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Sample records for modulation dlc thin

  1. Glass Difractive Optical Elements (DOEs with complex modulation DLC thin film coated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sparvoli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed a complex (amplitude and phase modulation Diffractive Optical Element (DOE with four phase levels, which is based in a glass substrate coated with DLC (Diamond Like Carbon thin film as the amplitude modulator. The DLC film was deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering with a graphite target and methane gas in an optical glass surface. The glass and DLC film roughness were measured using non destructive methods, such as a high step meter, Atomic Force Microscopy and Diffuse Reflectance. Other properties, such as refractive index of both materials were measured. The DOEs were tested using 632.8 nm HeNe laser.

  2. Experimental Study on the Surface Modification of Ultra Thin DLC Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shou-xing; ZHU Shi-gen

    2005-01-01

    School of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051Surface modification of Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was carried out in order to estimate the reliability of the ultra thin DLC films. The wear resistance, conductivity and mechatronic reliability of the films were studied by contact atomic force microscope (AFM), electric force microscope (EFM) and conductive AFM. The failure mechanism of pits formed and the reason for conductivity changed of DLC films were examined.

  3. Cell proliferation on modified DLC thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Manakhov, Anton; Polčák, Josef; Ondračka, Pavel; Buršíková, Vilma; Zajíčková, Renata; Medalová, Jiřina; Zajíčková, Lenka

    2015-06-12

    Recently, diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films have gained interest for biological applications, such as hip and dental prostheses or heart valves and coronary stents, thanks to their high strength and stability. However, the biocompatibility of the DLC is still questionable due to its low wettability and possible mechanical failure (delamination). In this work, DLC:N:O and DLC: SiOx thin films were comparatively investigated with respect to cell proliferation. Thin DLC films with an addition of N, O, and Si were prepared by plasma enhanced CVD from mixtures of methane, hydrogen, and hexamethyldisiloxane. The films were optically characterized by infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry in UV-visible spectrum. The thickness and the optical properties were obtained from the ellipsometric measurements. Atomic composition of the films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with elastic recoil detection analysis and by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the films were studied by depth sensing indentation technique. The number of cells that proliferate on the surface of the prepared DLC films and on control culture dishes were compared and correlated with the properties of as-deposited and aged films. The authors found that the level of cell proliferation on the coated dishes was high, comparable to the untreated (control) samples. The prepared DLC films were stable and no decrease of the biocompatibility was observed for the samples aged at ambient conditions.

  4. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sekhar C., E-mail: Raysc@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pong, W.F. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [Nanotechnology and Integrated Bio-Engineering Centre, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp{sup 3} network to sp{sup 2} as evidenced by an increase of the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp{sup 3}-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  5. Structure and properties of DLC-MoS2 thin films synthesized by BTIBD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakan, H.; Zhang, C.; Yang, L.; Yang, Q.; Szpunar, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC)-MoS2 composite thin films were synthesized using a biased target ion beam deposition (BTIBD) technique in which MoS2 was produced by sputtering a MoS2 target using Ar ion beams while DLC was deposited by ion beam deposition with CH4 gas as carbon source. The structure and properties of the synthesized films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation, ball-on-disk testing, and corrosion testing. The effect of MoS2 target bias voltage, ranging from -200 to -800 V, on the structure and properties of the DLC-MoS2 films was further investigated. The results showed that the hardness decreases from 9.1 GPa to 7 GPa, the Young's modulus decreases from 100 GPa to 78 GPa, the coefficient of friction (COF) increases from 0.02 to 0.17, and the specific wear rate coefficient (k) increases from 5×10-7 to 5×10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1, with increasing the biasing voltage from 200 V to 800 V. Also, the corrosion resistance of the DLC-MoS2 films decreased with the raise of biasing voltage. Comparing with the pure DLC and pure MoS2 films, the DLC-MoS2 films deposited at low biasing voltages showed better tribological properties including lower COF and k in ambient air environment.

  6. Modification of rubber surface with DLC thin films for low friction and self lubrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, X. L.; Pei, Y. T.; Mulder, E. D. G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) via magnetron-enhanced plasma chemical vapor deposition (ME-PCVD). Pre-deposition plasma treatment of HNBR substrate is proven to be crucial for the improvement of film performanc

  7. Swift heavy ion effects on DLC-nanotube-diamond thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Djurabekova, Flyura; Nordlund, Kai

    2017-09-01

    The composites based on a mixture of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and diamond-like-carbon (DLC)-CNT are of great interest due to the potential to achieve unique electronic and optical properties with enhanced mechanical wear resistance. Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of such carbon nanostucture composites suggest a way to tune the material’s properties via localized structural modifications. We use classical molecular dynamics simulations combined with an inelastic thermal spike model to study the mechanisms of track formation by SHI in DLC-CNT-diamond thin films. We observe a clear increase of content of atoms with sp2 hybridization compared to the initial structure. When the system reached an equilibrium state after the energy deposition, the track was structurally expanded outwards from the most underdense core. In addition, we found that the track radii are different in different composites, with smaller track radii in pure diamond and larger radii in DLC. Sputtering occurred predominantly from the track center.

  8. Structuring of DLC:Ag nanocomposite thin films employing plasma chemical etching and ion sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulevičius, Tomas; Tamulevičienė, Asta; Virganavičius, Dainius; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2014-12-01

    We analyze structuring effects of diamond like carbon based silver nanocomposite (DLC:Ag) thin films by CF4/O2 plasma chemical etching and Ar+ sputtering. DLC:Ag films were deposited employing unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering of silver target with Ar+ in C2H2 gas atmosphere. Films with different silver content (0.6-12.9 at.%) were analyzed. The films (as deposited and exposed to plasma chemical etching) were characterized employing scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS), optical microscopy, ultraviolet-visible light (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. After deposition, the films were plasma chemically etched in CF4/O2 mixture plasma for 2-6 min. It is shown that optical properties of thin films and silver nano particle size distribution can be tailored during deposition changing the magnetron current and C2H2/Ar ratio or during following plasma chemical etching. The plasma etching enabled to reveal the silver filler particle size distribution and to control silver content on the surface that was found to be dependent on Ostwald ripening process of silver nano-clusters. Employing contact lithography and 4 μm period mask in photoresist or aluminum the films were patterned employing CF4/O2 mixture plasma chemical etching, direct Ar+ sputtering or combined etching processes. It is shown that different processing recipes result in different final grating structures. Selective carbon etching in CF4/O2 gas mixture with photoresist mask revealed micrometer range lines of silver nanoparticles, while Ar+ sputtering and combined processing employing aluminum mask resulted in nanocomposite material (DLC:Ag) micropatterns.

  9. The RhoA GTPase-activating protein DLC2 modulates RhoA activity and hyperalgesia to noxious thermal and inflammatory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fred K C; Chung, Stephen S M; Ng, Irene O; Chung, Sookja K

    2012-01-01

    Deleted in liver cancer 2 (DLC2) is a novel Rho GTPase-activating protein that regulates RhoA activity. DLC2 is ubiquitously expressed in most tissues, including the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, and is thought to be involved in actin cytoskeletal reorganization. Unlike DLC1-deficient mice, DLC2-deficient mice (DLC2(-/-)) are viable and without gross anatomical abnormalities. Interestingly, DLC2(-/-) mice exhibit hyperalgesia to noxious thermal stimuli and inflammation-inducing chemicals, such as formalin and acetic acid. There was no difference in the structure or morphology of cutaneous or sural nerves between DLC2(+/+) and DLC2(-/-) mice. However, sensory nerve conduction velocity in DLC2(-/-) mice was significantly higher than that in DLC2(+/+) mice, whereas motor nerve conduction velocity was not affected. After formalin injection, DLC2(-/-) mice showed increased RhoA activity in the spinal cord and an increased number of phosphorylated ERK1/2-positive cells. The inflammatory hyperalgesia in DLC2(-/-) mice appeared to be mediated through the activation of RhoA and ERK1/2. Taken together, DLC2 plays a key role in pain modulation during inflammation by suppressing the activation of RhoA and ERK to prevent an exaggerated pain response, and DLC2(-/-) mice provide a valuable tool for further understanding the regulation of inflammatory pain.

  10. Grey fuzzy logic approach for the optimization of DLC thin film coating process parameters using PACVD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadai, R. K.; Das, P. P.; Shivakoti, I.; Mondal, S. C.; Swain, B. P.

    2017-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are widely used in medical, manufacturing and aerospace industries due to their excellent mechanical, biological, optical and tribological properties. The selection of optimal process parameters for efficient characteristics of DLC film is always a challenging issue for the materials science researchers. The optimal combination of the process parameters involved in the deposition of DLC films provide a better result, which subsequently help other researchers to choose the process parameters. In the present work Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) and Fuzzy-logic are being used for the optimization of process parameters in DLC film coating by using plasma assist chemical vapour deposition (PACVD) technique. The bias voltage, bias frequency, deposition pressure, gas composition are considered as input process parameters and hardness (GPa), Young's modulus (GPa), ratio between diamond to graphic fraction, (Id/Ig) ratio are considered as response parameters. The input parameters are optimized by grey fuzzy analysis. The contribution of individual input parameter is done by ANOVA. In this analysis found that bias voltage having the least influence and gas composition has highest influence in the PACVD deposited DLC films. The grey fuzzy analysis results indicated that optimum results for bias voltage, bias frequency, deposition pressure, gas composition for the DLC thin films are -50 V, 6 kHz, 4 μbar and 60:40 % respectively.

  11. Depth profiling of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) film: Localized fluorine in the top-most thin layer can enhance the non-thrombogenic properties of F-DLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, Terumitsu [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Tachikawa Hospital, 4-2-22, Nishiki-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8531 (Japan)], E-mail: teru_hasebe@hotmail.com; Nagashima, So [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Kamijo, Aki [Department of Transfusion Medicine, the University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Yoshimura, Taichi; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Yoshimoto, Yukihiro; Yohena, Satoshi; Kodama, Hideyuki; Hotta, Atsushi [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Takahashi, Koki [Department of Transfusion Medicine, the University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Suzuki, Tetsuya [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2007-12-03

    Fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) has recently drawn a great deal of attention as a more non-thrombogenic coating than conventional DLC for blood-contacting medical devices. We conducted quantitative depth profiling of F-DLC film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the effects of fluorine and fluorine distribution in F-DLC film in connection with the prevention of surface blood adhesion. F-DLC films were prepared on silicon substrates using the radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, and the thickness of films was {approx} 50 nm. 50-nm-thick F-DLC film samples were etched at 10-nm thickness intervals using argon plasma, and each surface was examined by XPS. Thereafter, each etched film layer was incubated with platelet-rich plasma isolated from human whole blood, and the platelet-covered area per unit area was evaluated for each surface. XPS spectra showed the localization of doped fluorine in the top-most thin layer of the film. Platelet-covered areas represented progressively larger portions of the surfaces of deeper etched layers, corresponding to the decreasing fluorine content in such sample surfaces. These results indicate that the localized fluorine in the top-most thin layer is one of the key factors in the promotion of the non-thrombogenicity of F-DLC film.

  12. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film bioelectrodes: Effect of thermal post-treatments and the use of Ti adhesion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, Tomi, E-mail: tomi.laurila@aalto.fi [Department of Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Rautiainen, Antti [Department of Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Sintonen, Sakari [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Jiang, Hua [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Kaivosoja, Emilia [Department of Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine (Finland); Koskinen, Jari [Department of Materials Science, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    The effect of thermal post-treatments and the use of Ti adhesion layer on the performance of thin film diamond like carbon bioelectrodes (DLC) have been investigated in this work. The following results were obtained: (i) The microstructure of the DLC layer after the deposition was amorphous and thermal annealing had no marked effect on the structure, (ii) formation of oxygen containing SiO{sub x} and Ti[O,C] layers were detected at the Si/Ti and Ti/DLC interfaces with the help of transmission electron microscope (TEM), (iii) thermal post-treatments increased the polar fraction of the surface energy, (iv) cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed that the DLC films had wide water windows and were stable in contact with dilute sulphuric acid and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions, (v) use of Ti interlayer between Pt(Ir) microwire and DLC layer was crucial for the electrodes to survive the electrochemical measurements without the loss of adhesion of the DLC layer, (vi) DLC electrodes with small exposed Pt areas were an order of magnitude more sensitive towards dopamine than Pt electrodes and (vii) thermal post-treatments did not markedly change the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes despite the significant increase in the polar nature of the surfaces. It can be concluded that thin DLC bioelectrodes are stable under physiological conditions and can detect dopamine in micro molar range, but their sensitivity must be further improved. - Highlights: • Crucial effect of Ti adhesion layer on the performance of DLC bioelectrodes is shown. • Amorphous SiOx and Ti[C,O]x are shown to form at the Si/Ti and Ti/DLC interfaces. • Thermal annealing can be used to oxidize the surface of DLC films. • However, there is no change in the sensitivity of the electrodes towards dopamine. • DLC/Pt composite electrodes have improved sensitivity.

  13. Effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of DLC/TiC multilayer films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhaoying [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); State Key Laboratory of Vanadium and Titanium Resources Comprehensive Utilization, Pangang Group Research Institute Co., Ltd., Panzhihua 617000, Sichuan (China); Sun, H. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Leng, Y.X., E-mail: yxleng@263.net [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China); Li, Xueyuan; Yang, Wenmao [Institute of Mechanical Manufacturing Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan (China); Huang, N. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods at same modulation ratio 1:1 were deposited by FCVA. • The residual stress of DLC/TiC multilayer films decreases with the modulation periods decrease. • The hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreases with modulation periods increasing. - Abstract: The high stress of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film limits its thickness and adhesion on substrate. Multilayer structure is one approach to overcome this disadvantage. In this paper, the DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods (80 nm, 106 nm or 160 nm) at same modulation ratio of 1:1 were deposited on Si(1 0 0) wafer and Ti-6Al-4V substrate by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindention and wear test were employed to investigate the effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the multilayer films. The results showed that the residual stress of the DLC/TiC multilayer films could be effectively reduced and the residual stress decreased with the modulation periods decreasing. The hardness of the DLC/TiC multilayer films increased with modulation periods decreasing. The DLC/TiC multilayer film with modulation period of 106 nm had the best wear resistance due to the good combination of hardness, ductility and low compressive stress.

  14. Nano-mechanical properties of nano-gold/DLC composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajib; Bhadra, Nilanjana; Mukhopadhyay, Anup Kumar; Bhar, Radhaballav; Pal, Arun Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Diamond-like-Carbon composite films, with embedded gold nanoparticles, were deposited onto glass substrates by using capacitively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (CCP-CVD) technique. The volume fraction of the metal nanoparticles in the films as well as the size of the nanoparticles was varied by varying the percentage of argon in the methane + argon mixture during the deposition. Bonding environments in these films were obtained from Raman and GIXRD. The nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of the Au-DLC nanocomposite films were evaluated. In situ SPM imaging was utilized to depict deformation characteristics developed during the static and dynamic contact events. Influence of metal incorporation on the extent of sp2/sp3 hybridization and thereby on the nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of the DLC films was studied.

  15. Surface energy evaluation of unhydrogenated DLC thin film deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, R.; Dinca, V.; Musa, G.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this paper is concerned with the surface energy evaluation by contact angle measurements of DLC films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) on different substrates: glass plate, zinc foil, stainless steel and alumina foil. TVA is an original method based on a combination of the evaporation by electron bombardment and anodic arc. The evaluation of the surface free energy has been carried out by surface energy evaluation system (SEE System). The influence of the experimental conditions is also investigated.

  16. Effect of titanium incorporation on the structural, mechanical and biocompatible properties of DLC thin films prepared by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathy, P. Vijai [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Nataraj, D., E-mail: de.natraj@gmail.com [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Chu, Paul K.; Wang, Huaiyu [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Kiran, M.S.R.N. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Andra Pradesh (India); Silvestre-Albero, J. [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados, Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Mangalaraj, D. [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) and titanium incorporated diamond like carbon (Ti-DLC) thin films were deposited by using reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method. The effects of Ti incorporation and target bias voltage on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited films were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nano-indentation. It was found that the Ti content in Ti-DLC films gets increased with increasing target bias voltage. At about 4.2 at.% of Ti, uniform sized well dispersed nanocrystals were seen in the DLC matrix. Using FFT analysis, a facility available in the TEM, it was found that the nanocrystals are in cubic TiC phase. Though at the core, the incorporated Ti atoms react with carbon to form cubic TiC; most of the surface exposed Ti atoms were found to react with the atmospheric oxygen to form weakly bonded Ti-O. The presence of TiC nanocrystals greatly modified the sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridized bonding ratio and is reflected in mechanical hardness of Ti-DLC films. These films were then tested for their biocompatibility by an invitro cell culturing test. Morphological observation and the cell proliferation test have demonstrated that the human osteoblast cells well attach and proliferate on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC films, suggesting possible applications in bone related implant coatings.

  17. Transmission photocathodes based on stainless steel mesh and quartz glass coated with N-doped DLC thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Huran, J.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Arbet, J.

    2016-03-01

    The influence was investigated of N-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films properties on the quantum efficiency of a prepared transmission photocathode. N-doped DLC thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, a stainless steel mesh and quartz glass (coated with 5 nm thick Cr adhesion film) by reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and gas mixture Ar, 90%N2+10%H2. The elements' concentration in the films was determined by RBS and ERD. The quantum efficiency was calculated from the measured laser energy and the measured cathode charge. For the study of the vectorial photoelectric effect, the quartz type photocathode was irradiated by intensive laser pulses to form pin-holes in the DLC film. The quantum efficiency (QE), calculated at a laser energy of 0.4 mJ, rose as the nitrogen concentration in the DLC films was increased and rose dramatically after the micron-size perforation in the quartz type photocathodes.

  18. Influence of diamond and graphite bonds on mechanical properties of DLC thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Písařík, Petr; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Zemek, Josef; Lukeš, Jaroslav; Šepitka, Josef

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon thin films with various ratios of sp3/sp2 bonds were studied. The films were prepared in argon atmosphere (0.25 Pa) by laser deposition method for laser energy densities from 4 J·cm-2 to 14 J·cm-2. The sp2 and sp3 bonds were calculated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Films contained sp3 bonds up to 70 %. Surface properties as roughness and atomic force microscopy topology were measured. Hardness (and reduced Young's modulus) were determined by nanoindentation and reached of 30 GPa (203 GPa). Films adhesion was studied using scratch test and was up to 12 N for biomedical alloy (titanium substrates - Ti-6Al-4V). Relations among deposition conditions and measured properties are presented.

  19. Thin film module development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, T.

    1985-01-01

    The design of ARCO Solar, Inc.'s Genesis G100 photovoltaic module was driven by several criteria, including environmental stability (both electrical and mechanical), consumer aesthetics, low materials costs, and manufacturing ease. The module circuitry is designed as a 12 volt battery charger, using monolithic patterning techniques on a glass superstrate. This patterning and interconnect method proves amenable to high volume, low cost production throughput, and the use of glass serves the dual role of handling ease and availability. The mechanical design of the module centers on environmental stability. Packaging of the glass superstrate circuit must provide good resistance to thermal and humidity exposure along with hi-pot insulation and hailstone impact resistance. The options considered are given. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is chosen as the pottant material for its excellent weatherability.

  20. Nanostructures based in boro nitride thin films deposited by PLD onto Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/DLC substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, W S; Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma, Laser y Aplicaciones, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Caicedo, J C [Grupo de PelIculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Ospina, R [Laboratorio de Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Manizales (Colombia); Tirado-MejIa, L, E-mail: hriascos@utp.edu.c [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon and boron nitride were deposited like nanostructered bilayer on Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrate, both with (100) crystallographic orientation, these films were deposited through pulsed laser technique (Nd: YAG: 8 Jcm{sup -2}, 9ns). Graphite (99.99%) and boron nitride (99.99%) targets used to growth the films in argon atmosphere. The thicknesses of bilayer were determined with a perfilometer, active vibration modes were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), finding bands associated around 1400 cm{sup -1} for B - N bonding and bands around 1700 cm{sup -1} associated with C=C stretching vibrations of non-conjugated alkenes and azometinic groups, respectively. The crystallites of thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determinated the h-BN (0002), alpha-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (101) phases. The aim of this study is to relate the dependence on physical and chemical characteristics of the system Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/DLC/BN with gas pressure adjusted at the 1.33, 2.67 and 5.33 Pa values.

  1. Study of the Thermal Decomposition of PFPEs Lubricants on a Thin DLC Film Using Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic Potential Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Deb Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs are widely used as hard disk lubricants for protecting carbon overcoat reducing friction between the hard disk interface and the head during the movement of head during reading and writing data in the hard disk. Due to temperature rise of PFPE Zdol lubricant molecules on a DLC surface, how polar end groups are detached from lubricant molecules during coating is described considering the effect of temperatures on the bond/break density of PFPE Zdol using the coarse-grained bead spring model based on finitely extensible nonlinear elastic potential. As PFPE Z contains no polar end groups, effects of temperature on the bond/break density (number of broken bonds/total number of bonds are not so significant like PFPE Zdol. Effects of temperature on the bond/break density of PFPE Z on DLC surface are also discussed with the help of graphical results. How bond/break phenomenonaffects the end bead density of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on DLC surface is discussed elaborately. How the overall bond length of PFPE Zdol increases with the increase of temperature which is responsible for its decomposition is discussed with the help of graphical results. At HAMR condition, as PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol are not suitable lubricant on a hard disk surface, it needs more investigations to obtain suitable lubricant. We study the effect of breaking of bonds of nonfunctional lubricant PFPE Z, functional lubricants such as PFPE Zdol and PFPE Ztetrao, and multidented functional lubricants such as ARJ-DS, ARJ-DD, and OHJ-DS on a DLC substrate with the increase of temperature when heating of all of the lubricants on a DLC substrate is carried out isothermally using the coarse-grained bead spring model by molecular dynamics simulations and suitable lubricant is selected which is suitable on a DLC substrate at high temperature.

  2. DLC-Si protective coatings for polycarbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a-C:H:Si (DLC-Si films were produced onto crystalline silicon and polycarbonate substrates by the rf-PACVD technique from gaseous mixtures of CH4 + SiH4 and C2H2 + SiH4. The effects of self-bias and gas composition upon mechanical and optical properties of the films were investigated. Micro-hardness, residual stress, surface roughness and refractive index measurements were employed for characterization. By incorporating low concentrations of silicon and by exploring the more favorable conditions for the rf-PACVD deposition technique, highly adherent DLC-Si thin films were produced with reduced internal stresses (lower than 1 GPa, high hardness (around 20 GPa and high deposition rates (up to 10 µm/h. Results that show the technological viability of this material for application as protective coatings for polycarbonates are also discussed.

  3. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C., E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  4. DLC screw preload. Loosening prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Aparecida de Mattias Sartori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The screw loosening is a reason to prosthetic rehabilitation failure. However, the DLC (Diamond-like carbon screw treatment lead thefriction decrease and sliding between the components, which increases the screw preload benefit and decreases the chance of looseningoccurrence. This case shows a clinical indication of the association of the correct preload applied and the DLC screw, which can be considered an optimized protocol to solve screw loosening recidivate of unitary prosthesis in anterior maxillary site.

  5. Preparation and characterization of DLC/SiO2/Al2O3 nanofiltration membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jin-Su Jeong; Churl-Hee Cho; Jong-Oh Kim; Dong-Hun Yeo; Won-Youl Choi

    2013-12-01

    High quality ceramic thin films were fabricated by thin film deposition process in semiconductor field in order to fabricate high performance carbon/SiO2/Al2O3 membrane. -Al2O3 substrate was used as a supporting material. A severe thermal stress and rough surface for active ceramic top layer such as zeolite were observed. To overcome thermal stress, intermediate layer of SiO2 and diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films were used. SiO2 and DLC thin films on porous alumina support were deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Homogeneous and smooth surfaces and interfaces of DLC/SiO2/Al2O3 membrane were observed by FESEM. The phases of DLC and SiO2 thin films were identified by X-ray diffraction pattern. Gas permeabilities of the nanofiltration membrane with DLC/SiO2/Al2O3 were observed at various annealing temperatures. Mixed gas permeability of the membrane with 1 m-thick SiO2 and 2 m-thick DLC thin filmannealed at 200 °C was ∼18 ccm at 1018 mb back pressure.

  6. Biocompatibility and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio of laser created DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, M., E-mail: jelinek@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, nam. Sitna 3105, 27201 Kladno (Czech Republic); Smetana, K. [Charles University, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Anatomy, U nemocnice 3, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Charles University, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Center of Cell Therapy and Tissue Repair, V Uvalu 84, 150 06 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Kocourek, T. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, nam. Sitna 3105, 27201 Kladno (Czech Republic); Dvorankova, B. [Charles University, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Anatomy, U nemocnice 3, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Charles University, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Center of Cell Therapy and Tissue Repair, V Uvalu 84, 150 06 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Zemek, J.; Remsa, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Luxbacher, T. [Anton Paar GmbH, Anton-Paar Strasse 20, 8054 Graz (Austria)

    2010-05-25

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films of various diamond/graphitic content were created using pulsed laser deposition method. 'Diamond' sp{sup 3} concentration in region from 32% to 62% was determined using X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy (XPS/XAES). Zeta potential test was conducted to measure electric surface properties. In vitro test of DLC layers was arranged using normal human fibroblasts. The study was stressed on cytotoxicity, adhesion and cell proliferation. Correlations between sp{sup 3}, sp{sup 2} bonds and surface and biological properties of DLC layers are discussed.

  7. DLC coatings for hydraulic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca NOBILI; Luca MAGAGNIN

    2009-01-01

    Replacement of lubricating oils with water or low-viscosity fluids is highly desirable in many industrial fields, on account of the environmental and economical advantages. Low lubricity of water might be insufficient for proper operation of hydraulic components, and diamond-like carbon(DLC) coatings are very attractive as solid lubricant films. A remote-plasma PACVD process was utilized to deposit hydrogenated DLC coatings (a-C:H) on different substrates. Microindentation measurements show that the coating hardness is around 35 GPa. Tribological behavior was evaluated by block-on-ring tests performed in water and water with alumina. The wear rate was calculated after measuring the wear volume by a laser profilemeter. Morphological and compositional analysis of the wear tracks reveal that coating failure may occur by abrasive wear or delamination, depending on the substrate properties. Hard and smooth substrates give the best results and dispersed alumina particles increase the wear rate.

  8. Crystalline-silicon reliability lessons for thin-film modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of crystalline silicon modules has been brought to a high level with lifetimes approaching 20 years, and excellent industry credibility and user satisfaction. The transition from crystalline modules to thin film modules is comparable to the transition from discrete transistors to integrated circuits. New cell materials and monolithic structures will require new device processing techniques, but the package function and design will evolve to a lesser extent. Although there will be new encapsulants optimized to take advantage of the mechanical flexibility and low temperature processing features of thin films, the reliability and life degradation stresses and mechanisms will remain mostly unchanged. Key reliability technologies in common between crystalline and thin film modules include hot spot heating, galvanic and electrochemical corrosion, hail impact stresses, glass breakage, mechanical fatigue, photothermal degradation of encapsulants, operating temperature, moisture sorption, circuit design strategies, product safety issues, and the process required to achieve a reliable product from a laboratory prototype.

  9. Chromium-doped DLC for implants prepared by laser-magnetron deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zemek, Josef; Mikšovský, Jan; Kubinová, Šárka; Remsa, Jan; Kopeček, Jaromir; Jurek, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are frequently used for coating of implants. The problem of DLC layers lies in bad layer adhesion to metal implants. Chromium is used as a dopant for improvement of adhesion of DLC films. DLC and Cr-DLC layers were deposited on silicon, Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo substrates by a hybrid technology using combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering. The topology of layers was studied using SEM, AFM and mechanical profilometer. Carbon and chromium content and concentration of trivalent and toxic hexavalent chromium bonds were determined by XPS and WDS. It follows from the scratch tests that Cr doping improved adhesion of DLC layers. Ethylene glycol, diiodomethane and deionized water were used to measure the contact angles. The surface free energy (SFE) was calculated. The antibacterial properties were studied using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The influence of SFE, hydrophobicity and surface roughness on antibacterial ability of doped layers is discussed.

  10. Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition of DLC coating for modification of orthodontic magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsarat, W. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Aukkaravittayapun, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Jotikasthira, D. [Department of Odontology-Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to use the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) technique to form diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on orthodontic magnets to solve the corrosion problem. To search for the optimal material modification effect, PIII-D conditions including gases, processing time, and pulsing mode were varied. The formation of DLC films was confirmed and characterized with Raman spectra. The intensity of the remnant magnetic field of the magnets and the hardness, adhesion and thickness of the thin films were then measured. A corrosion test was carried out using clinic dental fluid. Improved benefits including a satisfying hardness, adhesion, remnant magnetic strength and corrosion resistance of the DLC coating could be achieved by using a higher interrupting time ratio and shorter processing time.

  11. New features in MADX thin-lens tracking module

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, YP; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we introduce several new features of the MADX thin-lens tracking module, which include the new element AC dipole, the new feature ‘NOISE’attached to the class ‘multipole’, and the offset of the ‘aperture’ model. We also present simulation results for the benchmark between different codes, and some applications with examples.

  12. New features in MADX thin-lens tracking module

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Y; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we introduce several new features of the MADX thin-lens tracking module, which include the new element AC dipole, the new feature ‘NOISE’ attached to the class ‘multipole’, and the offset of the ‘aperture’ model. We also present simulation results for the benchmark between different codes, and some applications with examples.

  13. Tribological performance of DLC coatings on UHMWPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Nogues, V; Medel, F J; Mariscal, M D; Endrino, J L; Krzanowski, J; Yubero, F; Puertolas, J A, E-mail: enav@unizar.es

    2010-11-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited by several methods (ion beam assisted evaporation, magnetron sputtering, filter cathodic arc, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) onto medical grade ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) discs. The chemical characteristics and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC coatings were studied by Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation, respectively. In addition, a set of tribological tests was conducted at human body temperature and under bovine serum lubrication against alumina balls. After testing, wear tracks were both visually inspected and documented using confocal microscopy. Visual inspection of the wear tracks confirmed that the DLC coatings were completely removed in all cases, the only exception being the DLC coating prepared by magnetron sputtering with thickness about 0.5 microns. Although this type of DLC coating exhibited the highest friction coefficient, and therefore it suggested a somewhat lower resistance to abrasive/adhesive wear conditions, no evidence of cracking or delamination was observed after the high contact pressure wear testing. This fact points out a good substrate-coating adhesion, and confirms magnetron sputtered DLC as a potential coating for orthopaedic applications.

  14. Characterization of Field Exposed Thin Film Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Sastry, O. S.; Stokes, A.; Singh, Y. K.; Kumar, M.

    2012-06-01

    Test arrays of thin film modules have been deployed at the Solar Energy Centre near New Delhi, India since 2002-2003. Performances of these arrays were reported by O.S. Sastry [1]. This paper reports on NREL efforts to support SEC by performing detailed characterization of selected modules from the array. Modules were selected to demonstrate both average and worst case power loss over the 8 years of outdoor exposure. The modules characterized included CdTe, CIS and three different types of a-Si. All but one of the a-Si types were glass-glass construction. None of the modules had edge seals. Detailed results of these tests are presented along with our conclusions about the causes of the power loss for each technology.

  15. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules

    KAUST Repository

    Rowell, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power conversion efficiency. Reflection, absorption, resistive losses and lost active area either from the scribed interconnect region in monolithically integrated modules or from the shadow losses of a metal grid in standard modules typically reduce the efficiency by 10-25%. Here, we perform calculations to show that a competitive TC must have a transparency of at least 90% at a sheet resistance of less than 10 Ω/sq (conductivity/absorptivity ≥ 1 Ω -1) for monolithically integrated modules. For standard modules, losses are much lower and the performance of alternative lower cost TC materials may already be sufficient to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. The Study of DLC and Si-DLC Based Coatings and Their Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Budinská

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, diamond-like carbon (DLC films and DLC-Si films were studied. These films were deposited by DC-plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (PACVD. X-ray diffraction analysis of coatings was used for a determination of coatings structure. In particular, the effect of the crystal structure of the coatings on their mechanical properties was studied.

  17. AFM Study on Reliability of Nanoscale DLC Films Deposited by ECR-MPCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shou-xing; ZHU Shi-gen; DING Jian-ning

    2004-01-01

    Nanoindentation, scratch and wear tests based on an atomic force microscope (AFM) were carried out to study the reliability of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, deposited by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (ECR-MPCVD). The predictors for film reliability were given to investigate the resistance of DLC films to indent, scratch, and wear. Experimental results showed that the films at 64.9nm and 12.07nm exhibited better reliability than thin one at 2.78nm, 4.48nm. In addition, the reliability strength of films above 12.07nm went stable, and the films showed good performance of anti-indentation, anti-scratch and anti-wear. Finally, size effect of nanoscale monolayer film was introduced to explain the reliability of nanoscale DLC films.

  18. Electrochemical Behaviour of Sputtering Deposited DLC Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Erjia; ZENG A,LIU L X

    2003-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were deposited via magnetron sputtering process. The energetic ion bombardment on the surface of growing film is one of the major parameters that control the atom mobility on the film surface and further the physical and chemical characteristics of the films. In this study, the energy of carbon ions was monitored by changing sputtering power density, and its effect on the electrochemical performance of the films was investigated. For the deposition at a higher sputtering power density, a higher sp3 content in the DLC films was achieved with denser structure and increased film-substrate adhesion. The impedance at the interface of Si substrate/sulfuric acid solution was significantly enhanced, and at the same time higher film resistance, lower capacitance, higher breakdown potential and longer breakdown time were observed, which were related to the significant sp3 content of the DLC films.

  19. Electrochemical Behaviour of Sputtering Deposited DLC Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUErjia; ZENGA; LIULX

    2003-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were deposited via magnetron sputtering process. The energetic ion hombardment on the surface of growing film is one of the major parameters that control the atom mobility on the flirt1 surface and further the physical and chemical characteristics of the films. In this study, the energy of carbon ions was monitored by changing sputtering powerdensity, and its effect on the electrochemical performance of the films was investigated. For the deposition at a higher sputtering power density, a higher sp3 content in the DLC films was achieved with denser structure and increased film-substrate adhesion. The impedance at the interface of Si substrate/sulfufic acid solution was significantly enhanced, and at the same time higher film resistance, lower capacitance, higher breakdown potential and longer breakdown time were observed, which were related to the significant sp3 content of the DLC films.

  20. Thermal instability of DLC film surface morphology - an AFM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, R.; Thiruvadigal, D. John; Gopalakrishnan, C.

    2012-06-01

    The surface morphology of the DLC film during thermal annealing at particular temperature above the graphitization temperature shows blistering and buckling and also delaminates from the substrate. The DLC film shows poor thermal stability at higher temperature.

  1. Circuit analysis method for thin-film solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a thin-film solar cell module is dependent on the probability of occurrence of pinhole shunt defects. Using known or assumed defect density data, dichotomous population statistics can be used to calculate the number of defects expected in a module. Probability theory is then used to assign the defective cells to individual strings in a selected series-parallel circuit design. Iterative numerical calculation is used to calcuate I-V curves using cell test values or assumed defective cell values as inputs. Good and shunted cell I-V curves are added to determine the module output power and I-V curve. Different levels of shunt resistance can be selected to model different defect levels.

  2. Optical Characterization of Different Thin Film Module Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ebner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a complete quality control of different thin film module technologies (a-Si, CdTe, and CIS a combination of fast and nondestructive methods was investigated. Camera-based measurements, such as electroluminescence (EL, photoluminescence (PL, and infrared (IR technologies, offer excellent possibilities for determining production failures or defects in solar modules which cannot be detected by means of standard power measurements. These types of optical measurement provide high resolution images with a two-dimensional distribution of the characteristic features of PV modules. This paper focuses on quality control and characterization using EL, PL, and IR imaging with conventional cameras and an alternative excitation source for the PL-setup.

  3. DLC Films Deposited by the DC PACVD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Palamarchuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon coatings have been suggested as protective surface layers against wear. However hard DLC coatings, especially those of greater thickness, have poor adhesion to substrates. We have used several ways to increase the adhesion of DLC coatings prepared by the PACVD (Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition method on steel substrates. One of these is the DC PACVD method for preparing DLC films.

  4. DLC Films Deposited by the DC PACVD Method

    OpenAIRE

    D. Palamarchuk; M. Zoriy; J. Gurovič; F. Černý; S. Konvičková; I. Hüttel

    2003-01-01

    DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) coatings have been suggested as protective surface layers against wear. However hard DLC coatings, especially those of greater thickness, have poor adhesion to substrates. We have used several ways to increase the adhesion of DLC coatings prepared by the PACVD (Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition) method on steel substrates. One of these is the DC PACVD method for preparing DLC films.

  5. Adhesive B-doped DLC films on biomedical alloys used for bone fixation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Ahmad; A M Alsaad

    2007-08-01

    The long-term failure of the total hip and knee prostheses is attributed to the production of wear particles at the articulating interface between the metals, ceramics and polymers used for surgical implants and bone-fixtures. Therefore, finding an adhesive and inert coating material that has low frictional coefficient should dramatically reduce the production of wear particles and hence, prolong the life time of the surgical implants. The novel properties of the non-toxic diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have proven to be excellent candidates for biomedical applications. However, they have poor adhesion strength to the alloys and biomaterials. The addition of a thin interfacial layer such as Si, Ti, TiN, Mo and Cu/Cr and/or adding additives such as Si, F, N, O, W, V, Co, Mo, Ti or their combinations to the DLC films has been found to increase the adhesion strength substantially. In our study, grade 316L stainless steel and grade 5 titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) were used as biomaterial substrates. They were coated with DLC films containing boron additives at various levels using various Si interfacial layer thicknesses. The best film adhesion was achieved at 8% and 20% on DLC coated Ti–6Al–4V and grade 316L substrates, respectively. It has been demonstrated that doping the DLC with boron increases their adhesion strength to both substrates even without silicon interfacial layer and increases it substantially with optimum silicon layer thickness. The adhesion strength is also correlated with the hydrogen contents in the B-DLC films. It is found to reach its maximum value of 700 kg/cm2 and 390 kg/cm2 at 2/7 and 3/6 for CH4/Ar partial pressures (in mTorr ratio) for Ti–6Al–4V and 316L substrates, respectively.

  6. Investigation of superfast deposition of metal oxide and Diamond-Like Carbon thin films by nanosecond Ytterbium (Yb+) fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbezov, V.; Sotirov, S.; Benkhouja, K.; Zawadzka, A.; Sahraoui, B.

    2013-11-01

    Metal oxide (MOx, M: titanium, magnesium) and Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) thin films were synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) at room temperature and low vacuum of 2 Pa for MOx and vacuum of 4 × 10-3 Pa for DLC films. A fiber based Ytterbium (Yb+) laser operating in the nanosecond regime at a repetition rate of 20 kHz was used as an ablation source. Dense and smooth thin films with a thickness from 120 to 360 nm and an area of up to 10 cm2 were deposited on glass and stainless steel substrates at high growth rates up to 2 nm/s for a laser intensity of 10-12 J/cm2. The thin films synthesis was compared for two fiber laser modes of operation, at a repetition rate of 20 kHz and with an additional modulation at 1 kHz. The morphology, chemical composition and structure of the obtained thin films were evaluated using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology of the MOx thin films and the deposition rate strongly depend on the fiber laser mode of operation. Very smooth surfaces were obtained for the metal oxide thin films deposited at lower deposition rates in the modulation mode at 1 kHz. The effect of the substrate on the DLC film structure was studied. The films deposited on dielectric substrates were identified as typical tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC with high sp3 content. DLC films on metal substrates were found typical a-C amorphous carbon films with mixing sp2/sp3 bonds.

  7. Electrical and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nickel incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, B., E-mail: pandey.beauty@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Das, D. [UGC-DAE CSR, Sector III/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Kar, A.K. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electrical and magnetic properties of DLC and Ni-DLC thin films are studied. • The ohmicity and conductivity of DLC films rise with nickel addition. • The ohmicity of Ni-DLC is enhanced with increase in dilution of electrolyte. • Dielectric loss is high for Ni-DLC and decreases with frequency till 100 kHz. • (m–H) and (m–T) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior. - Abstract: Nanocomposite diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films have been synthesized by incorporating nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in DLC matrix with varying concentration of nickel. DLC and Ni-DLC thin films have been deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing low voltage electrodeposition method. Electrical properties of the samples were studied by measuring current–voltage characteristics and dielectric properties. The current approaches toward an ohmic behavior with metal addition. This tendency of increasing ohmicity is enhanced with increase in dilution of the electrolyte. The conductivity increases with Ni addition and interestingly it continues to increase with dilution of Ni concentration in the electrolyte in the range of our study. Magnetic properties for DLC and Ni-DLC thin film samples were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. g-Value for DLC is 2.074, whereas it decreases to 2.055 with Ni addition in the electrolyte. This decrement arises from the increased sp{sup 2} content in DLC matrix. The magnetic moment vs. magnetic field (m–H) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior which may be due to ferromagnetic contribution from the incorporated nickel nanoparticles in the DLC matrix. The ZFC curve of Ni-DLC after the blocking temperature shows a combined contribution of ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic and paramagnetic nature of the materials persisting up to 300 K.

  8. Adhesion and Thin-Film Module Reliability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, T. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2006-05-01

    Among the infrequently measured but essential properties for thin-film (T-F) module reliability are the interlayer adhesion and cohesion within a layer. These can be cell contact layers to glass, contact layers to the semiconductor, encapsulant to cell, glass, or backsheet, etc. We use an Instron mechanical testing unit to measure peel strengths at 90{sup o} or 180{sup o} and, in some cases, a scratch and tape pull test to evaluate inter-cell layer adhesion strengths. We present peel strength data for test specimens laminated from the three T-F technologies, before and after damp heat, and in one instance at elevated temperatures. On laminated T-F cell samples, failure can occur uniformly at any one of the many interfaces, or non-uniformly across the peel area at more than one interface. Some peel strengths are << 1 N/mm. This is far below the normal Instron mechanical testing unit Instron mechanical testing unit; glass interface values of >10 N/mm. We measure a wide range of adhesion strengths and suggest that adhesion measured under higher temperature and relative humidity conditions is more relevant for module reliability.

  9. Optical modulator based on propagating surface plasmon coupled fluorescent thin film: proof-of-concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Chuang; Weng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Kai-Xin; Chen, Min; Zhai, Yan-Yun; Li, Yao-Qun

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the propagating surface plasmon coupled fluorescent thin film can be utilized as a fluorescence modulator to mimic multiple representative Boolean logic operations. Surface plasmon mediated fluorescence presents characteristic properties including directional and polarized emission, which hold the feasibility in creating a universal optical modulator. In this work, through constructing the thin layer with the specific thickness, surface plasmon mediated fluorescence can be modulated with an ON-OFF ratio by more than 5-fold, under a series of coupling configurations.

  10. Osteogenic differentiation on DLC-PDMS-h surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Antti; Kaivosoja, Emilia; Sillat, Tarvo; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Tiainen, Veli-Matti

    2014-10-01

    The hypothesis was that anti-fouling diamond-like carbon polydimethylsiloxane hybrid (DLC-PDMS-h) surface impairs early and late cellular adhesion and matrix-cell interactions. The effect of hybrid surface on cellular adhesion and cytoskeletal organization, important for osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC), where therefore compared with plain DLC and titanium (Ti). hMSCs were induced to osteogenesis and followed over time using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and hydroxyapatite (HA) staining. SEM at 7.5 hours showed that initial adherence and spreading of hMSC was poor on DLC-PDMS-h. At 5 days some hMSC were undergoing condensation and apoptotic fragmentation, whereas cells on DLC and Ti grew well. DAPI-actin-vinculin triple staining disclosed dwarfed cells with poorly organized actin cytoskeleton-focal complex/adhesion-growth substrate attachments on hybrid coating, whereas spread cells, organized microfilament bundles, and focal adhesions were seen on DLC and in particular on Ti. Accordingly, at day one ToF-SIMS mass peaks showed poor protein adhesion to DLC-PDMS-h compared with DLC and Ti. COL1A1, ALP, OP mRNA levels at days 0, 7, 14, 21, and/or 28 and lack of HA deposition at day 28 demonstrated delayed or failed osteogenesis on DLC-PDMS-h. Anti-fouling DLC-PDMS-h is a poor cell adhesion substrate during the early protein adsorption-dependent phase and extracellular matrix-dependent late phase. Accordingly, some hMSCs underwent anoikis-type apoptosis and failed to complete osteogenesis, due to few focal adhesions and poor cell-to-ECM contacts. DLC-PDMS-h seems to be a suitable coating for non-integrating implants/devices designed for temporary use.

  11. Modulated surface textures for enhanced scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isabella, O.; Battaglia, C.; Ballif, C.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-scale randomly textured front transparent oxides are superposed on micro-scale etched glass substrates to form modulated surface textures. The resulting enhanced light scattering is implemented in single and double junction thin-film silicon solar cells.

  12. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, K., E-mail: ozeki@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, 162-1 Shirakata, Toukai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Hirakuri, K.K. [Applied Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Ishizaka, Hatoyama, Hiki, Saitama 350-0394 (Japan); Masuzawa, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO{sub 2} films and DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO{sub 2}-coated and the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO{sub 2} coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO{sub 2} film was covered with the DLC film.

  13. Progress Toward a Stabilization and Preconditioning Protocol for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Deline, C. A.; Rummel, S. R.; Anderberg, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can exhibit substantial variation in measured performance depending on prior exposure history. This study examines the metastable performance changes in these PV modules with the goal of establishing standard preconditioning or stabilization exposure procedures to mitigate measured variations prior to current-voltage (IV) measurements.

  14. DLC/Ag/DLC复合多层薄膜光学性能%Studay on Optical Property of DLC/Ag/DLC Multilayer Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德恒; 徐照方; 李伯勋

    2008-01-01

    采用等离子体增强化学气相沉积类金刚石(DLC)薄膜、高真空磁控溅射镀膜设备溅射Ag靶的方法制备了不同厚度Ag、DLC层的DLC/Ag/DLC多层膜,分别用紫外可见分光光度计、四探针测试仪对样品的光学性能、电学性能进行了测试.结果表明,随着Ag层厚度的增加,DLC/Ag/DLC多层膜透射率先增后减,外层DLC薄膜和内层DLC薄膜对透射率影响基本一致,随着厚度增加透射率先增后减,在内外层厚度为40 nm,Ag夹层厚度为16 nm时,DLC(30 nm)/Ag(16 nm)/DLC(40 nm)膜在550 nm处的透射率高达94.4%,电气指数高达112.4 ×10-3Ω-1,远远超过现有透明导电膜的电气指数(FTC≈20×10-3Ω-1).

  15. Hemocompatibility of DLC coatings synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam-assisted diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have beenused for growing the human platelet, fibrinogen, and albumin in the control environment in order to assess their hemocompatibility. The hard carbon films were prepared on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at room temperature using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). Raman spectroscopic analysis proved that the carbon films on PMMA are diamond-like with a higher fraction of sp\\+3 bonds in the structure of mixed sp\\+2+sp\\+3 bonding. The blood protein adsorption tests showed that DLC coatings can adsorb more albumin and are slightly more fibrinogen than the PMMA chosen as a control sample. The platelets adhered on DLC coatings were reduced significantly in number. These results indicate good hemocompatibility of DLC coatings.

  16. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  17. Investigation of the degradation of a thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photovoltaic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dyk, E.E.; Audouard, A.; Meyer, E.L. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Woolard, C.D. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2007-01-23

    The degradation of a thin-film hydrogenated single-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photovoltaic (PV) module has been studied. We investigated the different modes of electrical and physical degradation of a-Si:H PV modules by employing a degradation and failure assessment procedure used in conjunction with analytical techniques, including, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry. This paper reveals that due to their thickness, thin films are very sensitive to the type of degradation observed. Moreover, this paper deals with the problems associated with the module encapsulant, poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA). The main objective of this study was to establish the influence of outdoor environmental conditions on the performance of a thin-film PV module comprising a-Si:H single-junction cells. (author)

  18. Erosion–corrosion and corrosion properties of DLC coated low temperature Erosion–corrosion and corrosion properties of DLC coated low temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Christiansen, Thomas; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    of AISI 316 as substrate for DLC coatings are investigated. Corrosion and erosion–corrosion measurements were carried out on low temperature nitrided stainless steel AISI 316 and on low temperature nitrided stainless steel AISI 316 with a top layer of DLC. The combination of DLC and low temperature...

  19. Advances in targetry with thin diamond-like carbon foils

    CERN Document Server

    Liechtenstein, V K; Olshanski, E D; Repnow, R; Levin, J; Hellborg, R; Persson, P; Schenkel, T

    2002-01-01

    Thin and stable diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils, which were fabricated at the Kurchatov Institute by sputter deposition, have proved recently to be advantageous for stripping and secondary electron timing of high energy heavy ions in a number of accelerator experiments. This resulted in expanding applications of these DLC foils which necessitated further development efforts directed toward the following applications of DLC targetry: (i) thin stripper foils for lower energy tandem accelerators, (ii) enlarged (up to 66 mm in diameter) stop foils for improved time-of-flight elastic recoil detection ion beam analysis, and (iii) ultra-thin (about 0.6 mu g/cm sup 2) DLC foils for some fundamental and applied physics experiments. Along with the fabrication of thin DLC stripper foils for tandem accelerators, much thicker (up to 200 mu g/cm sup 2) foils for post-stripping of heavy-ion beams in higher energy linacs, are within reach.

  20. Investigation of Physical Properties and Electrochemical Behavior of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanakorn Saensak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports characterizations of diamond-like carbon (DLC films used as electrodes for electrochemical applications. DLC thin films are prepared on glass slides and silicon substrates by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD using a gas mixture of methane and hydrogen. In addition, the DLC films are doped with nitrogen in order to reduce electrical resistivity. Compared to the undoped DLC films, the electrical resistivity of nitrogen-doped (N-doped DLC films is decreased by three orders of magnitude. Raman spectroscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy analyses show the structural transformation in N-doped DLC films that causes the reduction of band gap energy. Contact angle measurement at N-doped DLC films indicates increased hydrophobicity. The results obtained from the cyclic voltammetry measurements with Fe(CN63-/Fe(CN64- redox species exhibit the correlation between the physical properties and electrochemical behavior of DLC films.

  1. Characterisation of DLC films deposited using titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT) at different flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, R; Ali, N; Ghumman, C A A; Teodoro, O M N D; Ahmed, W

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the search for advanced biomaterials for biomedical applications, such as human implants and surgical cutting tools. It is known that both carbon and titanium exhibit good biocompatibility and have been used as implants in the human body. It is highly desirable to deposit biocompatible thin films onto a range of components in order to impart biocompatibility and to minimise wear in implants. Diamond like carbon (DLC) is a good candidate material for achieving biocompatibility and low wear rates. In this study, thin films of diamond-like-carbon DLC were deposited onto stainless steel (316) substrates using C2H2, argon and titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT) precursors. Argon was used to generate the plasma in the plasma enhanced vapour deposition (PECVD) system. A critical coating feature governing the performance of the component during service is film thickness. The as-grown films were in the thickness range 90-100 nm and were found to be dependent on TIPOT flow rate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterise the surface roughness of the samples. As the flow rate of TIPOT increased the average roughness was found to increase in conjunction with the film thickness. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical structure of amorphous carbon matrix. Surface tension values were calculated using contact angle measurements. In general, the trend of the surface tension results exhibited an opposite trend to that of the contact angle. The elemental composition of the samples was characterised using a VG ToF SIMS (IX23LS) instrument and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surprisingly, SIMS and XPS results showed that the DLC samples did not show evidence of titanium since no peaks representing to titanium appeared on the SIMS/XPS spectra.

  2. Methodology and systems to ensure reliable thin-film PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jon; Varde, Uday; Konson, Alla; Walters, Mike; Kotarba, Chad, III; Kraft, Tim; Guha, Subhendu

    2008-08-01

    The reliability of Uni-Solar triple-junction amorphous silicon thin-film PV modules is very important to their success in an increasingly competitive PV market. Modules must show useful operating lifetimes on the order of 20 to 30 years, and although module efficiency is very important, the total energy a module will produce is largely dependent on its operating lifetime. Thus, it is essential to evaluate module reliability in order to estimate module lifetime and establish customer warranty periods. While real world outdoor exposure testing is necessary and important, it is essential that accelerated environmental test methods are utilized to provide more rapid feedback regarding failure modes, design flaws and degradation mechanisms. The following paper gives an overview of the methodology used to ensure long-term reliability of Uni-Solar flexible thin-film modules. The applied test methods are primarily based upon accepted industry test standards such as IEC-61646, UL-1703, and ASTM. The design, screening, and qualification process to ensure the robustness of new designs is described as well as subsequent module validation testing and manufacturing process control. Test methods important for flexible module laminates are briefly discussed and examples of reliability tests are given. Upon successful design validation and certification, the quality and reliability of manufactured modules is maintained through supplier and product quality assurance programs.

  3. Modulated IR radiometry for determining thermal properties and basic characteristics of titanium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apreutesei, Mihai [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal and MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lopes, Claudia; Vaz, Filipe; Macedo, Francisco, E-mail: fmacedo@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Borges, Joel [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal and SEG-CEMUC Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Titanium thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering to study modulated infrared (IR) radiometry as a tool for analyzing film thickness. Thickness was varied by regularly increasing the deposition time, keeping all the other deposition parameters constant. The influence of film thickness on morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the titanium coatings also was investigated. The experimental results revealed a systematic grain growth with increasing film thickness, along with enhanced film crystallinity, which led to increased electrical conductivity. Using the results obtained by modulated IR radiometry, the thickness of each thin film was calculated. These thickness values were then compared with the coating thickness measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The values confirmed the reliability of modulated IR radiometry as an analysis tool for thin films and coatings, and for determining thicknesses in the micrometer range, in particular.

  4. Accelerated Stress Testing of Thin-Film Modules with SnO2:F Transparent Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C. R.; McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J. A.; Adelstein, J.; Puett, J.

    2003-05-01

    This paper reviews a testing program conducted at NREL for the past two years that applied voltage, water vapor, and light stresses to thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules with SnO2:F transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) deposited on soda-lime glass superstrates. Electrochemical corrosion at the glass-TCO interface was observed to result in delamination of the thin-film layers. Experimental testing was directed toward accelerating the corrosion and understanding the nature of the resulting damage.

  5. Robust Measurement of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Exhibiting Light-Induced Transients: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael, G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-09

    Light-induced changes to the current-voltage characteristic of thin-film photovoltaic modules (i.e. light-soaking effects) frustrate the repeatable measurement of their operating power. We describe best practices for mitigating, or stabilizing, light-soaking effects for both CdTe and CIGS modules to enable robust, repeatable, and relevant power measurements. We motivate the practices by detailing how modules react to changes in different stabilization methods. We also describe and demonstrate a method for validating alternative stabilization procedures, such as those relying on forward bias in the dark. Reliable measurements of module power are critical for qualification testing, reliability testing, and power rating.

  6. Robust measurement of thin-film photovoltaic modules exhibiting light-induced transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-01

    Light-induced changes to the current-voltage characteristic of thin-film photovoltaic modules (i.e. light-soaking effects) frustrate the repeatable measurement of their operating power. We describe best practices for mitigating, or stabilizing, light-soaking effects for both CdTe and CIGS modules to enable robust, repeatable, and relevant power measurements. We motivate the practices by detailing how modules react to changes in different stabilization methods. We also describe and demonstrate a method for validating alternative stabilization procedures, such as those relying on forward bias in the dark. Reliable measurements of module power are critical for qualification testing, reliability testing, and power rating.

  7. Sealing of hard CrN and DLC coatings with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Emma; Kolev, Ivan; Díaz, Belén; Swiatowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Marcus, Philippe; Fenker, Martin; Toth, Lajos; Radnoczi, György; Vehkamäki, Marko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-02-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique that is based on alternating and saturating surface reactions of two or more gaseous precursors. The excellent conformality of ALD thin films can be exploited for sealing defects in coatings made by other techniques. Here the corrosion protection properties of hard CrN and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on low alloy steel were improved by ALD sealing with 50 nm thick layers consisting of Al2O3 and Ta2O5 nanolaminates or mixtures. In cross sectional images the ALD layers were found to follow the surface morphology of the CrN coatings uniformly. Furthermore, ALD growth into the pinholes of the CrN coating was verified. In electrochemical measurements the ALD sealing was found to decrease the current density of the CrN coated steel by over 2 orders of magnitude. The neutral salt spray (NSS) durability was also improved: on the best samples the appearance of corrosion spots was delayed from 2 to 168 h. On DLC coatings the adhesion of the ALD sealing layers was weaker, but still clear improvement in NSS durability was achieved indicating sealing of the pinholes.

  8. Properties of titanium-alloyed DLC layers for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, Ludek; Fojt, Jaroslav; Cvrcek, Ladislav; Brezina, Vitezslav

    2014-01-01

    DLC-type layers offer a good potential for application in medicine, due to their excellent tribological properties, chemical resistance, and bio-inert character. The presented study has verified the possibility of alloying DLC layers with titanium, with coatings containing three levels of titanium concentration prepared. Titanium was present on the surface mainly in the form of oxides. Its increasing concentration led to increased presence of titanium carbide as well. The behavior of the studied systems was stable during exposure in a physiological saline solution. Electrochemical impedance spectra practically did not change with time. Alloying, however, changed the electrochemical behavior of coated systems in a significant way: from inert surface mediating only exchange reactions of the environment in the case of unalloyed DLC layers to a response corresponding rather to a passive surface in the case of alloyed specimens. The effect of DLC layers alloying with titanium was tested by the interaction with a simulated body fluid, during which precipitation of a compound containing calcium and phosphorus--basic components of the bone apatite--occurred on all doped specimens, in contrast to pure DLC. The results of the specimens' surface colonization with cells test proved the positive effect of titanium in the case of specimens with a medium and highest content of this element.

  9. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Partial shade of monolithic thin-film PV modules can cause reverse-bias conditions leading to permanent damage. In this work, we propose a partial shade stress test for thin-film PV modules that quantifies permanent performance loss. We designed the test with the aid of a computer model that predicts the local voltage, current and temperature stress that result from partial shade. The model predicts the module-scale interactions among the illumination pattern, the electrical properties of the photovoltaic material and the thermal properties of the module package. The test reproduces shading and loading conditions that may occur in the field. It accounts for reversible light-induced performance changes and for additional stress that may be introduced by light-enhanced reverse breakdown. We present simulated and experimental results from the application of the proposed test.

  10. Advances in the analysis and characterization of DLC coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido-Gonzalez, V.; Hampshire, J.; Jones, A.H.S.; Allen, T.J.; Witts, J.; Teer, D.G.; Pierret, B. [Teer Coatings Ltd., Hartlebury Trading Estate, Worcestershire (United Kingdom)

    1998-01-01

    A series of new DLC coatings have been produced by magnetron sputtering using standard in-house equipment. Different tests have been carried out for the analysis and characterization of the coatings. By combining ball cratering with pin-on-disc, standard scratch and multiscratch tests, interesting information has been obtained (failure mechanism, wear properties, etc.). In addition, in combination with ball cratering, a novel method has been developed for the assessment of the refractive index of transparent and semi-transparent DLC films. In the pin-on-disc and multiscratch tests, the conductivity of the film was used to follow the wear progression (DLC has a relatively low electrical conductivity). This device can show local failures produced in the coating (indicated by an increase of film conductivity) which normally remains undetected in a frictional record. (orig.) 14 refs.

  11. Chemico-physical characterisation and in vivo biocompatibility assessment of DLC-coated coronary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Micaela; Stolojan, Vlad; Virga, Alessandro; Rovere, Massimo; Cabiale, Karine; Galloni, Marco R; Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of stent thrombosis occurs in the acute and sub-acute phases and is more common in patients with acute coronary syndromes, due to the thrombotic milieu where stent struts are positioned. Stent thrombosis is likely due to incomplete tissue coverage of metallic stents as the contact between metallic stents and blood elements may lead to platelet adhesion and trigger vessel thrombosis. If a stent is covered after 7 days, the risk that it will be found uncovered at later stages is very low (<1%). In this article, we demonstrate that diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, deposited by physical vapour deposition, promote rapid endothelisation of coronary stent devices, with very low platelets activation, reducing thrombotic clots. We relate these behaviours to the surface and bulk material properties of the DLC films, subjected to a comprehensive chemico-physical characterisation using several techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy, Raman and dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). In vivo studies, conducted on 24 pigs, have shown complete endothelisation after 7 days, with no fibrin mesh and with only rare monocytes scattered on the endothelial layer while 30 and 180 days tests have shown reduced inflammatory activation and a complete stabilisation of the vessel healing, with a minimal neointimal proliferation. The integral and permanent DLC film coating improves haemo- and bio-compatibility and leads to an excellent early vessel healing of the stent whilst the extremely thin strut thickness reduces the amount of late neointima and consequently the risk of late restenosis. These data should translate into a reduced acute and sub-acute stent thrombosis.

  12. Modulated photonic-crystal structures as broadband back reflectors in thin-film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krc, J.; Zeman, M.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Topic, M.

    2009-01-01

    A concept of a modulated one-dimensional photonic-crystal (PC) structure is introduced as a back reflector for thin-film solar cells. The structure comprises two PC parts, each consisting of layers of different thicknesses. Using layers of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon nitride a reflectanc

  13. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  14. Cost reduction by using micro-fingers in thin film silicon modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Bosman, J.; Loffler, J.; Budel, T. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    A finite element electrical model is described that can be used to calculate the performance of monolithic thin film photovoltaic modules. The model is suitable for all type of thin film modules, like e.g. p-i-n a-Si:H, CIGS and polymer based modules and it includes losses due to interconnection. Using this model a parameter study is performed for a-Si:H cells with the aim to reduce metal consumption in the cell and interconnection. It is shown that a reduction in metal consumption by a factor 1.3 can be achieved with only marginal loss in performance if short cell are used with very short fingers.

  15. Novel intercore-cladding lithium niobate thin film coated MOEMS fiber sensor/modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamlson, Tracee L.; Konreich, Phillip; Yu, Chung

    2005-01-01

    A MOEMS fiber modulator/sensor is fabricated by depositing a lithium niobate sol-gel thin film between the core and cladding of a fiber preform. The preform is then drawn into 125-micron fibers. Such a MOEMS modulator design is expected to enhance existing lithium niobate undersea acousto-optic sound wave detectors. In our proposed version, the lithium niobate thin film alters the ordinary silica core/cladding boundary conditions such that, when a stress or strain is applied to the fiber, the core light confinement factor changes, leading to modulation of fiber light transmission. Test results of the lithium niobate embedded fiber with a 1550-nm, 4-mW laser source revealed a reduction in light transmission with applied tension. As a comparison, using the same laser source, an ordinary silica core/cladding fiber did not exhibit any reduction in transmitted light when the same strain was applied. Further experimental work and theoretical analysis is ongoing.

  16. Novel intercore-cladding lithium niobate thin film coated MOEMS fiber sensor/modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamlson, Tracee L.; Konreich, Phillip; Yu, Chung

    2005-01-01

    A MOEMS fiber modulator/sensor is fabricated by depositing a lithium niobate sol-gel thin film between the core and cladding of a fiber preform. The preform is then drawn into 125-micron fibers. Such a MOEMS modulator design is expected to enhance existing lithium niobate undersea acousto-optic sound wave detectors. In our proposed version, the lithium niobate thin film alters the ordinary silica core/cladding boundary conditions such that, when a stress or strain is applied to the fiber, the core light confinement factor changes, leading to modulation of fiber light transmission. Test results of the lithium niobate embedded fiber with a 1550-nm, 4-mW laser source revealed a reduction in light transmission with applied tension. As a comparison, using the same laser source, an ordinary silica core/cladding fiber did not exhibit any reduction in transmitted light when the same strain was applied. Further experimental work and theoretical analysis is ongoing.

  17. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  18. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-17

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  20. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-06-14

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  1. Dual laser deposition of Ti:DLC composite for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Mikšovský, Jan; Písařík, Petr; Jurek, Karel; Tolde, Zdeněk; Trávníčková, Martina; Vandrovcová, Marta; Filová, Elena

    2016-10-01

    Ti-doped hydrogen free diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers of dopation up to ~25 at.% were prepared by dual beam pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using two excimer lasers. The arrangement allows continuous fine tuning of dopant concentration on a large scale and deposition flexibility. The layers were prepared on Si(1 0 0) and Ti6Al4V substrates at room temperature. The surface morphology, mechanical properties, bonds, composition, morphology of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, their metabolic activity and production of osteocalcin, a marker of osteogenic cells’ differentiation were tested. The films’ composition changed after x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface cleaning by argon clusters. Adhesion moved with Ti dopation from 4 N (DLC film) to 11 N (25 at.% of Ti in DLC). Creation of TiC was observed for higher Ti dopation. The contact angle and surface free energy stayed unchanged for higher Ti dopation. Saos-2 cells had the highest metabolic activity/viability on DLC with 10 at.% of Ti and on control polystyrene dishes on days 1 and 3. The Ti dopation improved the formation of vinculin-containing focal adhesion plaques in Saos-2 cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed similar production of osteocalcin in cells on all tested samples.

  2. Low voltage electrodeposition of diamond like carbon (DLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, K.; Nuwad, J.; Pillai, C. G. S.

    2005-10-01

    Attempt has been made to deposit diamond like carbon (DLC) films from ethanol through electrodeposition at low voltages (80-300 V) at 1 mm interelectrode separation. The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Auger electron Spectroscopy (AES). AFM investigations revealed the grain sizes are of tens of nanometers. The films were found to be continuous, smooth and close packed. Presence of peaks at 2958, 2929 and 2869 cm -1 in FTIR spectrum indicates the bonding states to be of predominantly sp 3 type (C-H). Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed two broad bands at ˜1350 and ˜1570 cm -1. The downshift of the G-band of graphite is indicative of presence of DLC. Analysis of the Raman spectra for the samples revealed an improvement in the film quality with increase in the voltage. Micro Raman investigations indicate the formation of diamond phase at the deposition potential of 80 V. The sp 2 contents the films calculated from Auger electron spectra were calculated and were found to be 31, 19 and 7.8% for the samples prepared at 80, 150 and 300 V, respectively. A tentative mechanism for the formation of DLC has been proposed. These results indicate the possibility of deposition of DLC at low voltage.

  3. Low voltage electrodeposition of diamond like carbon (DLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreejith, K. [Novel Materials and Structural Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nuwad, J. [Novel Materials and Structural Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pillai, C.G.S. [Novel Materials and Structural Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: cgspil@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2005-10-15

    Attempt has been made to deposit diamond like carbon (DLC) films from ethanol through electrodeposition at low voltages (80-300 V) at 1 mm interelectrode separation. The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Auger electron Spectroscopy (AES). AFM investigations revealed the grain sizes are of tens of nanometers. The films were found to be continuous, smooth and close packed. Presence of peaks at 2958, 2929 and 2869 cm{sup -1} in FTIR spectrum indicates the bonding states to be of predominantly sp{sup 3} type (C-H). Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed two broad bands at {approx}1350 and {approx}1570 cm{sup -1}. The downshift of the G-band of graphite is indicative of presence of DLC. Analysis of the Raman spectra for the samples revealed an improvement in the film quality with increase in the voltage. Micro Raman investigations indicate the formation of diamond phase at the deposition potential of 80 V. The sp{sup 2} contents the films calculated from Auger electron spectra were calculated and were found to be 31, 19 and 7.8% for the samples prepared at 80, 150 and 300 V, respectively. A tentative mechanism for the formation of DLC has been proposed. These results indicate the possibility of deposition of DLC at low voltage.

  4. Tribological behavior of W-DLC coated rubber seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) coatings have been deposited on FKM (fluorocarbon) and HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubbers via unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering from a WC target in a C2H2/Ar plasma. The surface morphology and fracture cross sections of uncoated and c

  5. Haemocompatibility evaluation of DLC- and SiC-coated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin N.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC and silicon carbide (SiC coatings are attractive because of low friction coefficient, high hardness, chemical inertness and smooth finish, which they provide to biomedical devices. Silicon wafers (Siwaf and silicone rubber (Sirub plates were coated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD techniques. This article describes: 1- the characterization of modified surfaces using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR and contact angle measurements, 2- the results of three in-vitro haemocompatibility assays. Coated surfaces were compared to uncoated materials and various substrates such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polyethylene (LDPE, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and medical steel (MS. Thrombin generation, blood platelet adhesion and complement convertase activity tests revealed the following classification, from the most to the least heamocompatible surface: Sirub/ DLC-Sirub/ DLC-Siwaf/ LDPE/ PDMS/ SiC-Siwaf/ Siwaf/ PMMA/ MS. The DLC coating surfaces delayed the clotting time, tended to inhibit the platelet and complement convertase activation, whereas SiC-coated silicon wafer can be considered as thrombogenic. This study has taken into account three events of the blood activation: coagulation, platelet activation and inflammation. The response to those events is an indicator of the in vitro haemocompatibility of the different surfaces and it allows us to select biomaterials for further in vivo blood contacting investigations.

  6. Protection of elastomers with DLC film : deposition, characterization and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Martinez, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Elastomers are materials which suffer from strong wear and cause high friction losses when subjected to dynamic contact, leading quite often to failure of the components in devices. In this Thesis, the protection of elastomers by the deposition of carbon-based films (DLC) is studied. To accomplish t

  7. A study of DLC coatings for ironing of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    Stamping of sheet metal components without lubrication or using minimum amount of hazard free lubricant is a possible solution to diminish health hazards to personnel and environmental impact and to reduce production costs. This paper studies the application of diamond-like coating (DLC) under...

  8. Survey of potential-induced degradation in thin-film modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Peter; Terwilliger, Kent; Glick, Stephen H.; Perrin, Greg; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-01

    CdTe and CIGS type modules were tested for potential-­-induced degradation with positive and negative 1,000 V bias applied to the active cell circuit in an 85°C, 85% relative humidity environmental chamber. Both CdTe module types tested exhibited degradation under negative bias. I-­-V curve data indicated the first module type was affected sequentially by shunting followed by a recovery and then by series resistance losses; the second was affected by recombination losses. The first type showed transparent conductive oxide delamination from the glass after about 750 h of stress testing in the environmental chamber and exhibited power degradation within five weeks in field tests with -­-1,000 V system voltage. Performance of CIGS modules differed depending on the technology generation. Under negative bias, the older module design showed an initial 12% (relative) improvement, possibly because of the influx of sodium ions that has been reported to benefit the electrical properties, followed by severe degradation with continued stress testing. The newer design CIGS module exhibited the best stability of the four thin-­-film module types tested with a total loss of 9.5 % (relative) power drop after 3,100 h of test with negative voltage bias, but not clearly by system voltage stress effects considering similar behavior by a sister module in-­-chamber in open-­-circuit condition. Relative rates of current leakage-­-to-­-ground between chamber tests and modules placed outdoors under system voltage stress are compared to extrapolate anticipated coulombs transferred for given extents of degradation of the module power. This analysis correctly placed which module type failed in the field first, but overestimated the time to failure. The performance of modules at 85°C with dark current Imp applied through the cell circuit are discussed with respect to stand-­-alone fielded modules biased to near their maximum power point with load resistors.

  9. Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

    2011-09-01

    The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

  10. Tribological Properties of DLC Film Prepared by C + Ion Beam-assisted Deposition (IBAD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    C + ion beam-assisted deposition was utilized to prepare deposit diamond-like carbon (DLC) film.With the help of a series of experiments such as Raman spectroscopy, FT- IR spectroscopy, AFM and nanoindentation, the DLC film has been recognized as hydrogenated DLC film and its tribological properties have been evaluated.The ball-on-disc testing results show that the hardness and the tribological properties of the DLC film produced by C + ion beam-assisted deposition are improved significandy.DLC film produced by C+ ion beam-assisted deposition is positive to have a prosperous tribological application in the near future.

  11. Sliding Wear and Fretting Wear of DLC-Based, Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pohlchuck, B.; Street, Kenneth W.; Zabinski, J. S.; Sanders, J. H.; Voevodin, A. a.; Wu, R. L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Improving the tribological functionality of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films--developing, good wear resistance, low friction, and high load-carrying capacity-was the aim of this investigation. Nanocomposite coatings consisting of an amorphous DLC (a-DLC) top layer and a functionally graded titanium-titanium carbon-diamondlike carbon (Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC) underlayer were produced on AISI 440C stainless steel substrates by the hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The resultant DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface profilometry. Two types of wear experiment were conducted in this investioation: sliding friction experiments and fretting wear experiments. Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted to examine the wear behavior of an a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC-coated AISI 440C stainless steel disk in sliding contact with a 6-mm-diameter AISI 440C stainless steel ball in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, and humid air. Although the wear rates for both the coating and ball were low in all three environments, the humid air and dry nitrogen caused mild wear with burnishing, in the a-DLC top layer, and the ultrahigh vacuum caused relatively severe wear with brittle fracture in both the a-DLC top layer and the Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC underlayer. For reference, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (H-DLC) films produced on a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coatings by using an ion beam were also examined in the same manner. The H-DLC films markedly reduced friction even in ultrahigh vacuum without sacrificing wear resistance. The H-DLC films behaved much like the a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coating in dry nitrogen and humid air, presenting low friction and low wear. Fretting wear experiments were conducted in humid air (approximately 50% relative humidity) at a frequency of 80 Hz and an amplitude of 75 micron on an a-DLC

  12. Paradigm Change for Accelerated Stress Testing of Thin-Film Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental change in the analysis for the accelerated stress testing of thin-film modules is proposed, whereby power changes due to metastability and other effects that may occur due to the thermal history are removed from the power measurement that we obtain as a function of the applied stress...... factor. The power of reference modules normalized to an initial state—undergoing the same thermal and light exposure history but without the applied stress factor such as humidity or voltage bias— is subtracted from that of the stressed modules. For better understanding and appropriate application...... in standardized tests, the method is demonstrated and discussed for potential-induced degradation testing in view of the physical mechanisms that can lead to confounding power changes in the module....

  13. Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-06-01

    We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

  14. Ultra-thin and low-power optical interconnect module based on a flexible optical printed circuit board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Hwan; Lee, Woo-Jin; Kim, Myoung Jin; Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Gye Won; An, Jong Bae; Jung, Ki Young; Cha, Kyung Soon; Rho, Byung Sup

    2012-07-01

    We describe an ultra-thin and low-power optical interconnect module for mobile electronic devices such as mobile phones and notebooks. The module was fabricated by directly packaging optic and electronic components onto a thin and flexible optical printed circuit board having a size of 70×8×0.25 mm. The completed active module has features of thinness (0.5 mm), small size (7×5 mm), very low total power consumption (15.88 mW), and high data rate transmissions (2.5 Gbps).

  15. Long-term performance analysis of CIGS thin-film PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kaul, Ashwani; Pethe, Shirish A.

    2011-09-01

    Current accelerated qualification tests of photovoltaic (PV) modules mostly assist in avoiding infant mortality but can neither duplicate changes occurring in the field nor can predict useful lifetime. Therefore, outdoor monitoring of fielddeployed thin-film PV modules was undertaken at FSEC with goals of assessing their performance in hot and humid climate under high system voltage operation and to correlate the PV performance with the meteorological parameters. Significant and comparable degradation rate of -5.13% and -4.5% per year was found by PV USA type regression analysis for the positive and negative strings respectively of 40W glass-to-glass CIGS thin-film PV modules in the hot and humid climate of Florida. With the current-voltage measurements it was found that the performance degradation within the PV array was mainly due to a few (8-12%) modules having a substantially high degradation. The remaining modules within the array continued to show reasonable performance (>96% of the rated power after ~ 4years).

  16. Long-term performance analysis of copper indium gallium selenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Ashwani; Pethe, Shirish A.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2012-01-01

    Current accelerated qualification tests of photovoltaic (PV) modules mostly assist in avoiding premature failures but can neither duplicate changes occurring in the field nor predict useful product lifetime. Therefore, outdoor monitoring of field-deployed thin-film PV modules was undertaken at FSEC with the goal of assessing their performance in hot and humid climate under high system-voltage operation. Significant and comparable degradation rate of -5.13±1.53% and -4.5±1.46% per year was found using PVUSA type regression analysis for the positive and negative strings, respectively of 40W glass-to-glass Cu-In-Ga-Se (CIGS) thin-film PV modules in the hot and humid climate of Florida. Using the current-voltage measurements, it was found that the performance degradation within the PV array was mainly due to a few (8% to 12%) modules that had substantially higher degradation. The remaining modules within the array continued to show reasonable performance (>96% of the rated power after ˜ four years).

  17. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F-G; Holm, O; Berger, W

    2013-04-01

    Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  18. Error minimization method for spectroscopic and phase-modulated ellipsometric measurements on highly transparent thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campmany, J.; Bertran, E.; Canillas, A.; Andujar, J.L.; Costa, J. (Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain))

    1993-04-01

    The authors point out that there is an intrinsic magnification of error in the measurement of transparent or semitransparent thin films by the usual method of phase-modulated ellipsometry. This procedure is suitable for absorbing materials, but for nonabsorbing materials it gives a great amount of error in the measurement of ellipsometric angles at some critical values. A new methodology is proposed for the phase-modulated ellipsometric measurements that avoids this magnification. The advantages of this new method are illustrated by measuring the index of refraction of a low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposited SiO[sub 2] thin film with greater accuracy than that achieved by the usual method. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Self-anti-reflective density-modulated thin films by HIPS technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Filiz; Badradeen, Emad; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-08-01

    A critical factor for an efficient light harvesting device is reduced reflectance in order to achieve high optical absorptance. In this regard, refractive index engineering becomes important to minimize reflectance. In this study, a new fabrication approach to obtain density-modulated CuIn x Ga(1-x)Se2 (CIGS) thin films with self-anti-reflective properties has been demonstrated. Density-modulated CIGS samples were fabricated by utilizing high pressure sputtering (HIPS) at Ar gas pressure of 2.75 × 10-2 mbar along with conventional low pressure sputtering (LPS) at Ar gas pressure of 3.0 × 10-3 mbar. LPS produces conventional high density thin films while HIPS produces low density thin films with approximate porosities of ˜15% due to a shadowing effect originating from the wide-spread angular atomic of HIPS. Higher pressure conditions lower the film density, which also leads to lower refractive index values. Density-modulated films that incorporate a HIPS layer at the side from which light enters demonstrate lower reflectance thus higher absorptance compared to conventional LPS films, although there is not any significant morphological difference between them. This result can be attributed to the self-anti-reflective property of the density-modulated samples, which was confirmed by the reduced refractive index calculated for HIPS layer via an envelope method. Therefore, HIPS, a simple and scalable approach, can provide enhanced optical absorptance in thin film materials and eliminate the need for conventional light trapping methods such as anti-reflective coatings of different materials or surface texturing.

  20. Tribological behaviour of H- and W-DLC coatings: Effects of environment and temperature on adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Gharam, Ahmed

    The objective of this study was to gain insight into the friction, aluminum adhesion, and wear mechanisms of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, and to provide guidelines for coating design and development. Mechanisms that control the tribological behaviour of DLC coatings and the effects of dopants (i.e. hydrogen (H-DLC), and tungsten (W-DLC)) against aluminum alloys were investigated under various environments and test temperatures. The effects of temperature and an oxygen-rich environment on dopant-free DLC, H- DLC, and W- DLC were investigated. Experimental analyses of dopant-free DLC showed that, when it was tested in an atmosphere consisting of 50% oxygen and 45% moisture, a high COF of 0.6 observed during the running-in against aluminum was eliminated compared to environment without moisture. At elevated temperatures, presence of hydrogen reduced the COF of H-DLC (e.g., to 0.06 at 200 ºC). W-DLC coatings provided a low COF of 0.18 and minimized aluminum adhesion at temperatures ranging between 400 ºC and 500 ºC, which was attributed to the formation of a tungsten oxide film. Additionally, DLC coatings were found to generate a low COF at subzero temperatures (-196 ºC), with W-DLC and H-DLC generating a COF of 0.18. The work of adhesion (Wad) was determined using a nano-indentation pull-off force method. In this way, insight was gained into the nature of atomic interactions contributing to tribological mechanisms at elevated temperatures. The results showed that the adhesion of the diamond tip against all four samples tested (H-DLC, dopant-free DLC, W-DLC, and aluminum) decreased with temperature. At 25 °C, no aluminum adhesion was observed on the diamond tip, due to OH passivation of the diamond surface in agreement with the low COF of 0.12 for the dopant-free DLC coating. The elimination of meniscus forces due to adsorbed water molecules on the sample surface was identified as an important factor contributing to the adhesion at room temperature. The

  1. Control of nanoscale atomic arrangement in multicomponent thin films by temporally modulated vapour fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakinos, Kostas

    2016-09-01

    Synthesis of multicomponent thin films using vapor fluxes with a modulated deposition pattern is a potential route for accessing a wide gamut of atomic arrangements and morphologies for property tuning. In the current study, we present a research concept that allows for understanding the combined effect of flux modulation, kinetics and thermodynamics on the growth of multinary thin films. This concept entails the combined use of thin film synthesis by means of multiatomic vapor fluxes modulated with sub-monolayer resolution, deterministic growth simulations and nanoscale microstructure probes. Using this research concept we study structure formation within the archetype immiscible Ag-Cu binary system showing that atomic arrangement and morphology at different length scales is governed by diffusion of near-surface Ag atoms to encapsulate 3D Cu islands growing on 2D Ag layers. Moreover, we explore the relevance of the mechanism outlined above for morphology evolution and structure formation within the miscible Ag-Au binary system. The knowledge generated and the methodology presented herein provides the scientific foundation for tailoring atomic arrangement and physical properties in a wide range of miscible and immiscible multinary systems.

  2. Statistical data analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules deployed in hot and humid climate of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, Shirish A.; Kaul, Ashwani; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Current accelerated tests of photovoltaic (PV) modules mostly prevent infant mortality but cannot duplicate changes occurring in the field nor can predict useful lifetime. Therefore, monitoring of field-deployed PV modules was undertaken at FSEC with goals to assess their performance in hot and humid climate under high voltage operation and to correlate the PV performance with the meteorological parameters. This paper presents performance analysis of U.S. Company manufactured thin film a-Si:H PV modules that are encapsulated using flexible front sheets and framed to be outdoor tested. Statistical data analysis of PV parameters along with meteorological parameters, monitored continuously, is carried out on regular basis with PVUSA type regression analysis. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of module arrays that are obtained periodically complement the continuous data monitoring. Moreover, effect of high voltage bias and ambient parameters on leakage current in PV modules on individual modules is studied. Any degradation occurring during initial 18 months could not be assessed due to data acquisition and hurricane problems. No significant degradation was observed in the performance of PV modules during the subsequent 30-months. It is planned to continue this study for a prolonged period so as to serve as basis for their long-term warranties.

  3. Solution structure of tensin2 SH2 domain and its phosphotyrosine-independent interaction with DLC-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Src homology 2 (SH2 domain is a conserved module involved in various biological processes. Tensin family member was reported to be involved in tumor suppression by interacting with DLC-1 (deleted-in-liver-cancer-1 via its SH2 domain. We explore here the important questions that what the structure of tensin2 SH2 domain is, and how it binds to DLC-1, which might reveal a novel binding mode. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tensin2 SH2 domain adopts a conserved SH2 fold that mainly consists of five β-strands flanked by two α-helices. Most SH2 domains recognize phosphorylated ligands specifically. However, tensin2 SH2 domain was identified to interact with nonphosphorylated ligand (DLC-1 as well as phosphorylated ligand. CONCLUSIONS: We determined the solution structure of tensin2 SH2 domain using NMR spectroscopy, and revealed the interactions between tensin2 SH2 domain and its ligands in a phosphotyrosine-independent manner.

  4. Enhanced DLC wear performance by the presence of lubricant additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Paula de Castro Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant additives play significant role for reducing friction and wear of mechanical elements. The additives presented in 5W30 oil were developed for metal surfaces. However, they have been used in engine pieces covered with DLC coatings because they also offer the potential to reduce friction losses and wear in automotive applications. The friction and wear tests were carried out by using a UMT-CETR ball-on-disk tribometer in rotational mode under 5W30 synthetic oil at 100 °C. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed the presence of Mo and S in the wear tracks. These elements are from decomposition of ZDDP and MoDTC additives producing MoS2 in DLC surface, which offers enhanced durability by low wear rate.

  5. Cross-Characterization for Imaging Parasitic Resistive Losses in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sinha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin-film photovoltaic (PV modules often suffer from a variety of parasitic resistive losses in transparent conductive oxide (TCO and absorber layers that significantly affect the module electrical performance. This paper presents the holistic investigation of resistive effects due to TCO lateral sheet resistance and shunts in amorphous-silicon (a-Si thin-film PV modules by simultaneous use of three different imaging techniques, electroluminescence (EL, lock-in thermography (LIT and light beam induced current (LBIC, under different operating conditions. Results from individual techniques have been compared and analyzed for particular type of loss channel, and combination of these techniques has been used to obtain more detailed information for the identification and classification of these loss channels. EL and LIT techniques imaged the TCO lateral resistive effects with different spatial sensitivity across the cell width. For quantification purpose, a distributed diode modeling and simulation approach has been exploited to estimate TCO sheet resistance from EL intensity pattern and effect of cell width on module efficiency. For shunt investigation, LIT provided better localization of severe shunts, while EL and LBIC given good localization of weak shunts formed by the scratches. The impact of shunts on the photocurrent generation capability of individual cells has been assessed by li-LBIC technique. Results show that the cross-characterization by different imaging techniques provides additional information, which aids in identifying the nature and severity of loss channels with more certainty, along with their relative advantages and limitations in particular cases.

  6. Expression and significance of DLC-1 protein in gallbladder carcinoma%DLC-1在胆囊癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞权; 陈志梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 检测肝癌缺失基因(deleted in liver cancer I,DLC-1)蛋白在胆囊癌中的表达及意义.方法 应用免疫组织化学方法,观察48份胆囊癌及15份胆囊炎组织中DLC-1表达结果.结果 DLC-1在胆囊癌中的表达显著低于正常黏膜,与临床分期、肿瘤分级、淋巴和远处转移均有相关性.结论 DLC-1的阳性表达可作为预测胆囊癌转移潜能的生物学指标并有望成为基因治疗的靶点.%Objective To investigate expression and significance of DLC-1 protein in gallbladder carcinoma. Methods Expression profile of DLC-1 protein in 48 cases of gallbladder cancer and 10 cases of adjacent normal mucosa tissue ol gallbladder were abserved with immunohistochemistory. Results The positive rate of DLC-1 expression in gallbladder carcinoma tissue was significantly lower than that in normal gallbladder mucosa, and was correlated with clinical stage, tumor grade, lymph node and distant metastases. Conclusion DLC-1 protein expression may be the biological marker predicting metastatic potential of gallbladder carcinoma, and hopeful to be the target of gene treatment.

  7. Cosmic ray test system for the ATLAS thin gap chamber modules at KOBE

    CERN Document Server

    Suigmoto, T; Arataki, Y; Bando, T; Homma, Y; Ichimiya, R; Ikeno, M; Ishii, K; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Kurashige, H; Mima, T; Miyazaki, Y; Nakagawa, Y; Nakaune, Y; Nozaki, M; Ohshita, H; Okumura, K; Sasaki, O; Suzuki, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Uda, J; Yokoyama, C

    2004-01-01

    Thin gap chamber modules giving function of forward muon trigger to the ATLAS detector in the LHC experiment have been constructed at High Energy Research Organization (KEK) in Japan and their performances have been checked at Kobe University. A large-scale test system specially designed for measuring uniformity of the detection efficiencies and the timing resolution of 8 TGC modules at the same time was successfully operated. Each TGC module had 72 anode wire channels and 64 cathode strip channels (in total 1088 readout channels for 8 modules). Drift tubes consisted of 12 layers (total 428 tubes), between which the TGC modules are put, determined trajectories of cosmic rays. Hit pattern and timing of all detector signals (Trigger counter. Drift tubes and TGCs) were measured by using VME modules. In regular data acquisition situation, i.e. about effective 19 Hz trigger rate from scintillation counters and 73% tracking efficiency by the drift tubes, the detection efficiency of each layer by 5 mm * 5 mm region ...

  8. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: measurements and energy prediction improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A; Arnesano, A; Vergallo, P

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m(2). About 37,000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m(2) and from -1 to 40 W/m(2) from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  9. Hydrophobic and high transparent honeycomb diamond-like carbon thin film fabricated by facile self-assembled nanosphere lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kai-Yu; Wei, Da-Hua; Lin, Chii-Ruey; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Yao, Yeong-Der; Lin, Hong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we take advantage of a facile fabrication technique called self-assembled nanosphere lithography (SANSL) combining with proper two-step reactive ion etching (RIE) method and radio frequency (RF) sputtering deposition process for manufacturing honeycomb diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film structures with hydrophobic and high transparent properties. It is found that the DLC thin films deposited on clean glass substrates at the RF power of 100 W with the surface roughness (Ra) of 2.08 nm and the ID/IG ratio of 1.96 are realized. With a fill-factor of 0.691, the honeycomb DLC patterned thin film shows the best transmittance performance of 87% in the wavelength of visible light, and the optimized contact angle measurement is ˜108°. Compared with the pure DLC thin film and original glass substrate, the hydrophobic property of the patterned DLC films is significantly improved by 80 and 160%, respectively.

  10. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  11. Design of a medium size x-ray mirror module based on thin glass foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Stefano; Civitani, Marta; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The hot slumping glass technology for X-ray mirror is under development and in the last years the results have been improved. Nustar is the first X-ray telescope based on slumped glass foils and it benefit is the low cost compared to the direct polishing of glass. With the slumping technique it is possible to maintain the glass mass to low values with respect to the direct polishing, but in general the angular resolution is worst. A further technique based on glass is the cold shaping of foils. The improved capabilities of manufacturing thin glass foils, pushed by the industrial application for screens, open new possibilities for X-ray mirror. The increase in strength of thin tempered glasses, the reduction of thickness errors and the good roughness of flat foils are potentially great advantages. In this paper a design of a mediumsize X-ray mirror module is analysed. It is based on integration of glass foils, stacked directly on a supporting structure that is part of the X-ray telescope using stiffening ribs as spacer between foils. The alignment of each stack is performed directly into the integration machine avoiding the necessity of the alignment of different stacked modules. A typical module (glass optic and metallic structure) provides an effective area of 10 cm2/kg at 1 keV (with a mass of about 50- 100 kg and a focal length of 10 m).

  12. Luminescent Properties of Porous Si Passivated by Diamond Film and DLC Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linjun WANG; Yiben XIA; Weili ZHANG; Minglong ZHANG; Weimin SHI

    2004-01-01

    Surface passivation methods for porous Si (PS) surfaces, I.e., depositing diamond film or diamond-like carbon (DLC)film on PS surfaces, were attempted. Two emission bands, weak blue band and strong red band existed in the PL spectrum of diamond film coated on PS, were discovered by the photoluminescence measurements. The luminescent mechanism and stability were discussed. The results indicated that diamond film may stabilize the PL wavelength and intensity of PS, and therefore could become a promising passivation film of porous Si. The PL properties of PS coated by DLC films, including hydrogenated diamond like carbon (DLC:H) film and nitrogen doped DLC film (DLC:N) were also studied in this paper. The DLC films may stabilize the PL of PS, but the photoluminescent intensity was obviously weaker than that of diamond film coated PS.

  13. Surface Electromechanical Coupling on DLC Film with Conductive Atomic Force Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱守星; 丁建宁; 范真; 李长生; 蔡兰; 杨继昌

    2004-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film composed of microscopically insulation but microscopically a mixture of conducting (sp2) and insulating (spa) phases was discussed on the local modification with a conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM). Especially, a topographic change was observed when a direct current (DC) bias-voltage was applied to the DLC film. Experimental results show that a nanoscale pit on DLC surface was formed when applying a positive 25 V on DLC film. According to the interacting force between CoCr-coated microelectronic scanning probe (MESP) tip and DLC surface, as well as the Sondheimer oscillation theory, the "scalewing effect" of the pit was explained. Electromechanical coupling on DLC film suggested that the depth of pits increased with an increase of load applied to surface when the cantilever-deflected signal was less than a certain threshold voltage.

  14. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy treated by Fine Particle Peening/DLC Hybrid Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanbu H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.

  15. Localized thin film damage sourced and monitored via pump-probe modulated thermoreflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Brian F.; Tomko, John A.; Giri, Ashutosh; Olson, David H.; Braun, Jeffrey L.; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2017-05-01

    Damage in the form of dewetting and delamination of thin films is a major concern in applications requiring micro- or nano-fabrication. In non-contact nanoscale characterization, optical interrogation must be kept to energies below damage thresholds in order to conduct measurements such as pump-probe spectroscopy. In this study, we show that the thermoreflectance of thin films can indicate the degree of film damage induced by a modulated optical heating source. By adjusting the absorbed power of the pump heating event, we identify the characteristics of the change in the thermoreflectance signal when leading up to and exceeding the damage threshold of gold films of varying thicknesses on glass substrates.

  16. Damage in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Due to Partial Shade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Mansfield, Lorelle; Repins, Ingrid; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    The typical configuration of monolithic thin-film photovoltaic modules makes it possible for partial shade to place one or more cells in such a module in reverse bias. Reverse bias operation leads to high voltage, current density, and power density conditions, which can act as driving forces for failure. We showed that a brief outdoor shadow event can cause a 7% permanent loss in power. We applied an indoor partial shade durability test that moves beyond the standard hot spot endurance test by using more realistic mask and bias conditions and by carefully quantifying the permanent change in performance due to the stress. With the addition of a pass criterion based on change in maximum power, this procedure will soon be proposed as a part of the module-type qualification test. All six commercial copper indium gallium diselenide and cadmium telluride modules we tested experienced permanent damage due to the indoor partial shade test, ranging from 4% to 14% loss in maximum power. We conclude by summarizing ways to mitigate partial shade stress at the cell, module, and system levels.

  17. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of the DLC Coated and Uncoated NiTi Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiehe SUI; Wei CAI; Liancheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    A dense and well-adhered diamond-like carbon(DLC)coating was prepared on the nickel-titanium(NiTi)alloys by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition(PⅢD). Potentiodynamic polarization tests indicated the corrosion resistance of the NiTi alloys was markedly improved by the DLC coating. The Ni ions release of the NiTi alloys was effectively blocked by the DLC coating.

  18. Laser modulated scattering as a nondestructive evaluation tool for optical surfaces and thin film coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feit, M D; Kozlowski, M R; Rubenchik, A M; Sheehan, L; Wu, Z L

    1999-12-22

    Laser modulated scattering (LMS) is introduced as a non-destructive evaluation tool for defect inspection and characterization of optical surfaces and thin film coatings. This technique is a scatter sensitive version of the well-known photothermal microscopy (PTM) technique. It allows simultaneous measurement of the DC and AC scattering signals of a probe laser beam from an optical surface. By comparison between the DC and AC scattering signals, one can differentiate absorptive defects from non-absorptive ones. This paper describes the principle of the LMS technique and the experimental setup, and illustrates examples on using LMS as a tool for nondestructive evaluation of high quality optics.

  19. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators

    OpenAIRE

    Petraru, A.; Schubert, J; Schmid, M.; Buchal, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    High-quality BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films on MgO substrates have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Both, c-axis and a-axis BaTiO3 orientations were studied. Mach-Zehnder optical waveguide modulators with a fork angle of 1.7degrees have been fabricated by ion-beam etching. The waveguides are of the ridge type, the BaTiO3 thickness is 1 mum, the ridge step 50 nm, and the width 2 mum. Light was coupled into the waveguides from optical fibers. The BaTiO3 waveguide propagation losses are 2-3 d...

  20. Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations of DLC-1, a Candidate Tumor Suppressor Gene, in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan PENG; Cai-Ping REN; Hong-Mei YI; Liang ZHOU; Xu-Yu YANG; Hui LI; Kai-Tai YAO

    2006-01-01

    The DLC-1 gene, located at the human chromosome region 8p22, behaves like a tumor suppressor gene and is frequently deleted in diverse tumors. The deletion of 8p22 is not an uncommon event in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), therefore we explored the expression levels of the DLC-1 gene in NPCs and NPC cell lines by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed the mRNA level of DLC-1 was downregulated. To identify the mechanism of DLC-1 downregulation in NPC, we investigated the methylation status of the DLC-1 gene using methylation-specific PCR, and found that 79% (31 of 39) of the NPC tissues and two DLC-1 nonexpressing NPC cell lines, 6-10B and 5-8F, were methylated in the DLC-1 CpG island. Microsatellite PCR was also carried out, and loss of heterozygosity was found at four microsatellite sites (D8S552, D8S1754, D8S1790 and D8S549) covering the whole DLC-1 gene with ratios of 33% (4 of 12 informative cases), 18% (2 of 11), 5% (1 of 18), and 25% (3 of 12), respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that DLC-1 might be an NPC-related tumor suppressor gene affected by aberrant promoter methylation and gene deletion.

  1. Experiences on the integration of thin film photovoltaic modules in a Mediterranean greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena, R.; Perez, J.; Carreno, A.; Callejon, A.J.; Vazquez, F.J. [Almeria Univ., Almeria (Spain). Dept. of Rural Engineering; Perez, M. [Almeria Univ., Almeria (Spain). CIESOL Research Center on Solar Energy

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of photovoltaic (PV) thin film modules in solar based energy generation systems in greenhouses in Spain, where feed-in tariffs for renewable energy sources serve to increase the yearly income of such agricultural exploitations. Experiments were performed at the University of Almeria, where a 1000 m{sup 2} pilot installation was built and monitored to analyze the key features of the system design and functionalities in terms of overall electricity injected into the grid as well as crop productivity. The installation involved dividing the greenhouse sections into 2 identical and contiguous sections, where one of the roof sections was equipped with a set of carefully designed thin film PV module strips. Both sections were grown under similar conditions for a period of 6 months. Continuous monitoring of the power injected to the grid showed that such a system is feasible. In terms of greenhouse crop results, this study showed that there is need for further research regarding the impact of changes in optical properties to the roof by the PV strips that reduced the available PV active radiation (PAR light) for crops.

  2. Thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00517212; Breuer, J.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Terzo, S.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will undergo a major upgrade of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen to start around 2025. Thin planar pixel modules are promising candidates to instrument the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. New designs of the pixel cells, with an optimized biasing structure, have been implemented in n-in-p planar pixel productions with sensor thicknesses of 270 um. Using beam tests, the gain in hit efficiency is investigated as a function of the received irradiation fluence. The outlook for future thin planar pixel sensor productions will be discussed, with a focus on thin sensors with a thickness of 100 and 150 um and a novel design with the optimized biasing structure and small pixel cells (50 um x 50 um and 25 um x 100 um). These dimensions are foreseen for the new ATLAS read-out chip in 65 nm CMOS technology and the fine segmentation will represen...

  3. Studies on the interfacial charge transfer processes of nanocrystalline CdSe thin film electrodes by intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer kinetics of the nanocrystalline CdSe thin film electrodes have been studied in sodium polysulfide solutions by intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). The interfacial direct and indirect charge transfer and recombination processes were analyzed in terms of the parameters: normalized steady state photocurrents and surface state lifetimes obtained by measuring the IMPS responses under different applied potentials and different solution concentrations. IMPS responses of polycrystalline CdSe thin film electrodes were also presented for comparison.

  4. Raman Spectroscopy of DLC/a-Si Bilayer Film Prepared by Pulsed Filtered Cathodic Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Srisang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available DLC/a-Si bilayer film was deposited on germanium substrate. The a-Si layer, a seed layer, was firstly deposited on the substrate using DC magnetron sputtering and DLC layer was then deposited on the a-Si layer using pulsed filtered cathodic arc method. The bilayer films were deposited with different DLC/a-Si thickness ratios, including 2/2, 2/6, 4/4, 6/2, and 9/6. The effect of DLC/a-Si thickness ratios on the sp3 content of DLC was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The results show that a-Si layer has no effect on the structure of DLC film. Furthermore, the upper shift in G wavenumber and the decrease in ID/IG inform that sp3 content of the film is directly proportional to DLC thickness. The plot modified from the three-stage model informed that the structural characteristics of DLC/a-Si bilayer films are located close to the tetrahedral amorphous carbon. This information may be important for analyzing and developing bilayer protective films for future hard disk drive.

  5. Detection and Clinical Significance of DLC1 Gene Methylation in Serum DNA from Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-ping Wu; Ji-hong Zou; Ri-ning Tang; Yao Yao; Cheng-zhong You

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is a new candidate tumor suppressor gene,whose down-regulation or even silence will result from promoter hypermethylation in various human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC).The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic role of DLC1 gene methylation in the serum DNA from CRC patients.Methods:This study enrolled 85 CRC patients and 45 patients with benign colorectal diseases.Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was used to determine the promoter methylation status of DLC1 gene in serum DNA.The combination of DLC1 methylation and conventional tumor markers was further analyzed.Results:Hypermethylation of DLC1 was detected in 42.4% (36/85) of CRC serums,while seldom in the benign controls (8.9%,4/45) (P<0.001).The aberrant DLC1 methylation in serum DNA was not associated with patients' clinicopathological features and elevated CEA/CA19-9 levels.Furthermore,the combinational analysis of CEA,CA19-9 and DLC1 methylation showed a higher sensitivity and no reduced diagnostic specificity than CEA and CA19-9 combination for CRC diagnosis.Conclusion:The serum DLC1 methylation may be a promising biomarker for the early detection of CRC,which will further increase the diagnostic efficiency in combination with CEA and CA19-9.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of boron incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Yang, Q., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Tang, Y.; Yang, L.; Zhang, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Hu, Y.; Cui, X. [Canadian Light Source Inc., 101 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

    2015-08-31

    Boron incorporated diamond-like carbon (B-DLC) (up to 8 wt.% boron) thin films were synthesized on silicon wafers using biased target ion beam deposition technique, where diamond-like carbon (DLC) was deposited by ion beam deposition and boron (B) was simultaneously incorporated by biased target sputtering of a boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) target under different conditions. Pure DLC films and B–C films were also synthesized by ion beam deposition and biased target sputtering of B{sub 4}C under similar conditions, respectively, as reference samples. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the synthesized films have been characterized by various technologies. It has been found that B exists in different states in B-DLC, including carbon-rich and B-rich boron carbides, boron suboxide and boron oxide, and the oxidation of B probably occurs during the film deposition. The incorporation of B into DLC leads to the increase of sp{sup 3} bonded carbon in the films, the increase of both film hardness and elastic modulus, and the decrease of both surface roughness and friction coefficient. Furthermore, the content of sp{sup 3} bonded carbon, film hardness and elastic modulus increase, and the film surface roughness and friction coefficient decrease with the increase of B-rich carbide in the B-DLC films. - Highlights: • Biased target ion beam deposition technique is promising to produce high quality DLC based thin films; • Boron exists in different states in B-DLC thin films; • The incorporation of B to DLC with different levels leads to improved film properties; • The fraction of sp{sup 3} bonded C in B-DLC thin films increase with the increase of B-rich carbide content in the films.

  7. Analysis of a Single Year of Performance Data for Thin Film Modules Deployed at NREL and NISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAlpine, Sara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deceglie, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bora, Birinchi [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India); Sastry, O. S. [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India); Singh, Yogesh Kumar [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India); Singh, Rashmi [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India); Rai, Supriya [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India)

    2016-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE), located in the United States and India, respectively, have partnered to deploy and monitor modules of three different thin film technologies, to compare the performance and/or degradation between the two sites. This report analyzes a single year of performance data (May 2014 -- May 2015) for the three thin film technologies, exploring the modules' performance under standard test conditions and monthly performance ratios, as well as fill factors varying season, light level, and temperature.

  8. Preparation and tribological properties of DLC/Ti film by pulsed laser arc deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhen-Yu; Lu Xin-Chun; Luo Jian-Bin; Shao Tian-Min; Qing Tao; Zhang Chen-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports that DLC (diamond like carbon)/Ti and DLC films were prepared by using pulsed laser arc deposition. R-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nanoindenter, spectroscopic ellipsometer, surface profiler and micro-tribometer were employed to study the structure and tribological properties of DLC/Ti and DLC films. The results show that DLC/Ti film, with I(D)/I(G) 0.28 and corresponding to 76% sp3 content calculated by Raman spectroscopy, uniform chemical composition along depth direction, 98 at% content of carbon, hardness 8.2 GPa and Young's modulus 110.5 GPa, compressive stress 6.579 GPa, thickness 46 nm,coefficient of friction 0.08, and critical load 95mN, exhibits excellent mechanical and tribological properties.

  9. The Effect of Residual Stress on the Wear Properties of Dlc Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young-Jun; Kim, Seock-Sam; Rha, Jong-Joo

    Multi-layer diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating, 150 and 220 nm thick were deposited by negative pulsed d.c. bias induced with magnetron sputtering. The objective of this research is to resolve a wear resistance in terms of DLC coating residual stress and mechanical properties. The bias was controlled from - 200 to 0 V during 10 second with point contacting controller. The surface structure was continuously fabricating to soft and hard-layer during deposition. It was shown that the compressive residual stress and hardness were 0.09, 18 GPa under multi-layer coating condition. The as-deposited DLC coating has a relatively higher wear resistance than unmodified DLC under nanoabrasive wear. It also showed that multi-layer DLC coating had no wear until 400 nN. The decreased residual stress and increased film hardness in the multi-layer coating gave a rise to increase wear resistance.

  10. The stability of DLC film on nitrided CoCrMo alloy in phosphate buffer solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.F.; Liu, B.; Wu, B.J.; Liu, J.; Sun, H.; Leng, Y.X., E-mail: yxleng@263.net; Huang, N.

    2014-07-01

    CoCrMo alloy is often used as the material for metal artificial joint, but metal debris and metal ions are the main concern on tissue inflammation or tissue proliferation for metal prosthesis. In this paper, nitrogen ion implantation and diamond like carbon (DLC) film composite treatment was used to reduce the wear and ion release of biomedical CoCrMo substrate. The mechanical properties and stability of N-implanted/DLC composite layer in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was evaluated to explore the full potential of N-implanted/DLC composite layer as an artificial joint surface modification material. The results showed that the DLC film on N implanted CoCrMo (N-implanted/DLC composite layer) had the higher surface hardness and wear resistance than the DLC film on virgin CoCrMo alloy, which was resulted from the strengthen effect of the N implanted layer on CoCrMo alloy. After 30 days immersion in PBS, the structure of DLC film on virgin CoCrMo or on N implanted CoCrMo had no visible change. But the adhesion and corrosion resistance of DLC on N implanted CoCrMo (N-implanted/DLC composite layer) was weakened due to the dissolution of the N implanted layer after 30 days immersion in PBS. The adhesion reduction of N-implanted/DLC composite layer was adverse for in vivo application in long term. So researcher should be cautious to use N implanted layer as an inter-layer for increasing CoCrMo alloy load carrying capacity in vivo environment.

  11. Confined states and spin polarization on a topological insulator thin film modulated by an electric potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi-Man; Shao Huai-Hua; Zhou Xiao-Ying; Zhou Guang-Hui

    2013-01-01

    We study the electronic structure and spin polarization of the surface states of a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film modulated by an electrical potential well.By routinely solving the low-energy surface Dirac equation for the system,we demonstrate that confined surface states exist,in which the electron density is almost localized inside the well and exponentially decayed outside in real space,and that their subband dispersions are quasilinear with respect to the propagating wavevector.Interestingly,the top and bottom surface confined states with the same density distribution have opposite spin polarizations due to the hybridization between the two surfaces.Along with the mathematical analysis,we provide an intuitive,topological understanding of the effect.

  12. Structure of Thin Irreducible Modules of a Q-polynomial Distance-Regular Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Cerzo, Diana R

    2010-01-01

    Let Gamma be a Q-polynomial distance-regular graph with vertex set X, diameter D geq 3 and adjacency matrix A. Fix x in X and let A*=A*(x) be the corresponding dual adjacency matrix. Recall that the Terwilliger algebra T=T(x) is the subalgebra of Mat_X(C) generated by A and A*. Let W denote a thin irreducible T-module. It is known that the action of A and A* on W induces a linear algebraic object known as a Leonard pair. Over the past decade, many results have been obtained concerning Leonard pairs. In this paper, these results will be applied to obtain a detailed description of W. In particular, we give a description of W in terms of its intersection numbers, dual intersection numbers and parameter array. Finally, we apply our results to the case in which Gamma has q-Racah type or classical parameters.

  13. A Novel Inter Core-Cladding Lithium Niobate Thin Film Coated Fiber Modulator/Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Tracee L.; Komriech, Phillip; Yu, Chung

    2004-01-01

    A fiber modulator/sensor has been fabricated by depositing a lithium niobate sol-gel thin film between the core and cladding of a fiber preform. The preform is then drawn into 125 micron fiber. The proposed design of lithium niobate cylinder fibers can enhance the existing methodology for detecting sound waves under water utilizing the acoustooptic properties of lithium niobate. Upon application of a stress or strain, light propagating inside the core, according to the principle of total internal reflection, escapes, into the cladding because of the photoelastic boundary layer of lithium niobate. Test results of the lithium niobate fiber reveal a reduction in the 1550 nm, 4mW source with applied tension. The source power from an ordinary quartz fiber under the same stress condition remained invariant to applied tension.

  14. Thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, N.; Bergbreiter, L.; Breuer, J.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Terzo, S.

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS experiment will undergo a major upgrade of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen to start around 2025. Thin planar pixel modules are promising candidates to instrument the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. New designs of the pixel cells, with an optimized biasing structure, have been implemented in n-in-p planar pixel productions with sensor thicknesses of 270 μm. Using beam tests, the gain in hit efficiency is investigated as a function of the received irradiation fluence. The outlook for future thin planar pixel sensor productions will be discussed, with a focus on thin sensors with a thickness of 100 and 150 μm and a novel design with the optimized biasing structure and small pixel cells (50×50 and 25×100 μm2). These dimensions are foreseen for the new ATLAS read-out chip in 65 nm CMOS technology and the fine segmentation will represent a challenge for the tracking in the forward region of the pixel system at HL-LHC. To predict the performance of 50×50 μm2 pixels at high η, FE-I4 compatible planar pixel sensors have been studied before and after irradiation in beam tests at high incidence angle with respect to the short pixel direction. Results on cluster shapes, charge collection- and hit efficiency will be shown.

  15. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  16. A novel in-situ technique to fabricate thin films with controlled lateral thickness modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi

    Surfaces having well-defined morphologies like periodic arrays of dots or lines, promise useful applications. Magnetic nanodots of Co and Fe-alloys are useful in patterned magnetic recording media. Well controlled grain size and surface area of nanostructured TiO2 are useful to develop efficient photocatalysts. However, there is a continuing need to develop techniques to make such surfaces in a simple and economical manner. In this thesis, a previously unexplored in-situ approach to assemble lateral patterns in thin films was proposed and investigated. Simple models of film growth on a defect free surface show that under uniform areal deposition rates and surface temperatures, nucleation occurs at random positions on the surface. We proposed that by exposing a growing thin film to a spatially varying surface temperature distribution, nucleation and growth can be confined to specific spatial locations. Consequently, a film with a desired pattern or thickness modulation could be achieved. The experimental approach consists of irradiating the substrate surface with a laser interference pattern simultaneous with physical vapor deposition (PVD). To perform such film growth experiments, a vibration minimized and multifunctional ultra-high vacuum chamber was integrated with a Nd:YAG laser. The laser output is a beam of 266 nm with a coherence length of approximately 2 m and an area of ˜0.8 x 0.8 cm2. The laser has a pulse width of 9 ns, a constant repetition rate of 50 Hz, with a rated peak output of 44 mJ/pulse. The typical laser energy density used in this work was about 10 mJ/cm2. Since sub-micron length scales were of interest, vibration studies were performed by recording the interference patterns on kapton films. Results from the kapton films, measurements using a shear accelerometer and recent growth results showed that peak-to-peak vibration amplitudes on the substrate surface were less than +/-25 nm. Well-established PVD techniques like pulsed laser deposition

  17. Fouling of thin-channel and tubular membrane modules by dilute suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, S.; Govind, R.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper, fouling of thin-channel and tubular ultrafiltration (UF) membrane modules by dilute suspensions have been studied theoretically. A hydrodynamic analysis of fluid-particle system is presented to describe the role of dilute suspensions in fouling such membrane modules. The present analysis assumes that for very dilute suspensions, only inertial effects are important for particulate fouling. Particle trajectory history and hence the fouling is computed from equations of motion for the particles, where the fluid-flow is given by the full solution of Navier-Stokes equation. To simulate the flux decline due to build up of foulant layer on the membrane walls, it is assumed that the deposition of particles on the membrane surface at discrete time interval is a steady state event and thus formulating the fouling problem as an infinite series of successive steady state events. Present simulation results indicate that inertial effects are important and under positive wall permeation flux conditions, particles are encouraged to migrate towards the membrane wall causing so-called membrane fouling by the particulates.

  18. CIGS thin-film solar module processing: case of high-speed laser scribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gečys, Paulius; Markauskas, Edgaras; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Buecheler, Stephan; de Loor, Ronny; Burn, Andreas; Romano, Valerio; Račiukaitis, Gediminas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the laser processing of the CIGS thin-film solar cells in the case of the high-speed regime. The modern ultra-short pulsed laser was used exhibiting the pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz. Two main P3 scribing approaches were investigated - ablation of the full layer stack to expose the molybdenum back-contact, and removal of the front-contact only. The scribe quality was evaluated by SEM together with EDS spectrometer followed by electrical measurements. We also modelled the electrical behavior of a device at the mini-module scale taking into account the laser-induced damage. We demonstrated, that high-speed process at high laser pulse repetition rate induced thermal damage to the cell. However, the top-contact layer lift-off processing enabled us to reach 1.7 m/s scribing speed with a minimal device degradation. Also, we demonstrated the P3 processing in the ultra-high speed regime, where the scribing speed of 50 m/s was obtained. Finally, selected laser processes were tested in the case of mini-module scribing. Overall, we conclude, that the top-contact layer lift-off processing is the only reliable solution for high-speed P3 laser scribing, which can be implemented in the future terawatt-scale photovoltaic production facilities.

  19. CIGS thin-film solar module processing: case of high-speed laser scribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gečys, Paulius; Markauskas, Edgaras; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Buecheler, Stephan; De Loor, Ronny; Burn, Andreas; Romano, Valerio; Račiukaitis, Gediminas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the laser processing of the CIGS thin-film solar cells in the case of the high-speed regime. The modern ultra-short pulsed laser was used exhibiting the pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz. Two main P3 scribing approaches were investigated – ablation of the full layer stack to expose the molybdenum back-contact, and removal of the front-contact only. The scribe quality was evaluated by SEM together with EDS spectrometer followed by electrical measurements. We also modelled the electrical behavior of a device at the mini-module scale taking into account the laser-induced damage. We demonstrated, that high-speed process at high laser pulse repetition rate induced thermal damage to the cell. However, the top-contact layer lift-off processing enabled us to reach 1.7 m/s scribing speed with a minimal device degradation. Also, we demonstrated the P3 processing in the ultra-high speed regime, where the scribing speed of 50 m/s was obtained. Finally, selected laser processes were tested in the case of mini-module scribing. Overall, we conclude, that the top-contact layer lift-off processing is the only reliable solution for high-speed P3 laser scribing, which can be implemented in the future terawatt-scale photovoltaic production facilities. PMID:28084403

  20. Composition and structure of Ti-C/DLC graded composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明仁; 夏立芳

    2002-01-01

    The Ti-C→DLC gradient composite films were characterized systematically.The elemental depth profile and elemental chemical state evolution were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to study the structure of interfacial zone between DLC film and Ti-C layers.Results show that there are composition transition zone between DLC film and either Ti-C layer or steel substrate on condition that pre-deposited Ti layers on the steel substrate then plasma based bias deposited DLC films.In Ti-C graded layer,the chemical state of titanium and carbon are changed gradually.The structures of zone in Ti-C layer near the DLC film is consisted of random oriented nanocrystallines TiC dispersed in amorphous DLC matrix.The structure of the zone between DLC film and Ti-C graded layer is gradually changed too.

  1. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh; Mahboubi, Farzad; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza

    2016-12-01

    The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  2. DLC coatings for UHMWPE: relationship between bacterial adherence and surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, G; Terriza, A; Ortiz-Pérez, A; Molina-Manso, D; Mahillo, I; Yubero, F; Puértolas, J A; Manrubia-Cobo, M; Gómez Barrena, E; Esteban, J

    2012-10-01

    Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopedic surgery. This work presents a thorough study of several plasma-based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond-like carbon (DLC), fluorine-doped DLC (F-DLC), and a high-fluorine-content-carbon-fluor polymer (CF(X)). The coatings were obtained by a radio-frequency plasma-assisted deposition on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples and physicochemical properties of the coated surfaces were correlated with their antibacterial performance against collection and clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. The fluorine content and the relative amount of C-C and C-F bonds were controlled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrophobicity and surface tension by contact angle measurements. Surface roughness was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy. Additional nanoidentation studies were performed for DLC and F-DLC coatings. Unpaired t test and regression linear models evaluated the adherence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis on raw and coated UHMWPE samples. Comparing with UHMWPE, DLC/UHMWPE was the least adherent surface with independence of the bacterial species, finding significant reductions (p ≤ 0.001) for nine staphylococci strains. Bacterial adherence was also significantly reduced in F-DLC/ UHMWPE and CFx/UHMWPE for six strains.

  3. Device physics of thin-film polycrystalline cells and modules. Annual subcontract report, December 6, 1993--December 5, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    Progress has been made in several applications of device physics to thin-film polycrystalline cells and modules. At the cell level, results include a more quantitative separation of photon losses, the impact of second barriers on cell operation, and preliminary studies of how current-voltage curves are affected by band offsets. Module analysis includes the effects of the typical monolithic, series-connected cell geometry, analytical techniques when only the two module leads are accessible, and the impact of chopping frequency, local defects, and high-intensity beams on laser-scanning measurements.

  4. Direct Load Control (DLC) Considering Nodal Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate (NIEAR) in Restructured Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which...... is used as the bids from the ACL customers, is utilized to determine the direct monetary compensation to the ACL customers. The proposed scheme was investigated for the PoolCo electricity market. The optimal DLC scheme is determined based on the minimum system operating cost which is comprised...

  5. STUDY ON COMPOSITION, MICROSTRUCTURE AND HARDNESS OF DLC FILMS BY VCAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Chen; Z.Y. Liu; D.C. Zeng; W.Q. Qiu; Z.H. Yuan; S.S. Lin; H.J. Hou

    2003-01-01

    DLC super-hard films have been deposited on the substrates of single crystalline Si, pure Ti and stainless steel 18-8 by a method of vacuum cathode arc deposition(VCAD). The composition, microstructure and micro-hardness of the films have been studied in this paper. The results indicate that hardness of the DLC films is different on the different substrates. Hardness of the films increases with decreasing in surface roughness of the films. The maximum value of micro-hardness belongs to the DLC films deposited under the hydrogen pressure of 0.35Pa and the negative bias of 100V.

  6. Advances in multi-spectral Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Jason; Karp, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the development and applications of a new approach to Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coating that provides the durability of traditional DLC coatings, with the addition of significantly more transmission at visible wavelengths and greater transmission in the IR. We developed a deposition system design that incorporates multiple coating technologies, allowing for multiple material design approaches. This has enabled the manufacture of DLC coatings with improved extended spectral properties, suitable for applications in which the coating must withstand airborne particulate impacts, corrosive fluids, environmental extremes, and abrasive physical handling, while offering better than typical transmission in the visible or infrared wavelength regions, or both.

  7. 多发性骨髓瘤患者 DLC-1基因甲基化及三氧化二砷诱导 DLC-1基因去甲基化的研究%Hypermethylation of CpG island of DLC-1 gene and arsenic trioxide-induced DLC-1 gene demethylation in multiple myeloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付海英; 沈建箴; 吴淡森

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨人多发性骨髓瘤(MM)肝癌缺失基因1(DLC-1)启动子区CpG岛甲基化情况,以及三氧化二砷( As2 O3)诱导DLC-1基因的去甲基化作用。方法采用甲基特异性PCR 法( MSP)定性检测2008至2012年来自福建医科大学附属协和医院血液内科的52例MM患者DIC基因甲基化状态,反转录( RT)-PCR检测MM患者和人骨髓瘤U266细胞系DLC-1基因的表达情况;采用重亚硫酸盐测序PCR( BSP)法定量检测As2 O3作用前、后人骨髓瘤细胞株U266其DLC-1基因的甲基化状态;荧光定量 PCR 检测U266细胞用药前、后DLC-1基因、DNA甲基转移酶基因( DNMT1、DNMT3a、DNMT3b) mRNA 的表达变化。结果 MM 患者 DLC-1基因的甲基化比例为71.15%(37/52)。 U266细胞DLC-1基因呈甲基化,DLC-1基因不表达;经0.5、1.0、2.0μmol/L As2 O3作用后72 h U266细胞DLC-1基因甲基化率由95.38%下降至63.07%、30.00%及7.69%;荧光定量PCR检测经0.5、1.0、2.0μmol/L As2 O3作用后72 h U266细胞DLC-1基因mRNA表达与未加药组相比分别为其(1.60±0.09)、(3.66±0.17)、(5.29±0.15)倍,而DNMT1、DNMT3a、DNMT3b基因mRNA表达下调(均P<0.05)。结论 DLC-1基因甲基化在MM患者中较为常见,这可能为MM的诊断和治疗提供借鉴;As2 O3可诱导DLC-1基因去甲基化,使DLC-1基因表达上调,恢复其活性,为MM去甲基化治疗提供新思路。%Objective To explore the role of hypemethylation of DLC-1 gene in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma ( MM ) and examine the effects of arsenic trioxide ( As2 O3 )-induced demethylation of DLC-1 gene in U266 cell line.Methods The methylation status of DLC-1 gene was detected by methylation specific PCR ( MSP ) in MM patients from 2008 to 2012.And the expression of DLC-1 gene mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ).Methylation statuses of DLC-1 gene exposed to As 2 O3 were

  8. Thick-to-Thin Filament Surface Distance Modulates Cross-Bridge Kinetics in Drosophila Flight Muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Miller, Mark S. (IIT); (Vermont); (BU)

    2012-09-19

    The demembranated (skinned) muscle fiber preparation is widely used to investigate muscle contraction because the intracellular ionic conditions can be precisely controlled. However, plasma membrane removal results in a loss of osmotic regulation, causing abnormal hydration of the myofilament lattice and its proteins. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of varied myofilament lattice spacing and protein hydration on cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle, using x-ray diffraction to compare the lattice spacing of dissected, osmotically compressed skinned fibers to native muscle fibers in living flies. Osmolytes of different sizes and exclusion properties (Dextran T-500 and T-10) were used to differentially alter lattice spacing and protein hydration. At in vivo lattice spacing, cross-bridge attachment time (t{sub on}) increased with higher osmotic pressures, consistent with a reduced cross-bridge detachment rate as myofilament protein hydration decreased. In contrast, in the swollen lattice, t{sub on} decreased with higher osmotic pressures. These divergent responses were reconciled using a structural model that predicts t{sub on} varies inversely with thick-to-thin filament surface distance, suggesting that cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment are modulated more by myofilament lattice geometry than protein hydration. Generalizing these findings, our results suggest that cross-bridge cycling rates slow as thick-to-thin filament surface distance decreases with sarcomere lengthening, and likewise, cross-bridge cycling rates increase during sarcomere shortening. Together, these structural changes may provide a mechanism for altering cross-bridge performance throughout a contraction-relaxation cycle.

  9. Nanostructured ultra-thin patches for ultrasound-modulated delivery of anti-restenotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannozzi L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lorenzo Vannozzi,1 Leonardo Ricotti,1 Carlo Filippeschi,2 Stefania Sartini,3 Vito Coviello,3 Vincenzo Piazza,4 Pasqualantonio Pingue,5 Concettina La Motta,3 Paolo Dario,1 Arianna Menciassi1 1The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 2Center for MicroBioRobotics at SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera, 3Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 4Center for Nanotechnology Innovation at NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 5NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Pisa, Italy Abstract: This work aims to demonstrate the possibility to fabricate ultra-thin polymeric films loaded with an anti-restenotic drug and capable of tunable drug release kinetics for the local treatment of restenosis. Vascular nanopatches are composed of a poly(lactic acid supporting membrane (thickness: ~250 nm on which 20 polyelectrolyte bilayers (overall thickness: ~70 nm are alternatively deposited. The anti-restenotic drug is embedded in the middle of the polyelectrolyte structure, and released by diffusion mechanisms. Nanofilm fabrication procedure and detailed morphological characterization are reported here. Barium titanate nanoparticles (showing piezoelectric properties are included in the polymeric support and their role is investigated in terms of influence on nanofilm morphology, drug release kinetics, and cell response. Results show an efficient drug release from the polyelectrolyte structure in phosphate-buffered saline, and a clear antiproliferative effect on human smooth muscle cells, which are responsible for restenosis. In addition, preliminary evidences of ultrasound-mediated modulation of drug release kinetics are reported, thus evaluating the influence of barium titanate nanoparticles on the release mechanism. Such data were integrated with quantitative piezoelectric and thermal measurements. These results open new avenues for a fine control of local therapies based on smart responsive materials. Keywords

  10. Edge-modulated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in [Co/Pd]n and L10-FePt thin film wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshuo; Ho, Pin; Currivan-Incorvia, Jean Anne; Siddiqui, Saima A.; Baldo, Marc A.; Ross, Caroline A.

    2015-11-01

    Thickness modulation at the edges of nanostructured magnetic thin films is shown to have important effects on their perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Thin film wires with tapered edges were made from [Co/Pd]20 multilayers or L10-FePt films using liftoff with a double-layer resist. The effect of edge taper on the reversal process was studied using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic modeling. In [Co/Pd]20, the anisotropy was lower in the tapered edge regions which switched at a lower reverse field compared to the center of the wire. The L10-FePt wires showed opposite behavior with the tapered regions exhibiting higher anisotropy.

  11. Preservation of plasmonic interactions in DLC protected robust organic-plasmonic hybrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cielecki, Pawel Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    response of organic nanofibers. Subsequently, we experimentally characterize the plasmonic coupling between organic nanofibers and underlying substrates by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our findings reveal that the optimal thickness for DLC coating, in terms of mechanical protection while...

  12. Characteristics of diamond – like carbon(DLC film deposited by PACVD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lukaszkowicz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Diamond – like carbon (DLC film is promising materials for many technical and engineering applications. DLC films are used in many different industries for example: in medicine, in electronics, in optics and the automotive industry. They have excellent tribological properties (low friction coefficient, chemical inertness and high mechanical hardness. This paper provides an analysis of the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of DLC films. In the study of the coating used several surface sensitive techniques and methods, i.e. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy and tribological tests like ball-on-disc. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of DLC layer. In sliding dry friction conditions the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.02-0.03. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a good adhesion to the substrate.

  13. Optimization and characterization of adhesion properties of DLC coatings on different substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, B.; Alam, S.; Irfan, M.; Shahid, M.; Soomro, B. D.; Hashim, S.; Iqbal, R.

    2014-06-01

    The Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC) are gaining prime importance in the field of surface engineering especially cutting tools technology. The self lubricating property of these coatings makes them unique among other coatings like TiN, TiAlN, CrN etc. Unlike other coatings, DLC coatings give better surface finish and their self lubrication reduces the wear of a part to large extent. In present work, different substrates were selected to study the wear and adhesion behavior of DLC coatings. The coating was produced by physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique and the adhesive properties of DLC coatings were analyzed under ambient conditions using nano Scratch testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the scratches and their mechanisms.

  14. Activities of the task group 8 on thin film PV module reliability (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being used increasingly to provide renewable energy to schools, residences, small businesses and utilities. At this time, the home owners and small businesses have considerable difficulty in detecting module and/or system degradation and especially enforcing warranty. It needs to be noted that IEC 61215-1 (test req.), -2 (test proc.) and -1-1 (c-Si) are forecasted to be circulated end of Feb 2016 and only editorial changes would be possible. 61215 series does include thin film technologies and would be replacing 61646. Moreover, IEC 61215-1, section 7.2 power output and electric circuitry does contain significant changes to acceptance criteria regarding rated label values, particularly rated power. Even though it is believed that consensus could be achieved within IEC TC82 WG2, some of the smaller players that do not participate actively in IEC TC82 - may not be surprised and must be informed. The other tech specific parts 61215-1-2 (CdTe), -1-3 (a-Si, µc-Si) and -1-4 (CIS, CIGS) are out for comments. The IEC closing date was January 29, 2016. The additions alternative damp heat (DH) test proposed Solar Frontier is being reviewed. In the past, only 600 V systems were permitted in the grid-connected residential and commercial systems in the US. The US commercial systems can now use higher voltage (1,000-1500V) in order to reduce BOS component costs. It is believed that there would not be any problems. The Task Group 8 is collecting data on higher voltage systems.

  15. Synthesis of tunable plasmonic metal-ceramic nanocomposite thin films by temporally modulated sputtered fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnfält, D.; Melander, E.; Boyd, R. D.; Kapaklis, V.; Sarakinos, K.

    2017-05-01

    The scientific and technological interest for metal-dielectric nanocomposite thin films emanates from the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) on the metal component. The overall optical response of the nanocomposite is governed by the refractive index of the dielectric matrix and the properties of the metallic nanoparticles in terms of their bulk optical properties, size, and shape, and the inter-particle distance of separation. In order to tune the film morphology and optical properties, complex synthesis processes which include multiple steps—i.e., film deposition followed by post-deposition treatment by thermal or laser annealing—are commonly employed. In the present study, we demonstrate that the absorption resonances of Ag/AlOxNy nanocomposite films can be effectively tuned from green (˜2.4 eV) to violet (˜2.8 eV) using a single-step synthesis process that is based on modulating the arrival pattern of film forming species with sub-monolayer resolution, while keeping the amount of Ag in the films constant. Our data indicate that the optical response of the films is the result of LSPRs on isolated Ag nanoparticles that are seemingly shifted by dipolar interactions between neighboring particles. The synthesis strategy presented may be of relevance for enabling integration of plasmonic nanocomposite films on thermally sensitive substrates.

  16. Investigation of thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Savic, N

    2016-01-01

    In view of the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), planned to start around 2023-2025, the ATLAS experiment will undergo a replacement of the Inner Detector. A higher luminosity will imply higher irradiation levels and hence will demand more ra- diation hardness especially in the inner layers of the pixel system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to instrument this region, also thanks to its cost-effectiveness because it only requires a single sided processing in contrast to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. In addition, thin sensors were found to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. An overview is given of recent results obtained with not irradiated and irradiated n-in-p planar pixel modules. The focus will be on n-in-p planar pixel sensors with an active thickness of 100 and 150 {\\mu}m recently produced at ADVACAM. To maximize the active area of the sensors, slim and active edges are implemented. The performance of th...

  17. Interpretation of friction and wear in DLC film: role of surface chemistry and test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaki, S. R.; Kumar, N.; Madapu, K.; Ganesan, K.; Krishna, N. G.; Srivastava, S. K.; Abhaya, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    In spite of the large amount of tribological work carried out to explain the friction and wear mechanism in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, some of the core issues relating to the evolution of reactive species across sliding interfaces and their role on the friction and wear mechanism remain unclear. The phase composition, film density and hydrogen content present in a DLC film can be tailored by substrate biasing during film deposition to achieve a nearly vanishing friction coefficient. Furthermore, nitrogen doping in DLC films significantly improves wear resistance, and sliding occurs in a nearly wearless regime. Undoped and nitrogen-doped DLC films exhibit a nearly frictionless value with ultra-low wear behavior when tests are performed in argon, nitrogen and methane atmospheres. The antifriction and antiwear properties of the DLC films were improved with the reduction of adsorbed oxygen impurities on the film surface. This behavior was understood by correlating the oxygen impurities present at the surface/subsurface region of the DLC film while using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and depth-resolved Auger electron spectroscopy.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of the deposition process of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YuJun; DONG GuangNeng; MAO JunHong; XIE YouBai

    2008-01-01

    The deposition process of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) film greatly affects its frictional properties. In this study, CH3 radicals are selected as source species to deposit hydrogenated DLC films for molecular dynamics simulation. The growth and structural properties of hydrogenated DLC films are investigated and elucidated in detail. By comparison and statistical analysis, the authors find that the ratio of carbon to hydrogen in the films generally shows a monotonously increasing trend with the increase of impact energy. Carbon atoms are more reactive during deposition and more liable to bond with substrate atoms than hydrogen atoms. In addition, there exists a peak value of the number of hydrogen atoms deposited in hydrogenated DLC films. The trends of the variation are opposite on the two sides of this peak point, and itbecomes stable when impact energy is greater than 80 eV. The average relative density also indicates a rising trend along with the increment of impact energy, while it does not reach the saturation value until impact energy comes to 50 eV. The hydrogen content in source species is a key factor to determine the hydrogen content in hydrogenated DLC films. When the hydrogen content in source species is high, the hydrogen content in hydrogenated DLC films is accordingly high.

  19. Deleted in liver cancer 2 (DLC2 was dispensable for development and its deficiency did not aggravate hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai On Yau

    Full Text Available DLC2 (deleted in liver cancer 2, a Rho GTPase-activating protein, was previously shown to be underexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma and has tumor suppressor functions in cell culture models. We generated DLC2-deficient mice to investigate the tumor suppressor role of DLC2 in hepatocarcinogenesis and the function of DLC2 in vivo. In this study, we found that, unlike homologous DLC1, which is essential for embryonic development, DLC2 was dispensable for embryonic development and DLC2-deficient mice could survive to adulthood. We also did not observe a higher incidence of liver tumor formation or diethylnitrosamine (DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in DLC2-deficient mice. However, we observed that DLC2-deficient mice were smaller and had less adipose tissue than the wild type mice. These phenotypes were not due to reduction of cell size or defect in adipogenesis, as observed in the 190B RhoGAP-deficient mouse model. Together, these results suggest that deficiency in DLC2 alone does not enhance hepatocarcinogenesis.

  20. Flavone inhibits migration through DLC1/RhoA pathway by decreasing ROS generation in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Ma, Long; Yang, Bingwu; Zheng, Zhaodi; Chai, Rongfei; Liu, Tingting; Liu, Zhaojun; Song, Taiyu; Li, Fenglin; Li, Guorong

    2016-05-01

    Tumor suppressor protein deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is a RhoGTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) and inhibits cancer cell migration by inactivating downstream target protein RhoA. A few studies have reported the regulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on RhoGAP. In this study, we investigated flavone (the core structure of flavonoids)-induced regulation on ROS generation and DLC1/RhoA pathway in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and explored whether flavone-induced upregulation of DLC1 is mediated by ROS. Our results showed that flavone decreased ROS production and inhibited cell migration through DLC1/RhoA pathway. To further investigate the role of ROS in flavone-induced regulation on DLC1/RhoA pathway, hydrogen peroxide was added to restore the ROS levels. Flavone-induced upregulation of DLC1 expression, downregulation of RhoA activity, and inhibition of cell migration were all restrained by hydrogen peroxide. We also found that flavone increased DLC1 stability by inhibiting DLC1 protein degradation in breast cancer cells. In summary, our study demonstrated that flavone inhibited cell migration through DLC1/RhoA pathway by decreasing ROS generation and suppressed DLC1 degradation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

  1. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  2. Influence of TiO2 particles on PVB foils used in silicon based thin film photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicco, Ivan; Gossla, Mario; Krull, Stefan; Rakusa, Fabia; Roth, Florian

    2010-08-01

    Transparent PVB lamination foils are widely used in thin-film solar modules. The application of a pigmented load composed by TiO2 particles in the foil formulation does not only influence the reflectance properties of this material, it has also a remarkable impact on other material parameters like resistivity and adhesion. The main objective of this study is to illustrate the properties of white lamination films based on polyvinyl butyral materials. A special insight will be on adhesion, foil resistivity and activation energies. Some performance results on modules will be also presented.

  3. Solar Spectral and Module Temperature Influence on the Outdoor Performance of Thin Film PV Modules Deployed on a Sunny Inland Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nofuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at analysing the influence of both module temperature and solar spectrum distribution on the outdoor performance of the following thin film technologies: hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H, cadmium telluride (CdTe, copper indium gallium selenide sulfide (CIGS, and hydrogenated amorphous silicon/hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon hetero-junction (a-Si:H/μc-Si:H. A 12-month experimental campaign carried out in a sunny inland site in which a module of each one of these technologies was tested and measured outdoors has provided the necessary empirical data. Results show that module temperature exerts a limited influence on the performance of the tested a-Si:H, CdTe, and a-Si:H/μc-Si:H modules. In contrast, the outdoor behaviour of the CIGS module is the most affected by its temperature. Blue-rich spectra enhance the outdoor behaviour of the a-Si:H and a-Si:H/μc-Si:H modules while it is the other way round for the CIGS module. However, the CdTe specimen shows little sensitivity to the solar spectrum distribution. Anyway, spectral effects are scarcely relevant on an annual basis, ranging from gains for the CIGS module (1.5% to losses for the a-Si:H module (1.0%. However, the seasonal impact of the spectrum shape is more noticeable in these two materials; indeed, spectral issues may cause performance gains or losses of up to some 4% when winter and summer periods are considered.

  4. Design and fabrication of inner-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber modules for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2016-08-03

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to harvest the renewable osmotic energy from salinity gradients. There are great progresses in the fabrication of PRO membranes in the last decade. Thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fibers have been widely studied and demonstrated superior performance. However, the lack of effective TFC hollow fiber modules hinders the commercialization of the PRO technology. Knowledge and experiences to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules remain limited in the open literature. In this study, we aim to reveal the engineering and science on how to fabricate TFC hollow fiber modules including the formation of inner-selective polyamide layers and the repair of leakages. TFC-PES hollow fiber modules with 30% and 50% packing densities have been successfully fabricated, showing peak power densities of 20.0 W/m2 and 19.4 W/m2, respectively, at 20 bar using 1 M NaCl solution and DI water as feeds. The modules may be damaged during handling and high pressure testing. The repaired modules have a power density of 18.2 W/m2, 91% of the power densities of the undamaged ones. This study would make up the gap between TFC membrane fabrication and TFC membrane module fabrication in the membrane industry. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Light-Modulation of the Charge Injection in a Polymer Thin-Film Transistor by Functionalizing the Electrodes with Bistable Photochromic Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosciatti, Thomas; Del Rosso, Maria G; Herder, Martin; Frisch, Johannes; Koch, Norbert; Hecht, Stefan; Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    High fatigue resistance, bistability, and drastic property changes among isomers allow efficient modulation of the current output of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) to be obtained by a photogating of the charge-injection mechanism.

  6. Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1 negatively regulates Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Chak-Lui Wong

    Full Text Available AIMS: Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1, a member of RhoGTPase activating protein (GAP family, is known to have suppressive activities in tumorigenicity and cancer metastasis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how DLC1 suppresses cell motility have not been fully elucidated. Rho-kinase (ROCK is an immediate down-stream effector of RhoA in mediating cellular cytoskeletal events and cell motility. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of DLC1 on Rho/ROCK signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated that DLC1 negatively regulated ROCK-dependent actomyosin contractility. From immunofluorescence study, we found that ectopic expression of DLC1 abrogated Rho/ROCK-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization including formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions. It also downregulated cortical phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2. These inhibitory events by DLC1 were RhoGAP-dependent, as RhoGAP-deficient mutant of DLC1 (DLC1 K714E abolished these inhibitory events. In addition, from western study, DLC1 inhibited ROCK-related myosin light chain phosphatase targeting unit 1 (MYPT1 phosphorylation at Threonine 853. By examining cell morphology under microscope, we found that ectopic expression of dominant-active ROCK released cells from DLC1-induced cytoskeletal collapse and cell shrinkage. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that DLC1 negatively regulates Rho/ROCK/MLC2. This implicates a ROCK-mediated pathway of DLC1 in suppressing metastasis of HCC cells and enriches our understanding in the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  7. Chemical and Physical Approaches to the Modulation of the Electronic Structure, Conductivities and Optical Properties of SWNT Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Matthew Lee

    Since their discovery two decades ago, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have created an expansion of scientific interest that continues to grow to this day. This is due to a good balance between presence of bandgap, chemical reactivity and electrical conductivity. By interconnection of the individual nanotubes or modulation of the SWNT's electronic states, electronic devices made with thin films can become candidates for next generation electronics in areas such as memory devices, spintronics, energy storage devices and optoelectronics. My thesis focuses on the modulation of the electronic structure, optical properties and transport characteristics of single walled carbon nanotube films and their application in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Individual SWNTs have exceptional electronic properties but are difficult to manipulate for use in electronic devices. Alternatively, devices utilize SWNTs in thin films. SWNT thin films, however, may lose some of the properties due to Schottky barriers and electron hoping between metal-nanotube junctions and individual nanotubes within the film, respectively. Until recently, there has been no known route to preserve both conjugation and electrical properties. Prior attempts using covalent chemical functionalization led to re-hybridization of sp2 carbon centers to sp3, which introduces defects into the material and results in a decrease of electron mobility. As was discovered in Haddon Research group, depositing Group VI transition metals via atomic vapor deposition into SWNT films results in formation of bis-hexahapto covalent bonds. This (eta6-SWNT) Metal (eta6-SWNT) type of bonding was found to interconnect the delocalized systems without inducing structural re-hybridization and results in a decrease of the thin films electrical resistance. Recently, with the assistance of electron beam deposition, we deposited atomic metal vapor of various lanthanide metals on the SWNT thin films with the idea that they would

  8. Dlc1 interaction with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9 and Rac1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad G. Sabbir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Deleted in liver cancer 1 (Dlc1 gene codes for a Rho GTPase-activating protein that also acts as a tumour suppressor gene. Several studies have consistently found that overexpression leads to excessive cell elongation, cytoskeleton changes and subsequent cell death. However, none of these studies have been able to satisfactorily explain the Dlc1-induced cell morphological phenotypes and the function of the different Dlc1 isoforms. Therefore, we have studied the interacting proteins associated with the three major Dlc1 transcriptional isoforms using a mass spectrometric approach in Dlc1 overexpressing cells. We have found and validated novel interacting partners in constitutive Dlc1-expressing cells. Our study has shown that Dlc1 interacts with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9, plectin and spectrin proteins in different multiprotein complexes. Overexpression of Dlc1 led to increased phosphorylation of Myh9 protein and activation of Rac1 GTPase. These data support a role for Dlc1 in induced cell elongation morphology and provide some molecular targets for further analysis of this phenotype.

  9. Effects of Structure of Rho GTPase-activating Protein DLC-1 on Cell Morphology and Migration* S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    DLC-1 encodes a Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) and negative regulator of specific Rho family proteins (RhoA-C and Cdc42). DLC-1 is a multi-domain protein, with the RhoGAP catalytic domain flanked by an amino-terminal sterile α motif (SAM) and a carboxyl-terminal START domain. The roles of these domains in the regulation of DLC-1 function remain to be determined. We undertook a structure-function analysis involving truncation and missense mutants of DLC-1. We determined that the amino-...

  10. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate (in the city of Jaén, Spain) are presented in this article. The shared data contributes to clarify how the Light Induced Degradation (LID) impacts the output power generated by the PV array, especially in the first days of exposure under outdoor conditions. Furthermore, a valuable methodology is provided in this data article permitting the assessment of the degradation rate and the stabilization period of the PV modules. Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper "Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure" (Kichou et al., 2016) [1].

  11. Establishment of A Lymphoma Cell Line with Stable Expression of DLC-1 by Gene Transfection%稳定表达DLC-1的淋巴瘤细胞株模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄波; 冯敏华; 张弢; 冷海燕; 陈字

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a human lymphoma cell line that stably expresses deleted in human liver cancer-1 gene(DLC-1).Methods The reconstructed plasmid,pcDNA3.1-DLC-1,was transfected to the human lymphoma cell line of Raji.Then the transfected Raji cells were selected by G418.The stable overexpression of DLC-1 was identified by Western blot assay.Results The recombined plasmid,pcDNA3.1-DLC-1,was confirmed by restriction endonuclease examination and sequencing.Western-blot showed that DLC-1 protein expression was increased in the transfected Raji cells.Conclusion A human lymphoma cell line with stable expression of DLC-1 is established.%目的 建立稳定表达肝癌缺失基因-1(DLC-1)的淋巴瘤细胞株.方法 将DLC-1真核表达质粒转染人淋巴瘤细胞株Raji,G418筛选,对获得的Raji细胞株进行Western blot鉴定.结果 酶切和测序鉴定DLC-1的cDNA片段正确插入pcDNA3.1质粒,Western blot鉴定转染后Raji细胞株DLC-1高表达.结论 成功建立了稳定高表达DLC-1的淋巴瘤细胞株.

  12. Hydrophobic Properties of Hydrogenated DLC Films%含氢DLC膜的疏水性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓丽; 张玲; 陈厦平; 王辅明

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过疏水性质的研究,证明源电极式和浸入式 PECVD 方法制备含氢 DLC 膜存在结构和性质上的差别,并且证明浸入式PECVD方法制备的含氢DLC膜更适于需要强疏水性的表面改性应用。方法在PECVD腔体中通入甲烷和氢气混合气体,同时在面对源电极的绝缘样品架上放置石英基片并沉积类聚合物DLC膜;在源电极上放置石英基片并沉积常规含氢DLC膜。在PECVD腔体中通入乙炔、氢气和四氟化碳混合气体,在面对源电极的绝缘样品架上放置石英基片并沉积掺氟 DLC 膜。改变气体压强和射频功率,生长一系列含氢DLC膜。利用紫外可见近红外光度计测试DLC膜的透射谱,扫描电子显微镜及原子力显微镜测试其表面形貌。利用接触角测量仪测试两种含氢DLC和一种掺氟DLC膜表面与水、甘油、乙二醇的接触角,并计算其表面能。比较两种含氢DLC膜接触角和表面能的差别,并根据类聚合物DLC膜的微观结构分析可能的原因。比较掺氟和不掺氟DLC膜的接触角并讨论比较结果。结果类聚合物DLC膜的接触角和表面能与具有相同光学带隙的常规含氢DLC膜存在明显差异。类聚合物DLC膜的接触角更大,表面能更低,因而具有更强的疏水性。类聚合物和常规含氢DLC膜与蒸馏水的接触角最大分别为91.2°和79.2°。类聚合物DLC膜中的碳原子具有更高的氢化率,可能是它表面能低和疏水性好的原因。掺氟DLC膜的接触角比具有相同带隙的类聚合物和常规含氢DLC膜都低,这与文献报道的掺氟能提高接触角的现象完全相反。结论类聚合物DLC膜的疏水性更强。结合其更小的内应力、更宽的光学带隙范围和更快的生长速度等特征,使它在医疗、光学保护涂层等领域具有更强的应用性。浸入式 PECVD 方法生长的掺氟 DLC 膜不但未提高反而降低了 DLC膜的疏水

  13. CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells and Modules Tutorial; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, David S.

    2015-06-13

    This is a tutorial presented at the 42nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference to cover the introduction, background, and updates on CdTe cell and module technology, including CdTe cell and module structure and fabrication.

  14. Investigations on the role of alkali to obtain modulated defect concentrations for Cu{sub 2}O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.chowdhury@gmail.com [Research and Development, Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, 831001 (India); Bijalwan, Pavan Kumar [Research and Development, Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, 831001 (India); Sahu, Ranjan Kumar [MST Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, 831007 (India)

    2014-01-15

    An economic successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method has been investigated for depositing thin Cu{sub 2}O layers on steel. The mole ratios of the Cu{sup +} ions to OH{sup −} ions in the alkali bath were varied and the changes in the properties were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy techniques. The increase in the binding energy values of the Cu 2p peaks in XPS established that an optimum copper vacancy concentration can be obtained for a Cu{sup +}/OH{sup −} mole ratio between 1:10 and 1:15; SEM studies confirmed a dense, uniform microstructure for Cu{sub 2}O thin films coated with these compositions. The strongest absolute peak intensity counts in PL for the peak at 580 nm along with low energy peaks (1.2–1.4 eV) due to Cu vacancy was found to be most prominent for thin film made with Cu{sup +}/OH{sup −} mole ratio 1:15. The role of alkali concentration has been explained in relation to create a stable Cu{sub 2−δ}O structure with optimum copper vacancy. This is an easy way to modulate surface reactivity of the Cu{sub 2}O thin layers and the concept can be utilised for large area device integrations for various electrical and mechanical applications.

  15. Investigations on the role of alkali to obtain modulated defect concentrations for Cu2O thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Anirban; Bijalwan, Pavan Kumar; Sahu, Ranjan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    An economic successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method has been investigated for depositing thin Cu2O layers on steel. The mole ratios of the Cu+ ions to OH- ions in the alkali bath were varied and the changes in the properties were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. The increase in the binding energy values of the Cu 2p peaks in XPS established that an optimum copper vacancy concentration can be obtained for a Cu+/OH- mole ratio between 1:10 and 1:15; SEM studies confirmed a dense, uniform microstructure for Cu2O thin films coated with these compositions. The strongest absolute peak intensity counts in PL for the peak at 580 nm along with low energy peaks (1.2-1.4 eV) due to Cu vacancy was found to be most prominent for thin film made with Cu+/OH- mole ratio 1:15. The role of alkali concentration has been explained in relation to create a stable Cu2-δO structure with optimum copper vacancy. This is an easy way to modulate surface reactivity of the Cu2O thin layers and the concept can be utilised for large area device integrations for various electrical and mechanical applications.

  16. Thin film CIGS photovoltaic modules: monolithic integration and advanced packaging for high performance, high reliability and low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, thin-film photovoltaic companies started realizing their low manufacturing cost potential, and have been grabbing an increasingly larger market share. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is the most promising thin-film PV material, having demonstrated the highest energy conversion efficiency in both cells and modules. However, most CIGS manufacturers still face the challenge of delivering a reliable and rapid manufacturing process that can scale effectively and deliver on the promise of this material system. HelioVolt has developed a reactive transfer process for CIGS absorber formation that has the benefits of good compositional control, and a fast high-quality CIGS reaction. The reactive transfer process is a two stage CIGS fabrication method. Precursor films are deposited onto substrates and reusable cover plates in the first stage, while in the second stage the CIGS layer is formed by rapid heating with Se confinement. HelioVolt also developed best-in-class packaging technologies that provide unparalleled environmental stability. High quality CIGS films with large grains were fabricated on the production line, and high-performance highreliability monolithic modules with a form factor of 120 cm × 60 cm are being produced at high yield and low cost. With conversion efficiency levels around 14% for cells and 12% for modules, HelioVolt is commercializing the process on its first production line with 20 MW capacity, and is planning its next GW-scale factory.

  17. Beneficial silver: antibacterial nanocomposite Ag-DLC coating to reduce osteolysis of orthopaedic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrino, J L; Sanchez-Lopez, J C; Galindo, R Escobar; Horwat, D; Anders, A, E-mail: jlendrino@icmm.csic.es

    2010-11-01

    Silver-containing diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is a promising material for biomedical implants due to its excellent combination of antibacterial and mechanical properties. In this work, a dual-cathode pulsed filtered cathodic arc source containing silver and graphite rods was employed in order to obtain DLC samples with various silver contents. Chemical composition of the samples was analyzed by acquiring their compositional depth-profiles using radio-frequency Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (rf-GDOES), while the microstructural properties were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tribological studies carried out against UHMWPE balls in fetal bovine serum indicate that the presence of silver in DLC could be beneficial to reduce the wear of the polymeric surfaces.

  18. Enhanced p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 Expression Can Be a Cause of Coronary Spasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Kinjo

    Full Text Available We previously showed that phospholipase C (PLC-δ1 activity was enhanced by 3-fold in patients with coronary spastic angina (CSA. We also reported that p122Rho GTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 protein, which was discovered as a PLC-δ1 stimulator, was upregulated in CSA patients. We tested the hypothesis that p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 overexpression causes coronary spasm.We generated transgenic (TG mice with vascular smooth muscle (VSM-specific overexpression of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1. The gene and protein expressions of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 were markedly increased in the aorta of homozygous TG mice. Stronger staining with anti-p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 in the coronary artery was found in TG than in WT mice. PLC activities in the plasma membrane fraction and the whole cell were enhanced by 1.43 and 2.38 times, respectively, in cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells from homozygous TG compared with those from WT mice. Immediately after ergometrine injection, ST-segment elevation was observed in 1 of 7 WT (14%, 6 of 7 heterozygous TG (84%, and 7 of 7 homozygous TG mice (100% (p<0.05, WT versus TGs. In the isolated Langendorff hearts, coronary perfusion pressure was increased after ergometrine in TG, but not in WT mice, despite of the similar response to prostaglandin F2α between TG and WT mice (n = 5. Focal narrowing of the coronary artery after ergometrine was documented only in TG mice.VSM-specific overexpression of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 enhanced coronary vasomotility after ergometrine injection in mice, which is relevant to human CSA.

  19. The characterisation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond - like carbon (DLC for endoprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gałuszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of DLC coating of a - C:H type obtained by using a technique of physical vapor deposition (PVD on the surface of CoCrMo alloy, commonly used for the elements of the endoprosthesis. The surface has been observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Analysis of the chemical composition and distribution of the different elements were performed using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry analysis (GDOES. It has been shown that the DLC elements are characterized by high hardness and good adhesion to the substrate.

  20. A Detailed Analysis of Visible Defects Formed in Commercial Silicon Thin-Film Modules During Outdoor Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Andreas; Johnston, Steve; Olivera-Pimentel, Guillermo; Siegloch, Max; Pieters, Bart; Rau, Uwe

    2016-11-21

    We analyzed defects in silicon thin-film tandem (a-Si:H/..mu..c-Si:H) modules from an outdoor installation in India. The inspection of several affected modules reveals that most of the defects -- which optically appear as bright spots -- were formed primarily nearby the separation and series connection laser lines. Cross-sectional SEM analysis reveals that the bright spots emerge due to electrical isolation, caused by a delamination of the cell from the front TCO in the affected area. In addition, the morphology of the a-Si:H top cell differs in the delaminated area compared to the surrounding unaffected area. We propose that these effects are potentially caused by an explosive and thermally triggered liberation of hydrogen from the a-Si:H layer. Electrical and thermal measurements reveal that these defects can impact the cell performance significantly.

  1. Linearity improvement of high-speed avalanche photodiodes using thin depleted absorber operating with higher order modulation format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Masahiro; Hoshi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; Matsuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-10-19

    We present an avalanche photodiode (APD) with high-speed, high-responsivity and high-linearity operation to cope with higher order modulation format, such as pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). A hybrid absorber configuration with thin depleted region which we newly employed successfully eliminates the space charge effect in the APD while maintaining high responsivity and operating speed. The fabricated APD shows an improved optical-input-electrical-output linearity for an optical input power over -8 dBm, and an optical receiver with this APD achieves both an error-free operation with a KP4 FEC and a high sensitivity of -17 dBm against a 28-Gbaud PAM4 signal.

  2. Review of Photovoltaic Energy Production Using CdTe Thin-Film Modules: Extended Abstract Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2008-09-01

    CdTe has near-optimum bandgap, excellent deposition traits, and leads other technologies in commercial PV module production volume. Better understanding materials properties will accelerate deployment.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of DLC Films by Twinned ECR Microwave Plasma Enhanced CVD for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; TANG Zhen-an; DENG Xin-lu; SHEN Yu-xiu; DING Hai-tao

    2004-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have recently been pursued as the protection of MEMS against their friction and wear.Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique is very attractive to prepare DLC coating for MEMS.This paper describes the preparation of DLC films using twinned electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave PECVD process.Raman spectra confirmed the DLC characteristics of the films.Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR)characterization indicates the carbon is bonded in the form sp3 and sp2 with hydrogen participating in bonding.The surface roughness of the films is as low as approximately 0.093nm measured with an atomic force microscope.A CERT microtribometer system is employed to obtain information about the scratch resistance,friction properties,and sliding wear resistance of the films.The results show the deposited DLC films have low friction and good scratch/wear resistance properties.

  4. Structural and optical properties of gold-incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Shahbaz; Siraj, K.; Naseem, S.; Khan, Muhammad F.; Irshad, M.; Faiz, H.; Mahmood, A.

    2017-07-01

    Pure and gold-doped diamond-like carbon (Au-DLC) thin films are deposited at room temperature by using RF magnetron sputtering in an argon gas-filled chamber with a constant flow rate of 100 sccm and sputtering time of 30 min for all DLC thin films. Single-crystal silicon (1 0 0) substrates are used for the deposition of pristine and Au-DLC thin films. Graphite (99.99%) and gold (99.99%) are used as co-sputtering targets in the sputtering chamber. The optical properties and structure of Au-DLC thin films are studied with the variation of gold concentration from 1%-5%. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Vickers hardness measurement (VHM), and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to analyze these thin films. Raman spectroscopy indicates increased graphitic behavior and reduction in the internal stresses of Au-DLC thin films as the function of increasing gold doping. AFM is used for surface topography, which shows that spherical-like particles are formed on the surface, which agglomerate and form larger clusters on the surface by increasing the gold content. Spectroscopy ellipsometry analysis elucidates that the refractive index and extinction coefficient are inversely related and the optical bandgap energy is decreased with increasing gold content. VHM shows that gold doping reduces the hardness of thin films, which is attributed to the increase in sp2-hybridization.

  5. Production and characterisation of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 μm thin silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andricek, L. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Nisius, R., E-mail: Richard.Nisius@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2014-09-11

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 μm thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 μm thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a usage at the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator called HL-LHC, the results were obtained before and after irradiation up to fluences of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Device Physics of Thin-Film Polycrystalline Cells and Modules; Final Subcontract Report; 6 December 1993-15 March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, J. R. (Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado)

    1999-05-03

    This report describes work performed under this subcontract by Colorado State University (CSU). The results of the subcontract effort included progress in understanding CdTe and Cu(In1-xGax)Se2-based solar cells, in developing additional measurement and analysis techniques at the module level, and in strengthening collaboration within the thin-film polycrystalline solar-cell community. A major part of the CdTe work consisted of elevated-temperature stress tests to determine fabrication and operation conditions that minimize the possibility of long-term performance changes. Other CdTe studies included analysis of the back-contact junction, complete photon accounting, and the tradeoff with thin CdS between photocurrent gain and voltage loss. The Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 studies included work on the role of sodium in enhancing performance, the conditions under which conduction-band offsets affect cell performance, the transient effects of cycling between light and dark conditions, and detailed analysis of several individual series of cells. One aspect of thin-film module analysis has been addressing the differences in approach needed for relatively large individual cells made without grids. Most work, however, focused on analysis of laser-scanning data, including defect signatures, photocurrent/shunting separation, and the effects of forward bias or high-intensity light. Collaborations with other laboratories continued on an individual basis, and starting in 1994, collaboration was through the national R&D photovoltaic teams. CSU has been heavily involved in the structure and logistics of both the CdTe and CIS teams, as well as making frequent technical contributions in both areas.

  7. Survey of potential-induced degradation in thin-film modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Peter; Terwilliger, Kent; Glick, Stephen H.; Perrin, Greg; Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah; Showalter, Keith; Sherwin, John; Schneller, Eric; Barkaszi, Stephen; Smith, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Two CdTe and two copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS)-type modules were tested for potential-induced degradation (PID) with positive and negative 1000 V biases applied to the active cell circuit in an 85°C, 85% relative humidity environmental chamber. Various degradation mechanisms could be seen with signatures such as shunting, transparent conductive oxide (TCO) corrosion, charge carrier lifetime reduction, and dead active layer at edges along with resulting cell mismatch. All modules tested exhibited degradation by system voltage stress in chamber, but only one module type has degraded in parallel field tests. I-V curve data indicated that one CdTe-type module sequentially exhibited shunting followed by a recovery and then series resistance losses. This module type showed TCO delamination from the glass in the environmental chamber tests and also exhibited power degradation within 5 weeks in field tests. Relative rates of Coulomb transfer from the voltage-biased active cell circuit to ground are compared for the modules in chamber tests to those placed outdoors under system voltage stress to extrapolate the anticipated time to failure in the field. This analysis correctly indicated which module type failed in the field first.

  8. Alignment and integration of thin, lightweight x-ray optics into modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Mazzarella, James R.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Saha, Timo T.; Schofield, Mark J.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-07-01

    Future X-ray telescopes with high angular resolution and high throughput optics will help enable new high energy observations. X-ray optics in development at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center by the Next Generation X-ray Optics (NGXO) group utilizes a Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) comprised of dozens of mirror modules populated with mirror segments aligned to a common focus. Mirror segments are currently aligned and permanently fixed into a module one at a time with emphasis on preventing degradation of the overall module performance. To meet cost and schedule requirements, parallelization and automation of the module integration process must be implemented. Identification of critical mirror segment alignment factors in addition to the progress towards a robust and automated module integration process is presented. There is a fundamental need for a reliable mirror segment alignment and bonding process that will be performed on hundreds or thousands of mirror segments. Results from module X-ray performance verification tests are presented to confirm module performance meets requirements.

  9. Nanoindentation and AFM studies of PECVD DLC and reactively sputtered Ti containing carbon films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Pauschitz; J Schalko; T Koch; C Eisenmenger-Sittner; S Kvasnica; Manish Roy

    2003-10-01

    Amorphous carbon film, also known as DLC film, is a promising material for tribological application. It is noted that properties relevant to tribological application change significantly depending on the method of preparation of these films. These properties are also altered by the composition of the films. In view of this, the objective of the present work is to compare the nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of diamond like carbon (DLC) film obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) with the Ti containing amorphous carbon (Ti/-C : H) film obtained by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition (UMSD). Towards that purpose, DLC and Ti/-C : H films are deposited on silicon substrate by PECVD and UMSD processes, respectively. The microstructural features and the mechanical properties of these films are evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindentation and by AFM. The results show that the PECVD DLC film has a higher elastic modulus, hardness and roughness than the UMSD Ti/-C : H film. It also has a lower pull off force than Ti containing amorphous carbon film.

  10. Magnetron reactively sputtered Ti-DLC coatings on HNBR rubber : The influence of substrate bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, X.L.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Ti-containing diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) coatings have been deposited on HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubber and also on Si wafer as reference via unbalanced magnetroli reactive sputtering from a Ti target in C2H2/Ar plasma. The deposition rates of coatings on rubber and Si

  11. Elucidating PID Degradation Mechanisms and In Situ Dark I–V Monitoring for Modeling Degradation Rate in CdTe Thin-Film Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve; Terwilliger, Kent; VanSant, Kaitlyn; Kempe, Michael; Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah; Olsson, Anders; Propst, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    A progression of potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms are observed in CdTe modules, including shunting/junction degradation and two different manifestations of series resistance depending on the stress level and water ingress. The dark I-V method for in-situ characterization of Pmax based on superposition was adapted for the thin-film modules undergoing PID in view of the degradation mechanisms observed. An exponential model based on module temperature and relative humidity was fit to the PID rate for multiple stress levels in chamber tests and validated by predicting the observed degradation of the module type in the field.

  12. Expression and cinical significance of DLC-1 and Ki-67 proteins in gastric carcinoma%胃癌组织中DLC-1Ki-67蛋白的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤华; 赵铁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of DLC - 1 and Ki - 67 in gastric cancer and adjacent normal gastric tissues and analyze the expression and its relation with clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric cancer and the prognosis. Methods The expression of DLC - 1 and Ki - 67 in 66 cases gastric cancer and 20 adjacent normal tissues was detected by immunohistochemiscal EnVision method and the relation of its expression with clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric cancer and the prognosis was analyzed. Results DLC - 1 and Ki - 67 were related to the differentiation, lymph node metastasis and clinical stages; no relation with gender and tumor location was found. DLC - 1 protein expression was negatively correlated with Ki - 67 protein expression ( rs = - 0. 67 ,P <0. 05 ). The 5 - year survival rate of DLC - 1 low expression and Ki - 67 high expression was significantly low. Conclusion Combining detection of DLC - 1 and Ki - 67 may be useful parameter for evaluating the biological behaviors of gastric cancer%目的 检测胃癌组织中DLC-1、Ki-67蛋白的表达,分析其与胃癌临床病理特征关系及预后的关系.方法 免疫组织化学EnVision两步法,检测66例胃癌和20例癌旁组织中DLC-1和Ki-67的表达,分析其表达与胃癌临床病理特征及预后的关系.结果 DLC-1 和Ki-67蛋白表达与肿瘤分化程度、淋巴结转移及TNM分期相关;与性别、肿瘤部位等无关;胃癌中DLC-1与Ki-67的表达呈负相关(rs=-0.673,P<0.05),且DLC-1低表达组及Ki-67高表达组术后5年生存率显著降低.结论 DLC-1和Ki-67有望成为胃癌生物学行为的参考指标.

  13. Accessing the quantum palette: quantum-dot spectral conversion towards the BIPV application of thin-film micro-modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, S. D.; Kartopu, G.; Rugen-Hankey, S. L.; Clayton, A. J.; Barrioz, V.; Irvine, S. J. C.

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) incorporation of thin-film photovoltaics, commercially available quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited, as part of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite film, on a cadmium telluride (CdTe) micro-module. This resulted in an increase in photocurrent generation through the luminescent down-shifting (LDS) process. The optical properties of these films were characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy. The impact of the film on the micro-module was studied through current-voltage (I-V) and external quantum efficiency measurements. Further layers were added to the initial single-layer LDS film, however no additional improvement to the micro-module were observed. Additionally, a range of emission wavelengths have been explored. The majority of these films, when tested on a CdTe device, were shown to improve the photocurrent generation whilst also visually displaying the vivid colour palette provided by quantum confined materials. The future feasibility of using QD based LDS films for large scale BIPV-based power generation has also been discussed.

  14. Assessment of local thin areas in a marine pipeline by using the FITNET FFS corrosion module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, S. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ingenieria del Terreno y de los Materiales, Universidad de Cantabria, ETS. Ingenieros de Caminos, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain); INESCO Ingenieros SL, Centro de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Universidad de Cantabria, Fase A, Mod. 2003, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain)], E-mail: ciceros@unican.es; Lacalle, R.; Cicero, R.; Ferreno, D. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ingenieria del Terreno y de los Materiales, Universidad de Cantabria, ETS. Ingenieros de Caminos, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain); INESCO Ingenieros SL, Centro de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Universidad de Cantabria, Fase A, Mod. 2003, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    This paper analyses the structural integrity of the marine stretch of a pipeline which is placed over a natural bay. The pipeline is part of a 30-year-old installation used for the provision of petrochemical products to a nearby chemical plant. Although there have been no relevant leaks in the past, both the visual inspections performed (revealing numerous local thin areas) and the fact that it is located in a highly sensitive place with high ecological and tourist value recommend the assessment of the pipeline in order to ensure that it is working in safe conditions and that there are no risks for the environment or the people living in the surrounding area. The assessment has been performed using the newly developed FITNET FFS procedure, whose local thin areas assessment methodology is also explained and compared to the analyses proposed by other well known procedures.

  15. Expression and clinical significance of DLC1 and PAI-1 protein in ovarian carcinoma%DLC-1和FAI-1蛋白在卵巢癌组织中的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任芳; 史惠蓉; 张瑞涛; 贾艳艳; 冯巍

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究肝癌缺失基因-1(DLC1)和Ⅰ型纤溶酶原激活剂抑制剂(PAI-1)在卵巢上皮性癌组织中的表达情况,探讨DLC1和PAI-1在卵巢癌组织发生发展中的作用.方法 采用免疫组织化学染色法分别检测正常卵巢和卵巢上皮性癌组织中DLC1和PAI-1的蛋白的表达.结果 ①卵巢上皮性癌组织中DLC-1蛋白表达低于正常卵巢组织(P<0.05);DLC1蛋白的低表达与卵巢癌的临床分期、腹水形成和淋巴结转移相关(P<0.05).②卵巢上皮性癌组织中PAI-1蛋白表达高于正常卵巢组织(P <0.05);PAI-1蛋白的高表达与卵巢癌的临床分期、分化程度和淋巴结转移相关(P<0.05).③卵巢癌组织中DLC1与PAI-1的蛋白表达之间呈负相关(rp=-0.256,P=0.027).结论 DLC1低表达或表达缺失和PAI-1的高表达可能与卵巢上皮性癌的发生、发展有关.DLC1和PAI-1的联合检测有助于判断卵巢癌的恶性程度.%Objective To investigate the expression levels of deleted in liver cancer (DLC-1) gene and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) gene in epithelial ovarian cancer and the effect of DLC-1 on the occurrence and development of epithelial ovarian cancer.Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expression of DLC1 and PAI-1 protein in 25 cases of normal ovarian tissues,52 cases of serous cystadenocarcinoma tissues and 23 cases of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma tissues.Results DLC1 and PAI-1 protein were detected mainly located in the cytoplasm,which was found in ovarian carcinoma and normal ovarian tissues.The expression of DLC1 protein in ovarian carcinoma tissues was significantly lower than that in normal ovarian tissues,whereas it was converse for the expression of PAI-1 protein.The expression of DLC1 and PAI-1 protein were significantly correlated with clinical stage and lymphnode metastasis.The expression of DLC1 was negatively correlated with the expression of PAI-1 protein.Conclusions The expression of DLC1

  16. Influence of nitrogen gas on structure and properties of DLC films prepared by XeCl pulsed laser deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-qiang; PENG Hong-yan; ZHAO Li-xin; LI Min-jun; XIA Yi-ben; WANG Lin-jun; XU Run; LIU Jian-min

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared by PLD process using 308 nm(XeCl) laser beam with high power (500 W) and high frequency(300 Hz). The effects of nitrogen pressure on the structure and properties of the DLC films under such extremely high power and repetition rate were studied. The results indicate that the microstructures of the films are varied from amorphous carbon to graphitized carbon in long-order with the increase of N2 pressure,and the optical properties of the films are deteriorated as compared to that of DLC films without nitrogen.

  17. Compatibility study towards monolithic self-charging power unit based on all-solid thin-film solar module and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbaumhüter, Florian; Agbo, Solomon N.; Tsai, Chih-Long; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Rau, Uwe; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at the development of a monolithic integrated all-solid-state self-rechargeable power unit, we perform a V-I characteristics compatibility study for the integration of such a device having a thin-film silicon multi-junction photovoltaic (PV) module and a thin-film solid Li//lithium phosphorus oxynitride//LiCoO2 battery. The battery and PV module are connected to mimic a monolithic module-to-storage cell device and the performance of this device in various temperature conditions has been tested. Few issues regarding the matching of the battery and PV module characteristics are identified for improvement. The concept of the integrated all-solid-state PV-battery solution appears viable especially in three-terminal device configuration.

  18. Research of electrosurgical unit with novel antiadhesion composite thin film for tumor ablation: Microstructural characteristics, thermal conduction properties, and biological behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yun-Dun; Lin, Li-Hsiang; Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Ou, Keng-Liang; Cheng, Han-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use surface functionalization to evaluate the antiadhesion property and thermal injury effects on the liver when using a novel electrosurgical unit with nanostructured-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC-Cu) thin films for tumor ablations. The physical and chemical properties of DLC-Cu thin films were characterized by contact angle goniometer, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. Three-dimensional (3D) hepatic models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance imaging to simulate a clinical electrosurgical operation. The results indicated a significant increase of the contact angle on the nanostructured DLC-Cu thin films, and the antiadhesion properties were also observed in an animal model. Furthermore, the surgical temperature in the DLC-Cu electrosurgical unit was found to be significantly lower than the untreated unit when analyzed using 3D models and thermal images. In addition, DLC-Cu electrodes caused a relatively small injury area and lateral thermal effect. The results indicated that the nanostructured DLC-Cu thin film coating reduced excessive thermal injury and tissue adherence effect in the liver.

  19. Reversible phase modulation and hydrogen storage in multivalent VO2 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyojin; Choi, Minseok; Lim, Tae-Won; Kwon, Hyunah; Ihm, Kyuwook; Kim, Jong Kyu; Choi, Si-Young; Son, Junwoo

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen, the smallest and the lightest atomic element, is reversibly incorporated into interstitial sites in vanadium dioxide (VO2), a correlated oxide with a 3d1 electronic configuration, and induces electronic phase modulation. It is widely reported that low hydrogen concentrations stabilize the metallic phase, but the understanding of hydrogen in the high doping regime is limited. Here, we demonstrate that as many as two hydrogen atoms can be incorporated into each VO2 unit cell, and that hydrogen is reversibly absorbed into, and released from, VO2 without destroying its lattice framework. This hydrogenation process allows us to elucidate electronic phase modulation of vanadium oxyhydride, demonstrating two-step insulator (VO2)-metal (HxVO2)-insulator (HVO2) phase modulation during inter-integer d-band filling. Our finding suggests the possibility of reversible and dynamic control of topotactic phase modulation in VO2 and opens up the potential application in proton-based Mottronics and novel hydrogen storage.

  20. Theory of Optical Rectification Effect in Metallic Thin Film with Periodic Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki, Kurosawa; Seigo, Ohno; Kazuyuki, Nakayama

    2014-01-01

    We conducted theoretical and numerical investigations of the optical rectification (OR) effect in metallic structures with periodic modulation. A new formulation of the OR effect is presented, and the mechanism by which the OR effect is generated, which has been a controversial issue in previous studies, is clarified. We reveal that the OR effect is strongly enhanced by a combination of spatial variation of the metallic structure and local electric field enhancement. Our theory was numericall...

  1. Theory of Optical Rectification Effect in Metallic Thin Film with Periodic Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hiroyuki, Kurosawa; Nakayama, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We carried out theoretical and numerical investigation of optical rectification (OR) effect in metallic structure with periodic modulation. A new formulation of the OR effect is presented and the generation mechanism of OR effect, which was a controversy issue in previous works, is clarified. We revealed that OR effect is strongly enhanced by the combination of spatial variation of metallic structure and local electric field enhancement. Our theory was numerically evaluated and showed fairly well agreement with experiment.

  2. Reduction in static friction by deposition of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Daishiro; Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontics, a reduction in static friction between the brackets and wire is important to enable easy tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the whole surfaces of slots in stainless steel orthodontic brackets on reducing the static friction between the brackets and the wire. The DLC coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurements, and SEM observations. Rectangular stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy wires with two different sizes were employed, and the static friction between the brackets and wire was measured under dry and wet conditions. The DLC coating had a thickness of approximately 1.0 μm and an amorphous structure was identified. The results indicated that the DLC coating always led to a reduction in static friction.

  3. ESTUDO TRIBOLÓGICO DE REVESTIMENTOS DE DLC COM GASES REFRIGERANTES HFC134A E HC600A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silverio, Marcio; Binder, Roberto; Mello, José Daniel Biasoli

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to study the effect of refrigerant gases HFC134a and HC600a in components coated with DLC, Diamond-like Carbon, as well as is to establish a methodology for tribology evaluating of them...

  4. Electrochemical studies and growth of apatite on molybdenum doped DLC coatings on titanium alloy β-21S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, C.; Mohan, L.; Babu, P. Dilli

    2014-03-01

    Titanium alloy β-21S (Ti-15Mo-3Nb-3Al-0.2Si) was coated with molybdenum doped DLC by Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and sputtering. XRD, XPS and Raman spectroscopy show that Mo is present in the form of carbide in the coating. XPS of samples immersed in Hanks' solution shows presence of calcium, phosphorous and oxygen in hydroxide/phosphate form on the substrate and Mo-doped DLC. Potentiodynamic polarization studies show that the corrosion resistance and passivation behavior of Mo-doped DLC is better than that of substrate. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies show that Mo-doped DLC samples behave like an ideal capacitor in Hanks' solution.

  5. Thin-Film Thermoelectric Module for Power Generator Applications Using a Screen-Printing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Bok; Yang, Hyun Jeong; We, Ju Hyung; Kim, Kukjoo; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Cho, Byung Jin

    2011-05-01

    A new process for fabricating a low-cost thermoelectric module using a screen-printing method has been developed. Thermoelectric properties of screen-printed ZnSb films were investigated in an effort to develop a thermoelectric module with low cost per watt. The screen-printed Zn x Sb1- x films showed a low carrier concentration and high Seebeck coefficient when x was in the range of 0.5 to 0.57 and the annealing temperature was kept below 550°C. When the annealing temperature was higher than 550°C, the carrier concentration of the Zn x Sb1- x films reached that of a metal, leading to a decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. In the present experiment, the optimized carrier concentration of screen-printed ZnSb was 7 × 1018/cm3. The output voltage and power density of the ZnSb film were 10 mV and 0.17 mW/cm2, respectively, at Δ T = 50 K. A thermoelectric module was produced using the proposed screen-printing approach with ZnSb and CoSb3 as p-type and n-type thermoelectric materials, respectively, and copper as the pad metal.

  6. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  7. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  8. Lubrication mechanisms of graphene for DLC films scratched by a diamond tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lichun; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Liu, Zishun; Zhou, Kun

    2016-12-01

    The lubrication behavior of graphene for diamond-like carbon (DLC) films scratched by a diamond tip is investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Graphene can efficiently lubricate the DLC film, and its lubrication performance can be improved by the increase of its layer number but be degraded by its defects and large size. The friction mechanisms of graphene during its lubrication highly depend on normal force, F N. Under a small F N, a superlow friction force, F f, is obtained which represents the super-lubrication of graphene. Under a large F N, the F f increases due to the tribochemical reactions of graphene. Such reactions happen before the rupture of the graphene, which indicates the limitations of the super-lubrication of graphene in realistic situations.

  9. Experimental Study of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) Coated Electrodes for Pulsed High Gradient Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Paraliev, M; Ivkovic, S; Le Pimpec, F

    2010-01-01

    For the SwissFEL Free Electron Laser project at the Paul Scherrer Institute, a pulsed High Gradient (HG) electron gun was used to study low emittance electron sources. Different metals and surface treatments for the cathode and anode were studied for their HG suitability. Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) coatings are found to perform exceptionally well for vacuum gap insulation. A set of DLC coated electrodes with different coating parameters were tested for both vacuum breakdown and photo electron emission. Surface electric fields over 250MV/m (350 - 400kV, pulsed) were achieved without breakdown. From the same surface, it was possible to photo-emit an electron beam at gradients up to 150MV/m. The test setup and the experimental results are presented

  10. Manipulating femtosecond laser interactions in bulk glass and thin-film with spatial light modulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadian, Ehsan; Ho, Stephen; Ertorer, Erden; Gherghe, Sebastian; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2017-03-01

    Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) are emerging as a power tool for laser beam shaping whereby digitally addressed phase shifts can impose computer-generated hologram patterns on incoming laser light. SLM provide several additional advantages with ultrashort-pulsed lasers in controlling the shape of both surface and internal interactions with materials. Inside transparent materials, nonlinear optical effects can confine strong absorption only to the focal volume, extend dissipation over long filament tracks, or reach below diffraction-limited spot sizes. Hence, SLM beam shaping has been widely adopted for laser material processing applications that include parallel structuring, filamentation, fiber Bragg grating formation and optical aberration correction. This paper reports on a range of SLM applications we have studied in femtosecond processing of transparent glasses and thin films. Laser phase-fronts were tailored by the SLM to compensate for spherical surface aberration, and to further address the nonlinear interactions that interplay between Kerr-lens self-focusing and plasma defocusing effects over shallow and deep focusing inside the glass. Limits of strong and weak focusing were examined around the respective formation of low-loss optical waveguides and long uniform filament tracks. Further, we have employed the SLM for beam patterning inside thin film, exploring the limits of phase noise, resolution and fringe contrast during interferometric intra-film structuring. Femtosecond laser pulses of 200 fs pulse duration and 515 nm wavelength were shaped by a phase-only LCOS-SLM (Hamamatsu X10468-04). By imposing radial phase profiles, axicon, grating and beam splitting gratings, volume shape control of filament diameter, length, and uniformity as well as simultaneous formation of multiple filaments has been demonstrated. Similarly, competing effects of spherical surface aberration, self-focusing, and plasma de-focusing were studied and delineated to enable formation

  11. Effect of ZDDP concentration on the thermal film formation on steel, hydrogenated non-doped and Si-doped DLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, S. [Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovač, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kalin, M., E-mail: mitjan.kalin@tint.fs.uni-lj.si [Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The effect of the ZDDP concentrations onto the steel, H-DLC and Si-DLC surfaces is investigated. • ZDDP film structure on the DLC coatings is different from steel. • Different concentrations of ZDDP do not affect the final chemical structure of the ZDDP film on any of the studied surfaces. • The thickness of the thermal film is linear with the concentration for a given surface. • The reactivity of the ZDDP film is higher on the steel surface than on the DLC coatings. - Abstract: This work focuses on the ZDDP concentration (1, 5 and 20 wt%) to form a ZDDP film on surfaces during static thermal tests at 150 °C. Silicon-doped and hydrogenated DLC coatings, as well as steel as reference, were studied using Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that, on the three surfaces, the structure of the ZDDP thermal film consists of identical groups of pyrophosphate and zinc oxide, while the sulphuric groups are dissimilar. On the steel surface, the sulphuric part consists of a mixture of organic sulphide and sulphohydryl groups, but on H-DLC and Si-DLC only organic sulphide groups are found; there are no sulphohydryl groups. Moreover, both ATR-FTIR and XPS show that different concentrations of ZDDP do not affect the final chemical structure of the ZDDP thermal film on any of the studied surfaces. In addition, the XPS results show that the thickness of the thermal film is linear with the concentration for the whole range from 1 to 20 wt%, supporting also its uniform chemical structure. These thicknesses further show that the reactivity of the ZDDP film is higher on the steel surface than on the DLC coatings.

  12. High throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 November 1993--15 November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandwisch, D W [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), under a 3-year subcontract to advance SCI`s PV manufacturing technologies, reduce module production costs, increase module performance, and provide the groundwork for SCI to expand its commercial production capacities. SCI will meet these objectives in three phases by designing, debugging, and operating a 20-MW/year, automated, continuous PV manufacturing line that produces 60-cm {times} 120-cm thin-film CdTe PV modules. This report describes tasks completed under Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy`s PV Manufacturing Technology program.

  13. Repetition-rate-selectable high-speed optical gating in a VO{sub 2} thin film based on gain modulation of optical amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Wook; Kim, Bong Jun; Choi, Sung Youl; Chae, Byung Gyu; Kim, Hyun Tak [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Wook [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Gi Wan [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Wan [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-12-15

    In this research, we investigated the dependence of the saturation-induced gain modulation (SIGM) on the modulation frequency of the input signal in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). By finding and incorporating the modulation frequency invariance of the SIGM realizable within some frequency range, we demonstrated a repetition-rate-selectable high-speed optical gating in two-terminal electrical devices based on vanadium-dioxide thin films. In the implemented optical gating system, the repetition rate could be freely chosen as an arbitrary frequency between 0.27 and 10 kHz without any degradation of the gating speed and the signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. Influence of modulated structure on magnetic properties of NdFeB/Co multilayer thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅宇东; 王诗阳; 朱小硕; 方博; 闫峰

    2015-01-01

    The NdFeB/Co multilayer films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. After that, the samples were annealed at 600 °C for 20 min. The surface morphology, phase structures and magnetic properties of Mo (50 nm)/[NdFeB (100 nm)/Co(y)]×10/Mo (50 nm) thin films were researched by AFM, XRD and VSM, respectively. The results show that the films show stronger perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. When the thickness of Co layers is 10 nm, the coercivity Hc⊥ is the maximum, 295 kA/m. However, for y=10−20, the reduced remanence M/Ms of films has increased. When the thickness of Co layers is 20−30 nm, the NdFeB/Co multilayer films obtained more superior magnetic properties with M/Ms=0.95.

  15. Surface plasmon effect in nanocrystalline copper/DLC composite films by electrodeposition technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Hussain; A K Pal

    2006-11-01

    Composite films of nanocrystalline copper embedded in DLC matrix prepared by electrodeposition technique were studied for their optical properties. Particle size and metal volume fractions were tailored by varying the amount of copper containing salt in the electrolyte. Blue-shift of the surface plasmon resonance peak in the absorbance spectra of the films was observed with the reduction in size and volume fraction of metal particles. Mie theory was found to describe the experimental spectra quite well.

  16. Deposition of boron doped DLC films on TiNb and characterization of their mechanical properties and blood compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liza, Shahira; Hieda, Junko; Akasaka, Hiroki; Ohtake, Naoto; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Nagai, Akiko; Hanawa, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diamond-like carbon (DLC) material is used in blood contacting devices as the surface coating material because of the antithrombogenicity behavior which helps to inhibit platelet adhesion and activation. In this study, DLC films were doped with boron during pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to improve the blood compatibility. The ratio of boron to carbon (B/C) was varied from 0 to 0.4 in the film by adjusting the flow rate of trimethylboron and acetylene. Tribological tests indicated that boron doping with a low B/C ratio of 0.03 is beneficial for reducing friction (μ = 0.1), lowering hardness and slightly increasing wear rate compared to undoped DLC films. The B/C ratio in the film of 0.03 and 0.4 exhibited highly hydrophilic surface owing to their high wettability and high surface energy. An in vitro platelet adhesion experiment was conducted to compare the blood compatibility of TiNb substrates before and after coating with undoped and boron doped DLC. Films with highly hydrophilic surface enhanced the blood compatibility of TiNb, and the best results were obtained for DLC with the B/C ratio of 0.03. Boron doped DLC films are promising surface coatings for blood contacting devices. PMID:28179961

  17. Effect of Structure, Composition, and Micromorphology on the Hydrophobic Property of F-DLC Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated diamond-like carbon (F-DLC films were prepared by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique with CF4 and CH4 as source gases under different deposition conditions. The chemical bonding structure and composition of the films were detected by Raman, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrometry (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS characterization. The micromorphology and surface roughness of the film were observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results indicated that all the prepared films presented a diamond-like carbon structure. The relative content of fluorine in the films increased, containing more CF2 groups. The ratio of hybrid structure sp3/sp2 decreased. The surface roughness of the films increased when the gas flow ratio R (R = CF4/[CH4 + CF4] or the deposition power increased. The contact angle of water with the surface of the F-DLC film was measured with a static drop-contact angle/surface tension measuring instrument. The hydrophobic property of the F-DLC films was found to be dependent on the sp2 structure, fluorine content, and surface roughness of the films. The contact angle increased when the relative content of fluorine in the films and sp2 content increased, whereas the contact angle first increased and then decreased with the surface roughness.

  18. Using Exponential Modeling for DLC Demand Response Programs in Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoorangiz Shams Shamsabad Farahani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of power system has introduced new objectives and subjects in electric power systems. Along with expansion of deregulated systems in countries, new subjects such as Demand Response Programs (DRPs have been provided to evaluate the effect of demand-side in electricity market. Participation of demandside in network improves power system utilization, operation and also has a great effect on system social welfare. DRPs are divided into two categories which are priced-based and incentive-based demand response programs.With Regard to the problem, in this study an exponential modeling of Direct Load Control programs (DLC in investigated as incentive-based DRPs. In order to more realistic modeling of demand response to DLC rates, the nonlinear behavioral characteristic of elastic loads is incorporated. Iranian power system with load profile of the peak day is considered to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Simulation results demonstrate the great impact of running DLC programs using the proposed exponential model. Simulation results are carried out on MATLAB software by numerical simulations.

  19. Very Thin Flexible Coupled Inductors for PV Module Integrated GaN Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acanski, Milos; Ouyang, Ziwei; Popovic-Gerber, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    proposed with more granular power processing by means of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT). This is achieved by adjoining a MPPT unit to each PV module in the PV array. This paper presents a step further in the distributed power tracking approach, with a concept of very low profile power......As the PV energy penetrates into the urban area, shortcomings of the conventional centralized PV system architectures become more pronounced under the influence of urban environment with shading, soiling and orientation mismatch issues. To overcome these limitations new PV system architectures were...

  20. Very Thin Flexible Coupled Inductors for PV Module Integrated GaN Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acanski, Milos; Ouyang, Ziwei; Popovic-Gerber, Jelena;

    2012-01-01

    As the PV energy penetrates into the urban area, shortcomings of the conventional centralized PV system architectures become more pronounced under the influence of urban environment with shading, soiling and orientation mismatch issues. To overcome these limitations new PV system architectures were...... proposed with more granular power processing by means of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT). This is achieved by adjoining a MPPT unit to each PV module in the PV array. This paper presents a step further in the distributed power tracking approach, with a concept of very low profile power...

  1. Analysis of impact of non-uniformities on thin-film solar cells and modules with two-dimesional simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishiyev, Galymzhan T.

    Clean and environmentally friendly photovoltaic (PV) technologies are now generally recognized as an alternative solution to many global-scale problems such as energy demand, pollution, and environment safety. The cost ($/kWh) is the primary challenge for all PV technologies. In that respect, thin-film polycrystalline PV technology (CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, etc), due to its fast production line, large area panels and low material usage, is one of the most promising low-cost technologies. Due to their granular structure, thin-film solar cells are inherently non-uniform. Also, inevitable fluctuations during the multistep deposition process of large area thin-film solar panels and specific manufacturing procedures such as scribing result in non-uniformities. Furthermore, non-uniformities can occur, become more severe, or increase in size during the solar-panel's life cycle due to various environmental conditions (i.e. temperature variation, shading, hail impact, etc). Non-uniformities generally reduce the overall efficiency of solar cells and modules, and their effects therefore need to be well understood. This thesis focuses on the analysis of the effect of non-uniformities on small size solar cells and modules with the help of numerical simulations. Even though the 2-D model developed here can analyze the effect of non-uniformities of any nature, only two specific types of microscopic non-uniformities were addressed here: shunts and weak-diodes. One type of macroscopic non-uniformity, partial shading, was also addressed. The circuit model developed here is a network of diodes, current-sources, and transparent-conductive-oxide (TCO) resistors. An analytic relation between the TCO-resistor, which is the primary model parameter, and TCO sheet resistance rhoS, which is the corresponding physical parameter, was derived. Based on the model several useful general results regarding a uniform cell were deduced. In particular, a global parameter delta, which determines the

  2. Bonding and bio-properties of hybrid laser/magnetron Cr-enriched DLC layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, Miroslav, E-mail: jelinek@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, nam. Sitna 3105, 27201 Kladno (Czech Republic); Zemek, Josef [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta; Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Písařík, Petr [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, nam. Sitna 3105, 27201 Kladno (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-01

    Chromium-enriched diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers were prepared by a hybrid technology using a combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering. XRD revealed no chromium peaks, indicating that the layers are mostly amorphous. Carbon (sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} bonds) and chromium bonds were determined by XPS from C 1s, O 1s, and Cr 2p photoelectron peaks. Depending on the deposition conditions, the concentration of Cr in DLC layers moved from zero to 10 at.% for as-received sample surfaces, and to about 31 at.% after mild sputter-cleaning by argon ion cluster beam. It should be noted that the most stable Cr{sup 3+} bonding state is in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr(OH){sub 3}, and that there is the toxic Cr{sup 6+} state in CrO{sub 3}. The surface content of hexavalent chromium in the Cr 2p3/2 spectra is rather low, but discernible. The population density of Saos-2 cells was the highest in samples containing higher concentrations of chromium 7.7 and 10 at.%. This means that higher concentrations of chromium supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. In addition, as revealed by a LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit, the cells on all Cr-containing samples maintained high viability (96 to 99%) on days 1 and 3 after seeding. However, this seemingly positive cell behavior could be associated with the risk of dedifferentiation and oncogenic transformation of cells. - Highlights: • DLC and chromium-enriched DLC layers were prepared by hybrid laser–magnetron deposition. • The content of chromium in DLC varied up to 10 at.% (31 at.% after ion beam sputtering). • The surface content of toxic hexavalent chromium in the Cr 2p3/2 spectra is rather low but discernible. • Higher concentrations of chromium supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. • Cells on all Cr-containing samples maintained high viability (96 to 99%).

  3. All-optical short pulse translation through cross-phase modulation in a VO₂ thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardad, Shima; Das, Susobhan; Salandrino, Alessandro; Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Wu, Judy; Hui, Rongqing

    2016-01-15

    VO2 is a promising material for reconfigurable photonic devices due to the ultrafast changes in electronic and optical properties associated with its dielectric-to-metal phase transition. Based on a fiber-optic, pump-probe setup at 1550 nm wavelength window, and by varying the pump-pulse duration, we show that the material phase transition is primarily caused by the pump-pulse energy. For the first time, we demonstrate that the instantaneous optical phase modulation of probe during pump leading edge can be utilized to create short optical pulses at probe wavelength, through optical frequency discrimination. This circumvents the impact of long recovery time well known for the phase transition of VO2.

  4. Nanoporous thermochromic VO₂ (M) thin films: controlled porosity, largely enhanced luminous transmittance and solar modulating ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xun; Wang, Ning; Law, Jia Yan; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Magdassi, Shlomo; Long, Yi

    2014-02-18

    Vanadium dioxide is the most widely researched thermochromic material with a phase transition temperature (τ(c)) of around 68 °C, and its thermochromic performance can be enhanced by adding nanoporosity. Freeze-drying has been employed to fabricate nanostructures with different porosities from 16 to 45% by varying the prefreezing temperature and precursor concentration. The luminous transmittance (Tlum) and solar modulating ability (ΔTsol) are greatly enhanced as a result of increasing pore size and pore density. The freeze-dried sample with 7.5 mL of H2O2 precursor dip-coated at 300 mm/min gives the best combination of thermochromic properties (Tlum ≈ 50%, ΔTsol = 14.7%), which surpasses the best combined thermochromic performance reported to date that we are aware of (Tlum ≈ 41%, ΔTsol = 14.1%).

  5. Soft electronic structure modulation of surface (thin-film) and bulk (ceramics) morphologies of TiO2-host by Pb-implantation: XPS-and-DFT characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, D. A.; Boukhvalov, D. W.; Gavrilov, N. V.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Shur, V. Ya.; Esin, A. A.; Kim, S. S.; Kurmaev, E. Z.

    2017-04-01

    The results of combined experimental and theoretical study of substitutional and clustering effects in the structure of Pb-doped TiO2-hosts (bulk ceramics and thin-film morphologies) are presented. Pb-doping of the bulk and thin-film titanium dioxide was made with the help of pulsed ion-implantation without posterior tempering (Electronic Structure Modulation Mode). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) qualification of core-levels and valence bands and Density-Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were employed in order to study the yielded electronic structure of Pb-ion modulated TiO2 host-matrices. The combined XPS-and-DFT analysis has agreed definitely with the scenario of the implantation stimulated appearance of PbO-like structures in the bulk morphology of TiO2:Pb, whereas in thin-film morphology the PbO2-like structure becomes dominating, essentially contributing weak O/Pb bonding (PbxOy defect clusters). The crucial role of the oxygen hollow-type vacancies for the process of Pb-impurity "insertion" into the structure of bulk TiO2 was pointed out employing DFT-based theoretical background. Both experiment and theory established clearly the final electronic structure re-arrangement of the bulk and thin-film morphologies of TiO2 because of the Pb-modulated deformation and shift of the initial Valence Base-Band Width about 1 eV up.

  6. Sub-wavelength modulation of χ(2) optical nonlinearity in organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yixin; Yuan, Yakun; Wang, Baomin; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-01-01

    Modulating the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(2)) of materials at the nanoscale represents an ongoing technological challenge for a variety of integrated frequency conversion and nonlinear nanophotonic applications. Here we exploit the large hyperpolarizability of intermolecular charge transfer states, naturally aligned at an organic semiconductor donor-acceptor (DA) interface, as a means to control the magnitude and sign of χ(2) at the nanoscale. Focusing initially on a single pentacene-C60 DA interface, we confirm that the charge transfer transition is strongly aligned orthogonal to the heterojunction and find that it is responsible for a large interfacial nonlinearity probed via second harmonic generation that is sufficient to achieve d33>10 pm V-1, when incorporated in a non-centrosymmetric DA multilayer stack. Using grating-shadowed oblique-angle deposition to laterally structure the DA interface distribution in such multilayers subsequently enables the demonstration of a χ(2) grating with 280 nm periodicity, which is the shortest reported to date.

  7. Prognostic significance of DLC-1 gene promoter methylation in B-ALL%DLC-1基因启动子甲基化对于B-ALL的预后价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翀; 关明; 张健; 肖艳群; 陈慧英; 蒋黎敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察儿童急性淋巴细胞白血病中肝癌缺失-1(DLC-1)抑癌基因启动子甲基化状态,评估该基因甲基化对于急性B淋巴细胞白血病(B-ALL)的预后价值.方法 对40例B-ALL患儿DLC-1启动子甲基化状态与白血病敏感预后指标白血病微小残留病灶(MRD),以及其他对B-ALL预后可能有影响的指标作一比较,评价DLC-1对于B-ALL的预后判断价值,以及是否可以作为B-ALL的独立预后危险因素.结果 DLC-1甲基化阳性的B-ALL患儿的复发率和5年无事件生存率均与DLC-1甲基化阴性患儿差异有统计学意义(P0.05).但两者同为阳性结果 的5例患儿在5年内全都复发,复发率为100%;而两者同为阴性结果 的11例患儿,仅1例在5年内复发,复发率为9%.多因素分析显示仅MRD可作为独立的预后危险因素(P=0.017),DLC-1基因甲基化阳性患儿复发风险是甲基化阴性患儿的8.5倍.结论 DLC-1甲基化和MRD都是B-ALL有意义的预后指标,两者结合可为临床提供覆盖面更广的预后信息.DLC-1甲基化也显示了该指标有成为独立预后危险因素的趋势.%Objective To observe the status of the deleted in liver cancer-1 ( DLC-1 ) gene promoter methylation and estimate the prognostic value in patients with childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Methods The prognostic significance of DLC-1 methylation status in B-ALL was determined by analyzing the associations among DLC-1 methylation status and the sensitive prognostic factor minimal residual disease (MRD) as well as other potential prognostic factors from 40 patients with childhood B-ALL for evaluating whether it could be an independent risk factor.Results The B-ALL patients with DLC-1 gene methylation had significant different relapse rate and event-free survival rate from those without DLC-1 gene methylation( P <0.05 ). The distribution of the results from DLC-1 methylation status and MRD was significantly different(P >0.05). However, all

  8. Thin concentrator photovoltaic module with micro-solar cells which are mounted by self-align method using surface tension of melted solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Terauchi, Masaharu; Aya, Youichirou; Kanayama, Shutetsu; Nishitani, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Takase, Michihiko

    2017-09-01

    We are developing a thin and lightweight CPV module using small size lens system made from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a short focal length and micro-solar cells to decrease the transporting and the installing costs of CPV systems. In order to achieve high conversion efficiency in CPV modules using micro-solar cells, the micro-solar cells need to be mounted accurately to the irradiated region of the concentrated sunlight. In this study, we have successfully developed self-align method thanks to the surface tension of the melted solder even utilizing commercially available surface-mounting technology (SMT). Solar cells were self-aligned to the specified positions of the circuit board by this self-align method with accuracy within ±10 µm. We actually fabricated CPV modules using this self-align method and demonstrated high conversion efficiency of our CPV module.

  9. Scalability and stability of very thin roll-to-roll processed large area indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Gevorgyan, Suren; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2013-01-01

    Polymer solar cell modules were prepared directly on thin flexible barrier polyethylene terephthalate foil. The performance of the modules was found to be scalable from a single cell with an area of 6 cm2 to modules with a total area of up to 186 cm2. The substrate thickness was also explored...... to high humidity and had low values for T80 for dark storage tests at 50 C/85%RH (ISOS-D-3) and accelerated operation conditions with 0.7 sun/65 oC/50%RH (ISOS-L-3). We found the modules to be particularly suited for information and communications technology (ICT) and mobile applications where low...

  10. High-throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 September 1996--15 January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandwisch, D.W. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. Solar Cells, Inc., has developed this technology and is scaling its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract supports these efforts. Activities during the third phase of the program concentrated on process development, equipment design and testing, quality assurance, ES and H programs, and large-scale next-generation coating-system prototype development. These efforts broadly addressed the issues of the manufacturing process for producing thin-film, monolithic CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules.

  11. Hypermethylation and Expression of DLC1 Gene in Sporadic Breast Cancer and Breast Benign Lesions Tissues%DLC1基因启动子甲基化和蛋白在散发性乳腺癌及乳腺腺病良性病变组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇飞; 胡余昌; 夏和顺; 漆楚波; 郎博娟; 何钒

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the methylation status of DLC1 gene promoter regions and the expression level of DLC1 protein in the development of sporadic breast cancer (SBC), and to research the epigenetics of aberrant DLC1 gene in SBC. Methods Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was used to study the methylation status of DLC1 promoter regions in 42 samples of SBC, 14 cases of breast atypital ductal hyperplasia (BADH), 20 cases of breast adenosis (BA) and 5 samples of peripheral lymphocytes from healthy adult women. The expression of DLC1 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry staining (EnVision method). Results We found DLC1 promoter methylation rate was 38. 1% in SBC tissues. In BADH tissues, (35. 7%) showed aberrant methylation of DLC1 gene promoter. While in the tissues of BA and 5 cases healthy adult women's peripheral lymphocytes,no methylation of DLC1 gene was found. In 42 cases of SBC, 26 cases (61.91 %) showed loss expression of DLC1 protein and 16 cases (38. 10%) showed reduction expression. In 14 BADH tissues, 6 cases (42. 86%) showed negative expression of DLC1 protein, 8 cases (57. 14%) showed reduced expression. No reduced or loss expression of DLC1 protein was found in BA tissues. In the 16 cases of DLC1 methylated SBC tissues, 14 cases showed no expression of DLC1 protein, another 2 cases showed weakly express DLC1 protein. In the 5 cases of DLC1 methylated BADH tissues, 3 cases negatively express, 2 cases showed reduced expression of DLC1 protein. Statistical analysis showed the methylation rates of DLC1 gene in SBC and BADH tissues were higher than that of BA. The difference in the three groups had statistical significance (P<0. 01). While the methylation rates of DLC1 gene between SBC and BADH tissues were no difference. The expression rates of DLC1 protein in SBC and BADH tissues were lower than BA. And the expression rate of DLC1 protein in SBC is significantly lower than that of BADH. The positive intensities of DLC

  12. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  13. Dynein light chain DLC-1 promotes localization and function of the PUF protein FBF-2 in germline progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Olson, Jenessa R; Rasoloson, Dominique; Ellenbecker, Mary; Bailey, Jessica; Voronina, Ekaterina

    2016-12-15

    PUF family translational repressors are conserved developmental regulators, but the molecular function provided by the regions flanking the PUF RNA-binding domain is unknown. In C. elegans, the PUF proteins FBF-1 and FBF-2 support germline progenitor maintenance by repressing production of meiotic proteins and use distinct mechanisms to repress their target mRNAs. We identify dynein light chain DLC-1 as an important regulator of FBF-2 function. DLC-1 directly binds to FBF-2 outside of the RNA-binding domain and promotes FBF-2 localization and function. By contrast, DLC-1 does not interact with FBF-1 and does not contribute to FBF-1 activity. Surprisingly, we find that the contribution of DLC-1 to FBF-2 activity is independent of the dynein motor. Our findings suggest that PUF protein localization and activity are mediated by sequences flanking the RNA-binding domain that bind specific molecular partners. Furthermore, these results identify a new role for DLC-1 in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

  14. Tribocorrosion studies of metallic biomaterials: The effect of plasma nitriding and DLC surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Hua; Aune, Ragnhild E; Espallargas, Nuria

    2016-10-01

    The medical grade pure titanium, stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy have been utilized as biomaterials for load-bearing orthopedic prosthesis. The conventional surgery metals suffer from a combined effect of wear and corrosion once they are implanted, which may significantly accelerate the material degradation process. In this work, the tribocorrosion performance of the metallic biomaterials with different surface modifications was studied in the simulated body fluid for the purpose of investigating the effect of the surface treatments on the tribocorrosion performance and eventually finding the most suitable implantation materials. The metals were subjected to surface modifications by plasma nitriding in different treatment temperatures or physical vapor deposition (PVD) to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating, respectively. The dry wear and tribocorrosion properties of the samples were evaluated by using a reciprocating ball-on-disc tribometer equipped with an electrochemical cell. Prior to the tribocorrosion tests, their electrochemical behavior was measured by the potentiodynamic polarization in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at room temperature. Both stainless steel and CoCrMo after low temperature nitriding kept their passive nature by forming an expanded austenite phase. The DLC coated samples presented the low anodic corrosion current due to the chemical inertness of the carbon layer. During the tribocorrosion tests at open circuit potential, the untreated and low temperature nitrided samples exhibited significant potential drop towards the cathodic direction, which was a result of the worn out of the passive film. Galvanic coupling was established between the depassivated (worn) area and the still passive (unworn) area, making the materials suffered from wear-accelerated corrosion. The DLC coating performed as a solid lubricant in both dry wear and tribocorrosion tests, and the resulting wear after the tests was almost negligible. Copyright

  15. Magnetron reactively sputtered Ti-DLC coatings on HNBR rubber: The influence of substrate bias

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, X. L.; Pei, Y.T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Ti-containing diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) coatings have been deposited on HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubber and also on Si wafer as reference via unbalanced magnetroli reactive sputtering from a Ti target in C2H2/Ar plasma. The deposition rates of coatings on rubber and Si wafer were about the same. Columnar structures resulting from a rough interface were often observed in the coatings deposited on rubbers. Only at a high bias voltage of -300 V the coating on HNBR ...

  16. Study of relationship between structure and transmittance of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the transparent hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on glass substrate by magnetic confined radio-frequency plasma chemical vapor deposition. The structure of films was studied by Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), the transmittance of films by Spectrophotometer. The mechanism of the influence of films structure on transmittance of the films was discussed. The results show that the thickness of films was lower than 100nm, and the transmittance was over 90% in 380-780 nm region. Discussion in theory on the influence of film structure on transmittance was correspondence to experiment results.

  17. Thin-film metallic glass: an effective diffusion barrier for Se-doped AgSbTe2 thermoelectric modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Hsin-Jay; Deng, Ping-Yuan; Agne, Matthias T.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Chu, Jinn P.

    2017-03-01

    The thermal stability of joints in thermoelectric (TE) modules, which are degraded during interdiffusion between the TE material and the contacting metal, needs to be addressed in order to utilize TE technology for competitive, sustainable energy applications. Herein, we deposit a 200 nm-thick Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG), which acts as an effective diffusion barrier layer with low electrical contact resistivity, on a high-zT Se-doped AgSbTe2 substrate. The reaction couples structured with TFMG/TE are annealed at 673 K for 8-360 hours and analyzed by electron microscopy. No observable IMCs (intermetallic compounds) are formed at the TFMG/TE interface, suggesting the effective inhibition of atomic diffusion that may be attributed to the grain-boundary-free structure of TFMG. The minor amount of Se acts as a tracer species, and a homogeneous Se-rich region is found nearing the TFMG/TE interface, which guarantees satisfactory bonding at the joint. The diffusion of Se, which has the smallest atomic volume of all the elements from the TE substrate, is found to follow Fick’s second law. The calculated diffusivity (D) of Se in TFMG falls in the range of D~10-20-10-23(m2/s), which is 106~107 and 1012~1013 times smaller than those of Ni [10-14-10-17(m2/s)] and Cu [10-8-10-11(m2/s)] in Bi2Te3, respectively.

  18. Thin-film metallic glass: an effective diffusion barrier for Se-doped AgSbTe2 thermoelectric modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Hsin-jay; Deng, Ping-Yuan; Agne, Matthias T.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Chu, Jinn P.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal stability of joints in thermoelectric (TE) modules, which are degraded during interdiffusion between the TE material and the contacting metal, needs to be addressed in order to utilize TE technology for competitive, sustainable energy applications. Herein, we deposit a 200 nm-thick Zr-based thin-film metallic glass (TFMG), which acts as an effective diffusion barrier layer with low electrical contact resistivity, on a high-zT Se-doped AgSbTe2 substrate. The reaction couples structured with TFMG/TE are annealed at 673 K for 8–360 hours and analyzed by electron microscopy. No observable IMCs (intermetallic compounds) are formed at the TFMG/TE interface, suggesting the effective inhibition of atomic diffusion that may be attributed to the grain-boundary-free structure of TFMG. The minor amount of Se acts as a tracer species, and a homogeneous Se-rich region is found nearing the TFMG/TE interface, which guarantees satisfactory bonding at the joint. The diffusion of Se, which has the smallest atomic volume of all the elements from the TE substrate, is found to follow Fick’s second law. The calculated diffusivity (D) of Se in TFMG falls in the range of D~10−20–10−23(m2/s), which is 106~107 and 1012~1013 times smaller than those of Ni [10−14–10−17(m2/s)] and Cu [10−8–10−11(m2/s)] in Bi2Te3, respectively.

  19. Ti-TiC-TiC/DLC gradient nano-composite film on a biomedical NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Liu, Dong; Liu, Xiliang; Li, Li

    2008-12-01

    Ti-TiC-TiC/diamond-like carbon (DLC) gradient nano-composite films have been prepared on NiTi alloy substrates by the technique of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) combined with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The influence of negative bias voltage applied to the substrate (from -100 V to -500 V) on the chemical structure, microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance was investigated by Raman spectrum, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), friction coefficient test, scratch test, nano-indentation test and anodic polarization experiments. The Raman spectrum and XPS results showed that the doped films kept an amorphous DLC structure. TEM observation revealed that nanometer TiC particles were surrounded by the amorphous DLC. With the increase of bias voltage, the ratio of sp(2)/sp(3) first decreased, reaching a minimum value at -200 V, and then increased. The nano-indentation results showed that the hardness of the Ti-TiC-TiC/DLC gradient films reached the maximum value at -200 V when TiC particles reached the maximum content in the films. The friction coefficient test and scratch test indicated that Ti-TiC-TiC/DLC gradient films had a low friction coefficient and high bonding strength with the NiTi substrates. Combined with anodic polarization curves and SEM observation, it was found that the corrosion resistance of the Ti-TiC-TiC/DLC gradient films was much better than that of the bare NiTi alloy.

  20. Deposition and characterization of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films on rubber seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2010-01-01

    Thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) for reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals. The wax removal and pre-deposition plasma treatment of HNBR substrates are proven to be cruci

  1. Modification of rubber surface with hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y. T.; Bui, X. L.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Laudon, M; Romanowicz, B

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) for reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals, by sputtering graphite targets in C(2)H(2)/Ar plasma. The wax removal and pre-deposition plas

  2. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 75% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film, by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  3. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated on rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are the major source of friction in lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. Our solution is to coat rubbers with flexible diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film by which the coefficient of friction is reduced from above 1.5 to below 0.15. C

  4. A novel tribological study on DLC-coated micro-dimpled orthopedics implant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Urban, Filip; Vrbka, Martin; Hartl, Martin; Krupka, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates a tribological performance of diamond like carbon (DLC) coated micro dimpled prosthesis heads against ceramic cups in a novel pendulum hip joint simulator. The simulator enables determining friction coefficient and viscous effects of a concave shaped specimen interface (conformal contact). Two types of DLC such as hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (Ta-C) and one set of micro dimple (diameter of 300µm, depth of 70µm, and pitch of 900µm) were fabricated on metallic prosthesis heads. The experiment results reveal a significant friction coefficient reduction to the 'dimpled a-C:H/ceramic' prosthesis compared to a 'Metal (CoCr)/ceramic' prosthesis because of their improved material and surface properties and viscous effect. The post-experiment surface analysis displays that the dimpled a-C:H yielded a minor change in the surface roughness, and generated a larger sizes of wear debris (40-200nm sized, equivalent diameter), a size which could be certainly stored in the dimple, thus likely to reducing their possible third body abrasive wear rate. Thus, dimpled a:C-H can be used as a 'metal on ceramic hip joint interface', whereas the simulator can be utilized as an advanced bio-tribometer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitriding of high speed steel by bipolar PBII for improvement in adhesion strength of DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Junho, E-mail: choi@mech.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Soejima, Koji; Kato, Takahisa [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kawaguchi, Masahiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute (TIRI), Tokyo (Japan); Lee, Wonsik [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, bipolar plasma based ion implantation and deposition (bipolar PBII) was used for plasma nitriding of high speed steel (SKH2), and the effects of the treatment parameters (positive pulse voltage, negative pulse voltage, treatment pressure, treatment time, and precursor gases) on the nitriding process were investigated. The hardness, roughness, and depth of nitride layer were also measured. The adhesion strength of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films coated on the nitride substrate was evaluated by carrying out Rockwell indentation and microscratch tests. Nitriding by bipolar PBII was achieved in the combining of two effects: nitrogen ion implantation by applying a high negative pulse voltage and thermal diffusion of nitrogen atoms under the application of a high positive pulse voltage. However, a very high voltage negative pulse caused surface roughening of the nitride layer. Application of a high positive pulse voltage during nitriding was found to be effective in promoting the thermal diffusion of the implanted nitrogen atoms. Effective nitriding could be achieved under the following conditions: high positive pulse voltage, low negative pulse voltage, high nitrogen gas pressure, and addition of hydrogen to the precursor gas. The adhesion strength of the DLC films on the SKH2 substrate was well improved after nitriding.

  6. Disparate bilingual experiences modulate task-switching advantages: A diffusion-model analysis of the effects of interactional context on switch costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Andree; Yang, Hwajin

    2016-05-01

    Drawing on the adaptive control hypothesis (Green & Abutalebi, 2013), we investigated whether bilinguals' disparate interactional contexts modulate task-switching performance. Fifty-eight bilinguals within the single-language context (SLC) and 75 bilinguals within the dual-language context (DLC) were compared in a typical task-switching paradigm. Given that DLC bilinguals switch between languages within the same context, while SLC bilinguals speak only one language in one environment and therefore rarely switch languages, we hypothesized that the two groups' stark difference in their interactional contexts of conversational exchanges would lead to differences in switch costs. As predicted, DLC bilinguals showed smaller switch costs than SLC bilinguals. Our diffusion-model analyses suggest that DLC bilinguals' benefits in switch costs are more likely driven by task-set reconfiguration than by proactive interference. Our findings underscore the modulating role of the interactional context of conversational exchanges in task switching.

  7. Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules Annual Technical Report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Powell, R.C.; Karpov, V.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Dorer, G.L. (First Solar, L.L.C.)

    2001-02-05

    Results and conclusions from Phase II of a three-year subcontract are presented. The subcontract, entitled Technology Support for High-Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules, is First Solar's portion of the Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program. The research effort of this subcontract is divided into four areas of effort: (1) process and equipment development, (2) efficiency improvement, (3) characterization and analysis, and (4) environmental, health, and safety. As part of the process and equipment development effort, a new semiconductor deposition system with a throughput of 3 m2/min was completed, and a production line in a new 75,000 ft2 facility was started and is near completion. As part of the efficiency-improvement task, research was done on cells and modules with thin CdS and buffer layers as way to increase photocurrent with no loss in the other photovoltaic characteristics. A number of activities were part of the characterization and analysis task, including developing a new admittance spectroscopy system, with a range of 0.001 Hz to 100 kHz, to characterize cells. As part of the environmental, health, and safety task, the methanol-based CdCl2 process was replaced with aqueous-CdCl2. This change enabled the retention of a De Minimus level of emissions for the manufacturing plant, so no permitting is required.

  8. On the pressure effect in energetic deposition of Cu thin films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering: A global plasma model and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B. C.; Meng, D.; Che, H. L.; Lei, M. K.

    2015-05-01

    The modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharge processes are numerically modeled and experimentally investigated, in order to explore the effect of the pressure on MPPMS discharges as well as on the microstructure of the deposited thin films. A global plasma model has been developed based on a volume-averaged global description of the ionization region, considering the loss of electrons by cross-B diffusion. The temporal variations of internal plasma parameters at different pressures from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa are obtained by fitting the model to duplicate the experimental discharge data, and Cu thin films are deposited by MPPMS at the corresponding pressures. The surface morphology, grain size and orientation, and microstructure of the deposited thin films are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. By increasing the pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa, both the ion bombardment energy and substrate temperature which are estimated by the modeled plasma parameters decrease, corresponding to the observed transition of the deposited thin films from a void free structure with a wide distribution of grain size (zone T) into an underdense structure with a fine fiber texture (zone 1) in the extended structure zone diagram (SZD). The microstructure and texture transition of Cu thin films are well-explained by the extended SZD, suggesting that the primary plasma processes are properly incorporated in the model. The results contribute to the understanding of the characteristics of MPPMS discharges, as well as its correlation with the microstructure and texture of deposited Cu thin films.

  9. Optimization of laser scribing for thin-film PV modules. Annual technical progress report, 12 April 1995--11 April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A.D.; Jayamaha, U.; Matulionis, I.; Miller, M.J. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    One of the most important aspects in moving from the cell level to the integrated module level in thin-film photovoltaics is to achieve reliable and reproducible cell interconnects having low series resistance and high shunt resistance, and to do this with a minimum of dead area between cells. It is known that mechanical scribing often produces considerable damage (e.g., film tearing) surrounding the scribe. Laser scribing has shown the potential for superior scribe widths and profiles for many of the materials involved with thin-film PV. However, problems arc also known to occur with a heat-affected zone around the scribe, and for some materials and some focus conditions high positive ridges or collars are left along the scribe line. The commercially-available scribing systems have been optimized typically for other applications and other materials such as scribing of crystalline Si. Optimum operation for thin-film PV materials has been investigated by several PV manufacturers but there has been limited discussion of problems or of optimum parameters in the open literature. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there has been little investigation of the applicability, for thin-film PV, of laser systems other than the traditional cw lamp-pumped, Q-switched Nd:YAG.

  10. Tribological performance of an H-DLC coating prepared by PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, J., E-mail: jsolis@ittla.edu.mx [IFS, University of Leeds, School of Mechanical Engineering, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); SEP/SES/TecNM/IT de Tlalnepantla, DEPI-Mechanical Engineering, 54070, Edo. Méx. (Mexico); Zhao, H.; Wang, C. [IFS, University of Leeds, School of Mechanical Engineering, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Verduzco, J.A. [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, UMSNH, P.O. Box 888, 58000, Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Bueno, A.S. [IFS, University of Leeds, School of Mechanical Engineering, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, 170 Praça Frei Orlando, 36307-352 São João Del Rei (Brazil); Neville, A. [IFS, University of Leeds, School of Mechanical Engineering, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Duplex hydrogenated Diamond-like Carbon was produced and characterised. • Friction and wear under dry condition of H-DLC/steel tribopair was assessed. • Adhesive strength of the coating was 80N after the scratch tests under dry condition. • Maximum and minimum values of average coefficient of friction were 0.21 and 0.13. • A protective transferred layer on the counterpart produced a carbon-carbon contact. - Abstract: Carbon-based coatings are of wide interest due to their application in machine elements subjected to continuous contact where fluid lubricant films are not permitted. This paper describes the tribological performance under dry conditions of duplex layered H-DLC coating sequentially deposited by microwave excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on AISI 52100 steel. The architecture of the coating comprised Cr, WC, and DLC (a-C:H) with a total thickness of 2.8 μm and compressive residual stress very close to 1 GPa. Surface hardness was approximately 22 GPa and its reduced elastic modulus around 180 GPa. Scratch tests indicated a well adhered coating achieving a critical load of 80 N. The effect of normal load on the friction and wear behaviours were investigated with steel pins sliding against the actual coating under dry conditions at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) and 35–50% RH. The results show that coefficient of friction of the coating decreased from 0.21 to 0.13 values with the increase in the applied loads (10–50 N). Specific wear rates of the surface coating also decrease with the increase in the same range of applied loads. Maximum and minimum values were 14 × 10{sup −8} and 5.5 × 10{sup −8} mm{sup −3}/N m, respectively. Through Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy it was confirmed the carbon-carbon contact, due to the tribolayer formation on the wear scars of the coating and pin. In order to further corroborate the experimental observations regarding the graphitisation behaviour, the

  11. Process Development for CIGS-Based Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules; Phase I Technical Report, 5 February 1998--4 February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, J., Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.; Albright, S.

    1999-09-13

    This report describes work performed by Global Solar Energy (GSE) under Phase I of this subcontract. GSE has initiated an extensive and systematic plan to accelerate the commercialization of thin-film photovoltaics (PV) on copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). GSE is developing the technology to deposit and monolithically integrate CIGS photovoltaics on a flexible substrate. CIGS-deposited on flexible substrates can be fabricated into either flexible or rigid modules. Low-cost, rigid PV panels for remote power, bulk/utility, telecommunications, and rooftop applications will be produced by affixing the flexible CIGS to an expensive rigid panel by lamination or adhesive. In the GSE approach, long (up to 700 m) continuous rolls of substrate are processed, as opposed to individual small glass plates. In combination with roll-to-roll processing, GSE is developing evaporation deposition operations that enable low-cost and high-efficiency CIGS modules. Efforts are under way to transition the CIGS deposition process into manufacturing at GSE. CIGS process development is focused on synchronizing the operation of the effusion sources, the Se delivery profile, substrate temperature, and a host of other parameters. GSE has selected an interconnect scheme and procured, installed, and tested the equipment necessary to implement the cell interconnection for thin-film CIGS modules on a polyimide substrate.

  12. The Influence of Chemical Alloying on the High Temperature Wear Resistance of H-Free DLC Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan, D.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.T.M. De; Cavaleiro, A.; Chandra, T; Tsuzaki, K; Militzer, M; Ravindran, C

    2007-01-01

    A commercial RF-sputtering deposition rig was employed to deposit H-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings. The influence of alloying elements such as Ti and Si on the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings was investigated. The coating was observed in cross section and i

  13. Surface interactions of a W-DLC-coated biomedical AISI 316L stainless steel in physiological solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Renato A; de Lima, Nelson Batista; Rizzutto, Márcia de Almeida; Higa, Olga Zazuco; Saiki, Mitiko; Costa, Isolda

    2013-04-01

    The corrosion stability of a W-DLC coated surgical AISI 316L stainless steel in Hanks' solution has been evaluated. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements were performed to evaluate the incorporation of potentially bioactive elements from the physiological solution. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The wear behavior was assessed using the sphere-on-disc geometry. The in vitro biocompatibility of the W-DLC film was evaluated by cytotoxicity tests. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel substrate decreased in the presence of the PVD layer. EIS measurements suggest that this behavior was closely related to the corrosion attack through the coating pores. PIXE measurements revealed the presence of Ca and P in the W-DLC film after immersion in Hanks' solution. This result shows that the PIXE technique can be applied to identify and evaluate the incorporation of bioactive elements by W-DLC films. The film showed good wear resistance and biocompatibility.

  14. INFLUENCE OF PLASMA NITRIDING ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOUR AND ADHESION OF DLC COATINGS DEPOSITED ON AISI 420 STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N. Pecina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the corrosion behavior and adhesion of two DLC (“Diamond Like Carbon” films (“Soft” and “Hard” were studied. Both coatings were deposited by PACVD (“Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition” on plasma-nitrided and non-nitrided AISI 420 stainless steel. Raman spectroscopy was conducted and surface hardness was measured. The microstructure by OM and SEM, was observed. Adhesion tests were performed with C. Rockwell indentation test. Salt Spray and immersion were performed in HCl. The “Soft” coating was 20 μm thick, the “Hard” film was about 2.5 μm. The hardness was of 500 HV in the “Soft” DLC and 1400 HV in the “Hard” DLC. Both coatings presented low friction coefficient and good adhesion when they were deposited on nitrided steel. Also presented good resistance to atmospheric corrosion. HCl DLC degradation slowed rapidly introduced uncoated samples.

  15. Schottky barrier modulation of metal/4H-SiC junction with thin interface spacer driven by surface polarization charge on 4H-SiC substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gahyun; Yoon, Hoon Hahn; Jung, Sungchul; Jeon, Youngeun; Lee, Jung Yong; Bahng, Wook; Park, Kibog

    2015-12-01

    The Au/Ni/Al2O3/4H-SiC junction with the Al2O3 film as a thin spacer layer was found to show the electrical characteristics of a typical rectifying Schottky contact, which is considered to be due to the leakiness of the spacer layer. The Schottky barrier of the junction was measured to be higher than an Au/Ni/4H-SiC junction with no spacer layer. It is believed that the negative surface bound charge originating from the spontaneous polarization of 4H-SiC causes the Schottky barrier increase. The use of a thin spacer layer can be an efficient experimental method to modulate Schottky barriers of metal/4H-SiC junctions.

  16. Low driving voltage Mach-Zehnder interference modulator constructed from an electro-optic polymer on ultra-thin silicon with a broadband operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromu; Miura, Hiroki; Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M; Kashino, Tsubasa; Kikuchi, Takamasa; Ozawa, Masaaki; Nawata, Hideyuki; Odoi, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2017-01-23

    An electro-optic (EO) polymer waveguide using an ultra-thin silicon hybrid has been designed and fabricated. The silicon core has the thickness of 50 nm and a width of 5 μm. The waveguide was completed after covering the cladding with the high temperature stable EO polymer. We have demonstrated a low half-wavelength voltage of 0.9 V at the wavelength of 1.55 μm by using a Mach-Zehnder interference modulator with TM mode operation. The measured modulation corresponded to an effective in-device EO coefficient of 165 pm/V. By utilizing the traveling-wave electrode on the modulator the high-frequency response was tested up to 40 GHz. The 3 dB modulation bandwidth was measured to be 23 GHz. In addition, the high frequency sideband spectral measurement revealed that a linear response of the modulation index against the RF power was confirmed up to 40 GHz signal.

  17. Preparation and properties of DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings for high humidity tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Lu, Zhibin; Wu, Guizhi; Zhang, Guangan; Wang, Liping; Xue, Qunji

    2016-06-01

    The DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings with different modulus ratios were deposited by magnetron sputtering in this study. The morphology, structure, composition, mechanical properties and tribological properties were investigated using several analytical techniques (FESEM, AFM, TEM, AES, XPS, nanoindentation and high humidity tribological test). The results showed that the well-defined multilayer coatings were composed of densely packed particles in which many nanocrystallines with some kinds of defects were distributed in matrix. The incorporation of oxygen into the lattice led to the degraded chemical stability. The coating’s hardness and elastic modulus were almost in the same range. Moderate improvement on the high humidity tribological properties were obtained, which was important for the extension of the service life of MoS2 in humid air.

  18. Development, characterization and testing of tungsten doped DLC coatings for dry rotary swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasselbruch Henning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of lubricant during rotary swaging is particularly required for a good surface finish of the work piece and the reduction of tool wear. Abandonment of lubricant would improve the ecological process-balance and could also accelerate for further work piece refinements. Also cleaning of the manufactured components becomes obsolete. Thus, a dry machining is highly innovative, consequently new strategies to substitute the lubricant functions become necessary. To encounter the changed tribological conditions due to dry rotary swaging, low friction, tungsten doped, hard DLC coatings and structured surfaces are the most promising approaches. In this work the development of hard coating by means of reactive magnetron sputtering is presented, a promising layer variant is deposited on a set of tools and then tested and investigated in real use.

  19. Deposition of DLC Coating on Biomedical TiNi Alloys by Plasma Based Ion Implantation to Improve Surface Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon ( DLC ) -films were successfully deposited on Ti- 50.8at% Ni using plasma based ion implantation (PBII) technique. The influence of the pulsed negative bias voltage applied to the substrate from 12 kV to 40 kV on the microstructure, nano- indentation hardness and Young' s modulus, the surface characteristics and corrosion resistant property as well as hemocompatibility were investigated. The experimental results showed that C 1 s peak depended heavily on the bias voltage. With the increase of bias voltage , the ratio of sp2 / sp3 -first decreased, renching a minimum value at 20 kV, and then increased. The DLC coating deposited at20 kV showed the highest hardness and elastic modulus values as a result of lower sp2 / sp3 ratio. The RMS values first decreased from 7.202 nm( 12 kV) to 5.279 nm(20 kV), and then increased to 11.449 nm(30 kV) and7.060 nm(40 kV). The uncoated TiNi alloy showed severe pitting corrosion, due to the presence of Cl-ions in the solution. On the contrary, the DLC coated sample showed very little pitting corrosion and behaved better corrosion resistant property especially for the specimens deposited at 20 kV bias voltages. The platelet adhesion test show that the hemocompatibility of DLC coated TiNi alloy is much better than that of bare TiNi alloy, and the hemocompatibility performauce of DLC coated TiNi alloy deposited at 20 kV is superior to that of other coated specimens.

  20. Tribological performance of an H-DLC coating prepared by PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, J.; Zhao, H.; Wang, C.; Verduzco, J. A.; Bueno, A. S.; Neville, A.

    2016-10-01

    Carbon-based coatings are of wide interest due to their application in machine elements subjected to continuous contact where fluid lubricant films are not permitted. This paper describes the tribological performance under dry conditions of duplex layered H-DLC coating sequentially deposited by microwave excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on AISI 52100 steel. The architecture of the coating comprised Cr, WC, and DLC (a-C:H) with a total thickness of 2.8 μm and compressive residual stress very close to 1 GPa. Surface hardness was approximately 22 GPa and its reduced elastic modulus around 180 GPa. Scratch tests indicated a well adhered coating achieving a critical load of 80 N. The effect of normal load on the friction and wear behaviours were investigated with steel pins sliding against the actual coating under dry conditions at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) and 35-50% RH. The results show that coefficient of friction of the coating decreased from 0.21 to 0.13 values with the increase in the applied loads (10-50 N). Specific wear rates of the surface coating also decrease with the increase in the same range of applied loads. Maximum and minimum values were 14 × 10-8 and 5.5 × 10-8 mm-3/N m, respectively. Through Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy it was confirmed the carbon-carbon contact, due to the tribolayer formation on the wear scars of the coating and pin. In order to further corroborate the experimental observations regarding the graphitisation behaviour, the existing mathematical relationships to determine the graphitisation temperature of the coating/steel contact as well as the flash temperature were used.

  1. Performance characterization of thin-film-silicon based solar modules under clouded and clear sky conditions in comparison to crystalline silicon modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weicht, J. A.; Rasch, R.; Behrens, G.; Hamelmann, F. U.

    2016-07-01

    For a precise prediction of the energy yield of amorphous ( a-Si) and amorphous-microcrystalline tandem ( a-Si/ μc-Si) thinfilm-silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules it is important to know their performance ratio under different light conditions. The efficiency of solar modules is an important value for the monitoring and planning of PV-systems. The efficiency of a-Si solar modules shows no significant changes in the performance ratio at clouded or clear sky conditions. The efficiency of crystalline silicon-based ( c-Si) and a-Si/ μc-Si solar modules shows a lower efficiency for fully clouded conditions without direct irradiation compared to conditions with direct irradiation (clear sky). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Cooperative antiproliferative effect of coordinated ectopic expression of DLC1 tumor suppressor protein and silencing of MYC oncogene expression in liver cancer cells: Therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuyu; Zhou, Xiaoling; Tone, Paul; Durkin, Marian E.; Popescu, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of cancer and has a very poor prognosis; thus, the development of effective therapies for the treatment of advanced HCC is of high clinical priority. In the present study, the anti-oncogenic effect of combined knockdown of c-Myc expression and ectopic restoration of deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) expression was investigated in human liver cancer cells. Expression of c-Myc in human HCC cells was knocked down by stable transfection with a Myc-specific short hairpin (sh) RNA vector. DLC1 expression in Huh7 cells was restored by adenovirus transduction, and the effects of DLC1 expression and c-Myc knockdown on Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) levels, cell proliferation, soft agar colony formation and cell invasion were measured. Downregulation of c-Myc or re-expression of DLC1 led to a marked reduction in RhoA levels, which was associated with decreases in cell proliferation, soft agar colony formation and invasiveness; this inhibitory effect was augmented with a combination of DLC1 transduction and c-Myc suppression. To determine whether liver cell-specific delivery of DLC1 was able to enhance the inhibitory effect of c-Myc knockdown on tumor growth in vivo, DLC1 vector DNA complexed with galactosylated polyethylene glycol-linear polyethyleneimine was administered by tail vein injection to mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts of Huh7 cells transfected with shMyc or control shRNA. A cooperative inhibitory effect of DLC1 expression and c-Myc knockdown on the growth of Huh7-derived tumors was observed, suggesting that targeted liver cell delivery of DLC1 and c-Myc shRNA may serve as a possible gene therapy modality for the treatment of human HCC. PMID:27446476

  3. Adhesion improvement of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films by pre-deposition plasma treatment of rubber substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, X.L.; Pei, Y.T.; Mulder, E.D.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2009-01-01

    For reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals, thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) via magnetron-enhanced plasma chemical vapor deposition (ME-PCVD). Pre-deposition plasma trea

  4. Characterization of Thin Pixel Sensor Modules Interconnected with SLID Technology Irradiated to a Fluence of 2$\\cdot 10^{15}$\\,n$_{\\mathrm{eq}}$/cm$^2$

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00237859; Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    A new module concept for future ATLAS pixel detector upgrades is presented, where thin n-in-p silicon sensors are connected to the front-end chip exploiting the novel Solid Liquid Interdiffusion technique (SLID) and the signals are read out via Inter Chip Vias (ICV) etched through the front-end. This should serve as a proof of principle for future four-side buttable pixel assemblies for the ATLAS upgrades, without the cantilever presently needed in the chip for the wire bonding. The SLID interconnection, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It is characterized by a very thin eutectic Cu-Sn alloy and allows for stacking of different layers of chips on top of the first one, without destroying the pre-existing bonds. This paves the way for vertical integration technologies. Results of the characterization of the first pixel modules interconnected through SLID as well as of one sample irradiated to $2\\cdot10^{15}$\\,\

  5. Characterization of Thin Pixel Sensor Modules Interconnected with SLID Technology Irradiated to a Fluence of 2⋅10 15 $n_{eq}$ /cm 2

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, P; Beimforde, M; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H

    2011-01-01

    A new module concept for future ATLAS pixel detector upgrades is presented, where thin n-in-p silicon sensors are connected to the front-end chip exploiting the novel Solid Liquid Interdiffusion technique (SLID) and the signals are read out via Inter Chip Vias (ICV) etched through the front-end. This should serve as a proof of principle for future four-side buttable pixel assemblies for the ATLAS upgrades, without the cantilever presently needed in the chip for the wire bonding. The SLID interconnection, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It is characterized by a very thin eutectic Cu-Sn alloy and allows for stacking of different layers of chips on top of the first one, without destroying the pre-existing bonds. This paves the way for vertical integration technologies. Results of the characterization of the first pixel modules interconnected through SLID as well as of one sample irradiated to 2⋅10 15 \\,\

  6. Oxygen content modulation by nanoscale chemical and electrical patterning in epitaxial SrCoO3-δ (0 < δ ≤ 0.5) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Seidel, J.

    2016-08-01

    Fast controllable redox reactions in solid materials at room temperature are a promising strategy for enhancing the overall performance and lifetime of many energy technology materials and devices. Easy control of oxygen content is a key concept for the realisation of fast catalysis and bulk diffusion at room temperature. Here, high quality epitaxial brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 thin films have been oxidised to perovskite (P) SrCoO3 with NaClO. X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed to investigate the structural and electronic changes of the material. The oxidised thin films were found to exhibit distinct morphological changes from an atomically flat terrace structure to forming small nanosized islands with boundaries preferentially in [100] or [010] directions all over the surface, relaxing the in-plane strain imposed by the substrate. The conductivity, or oxygen content, of each single island is confined by these textures, which can be locally patterned even further with electric poling. The high charging level at the island boundaries indicates a magnified electric capacity of SCO thin films, which could be exploited in future device geometries. This finding represents a new way of oxygen modulation with associated self-assembled charge confinement to nanoscale boundaries, offering interesting prospects in nanotechnology applications.

  7. Quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity in FeSe0.3Te0.7 thin films and electric-field modulation of superconducting transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhu; Mei, Chenguang; Wei, Linlin; Sun, Zhangao; Wu, Shilong; Huang, Haoliang; Zhang, Shu; Liu, Chang; Feng, Yang; Tian, Huanfang; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yayu; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yalin; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-09-18

    We report the structural and superconducting properties of FeSe0.3Te0.7 (FST) thin films with different thicknesses grown on ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 substrates. It was shown that the FST films undergo biaxial tensile strains which are fully relaxed for films with thicknesses above 200 nm. Electrical transport measurements reveal that the ultrathin films exhibit an insulating behavior and superconductivity appears for thicker films with Tc saturated above 200 nm. The current-voltage curves around the superconducting transition follow the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition behavior and the resistance-temperature curves can be described by the Halperin-Nelson relation, revealing quasi-two-dimensional phase fluctuation in FST thin films. The Ginzburg number decreases with increasing film thickness indicating the decrease of the strength of thermal fluctuations. Upon applying electric field to the heterostructure, Tc of FST thin film increases due to the reduction of the tensile strain in FST. This work sheds light on the superconductivity, strain effect as well as electric-field modulation of superconductivity in FST films.

  8. With the sun through thick and thin? Photovoltaic modules; Mit der Sonne durch dick oder duenn? Photovoltaikmodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Two technologies quarrel over the ‚place in the sun': The classical silicon panels are considered to be efficient and reliable. Instead of this, new thin-film plates provide maximal performance also at weak light and heat. Which method ranks first? The authors of the contribution under consideration highlight the advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Innovative Characterization of Amorphous and Thin-Film Silicon for Improved Module Performance: 1 February 2005 - 31 July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P. C.; Williams, G. A.

    2009-09-01

    Electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance was done on amorphous silicon samples (modules with a-Si:H and a-SixGe1-x:H intrinsic layer) to study defects that contribute to Staebler-Wronski effect.

  10. Characterization of SiC in DLC/a-Si films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc using Raman spectroscopy and XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srisang, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Western Digital (Thailand) Company Limited, Ayuthaya 13160 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Asanithi, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Siangchaew, K. [Western Digital (Thailand) Company Limited, Ayuthaya 13160 (Thailand); Pokaipisit, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Limsuwan, P., E-mail: opticslaser@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-05-15

    DLC/a-Si films were deposited on germanium substrates. a-Si film was initially deposited as a seed layer on the substrate using DC magnetron sputtering. DLC film was then deposited on the a-Si layer via a pulsed filtered cathodic arc (PFCA) system. In situ ellipsometry was used to monitor the thicknesses of the growth films, allowing a precise control over the a-Si and DLC thicknesses of 6 and 9 nm, respectively. It was found that carbon atoms implanting on a-Si layer act not only as a carbon source for DLC formation, but also as a source for SiC formation. The Raman peak positions at 796 cm{sup -1} and 972 cm{sup -1} corresponded to the LO and TO phonon modes of SiC, respectively, were observed. The results were also confirmed using TEM, XPS binding energy and XPS depth profile analysis.

  11. Nanopatterning on silicon surface using atomic force microscopy with diamond-like carbon (DLC-coated Si probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jingfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atomic force microscope (AFM equipped with diamond-like carbon (DLC-coated Si probe has been used for scratch nanolithography on Si surfaces. The effect of scratch direction, applied tip force, scratch speed, and number of scratches on the size of the scratched geometry has been investigated. The size of the groove differs with scratch direction, which increases with the applied tip force and number of scratches but decreases slightly with scratch speed. Complex nanostructures of arrays of parallel lines and square arrays are further fabricated uniformly and precisely on Si substrates at relatively high scratch speed. DLC-coated Si probe has the potential to be an alternative in AFM-based scratch nanofabrication on hard surfaces.

  12. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Juknius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique. The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile.

  13. Research Leading to High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules: Annual Subcontract Report, September 2004--September 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R. C.

    2006-04-01

    Specific overall objectives of this subcontract are improvement in baseline field performance of manufactured CdTe PV modules while reducing environmental, health and safety risk in the manufacturing environment. Project objectives focus on four broad categories: (1) development of advanced front-contact window layers, (2) improved semiconductor film deposition, (3) development of improved accelerated life test procedures that indicate baseline field performance, and (4) reduction of cadmium-related environmental, health and safety risks. First Solar has significantly increased manufacturing capacity from less than 2 MW/yr to more than 20 MW/yr, while increasing the average module total-area power conversion efficiency from 7% to >9%. First Solar currently manufactures and sells 50-65-W thin-film CdTe PV modules at a rate of about 1.9 MW/month. Sales backlog (booked sales less current inventory divided by production rate) is more than a year. First Solar is currently building new facilities and installing additional equipment to increase production capacity by 50 MW/yr; the additional capacity is expected to come on line in the third quarter of 2006.

  14. Silicon solar cell performance deposited by diamond like carbon thin film ;Atomic oxygen effects;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Abbas Ail; Eshaghi, Akbar; Karami, Esmaeil

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a diamond-like carbon thin film was deposited on p-type polycrystalline silicon solar cell via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method by using methane and hydrogen gases. The effect of atomic oxygen on the functioning of silicon coated DLC thin film and silicon was investigated. Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the DLC thin film. Photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the silicon solar cell were carried out using a solar simulator. The results showed that atomic oxygen exposure induced the including oxidation, structural changes, cross-linking reactions and bond breaking of the DLC film; thus reducing the optical properties. The photocurrent-voltage characteristics showed that although the properties of the fabricated thin film were decreased after being exposed to destructive rays, when compared with solar cell without any coating, it could protect it in atomic oxygen condition enhancing solar cell efficiency up to 12%. Thus, it can be said that diamond-like carbon thin layer protect the solar cell against atomic oxygen exposure.

  15. Effect of structure and deposition technology on tribological properties of DLC coatings alloyed with VIA group metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrushchov, M.; Levin, I.; Marchenko, E.; Avdyukhina, V.; Petrzhik, M.

    2016-07-01

    The results of a comprehensive research on atomic structure, phase composition, micromechanical and tribological characteristics of alloyed DLC coatings have been presented. The coatings have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in acetylene-nitrogen gas mixtures of different compositions (a-C:H:Cr), by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in atmospheres of silicone-organic precursor gases (a-C:H:Mo:Si), and by nonreactive magnetron sputtering of a composite target (a-C:H:W).

  16. Characteristics of CrAlSiN + DLC coating deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc PVD and PACVD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszkowicz, Krzysztof; Sondor, Jozef; Balin, Katarzyna; Kubacki, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Coating system composed of CrAlSiN film covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based lubricant, deposited on hot work tool steel substrate was the subject of the research. The CrAlSiN and DLC layers were deposited by PVD lateral rotating ARC-cathodes (LARC) and PACVD technology on the X40CrMoV5-1 respectively. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of DLC layer. It was found that the tested CrAlSiN layer has a nanostructural character with fine crystallites while their average size is less than 10 nm. Based on the XRD pattern of the CrAlSiN, the occurrence of fcc phase was only observed in the coating, the texture direction is perpendicular to the sample surface. Combined SEM, AES and ToF-SIMS studies confirmed assumed chemical composition and layered structure of the coating. The chemical distribution of the elements inside the layers and at the interfaces was analyzed by SEM and AES methods. It was shown that additional CrN layer is present between substrate and CrAlSiN coating. The atomic concentration of the particular elements of DLC and CrAlSiN layer was calculated from the XPS measurements. In sliding dry friction conditions the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.05 and 0.07. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate.

  17. Artificial Modulation of Ferroelectric Thin Films into Antiferroelectric through H+ Implantation for High-Density Charge Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-Jun; FEI Jin-Wen; TANG Wing-Ao; JIANG An-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen ions are implanted into Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 thin films at the energy of 40keV with a flux of 5 ×1014 ions/cm2.Pseudo-antiferroelectric behaviour in the implanted thin films is observed,as confirmed by the measurements of polarization versus electric hysteresis loops and capacitance versus voltage curves.X-ray diffraction patterns show the film structures before and after H+ implantation both to be perovskite of a tetragonal symmetry.These findings indicate that hydrogen ions exist as stable dopants within the films.It is believed that the dopants change domain-switching behaviour via the boundary charge compensation.Meanwhile,time dependence of leakage current density after time longer than lOs indicates the enhancement of the leakage current nearly in one order for the implanted film,but the current at time shorter than I s is mostly the same as that of the original film without the ionic implantation.The artificial tailoring of the antiferroelectric behaviour through H+ implantation in ferroelectric thin films is finally proven to be achievable for the device application of high-density charge storage.

  18. A novel self-cleaning and anti-reflective multi-layer for thin-film solar PV module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.L.; Shiue, J.D. [Kun-Shan Univ., Yung-Kung City, Taiwan (China). Clean Energy Center; Li, M.; Huang, M.C. [NanoWinTechnology Co., Ltd., Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.S.; Wei, S.S. [National Univ. of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2007-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) acts as a photocatalyst, and can accelerate the decomposition of organic particulates and airborne pollutants that gather on solar arrays. In this study, a TiO{sub 2} film was coated on the outside surface of sodium glass in order to increase the self-cleaning ability of solar cells. DC magnetic sputtering was used to coat multi-layer thin films of silicon nitrides in order to increase their antireflective capabilities. The TiO{sub 2} thin film was fabricated using the sol-gel method. Optical properties of the microstructure and composition of the films were characterized using UV-V spectroscopy. Results showed that the best anti-reflection spectrum of the TiO{sub 2} was between 700 and 800 nm. Average transmission rates were 3.54 per cent higher than those observed in slide glass samples. It was concluded that overlapped titanium dioxide/silicon nitride thin films can achieve a very good anti-reflective effect as well as self-cleaning ability in the range of 400-800 nm. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Micro-texturing into DLC/diamond coated molds and dies via high density oxygen plasma etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunata Ersyzario Edo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD-diamond films have been widely utilized not only as a hard protective coating for molds and dies but also as a functional substrate for bio-MEMS/NEMS. Micro-texturing into these hard coated molds and dies provides a productive tool to duplicate the original mother micro-patterns onto various work materials and to construct any tailored micro-textures for sensors and actuators. In the present paper, the high density oxygen plasma etching method is utilized to make micro-line and micro-groove patterns onto the DLC and diamond coatings. Our developing oxygen plasma etching system is introduced together with characterization on the plasma state during etching. In this quantitative plasma diagnosis, both the population of activated species and the electron and ion densities are identified through the emissive light spectroscopy and the Langmuir probe method. In addition, the on-line monitoring of the plasmas helps to describe the etching process. DLC coated WC (Co specimen is first employed to describe the etching mechanism by the present method. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD diamond coated WC (Co is also employed to demonstrate the reliable capacity of the present high density oxygen plasma etching. This oxygen plasma etching performance is discussed by comparison of the etching rates.

  20. Efficient optical terahertz-transmission modulation in solution-processable organic semiconductor thin films on silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Mori, Hiroki; Inose, Yuto; Kuromiya, Shota; Takano, Keisuke; Nakajima, Makoto; Hangyo, Masanori

    2016-03-01

    Terahertz (THz)-transmission modulation through the Si substrate coated with four π-conjugated materials under various laser light irradiation conditions was investigated using THz time-domain spectroscopy. Two of the π-conjugated low molecules, the [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene), and two of the π-conjugated polymer materials, poly[5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-2-methoxycyanoterephthalyliden] (MEH-CN-PPV) and poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL), were investigated. Among these materials, PCBM and TIPS-pentacene showed higher modulation efficiencies and it was also shown that thermal annealing is quite effective in obtaining THz modulation efficiencies higher than those previously reported for copper phthalocyanine. Utilizing these solution-processable π-conjugated materials, various types of THz materials and devices could be fabricated by printing technologies. Our findings may open the way to fabricating various types of THz active devices.

  1. 3DLC: A Comprehensive Model for Personal Health Records Supporting New Types of Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Helmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the demographic change, many new medical applications are installed in the user's home environment. These applications make use of ambient sensors, enabling new forms of medical care. Personal Health Records (PHRs are an instrument for the storage, presentation and communication of health related data provided by these applications. But there are still open issues regarding the cooperation between PHRs and the new applications. On the basis of two medical application scenarios, we developed a new model which defines the appropriate level of abstraction of data generated by medical applications to be stored inside the PHR. The model also determines which part of these data is relevant for the clinical decision making process, and how these data should be communicated to physicians. This paper describes the 3DLC model, which uses three dimensions (clinical decision, frequency and context dependence to determine the type of the data. We further introduce a prototype PHR system that is able to fulfil the requirements of our scenarios.

  2. Deposition and Tribological Properties of Sulfur-Doped DLC Films Deposited by PBII Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutthanun Moolsradoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-doped diamond-like carbon films (S-DLC fabricated from C2H2 and SF6 mixtures were used to study the effects of sulfur content and negative pulse bias voltage on the deposition and tribological properties of films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation (PBII. The structure and relative concentration of the films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Hardness and elastic modulus of films were measured by nanoindentation hardness testing. Tribological characteristics of films were performed using a ball-on-disk friction tester. The results indicate that with the increasing sulfur content, the hardness and elastic modulus decrease. Additionally, by changing the negative pulse bias voltage from 0 kV to −5 kV, the hardness and elastic modulus increase, while the friction coefficient and specific wear rate tends to decrease. Moreover, at a negative pulse bias voltage of −5 kV and flow-rate ratio of 1 : 2, there is considerable improvement in friction coefficient of 0.05 under ambient air is due to the formation of a transfer films on the interface. The decrease in the friction coefficient of films doped with 4.9 at.% sulfur is greater under high vacuum (0.03 than under ambient air (>0.1.

  3. Ablation laser femtoseconde pour le dépôt de DLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Goutaland, F.; Belin, M.; Subtil, J.-L.; Le Harzic, R.; Rogemond, F.; Ouerdane, Y.; Laporte, P.

    2003-06-01

    Des films de Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 150 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrat standard. Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, adhérence, propriétés nanomécaniques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration. La caractérisation par spectroscopie Raman de la structure des dépôts obtenus a révélé la présence de diamant nanocristallin au sein d'une matrice amorphe. Le taux d'hybridation sp^3 des couches, déterminé à partir des spectres obtenus par XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Speciroscopy), est voisin de 70 %. Ces différents résultats sont corrélés avec la caractérisation par imagerie résolue en temps du panache plasma créé par ablation laser femtoseconde.

  4. Device physics of thin-film polycrystalline cells and modules. Annual subcontract report, December 6, 1994--December 5, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, J R [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the work on a number of projects carried out at both the cell and the module level during the past year. We investigated the effects of CdS thickness in collaboration with six CdTe cell-fabrication laboratories; there appears to be a critical thickness, between 500 and 1000 {Angstrom} depending on fabrication process, below which junction quality is degraded. Our experimental and modeling project showed that conduction-band offsets less than about 0.3 eV have little effect on the performance of a CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) or CdTe cell under the traditional assumption that the absorber material accounts for most of the depletion region. The work in several other cell projects included the role of Ga distribution in Cu{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) cells, changes that occur in some cells over time, optical characterization of commonly used CdTe substrates and front contacts, and comparative characterization of CIGS cells where identical absorbers were combined with variations in window fabrication. Our work on the primary module-characterization project developed the successful use of chopping-frequency variation in a scanning beam to separate photocurrent and shunting problems affecting individual cells of an encapsulated module. Other module projects included modifications in analysis required by the typical module-cell geometry, the practical effect of nonuniformities in light intensity or cell temperature, and the advantages and pitfalls of forward bias across a module during a light scan.

  5. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications – Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bociaga, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.bociaga1@gmail.com [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Functional Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Komorowski, Piotr [Division of Biophysics, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); BioNanoPark Laboratories of Lodz Regional Park of Science and Technology, Lodz (Poland); Batory, Damian [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Functional Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Szymanski, Witold [Division of Biophysics, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Functional Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, Witold [Division of Biophysics, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The DLC coatings with interlayer improving adhesion were manufactured using the author's method in dual RF/MS PCVD system. • The Ag ions were incorporated into DLC matrix using ion beam implantation method. • The morphology, chemical structure and composition of coatings were examined. • Viability, cytotoxicity of human cells and the formation of bacterial biofilm on the samples surface were evaluated. • <5% of Ag in DLC coating is efficient to make it bactericidal and biocompatible. - Abstract: The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal

  6. Nitrogen doping for adhesion improvement of DLC film deposited on Si substrate by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Supsermpol, B.; Saenphinit, N. [Western Digital Company, Ayutthaya 13160 (Thailand); Aramwit, C. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been used in many applications due to their attractive combination of properties including chemical inertness, corrosion protection, biocompatibility, high hardness, and low wear rates. However, they still have some limitations such as high internal stresses and low toughness which lead to poor adhesion of films. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped DLC (N-DLC) offers the possibility of overcoming these limitations. In this study, DLC films, namely tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and nitrogen doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:N) were deposited on single crystalline Si wafer substrates using the Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique. Film characterizations were carried out by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), triboindenter tester and nano-scratch tester. Measurement results showed that intentionally doping with nitrogen reduced the carbon sp{sup 3} content and increased the surface roughness in comparison with that of pure ta-C films. The hardness measurement confirmed the Raman and AFM analyses that adding nitrogen in ta-C films decreased the hardness, especially with high nitrogen content. However, the nano-scratch test revealed the increasing of the critical load with nitrogen. This work, then, extended its scope to investigate the properties of double-layer ta-C films which were composed of ta-C:N interlayer of various thickness around 10–30 nm and ta-C top-layer with thickness of around 80 nm. Microstructure characterization demonstrated that a ta-C:N interlayer gradually decreased the sp{sup 3} fraction in the films and increased film roughness whenever the ta-C:N interlayer thickness increased. In this structure, the tribological property in terms of adhesion to the Si substrate was significantly improved by about 20–90%, but the mechanical property in terms of hardness was gradually degraded by about 2–10%, compared to pure ta-C film, when the ta

  7. 线性离子束制备DLC薄膜的结构和性能%Structure and Properties of DLC Films Prepared by Linear Ion Source Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周陶; 袁军堂; 黄雷; 汪振华

    2015-01-01

    为研究线性离子束技术在不同基体材料上沉积DLC薄膜的结构和性能,分别在YG6硬质合金、SKD11不锈钢和T7451铝合金表面沉积DLC(类金刚石)薄膜,并采用Cr作为过渡层,缓解膜基不匹配性.通过原子力显微镜、台阶仪和Raman光谱研究薄膜的表面形貌和微观结构;利用划痕仪和摩擦磨损试验机对薄膜膜基结合强度及耐磨性进行测试.结果表明:采用该技术制备的DLC薄膜均匀光滑,表面粗糙度Ra仅为5.5 nm;DLC/Cr/SKD11膜系的ID/IG值低于DLC/Cr/YG6膜系和DLC/Cr/T7451膜系,说明沉积于SKD11表面的DLC含有较多的sp3C;DLC/Cr/SKD11和DLC/Cr/T7451膜系膜基结合强度为42.2N和23.2N,而DLC/Cr/YG6膜系在120 N载荷范围内未有明显破损脱落,结合强度最好;DLC/Cr/YG6膜系摩擦因数(0.09)小于DLC/Cr/SKD11膜系(0.14)和DLC/Cr/T7451膜系(0.32),说明其具有较好耐磨性能.由此看出,不同基体上制备的DLC薄膜结构不同,结合强度和耐磨性也有所差别.

  8. Photo-modulated thin film transistor based on dynamic charge transfer within quantum-dots-InGaZnO interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang [Electronic Science and Engineering School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing (China); Yang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Mingju [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing (China); Tao, Zhi; Wei, Lei, E-mail: lw@seu.edu.cn; Li, Chi, E-mail: lichi@seu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Baoping [Electronic Science and Engineering School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Dai, Qing, E-mail: daiq@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing (China); London Center for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Nathan, Arokia [Electronic Science and Engineering School, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); London Center for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-17

    The temporal development of next-generation photo-induced transistor across semiconductor quantum dots and Zn-related oxide thin film is reported in this paper. Through the dynamic charge transfer in the interface between these two key components, the responsibility of photocurrent can be amplified for scales of times (∼10{sup 4} A/W 450 nm) by the electron injection from excited quantum dots to InGaZnO thin film. And this photo-transistor has a broader waveband (from ultraviolet to visible light) optical sensitivity compared with other Zn-related oxide photoelectric device. Moreover, persistent photoconductivity effect can be diminished in visible waveband which lead to a significant improvement in the device's relaxation time from visible illuminated to dark state due to the ultrafast quenching of quantum dots. With other inherent properties such as integrated circuit compatible, low off-state current and high external quantum efficiency resolution, it has a great potential in the photoelectric device application, such as photodetector, phototransistor, and sensor array.

  9. Ion-modulated nonlinear electronic transport in carbon nanotube bundle/RbAg4I5 thin film composite nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Jinquan; Gu, Bingfu

    2014-01-01

    We have explored the ion-modulated electronic transport properties of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) composite nanostructures made of superionic conductor RbAg4I5 films and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle spiderwebs. Our experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the formation of ion-electron bound states (IEBSs) leads to strong ion-electron interference effect and interesting electronic transport of CNT, such as nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and novel temperature dependence of the current. With increasing temperature, the hybrid nanostructures show rich phases with different dependence of current on temperature, which is related to the structural phase transition of RbAg4I5 and the transition of dissociation of IEBSs. The ion-modulation of the electric conductivity in such MIEC composite nanostructures with great tunability has been used to design new ionic-electronic composite nano-devices with function like field effect transistor.

  10. Double-modulation reflection-type terahertz ellipsometer for measuring the thickness of a thin paint coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tetsuo; Uemura, Hiroaki; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-08-25

    We constructed a double-modulation, reflection-type terahertz (THz) ellipsometer for precise measurement of the thickness of a paint film which is coated on a metal surface and which is not transparent to visible or mid-infrared light. The double-modulation technique enabled us to directly obtain two ellipsometric parameters, Δ(ω) and Ψ(ω), as a function of angular frequency, ω, with a single measurement while reducing flicker noise due to a pump laser. The bias voltage of a photoconductive antenna (PCA) used as a THz pulse emitter was modulated at 100 kHz, and a first lock-in amplifier (LA1) was connected to the output of an electro-optic (EO) signal-sampling unit. In addition, a wire-grid polarizer (WGP) was rotated at 100 Hz to conduct polarization modulation with a frequency of 200 Hz. The output signal from LA1 was fed into a second lock-in amplifier (LA2) that worked in synchronization with the rotating WGP (RWGP). By operating LA2 in a quadrature phase-detection mode, we were able to obtain in-phase and out-of-phase signals simultaneously, from which the two ellipsometric parameters for an isotropic sample could be derived at the same time while cancelling common-mode noise. The lower detection limit of the thickness measurement and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of a black paint film coated on an aluminum substrate were 4.3 µm and 1.4%, respectively. The possibility of determining all elements of the Jones matrix for an anisotropic material is also discussed.

  11. Modulating the rate of charge transport in a metal-organic framework thin film using host:guest chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Idan; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-01-28

    Herein we demonstrate the use of host-guest chemistry to modulate rates of charge transport in metal-organic framework (MOF) films. The kinetics of site-to-site of charge hopping and, in turn, the overall redox conductivity, of a ferrocene-modified MOF can be altered by up to 30-fold by coupling electron exchange to the oxidation-state-dependent formation of inclusion complexes between cyclodextrin and channel-tethered metallocenes.

  12. High-Performance Photo-Modulated Thin-Film Transistor Based on Quantum dots/Reduced Graphene Oxide Fragment-Decorated ZnO Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Tao; Zichen Zhang; Yi-an Huang; Xiang Liu; Jing Chen; Wei Lei; Xiaofeng Wang; Lingfeng Pan; Jiangyong Pan; Qianqian Huang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a photo-modulated transistor based on the thin-film transistor structure was fabricated on the flexible substrate by spin-coating and magnetron sputtering. A novel hybrid material that composed of CdSe quantum dots and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) fragment-decorated ZnO nanowires was synthesized to overcome the narrow optical sensitive waveband and enhance the photo-responsivity. Due to the enrichment of the interface and heterostructure by RGO fragments being utilized, the photo-responsivity of the transistor was improved to 2000 A W-1 and the photo-sensitive wavelength was extended from ultraviolet to visible. In addition, a positive back-gate voltage was employed to reduce the Schottky barrier width of RGO fragments and ZnO nanowires. As a result, the amount of carriers was increased by 10 folds via the modulation of back-gate voltage. With these inherent properties, such as integrated circuit capability and wide optical sensitive waveband, the transistor will manifest great potential in the future applications in photodetectors.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of CrCN–DLC composite coatings by cathodic arc ion-plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.Y. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, L.L. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, H.D. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yan, S.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Y.M. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Fu, D.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, B., E-mail: toyangbing@163.com [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2013-07-15

    CrCN–DLC composite coatings were deposited onto silicon (1 0 0) and cemented carbides substrates using pure Cr targets under C{sub 2}H{sub 2} ambient by cathodic arc ion plating system. The influence of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate on the structure and mechanical properties of the coatings was investigated systemically. The coatings structure and bonding state were characterized by XRD, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical composition was measured by EDS. The mechanical performance and tribological behaviour of the coatings were studied by a hardness tester and ball-on-disc wear tester. The results showed that with increasing C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate from 50 to 100 sccm, the corresponding hardness of coatings increased firstly and then decreased with further addition of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate. The coatings deposited at lower C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate (less than 200 sccm) exhibited a relatively higher hardness value (more than HV{sub 0.025}2000) and then the hardness decrease with increasing C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate. The friction coefficient also exhibited similar variation trend, when the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate was higher than 100 sccm, the friction coefficient decreased and then maintained in a relatively lower value from 0.18 to 0.24, which may be attribute to the increasing carbon content and the coating exhibited more diamond-like structure.

  14. Modulation of aqueous precursor solution temperature for the fabrication of high-performance metal oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Ho; Park, Jee Ho; Yoo, Young Bum; Han, Sun Woong; Jong Lee, Se; Baik, Hong Koo

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present a simple process for the fabrication of aqueous-solution-processed metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) via the manipulation of precursor solution temperature. Indium oxide TFTs fabricated from a solution of indium nitrate at 4 °C exhibited the highest mobility of 2.73 cm2/(V·s) at an annealing temperature of 200 °C. When the temperature of the metal oxide precursor solution is 4 °C, metal cations within the solution can be fully surrounded by H2O molecules owing to the high dielectric constant of H2O at low temperatures. These metal complexes are advantageous for the conversion of metal oxides via thermally driven hydrolysis and condensation processes due to their high potential energies. The same techniques have been applied successfully with high-order metal oxides including indium zinc oxide, indium gallium oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide.

  15. Fabrication of stable, large-area thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. Final subcontract report, May 10, 1991--February 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, T.X. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1995-06-01

    During the period of this subcontract, May 1991 through February 1995, Solar Cells, Inc. has developed and demonstrated a low-cost process to fabricate stable large-area cadmium telluride based thin-film photovoltaic modules. This report summarizes the final phase of the project which is concentrated on process optimization and product life tests. One of the major post-deposition process steps, the CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment, has been experimentally replaced with alternative treatments with vapor chloride or chlorine gas. Material and device qualities associated with alternative treatments are comparable or superior to those with the conventional treatment. Extensive experiments have been conducted to optimize the back-electrode structure in order to ensure long term device stability. Numerous small-area cells and minimodules have been subjected to a variety of stress tests, including but not limited to continuous light soak under open or short circuit or with resistive load, for over 10,000 hours. Satisfactory stability has been demonstrated on 48 cm{sup 2} and 64 cm{sup 2} minimodules under accelerated tests and on 7200 cm{sup 2} large modules under normal operating conditions. The conversion efficiency has also been significantly improved during this period. The total area efficiency of 7200 cm{sup 2} module has reached 8.4%, corresponding to a 60.3W normalized output; the efficiency of 64 cm{sup 2} minimodules and 1.1 cm{sup 2} cells has reached 10.5% (aperture area) and 12.4% (total area), respectively.

  16. New solutions for effective access powerline solutions. The European smart grid project DLC+VIT4IP; Neue Ansaetz fuer leistungsfaehige Access-Powerline-Loesungen. Das Europaeische Smart-Grid Projekt DLC+VIT4IP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Georg [devolo AG, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    By the European DLC+VIT4IP project the development of innovative smart grid solutions for a better handling of energy resources is forced. Smart grid ensures the stable operation of a decentralized electric supply network, where more and more small suppliers contribute by solar or wind energy technology. Business customers as well as private customers benefit from smart grid, as they get instant information about their actual consumption by the Internet. Covered by the project there will be developed new approaches of access powerline communications which provide an effective, IPv6 based communication e.g. between electric meters at home and the power net station. (orig.)

  17. Clinical Value of the Expressions of the DLC-1 Gene in Serum and Tissues from Hepatocellular Carcinoma%DLC-1基因在原发性肝癌组织和血清中表达的关系及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金业; 施民新; 刘继斌

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究DLC-1基因在肝癌组织和血清中表达的关系及其在肝癌转移乃至复发过程中的临床意义.方法 收集73例均经病理学证实的HCC的组织及血清标本,依据临床以及病理学特征分为高侵袭组和低侵袭组.采用PCR技术对所有组织和血清标本DLC-1基因表达进行分析.结果 HCC标本中DLC-1基因阳性表达率高侵袭组明显低于低侵袭组,比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=5.1524,P<0.05),血清标本中DLC-1基因阳性表达率HCC高侵袭组明显低于低侵袭组,比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.2719,P<0.05).41例高侵袭组中23例HCC组织中DLC-1表达阳性,12例血清中DLC-1表达阳性,高侵袭组中的DLC-1阳性表达率在血清中是组织中的52.17%.32例低侵袭组中26例HCC组织中DLC-1表达阳性,17例血清中DLC-1表达阳性,低侵袭组中的DLC-1阳性表达率在血清中是组织中的65.38%.51例HCC组织中DLC-1表达阳性的HCC患者中,18例(35.29%)复发或转移;22例DLC-1表达阴性者中,14例(63.64%)复发或转移.29例血清中DLC-1表达阳性的HCC患者中,11例(37.93%)复发或转移;44例DLC-1表达阴性者中,27例(61.36%)复发或转移.结论 临床上血清中DLC-1表达检测可以取代组织中DLC-1基因表达检测,作为一种简便的方法易于临床推广应用.

  18. Effects of DNMT3b on expression and methylation status of promoter region of DLC-I in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line%DNMT3b对肝癌细胞株中DLC-1的表达及启动子区甲基化状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家祥; 刘怀然; 范正军

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨DNA甲基化转移酶3b(DNMT3b)对人肝癌细胞株SMMC-7721中DLC-1基因的表达及其启动子区甲基化状况的影响.方法 将SMMC-7721细胞株分为两组,试验组应用siRNA技术沉默DNMT3b的表达,对照组仅转染对照siRNA;应用Western Blot技术分别榆测两组细胞中DNMT3b和DLC-1的表达,并应用甲基化特异性PCR(MSP)技术分别检测两组细胞中DLC-1基因启动子区的甲基化状况.结果 试验组中DNMT3b的表达明显低于对照组,而DLC-1的表达明显高于对照组;两组中DLC-1启动子区甲基化状态无差异,均发生甲基化.结论 siRNA技术抑制DNMT3b的表达可使DLC-1基因表达水平增高,但DLC-1启动子区甲基化状态无变化.此过程中DNMT3b并非作为甲基转移酶,而可能是作为转录调控因子影响DLC-1的表达.%Objective To explore the effects of DNMT3b on the expression and methylation sta-tus of the promoter region of DLC-1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Methods The SMMC-7721 cell line was divided into 2 groups. The cell line in the experimental group was transfect-ed with DNMT3b siRNA, while that in the control group was transfected with control siRNA. West-ern blot was used to detect the expression of DNMT3b and DLC-1 and MSP was employed to examine the methylation status of the promoter region of DLC-1. Results The expression of DNMT3b was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group, while the expression of DLC-1 was just opposite. There was no significant difference in the methylation status of the promoter re-gion of DLC-1 between the 2 groups and both were methylated. Conelnsion The inhibition of expression of DNMT3b by siRNA method can enhance the expression level of DLC-1, and the methylation status of the promoter region of DLC-1 does not change at the same time. When affecting the expression of DLC-1, DN-MT3b might not play the role of methyhransferase, but can act as a transcriptional regulatory

  19. Effect of aqueous solution and load on the formation of DLC transfer layer against Co-Cr-Mo for joint prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feifei; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hua, Meng; Dong, Guangneng

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating exhibits excellent mechanical properties such as high hardness, low friction and wear, which offer a promising solution for the metal-on-metal hip joint implants. In the study, the hydrogen-free DLC coating with the element Cr as the interlay addition was deposited on the surface of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy by a unbalanced magnetron sputtering method. The coating thickness was controlled as 2 µm. Nano-indentation test indicated the hardness was about 13 GPa. DLC coated Co-Cr-Mo alloy disc against un-coated Co-Cr-Mo alloy pin (spherical end SR9.5) comprised the friction pairs in the pin-on-disc tribotest under bovine serum albumin solution (BSA) and physiological saline(PS).The tribological behavior under different BSA concetrations(2-20 mg/ml), and applied load (2-15N) was investigated.DLC transfer layer did not form under BSA solution, even though different BSA concetration and applied load changed. The coefficient of friction(COF) under 6 mg/ml BSA at 10 N was the lowest as 0.10. A higher COF of 0.13 was obtained under 20 mg/ml BSA. The boundary absorption layer of protein is the main factor for the counterparts. However, the continous DLC transfer layer was observed under PS solution, which make a lower COF of 0.08.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/Al co-doped DLC films: Dependence on sputtering current, source gas, and substrate bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Kong, Cuicui; Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Peng; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Aiying

    2017-07-01

    Co-doping two metal elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can reach the desirable combined properties, but the preparation and commercialized application of metal co-doped DLC films with well-defined structural properties are currently hindered by the non-comprehensive understanding of structural evolutions under different process parameters. Here, we fabricated the Ti/Al-DLC films using a unique hybrid ion beam system which enabled the independent control of metal content and carbon structure. The evolutions of microstructure, residual compressive stress and mechanical properties induced by the different process parameters including sputtering currents, C2H2 or CH4 source gases and bias voltages were investigated systematically in order to perform in-depth analysis on the relation between the structure and properties in Ti/Al-DLC films. Results revealed that the variations of process parameters seriously affected the concentration and chemical bond state of co-doped Ti/Al atoms in amorphous carbon matrix or incident energies of C ions, which brought the complicated effect on amorphous carbon structures, accounting for the change of residual compressive stress, hardness and toughness. The present results provide the guidance for suitable, effective parameters selection to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance for further applications.

  1. Optimization of thin n-in-p planar pixel modules for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiolo, A.; Beyer, J.; La Rosa, A.; Nisius, R.; Savic, N.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will undergo around the year 2025 a replacement of the tracker system in view of the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) with a new 5-layer pixel system. Thin planar pixel sensors are promising candidates to instrument the innermost region of the new pixel system, thanks to the reduced contribution to the material budget and their high charge collection efficiency after irradiation. The sensors of 50-150 μm thickness, interconnected to FE-I4 read-out chips, have been characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests. In particular active edge sensors have been investigated. The performance of two different versions of edge designs are compared: the first with a bias ring, and the second one where only a floating guard ring has been implemented. The hit efficiency at the edge has also been studied after irradiation at a fluence of 1015 neq/cm2. Highly segmented sensors will represent a challenge for the tracking in the forward region of the pixel system at HL-LHC. In order to reproduce the performance of 50x50 μm2 pixels at high pseudo-rapidity values, FE-I4 compatible planar pixel sensors have been studied before and after irradiation in beam tests at high incidence angles with respect to the short pixel direction. Results on the hit efficiency in this configuration are discussed for different sensor thicknesses.

  2. Microscopic origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in amorphous Nd-Co homogeneous and compositionally modulated, thin films studied by XMCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, R; Diaz, J; Alvarez-Prado, L M; Alameda, J M [Dpto. Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, C/ Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Valvidares, S M; Cezar, J C; Brookes, N B, E-mail: cidrosalia.uo@uniovi.e [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 (France)

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous Nd-Co films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering presented perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with energies, K{sub N}, of the order of 10{sup 6} erg/cc at RT. To understand the origin of their PMA, we measured the orbital and spin magnetic moments in Co and Nd by XMCD at the Co L{sub 3,2} and Nd M{sub 5,4} edges in two kinds of samples of similar thickness (30 nm) and composition: one compositionally modulated Nd/Co film (CM) with strong PMA (K{sub N} {approx}10{sup 7} erg/cc at 10 K) and a homogenous alloy (A) with not strong enough PMA to see stripe domains for such thickness. The XMCD analysis evidenced the significant role of Nd in the PMA of these films.

  3. Effect of Magnetic Field on the Deposition of Transparent Diamond-Like Carbon ( DLC ) Films by RF-PCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Hui-jun; ZhU Xia-gao; LIN Song-sheng; YUAN Zhen-hai; DAI Da-huang

    2004-01-01

    In order to deposit transparent and hard DLC films, magnetic field was introduced to enhance the plasma density of radiofrequency plasma chemical vapor deposition (RF-PCVD). In this paper, the configuration and computation of external magnetic field B are introduced. The restriction effect of magnetic field B on the charged particles and the effect of magnetic field B on the primary parameters-nonindependent power Pf and self-bias Uz were also studied. The mechanism of how magnetic field B affects self-bias Uz was analyzed.

  4. Large modulation of carrier transport by grain-boundary molecular packing and microstructure in organic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2009-11-08

    Solution-processable organic semiconductors are central to developing viable printed electronics, and performance comparable to that of amorphous silicon has been reported for films grown from soluble semiconductors. However, the seemingly desirable formation of large crystalline domains introduces grain boundaries, resulting in substantial device-to-device performance variations. Indeed, for films where the grain-boundary structure is random, a few unfavourable grain boundaries may dominate device performance. Here we isolate the effects of molecular-level structure at grain boundaries by engineering the microstructure of the high-performance n-type perylenediimide semiconductor PDI8-CN 2 and analyse their consequences for charge transport. A combination of advanced X-ray scattering, first-principles computation and transistor characterization applied to PDI8-CN 2 films reveals that grain-boundary orientation modulates carrier mobility by approximately two orders of magnitude. For PDI8-CN 2 we show that the molecular packing motif (that is, herringbone versus slip-stacked) plays a decisive part in grain-boundary-induced transport anisotropy. The results of this study provide important guidelines for designing device-optimized molecular semiconductors. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. CHARACTERIZATIONS OF DLC/MAO COMPOSITE COATINGS ON AZ80 MAGNESIUM ALLOY%镁基表面微弧氧化/类金刚石膜的性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨巍; 汪爱英; 柯培玲; 蒋百灵

    2011-01-01

    利用MgO多孔膜结构取代传统制备DLC膜所需的金属过渡层(如Ti),采用离子束复合磁控溅射技术制备出了DLC/MAO/AZ80膜基系统,并通过与MAO/AZ80,DLC/Ti/MAO/AZ80及DLC/Ti/AZ80对比,系统研究了此类膜基系统的表面微观形貌、租糙度、纳米压痕行为、摩擦学特性及电化学性能.结果表明:MgO多孔膜表面沉积DLC膜使其粗糙度减小,硬度增加,而弹性模量与MgO多孔膜相差较小;借助表层微孔特征及DLC膜的润滑特性,使得DLC/MAO/AZ80膜基系统的平均摩擦系数、磨痕宽度与传统的DLC/Ti/AZ80膜基系统相当,并进一步制备出了具有最小平均摩擦系数和磨痕宽度的DLC /Ti/MAO/AZ80膜基系统;由于MgO多孔膜结构的极化阻力使得MAO/AZ80,DLC/MAO/AZ80和DLC/Ti/MAO/AZ80膜基系统的耐蚀性均明显优于DLC/Ti/AZ80.%Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating has been widely used to modify the surface mechanical and tribological properties of materials. In most cases, a metallic buffer (e.g., Ti) is used as an interlayer between DLC coating and the substrate to improve the adhesion. In this work, the DLC coating was deposited on the AZ80 Mg alloy substrate using ion beam deposition technique. Specially, a pretreatment of microarc oxidation (MAO) was applied to the Mg alloy substrates to form the DLC/MAO composite coating instead of the metallic interlayer process. As a comparation, the DLC/Ti/MAO and DLC/Ti composite coatings were also deposited on the substrates. The surface morphology and roughness, mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of the as-deposited coatings were studied. The results indicated that the DLC/MAO composite coating could significantly improved the hardness and wear resistance of the Mg alloy substrates compared with the MAO monolayer. Although the surface roughness of the DLC/MAO coating showed an increase due to the micropores of the MAO coating surface, the friction coefficient and the wear tracks exhibited a

  6. Effect of technique parameters on characteristics of hydrogen-free DLC films deposited by surface wave-sustained plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junqi; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Diao, Dongfeng

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by a new-type surface wave-sustained plasma physical vapor deposition (SWP-PVD) system under various technique conditions. Electron density was measured by a Langmuir probe, while the film thickness and hardness were characterized using a surface profilometer and a nanoindenter, respectively. Surface morphology was investigated by an atomic force microscope (AFM). It was found that the electron density and deposition rate increased following the increase in microwave power, target voltage, or gas pressure. The typical electron density and deposition rate were about 1.87-2.04×10 11 cm -3 and 1.61-14.32 nm/min respectively. AFM images indicated that the grains of films changes as the technique parameters vary. The optical constants, refractive index n and extinction coefficient k, were obtained using an optical ellipsometry. With the increase in microwave power from 150 to 270 W, the extinction coefficient of DLC films increased from 0.05 to 0.27 while the refractive index decreased from 2.31 to 2.18.

  7. Plasma properties of a new-type surface wave-sustained plasma source under the conditions of depositing DLC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junqi; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Diao, Dongfeng

    2006-01-01

    Surface wave-sustained plasma (SWP) is one of the low-pressure, high- density plasma. Applying this technique, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with excellent characteristics can be prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. However, the films' application is restricted in some degree, because it is difficult to control the film properties. In this paper, SWP was excited along a conductive rod at a frequency of 2.45 GHz without magnetic fields around the chamber wall. The fundamental theories of plasma diagnostic were presented and plasma properties were studied with a Langmuir probe under the conditions of depositing DLC films by PVD method with a graphite target. Plasma density, electron temperature, plasma potential and target current were measured at difference technique parameters such as gas pressure, microwave power, and so on. As a result, it was proved that plasma properties are greatly affected by microwave power, target voltage and argon gas pressure in chamber. The gas mass flow rate had almost no effect on plasma characters. At the same time, the results indicated that electron density is up to 10 11-10 12cm -3 even at the low pressure of 1 Pa.

  8. Influence of bowl shaped substrate holder on growth of polymeric DLC film in a microwave plasma CVD reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sambita Sahoo; S K Pradhan; Venkateswarlu Bhavanasi; Swati S Pradhan; S N Sarangi; P K Barhai

    2012-12-01

    The properties of diamond like carbon (DLC) films grown in modified microwave plasma CVD reactor is presented in this paper. By using bowl shaped steel substrate holder in a MW plasma CVD reactor (without ECR), films have been grown at relatively high pressure (20Torr) and at low temperature (without heating). The input microwave power was about 300W. Earlier, under the same growth conditions, no deposition was achieved when flat molybdenum/steel substrate holders were used. In this study, two different designs of bowl shaped steel substrate holder at different bias have been experimented. Raman spectra confirm the DLC characteristics of the films. FTIR results indicate that the carbon is bonded in the 3 form with hydrogen, and this characteristic is more pronounced when smaller holder is used. UV-visible spectra show high visible transmittance (∼85%) for films grown in both the holders. The nanoindentation hardness of the films have a wide range, about 4–16GPa. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images reveal that the films have featureless and smooth surface morphology. These films are polymeric in nature with moderately high hardness, which may be useful as anti-scratch and anti-corrosive coatings.

  9. Thermal conductivity of carbon doped GeTe thin films in amorphous and crystalline state measured by modulated photo thermal radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusiak, Andrzej; Battaglia, Jean-Luc; Noé, Pierre; Sousa, Véronique; Fillot, F.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal conductivity and thermal boundary resistance of GeTe and carbon doped GeTe thin films, designed for phase change memory (PCM) applications, were investigated by modulated photo thermal radiometry. It was found that C doping has no significant effect on the thermal conductivity of these chalcogenides in amorphous state. The thermal boundary resistance between the amorphous films and SiO2 substrate is also not affected by C doping. The films were then crystallized by an annealing at 450°C as confirmed by optical reflectivity analysis. The thermal conductivity of non-doped GeTe significantly increases after crystallization annealing. But, surprisingly the thermal conductivity of the crystallized C doped GeTe was found to be similar from that of the amorphous state and independent of C concentration. As for the amorphous phase, C doping does not affect the thermal boundary resistance between the crystalline GeTe films and SiO2 substrate. This behaviour is discussed thanks to XRD and FTIR analysis. In particular, XRD shows a decrease of crystalline grain size in crystalline films as C concentration is increased. FTIR analysis of the film before and after crystallization evidenced that this evolution could be attributed to the disappearing of Ge-C bonds and migration of C atoms out of the GeTe phase upon crystallization, limiting then the growth of GeTe crystallites in C-doped films.

  10. 三氧化钨薄膜的红外发射率调制技术%Infrared emissivity modulation technology of WO3 thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路远; 冯万鼎; 乔亚

    2011-01-01

    The infrared emissivity modulation method by controlling the carriers in material was studied. Based on the theory of electromagnetic wave, the relationship between emissivity and refractive index was discussed. The object with higher refractive index had lower emissivity. The refractive index of a material had relationship with the carrier concentration in it. The emissivity of material could be modulated by controlling the carrier concentration. Magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare WO3 thin film on ITO glass. The H+ ions and electrons were injected into or extracted out of the film by electrochemical method. The carrier concentration in the film was changed. It had a higher spectral reflectivity with the film of bleached, and a lower spectral reflectivity when the film is colored. The results show that the infrared emissivity can be modulated by controlling the carrier concentration.%研究了利用载流子对材料表面的红外发射率进行调制的方法.根据电磁波理论,讨论了物体表面的发射率与折射率的关系,折射率大的物体发射率低.物质的折射率与其中的载流子浓度有关,通过控制载流子的浓度可以对材料的发射率进行调制.以磁控溅射方法在ITO玻璃上制备了氧化钨薄膜.利用电化学方法对三氧化钨薄膜进行了H+离子和电子的注入和抽取,此薄膜中载流子的浓度发生了变化.在着色态,三氧化钨薄膜具有较高的光谱反射率;在褪色态,三氧化钨薄膜具有较低的光谱反射率.结果表明,通过控制材料中载流子的浓度可以对材料的红外发射率进行调制.

  11. Self-modulated nanostructures in super-large-period Bi{sub 11}(Fe{sub 5}CoTi{sub 3}){sub 10/9}O{sub 33} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Dechao; Huang, Haoliang; Yun, Yu; Huang, Yan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhai, Xiaofang, E-mail: xfzhai@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei Physical Sciences and Technology Center, CAS Hefei Institutes of Physical Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Ma, Chao [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mao, Xiangyu; Chen, Xiaobing [College of Physics Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Brown, Gail [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); and others

    2015-05-25

    Super-large-period Aurivillius thin films with a pseudo-period of ten were grown on (0 0 1) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates using the pulsed laser deposition method. The as-grown films are found to be coherently strained to the substrate and atomically smooth. X-ray diffraction indicates an average periodicity of ten, while analysis with the high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals a self-modulated nanostructure in which the periodicity changes as the film thickness increases. Finally, we discuss the magnetic and possible ferroelectric properties of the self-modulated large period Aurivillius films at the room temperature.

  12. Investigation and optimization of series connection of thin-film silicon solar modules; Untersuchung und Optimierung der Serienverschaltung von Silizium-Duennschicht-Solarmodulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    The integrated series connection is an important and elementary part of a thin-film silicon solar module. The series connection leads to a reduction of Ohmic losses and an increase of the module voltage. After their deposition the different functional layers of a solar module must be patterned selectively to form a series connection. First the front contact, then the absorber, and finally the back contact is locally removed. The first step and the last step are needed to separate the contact layers (isolation step), the absorber patterning is used to expose the front contact and prepare the series interconnection. Usually laser ablation is used for patterning. The patterning of the front contact is overall a noncritical step. Therefore, this thesis exclusively investigates mechanisms that limit the process window of the absorber patterning and the back contact patterning. Especially for the absorber patterning on SnO{sub 2}-substrates the process window is very narrow. As too high pulse energies create a barrier layer on the SnO{sub 2}-window layer, which restricts the current flow in a series connected module. This barrier layer probably consists of SiO{sub 2} or an alloy of (Sn,Si)O{sub 2}. It arrises from redeposition of evaporated silicon. Ablation of the absorber without creating a barrier layer is only possible, when the silicon is not evaporated. Here the ablation is induced by the explosive out-diffusion of hydrogen from the silicon layer. On ZnO-substrates no significant barrier formation occurs. For this reason the process window is very broad. Patterning the back contact is the last isolation step. It is mainly restricted by an unavoidable deterioration of the absorber as well as a possible ablation of the window layer. The deterioration of the absorber in the vicinity of the patterning groove leads to parasitic dark currents for amorphous and for microcrystalline solar cells. The parasitic dark currents decrease the efficiency {eta} of a patterned

  13. Effect of various nitrogen flow ratios on the optical properties of (Hf:N-DLC films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Qi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hf and N co-doped diamond-like carbon [(Hf:N-DLC] films were deposited on 316L stainless steel and glass substrates through reactive magnetron sputtering of hafnium and carbon targets at various nitrogen flow ratios (R=N2/[N2+CH4+Ar]. The effects of chemical composition and crystal structure on the optical properties of the (Hf:N-DLC films were studied. The obtained films consist of uniform HfN nanocrystallines embedded into the DLC matrix. The size of the graphite clusters with sp2 bonds (La and the ID/IG ratio increase to 2.47 nm and 3.37, respectively, with increasing R. The optical band gap of the films decreases from 2.01 eV to 1.84 eV with increasing R. This finding is consistent with the trends of structural transformations and could be related to the increase in the density of π-bonds due to nitrogen incorporation. This paper reports the influence of nitrogen flow ratio on the correlation among the chemical composition, crystal structure, and optical properties of (Hf:N-DLC films.

  14. 肝癌缺失基因在胃癌中的表达及启动子甲基化%Expression of tumor suppressor gene DLC-1 in human gastric cancer tissues and methylation of promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 杨维良; 张新晨; 张东伟

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨肝癌缺失基因(DLC-1)与胃癌及其临床分期、分化程度等关系,DLC-1mRNA表达与启动子甲基化的关系.方法用半定量逆转录-聚合酶链反应方法检测34例原发性 胃癌及癌旁正常组织中DLC-1 mRNA表达;用甲基化特异聚合酶链反应法(MSP)检测启动子甲基化.结果正常组织中DLC-1 mRNA均正常表达,胃癌组织DLC-1 mRNA低表达或表达缺失;正常组织0.62±0.11,胃癌组织0.24±0.17,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).DLC-1 mRNA表达与淋巴结转移和肿瘤分化程度有关,与性别、肿瘤大小和临床分期无关.正常组织中未发现DLC-1基因启动子甲基化;胃癌组织中DLC-1启动子甲基化阳性12例,甲基化率35.3%.启动子甲基化与无甲基化患者间DLC-1 mRNA表达差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论DLC-1与胃癌存在明显相关性,是重要的抑癌基因.启动子甲基化与DLC-1 mRNA表达抑制密切相关,可能是影响DLC-1在胃癌中低表达的最主要因素,DLC-1是胃癌甲基化谱中主要成员.

  15. Photovoltaic manufacturing cost and throughput improvements for thin-film CIGS-based modules: Phase 1 technical report, July 1998--July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.G.

    2000-03-01

    The primary objectives of the Global Solar Energy (GSE) Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are directed toward reducing cost and expanding the production rate of thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS)-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. In Phase 1, GSE has successfully attacked many of the highest risk aspects of each task. All-laser, selective scribing processes for CIGS have been developed, and many end-of-contract goals for scribing speed have been exceeded in the first year. High-speed ink-jet deposition of insulating material in the scribes now appears to be a viable technique, again exceeding some end-of-contract goals in the first year. Absorber deposition of CIGS was reduced corresponding to throughput speeds of up to 24-in/min, also exceeding an end-of-contract goal. Alternate back-contact materials have been identified that show potential as candidates for replacement of higher-cost molybdenum, and a novel, real-time monitoring technique (parallel-detector spectroscopic ellipsometry) has shown remarkable sensitivity to relevant properties of the CIGS absorber layer for use as a diagnostic tool. Currently, one of the bilayers has been baselined by GSE for flexible CIGS on polymeric substrates. Resultant back-contacts meet sheet-resistance goals and exhibit much less intrinsic stress than Mo. CIGS has been deposited, and resultant devices are comparable in performance to pure Mo back-contacts. Debris in the chamber has been substantially reduced, allowing longer roll-length between system cleaning.

  16. Adhesion improvement of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films by pre-deposition plasma treatment of rubber substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, X. L.; Pei, Y.T.; Mulder, E.D.G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2009-01-01

    For reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals, thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) via magnetron-enhanced plasma chemical vapor deposition (ME-PCVD). Pre-deposition plasma treatment of HNBR substrate is proved to be crucial for the improvement of film performance due to enhanced interfacial adhesion. The columnar structure and the crack network formed during deposition e...

  17. Studies of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on stainless steel substrate with Si/SiC intermediate layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Liu Gui-Chang; Wang Li-Da; Deng Xin-Lü; Xu Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on stainless steel substrates with Si/SiC intermediate layers by combining plasma enhanced sputtering physical vapour deposition (PEUMS-PVD) and microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MW-ECRPECVD) techniques. The influence of substrate negative self-bias voltage and Si target power on the structure and nano-mechanical behaviour of the DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, nano-indentation, and the film structural morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM). With the increase of deposition bias voltage, the G band shifted to higher wave-number and the integrated intensity ratio ID/IG increased. We considered these as evidences for the development of graphitization in the films. As the substrate negative self-bias voltage increased, particle bombardment function was enhanced and thesp3-bond carbon density reducing, resulted in the peak values of hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E). Silicon addition promoted the formation of sp3 bonding and reduced the hardness. The incorporated Si atoms substituted sp2- bond carbon atoms in ring structures, which promoted the formation of sp3-bond. The structural transition from C-C to C-Si bonds resulted in relaxation of the residual stress which led to the decrease of internal stress and hardness. The results of AFM indicated that the films was dense and homogeneous, the roughness of the films was decreased due to the increase of substrate negative self-bias voltage and the Si target power.

  18. Technology support for high-throughput processing of thin-film CdTe PV modules: Annual technical report, Phase 1, 1 April 1998--31 March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Powell, R.C.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Hanak, J.J.; Bohland, J.; Smigielski, K.; Dorer, G.L.

    1999-10-25

    This report describes work performed by First Solar, L.L.C., during Phase 1 of this 3-year subcontract. The research effort of this subcontract is divided into four areas: (1) process and equipment development, (2) efficiency improvement, (3) characterization and analysis, and (4) environmental, health, and safety. As part of the process development effort, the output of the pilot-production facility was increased. More than 6,200 8-ft{sup 2} CdS/CdTe plates were produced during Phase 1--more than double the total number produced prior to Phase 1. This increase in pilot-production rate was accomplished without a loss in the PV conversion efficiency: the average total-area AM1.5 efficiency of sub-modules produced during the reporting period was 6.4%. Several measurement techniques, such as large-area measurement of CdS thickness, were developed to aid process improvement, and the vapor-transport deposition method was refined. CdTe thickness uniformity and reproducibility were improved. From a population of more than 1,100 plates, the mean standard deviation within a plate was 7.3% and the standard deviation of individual-plate averages was 6.8%. As part of the efficiency-improvement task, research was done on devices with thin-CdS and buffer layers. A cell with 13.9% efficiency was produced on a high-quality substrate, and higher than 12% efficiency was achieved with a cell with no CdS layer. A number of experiments were performed as part of the characterization and analysis task. The temperature dependence of CdTe modules was investigated; the power output was found to be relatively insensitive (<5%) to temperature in the 25 to 50 C range. As part of the characterization and analysis task, considerable effort was also given to reliability verification and improvement. The most carefully monitored array, located at the NREL, was found to have unchanged power output within the margin of error of measurement (5%) after 5 years in the field. The first round of National

  19. Hybrid nanostructured thin-films by PLD for enhanced field emission performance for radiation micro-nano dosimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, E., E-mail: maniphysics@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA AFNET in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS–National Research Foundation (NRF), 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); Materials Science Group (MSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMCH), Bharath University, Chrompet, Chennai 600044 (India); Kennedy, J. [UNESCO-UNISA AFNET in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS–National Research Foundation (NRF), 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Kavitha, G. [UNESCO-UNISA AFNET in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS–National Research Foundation (NRF), 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); PG& Research Dept of Physics, AM Jain College Affiliated to University of Madras, Chennai 600114 (India); and others

    2015-10-25

    We report the observation of hybrid nanostructured thin-films such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) signature on the ZnO epitaxial thin-films grown onto the device silicon/quartz substrate by reactive pulsed laser deposition (r-PLD) under the argon–oxygen (Ar|O{sub 2}) ambient at 573 K. Undoped and Carbon (C) doped epitaxial ZnO thin-film layer formation is revealed by the accelerator based ion-beam analysis (IBA) technique of resonant Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RRBS), glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) pattern, micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and field-emission (F-E) studies. The RRBS and GIXRD results show the deposition of epitaxial thin-films containing C into ZnO. The μ-RS technique is a standard nondestructive tool (NDT) for the characterization of crystalline, nano-crystalline, and amorphous carbons (a-C). As grown ZnO and C-doped ZnO thin-films μ-RS result reveal the doping effect of C-impurities that appear in the form of DLC evident from Raman peaks at 1357 and 1575 cm{sup −1} along with a wurtzite structure peak at 438 cm{sup −1} with E{sub 2}(h) phonon of ZnO. The electron transport F-E result shows the hybrid thin-films has high conductivity than the un-doped film. Fabricated hybrid nanostructured thin-films materials could be very useful for the emerging applications of micro-nano dosimetry. - Highlights: • Observation of hybrid nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC) on ZnO epitaxial thin-films at 573 K. • Carbon doped epitaxial ZnO thin-film layer formation is revealed by RRBS, Micro-Raman. • Field-emission (F-E) study. • DLC formation evident from Raman peaks at 1357 and 1575 cm{sup −1} along with a wurtzite structure peak of ZnO. • The electron transport F-E result shows the hybrid thin-film has high conductivity than the undoped thin-film.

  20. Gigahertz optical modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesz, R P; Biazzo, M R

    1969-07-01

    Light pulses from a mode-locked He-Ne laser have been modulated by a LiTaO(3) electrooptic crystal mounted on a thin film substrate. The crystal was driven by pulses from a GaAs Gunn effect diode. Amplitude modulation of 20% has been achieved at 2 GHz for a single pass through the modulator.

  1. 新型铁矿石反浮选捕收剂DLC-2浮选性能及机理%Flotation Performance and Mechanism of a New Collector DLC-2 for Reverse Flotation of Iron Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文天; 孙承林; 杨旭; 孙春水; 于杨

    2012-01-01

    A mixture collector with sodium oleate as the main ingredients was prepared,and its flotation performance and mechanism in processing iron ore was studied and compared with commercial collector by use of contact angle and infrared spectra.An open-circuit flotation was made and the results showed that the iron content of concentrate obtained by using the prepared collector(DLC-2) was 58.34%,which was 1.64% more than one obtained by using commercial collector under the similar recovery of iron concentrate.The measuring data of contact angle showed that the contact angle of the silicon dioxide particles which were modified with calcium oxide,amylum and sodium oleate could increase from 65.5° to 74.3°,its hydrophobic property was enhanced,and it was easier to be free from ferric oxide particles.The FTIR results of single mineral showed that flotation reagents are physically absorbed on the surface of ferric oxide,while chemically adsorbed on the surface of silicon oxide.%复配了一种以油酸(钠)为主要成分的混合捕收剂,并从接触角及红外光谱角度对其浮选铁矿石的机理进行了比较研究。开路浮选实验结果表明,与现场药剂相比,在精矿回收率相近的情况下,自配药剂(DLC-2)可获得铁含量为58.34%的精矿,高于现场药剂1.64个百分点。接触角测量结果显示,二氧化硅经氧化钙、淀粉和油酸钠接触改性后,接触角由65.5°增大到74.3°,疏水性能增强,易于与氧化铁分离;单矿物的FTIR测试结果表明,浮选药剂在氧化铁表面以物理吸附为主,在二氧化硅表面发生了化学吸附。

  2. Influence of ion irradiation on internal residual stress in DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaseov, Platon A., E-mail: platon.karaseov@rphf.spbstu.r [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Podsvirov, Oleg A.; Karabeshkin, Konstantin V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, Andrei Ya. [Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute RAS, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 195252 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Azarov, Alexander Yu. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Karasev, Nikita N. [State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Sablinskaya Str. 14, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Titov, Andrei I.; Smirnov, Alexander S. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya St. 29, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-01

    The dependence of internal residual stress in thin diamond-like carbon films grown on Si substrate by PECVD technique on most important growth parameters, namely RF-power, DC bias voltage and substrate temperature, is described. Results show that compressive stress reaches the highest value of 2.7 GPa at low RF-power and DC bias. Increase of substrate temperature from 250 to 350 {sup o}C leads to nonlinear increase of stress value. Inhomogeneity of residual stress along the film surface disappears when film is deposited at temperatures above 275 {sup o}C. Post-growth film irradiation by P{sup +} and In{sup +} ions cause decrease of compressive stress followed by its inversion to tensile. For all ion energy combinations used residual stress changes linearly with normalized fluence up to 0.2 DPA with slope (8.7 {+-} 1.3) GPa/DPA.

  3. Development of process technology for large-area thin-film solar modules based on compound semiconductors. Final report; Entwicklung der technologischen Grundlagen fuer grosse Photovoltaikmodule auf Basis von Duennschicht-Verbindungshalbleitern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, H.; Lechner, P.; Geyer, R.; Ruebel, H.; Schade, H.; Psyk, W.; Frammelsberger, W.; Berthold, W.; Eichner, C.; Heckel, E.; Huber, R.; Labudde-Eibl, H.; Raith, S.; Schenk, B.; Ullrich, H.

    1998-06-01

    A cooperative effort of the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) and Phototronics Solartechnik GmbH (PST) aimed at the transfer of highly efficient solar cells developed on a laboratory scale, to large-area thin-film solar modules suitable for production. This work was based on research and development at the Institute for Physical Electronics (IPE) of Stuttgart University and ZSW on one hand, and on the know-how of PST in regard to large-area module fabrication on the other hand. The various thin-film layers of the cells and modules comprize molybdenum as rear contact, copper-indium(gallium)-diselenide (CIGS) as absorber material, the combination of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and ZnO as window layer. To produce these layers on large areas (30x30 cm{sup 2}), equipment was constructed and procedures were developed. Monolithic series connection of cells, used in other thin-film technologies, was studied and optimized by suitable patterning procedures, such as laser-scribing, mechanical scribing or lift-off techniques. Central to the PST efforts was the large-area deposition of Mo followed by patterning for the monolithic series connection, and furthermore important contributions in regard to the ZnO window layer as well as aspects of the module technology. The latter include film removal along the module edges, contacting and cable attachment, lamination, module measurements and temperature/humidity tests. The main goal, namely the basic development of equipment and procedures to fabricate large-area (30x30 cm{sup 2}) modules with an efficiency of 10-12%, was reached (best module with 11.7% efficiency referenced to the aperature area). (orig.) [Deutsch] Um die im Labormassstab entwickelten hocheffizienten Solarzellen in industriell relevante grossflaechige Duennschichtmodule umzusetzen, arbeiteten das Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Baden-Wuerttemberg und die Phototronics Solartechnik GmbH (PST) zusammen. Ausgangsbasis waren

  4. 肝癌缺失-1基因表达与结肠癌分期相关性研究%The correlation between expression of DLC-1 and colon cancer staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建纲; 邵泉; 王英斌; 万远廉

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨肝癌缺失-1(DLC-1)基因mRNA表达与结肠癌分期及淋巴结转移的相关性.方法 收集2009年9月至2011年9月手术切除结肠癌标本共60例,以外伤、结肠憩室、结肠炎手术治疗留取的正常组织10例为对照.采用反转录PCR定量检测结肠癌组织、癌旁组织、正常组织DLC-1基因mRNA的表达.依据TNM分期进行分期,采用直线相关分析DLC-1基因表达与结肠癌分期及淋巴结转移的相关性.结果 结肠癌组织DLC-1基因mRNA的表达水平(0.085±0.004)明显低于癌旁组织(0.562±0.063),癌旁组织低于正常组织(1.000±0.003).DLC-1基因mRNA表达水平与结肠癌分期呈负相关(r=0.51,P< 0.01),DLC-1基因mRNA表达水平与淋巴结转移呈负相关(r=0.46,P< 0.05).结论 DLC-1基因mRNA表达与病理学分期、淋巴结转移率呈负相关,DLC-1基因在结肠癌发生、发展中扮演重要角色,可能是研究结肠癌新的突破口.%Objective To investigate the relationship between the expression level of deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC-1) gene and colon cancer staging or lymph nodes metastatic ratio.Methods Total 60 resection specimens were collected from colon cancer patients between September 2009 and September 2011,and 10 resection specimens from patients with trauma,colonic diverticulitis and colitis were used as the control.The DLC-1 mRNA level was measured with real time quantitative RT-PCR in colon cancer patients and the control group.TNM system was used for colon cancer staging.The linear correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between DLC-1 expression level and colon cancer staging or lymph nodes metastatic ratio.Results The mRNA level of DLC-1 was significantly reduced in colon cancer tissues in comparison to that in adjacent normal tissues,while adjacent tissues showed significantly lower DLC-1 level than normal clone tissues.The expression of DLC-1 was negatively correlated with both colon cancer stage and the lymph

  5. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system with these low-voltage panels was installed and its performance ratio has been simulated and projected to be 92.1%, which is 20% more than the crystalline silicon and CdTe counterparts.

  6. Effect of additional sample bias in Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) on microstructural, surface and mechanical properties of Si-DLC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhong; Tian, Xiubo; Li, Muqin; Gong, Chunzhi; Wei, Ronghua

    2016-07-01

    Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) using cage-like hollow cathode discharge is a modified process of conventional PIID, but it allows the deposition of thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films (up to 50 μm) at a high deposition rate (up to 6.5 μm/h). To further improve the DLC film properties, a new approach to the MPIID process is proposed, in which the energy of ions incident to the sample surface can be independently controlled by an additional voltage applied between the samples and the metal meshed cage. In this study, the meshed cage was biased with a pulsed DC power supply at -1350 V peak voltage for the plasma generation, while the samples inside the cage were biased with a DC voltage from 0 V to -500 V with respect to the cage to study its effect. Si-DLC films were synthesized with a mixture of Ar, C2H2 and tetramethylsilane (TMS). After the depositions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to study the morphology, surface roughness, chemical bonding and structure, and the surface hardness as well as the modulus of elasticity of the Si-DLC films. It was observed that the intense ion bombardment significantly densified the films, reduced the surface roughness, reduced the H and Si contents, and increased the nanohardness (H) and modulus of elasticity (E), whereas the deposition rate decreased slightly. Using the H and E data, high values of H3/E2 and H/E were obtained on the biased films, indicating the potential excellent mechanical and tribological properties of the films. In this paper, the effects of the sample bias voltage on the film properties are discussed in detail and the optimal bias voltage is presented.

  7. Caracterización de recubrimientos DLC/Si bajo la influencia de un fluido biológico simulado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Vargas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los materiales más usados como biomaterial es el acero 316LVM; sin embargo, presenta complicaciones al trabajarlo como reemplazo permanente, debido a que libera iones metálicos a los tejidos, generando aumento en el número de intervenciones que deben realizarse; ante esto, se estudia cómo mejorar el comportamiento de materiales convencionales mediante recubrimientos que elevan sus propiedades mecánicas y anticorrosivas, incrementando su vida útil. Se evaluó el comportamiento ante el fenómeno de micro-abrasión-corrosión de recubrimientos DLC/Si depositados mediante la técnica de deposición química de vapor asistida por plasma en contacto con solución de Ringer, simulando un ambiente biológico. Los resultados indican que el recubrimiento experimenta un aumento en el volumen de desgaste cuando se encuentra sometido al mecanismo de micro-abrasión-corrosión en relación con la prueba de solo microabrasión, además, la pérdida más significativa se encuentra en el sustrato sin recubrimiento; esto demuestra el efecto protector del recubrimiento.

  8. Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Zr-Doped DLC on Ti-13Zr-13Nb Biomedical Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prateek; Babu, P. Dilli; Mohan, L.; Anandan, C.; Grips, V. K. William

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr)-doped DLC was deposited on biomedical titanium alloy Ti-13Nb-13Zr by a combination of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering. The concentration of Zr in the films was varied by changing the parameters of the bi-polar pulsed power supply and the Ar/CH4 gas composition. The coatings were characterized for composition, morphology, nanohardness, corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid (SBF) and tribological properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies on the samples were used to estimate the concentration of Zr in the films. XPS and micro-Raman studies were used to find the variation of I D/ I G ratio with Zr concentration. These studies show that the disorder in the film increased with increasing Zr concentration as deduced from the I D/ I G ratio. Nanohardness measurements showed no clear dependence of hardness and Young's modulus on Zr concentration. Reciprocating wear studies showed a low coefficient of friction (0.04) at 1 N load and it increased toward 0.4 at higher loads. The wear volume was lower at all loads on the coated samples. The wear mechanism changed from abrasive wear on the substrate to adhesive wear after coating. The corrosion current in SBF was unaffected by the coating and corrosion potential moved toward nobler (more positive) values.

  9. Environmental impact of thin-film GaInP/GaAs and multicrystalline silicon solar modules produced with solar electricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohr, N.; Meijer, A.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope: The environmental burden of photovoltaic (PV) solar modules is currently largely determined by the cumulative input of fossil energy used for module production. However, with an increased focus on limiting the emission of CO2 coming from fossil fuels, it is expected that

  10. Fabrication of stable large-area thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 10 May 1992--9 May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, J.F.; Meyers, P.V. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report highlights the progress made by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), in its program to produce 60-cm {times} 120-cm solar modules based on CdTe films. During the past year, confirmed efficiency has increased to 10.4% (active area) on a 1 cm{sup 2} cell, 9.8% (aperture area) on a 64-cm{sup 2} 8-cell submodule, and 6.6% (total area) on a 7200-cm{sup 2} module. A module measured in-house had a power output of 53 W, for a total-area efficiency of 7.4%. Average efficiency of modules produced is steadily increasing and standard deviation is decreasing; in a limited run of 12 modules, results were 6.3% ({plus_minus} 0.2%). Field testing has begun; a nominal 1-kW array of 24 modules was set up adjacent to SCI`s facilities. Analysis indicates that present modules are limited in efficiency by shunt resistance and optical absorption losses in the glass superstrate. Loss analysis of present devices allows us to project a module efficiency of 11.8%. A third generation deposition method -- atmospheric pressure elemental vapor deposition (APEVD) has been brought on-line and has produced good quality CdTe. In addition, SCI is expanding its proactive safety, health, environmental, and disposal program dealing with issues surrounding cadmium.

  11. Environmental impact of thin-film GaInP/GaAs and multicrystalline silicon solar modules produced with solar electricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohr, N.; Meijer, A.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope: The environmental burden of photovoltaic (PV) solar modules is currently largely determined by the cumulative input of fossil energy used for module production. However, with an increased focus on limiting the emission of CO2 coming from fossil fuels, it is expected that

  12. Free standing diamond-like carbon thin films by PLD for laser based electrons/protons acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thema, F.T.; Beukes, P.; Ngom, B.D. [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Manikandan, E., E-mail: mani@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Central Research Laboratory, Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMCH), Chrompet, Bharath University, Chennai, 600044 (India); Maaza, M., E-mail: maaza@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-11-05

    This study we reports for the first time on the synthesis and optical characteristics of free standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto graphene buffer layers for ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. The fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations indicate that the suitability of such free standing DLC thin-films within the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range and hence their appropriateness for the targeted applications. - Highlights: • We report for the first time synthesis of free standing diamond-like carbon. • Pulsed laser deposition onto graphene buffer layers. • Fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations. • Ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. • This material's suitable for the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range.

  13. Effect of additional sample bias in Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) on microstructural, surface and mechanical properties of Si-DLC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Mingzhong [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Tian, Xiubo, E-mail: xiubotian@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Muqin [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Gong, Chunzhi [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding & Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Ronghua [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition is proposed. • The deposited Si-DLC films possess denser structures and high deposition rate. • It is attributed to ion bombardment of the deposited films. • The ion energy can be independently controlled by an additional bias (novel set up). - Abstract: Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) using cage-like hollow cathode discharge is a modified process of conventional PIID, but it allows the deposition of thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films (up to 50 μm) at a high deposition rate (up to 6.5 μm/h). To further improve the DLC film properties, a new approach to the MPIID process is proposed, in which the energy of ions incident to the sample surface can be independently controlled by an additional voltage applied between the samples and the metal meshed cage. In this study, the meshed cage was biased with a pulsed DC power supply at −1350 V peak voltage for the plasma generation, while the samples inside the cage were biased with a DC voltage from 0 V to −500 V with respect to the cage to study its effect. Si-DLC films were synthesized with a mixture of Ar, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and tetramethylsilane (TMS). After the depositions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to study the morphology, surface roughness, chemical bonding and structure, and the surface hardness as well as the modulus of elasticity of the Si-DLC films. It was observed that the intense ion bombardment significantly densified the films, reduced the surface roughness, reduced the H and Si contents, and increased the nanohardness (H) and modulus of elasticity (E), whereas the deposition rate decreased slightly. Using the H and E data, high values of H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} and H/E were obtained on the biased films, indicating the potential excellent mechanical and tribological properties of the films. In this

  14. Large-scale modulation in the superconducting properties of thin films due to domains in the SrTi O3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissberg, Shai; Kalisky, Beena

    2017-04-01

    Scanning superconducting quantum interference device measurements reveal large-scale modulations of the superfluid density and the critical temperature in superconducting Nb, NbN, and underdoped YB a2C u3O7 -δ films deposited on SrTi O3 (STO). We show that these modulations are a result of the STO domains and domain walls, forming below the 105 K structural phase transition of STO. We found that the flow of normal current, measured above the superconducting transition, is also modulated over the same domain structure, suggesting a modified carrier density. In clean STO, domain walls remain mobile down to low temperatures. Modulated superconductivity over mobile channels offers the opportunity to locally control superconducting properties and better understand the relations between superconductivity and the local structure.

  15. Further improving the mechanical and tribological properties of low content Ti-doped DLC film by W incorporating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Li; Gao, Kaixiong; Zhang, Lifang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Petroleum Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou university of technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Zhang, Bin, E-mail: bzhang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Junyan, E-mail: zhangjunyan@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • W and Ti atoms were introduced successfully into the film together by co-sputtering W/Ti twin-target. • Introduction of W atom significantly enhanced the hardness and retained the low internal stress. • The friction and wear resistance could be further improved significantly by W incorporating. - Abstract: W/Ti-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were fabricated on Si substrates by co-sputtering W and Ti targets in methane and argon mixture atmosphere. The composition and the microstructure, internal stress, mechanical and tribological properties of the films were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectra, BGS 6341 type film stress tester, nano-indentor and reciprocating ball-on-disc tester, respectively. The results indicated all films showed the amorphous structural characteristics and a constant thickness value of ∼600 nm (195 ± 15 nm Ti interlayer was designed in order to minimize the influence of Ti interlayer), and the Ti content increased from 0 to 34.5% as the W target current increased from 0 A to 14 A. As the W concentration increased from 0 to 2.6 at.%, the hardness increased to 12.7 GPa and the internal stress maintained at a low value and almost no change. Meanwhile, the friction coefficient and wear rate showed the lowest value (0.023 and 1.2 × 10{sup −8} mm{sup 3}/N m, respectively). With the W content increased to 34.5 at.% further, the internal stress, friction coefficient and wear rate of film are dramatically increased.

  16. Large area plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon for micromorph thin-film solar modules; Grossflaechige Plasmaabscheidung von mikrokristallinem Silizium fuer mikromorphe Duennschichtsolarmodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilper, Thilo

    2009-07-01

    This thesis addresses aspects of {mu}c-Si:H absorber layer fabrication that possess a high technological relevance for the industrial serial production of micromorph thin-film solar modules. The performed investigations focused on a) the {mu}c-Si:H absorber layer deposition rate, b) low total gas flow processes that exhibit a high silane utilization and a distinctly reduced hydrogen consumption, and c) the influence of oxygen and nitrogen impurities on the performance of {mu}c-Si:H solar cells. For the fabrication of {mu}c-Si:H absorber layers in a 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} PECVD reactor equipped with rf planar electrodes, it was found that an increase of the plasma excitation frequency from 13.56 to 40.68 MHz enables significant higher deposition rates without losses in cell performance and film homogeneity. 40.68 MHz {mu}c-Si:H solar cells prepared at RD = 1 nm/s yielded conversion efficiencies up to 9.2 % and had a similar good performance as 13.56 MHz {mu}c-Si:H solar cells deposited at RD = 0.5 nm/s. At deposition rates of 2.5 nm/s 40,68 MHz {mu}c-Si:H solar cells exhibited cell efficiencies of nearly 8 %. Moreover, it was demonstrated that 40.68 MHz {mu}c-Si:H absorber layers on 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} substrates have a similar good homogeneity as 13.56 MHz {mu}c-Si:H absorber layers concerning the film thickness and the material properties. By implementing a process control it was possible to suppress the strong initial process drift of a 13.56 MHz 0.5 nm/s {mu}c-Si:H low total gas flow process in the 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} PECVD reactor. Due to the successful stabilization of the {mu}c-Si:H growth conditions during the complete absorber layer deposition procedure, an efficiency enhancement of +1 % absolute was gained and the best {mu}c-Si:H solar cells prepared with the controlled low total gas flow process yielded efficiencies of 8.8 %. However, compared to standard gas flow processes it was found that this controlled low total gas flow process exhibits a worse homogeneity

  17. 前列腺癌组织中DLC-1启动子甲基化定量检测的HRM方法建立及其应用意义%Establishment of HRM method for quantitative determination for methylation level of DLC-1 promoter in prostate cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭林; 张心菊; 关明; 刘瑞来; 顾小叶; 马玮哲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish quantitative method for detection of methylation level of DLC-1 promoter with HRM technology to analyze its association with pathological parameters in prostate cancer.Methods 89 prostate cancer tissue samples and 10 matched normal tissue samples were enrolled into this study.Prostate cancer cells were obtained by LCM.DNA was extracted and modified for methylation determination.CpGenome Universal Methylated DNA was chosen as 100% methylation sample.Then the calibrators representative of 100%,80%,50%,30%,10% and 0% methylation levels were prepared with dilution in a DNA sample of peripheral blood from healthy subjects(100% non-methylation).The DLC-1 methylation levels in prostate cancer tissue samples were detected with HRM.The associations of methylated level with age of patients,PSA value,TNM stage were investigated respectively.ResultsThe melting curves representing 100%,80%,50%,30%,10% and 0% methylation levels were aligned from right to left.The methylation levels of 10 adjacent normal samples and 35 prostate cancer samples were overlapped with 0% methylated calibrator.The methylation levels of 5 cancer samples ranged between 0% and 30%.The methylation levels of 29 cancer samples ranged between 31% and 80%.The methylation levels of 20 cancer samples ranged between 81% and 100%.HRM could be used to reliably detect the as low as 10% methylation for each assay,whereas methylation specific PCR(MSP) could be used to detect 30% methylation level.No significant association between methylation level and patients' age(X~2=3.29,P=0.19),PSA level(X~2=2.04,P=0.36) was found.However,DLC-1 methylation was higher in the prostate cancer tissues with advanced TNM stage(X~2=9.04,P=.01).Conclusions The quantitative method for DLC-1 methylation with HRM is successfully established.It is convenient with good reproducibility and high sensitivity.DLC-1 methylation could be used as the molecular marker for estimation of malignancy in prostate cancer.%目的 建立HRM技术定量检测DLC

  18. TiO2-NT electrodes modified with Ag and diamond like carbon (DLC) for hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Evrim; Baz, Zeynep; Esen, Ramazan; Yazici Devrim, Birgül

    2017-10-01

    In present work, the two-step anodization technique was applied for synthesis of TiO2 nanotube (NT). Silver and diamond like carbon (DLC) were coated on the surface of as prepared TiO2-NT using chemical reduction method and MW ECR plasma system. The morphology, composition and structure of the electrodes were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that Ag nanoparticles, having size in the range of 48-115 nm, are evenly distributed on the top, inside and outside surface of TiO2-NT and when DLC was coated on the surface of TiO2-NT and TiO2-NT-Ag, the top of nanotubes were partially open and the pore diameter of hexagonal structure decreased from 165 nm to of 38-80 nm. On the other hand, the microhardness test and contact angle measurements revealed that additions of Ag and diamond like carbon have a positive effect on the mechanical properties of TiO2-NT film. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) were investigated by the electrochemical measurements recorded in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, long-term durability of electrodes towards HER and the energy consumption of alkaline electrolysis were investigated. The energy requirement showed that while the deposition of silver provides approximately 14.95% savings of the energy consumption, the DLC coating causes increase in energy consumption.

  19. Diamond-like Carbon Thin Films Deposited on Ti6Al4V Alloy Surface by Plasma Gun at Atmospheric Pressure%钛合金表面大气压等离子体枪制备类金刚石薄膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 周海; 张跃飞; 吕反修

    2012-01-01

    在大气下,采用大气压介质阻挡放电(DBD)等离子体枪在低温下<350℃),以甲烷为单体,氩气为工作气体,在Ti6Al4V钛合金表面制备一层类金刚石薄膜(DLC),以期改善钛合金表面摩擦学性能.利用激光拉曼(Raman)光谱和X射线光电子能谱(XPS)分析了所制备DLC薄膜的结构;利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察DLC薄膜的表面形貌;利用划痕仪测量了DLC薄膜与基体的结合力;利用球-盘摩擦磨损实验仪对DLC薄膜的耐磨性能进行了研究.结果表明:在本实验工艺条件下沉积的类金刚石薄膜厚度约为1.0 μm,薄膜均匀且致密,表面粗糙度Ra为13.23 nm.类金刚石薄膜与基体结合力的临界载荷达到31.0N.DLC薄膜具有优良的减摩性,Ti6Al4V表面沉积DLC薄膜后摩擦系数为0.15,较Ti6Al4V基体的摩擦系数0.50明显减小,耐磨性能得到提高.%At atmospheric pressure, diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films were deposited on the T16A14V alloy surface by a DBD plasma gun at low temperature (<350℃), with CH4 as a precursor and Ar as dilution gas. The structure of the DLC thin film was analyzed by Laser Raman spectroscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface morphology was observed through scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion between the DLC thin film and the substrate was investigated with the scribe testing. The friction and wear behavior of the DLC thin films under dry sliding against GCrlS steel was evaluated on a ball-on-disc test rig. The results show that it is feasible to prepare a DLC thin film of 1.0 um thickness by a plasma gun. The film is uniform and dense and the surface roughness R. Is about 13.23 nm. The critical load of adhesion force between the DLC thin film and the substrate is 31.0 N. It has been found that the DLC thin film has excellent friction- and wear-resistant behavior. The friction coefficient of the Ti6A14V substrate is about 0.50 under dry sliding against steel, while the DLC thin

  20. Elucidating PID Degradation Mechanisms and In Situ Dark I-V Monitoring for Modeling Degradation Rate in CdTe Thin-Film Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve

    2016-01-01

    A progression of potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms are observed in CdTe modules, including shunting/junction degradation and two different manifestations of series resistance depending on the stress level and water ingress. The dark I-V method for in-situ characterization of Pmax based...

  1. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules, development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells (development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was made with an objective to achieve conversion efficiency of 13% in a 30 cm times 30 cm size submodule of a CIS-based thin film solar cell, and to develop a manufacturing technology that can achieve 140 yen/Wp. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. In fiscal 1997, based on the achievements reached during the previous year, a submodule with a size of 10 cm times 30 cm was fabricated for an attempt of improving the open voltage and short circuit current density. Simultaneously, the applicability thereof to a module with an area as large as 30 cm times 30 cm was evaluated. As a result of experimental discussions, enhancement in the open voltage was verified by increasing amount of Ga or sulfur, but it was not possible to achieve 600 mV or higher. In the research of component technologies to establish a mass production process, research and development was made on a high-resistance buffer layer film forming technology, a high-quality window layer film forming technology, a high-quality metallic rear electrode film forming technology, and patterning technologies. The outdoor exposure test was continued on laminated mini-modules with a size of 10 cm times 10 cm. (NEDO)

  2. Magnetic-field-modulated written bits in TbFeCo thin films: Transmission electron microscopy Lorentz and scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschlimann, M.; Scheinfein, M.; Unguris, J.; Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; Klahn, S.

    1990-11-01

    Domains written thermomagnetically in TbFeCo thin films are studied with Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Four different rare-earth/transition-metal compositions TbxFeyCo1-x-y are examined. The domain structures observed with both techniques are similar even though TEM Lorentz only detects the transverse component of the net magnetic field along the electron's trajectory through the sample, while SEMPA detects the surface electron-spin polarization (magnetization). We find that the magnetic contrast in the SEMPA measurements is proportional to the magnetization of the transition-metal (TM) subnetwork which is antiferromagnetically coupled to the rare-earth (RE) subnetwork. This allows high-contrast SEMPA images to be acquired even when the system is magnetically compensated (Ms=‖MRE-MTM‖=0). The surface magnetization can be explained by assuming that the surface of the TbFeCo alloy consists of an outermost thin oxide layer followed by an Fe-rich subsurface layer. The importance of the demagnetizing field on the switching and domain nucleation process for thermomagnetically written bits is examined.

  3. Magnetic-field-modulated written bits in TbFeCo thin films: Transmission electron microscopy Lorentz and scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeschlimann, M.; Scheinfein, M.; Unguris, J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (USA) Greidanus, F.J.A.M. (Philips Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 80.000, 5600 JA, Eindhoven (The Netherlands)))

    1990-11-01

    Domains written thermomagnetically in TbFeCo thin films are studied with Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Four different rare-earth/transition-metal compositions Tb{sub {ital x}}Fe{sub {ital y}}Co{sub 1{minus}{ital x}{minus}{ital y}} are examined. The domain structures observed with both techniques are similar even though TEM Lorentz only detects the transverse component of the net magnetic field along the electron's trajectory through the sample, while SEMPA detects the surface electron-spin polarization (magnetization). We find that the magnetic contrast in the SEMPA measurements is proportional to the magnetization of the transition-metal (TM) subnetwork which is antiferromagnetically coupled to the rare-earth (RE) subnetwork. This allows high-contrast SEMPA images to be acquired even when the system is magnetically compensated ({ital M}{sub {ital s}}={vert bar}{ital M}{sub RE}{minus}{ital M}{sub TM}{vert bar}=0). The surface magnetization can be explained by assuming that the surface of the TbFeCo alloy consists of an outermost thin oxide layer followed by an Fe-rich subsurface layer. The importance of the demagnetizing field on the switching and domain nucleation process for thermomagnetically written bits is examined.

  4. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2006-07-01

    The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

  5. The abnormal photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3 thin films modulated by bipolar domain orientations and oxygen-vacancy migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zilong; Geng, Wenping; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Shuaiqi; Guo, Huizhen; Jiang, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    SrRuO3/BiFeO3/SrRuO3 thin-film capacitors were fabricated to investigate the role of mobile oxygen vacancies in a switchable photovoltaic (PV) effect that depends on ferroelectric domain orientations. Normally, the flowing direction of the stabilized photocurrent is opposite to ferroelectric polarization orientation. However, an abnormal overshoot of initial positive transient photocurrent parallel to the ferroelectric polarization could be observed under light illumination for a poled BiFeO3 thin film with the polarization pointing to the bottom electrode. Moreover, the photocurrent has a strong response with respect to voltage poling time and relaxation time after poling, which seems to be correlated with time-dependent migration of oxygen vacancies and concurrent charge trapping effect. Our results not only reveal the scenario how oxygen-vacancy migration and charge trapping effect affect the switchable PV effect, besides ferroelectric polarization, but also are helpful for the understanding and designing of new switchable photoelectric devices.

  6. On the modulation of oxygen sensitivity of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films: effects of moisture and dc bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yihao; Koley, Goutam [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Oxygen sensing characteristics of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film at room temperature have been investigated through conductivity measurements using interdigitated metal finger patterned devices. We observed that the O{sub 2} sensitivity gets affected very significantly in presence of moisture, as well as with applied dc bias. The O{sub 2} sensitivity was found to increase several times in moist ambient compared to dry ambient condition. Higher dc bias also dramatically improved the sensitivity, which varied more than two orders of magnitude as the dc bias was increased from 0.5 to 10 V. We propose that the observed increase in sensitivity in presence of moisture is caused by enhanced surface electron density on In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film resulting from the donation of electrons caused by the chemisorbed water molecules. The adsorption of O{sub 2} molecules, which subsequently formed O{sub 2}{sup -} ions, leads to chemical gating of the sensor devices, which under larger dc bias produced a higher fractional change in current leading to higher sensitivity. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Comparison of gold- and graphene-based resonant nano-structures for terahertz metamaterials and an ultra-thin graphene-based modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Nian-Hai; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2014-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique material properties and in electromagnetic wave technology, it raises the prospect of devices miniaturized down to the atomic length scale. Here we study split-ring resonator metamaterials made from graphene and we compare them to gold-based metamaterials. We find that graphene's huge reactive response derived from its large kinetic inductance allows for deeply subwavelength resonances, although its resonance strength is reduced due to higher dissipative loss damping and smaller dipole coupling. Nevertheless, tightly stacked graphene rings may provide for negative permeability and the electric dipole resonance of graphene meta-atoms turns out to be surprisingly strong. Based on these findings, we present a terahertz modulator based on a metamaterial with a multi-layer stack of alternating patterned graphene sheets separated by dielectric spacers. Neighbouring graphene flakes are biased against each other, resulting in modulation depths of over 75% at a transmission level of around 90%...

  8. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  9. The Effect of Bias Voltage and Gas Pressure on the Structure, Adhesion and Wear Behavior of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC Coatings With Si Interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Ward

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study diamond like carbon (DLC coatings with Si interlayers were deposited on 316L stainless steel with varying gas pressure and substrate bias voltage using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technology. Coating and interlayer thickness values were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS which also revealed the presence of a gradient layer at the coating substrate interface. Coatings were evaluated in terms of the hardness, elastic modulus, wear behavior and adhesion. Deposition rate generally increased with increasing bias voltage and increasing gas pressure. At low working gas pressures, hardness and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing bias voltage. Reduced hardness and modulus of elasticity were observed at higher gas pressures. Increased adhesion was generally observed at lower bias voltages and higher gas pressures. All DLC coatings significantly improved the overall wear resistance of the base material. Lower wear rates were observed for coatings deposited with lower bias voltages. For coatings that showed wear tracks considerably deeper than the coating thickness but without spallation, the wear behavior was largely attributed to deformation of both the coating and substrate with some cracks at the wear track edges. This suggests that coatings deposited under certain conditions can exhibit ultra high flexible properties.

  10. 钨含量和摩擦条件对掺钨DLC涂层摩擦性能的影响%Influences of W Content and Friction Condition on the Tribological Properties of W-Doped DLC Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付志强; 王成彪; 岳文; 彭志坚; 于翔; 林松盛; 代明江

    2011-01-01

    考察钨含量和摩擦条件对掺钨DLC涂层摩擦性能的影响.结果发现:随着钨含量的增加,DLC涂层摩擦系数明显增加;钨含量为3.1%(原子分数)的掺钨DLC涂层的耐磨性最好.在干摩擦条件下,低钨含量的DLC涂层摩擦系数随着载荷的增加而有所增加,高钨含量的DLC涂层在高载荷时具有较低的摩擦系数;高钨含量的DLC涂层的摩擦系数随着转速的增加而增加,但转速对纯DLC涂层的摩擦系数影响很小.掺钨DLC涂层的磨损主要是由Si3N4球压入试样表面时涂层在变形过程中的微观断裂和剥落引起的.%The influences of W content and friction condition on the tribological properties of W-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were studied. Results show that the friction coefficients of W-doped DLC coatings is augmented with the W content increasing; the W-doped DLC coatings with a W content of 3.1% exhibit the best film/substrate adhesion and wear resistance. Under the dry friction condition, the friction coefficients of W-doped DLC coatings with a low W content are increased with the rise of load while low friction coefficients of W-doped DLC coatings with a high W content are found at a high load; the friction coefficients are increased with the rotation rate increasing for the DLC coatings with a high W content, but the influence of the rotation rate on the friction coefficients of un-doped DLC coatings is unobvious. The wear of W-doped DLC coatings are produced by the micro-fracture and peeling in the coatings during the indentation of hard Si3N4 ball into the sample surface.

  11. Optimization of laser scribing for thin-film PV modules. Final technical progress report, 12 April 1995--11 October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A.D.; Matulionis, I.; Nakade, S. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This report covers the work done by the University of Toledo under this subcontract. Researchers determined the threshold power densities for the onset of ablation from thin films of CdTe, CuInSe{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}:F, ZnO:Al, gold, and molybdenum for 12 different wavelength laser systems using wide variations of laser pulse durations. Optimum energy density for the most efficient removal of material during scribing strongly depends on the wavelength of the laser and, to a smaller extent, on the pulse duration. The optimum energy densities range from 0.5 J/sq cm for the 532-nm, 8-nsec YAG pulse on CdTe to 0.2 J/sq cm for the excimer laser at 308 nm on CIS. Poor scribing of CdTe was seen with the 1064-nm beam, ZnO was scribed poorly by all lasers except for the excimer laser. Excellent scribe profiles were observed with the 308-nm excimer lasers on all materials including ZnO.

  12. Thin Film Photovoltaics: Markets and Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäger-Waldau, Arnulf

    2012-01-01

    ...% of worldwide production. Between 2005 and 2009, thin film production capacity and volume increased more than the overall industry but did not keep up in 2010 and 2011 due to the rapid price decline for solar modules...

  13. Tribology properties of two kinds DLC film produced by chemical vapor deposition at low temperature%低温化学气相沉积两种DLC膜的摩擦性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文刚; 葛世荣; 张涌海

    2012-01-01

    低温条件下在单晶硅表面沉积DLC膜和Si-DLC膜层,采用UMT-2微摩擦磨损实验机研究了两种膜层的摩擦磨损特性,借助拉曼光谱、X射线衍射仪及立体三维形貌仪分析了两种膜层的表面形貌和组成。使用扫描电子显微镜检测了两种膜层磨损后的表面形貌。结果表明两种膜层表面都非常平滑,属于纳米硬膜;两种膜层都具有良好的减摩托磨作用,其中DLC膜层的减磨性能好于Si-DLC膜,而Si-DLC膜的抗磨性能优于DLC膜。分析认为这是由于具有Si过渡层的DLC膜与硅基体的结合更为牢固造成的,但其同时促使DLC膜的减摩性能降低。%Two kind DLC films were deposited on single crystal silicon surfaces using the PECVD2D plasma chemical vapor deposition system at low temperature. The surface topography and composition of the two kind films were detected with Raman spectrum, X-ray diffractometer and tridimensional stereo pattern apparatus. The friction properties were investigated by an UMT-2 type friction tester. The worn surface topography was detected with scanning electronic microscope. The results show that the surface of the two kind films are very smoothing and they can be subsumption to nano-hard film. The two kind film both have well antifriction and re- sistance to wear performance. The antifriction performance of the DLC film is outgo Si-DLC film and the resist- ance to wear performance of the Si-DLC film is outgo DLC film. The reason is that the bonding force of the Si- DLC film with the silicon substrate is stronger because the exist of the Si transition layer, and the exist of the Si transition layer also induce the antifriction performance of the Si-DLC film reduce.

  14. Technology support for initiation of high-throughput processing of thin-film CdTe PV modules. Phase 3 final technical report, 14 March 1997--1 April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.C.; Dorer, G.L.; Jayamaha, U.; Hanak, J.J. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Thin-film PV devices based on cadmium telluride have been identified as one of the candidates for high-performance, low-cost source of renewable electrical energy. Roadblocks to their becoming a part of the booming PV market growth have been a low rate of production and high manufacturing cost caused by several rate-limiting process steps. Solar Cells Inc. has focused on the development of manufacturing processes that will lead to high volume and low-cost manufacturing of solar cells and on increasing the performance of the present product. The process research in Phase 3 was concentrated on further refinement of a newly developed vapor transport deposition (VTD) process and its implementation into the manufacturing line. This development included subsystems for glass substrate transport, continuous feed of source materials, generation of source vapors, and uniform deposition of the semiconductor layers. As a result of this R and D effort, the VTD process has now achieved a status in which linear coating speeds in excess of 8 ft/min have been achieved for the semiconductor, equal to about two modules per minute, or 144 kW per 24 hour day. The process has been implemented in a production line, which is capable of round-the-clock continuous production of coated substrates 120 cm x 60 cm in size at a rate of 1 module every four minutes, equal to 18 kW/day. Currently the system cycle time is limited by the rate of glass introduction into the system and glass heating, but not by the rate of the semiconductor deposition. A new SCI record efficiency of 14.1% has been achieved for the cells.

  15. Microstructure optimization and optical and interfacial properties modulation of sputtering-derived HfO{sub 2} thin films by TiO{sub 2} incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.W. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); He, G., E-mail: ganghe01@issp.ac.cn [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, 500 Yutian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Zhou, L. [Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, H.S. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, X.S. [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, 500 Yutian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Chen, X.F.; Deng, B. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, J.G. [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230061 (China); Sun, Z.Q. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Sputtering-derived Hf{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} gate dielectrics have been deposited on Si substrates. • Increase in crystallization temperature and reduction in E{sub g} have been observed. • Formation of silicate layer for 9% TiO{sub 2}-doped HfO{sub 2}/Si sample has been detected. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}-doped HfO{sub 2} gate dielectric thin films have been deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates by RF sputtering. The component, morphology, structure, optical and interfacial properties of Hf{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} films related to TiO{sub 2} concentration are systematically investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR). By employing Cauchy–Urbach model, the optical constants, such as refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), absorption coefficient (α), and optical band gap (E{sub g}) have been determined precisely. Measurements from XRD have confirmed that TiO{sub 2} incorporating into HfO{sub 2} films leads to the increase of the crystallization temperature of HfO{sub 2} films with increasing the TiO{sub 2} concentration. SE analyses have indicated that reduction in band gap and refractive index has been observed with increasing the TiO{sub 2} component in Hf{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} films. The increase in Urbach parameter E{sub U} with the increase of TiO{sub 2} concentration also suggests the rise in disorder for Hf{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} films. FTIR measurements for Hf{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2}/Si gate stack indicate the existence of the interfacial layer regardless of the TiO{sub 2} concentration. For the 9% TiO{sub 2}-doped HfO{sub 2} samples, the shift in FTIR characteristic peak suggests the formation of the silicate layer, which leads to the suppressed interfacial layer growth during deposition. As a result, it can be conclude that the TiO{sub 2} component in Hf{sub 1

  16. INTEGRATIION STYDY OF CdTe THIN FILMS PV MODULE%CdTe组件集成结构模拟优化及前、背电极接触电阻测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪灵; 曾广根; 蔡伟; 冯良桓; 张静全; 蔡亚平; 武莉莉; 李卫; 黎兵; 雷智; 郑家贵

    2011-01-01

    设计特定的测试结构,测量CdTe太阳电池组件的相邻单元电池的前电极与背电极的接触电阻,研究接触电阻与激光刻蚀刻痕的关系;使用module design simulator软件模拟分析相关膜层电子学性质、集成结构、单元电池性能对电池组件性能的影响.对CdTe电池组件接触电阻测量结果表明:随Ni层厚度增加,接触电阻减小,镍电极镀层较厚(410nm)时,接触电阻在10-3Ω·cm2数量级;加宽刻痕宽度使接触电阻略有下降;基频刻蚀CdTe层所得刻痕的接触电阻比倍频刻蚀高1~2个数量级.module design simulator软件模拟分析结果表明:CdTe薄膜太阳电池组件性能除与单元电池性能参数(转换效率、填充因子、短路电流、开路电压)相关外,单元电池宽度、TCO层方块电阻(或透过率)、CdTe层方块电阻、集成接触区接触电阻都对电池组件的性能存在影响.%The CdTe thin films PV module had been studied by measuring the contact resistance between the back contact metal and the front TCO film of the adjacent elementary cells. The "MODULE DESIGN SIMULATOR" software had been used to simulate the effects of the film electronic performance, the integration structure, and the contact elementary cell characteristics on module characteristics. The contact resistance decreases with the increasing of the thickness of Ni film. And the contact resistance increases 1 -2 orders of magnitude when the CdTe films were etched by basic frequency laser. The highest efficiency corresponds with the optimized cell width and the width of the notches. The unit cell width, sheet resistance of TCO & CdTe, and TCO/Ni contact resistance have great effect on the property of the module, respectively. With the increasing of TCO sheet resistance, the conversion efficiency firstly increase sharply and then decrease slowly. Increasing the sheet resistance of CdTe will lead to the increasing of both conversion efficiency and fill factor.

  17. DLC表面涂覆在模具中的应用%Application of DLC coating in the forming parts of mould

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆生

    2010-01-01

    简要介绍了DLC(类金刚石)涂层技术的发展、基本原理及工艺流程.重点介绍DLC涂层在半导体封装模具特别是引脚成形模具中的应用,以了解DLC涂层卓越的性能和其在模具领域中的使用价值.在模具成形零件上涂覆一层DLC涂层,可以有效提高产品的品质、减少维护时间、降低产品的生产成本.

  18. In-situ reflection-XANES study of ZDDP and MoDTC lubricant films formed on steel and diamond like carbon (DLC) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morina, Ardian, E-mail: A.Morina@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Engineering Thermofluids, Surfaces and Interfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Zhao, Hongyuan [Institute of Engineering Thermofluids, Surfaces and Interfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Mosselmans, J. Fred W. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • S, P, Zn and Mo species formed in lubricant films can be characterised in-situ and in-lubro by using the reflection mode XAS technique. • Heating the lubricated steel and DLC samples affects the chemical reaction between the adsorbed species and the surface, resulting in different chemical composition of the ZDDP + MoDTC thermal film formed on steel or DLC. • There is a greater effect of temperature on S species than P species formed on ZDDP thermal films. - Abstract: Chemical characterisation of boundary lubricated interfaces is essential for developing mechanistic models that describe lubricant additive interactions with the surface and their effect on tribological performance. In this study the potential for using the synchrotron-based reflection mode X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) technique for in-situ chemical characterisation of lubricant films has been studied. Thermal films formed from zinc dialkyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and molybdenum dialkyl dithio carbamate (MoDTC) lubricant additives have been formed and analysed in-situ using the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy technique. The surface sensitivity of this approach was improved by doing the analysis in reflection mode, enabling analysis of only top layer (up to around 10 nm) of the solid surface. In addition, in-lubro analysis of pre-formed tribofilms from the same additives was done using non-vacuum conditions. The results are discussed in conjunction with XANES and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of similar additives published in the literature. The results obtained are consistent with the existing ZDDP and MoDTC literature and provide some new insight into intermediate species not reported before. The advantages and disadvantages of the developed XANES methodology for in-situ surface chemical analysis of lubricated conditions are discussed.

  19. Novel tribological systems using shape memory alloys and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun

    Shape memory alloys and thin films are shown to have robust indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. Loading conditions that are similar to indentations are very common in tribological systems. Therefore novel tribological systems that have better wear resistance and stronger coating to substrate adhesion can be engineered using indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. By incorporating superelastic NiTi thin films as interlayers between chromium nitride (CrN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) hard coatings and aluminum substrates, it is shown that the superelasticity can improve tribological performance and increase interfacial adhesion. The NiTi interlayers were sputter deposited onto 6061 T6 aluminum and M2 steel substrates. CrN and DLC coatings were deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. Temperature scanning X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation were used to characterize NiTi interlayers. Temperature scanning wear and scratch tests showed that superelastic NiTi interlayers improved tribological performance on aluminum substrates significantly. The two-way shape memory effect under contact loading conditions is demonstrated for the first time, which could be used to make novel tribological systems. Spherical indents in NiTi shape memory alloys and thin films had reversible depth changes that were driven by temperature cycling, after thermomechanical cycling, or one-cycle slip-plasticity deformation training. Reversible surface topography was realized after the indents were planarized. Micro- and nano- scale circular surface protrusions arose from planarized spherical indents in bulk and thin film NiTi alloy; line surface protrusions appeared from planarized scratch tracks. Functional surfaces with reversible surface topography can potentially result in novel tribological systems with reversible friction coefficient. A three dimensional constitutive model was developed to describe shape memory effects with slip

  20. Plasma and Laser-Enhanced Deposition of Powders and Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Moses

    The objective of this thesis has been the development of novel plasma and laser based techniques for the deposition and characterization of thin films and nano-scale powders. The different energy sources utilized for excitation and break -down of reactive species prior to deposition include an RF plasma discharge, an excimer laser and a CO _2 laser. Nanometer-scale (10-20 nm) powders and thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) have been successfully deposited in a glow discharge by reacting trimethylaluminum and ammonia. Macroquantities (~800 mg/hr) of powder have been collected at the centers of two vortices around which the reactant gases swirl. Powders of AlN have large surface areas (85 m^2/g) and are free from oxygen contamination. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films have been deposited from ternary mixtures of butadiene, argon and hydrogen. DLC films have been etched in O _2 and CF_4/O _2 plasmas. The etching behavior was correlated with the deposition feed gas composition by combining the etch rate, bias voltage during deposition and the deposition rate into a new non-dimensional number. Two new processes for depositing copper films have been developed. The first technique involves the hydrogen plasma reduction of copper formate films and the second technique involves the reactive excimer laser ablation of copper formate. Particle forming plasmas have been characterized by measuring the light scattering intensity during the deposition of silicon nitride from silane/ammonia plasmas. Both spatial variations and transients during the plasma start -up and shut-off steps have been measured. The ultraviolet (vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet) reflectance characteristics of AlN, DLC and SiC thin films has been measured. AlN and SiC films exhibit a relatively high (~20-40%) reflectance in the different regions of the ultraviolet spectrum. An improved algorithm has been developed for estimating thin film parameters such as thickness, refractive index, band-gap, and

  1. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (CdS/CdTe solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (CdTe taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of CdS/CdTe solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology for high-efficiency large-area solar cells, high-quality CdTe active layer was studied. S content taken in the active layer at sintering of CdTe decreased with an increase in formed CdTe, resulting in improvement of Voc of cells. (2) On the window layer with wide band gap, the solar cell superior in collection efficiency and photoelectric characteristics could be obtained using the newly developed mixed crystal film of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)S. (3) On the forming technology of large-area coating/sintering films, improvement of CdS film quality was studied by pressurized processing of printed CdS films. As a result, improvement of film density and light transmissivity was confirmed. (4) On the leveling process technology of CdTe films, smooth surface films were obtained by experiment using an equipment simultaneously exciting samples in all directions as one of uniform coating methods of films. 7 figs.

  2. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (production technology for amorphous silicon solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of amorphous Si solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On process technology for prototype film substrate solar cells, an advanced preprocessing equipment for film substrates, stepping roll type film forming technology, and prototype submodules were studied. A conversion efficiency of 7.2% was achieved by use of the submodule formed in an effective region of 40 {times} 40cm{sup 2}. (2) On efficiency improvement technology for film substrate solar cells, p/i and n/i interfaces, forming condition for Ag film electrodes, film thickness of transparent electrode ITO, and optimum transmissivity were studied. (3) On technology for advanced solar cells, high-quality a-SiGe: H film, ion control in plasma CVD, and a-Si film formation by plasma CVD using SiH2Cl2 were studied as production technology of narrow gap materials. (4) On advanced two-layer tandem solar cells, the defect density in optical degradation of a-Si cells by reverse bias dark current was evaluated, and outdoor exposure data were analyzed. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  4. A p-n Junction Modulation Technique for Printed Thin Film Solar Cell%一种印刷型薄膜太阳能电池p-n结调制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱子诚; 王伟; 蒋辰; 周芳芳

    2013-01-01

    能带值为0.5~0.85 eV材料的稀缺是多结太阳能电池面临的一个主要挑战,本文使用非真空的机械化学法合成了能带值为0.83 eV的Cu2SnS3化合物,使用印刷技术将其制备成吸收层薄膜,并采用superstrate太阳能电池结构(Mo/Cu2SnS3/In2S3/TiO2/FTO glass)对其光伏特性进行了研究.实验表明所制备的太阳能电池短路电流密度、开路电压、填充因子和转换效率分别为12.38 mA/cm2、320 mV、0.28和1.10%.此外.为更好地满足多结太阳能电池对电流匹配的需求,本文对所制备太阳能电池的Cu2SnS3/In2S3p-n结进行了分析.通过在p-n结界面植入一层薄的疏松缓冲层,使调制后的太阳能电池短路电流密度从最初的12.38 mA/cm-2增加到了23.15 mA/cm2,相应太阳能电池转换效率从1.1%增加到了1.92%.该p-n调制技术对印刷型薄膜太阳能电池具有重要借鉴意义.%The scarcity of materials with band gap value of 0. 5~0. 85 eV is one of the major challenges for the multi-junction solar cells. In this study, the compounds Cu2SnS3 with band gap of 0. 83 eV is synthesized by non-vacuum mechanochemical method, and is prepared into absorber layer by non-vacuum printing technique. The photovoltaic properties of the Cu2SnS3 are studied by employing a superstrate solar cell structure of Mo/Cu2SnS3/In2S3/TiO2/FTO glass. Experiment result indicates that the short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and conversion efficiency of the fabricated solar cell are 12.38 mA/cm2 , 320 mV, 0. 28% and 1. 10%, respectively. Furthermore, to better meet the requirements of multi-junction solar cell on the current matching, the Cu2SnS3/In2S3 p-n junction of the fabricated solar cell is analyzed. A p-n modulation technique with a thin porous buffer layer inserted into the p-n junction interface is proposed. The results indicate that the technique can promote the short-circuit current density of the solar cell from initial 12

  5. XPS, time-of-flight-SIMS and polarization modulation IRRAS study of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film materials as anode for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Juntao [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Maurice, Vincent [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: vincent-maurice@enscp.fr; Swiatowska-Mrowiecka, Jolanta; Seyeux, Antoine; Zanna, Sandrine; Klein, Lorena [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sun Shigang [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: sgsun@xmu.edu.cn; Marcus, Philippe [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: philippe-marcus@enscp.fr

    2009-05-30

    Ultra-thin Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} films (12.0, 17.3 and 29.6 nm thick) were produced on Cr metal by thermal oxidation, and their electrochemical properties in 1 M LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. The reductive electrolyte decomposition and the conversion/deconversion process were observed and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The initial irreversible capacity due to the reduction of electrolyte and the incomplete deconversion process during the first cycle is 70% of the first discharge capacity. A stable charge/discharge capacity of 460 mAh g{sup -1} was obtained in the 3rd to 10th cycles. XPS and PM-IRRAS evidenced the growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer that is constituted of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} formed by reductive decomposition of the electrolyte. The SEI layer thickness and/or density is modified by the conversion/deconversion reaction. ToF-SIMS evidenced the volume expansion/shrink resulting from the conversion/deconversion reaction. ToF-SIMS also revealed an incomplete conversion process limited by mass transport, which partitions the oxide into a converted outer part assigned to Li{sub 2}O containing Cr traces and an unconverted inner part ascribed to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} or lower Cr oxide containing Li. It was found that the deconversion re-homogenizes the oxide film in a single layer but with lithium trapped in it. The present study provides a detailed understanding of the interfacial reaction on the oxide anode undergoing a conversion/deconversion reaction.

  6. Aberrant gene promoter methylation of p16, FHIT, CRBP1, WWOX, and DLC-1 in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Zhang, Yi-wang; Zhang, Na-na; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Jian-ning; Jiang, Ye; Shao, Chun-kui

    2015-04-01

    Alterations in global DNA methylation and specific regulatory gene methylation are frequently found in cancer, but the significance of these epigenetic changes in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) remains unclear. We evaluated global DNA methylation status in 49 EBVaGC and 45 EBV-negative gastric carcinoma (EBVnGC) tissue samples and cell lines by 5-methylcytosine immunohistochemical staining and methylation quantification. We determined promoter methylation status and protein expression for the p16, FHIT, CRBP1, WWOX, and DLC-1 genes in tissues and studied the correlation between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) class and clinicopathological characteristics. Changes in gene methylation and mRNA expression in EBVaGC cell line SNU-719 and in EBVnGC cell lines SGC-7901, BGC-823, and AGS were assessed after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), trichostatin A (TSA), or a combination of both, by methylation-specific PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Global genomic DNA hypomethylation was more pronounced in EBVnGC than in EBVaGC. Promoter methylation of all five genes was more frequent in EBVaGC than in EBVnGC (p < 0.05). p16 and FHIT methylation was reversely correlated with protein expression in EBVaGC. Most (41/49) EBVaGC exhibited CIMP-high (CIMP-H), and the prognosis of CIMP-H patients was significantly worse than that of CIMP-low (p = 0.027) and CIMP-none (p = 0.003) patients. Treatment with 5-aza-dC and/or TSA induced upregulation of RNA expression of all five genes in SNU-719; meanwhile, individual gene expression increased in EBVnGC cell lines. In summary, EBV-induced hypermethylation of p16, FHIT, CRBP1, WWOX, and DLC-1 may contribute to EBVaGC development. Demethylation therapy may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for EBVaGC.

  7. Buried contact multijunction thin film silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    1995-08-01

    In early 1994, the Center for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems announced the filing of patent applications on an improved silicon thin film photovoltaic module approach. With material costs estimated to be about 20 times lower than those in present silicon solar cell modules along with other production advantages, this technology appears likely to make low cost, high performance solar modules available for the first time. This paper describes steps involved in making a module and module performance.

  8. Mechanical properties, chemical analysis and evaluation of antimicrobial response of Si-DLC coatings fabricated on AISI 316 LVM substrate by a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method for potential biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Sobczyk-Guzenda, Anna; Szymanski, Witold; Jedrzejczak, Anna; Jastrzebska, Aleksandra; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    In this study silicon doped diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) coatings were synthesized on two substrates: silicon and AISI 316LVM stainless steel using a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method. The Si content in the films ranged between 4 and 16 at.%, and was controlled by the electrical power applied in RF regime to Si cathode target. The character of the chemical bonds was revealed by FTIR analysis. With the addition of silicon the hydroxyl absorption (band in the range of 3200-3600 cm-1) increased what suggests more hydrophilic character of the coating. There were also observed significant changes in bonding of Si atoms. For low content of dopant, Si-O-Si bond system is predominant, while for the highest content of silicon there is an evidence of the shift to Si-C bonds in close proximity to methyl groups. The Raman spectroscopy revealed that the G peak position is shifted to a lower wavenumber and the ID/IG ratio decreased with increasing Si content, which indicates an increase in the C-sp3 content. Regardless of the coatings' composition, the improvement of hardness in comparison to pure substrate material (AISI 316 LVM) was observed. Although the reduction of the level of hardness from the level of 10.8 GPa for pure DLC to about 9.4 GPa for the silicon doped coatings was observed, the concomitant improvement of films adhesion with higher amount of Si was revealed. Although incorporation of the dopant to DLC coatings increases the number of E. coli cells which adhered to the examined surfaces, the microbial colonisation remains on the level of substrate material. The presented results prove the potential of Si-DLC coatings in biomedical applications from the point of view of their mechanical properties.

  9. Ion Modulated Electroactivity in Thin Film Metallopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-18

    5 to 11 - but essentially no dependance for nf0 to 4. Interestingly, the break in the plot at n=4 is parallelled in the electroactivity attenuation... dependance . In particular, transient measurements (chronoamperometry) of charge transport diffusion coefficients (Dcr) during polymer oxidation show that DT

  10. INFLUENCIA DE LA NITRURACIÓN POR PLASMA SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO A LA CORROSIÓN Y LA ADHESIÓN DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DLC SOBRE ACERO INOXIDABLE AISI 420

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N. Pecina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió el comportamiento a la corrosió n y la adhesión de dos rec ubrimientos DLC (“Diamond Like Carbon ” , “Soft” y “Hard”, depositados por PACVD (“Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition” sobre acero AISI 420, templado y revenido y /o nitrurado por plasma . Se analizaron por espectroscopía Raman y midió dureza en superficie. Se observó la microestructura por OM y SEM. Se realizaron pruebas de adhesión con indentación Rockwell C . S e practicaron ensayos de Niebla Salina e inmersión en HCl . Los DLC “ Soft ” presentaron una dureza de 5 00 HV y un espesor de 2 0 μm , mientras que los “ Hard ” tuvieron 1400 HV y 2 ,5 μm. Ambos recubrimientos presentaron bajo coeficiente de fricción y buena adhesión sobre el sustrato nitrurado . También presentaron buena resistencia a la corrosión atmosférica. En HCl el DLC retardó la degradación que se presentó rápidamente en las muestras sin recubrir.

  11. On the influence of a TiN interlayer on DLC coatings produced by pulsed vacuum arc discharge: Compositional and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura-Giraldo, B. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Grupo de Desarrollo de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Arango-Arango, P.J. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia)

    2009-10-15

    The influence of a TiN interlayer on DLC coatings grown on silicon (1 0 0), 316 stainless steel and KCl by using the PAPVD pulsed arc discharge technique is presented in this paper. The structure of the coatings was determined by means of FTIR through observation of the absorption band modes of CH{sub 2} between 3100 and 2800 cm{sup -1} and representation of the sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} carbon bonds, respectively. The sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} bonds ratio was calculated by using the base line method and producing a value greater than 1 which was a good prediction of high hardness. XPS analysis of the films was made; the wide spectrum showed the elemental composition of the films (Ti, N, C). A narrow spectrum of C1s at binding energy of 284.48 eV was obtained, and its deconvolution showed peaks of sp{sup 3}, sp{sup 2} and Ti-C. Ti-C bonds were formed due to diffusion of carbon atoms into a TiN matrix. The concentration for the XPS spectra was calculated by using the area under the curve of sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} peaks. The morphology of the bilayer, including roughness, grain size and thickness was studied through SPM techniques.

  12. 化学预处理对微型钻头沉积类金刚石薄膜附着力的影响%Influence of Chemical Pretreatments on the Adhesion of DLC Film with Micro Drill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李衍飞

    2011-01-01

    在刀具上沉积类金刚石(DLC)薄膜的关键技术问题是如何提高DLC薄膜的附着力,以发挥DLC薄膜在刀具涂层领域的优势.本文通过对微型钻头表面进行不同的化学预处理后利用射频等离子体化学气相沉法沉积DLC薄膜,对影响膜基附着力的内在规律进行了探讨.结果表明:采用简单酸碱腐蚀(先后使用NaOH溶液和HNO3溶液进行腐蚀)对DLC薄膜附着力的提高有一定作用,而综合腐蚀(首先使用酸碱腐蚀,然后使用Murakami试剂腐蚀)的效果更佳;此外,使用Murakami试剂腐蚀时间过长(超过6 min)会影响钻头本体的机械强度.实验结果对于DLC薄膜作为微型钻头涂层的应用具有很好的指导意义.%In order to apply the unique properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film in the cutting tool field, the key technical problem is how to enhance the adhesion of DLC films on cutting tools. In this work, the influence of different chemical pretreatments on the film adhesion was studied. DLC films were deposited by radio frequency enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RFCVD) method on micro drill. Results show that traditional acid corrosion is good for the adhesion, and the addition of Murakami reagents corrosion has better effects. Further more, the time of corrosion by Murakami reagents should be controlled less than 6 minutes, otherwise the mechanical strength of the micro drill will be reduced. The whole research provides good guidance for the application of DLC films in the micro drill coating field.

  13. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko.

    1990-01-24

    This invention concerns a module frame of solar cell and a solar cell module using this frame. In particular, it concerns a frame and a module useful for the CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} based cell. In the existing solar cell module, sealant is packed in between the edges of a glass substrate, a resin layer and a back protective thin film, etc. and a grooved frame of U-shaped section. For the sealant, silicon based resin and butyl rubber based resin are used many times, but either resin has defects such as their overflow from the module structure. In order to solve these defects, this invention proposes to provide stair-shaped protrusions along the four sides of the bottom of the box frame (herein after called the lower frame) of the module and at the same time, provide a groove for pooling the sealant at the portion where such protrusion meets the side wall, furthermore to provide depressions for pooling the sealant at the upper edge inside the side wall of the lower frame or to punch holes at the corners of the bottom of the lower frame. 9 figs.

  14. DLC涂层改善气门挺柱摩擦学性能的试验研究%Experimental Study on Effects of DLC Coating on Improvement of Tappet Tribology Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟军; 李周裕; 王媛慧

    2015-01-01

    为探求DLC涂层对气门挺柱摩擦学性能的影响,制备了三种不同表面处理的气门挺柱,搭建了配气机构试验台架,对比分析了不同顶面处理方法的气门挺柱在不同转速和缸盖温度下的摩擦功耗;测试了试验前后气门挺柱和凸轮的表面形态,研究了DLC涂层表面特性及其耐磨损特性。试验结果表明,DLC涂层能够减小气门挺柱表面粗糙度,含Si的DLC涂层表面粗糙度极小;气门挺柱与凸轮之间的摩擦力矩随着凸轮轴转速上升逐渐减小,随着缸盖温度上升逐渐增大;相对于传统碳氮共渗气门挺柱,DLC涂层能有效减小摩擦损失,含Si的DLC涂层能减小高达20%的摩擦损失;无涂层气门挺柱和不含Si的DLC涂层气门挺柱的耐磨性较差,含Si的DLC涂层具有极好的耐磨性。%In order to analyze the effects of DLC coating on tribology characteristics of valve tap-pet,tappets with three different kinds of surface treatment were prepared and valvetrain mechanism test bench was built.Then friction loss of valve tappets with different valve tappet top surface treat-ment was tested under different oil temperature.Surface profiles of valve tappets and cams were test-ed before and after the experiments to study the surface characteristic and anti-wear ability of DLC coating.The results show that DLC coating can reduce surface roughness of tappet and DLC coating with Si has extremely small roughness.Friction torque between tappet and cam decreases as the rota-tion speed of camshaft gets bigger and increases when the oil temperature is higher.DLC coating can effectively improve friction loss.Compared with traditional tappet with carbonitriding,DLC coating with Si can cut down friction loss by as large as 20%.Tappets with no coating and with coating with-out Si have bad anti-wear ability,while DLC coating with Si has prefect wear resistance ability.

  15. Research and test of electrical performance of the amorphous silica-based thin-iflm modules and photovoltaic(pv) stand-alone system%非晶硅基薄膜太阳能电池组件及其独立系电性能测试与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖广辉; 徐勤昌

    2014-01-01

    The working principle of solar cells are set forth detailedly,and the physical model of amorphous silica-based thin-film solar cells are given. The output characteristics of amorphous silica-based thin-film modules are tested, and the stand-alone PV systems are designed and monitored, and the experimental results were analyzed. The results of outdoors tests show that the conversion efficiency of modules are consistent with the results measured in the laboratory, which proves the system designed with amorphous silica-based thin-film modules used in low irradiance zone has more high reliability and efficiency.%阐述了太阳电池的工作原理,并给出非晶硅基薄膜太阳能电池的物理模型。对非晶硅薄膜组件在不同辐照度下的输出特性进行了测量。设计了非晶硅薄膜组件独立系统,并监测其输出特性,对测试结果进行了分析。测试结果表明室内组件的转换效率与室外测试所得到的结果相吻合,说明非晶硅薄膜组件所设计的光伏系统在辐照度差的地区具有更高的可靠性和转换效率。

  16. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. (Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States)); Yu, P.C. (PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  17. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  18. -Regular Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Abduldaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduced and studied -regular modules as a generalization of -regular rings to modules as well as regular modules (in the sense of Fieldhouse. An -module is called -regular if for each and , there exist and a positive integer such that . The notion of -pure submodules was introduced to generalize pure submodules and proved that an -module is -regular if and only if every submodule of is -pure iff   is a -regular -module for each maximal ideal of . Many characterizations and properties of -regular modules were given. An -module is -regular iff is a -regular ring for each iff is a -regular ring for finitely generated module . If is a -regular module, then .

  19. Nonlinear optical thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  20. Ultimate form freedom in thin film solar cells by postmanufacture laser-based processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.; Emelin, B.; Galagan, Y.; Mandamparambil, R.; Andriessen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaics can be beneficial for specific applications like building integrated photovoltaics. To fully exploit the differentiator of form freedom, the interconnections in thin film modules can be tuned depending on the required module output. Traditionally, an alternation of coating an

  1. Modulation of ultrafast laser-induced magnetization precession in BiFeO3-coated La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qian; Jin, KuiJuan; Wang, JieSu; Yao, HongBao; Gu, JunXing; Guo, HaiZhong; Xu, XiuLai; Yang, GuoZhen

    2017-04-01

    The ultrafast laser-excited magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic (FM) La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) thin films with BiFeO3 (BFO) coating layers grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy are investigated using the optical pump-probe technique. Uniform magnetization precessions are observed in the films under an applied external magnetic field by measuring the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. The magnetization precession frequencies of the LSMO thin films with the BFO coating layers are lower than those of uncoated LSMO films, which is attributed to the suppression of the anisotropy field induced by the exchange interaction at the interface between the antiferromagnetic order of BFO and the FM order of LSMO.

  2. Thin EFG octagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejs, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Mobil Solar Energy Corporation currently practices a unique crystal growth technology for producing crystalline silicon sheet, which is then cut with lasers into wafers. The wafers are processed into solar cells and incorporated into modules for photovoltaic applications. The silicon sheet is produced using a method known as Edge-defined Film-fed growth (EFG), in the form of hollow eight-sided polygons (octagons) with 10 cm faces. These are grown to lengths of 5 meters and thickness of 300 microns, with continuous melt replenishment, in compact furnaces designed to operate at a high sheet area production area of 135 sq cm/min. The present Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) three-year program seeks to advance the manufacturing line capabilities of the Mobil Solar crystal growth and cutting technologies. If successful, these advancements will provide significant reductions in already low silicon raw material usage, improve process productivity, laser cutting throughput and yield, and so lower both individual wafer cost and the cost of module production. This report summarizes the significant technical improvements in EFG technology achieved in Phase 1 of this program. Technical results are reported for each of the three main program areas: (1) thin octagon growth (crystal growth) -- to reduce the thickness of the octagon to an interim goal of 250 microns during Phase 1, with an ultimate goal of achieving 200 micron thicknesses; (2) laser cutting -- to improve the laser cutting process, so as to produce wafers with decreased laser cutting damage at increased wafer throughput rates; and (3) process control and product specification -- to implement advanced strategies in crystal growth process control and productivity designed to increase wafer yields.

  3. The design of thin disk laser multi-pass amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Enmao; Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao; Yu, Jinbo; Zhao, Wenguang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a thin disk multi-pass amplification system is designed based on the conjugated double parabolic mirror pumping thin disk laser module, which realizes 20 passes transmitting through the thin disk crystal. The light transmission matrix is used to optimize optical mode matching of seed laser spot size and pumping spot size during the multi-pass transmission. At the same time, anti-misalignment stability of the thin disk multi-pass amplification system and the aberration of output laser beam are analyzed in deeply.

  4. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  5. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  6. 类金刚石薄膜的制备及其血液相容性的初步研究%Preparation of DLC and Initial Study of Its Hemocompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳霞; 陈亚芍; 赵丽芳

    2007-01-01

    本文以单晶硅为基体,Ar等离子体对基体进行清洗,用法制备类金刚石(DLC)膜和掺氮的DLC膜.沉积DLC膜所用的气体是乙炔和氩气,沉积掺氮的DLC膜用乙炔和氮气.利用衰减全反射红外光谱(ATR-FTIR)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对沉积的DLC膜和掺氮的DLC膜进行结构分析和观察表面形貌.考察了乙炔比例、放电功率等沉积参数对DLC膜的影响.通过接触角和血小板黏附实验,进行了DLC膜的抗凝血性能分析,效果较好.

  7. Cation disorder and epitaxial strain modulated Drude-Smith type terahertz conductivity and Hall-carrier switching in Ca1-x Ce x RuO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sarmistha; Eswara Phanindra, V.; Santhosh Kumar, K.; Agarwal, Piyush; Dhaker, K. C.; Rana, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    The CaRuO3 is a non-Fermi liquid pseudo-cubic perovskite with a magnetic ground state on the verge of phase transition and it lies in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. To understand the sensitivity of its ground state, the effects of subtle aliovalent chemical disorder on the static and high frequency dynamic conductivity in the coherently strained structures were explored. The Ce-doped Ca1-x Ce x RuO3 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.1) thin films were deposited on LaAlO3 (1 0 0) and SrTiO3 (1 0 0) substrates and studies for low-energy terahertz (THz) carrier dynamics, dc transport and Hall effect. These compositions exhibited a very effective and unusual Hall-carrier switching in both compressive and tensile strain induced epitaxial thin films. The dc resistivity depicts a switching from a non-Fermi liquid to a Fermi liquid behavior without any magnetic phase transition. A discernible and gradual crossover from Drude to Drude-Smith THz dynamic optical conductivity was observed while traversing from pure to 10% Ce-doped CaRuO3 films. Overall, a nearly Fermi liquid behavior, effective carrier switching and unusual features in THz conductivity, were all novel features realized for the first time in physically and/or chemically modified CaRuO3. These new phases highlight the novel subtleties and versatility of the systems lying near the quantum critical point.

  8. Flexural modulus identification of thin polymer sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhihs, S.; Kovalovs, A.; Tishkunovs, A.; Chate, A.

    2011-06-01

    The method of determination of the flexural Young's modulus is based on a solution to the problem of compression of a thin-walled cylindrical specimen by two parallel planes (TWCS method). This method was employed to calculate the flexural modulus for PET polymer compositions. The flexural modules received by TWCS method were verified by comparing the experimentally measured eigenfrequencies by Polytec vibrometer with numerical results from ANSYS program.

  9. Flexural modulus identification of thin polymer sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluhihs, S; Kovalovs, A; Tishkunovs, A; Chate, A, E-mail: s_gluhih@inbox.lv [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Azenes 16/22, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    The method of determination of the flexural Young's modulus is based on a solution to the problem of compression of a thin-walled cylindrical specimen by two parallel planes (TWCS method). This method was employed to calculate the flexural modulus for PET polymer compositions. The flexural modules received by TWCS method were verified by comparing the experimentally measured eigenfrequencies by Polytec vibrometer with numerical results from ANSYS program.

  10. Effects of diamond-like carbon thin film in organic light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Seong-Shan; Yong, Thian-Khok [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Tou, Teck-Yong, E-mail: tytou@mmu.edu.m [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-07-01

    Ultrathin diamond-like carbon (DLC) was deposited by pulsed Nd:YAG laserablation of graphite target on the indium tin oxide (ITO) surface that functioned as the buffered anode for single-layer organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Deposited by 355 nm Nd:YAG laser, DLC films were characterized by the Raman spectroscopy and the bulk resistivity measurement. Insertion of DLC in the hole-transport ITO/DLC/TPD/Al device slightly increased the injection current density and reduced the turn-on voltage. But DLC insertion in the electron-transport ITO/DLC/Alq{sub 3}/Al device greatly decreased the injection current density and increased the turn-on voltage. For the ITO/DLC/(TPD + Alq{sub 3} + PVK)/Al device, that was doped with Alq{sub 3} and TPD, improved performance with a higher current density and brightness were consistently obtained. Possible mechanisms for the DLC effect in these single-layer devices were discussed.

  11. Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaics: From the Laboratory to Solar Fields (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Roedern, B.; Ullal, H.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-05-01

    The conclusions of this report are that: (1) many issues how thin-film solar cells work remain unresolved, requiring further fundamental R and D effort; (2) commercial thin-film PV module production reached 29% in 2005 in the US, indicating much more rapid growth than crystalline Si PV; (3) commercial module performance is increasing based on current knowledge, more R and D will lead to further improvement; and (4) stability of thin-film modules is acceptable ({le} 1% per year power loss) if the right manufacturing processes are used for manufacturing.

  12. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  13. 2D - Finite element model of a CIGS module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, G.J.M.; Slooff, L.H.; Bende, E.E. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    The performance of thin-film CIGS modules is often limited due to inhomogeneities in CIGS layers. A 2-dimensional Finite Element Model for CIGS modules is demonstrated that predicts the impact of such inhomogeneities on the module performance. Results are presented of a module with a region of poor diode characteristics. It is concluded that according to this model the effects of poor diodes depend strongly on their location in the module and on their dispersion over the module surface. Due to its generic character the model can also be applied to other series connections of photovoltaic cells.

  14. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  15. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez

    2013-01-01

    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  16. Rate-dependent force, intracellular calcium, and action potential voltage alternans are modulated by sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of thin filament regulation in human heart failure: A myocyte modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zile, Melanie A; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-01-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (voltage alternans (APV-ALT), the cellular driver of MTWA. Our goal was to uncover the mechanisms linking APV-ALT and FORCE-ALT in failing human myocytes and to investigate how the link between those alternans was affected by pacing rate and by physiological conditions such as sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters. To achieve this, a mechanically-based, strongly coupled human electromechanical myocyte model was constructed. Reducing the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake current (Iup) to 27% was incorporated to simulate abnormal calcium handling in human heart failure. Mechanical remodeling was incorporated to simulate altered thin filament activation and crossbridge (XB) cycling rates. A dynamical pacing protocol was used to investigate the development of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i), voltage, and active force alternans at different pacing rates. FORCE-ALT only occurred in simulations incorporating reduced Iup, demonstrating that alternans in the intracellular calcium concentration (CA-ALT) induced FORCE-ALT. The magnitude of FORCE-ALT was found to be largest at clinically relevant pacing rates (<110 bpm), where APV-ALT was smallest. We found that the magnitudes of FORCE-ALT, CA-ALT and APV-ALT were altered by heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters and sarcomere length due to the presence of myofilament feedback. These findings provide important insight into the relationship between heart-failure-induced electrical and mechanical alternans and how they are altered by physiological conditions at near-resting heart rates.

  17. 中频磁控溅射沉积DLC/TiAlN复合薄膜的结构与性能研究%Microstructures and Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/TiAlN Composite Films by MF Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张以忱; 巴德纯; 于大洋; 马胜歌

    2008-01-01

    采用中频非平衡磁控溅射沉积工艺,并施加霍尔离子源辅助沉积,在高速钢W18Cr4V及单晶硅基体上制备了梯度过渡的DIE/TiAlN复合薄膜.利用扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线光电子能谱仪(XPS)、显微硬度计、摩擦磨损仪等分析检测仪器对DLC/TiAlN复合薄膜的表面形貌、晶体结构、显微硬度、耐磨性等性能进行了检测分析.实验及分析结果表明:DLC/TrAlN薄膜平均膜厚为1.1μm,由于薄膜中的Al含量较多,使得复合薄膜的表面比DLC薄膜的表面要粗糙一些;通过对复合薄膜表层的XPS分析可知,ID/IG为2.63.由XPS深层剖析可知,DLC/TiAlN薄膜表层结构与DLC薄膜基本相同,里层则与TiAlN薄膜相似.在梯度过渡膜中,复合膜层之间的界面呈现为渐变过程,结合的非常好.DLC/TiAlN薄膜的显微硬度为2030 HV左右.与DLC薄膜显微硬度接近,低于TiAlN薄膜的显微硬度.但是DLC/TiAlN薄膜的耐磨性要好于TiAlN薄膜和DLC薄膜;DLC/TiAlN薄膜的耐腐蚀性能略好于DLC薄膜.

  18. 'Active' Thin Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, M.R.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Optical microscopy using thin sections has become more and more important over the last decade to study concrete. Unfortunately, this technique is not capable of studying actually hydrating cement paste. At Delft University of Technology a new technique has been developed using 'active' thin section

  19. 润滑薄膜测量的双色光干涉强度调制技术%Dichromatic Interference Intensity Modulation Approach for Thin Lubricating Film Thickness Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国垒; 郭峰; 刘海超; 洪政豪

    2014-01-01

    光干涉技术是润滑薄膜厚度测量最有效的方法之一。双色光干涉法在保证较大膜厚测量范围及高测量分辨力的同时,避免了繁琐的干涉级次人工计数。传统的双色光干涉测量依赖于严格的静态标定和观测者。本文提出使用双色光干涉强度调制技术对微纳米润滑薄膜进行测量。通过干涉图像中红、绿分量强度值的线性叠加得到调制信号,根据信号特性分析得到特征位置膜厚,进而由干涉强度得到任一点膜厚。为验证所提出测量方法的正确,对静态球-盘赫兹接触表面间隙进行了测量,与经典理论有很好的一致性。结果表明:选用合适的红绿双色光波长,测量量程可达2μm。%Optical interferometry is an effective way for lubricating film thickness measurement. The dichromatic interferometry can avoid artificial fringe order counting, while operates with a fair resolution and a large film thickness measurement range. However, the traditional dichromatic interferometry depends on strict calibration processes and the observer. In this paper, a dichromatic interference intensity modulation approach is proposed for micro/nano lubricating film thickness measurement, whereby linear superposition of the intensities of the red and the green components is carried out and a modulated signal is obtained to infer the film thickness at its local maximum/minimum. Thereafter the film thickness of other points can be obtained by the interference intensity of the red or green light. To validate this approach, contact gap between a steel ball and a glass disc was measured, and the results were well correlated with the theoretical calculation. A measurement range of 2μm can be achieved by an optimum selection of the wavelengths of the red and green lights.

  20. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules (dissolution and deposition process); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was performed by noticing on the plasma spraying method as a process that can manufacture thin poly-crystalline silicon films at a high speed. Fiscal 1997 has established a technology that can form a silicon film directly without using seed crystals in an area of 2-cm square on a carbon supported substrate by using a small film manufacturing equipment using the dissolution and deposition process. The size of the crystal is as very large as several hundred {mu}m, by which a possibility of making high-performance solar cells was verified. Discussions were given to apply this technology to large-area substrates, whereas a device was developed, which is capable of forming a film in an area corresponding to 10-cm square. According to a film forming experiment using this device, the film has begun being formed on part of a 10-cm square substrate, verifying the effectiveness of this method. While the film thickness is about 100 {mu}m, it was confirmed that the crystal size will not change even if the thickness is made mechanically as thin as about 50 {mu}m. Further discussions were given on enhancement of wettability by means of coating, and light enclosing structure. (NEDO)

  1. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  2. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  3. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules; Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Takessho cell module tei cost ka yoso gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of elementary technologies for mass production, fast surface machining, fast electrode forming and fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were studied. Surface machining by rotating grindstone was studied as fast cutting of fine grooves on Si substrates, resulting in possible fast machining superior in shape accuracy. Electrode properties equivalent or superior to previous ones were obtained by fast electrode forming using a fast printing/sintering equipment even at transfer speed 7.5 times as high as that of conventional methods. Simultaneous fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were achieved by heat treatment after deposition on Si substrate surfaces while heat-decomposing Ti and P compound gas. (2) On development of module structure, an optimum cell group angle, low reflection rate at glass surface, and fast wiring were studied. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  5. Effect of Modulating Spin-Coating Rate of TiO2 Precursor for Mesoporous Layer on J-V Hysteresis of Solar Cells with Polar CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the crystalline Si solar cells, the J-V characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells are different under forward and reverse scan, and the CH3NH3PbI3 film exhibits some polarization properties. To explore those performances of the mesoporous TiO2 layer based perovskite solar cells, we focus on the effect of modulating the spin-coating rate of the TiO2 precursor for mesoporous layer on J-V hysteresis of solar cells with the polar film by J-V curves, atomic force microscopy topographic images, and piezoresponse force microscopy phase images. Firstly, the AFM images illustrate that the polarization behaviors exist and the deformation scale is large at the corresponding position when the DC bias voltage increases. Secondly, it is suggested that the polar films which applied the positive DC biases voltage show a tendency to 0° phase angle, while the polar films which applied the negative DC biases voltage show a tendency to −180° phase angle. Thirdly, a weak polar hysteresis loop relation for CH3NH3PbI3 film was observed. Finally, the hysteresis index for the 1500 rpm mesostructured solar cell shows relatively low J-V hysteresis compared with the 3000 rpm mesostructured and the planar-structured solar cell. Our experimental results bring novel routes for reducing the hysteresis and investigating the polar nature for CH3NH3PbI3 material.

  6. Ultra-Thin Deformable Silicon Substrates with Lateral Segmentation and Flexible Metal Interconnect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoumpouidis, T.; Wang, L.; Bartek, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    Our progress in developing technology modules for deformable single-crystalline-silicon electronics is presented in this contribution. Additional deformability/reliability is accomplished by modifications of the previously reported ultra-thin and flexible CIRCONFLEX technology (1). The flexibility

  7. Multichip module technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapustinsky, J.S.; Boissevain, J.G.; Muck, R.C.; Smith, G.D.; Wong-Swanson, B.G.; Ziock, H.J.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Multichip Module (MCM) was designed and submitted for fabrication to the Lockheed Martin foundry using a licensed process called High Density Interconnect (HDI). The HDI process uses thin film techniques to create circuit interconnect patterns on multiple layers of dielectric film which are deposited directly on top of unpackaged electronic die. This results in an optimally small package that approaches the area of the bare die themselves. This project tested the capability of the Lockheed Martin foundry to produce, in an HDI process, a complex mixed-mode (analog and digital) circuit on a single MCM substrate.

  8. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  9. Magnetic-fluid microelectromechanical light modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEO Jong-wook; WANG Xi-jun

    2005-01-01

    A new microfluidic microelectromechanical light modulator using a magnetic fluid is introduced. The optical reflection from the device is modulated by applying an electric current into an electrode, which is enclosed by ferromagnetic thin films as in an inductive head for a magnetic data storage device. The magnetic field produced by the current exerts a magnetic force on the magnetic fluid and drives the fluid to cover the cell surface. The surface tension of the fluid provides a restoring force when the field is reduced. The actuation of the fluid is completed in about 12 ms for both thin-to-thick and thick-to-thin fluid film switchings by magnetic forces and surface tension forces, respectively. It was observed that the switching speed was almost independent of the driving current, and no considerable thermal effect were observed when driven by a current up to 100 mA.

  10. Full spectrum millimeter-wave modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Julien; Yao, Peng; Shi, Shouyuan; Zablocki, Alicia; Harrity, Charles; Martin, Richard D; Schuetz, Christopher A; Prather, Dennis W

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the development of new lithium niobate electro-optic modulator designs and material processing techniques have contributed to support the increasing need for faster optical networks by considerably extending the operational bandwidth of modulators. In an effort to provide higher bandwidths for future generations of networks, we have developed a lithium niobate electro-optic phase modulator based on a coplanar waveguide ridged structure that operates up to 300 GHz. By thinning the lithium niobate substrate down to less than 39 µm, we are able to eliminate substrate modes and observe optical sidebands over the full millimeter-wave spectrum.

  11. *-Modules, co-*-modules and cotilting modules over Noetherian rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明义; 许永华

    1996-01-01

    Let R be a Noetherian ring. The projectivity and injectivity of modules over R are discussed. The concept of modules is introduced and the descriptions for co-*-modules over R are given. At last, cotilting modules over R are characterized by means of co-*-modules.

  12. Thruster Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G.

    2015-09-01

    The thruster module described in this paper provides a low but controlled acceleration in a mission which would normally be labelled “microgravity”. The first mission was Cryofenix, where tanks containing liquid hydrogen were used in the experiment. The experiment utilizing the low acceleration is using liquids and requires a precise acceleration profile throughout the mission. Acceleration obtained by payload rotation is not feasible due to that the transversal forces required to change the acceleration will cause undesired liquid turbulence. In order to satisfy the experiment requirements a thruster module was developed by SSC for the Cryofenix mission funded by CNES. The Cryofenix mission had a payload weight of 380 kg and an apogee of about 260 km. The module produces a controlled thrust in flight direction by means of a cold gas system.

  13. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  14. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  15. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  16. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  17. Surface modulation of dental hard tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantbirojn, Daranee

    Tooth surfaces play a central role in the equilibrium of dental hard tissues, in which contrasting processes lead to loss or deposition of materials. The central interest of this Thesis was the modulation of tooth surfaces to control such equilibrium. Four specific studies were carried out to investigate different classes of surface modulating agents. These are: (1) Ionic modulation of the enamel surface to enhance stain removal . Dental stain is the most apparent form of tooth surface deposit. The nature of extrinsic stain in terms of spatial chemical composition was studied by using electron probe microanalysis. An ionic surface modulating agent, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), was evaluated. Image analysis methodologies were developed and the ability of STPP in stain removal was proved. (2) Thin film modulation with substantive polymeric coating and the effect on in vitro enamel de/re-mineralization . A novel polymeric coating that formed a thin film on the tooth surface was investigated for its inhibitory effect on artificial enamel caries, without interfering with the remineralization process. The preventive effect was distinct, but the mineral redeposition was questionable. (3) Thick film modulation with fluoride containing sealants and the effect on in vitro enamel and root caries development. Fluoride incorporated into resin material is an example of combining different classes of surface modulating agents to achieve an optimal outcome. A proper combination, such as in resin modified glass ionomer, showed in vitro caries inhibitory effect beyond the material boundary in both enamel and dentin. (4) Thick film modulation with dental adhesives and the determination of adhesion to dentin. Dentin adhesives modulate intracoronal tooth surfaces by enhancing adhesion to restorative materials. Conventional nominal bond tests were inadequate to determine the performance of current high strength adhesives. It was shown that interfacial fracture toughness test was more

  18. Multifunctional thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  19. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  20. Testing Interconnections using Conductive Adhesives for Application in PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broek, K.M.; De Jong, P.C.; Kloos, M.J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Van den Nieuwenhof, M.A.C.J.; Bots, T.L.; Meuwissen, M.H.H.; Steijvers, H.L.A.H. [TNO Science and Industry, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    In current module production the electrical interconnections are soldered to the solar cells. For current modules with thin cells and new module concepts with back contact cells, the replacement of solder by conductive adhesives can be advantageous. However, the current IEC tests were developed for soldered interconnections, which have other failure mechanisms. Therefore, three additional tests have been developed for the testing of conductive adhesives to be used in solar modules. In combination with computer simulation techniques developed in the same project, the tests will contribute to a better understanding of failure mechanisms of PV modules with conductive adhesives.

  1. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evi

  2. Emissivity modulating electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Sheets, Judd

    2009-05-01

    The IR-ECDTM (Infra-Red ElectroChromic Device) variable emitance device (VED) is an all-solid-state monolithic vacuum deposited thin film system with a unique metamaterial IR transparent-electrode system which functions as an electrically controlled dimmable mirror in the IR region. The maximum reflectance corresponding to the bleached condition of the system is around 90% (low-e condition, e=0.1). The minimum reflectance reaches nearly zero in the colored condition of the system (high emittance, e=1). The average emissivity modulation of the IRECDTM is 0.7 in the 8-12 micron region, and at 9.7 micron (room temperature) it reaches a value of 0.9. Half and full emissivity modulations occur within 2 and10 minutes respectively. Because of its light weight (5g/m2), low voltage requirement (+/- 1 Volts), extremely good emissivity control properties (from 0 to 0.9 at 300K) and highly repeatable deposition process, the IR-ECDTM technology is very attractive for satellite thermal control applications. The IR-ECDTM has been under evaluation in a real space environment since March 8, 2007. This paper presents recent achievements of the IR-ECDTM including space test results.

  3. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-06-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of CC, CH, SiC, and SiH bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio ID/IG. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  4. Thin Film Compound Semiconductor Devices for Photonic Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Kenneth Harold

    The research conducted for this doctoral dissertation involved the experimental investigation of thin film compound devices for use as photonic interconnection components in both external and direct modulated interconnection configurations. The devices were fabricated using a modified epitaxial liftoff procedure developed at Georgia Tech. This technique, by which single crystal semiconductor layers were separated from their growth substrate and subsequently deposited onto host substrates, allowed the development of novel photonic interconnection elements. It also facilitated the investigation of fundamental optical phenomena in compound semiconductors. Specifically, this work focused on an experimental study of the Franz-Keldysh electrorefractive effect in thin film semiconductor structures. This aspect of the research resulted in the first reported direct measurement of electrorefraction in GaAs at large electric fields (10 ^5 V/cm) and at photon energies within several meV of the band edge of GaAs. Related to this effort was the investigation of thin film, surface-normal optical modulators based on the bulk Franz-Keldysh effect. The novel modulators fabricated for this research demonstrated the largest contrast ratios ever reported for surface-normal Franz-Keldysh devices. Further investigation indicated that, with additional optimization, these thin film elements can achieve further improvements in performance. Such devices would present a low cost, easily manufactured alternative to conventional modulators, which are typically quite complex and expensive to fabricate. Finally, as an alternative to externally modulated interconnection schemes, a novel stacked wafer architecture was demonstrated. This configuration, which facilitated through-wafer optical communication, utilized thin film InP/InGaAsP emitters and detectors which were quasi-monolithically integrated onto silicon substrates using the modified epitaxial liftoff process. This through-wafer scheme is

  5. Module Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    MODULES IN LIFE TEST CHAMBER (LEFT SIDE) 68 MODULE TRANSMIT TEMP CA1 54.8°C CB1 65.3°C CC1 70.5°C CD1 75.2°C CE1 68.5°C CA2 72.1°C CB2 ...NO. PA (Contractor) PA (MELTS) DRV (Contractor) DRV (MELTS) CA1 058 +11.0 VOLTS +10.3 VOLTS + 7.5 VOLTS + 3.64 VOLTS CB1 085 +11.0 VOLTS +10.13...CE1 032 +11.0 VOLTS + 7.02 VOLTS + 7.5 VOLTS + 4.23 VOLTS CA2 065 +11.0 VOLTS +11.03 VOLTS + 7.5 VOLTS + 7.53 VOLTS CB2 057 +11.0 VOLTS + 9.49

  6. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...... students how to include marginalized young people and practitioners in the education of future social workers and social educators....

  7. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...... students how to include marginalized young people and practitioners in the education of future social workers and social educators....

  8. Thinning and Weighting of Planar/Conformal Arrays Considering Mutual Coupling Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Feng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an improved active element pattern (AEP technique, a novel effective method for sidelobe suppression considering mutual coupling (MC in planar and conformal sparse arrays is proposed in this paper. A thinning and weighting process that includes the thinning module, optimization module, and far-field calculation module is presented, and three key points, namely, the modified AEP modeling, far-field calculation of planar and conformal thinned arrays, and modified thinning strategy, are highlighted. As an effective optimization algorithm, the differential evolution algorithm (DEA is adopted in order to achieve low sidelobe. Several numerical examples are shown to validate the consistency and effectiveness of the proposed synthesis approach. With the first use of the AEP technique for the synthesis of sparse arrays, the planar and conformal microstrip arrays with the desired array filling factor are studied to obtain the expected sidelobe level (SLL.

  9. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  10. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  11. Terahertz transport dynamics in the metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y. Y.; Su, F. H.; Zhang, C.; Zhong, L.; Pan, S. S.; Xu, S. C.; Wang, H.; Dai, J. M.; Li, G. H.

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of thermally-induced metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film on Si substrate grown by reactive magnetron sputtering was investigated by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It was found that the THz absorption and optical conductivity of the thin films are temperature-dependent, and the THz amplitude modulation can reach as high as 74.7%. The complex THz optical conductivity in the metallic state of the V2O3 thin films can be well-fitted by the Drude-Smith model, which offer the insight into the electron transport dynamic during the metal-insulator transition of the thin film.

  12. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  13. Galactic Thin Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P.; Murdin, P.; Murdin, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Of the components of our MILKY WAY GALAXY, the thin disk is the most prominent part to our eyes. It manifests itself as the band of faint light that we see encircling the whole sky. Except for the bulge in the direction of the center of our Galaxy, the stars that make up the Milky Way as we see it

  14. Zapping thin film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golo-Tosic, N.; Kuper, F.G.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    It was expected that hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film transistors (alpha-Si:H TFTs) behave similarly to crystalline silicon transistors under electrostatic discharge (ESD) stress. It will be disproved in this paper. This knowledge is necessary in the design of the transistors used in a ESD

  15. Thin Lens Ray Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatland, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)

  16. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  17. Thin supported silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Tijana

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses several transport-related aspects relevant for the application of thin supported silica membranes for gas separation and nanofiltration. The influence of support geometry on overall membrane performance is investigated. Planar (i.e., flat plate), tubular, and multichannel suppo

  18. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  19. Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on the Polycrystalline Compound Semiconductors CIS and CdTe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Powalla

    2007-01-01

    14% expected in the near future. The integrated interconnection of single cells into large-area modules of 0.6×1.2m2 enables low-cost mass production, so that thin-film modules will soon be able to compete with conventional silicon-wafer-based modules. This contribution provides an overview of the basic technologies for CdTe and CIS modules, the research and development (R&D issues, production technology and capacities, the module performance in long-term outdoor testing, and their use in installations.

  20. Modern Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F.; Poole, Salwa K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the important modern developments of thin-layer chromatography are introduced. Discussed are the theory and instrumentation of thin-layer chromatography including multidimensional and multimodal techniques. Lists 53 references. (CW)

  1. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  2. Modern Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F.; Poole, Salwa K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the important modern developments of thin-layer chromatography are introduced. Discussed are the theory and instrumentation of thin-layer chromatography including multidimensional and multimodal techniques. Lists 53 references. (CW)

  3. Thin films for material engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Thin films are defined as two-dimensional materials formed by condensing one by one atomic/molecular/ionic species of matter in contrast to bulk three-dimensional sintered ceramics. They are grown through atomic collisional chemical reaction on a substrate surface. Thin film growth processes are fascinating for developing innovative exotic materials. On the basis of my long research on sputtering deposition, this paper firstly describes the kinetic energy effect of sputtered adatoms on thin film growth and discusses on a possibility of room-temperature growth of cubic diamond crystallites and the perovskite thin films of binary compound PbTiO3. Secondly, high-performance sputtered ferroelectric thin films with extraordinary excellent crystallinity compatible with MBE deposited thin films are described in relation to a possible application for thin-film MEMS. Finally, the present thin-film technologies are discussed in terms of a future material science and engineering.

  4. Geometrical and fluidic tuning of periodically modulated thin metal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilardi, Giovanni; Xiao, Sanshui; Beccherelli, Romeo;

    2012-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate near-zero transmission of light through two-dimensional arrays of isolated gold rings. The analysis of the device as an optofluidic sensor is presented to demonstrate the tuning of the device in relation to variations of volume and refractive index of an isotropic fluid...... positioned over the structure. We also evaluate the performance of the device with respect to geometrical parameters of the rings....

  5. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  6. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  7. Potential-induced degradation in photovoltaic modules: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Khoo, Yong Sheng; Hacke, Peter; Naumann, Volker; Lausch, Dominik; Harvey, Steven P.; Singh, Jai Prakash; Chai, Jing; Wang, Yan; Aberle, Armin G.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-01

    Potential-induced degradation (PID) has received considerable attention in recent years due to its detrimental impact on photovoltaic (PV) module performance under field conditions. Both crystalline silicon (c-Si) and thin-film PV modules are susceptible to PID. While extensive studies have already been conducted in this area, the understanding of the PID phenomena is still incomplete and it remains a major problem in the PV industry. Herein, a critical review of the available literature is given to serve as a one-stop source for understanding the current status of PID research. This paper also aims to provide an overview of future research paths to address PID-related issues. This paper consists of three parts. In the first part, the modelling of leakage current paths in the module package is discussed. The PID mechanisms in both c-Si and thin-film PV modules are also comprehensively reviewed. The second part summarizes various test methods to evaluate PV modules for PID. The last part focuses on studies related to PID in the omnipresent p-type c-Si PV modules. The dependence of temperature, humidity and voltage on the progression of PID is examined. Preventive measures against PID at the cell, module and system levels are illustrated. Moreover, PID recovery in standard p-type c-Si PV modules is also studied. Most of the findings from p-type c-Si PV modules are also applicable to other PV module technologies.

  8. Tunable plasmons in atomically thin gold nanodisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjavacas, Alejandro; Garcia de Abajo, Javier

    2015-03-01

    The ability to modulate light at high speeds is of paramount importance for telecommunications, information processing, and medical imaging technologies. This has stimulated intense efforts to master optoelectronic switching at visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR) frequencies, although coping with current computer speeds in integrated architectures still remains a major challenge. Here we show that atomically thin noble metal nanoislands can extend optical modulation to the vis-NIR spectral range. We find plasmons in thin metal nanodisks to produce similar absorption cross-sections as spherical particles of the same diameter. Using realistic levels of electrical doping, plasmons are shifted by about half their width, thus leading to a factor-of-two change in light absorption. These results are supported by a microscopic quantum-mechanical calculations based on the random-phase approximation (RPA), which we compare with classical simulations obtained solving Maxwell's equations using tabulated dielectric functions. Both approaches result in an excellent agreement for nanodisks with diameters above 13 nm, although quantum confinement and nonlocal effects play an important role for smaller sizes. A.M. acknowledges financial support from the Welch foundation through the J. Evans Attwell-Welch Postdoctoral Fellowship Program of the Smalley Institute of Rice University (Grant L-C-004).

  9. Engineering Curvature-Induced Anisotropy in Thin Ferromagnetic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretiakov, Oleg A.; Morini, Massimiliano; Vasylkevych, Sergiy; Slastikov, Valeriy

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the effect of large curvature and dipolar energy in thin ferromagnetic films with periodically modulated top and bottom surfaces on magnetization behavior. We predict that the dipolar interaction and surface curvature can produce perpendicular anisotropy which can be controlled by engineering special types of periodic surface structures. Similar effects can be achieved by a significant surface roughness in the film. We demonstrate that, in general, the anisotropy can point in an arbitrary direction depending on the surface curvature. Furthermore, we provide simple examples of these periodic surface structures to show how to engineer particular anisotropies in thin films.

  10. Thin tantalum-silicon-oxygen/tantalum-silicon-nitrogen films as high-efficiency humidity diffusion barriers for solar cell encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuer, H. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: Henning.Heuer@izfp-d.fraunhofer.de; Wenzel, C. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Herrmann, D. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Huebner, R. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Leibniz Institut fuer Festkoerper-und Werkstoffforschung Dresden (IFW) Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Zhang, Z.L. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Max-Planck-Gesellschaft fuer Metallforschung (MPI) Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bartha, J.W. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2006-12-05

    Flexible thin-film solar cells require flexible encapsulation to protect the copper-indium-2 selenide (CIS) absorber layer from humidity and aggressive environmental influences. Tantalum-silicon-based diffusion barriers are currently a favorite material to prevent future semiconductor devices from copper diffusion. In this work tantalum-silicon-nitrogen (Ta-Si-N) and tantalum-silicon-oxygen (Ta-Si-O) films were investigated and optimized for thin-film solar cell encapsulation of next-generation flexible solar modules. CIS solar modules were coated with tantalum-based barrier layers. The performance of the thin-film barrier encapsulation was determined by measuring the remaining module efficiency after a 1000 h accelerated aging test. A significantly enhanced stability against humidity diffusion in comparison to non-encapsulated modules was reached with a reactively sputtered thin-film system consisting of 250 nm Ta-Si-O and 15 nm Ta-Si-N.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N.; Hussain, A.; Ahmed, R.; Wan Shamsuri, W. N.; Fu, Y. Q.

    2016-12-01

    Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs - one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  12. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  13. [Spectral emissivity of thin films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, D

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, the contribution of multiple reflections in thin film to the spectral emissivity of thin films of low absorption is discussed. The expression of emissivity of thin films derived here is related to the thin film thickness d and the optical constants n(lambda) and k(lambda). It is shown that in the special case d-->infinity the emissivity of thin films is equivalent to that of the bulk material. Realistic numerical and more precise general numerical results for the dependence of the emissivity on d, n(lambda) and k(lambda) are given.

  14. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  15. Thin film superfluid optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Christopher G; McAuslan, David L; Sachkou, Yauhen; He, Xin; Bowen, Warwick P

    2016-01-01

    Excitations in superfluid helium represent attractive mechanical degrees of freedom for cavity optomechanics schemes. Here we numerically and analytically investigate the properties of optomechanical resonators formed by thin films of superfluid $^4$He covering micrometer-scale whispering gallery mode cavities. We predict that through proper optimization of the interaction between film and optical field, large optomechanical coupling rates $g_0>2\\pi \\times 100$ kHz and single photon cooperativities $C_0>10$ are achievable. Our analytical model reveals the unconventional behaviour of these thin films, such as thicker and heavier films exhibiting smaller effective mass and larger zero point motion. The optomechanical system outlined here provides access to unusual regimes such as $g_0>\\Omega_M$ and opens the prospect of laser cooling a liquid into its quantum ground state.

  16. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  17. Thin, Lightweight Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Improved design for thin, lightweight solar photovoltaic cells with front contacts reduces degradation of electrical output under exposure to energetic charged particles (protons and electrons). Increases ability of cells to maintain structural integrity under exposure to ultraviolet radiation by eliminating ultraviolet-degradable adhesives used to retain cover glasses. Interdigitated front contacts and front junctions formed on semiconductor substrate. Mating contacts formed on back surface of cover glass. Cover glass and substrate electrostatically bonded together.

  18. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  19. Thin-Film Reliability Trends Toward Improved Stability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term, stable performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules will be increasingly important to their successful penetration of the power grid. This paper summarizes more than 150 thin-film and more than 1700 silicon PV degradation rates (Rd) quoted in publications for locations worldwide. Partitioning the literature results by technology and date of installation statistical analysis shows an improvement in degradation rate especially for thin-film technologies in the last decade. A CIGS array deployed at NREL for more than 5 years that appears to be stable supports the literature trends. Indoor and outdoor data indicate undetectable change in performance (0.2+/-0.2 %/yr). One module shows signs of slight degradation from what appears to be an initial manufacturing defect, however it has not affected the overall system performance.

  20. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W

  1. Ultra-thin, single-layer polarization rotator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, T. V.; Truong, V. V., E-mail: Truong.Vo-Van@Concordia.Ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Do, P. A.; Haché, A. [Département de Physique et d’Astronomie, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, E1A 3E9 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate light polarization control over a broad spectral range by a uniform layer of vanadium dioxide as it undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal. Changes in refractive indices create unequal phase shifts on s- and p-polarization components of incident light, and rotation of linear polarization shows intensity modulation by a factor of 10{sup 3} when transmitted through polarizers. This makes possible polarization rotation devices as thin as 50 nm that would be activated thermally, optically or electrically.

  2. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  3. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  4. Carbon Superatom Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canning, A. [Cray Research, PSE, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Canning, A.; Galli, G. [Institut Romand de Recherche Numerique en Physique des Materiaux (IRRMA), IN-Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kim, J. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We report on quantum molecular dynamics simulations of C{sub 28} deposition on a semiconducting surface. Our results show that under certain deposition conditions C{sub 28} {close_quote}s act as building blocks on a nanometer scale to form a thin film of nearly defect-free molecules. The C{sub 28} {close_quote}s behave as carbon superatoms, with the majority of them being threefold or fourfold coordinated, similar to carbon atoms in amorphous systems. The microscopic structure of the deposited film supports recent suggestions about the stability of a new form of carbon, the hyperdiamond solid. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Harnessing the Sun with Thin Film Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R. W. (University of Delaware) Kazmerski, L. L. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    1999-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have a substantial role in meeting electric power needs in the next century, especially with an expected competitive position compared to conventional power-generation and other renewable- energy technologies. Thin-film photovoltaic modules based on CdTe, CuInSe2 or Si can potentially be produced by economical, high-volume manufacturing techniques, dramatically reducing component cost. However, the translation of laboratory thin-film technologies to first-time, large-scale manufacturing has been much more difficult than expected. This is due to the complexity of the processes involved for making large-area PV modules at high rates and with high yields, and compounded by the lack of a fundamental scientific and engineering base required to properly engineer and operate manufacturing equipment. In this paper, we discuss the need to develop diagnostics tools and associated predictive models that quantitatively assess processing conditions and pro duct properties. Incorporation of the diagnostic sensors into both laboratory reactors and manufacturing facilities will (1) underpin the development of solar cells with improved efficiency, and (2) accelerate the scale-up process through intelligent process-control schemes. ''Next-generation'' high-performance (e.g., >25% conversion efficiency) thin-film PV modules will also be assessed, along with critical issues associated with their development.

  6. On generalized extending modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi

    2007-01-01

    A module M is called generalized extending if for any submodule N of M, there is a direct summand K of M such that N≤K and K/N is singular. Any extending module and any singular module are generalized extending. Any homomorphic image of a generalized extending module is generalized extending. Any direct sum of a singular (uniform) module and a semi-simple module is generalized extending. A ring R is a right Co-H-ring ifand only ifall right R modules are generalized extending modules.

  7. Polarization conversion based on plasmonic phase control by an ultra-thin metallic nano-strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Helei; Hu, Dejiao; Deng, Yunsheng; Wu, Xuannan; Xiao, Xiao; Hou, Yidong; Wang, Yunjiao; Shi, Ruiying; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Jinglei

    2016-12-01

    Ultra-thin metallic nano-strips (thinner than skin depth) can lead to anomalous reflection for a transverse magnetic (TM) incidence of some wave-lengths, due to the phase modulation of localized surface plasmon resonance. Based on the principle above, we proposed a method of polarization modulation using ultra-thin metallic nano-strips. When irradiating nano-strips vertically by light with a given polarized angle, we can utilize the phase difference of the TM transmission and transverse electric (TE) transmission near anomalous reflection region to modulate transmission polarization. We have designed and fabricated the ultra-thin metallic nano-strips with the function of quarter-wave plate, the attained transmission Stokes parameter S3 is 0.95. The nano-strips is easy to design and fabricate, also compatible with other optics devices, hence has the potential applications in integrated optics field.

  8. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  9. Modeling Current Transfer from PV Modules Based on Meteorological Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Smith, Ryan; Kurtz, Sarah; Jordan, Dirk; Wohlgemuth, John

    2016-11-21

    Current transferred from the active cell circuit to ground in modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID) stress is analyzed with respect to meteorological data. Duration and coulombs transferred as a function of whether the module is wet (from dew or rain) or the extent of uncondensed surface humidity are quantified based on meteorological indicators. With this, functions predicting the mode and rate of coulomb transfer are developed for use in estimating the relative PID stress associated with temperature, moisture, and system voltage in any climate. Current transfer in a framed crystalline silicon module is relatively high when there is no condensed water on the module, whereas current transfer in a thin-film module held by edge clips is not, and displays a greater fraction of coulombs transferred when wet compared to the framed module in the natural environment.

  10. First Thin Film Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    The constant evolution of the satellite market is asking for better technical performances and reliability for a reduced cost. Solar array is in front line of this challenge. This can be achieved by present technologies progressive improvement in cost reduction or by technological breakthrough. To reach an effective End Of Live performance100 W/kg of solar array is not so easy, even if you suppose that the mass of everything is nothing! Thin film cells are potential candidate to contribute to this challenge with certain confidence level and consequent development plan validation and qualification on ground and flight. Based on a strong flight heritage in flexible Solar Array design, the work has allowed in these last years, to pave the way on road map of thin film technologies . This is encouraged by ESA on many technological contracts put in concurrent engineering. CISG was selected cell and their strategy of design, contributions and results will be presented. Trade-off results and Design to Cost solutions will discussed. Main technical drivers, system design constraints, market access, key technologies needed will be detailed in this paper and the resulting road-map and development plan will be presented.

  11. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  12. Investigation on Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The preparation, current status and trends are investigated for silicon thin film solar cells. The advantages and disadvantages of amorphous silicon thin film, polycrystalline silicon thin film and mono-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells are compared. The future development trends are pointed out. It is found that polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells will be more promising for application with great potential.

  13. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules; Annual Technical Progress Report: 15 June 1999--14 July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Lewis, E. R.; Hogan, S. J.

    2000-09-29

    Spire is addressing the PVMaT project goals of photovoltaic (PV) module cost reduction and improved module manufacturing process technology. New cost-effective automation processes are being developed for post-lamination PV module assembly, where post-lamination is defined as the processes after the solar cells are encapsulated. These processes apply to both crystalline and thin-film solar cell modules. Four main process areas are being addressed: (1) Module buffer storage and handling between steps; (2) Module edge trimming, edge sealing, and framing; (3) Junction-box installation; and (4) Testing for module performance, electrical isolation, and ground-path continuity.

  14. Thin Film Ceramic Strain Sensor Development for High Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Laster, Kimala L.

    2008-01-01

    The need for sensors to operate in harsh environments is illustrated by the need for measurements in the turbine engine hot section. The degradation and damage that develops over time in hot section components can lead to catastrophic failure. At present, the degradation processes that occur in the harsh hot section environment are poorly characterized, which hinders development of more durable components, and since it is so difficult to model turbine blade temperatures, strains, etc, actual measurements are needed. The need to consider ceramic sensing elements is brought about by the temperature limits of metal thin film sensors in harsh environments. The effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to develop high temperature thin film ceramic static strain gauges for application in turbine engines is described, first in the fan and compressor modules, and then in the hot section. The near-term goal of this research effort was to identify candidate thin film ceramic sensor materials and provide a list of possible thin film ceramic sensor materials and corresponding properties to test for viability. A thorough literature search was conducted for ceramics that have the potential for application as high temperature thin film strain gauges chemically and physically compatible with the NASA GRCs microfabrication procedures and substrate materials. Test results are given for tantalum, titanium and zirconium-based nitride and oxynitride ceramic films.

  15. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin Film Solar Cells (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01

    The objectives are: (1) To achieve a high long-term performance reliability for the thin-film CIGS PV modules with more stable materials, device structure designs, and moisture-resistant encapsulation materials and schemes; (2) to evaluate the DH stability of various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs); (3) to identify the degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation rates; (4) to seek chemical and/or physical mitigation methods, and explore new materials. It's important to note that direct exposure to DH represents an extreme condition that a well-encapsulated thin film PV module may never experience.

  16. Design and fabrication of the thin-film micromirror array-actuated for large projection displays

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, K H; Kim, S G

    1998-01-01

    The Thin-film Micromirror Array-actuated (TMA) is a new reflective type light modulator that uses micromachined thin film piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with over 300,000 micromirrors. A working prototype of TMA display system with three TMA modules shows the world best light efficiency at the present time, which is more than 7 lumen per watt light efficiency. Projectors and projection TVs with TMAs will be the most promising device which will provide clear display of electronic image at normal room light condition.

  17. Thin Film of Perovskite Oxide with Atomic Scale p-n Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bin; HUANG Ke-ke; HOU Chang-min; YUAN Hong-ming; PANG Guang-sheng; FENG Shou-hua

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of perovskite manganese oxide La0.66Ca0.29K0.05MnO3(LCKMO) on Au/ITO(ITO=indium tin oxide) substrates were prepared by off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputtering and characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy(HRTEM),and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) at room temperature.The thin films with thickness ranged from 100 nm to 300 nm basically show cubic structures with a=0.3886 nm,the same as that of the raw material used,but the structures are highly modulated.C-AFM results revealed that the atomic scale p-n junction feature of the thin films was the same as that of the single crystals.The preparation of the thin films thus further confirms the possibility of their application extending from micrometer-sized single crystals to macroscopic thin film.

  18. The German Joint Project "Flexible CIGSe Thin Film Solar Cells for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Kai; Brunner, Sebastian; John, Ralf; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Otte, Karsten; Rahm, Andreas; Kessler, Friedrich

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the presented joint project is the development and verification of a flexible, lightweight and highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cell technology on polyimide foil substrate for use in space. Due to the worldwide leading present German activities on the field of chalcopyrite based thin film solar cells a harmonisation of resources shall push this development. Furthermore, this project supports the European Space Agency (ESA) program for the development of thin film solar cell technology for space applications. Recent results of substrate evaluation and CIGSe solar cell and module manufacturing on polyimide foil substrate are presented.

  19. Electrically modulated transparent liquid crystal-optical grating projection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Smith, Cameron; Kristensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A transparent, fully integrated electrically modulated projection technique is presented based on light guiding through a thin liquid crystal layer covering sub-wavelength gratings. The reported device operates at 10 V with response times of 4.5 ms. Analysis of the liquid crystal alignment shows ...

  20. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  1. Module utilization committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  2. MI 4010 Thermoelectric Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report covers the design justification, physical specification and characterization of the MI 4010 module . The purpose of the contract was to...demonstrate the capability to fabricate pieceparts, process into assemblies, and test thermoelectric modules equivalent to the module used in the Hand...Held Thermal Viewer. The completed modules were also subjected to limited demonstration tests of reliability and useful life.

  3. Spinodal dewetting of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Prabhat K.; Puri, S.

    2009-01-01

    Stable thin liquid films are of various scientific and technological applications, e.g., in optical coating, painting technologies, coating thin wires and fibers, lubricants, adhesives, etc. However, the instabilities in a thin film may lead to rupture, hole formation, and other morphological changes which amplify the nonuniformity in the thin film [1]. This morphological evolution in an unstable thin film is generally known as `dewetting' [2]. There have recently been a number of theoretical and experimental studies on dewetting in thin films [3-6]. The process of `spinodal dewetting' comes into the category of a general class of phenomena, spinodal decomposition [7]. The pattern formation taking place during dewetting can also be of great importance in nanotechnology, e.g., for preparing quantum dots [8], nanorings [9], etc. We numerically solve the nonlinear two-dimensional thin film equation [2] for a thin liquid film subjected to the long range van der Waals attraction and short range Born repulsion. The simulation results for the temporal evolution of domains and height profile along diagonal direction of the lattice show the `hills and valleys' short of structures which is the typical morphology obtained during the spinodal dewetting [10]. We obtain the dynamical correlation function and structure factor showing the existence of a characteristic length scale in the system at late time. We give the scaling arguments for the length scale of the drops to be proportional to t1/3 which is in agreement with our numerical results for the domain growth.

  4. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  5. Thin Film Inorganic Electrochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    determined that thin film cathodes of LiCoO2 can be readily performed by either spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These cathodes are electrochemically...active. We have also determined that thin film anodes of Li4Ti5O12 can be prepared by spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These anodes are also

  6. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  7. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  8. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  9. Thin EFG octagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejs, J. P.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes work to advance the manufacturing line capabilities in crystal growth and laser cutting of Mobil Solar's unique edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) octagon technology and to reduce the manufacturing costs of 10 cm x 10 cm polycrystalline silicon EFG wafers. The report summarizes the significant technical improvements in EFG technology achieved in the first 6 months of the PVMaT Phase 2 and the success in meeting program milestones. Technical results are reported for each of the three main pregrain areas: Task 5 -- Thin octagon growth (crystal growth) to reduce the thickness of the octagon to 200 microns; Task 6 -- Laser cutting-to improve the laser cutting process so as to produce wafers with decreased laser cutting damage at increased wafer throughput rates; and Task 7 -- Process control and product specification to implement advanced strategies in crystal growth process control and productivity designed to increase wafer yields.

  10. Thin film interconnect processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Farid

    Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

  11. The religion of thinness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lelwica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the almost religious-like devotion of especially women in pursuing the goal of a thinner body. The quest for a slender body is analysed as a ‘cultural religion’, which the author calls the ‘Religion of Thinness’. The analysis revolves around four observations. The first is that for many women in the US today, the quest for a slender body serves what has historically been a ‘religious’ function: providing a sense of purpose that orients and gives meaning to their lives, especially in times of suffering and uncertainty. Second, this quest has many features in common with traditional religions, including beliefs, myths, rituals, moral codes, and sacred images—all of which encourage women to find ‘salvation’ (i.e., happiness and well-being through the pursuit of a ‘better’ (i.e., thinner body.Third, this secular faith draws so many adherents in large part because it appeals to and addresses what might be referred to as spiritual needs—including the need for a sense of purpose, inspiration, security, virtue, love, and well-being—even though it shortchanges these needs, and, in the long run, fails to deliver the salvation it promises. Fourth, a number of traditional religious ideas, paradigms and motifs tacit­ly inform and support the Religion of Thinness. More specifically, its soteri­ology resurrects and recycles the misogynist, anti-body, other-worldly, and exclusivist aspects of patriarchal religion. Ultimately, the analysis is not only critical of the Religion of Thinness; it also raises suspicions about any clear-cut divisions between ‘religion’, ‘culture’, and ‘the body’. In fact, examining the functions, features, and ideologies embedded in this secular devotion gives us insight into the constitutive role of the body in the production and apprehension of religious and cultural meanings.

  12. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  13. Thin Film Photovoltaics: Markets and Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Jäger-Waldau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, total PV production increased almost by two orders of magnitude, with a compound annual growth rate of over 52%. The most rapid growth in annual cell and module production over the last five years could be observed in Asia, where China and Taiwan together now account for about 60% of worldwide production. Between 2005 and 2009, thin film production capacity and volume increased more than the overall industry but did not keep up in 2010 and 2011 due to the rapid price decline for solar modules. Prices for photovoltaic electricity generation systems have more than halved over the last five years making the technology affordable to an ever-increasing number of customers worldwide. With worldwide over 60 GW cumulative installed photovoltaic electricity generation capacity installed in November 2011, photovoltaics still is a small contributor to the electricity supply, and another 10 to 15 years of sustained and aggressive growth will be required for photovoltaic solar electricity to become one of the main providers of electricity. To achieve this, a continuous improvement of the current solar cell technologies will be necessary.

  14. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  15. Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe module and array at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Powell, R.; Sasala, R. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}, V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.

  16. Learning unit: Thin lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, L.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Learning unit: Thin lenses "Why objects seen through lenses are sometimes upright and sometimes reversed" Nita Laura Simona National College of Arts and Crafts "Constantin Brancusi", Craiova, Romania 1. GEOMETRIC OPTICS. 13 hours Introduction (models, axioms, principles, conventions) 1. Thin lenses (Types of lenses. Defining elements. Path of light rays through lenses. Image formation. Required physical quantities. Lens formulas). 2. Lens systems (Non-collated lenses. Focalless systems). 3. Human eye (Functioning as an optical system. Sight defects and their corrections). 4. Optical instruments (Characteristics exemplified by a magnifying glass. Paths of light rays through a simplified photo camera. Path of light rays through a classical microscope) (Physics curriculum for the IXth grade/ 2011). This scenario exposes a learning unit based on experimental sequences (defining specific competencies), as a succession of lessons started by noticing a problem whose solution assumes the setup of an experiment under laboratory conditions. Progressive learning of theme objectives are realised with sequential experimental steps. The central cognitive process is the induction or the generalization (development of new knowledge based on observation of examples or counterexamples of the concept to be learnt). Pupil interest in theme objectives is triggered by problem-situations, for example: "In order to better see small objects I need a magnifying glass. But when using a magnifier, small object images are sometimes seen upright and sometimes seen reversed!" Along the way, pupils' reasoning will converge to the idea: "The image of an object through a lens depends on the relative distances among object, lens, and observer". Associated learning model: EXPERIMENT Specific competencies: derived from the experiment model, in agreement with the following learning unit steps I. Evoking - Anticipation: Size of the problem, formulation of hypotheses and planning of experiment. II

  17. Carbonaceous Chondrite Thin Section Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R.; Righter, K.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites have long posed a challenge for thin section makers. The variability in sample hardness among the different types, and sometimes within individual sections, creates the need for an adaptable approach at each step of the thin section making process. This poster will share some of the procedural adjustments that have proven to be successful at the NASA JSC Meteorite Thin Section Laboratory. These adjustments are modifications of preparation methods that have been in use for decades and therefore do not require investment in new technology or materials.

  18. Solid-state pulse forming module with adjustable pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Langning; Liu, Jinliang; Qiu, Yongfeng; Chu, Xu; Zhang, Qingmeng

    2017-03-01

    A new solid-state pulse forming module is described in this paper. The pulse forming module is fabricated on a glass ceramic substrate, with the dimension of 250 mm × 95 mm × 4 mm. By changing the copper strips used in the pulse forming modules, the pulse duration of the obtained pulsed can range from 80 ns to 140 ns. Both the simulation and tests show that the pulse forming module has a good pulse forming ability. Under a high voltage in microsecond's time, the new pulse forming modules can hold off a voltage up to 25 kV higher than that of the previous study. In addition, future optimization for the field enhancement near the thin electrode edge has been proposed and simulated.

  19. Thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Marina; Strobel, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In many experiments, it is important to be able to separate a mixture into its chemical components in order to isolate one compound or to assess the purity of the mixture. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is one of the easiest and most versatile methods of doing this because of its low cost, simplicity, quick development time, high sensitivity, and good reproducibility. TLC is used by many industries and fields of research, including pharmaceutical production, clinical analysis, industrial chemistry, environmental toxicology, food chemistry, water, inorganic, and pesticide analysis, dye purity, cosmetics, plant materials, and herbal analysis. In its simplest form, glass plates are coated with a uniform layer of silica gel (SiO2). The dissolved sample is placed on the plate, and the plate is inserted into a screw-top jar containing the developing solvent and a piece of filter paper. When the solvent has risen to near the top of the plate, the plate is removed, dried, and visualized using UV light. Variations on this protocol are used for different purposes, including pretreating the sample, changing the sorbent, plate material, the solvent system, the development techniques, and method of detection and visualization or by coupling TLC to other techniques. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chiral atomically thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.