurement made every season under the mock spectral light in two-light simulator. In summer, F.F. was improved by spectral gain and anneal effect, and the effective output about 8% higher was recognized in the module after stabilization. (NEDO)

  8. Thin Places

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Sandra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry into the three great quests of the twentieth century–the South Pole, Mount Everest, and the Moon–examines our motivations to venture into these sublime, yet life-taking places. The Thin Place was once the destination of the religious pilgrim seeking transcendence in an extreme environment. In our age, the Thin Place quest has morphed into a challenge to evolve beyond the confines of our own physiology; through human ingenuity and invention, we reach places not meant to accommod...

  9. The Effect of Bias Voltage and Gas Pressure on the Structure, Adhesion and Wear Behavior of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC Coatings With Si Interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Ward

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study diamond like carbon (DLC coatings with Si interlayers were deposited on 316L stainless steel with varying gas pressure and substrate bias voltage using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technology. Coating and interlayer thickness values were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS which also revealed the presence of a gradient layer at the coating substrate interface. Coatings were evaluated in terms of the hardness, elastic modulus, wear behavior and adhesion. Deposition rate generally increased with increasing bias voltage and increasing gas pressure. At low working gas pressures, hardness and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing bias voltage. Reduced hardness and modulus of elasticity were observed at higher gas pressures. Increased adhesion was generally observed at lower bias voltages and higher gas pressures. All DLC coatings significantly improved the overall wear resistance of the base material. Lower wear rates were observed for coatings deposited with lower bias voltages. For coatings that showed wear tracks considerably deeper than the coating thickness but without spallation, the wear behavior was largely attributed to deformation of both the coating and substrate with some cracks at the wear track edges. This suggests that coatings deposited under certain conditions can exhibit ultra high flexible properties.

  10. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  11. Product Purchases by DLC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains a list of items in case units by category and supplier that have been purchased by the Department of Liquor Control in the past month. Update...

  12. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and dessolution deposition process); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu (yokai sekishutsuho))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to manufacture low-cost large-area solar cell modules, developmental research has been performed on a film manufacturing technology using the dessolution deposition process. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a technology to form a thin silicon film directly on carbon substrates being substrates of different kinds, without using seed crystals. The researches made up to the previous fiscal year has made possible to form the film onto a substrate of about 5-cm square, has fabricated cells although with a small area, and indicated the importance of reducing concentrations of impurities in the solvent metals used. The researches performed during the current fiscal year executed modifications to reduce the temperature distribution in the substrate surfaces, including size increase in the heater, and improvement in the cooling heat conduction mechanism. As a result, films were formed successfully on 7.5-cm square substrates. In reducing the process temperatures, it was made clear that films can be formed at lower than 700 degrees C by using zinc as a solvent metal. Furthermore, the purity enhancement in the solvent metal achieved a conversion efficiency of 11.6% although the area is as small as 3.73 cm{sup 2}. (NEDO)

  13. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of high-reliability CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for reliable CdTe solar cell modules, large in area and high in efficiency. In the study of large-area CdS thin film fabrication, a conversion efficiency of 12.5-14.2% was achieved in a cell in a large-area substrate using a mist method-aided process of continuous CdS film fabrication. In the study of large-area CdTe thin film fabrication, the optimization was studied of the base-forming CdS film fabrication conditions and of the CdTe film fabrication conditions in a method using a CdTe powder processed by dry kneading, and a conversion efficiency peak was found to exist when the CdS film thickness was in the range of 700-900 angstrom. In the fabrication of large-area submodules, a large-area substrate was taken up, and TCO (transparent conducting oxide) film was fabricated by the mist method, CdTe film by the normal pressure CSS method, electrodes by the screen printing method, and CdTe film patterns by the blast method. As the result, a conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. In a cost estimation for large-area CdTe solar cell modules, 140 yen/Wp (conversion efficiency: 11.0%, annual production: 100 MW) was obtained. (NEDO)

  14. Laser plasma generation of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon thin films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tube materials and silicon wafers with a pulsed high-power CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.; Mouris, J.F.; Hoffmann, C.R.J.; Davis, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first experiments on the laser plasma deposition of hydrogen-free, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure-tube materials and silicon substrates, using the short-pulse, high-power, CO 2 laser in the High-Power Laser Laboratory at Chalk River Laboratories. The films were (AFM). The thin films show the characteristic signature of DLC films in the Raman spectra obtained using a krypton-ion (Kr + ) laser. The Vickers ultra-low-load microhardness tests show hardness of the coated surface of approximately 7000 Kg force mm -2 , which is consistent with the hardness associated with DLC films. AFM examination of the film morphology shows diamond-like crystals distributed throughout the film, with film thicknesses of up to 0.5 μm generated with 50 laser pulses. With significantly more laser pulses, it is expected that very uniform diamond-like films would be produced. These experiments suggest that it should be possible to deposit hydrogen-free, diamond-like films of relevance to nuclear reactor components with a high-power and high-repetition-rate laser facility. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  15. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of application type novel-structure thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of amorphous silicon/thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / amorphous silicon/usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to manufacture the above for the development of low-cost high-efficiency practical cells. Technologies were developed to homogeneously fabricate films with an average efficiency of 10% or more in a 100mm times 85mm area in a STAR (naturally surface texture and enhanced absorption with a back reflector) structure thin-film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) solar cell. The texture shape was improved for a higher light trapping effect and a STAR structure cell highly sensitive to long wavelengths and fit for use for a hybrid cell bottom layer was obtained. Various cells were examined for temperature characteristics, and it was found that thin-film poly-Si cells present a temperature coefficient equal to or less than that of bulk single-crystal silicon systems, and hybrid cells a temperature coefficient similar to that of a-Si systems. The technology was applied to a hybrid solar cell in which an a-Si cell was placed on STAR structure thin film poly-Si cells, and a resultant 3-layer a-Si/poly-Si/poly-Si cell exhibited a stabilization factor of 12.0% after 550 hours of optical irradiation. (NEDO)

  16. Nanocomposite metal amorphous-carbon thin films deposited by hybrid PVD and PECVD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, V; Soares, P; Martins, A J; Carneiro, J; Cerqueira, F

    2009-07-01

    Carbon based films can combine the properties of solid lubricating graphite structure and hard diamond crystal structure, i.e., high hardness, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity and optical transparency without the crystalline structure of diamond. Issues of fundamental importance associated with nanocarbon coatings are reducing stress, improving adhesion and compatibility with substrates. In this work new nanocomposite coatings with improved toughness based in nanocrystalline phases of metals and ceramics embedded in amorphous carbon matrix are being developed within the frame of a research project: nc-MeNxCy/a-C(Me) with Me = Mo, Si, Al, Ti, etc. Carbide forming metal/carbon (Me/C) composite films with Me = Mo, W or Ti possess appropriate properties to overcome the limitation of pure DLC films. These novel coating architectures will be adopted with the objective to decrease residual stress, improve adherence and fracture toughness, obtain low friction coefficient and high wear-resistance. Nanocomposite DLC's films were deposited by hybrid technique using a PVD-Physically Vapor Deposition (magnetron sputtering) and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), by the use of CH4 gas. The parameters varied were: deposition time, substrate temperature (180 degrees C) and dopant (Si + Mo) of the amorphous carbon matrix. All the depositions were made on silicon wafers and steel substrates precoated with a silicon inter-layer. The characterisation of the film's physico-mechanical properties will be presented in order to understand the influence of the deposition parameters and metal content used within the a-C matrix in the thin film properties. Film microstructure and film hybridization state was characterized by Raman Spectroscopy. In order to characterize morphology SEM and AFM will be used. Film composition was measured by Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angle for the produced DLC's on

  17. Deposition of thin films and surface modification by pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Pengxun; Yang Size

    2002-01-01

    The use of pulsed high energy density plasma is a new low temperature plasma technology for material surface treatment and thin film deposition. The authors present detailed theoretical and experimental studies of the production mechanism and physical properties of the pulsed plasma. The basic physics of the pulsed plasma-material interaction has been investigated. Diagnostic measurements show that the pulsed plasma has a high electron temperature of 10-100 eV, density of 10 14 -10 16 cm -3 , translation velocity of ∼10 -7 cm/s and power density of ∼10 4 W/cm 2 . Its use in material surface treatment combines the effects of laser surface treatment, electron beam treatment, shock wave bombardment, ion implantation, sputtering deposition and chemical vapor deposition. The metastable phase and other kinds of compounds can be produced on low temperature substrates. For thin film deposition, a high deposition ratio and strong film to substrate adhesion can be achieved. The thin film deposition and material surface modification by the pulsed plasma and related physical mechanism have been investigated. Thin film c-BN, Ti(CN), TiN, DLC and AlN materials have been produced successfully on various substrates at room temperature. A wide interface layer exists between film and substrate, resulting in strong adhesion. Metal surface properties can be improved greatly by using this kind of treatment

  18. Mechanical properties, chemical analysis and evaluation of antimicrobial response of Si-DLC coatings fabricated on AISI 316 LVM substrate by a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method for potential biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Sobczyk-Guzenda, Anna; Szymanski, Witold; Jedrzejczak, Anna; Jastrzebska, Aleksandra; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    In this study silicon doped diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) coatings were synthesized on two substrates: silicon and AISI 316LVM stainless steel using a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method. The Si content in the films ranged between 4 and 16 at.%, and was controlled by the electrical power applied in RF regime to Si cathode target. The character of the chemical bonds was revealed by FTIR analysis. With the addition of silicon the hydroxyl absorption (band in the range of 3200-3600 cm-1) increased what suggests more hydrophilic character of the coating. There were also observed significant changes in bonding of Si atoms. For low content of dopant, Si-O-Si bond system is predominant, while for the highest content of silicon there is an evidence of the shift to Si-C bonds in close proximity to methyl groups. The Raman spectroscopy revealed that the G peak position is shifted to a lower wavenumber and the ID/IG ratio decreased with increasing Si content, which indicates an increase in the C-sp3 content. Regardless of the coatings' composition, the improvement of hardness in comparison to pure substrate material (AISI 316 LVM) was observed. Although the reduction of the level of hardness from the level of 10.8 GPa for pure DLC to about 9.4 GPa for the silicon doped coatings was observed, the concomitant improvement of films adhesion with higher amount of Si was revealed. Although incorporation of the dopant to DLC coatings increases the number of E. coli cells which adhered to the examined surfaces, the microbial colonisation remains on the level of substrate material. The presented results prove the potential of Si-DLC coatings in biomedical applications from the point of view of their mechanical properties.

  19. INFLUENCIA DE LA NITRURACIÓN POR PLASMA SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO A LA CORROSIÓN Y LA ADHESIÓN DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DLC SOBRE ACERO INOXIDABLE AISI 420

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N. Pecina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió el comportamiento a la corrosió n y la adhesión de dos rec ubrimientos DLC (“Diamond Like Carbon ” , “Soft” y “Hard”, depositados por PACVD (“Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition” sobre acero AISI 420, templado y revenido y /o nitrurado por plasma . Se analizaron por espectroscopía Raman y midió dureza en superficie. Se observó la microestructura por OM y SEM. Se realizaron pruebas de adhesión con indentación Rockwell C . S e practicaron ensayos de Niebla Salina e inmersión en HCl . Los DLC “ Soft ” presentaron una dureza de 5 00 HV y un espesor de 2 0 μm , mientras que los “ Hard ” tuvieron 1400 HV y 2 ,5 μm. Ambos recubrimientos presentaron bajo coeficiente de fricción y buena adhesión sobre el sustrato nitrurado . También presentaron buena resistencia a la corrosión atmosférica. En HCl el DLC retardó la degradación que se presentó rápidamente en las muestras sin recubrir.

  20. Investigation of the RF pulse modulated plasma jet system during the deposition of Pb(Zr.sub.x./sub.Ti.sub.1-x./sub.)O.sub.3./sub. thin films on polymer substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Adámek, P.; Virostko, Petr; Olejníček, Jiří; Deyneka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Jurek, Karel; Suchaneck, G.; Guenther, M.; Gerlach, G.; Boháč, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 200, - (2005), s. 940-946 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB1010302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : : PZT thin films * plasma jet * Langmuir probe * plasma impedance Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2005

  1. Analysis of a Thin Optical Lens Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivchenko, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    In this article a thin optical lens model is considered. It is shown that the limits of its applicability are determined not only by the ratio between the thickness of the lens and the modules of the radii of curvature, but above all its geometric type. We have derived the analytical criteria for the applicability of the model for different types…

  2. Enhancement of diffraction efficiency of laminar-type diffraction gratings overcoated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in soft x-ray region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Masato, E-mail: koike.masato@jaea.go.jp; Imazono, Takashi [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 Japan (Japan); Nagano, Tetsuya; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Oue, Yuki; Yonezawa, Zeno; Kuramoto, Satoshi [Device Dept., Shimadzu Corp., 1Nishinokyo-Kuwabara-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8511 Japan (Japan); Terauchi, Masami [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 Japan (Japan); Takahashi, Hideyuki [Science Equipment Sales Dept., JEOL Ltd., 2-1-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004 Japan (Japan); Notoya, Satoshi; Murano, Takanori [SA Business Unit, JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 Japan (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    Boron is the critical trace element in the production of high quality steel, creating a great demand for an efficient detection method of the B-K emission band at around 6.76 nm. To meet this demand we made a simulation study and obtained a practical method to improve the diffraction efficiency of metal-coated laminar-type gratings for a grazing incidence flat-field spectrograph by overcoating a sufficiently transparent high-density material. In the simulation the diffraction efficiency in a spectral region of 3.5-8.5 nm was computed for several combinations of overcoating materials and coating metals, with various thicknesses of the overcoating layer. The result obtained are: (1) the best overcoating material is high-density diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a density of 3.1 g/cm{sup 3}, (2) its optimum thickness is 24 nm at an angle of incidence of 87.0°, and (3) with this thickness the first-order diffraction efficiency is expected to reach 29.7 %, which well exceeds 15.6 % for Ni-coated (or 14.1 % for Au-coated) grating.

  3. Modulation of transport properties of optimally doped La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4} thin films via electric field modification of the grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Muhammad Umair [Center for Micro and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wimbush, Stuart C. [The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

    2015-09-15

    Modulation of the transport properties of a superconducting La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}-based ionic-liquid gated transistor has been achieved. For an applied gate bias V{sub g} ≥ 2 V, the characteristic sheet resistivity vs. temperature (R{sub s}-T) curves exhibit a fully reversible foot feature below the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}). In contrast to the behaviour expected from the large charge carrier density of this high-T{sub c} superconductor material, the normal state conductance above T{sub c} also exhibits a large modulation, indicating a larger charge screening length than that predicted from a simple Thomas-Fermi model. We regard these changes as due to electrostatic modification of the charge density at structural imperfections such as grain boundaries present within the sample. Such modification alters the coupling between superconducting domains and dictates the overall R{sub s}-T trend of the gated film. To explain our findings, we employ Mannhart's model of electronic band bending at the grain boundaries and propose that this band bending can be modulated by large electric fields resulting in the observed modulation of the transport properties of the device. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  5. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell and of low-cost/large-area module (Manufacture of high-reliability CdTe solar module); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The target is a low-cost CdS/CdTe solar cell of a large area (60cm times 90cm), the establishment of mass-production technologies for the cell, and the enhancement of production efficiency. A thin film formation technology of subjecting CdS film organic metal to pyrolysis is established, which reduces photoabsorption loss in the shortwave domain of wavelength of not longer than 500nm, reduces reflection loss in the film, and improves on short-circuit current density. Improvement is also achieved on CdTe film quality and junction quality by use of a proximity sublimation method in a vacuum, when a conversion rate of 16.0% (1cm{sup 2}) is attained which is the highest in the world. Based on the results of the above-said efforts, a 3.3mm-thick glass substrate is employed for CdTe film to develop into a 30cm times 60cm-large size, with the film thereon uniformly thick over a large area thanks to a normal pressure proximity sublimation method. Studies are made toward a process nearer to the ultimate product and, using the patterning technique, a 30cm times 60cm-large CdTe solar cell is tentatively built realizing a conversion rate of 9.8%. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of high-reliability CdS/CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Cost reduction for the above-named solar cells is the aim of this effort. On the basis of the results of past studies, a technology is established of fabricating a thin CdS film by subjecting a CdS film to organometal pyrolysis, and this brings about a decrease in photoabsorption loss in the range of waves shorter than 500nm and a decrease in in-film reflection loss for an increase in short-circuit current density. A proximity sublimation method is used for CdTe film fabrication, which improves on film quality and film adhesion. These efforts result in the achievement of a conversion efficiency of 16.0% which is the highest in the world. Studies are promoted in a process nearer to the ultimate form, and a 30cm times 60cm large CdTe solar cell is fabricated on the basis of a patterning technique, and the product attains a conversion efficiency of 9.8%. In fiscal 1998, studies center about the establishment of a film fabrication process for a medium-are substrate and about the enhancement of its conversion efficiency, and facilities capable of dealing with large-area substrates are introduced and operated. In a typical achievement, a CdTe solar cell is experimentally fabricated in a process which is wholly under normal pressure, and the product with an aperture area of 1376cm{sup 2} exhibits a conversion efficiency of 10.5% according to JQA (Japan Quality Assurance Organization). (NEDO)

  8. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Franck, E-mail: franck.rose@hgst.com; Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno [HGST, A Western Digital Company, San Jose Research Center, 3403, Yerba Buena Rd, San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki [HGST, A Western Digital Company, Japan Research Laboratory, 2880 Kozu, Odawara, Kanagawa 256-8510 (Japan); Mangolini, Filippo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Carpick, Robert W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6315 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp³ fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp² clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  9. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Franck; Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno; Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Mangolini, Filippo; Carpick, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp 3 fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp 2 clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  10. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell module manufacturing technology - Development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technology - Development of high-quality film enlargement technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / kohinshitsumaku no daimensekika gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to establish a manufacturing process that enables both high-quality CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) film solar cell enlargement and cost reduction and to develop a device structure which uses less heavy metal for the purposes of increasing the CIS thin-film solar cell size and efficiency and decreasing environmental impact. Several element technologies have been established for increasing the area of high-efficiency Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. Concerning the enlargement of the photoabsorption layer which is to assume the most important role, it is found that a high-quality CIGS film, which is near homogeneous though within a 10cm times 10cm area, is fabricated by an in-line vapor deposition method. As for dead area reduction and high-speed patterning, it is found that laser scribing works effectively in the patterning of the window layer and photoabsorption layer. As for reduction in the use of heavy metal, a high efficiency of 16.2% is attained in a cell not using a CdS film as expected in the case of a cell using a CdS film, this thanks to a CIGS film surface reforming technique. The technique of junction formation for CIGS solar cells is improved, and then a true efficiency of 18.5% is achieved. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This research aims to achieve a conversion efficiency of 13% and a manufacturing cost of 140 yen/Wp with a 30cm times 30cm Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cell submodule. Ga and sulfur are combined and a film fabrication technology was developed which would improve on Voc. Concerning Ga, a laminated precursor layer was fabricated and evaluated, which comprised a Cu-25wt%Ga alloy layer and a Ga source which was a Cu-48%Ga alloy layer. Concerning sulfur, the vapor phase selenization temperature and the selenization retention time in an H{sub 2}Se gas atmosphere was allowed to vary for a change in Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} calcopyrite crystallinity for the study of relations between the amount of sulfur taken in and the solar cell characteristics, and the relations were assessed by EPMA (electron probe microanalyzer). Technologies were developed for the fabrication of high-resistivity buffer layers by solution growth, for the fabrication of window layers (transparent, conductive ZnO film) by sputtering, and for their patterning. Submodules of a ZnO/Zn(O,S,OH)x/Mo structure were fabricated, 10cm times 30cm and 30cm times 30cm in size. The former achieved 12.5% in conversion efficiency, and the latter 11.6%. (NEDO)

  12. Price/efficiency correlations for 2004 photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The claim is often made that efficiency is a key factor in determining the marketability of photovoltaic products. If this is the case, a strong correlation between the price of modules and their efficiency might be expected. This relationship is investigated using module pricing data that have recently become available. Conclusions are that there is little correlation between module price and efficiency in this data set and that some thin-film modules currently appear to attract a pricing premium. (Author)

  13. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project intends to improve on large-area amorphous silicon solar cell performance and to develop high-throughput manufacturing technologies for a reduction in the cost of modules. A film substrate type amorphous solar cell structure of the serial connection type named SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) is contrived. Under this method, film formation using a stepping roll system newly developed for glass substrates may be applied, and the number of manhours required is allowed to be less than under conventional serial connection forming processes. The new technique is characterized in that serial connections are established via through-holes provided in plastic substrates. Making use of the technology, progress is attained in the development of high-throughput process technology for film substrate type amorphous solar cells and of efficiency enhancement technology. In fiscal 1997, an electron beam unit for plasma generation aiming at the elucidation of reaction processes in plasma was introduced, and technologies based on the equilibrium discharge technique were developed enabling high-speed a-Si film formation without degradation in film quality. The effect of trace boron addition to the tandem cell bottom I layer was investigated, and a stabilization rate of 8.05% was achieved using a 40cm times 80cm large SCAF cell. In fiscal 1998, endeavors were exerted for similar developments. (NEDO)

  14. Thin-film silicon solar cell technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, A. V.; Schade, H.; Vaněček, Milan; Meier, J.; Vallat-Sauvain, E.; Wyrsch, N.; Kroll, U.; Droz, C.; Bailat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), s. 113-142 ISSN 1062-7995 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SN/320/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thin-film silicon modules * hydrogenerated amorphous silicon(a-Si:H) * hydrogenerated microcrystalline (ćc-Si:H) * transparent conductive oxydes(TCOs) * building-integrated photovoltaics(BIPV) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2004

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - Development of production technology of thin film solar cells. Separate Volume 1. Development of production technology of low cost/large area modules (Investigational study on the commercialization analysis); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu {sup H}akumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu{sup -} Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu) - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of supporting the study of commercialization of thin film solar cells for electric power use and the study of production technology of thin film solar cells, survey of the technical trend of the thin film solar cell was conducted, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. The typical Si system thin film solar cell is the amorphous Si solar cell, and the quantity production has already started in Japan and abroad. Further, with the aim of making use of characteristics of the amorphous Si solar cell and also making its defects up, the development of Si thin film solar cell using microcrystal Si and polycrystal Si is greatly expected. Among those, attention is paid to the hybrid type that was proposed for the remarkable improvement in the conversion efficiency of amorphous Si solar cell. In the compound thin film system, the Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}(CiGS) solar cell was put on the market as product by SSI, though the market scale is small. Further, as to the CdTe thin film solar cell, trial manufacture of the large area module was made in view of the housing use. In addition, there was seen great progress in the color sensitized cell and organic semiconducting solar cell mainly in the U.S. and Europe. (NEDO)

  16. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  17. 2D Finite Element Model of a CIGS Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, G.J.M.; Slooff, L.H.; Bende, E.E. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O.Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    The performance of thin-film CIGS (Copper indium gallium selenide) modules is often limited due to inhomogeneities in CIGS layers. A 2-dimensional Finite Element Model for CIGS modules is presented that predicts the impact of such inhomogeneities on the module performance. Results are presented of a module with a region of poor diode characteristics. It is concluded that according to this model the effects of poor diodes depend strongly on their location in the module and on their dispersion over the module surface. Due to its generic character the model can also be applied to other series connections of photovoltaic cells.

  18. 2D - Finite element model of a CIGS module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, G.J.M.; Slooff, L.H.; Bende, E.E. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    The performance of thin-film CIGS modules is often limited due to inhomogeneities in CIGS layers. A 2-dimensional Finite Element Model for CIGS modules is demonstrated that predicts the impact of such inhomogeneities on the module performance. Results are presented of a module with a region of poor diode characteristics. It is concluded that according to this model the effects of poor diodes depend strongly on their location in the module and on their dispersion over the module surface. Due to its generic character the model can also be applied to other series connections of photovoltaic cells.

  19. Thin Films in the Photovoltaic Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years, the yearly world market growth rate for Photovoltaics was an average of more than 40%, which makes it one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. Today PV is still dominated by wafer based Crystalline Silicon Technology as the 'working horse' in the global market, but thin films are gaining market shares. For 2007 around 12% are expected. The current silicon shortage and high demand has kept prices higher than anticipated from the learning curve experience and has widened the windows of opportunities for thin film solar modules. Current production capacity estimates for thin films vary between 3 and 6 GW in 2010, representing a 20% market share for these technologies. Despite the higher growth rates for thin film technologies compared with the industry average, Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies are still facing a number of challenges to maintain this growth and increase market shares. The four main topics which were discussed during the workshop were: Potential for cost reduction; Standardization; Recycling; Performance over the lifetime.

  20. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  1. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez

    2013-01-01

    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  2. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of multilayer metal-carbon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siraj, K., E-mail: khurram.uet@gmail.com [Advance Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Rafique, M.S.; Munawar, M.Z. [Advance Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Naseem, S.; Riaz, S. [Center for Solid State Physics, University of Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2011-05-15

    Cobalt-DLC multilayer films were deposited with increasing content of cobalt, keeping carbon content constant by pulsed laser deposition technique. A cobalt free carbon film was also deposited for comparison. Excimer laser was employed to ablate the materials onto silicon substrate, kept at 250 deg. C, while post-deposition annealing at 400 deg. C was also performed in situ. The formation of cobalt grains within the carbon matrix in Co-DLC films can be seen through scanning electron and atomic force micrographs while no grains on the surface of the cobalt-free DLC film were observed. Raman spectra of all the films show D- and G-bands, which is a confirmation that the films are DLC in nature. According to Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements, the DLC films with cobalt revealed ferromagnetic behaviour whereas the cobalt free DLC film exhibited diamagnetic behaviour. The pure DLC film also shows ferromagnetic nature when diamagnetic background is subtracted. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) analysis showed that the optical band gaps, refractive indices and extinction coefficients of Co-DLC films can be effectively tuned with increasing content of cobalt.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of multilayer metal-carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraj, K.; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Rafique, M.S.; Munawar, M.Z.; Naseem, S.; Riaz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt-DLC multilayer films were deposited with increasing content of cobalt, keeping carbon content constant by pulsed laser deposition technique. A cobalt free carbon film was also deposited for comparison. Excimer laser was employed to ablate the materials onto silicon substrate, kept at 250 deg. C, while post-deposition annealing at 400 deg. C was also performed in situ. The formation of cobalt grains within the carbon matrix in Co-DLC films can be seen through scanning electron and atomic force micrographs while no grains on the surface of the cobalt-free DLC film were observed. Raman spectra of all the films show D- and G-bands, which is a confirmation that the films are DLC in nature. According to Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements, the DLC films with cobalt revealed ferromagnetic behaviour whereas the cobalt free DLC film exhibited diamagnetic behaviour. The pure DLC film also shows ferromagnetic nature when diamagnetic background is subtracted. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) analysis showed that the optical band gaps, refractive indices and extinction coefficients of Co-DLC films can be effectively tuned with increasing content of cobalt.

  4. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules (dissolution and deposition process); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was performed by noticing on the plasma spraying method as a process that can manufacture thin poly-crystalline silicon films at a high speed. Fiscal 1997 has established a technology that can form a silicon film directly without using seed crystals in an area of 2-cm square on a carbon supported substrate by using a small film manufacturing equipment using the dissolution and deposition process. The size of the crystal is as very large as several hundred {mu}m, by which a possibility of making high-performance solar cells was verified. Discussions were given to apply this technology to large-area substrates, whereas a device was developed, which is capable of forming a film in an area corresponding to 10-cm square. According to a film forming experiment using this device, the film has begun being formed on part of a 10-cm square substrate, verifying the effectiveness of this method. While the film thickness is about 100 {mu}m, it was confirmed that the crystal size will not change even if the thickness is made mechanically as thin as about 50 {mu}m. Further discussions were given on enhancement of wettability by means of coating, and light enclosing structure. (NEDO)

  5. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  6. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules; Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Takessho cell module tei cost ka yoso gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of elementary technologies for mass production, fast surface machining, fast electrode forming and fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were studied. Surface machining by rotating grindstone was studied as fast cutting of fine grooves on Si substrates, resulting in possible fast machining superior in shape accuracy. Electrode properties equivalent or superior to previous ones were obtained by fast electrode forming using a fast printing/sintering equipment even at transfer speed 7.5 times as high as that of conventional methods. Simultaneous fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were achieved by heat treatment after deposition on Si substrate surfaces while heat-decomposing Ti and P compound gas. (2) On development of module structure, an optimum cell group angle, low reflection rate at glass surface, and fast wiring were studied. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  8. Multichip module technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustinsky, J.S.; Boissevain, J.G.; Muck, R.C.; Smith, G.D.; Wong-Swanson, B.G.; Ziock, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Multichip Module (MCM) was designed and submitted for fabrication to the Lockheed Martin foundry using a licensed process called High Density Interconnect (HDI). The HDI process uses thin film techniques to create circuit interconnect patterns on multiple layers of dielectric film which are deposited directly on top of unpackaged electronic die. This results in an optimally small package that approaches the area of the bare die themselves. This project tested the capability of the Lockheed Martin foundry to produce, in an HDI process, a complex mixed-mode (analog and digital) circuit on a single MCM substrate

  9. PV Module Reliability Workshop | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Cara Fagerholm, David M. Burns, Timothy J. Peshek, Laura S. Bruckman, Roger H. French Backsheet Chen, C. H. Hsueh, W. J. Hsieh Accurately Measuring PV Power Loss Due to Soiling-Michael Gostein and Walters, Stephen Barkaszi Tracking PV Changes: Bridging Between Thin-Film Cells and Modules-Russell

  10. High energy ion beam induced modifications in diamond and diamond like carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilawar, N.; Sah, S.; Mehta, B.R.; Vankar, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Diamond and DLC films deposited using hot-filament chemical vapour deposition technique at various parameters were irradiated with 50 MeV Si 4+ ions. The resulting microstructural changes were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. All the samples showed the development of β-SiC and hexagonal carbon phases at the expense of the diamond/DLC phase. The ERD analysis was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration and its distribution in DLC films. The absolute hydrogen concentration in DLC samples is of the order of 10 22 atoms/cm 3 which gets depleted on irradiation. The DLC samples show a clear dependence of hydrogen content on the deposition parameters. (author)

  11. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  12. Laser Welding of Silicon Foils for Thin-Film Solar Cell Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Heßmann, Maik

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film solar module manufacturing is one of the most promising recent developments in photovoltaic research and has the potential to reduce production costs. As the necessity for competitive prices on the world market increases and manufacturers endeavor to bring down the cost of solar modules, thin-film technology is becoming more and more attractive. In this work a special technique was investigated which makes solar cell manufacturing more compatible with an industrial roll-to-roll proc...

  13. Electroresistance Effect in Gold Thin Film Induced by Ionic-Liquid-Gated Electric Double Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Ye, Jianting; Ohtani, Takashi; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Ando, Kazuya; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Eiji

    Electroresistance effect was detected in a metallic thin film using ionic-liquid-gated electric-double-layer transistors (EDLTs). We observed reversible modulation of the electric resistance of a Au thin film. In this system, we found that an electric double layer works as a nanogap capacitor with

  14. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  15. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  16. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  17. Biomarker discovery in low-grade breast cancer using isobaric stable isotope tags and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS) based quantitative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Pavel; Roumeliotis, Theodoros; Hrstka, Roman; Nenutil, Rudolf; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Garbis, Spiros D

    2009-01-01

    The present pilot study constitutes a proof-of-principle in the use of a quantitative LC-MS/MS based proteomic method for the comparative analysis of representative low-grade breast primary tumor tissues with and without metastases and metastasis in lymph node relative to the nonmetastatic tumor type. The study method incorporated iTRAQ stable isotope labeling, two-dimensional liquid chromatography, nanoelectrospray ionization and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry using the hybrid QqTOF platform (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS). The principal aims of this study were (1) to define the protein spectrum obtainable using this approach, and (2) to highlight potential candidates for verification and validation studies focused on biomarkers involved in metastatic processes in breast cancer. The study resulted in the reproducible identification of 605 nonredundant proteins (p biomarker discovery program.

  18. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  19. Thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stab, L.

    1989-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

  20. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  1. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  2. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  3. Graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Tae Kim, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator is designed based on an asymmetric double-electrode plasmonic waveguide structure. The photonic device consists of a monolayer graphene, a thin metal strip, and a thin dielectric layer that is inserted between the grapheme and the metal strip. By electrically tuning the graphene’s refractive index, the propagation loss of the hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode in the proposed graphene-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide is switchable, and hence the intensity of the guided modes is modulated. The highest modulation depth is observed at the graphene’s epsilon-near-zero region. The device characteristics are characterized over the entire C-band (1.530–1.565 μm). (paper)

  4. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is

  5. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost and large-area module manufacturing technologies, and new type amorphous solar cell manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to put amorphous solar cells for power use into practical use, research and development has been performed on a low-cost mass production technology for modules with large area and less deterioration using film substrates. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing an efficiency enhancing technology, development of an a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple cell structure was launched, and discussions were given on band gaps, film forming conditions, and film thickness. In developing a film forming speed enhancing technology, systematic experiments were performed, as well as theoretical analysis on the film forming mechanism in the plasma CVD process. In developing the process technology for film substrate solar cells, with regard to an a-Si production device of the multi-chamber arranged stepping roll system, six plasma CVD chambers were increased to 13 chambers to improve the electrode forming speed and such processes as drilling low-cost substrates, and laser patterning. In trial fabrication of a triple cell, a module in which one row of the SCAF cell is laminated provided an initial efficiency of 9.64%. (NEDO)

  6. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I D /I G . Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  7. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santra, T S; Liu, C H [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T K [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T K [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  8. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  9. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  10. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  11. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules, development of technologies to increase high-quality film area; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, kohinshitsumaku no daimensekika gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With an objective to improve efficiency and reduce cost of CIS-based thin film solar cells, research and development has been made on technologies to increase high-quality CIS film area and technologies to increase speed in the manufacturing process. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. The research covered development of technologies to form high-grade Cu (In, Ga) Se{sub 2} (CIGS) film by using the multi-dimensional deposition process, component technologies for forming a rear electrode, a buffer layer and a transparent electrode, and patterning technologies. As a result of the research, thickness of the CIGS film was reduced to half as much as that of the conventional films, having achieved conversion efficiency of 13.1%, which corresponds to about 90% of the conventional CIGS solar cells. In addition, elucidation was made on the effect of an MoSe{sub 2} layer existing on interface with CIGS/Mo in a CIGS solar cell imposed on solar cell characteristics. In developing an Mo film laser scribing technology, intensity dependence of laser energy was made clear, the energy being required for scribing according to surface condition of the Mo film. (NEDO)

  12. Geometrical and fluidic tuning of periodically modulated thin metal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilardi, Giovanni; Xiao, Sanshui; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2012-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate near-zero transmission of light through two-dimensional arrays of isolated gold rings. The analysis of the device as an optofluidic sensor is presented to demonstrate the tuning of the device in relation to variations of volume and refractive index of an isotropic fluid...... positioned over the structure. We also evaluate the performance of the device with respect to geometrical parameters of the rings....

  13. Active Solvent Modulation: A Valve-Based Approach To Improve Separation Compatibility in Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Dwight R; Shoykhet, Konstantin; Petersson, Patrik; Buckenmaier, Stephan

    2017-09-05

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is increasingly being viewed as a viable tool for solving difficult separation problems, ranging from targeted separations of structurally similar molecules to untargeted separations of highly complex mixtures. In spite of this performance potential, though, many users find method development challenging and most frequently cite the "incompatibility" between the solvent systems used in the first and second dimensions as a major obstacle. This solvent strength related incompatibility can lead to severe peak distortion and loss of resolution and sensitivity in the second dimension. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to address the incompatibility problem, which we refer to as Active Solvent Modulation (ASM). This valve-based approach enables dilution of 1 D effluent with weak solvent prior to transfer to the 2 D column but without the need for additional instrument hardware. ASM is related to the concept we refer to as Fixed Solvent Modulation (FSM), with the important difference being that ASM allows toggling of the diluent stream during each 2 D separation cycle. In this work, we show that ASM eliminates the major drawbacks of FSM including complex elution solvent profiles, baseline disturbances, and slow 2 D re-equilibration and demonstrate improvements in 2 D separation quality using both simple small molecule probes and degradants of heat-treated bovine insulin as case studies. We believe that ASM will significantly ease method development for 2D-LC, providing a path to practical methods that involve both highly complementary 1 D and 2 D separations and sensitive detection.

  14. Implementing optimal thinning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; J. Douglas Brodie

    1984-01-01

    Optimal thinning regimes for achieving several management objectives were derived from two stand-growth simulators by dynamic programming. Residual mean tree volumes were then plotted against stand density management diagrams. The results supported the use of density management diagrams for comparing, checking, and implementing the results of optimization analyses....

  15. Thin seam mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1989-06-01

    Discusses thin seam mining in Poland and its prospects. There were 194 working faces in coal seams to 1.5 m thick in Poland in 1988. Of them, 115 fell on faces with powered supports, 79 on faces with SHC-40 and Valent props; 108 shearer loaders and 45 coal plows were used for longwall mining of thin coal seams. Drilling and blasting was used to mine 21 working faces. Longwall faces in seams to 1.0 m thick gave 2.0% coal output, faces in coal seams 1.01-1.5 m thick gave 12.2% of daily coal output of underground mining. Structure of daily coal output of faces in thin seams was the following: 52 faces below 300 t/day, 42 from 301-500 t/day, 63 from 501 to 1,000 t/day, 17 faces above 1,000 t/day. Prospects for increasing coal output of faces in thin seams are discussed. 7 refs.

  16. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  17. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  18. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  19. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  20. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  1. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  2. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  3. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin film batteries are built layer by layer by vapor deposition. The resulting battery is formed of parallel plates, much as an ordinary battery construction, just much thinner. The figure (Fig. 1) shows an example of a thin film battery layout where films are deposited symmetrically onto both sides of a supporting substrate. The full stack of films is only 10 to 15 (micro)m thick, but including the support at least doubles the overall battery thickness. When the support is thin, the entire battery can be flexible. At least six companies have commercialized or are very close to commercializing such all-solid-state thin film batteries and market research predicts a growing market and a variety of applications including sensors, RFID tags, and smarter cards. In principle with a large deposition system, a thin film battery might cover a square meter, but in practice, most development is targeting individual cells with active areas less than 25 cm 2 . For very small battery areas, 2 , microfabrication processes have been developed. Typically the assembled batteries have capacities from 0.1 to 5 mAh. The operation of a thin film battery is depicted in the schematic diagram (Fig. 2). Very simply, when the battery is allowed to discharge, a Li + ion migrates from the anode to the cathode film by diffusing through the solid electrolyte. When the anode and cathode reactions are reversible, as for an intercalation compound or alloy, the battery can be recharged by reversing the current. The difference in the electrochemical potential of the lithium determines the cell voltage. Most of the thin films used in current commercial variations of this thin film battery are deposited in vacuum chambers by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and by thermal evaporation onto unheated substrates. In addition, many publications report exploring a variety of other physical and chemical vapor deposition processes, such as pulsed laser deposition, electron cyclotron resonance sputtering, and

  4. A quantitative in vitro method to predict the adhesion lifetime of diamond-like carbon thin films on biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falub, Claudiu Valentin; Thorwarth, Götz; Affolter, Christian; Müller, Ulrich; Voisard, Cyril; Hauert, Roland

    2009-10-01

    A quantitative method using Rockwell C indentation was developed to study the adhesion of diamond-like carbon (DLC) protective coatings to the CoCrMo biomedical implant alloy when immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37 degrees C. Two kinds of coatings with thicknesses ranging from 0.5 up to 16 microns were investigated, namely DLC and DLC/Si-DLC, where Si-DLC denotes a 90 nm thick DLC interlayer containing Si. The time-dependent delamination of the coating around the indentation was quantified by means of optical investigations of the advancing crack front and calculations of the induced stress using the finite element method (FEM). The cause of delamination for both types of coatings was revealed to be stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of the interface material. For the DLC coating a typical SCC behavior was observed, including a threshold region (60J m(-2)) and a "stage 1" crack propagation with a crack-growth exponent of 3.0, comparable to that found for ductile metals. The DLC/Si-DLC coating exhibits an SCC process with a crack-growth exponent of 3.3 and a threshold region at 470 Jm(-2), indicating an adhesion in PBS at 37 degrees C that is about eight times better than that of the DLC coating. The SCC curves were fitted to the reaction controlled model typically used to explain the crack propagation in bulk soda lime glass. As this model falls short of accurately describing all the SCC curves, limitations of its application to the interface between a brittle coating and a ductile substrate are discussed.

  5. Visualizing Nanoscopic Topography and Patterns in Freely Standing Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Zhang, Yiran; Pearsall, Collin; Sharma, Vivek

    Thin liquid films containing micelles, nanoparticles, polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes and smectic liquid crystals undergo thinning in a discontinuous, step-wise fashion. The discontinuous jumps in thickness are often characterized by quantifying changes in the intensity of reflected monochromatic light, modulated by thin film interference from a region of interest. Stratifying thin films exhibit a mosaic pattern in reflected white light microscopy, attributed to the coexistence of domains with various thicknesses, separated by steps. Using Interferometry Digital Imaging Optical Microscopy (IDIOM) protocols developed in the course of this study, we spatially resolve for the first time, the landscape of stratifying freestanding thin films. In particular, for thin films containing micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), discontinuous, thickness transitions with concentration-dependent steps of 5-25 nm are visualized and analyzed using IDIOM protocols. We distinguish nanoscopic rims, mesas and craters and show that the non-flat features are sculpted by oscillatory, periodic, supramolecular structural forces that arise in confined fluids

  6. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  7. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  8. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  9. Knife-edge thin film field emission cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.; Demroff, H.P.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, T.S.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Trost, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Cathodes made of thin-film field emission arrays (FEA) have the advantages of high current density, pulsed emission, and low bias voltage operation. The authors have developed a technology to fabricate knife-edge field emission cathodes on (110) silicon wafers. The emitter geometry is optimized for efficient modulation at high frequency. Cathode fabrication progress and preliminary analysis of their applications in RF power sources are presented

  10. An investigation of material properties and tribological performance of magnetron sputtered thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal

    This dissertation is divided into two categories based upon lubrication functionality and its application. The categories are: Dry film lubrication and Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings. Thin film coatings examined in this work were deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering and RF-DC coupled magnetron sputtering systems. In Dry/Solid film lubrication, the mechanical, structural and tribological properties of two Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) based coatings are examined and evaluated. Among the two coatings, one coating is doped with Ti (Ti-MoS2) and the other is a combination of metal, lubricant and oxide (Sb2O3/Au - MoS2). These coatings are known to provide low friction in vacuum environments. The goal of this work was to evaluate friction and wear performance of MoS2 doped coatings in unidirectional and reciprocating sliding contact under different environmental conditions. Sliding contact results showed friction and wear dependence on temperature and humidity. The formation and removal of transfer films and the recrystallization and reorientation of basal layers on the steel counterface was observed as the mechanism for low friction. Structural analysis revealed a relationship between the microstructural properties and tribological performance. It was also observed that the addition of dopants (Ti, Au, Sb 2O3) improved the mechanical properties as compared to pure MoS2 coatings. Further, the rolling contact performance of the coatings was measured on a five ball on rod tribometer and a Thrust bearing tribometer under vacuum and air environments. The rolling contact experiments indicated that life of the rolling components depend on the amount of material present between the contacts. Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings investigates the possibilities to improve the performance and durability of tribological components when oils and thin films are synergistically coupled. In this work, the ability of a Diamond Like Carbon

  11. Microstructure of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-07

    Proceedings, Thin film Technologies II, 652, 256-263, (1986) B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier, "In situ and air index measurements...34 SPIE Proceedings, "Optical Components and Systems", 805, 128 (1987) 11 B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier. "In situ and air index...aT , m..a, lot,, o ,,f,02,d I4 k -1-1..... autocovariance lengths, less than 0.5 um, indicate that , 514n, ob0 o p’,Ofclllc....,,o,,oy0,1- agua sblrt

  12. Superconducting oxypnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisner, Andreas; Kidszun, Martin; Reich, Elke; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Haindl, Silvia [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials (Germany); Thersleff, Thomas [Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We present an overview on the oxypnictide thin film preparation. So far, only LaAlO{sub 3} (001) single crystalline substrates provided a successful growth using pulsed laser deposition in combination with a post annealing process. Further experiments on the in-situ deposition will be reported. The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Transport properties were measured with different applied fields to obtain a magnetic phase diagram for this new type of superconductor.

  13. Mechanics of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-06

    and the second geometry was that of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4 mm). These two geometries were tested in thermal shock tests, and a...milder [13]. More recently, Lau, Rahman and stressa nce ntrati, tha n films of lmalla rat ve spc Delale calculated the free edge singularity for stress...thickness of 3 mm); the second geometry was that As an example of the shielding effect of thin films, we of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4

  14. Method for thinning specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  15. Photovoltaic Cells and Modules towards Terawatt Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vitezslav Benda

    2017-01-01

    Progresses in photovoltaic technologies over the past years are evident from the lower costs,the rising efficiency,to the great improvements in system reliability and yield.Cumulative installed power yearly growths were on an average more than 40% in the period from 2007 to 2016 and in 2016,the global cumulative photovoltaic power installed has reached 320 GWp.The level 0.5 TWp could be reached before 2020.The production processes in the solar industry still have great potential for optimization both wafer based and thin film technologies.Trends following from the present technology levels are discussed,also taking into account other parts of photovoltaic systems that influence the cost of electrical energy produced.Present developments in the three generations of photovoltaic modules are discussed along with the criteria for the selection of appropriate photovoltaic module manufacturing technologies.The wafer based crystalline silicon (c-silicon) technologies have the role of workhorse of present photovoltaic power generation,representing more than 90% of total module production.Further technology improvements have to be implemented without significantly increasing costs per unit,despite the necessarily more complex manufacturing processes involved.The tandem of c-silicon and thin film cells is very promising.Durability may be a limiting factor of this technology due to the dependence of the produced electricity cost on the module service time.

  16. Harnessing the Sun with Thin Film Photovoltaics: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have a substantial role in meeting electric power needs in the next century, especially with an expected competitive position compared to conventional power-generation and other renewable- energy technologies. Thin-film photovoltaic modules based on CdTe, CuInSe2 or Si can potentially be produced by economical, high-volume manufacturing techniques, dramatically reducing component cost. However, the translation of laboratory thin-film technologies to first-time, large-scale manufacturing has been much more difficult than expected. This is due to the complexity of the processes involved for making large-area PV modules at high rates and with high yields, and compounded by the lack of a fundamental scientific and engineering base required to properly engineer and operate manufacturing equipment. In this paper, we discuss the need to develop diagnostics tools and associated predictive models that quantitatively assess processing conditions and pro duct properties. Incorporation of the diagnostic sensors into both laboratory reactors and manufacturing facilities will (1) underpin the development of solar cells with improved efficiency, and (2) accelerate the scale-up process through intelligent process-control schemes. ''Next-generation'' high-performance (e.g., and gt;25% conversion efficiency) thin-film PV modules will also be assessed, along with critical issues associated with their development

  17. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  18. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  19. Designing shear-thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Arif Z.; Ewoldt, Randy H.

    2017-11-01

    Design in fluid mechanics often focuses on optimizing geometry (airfoils, surface textures, microfluid channels), but here we focus on designing fluids themselves. The dramatically shear-thinning ``yield-stress fluid'' is currently the most utilized non-Newtonian fluid phenomenon. These rheologically complex materials, which undergo a reversible transition from solid-like to liquid-like fluid flow, are utilized in pedestrian products such as paint and toothpaste, but also in emerging applications like direct-write 3D printing. We present a paradigm for yield-stress fluid design that considers constitutive model representation, material property databases, available predictive scaling laws, and the many ways to achieve a yield stress fluid, flipping the typical structure-to-rheology analysis to become the inverse: rheology-to-structure with multiple possible materials as solutions. We describe case studies of 3D printing inks and other flow scenarios where designed shear-thinning enables performance remarkably beyond that of Newtonian fluids. This work was supported by Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1463203.

  20. Thin layer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickert, H.; Fehsenfeld, P.

    1995-01-01

    The reliability of industrial equip ment is substantially influenced by wear and corrosion; monitoring can prevent accidents and avoid down-time. One powerful tool is thin layer activation analysis (TLA) using accelerator systems. The information is used to improve mechanical design and material usage; the technology is used by many large companies, particularly in the automotive industry, e.g. Daimler Benz. A critical area of a machine component receives a thin layer of radioactivity by irradiation with charged particles from an accelerator - usually a cyclotron. The radioactivity can be made homogeneous by suitable selection of particle, beam energy and angle of incidence. Layer thickness can be varied from 20 microns to around 1 mm with different depth distributions; the position and size of the wear zone can be set to within 0.1 mm. The machine is then reassembled and operated so that wear can be measured. An example is a combustion engine comprising piston ring, cylinder wall, cooling water jacket and housing wall, where wear measurements on the cylinder wall are required in a critical zone around the dead-point of the piston ring. Proton beam bombardment creates a radioactive layer whose thickness is known accurately, and characteristic gamma radiation from this radioactive zone penetrates through the engine and is detected externally. Measurements can be made either of the activity removed from the surface, or of the (reduced) residual activity; wear measurement of the order of 10 -9 metres is possible