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Sample records for modulated elliptically polarizing

  1. Magnetic elliptical polarization of Schumann resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentman, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of orthogonal, horizontal components of the magnetic field in the ELF range obtained during September 1985 show that the Schumann resonance eigenfrequencies determined separately for the north-south and east-west magnetic components differ by as much as 0.5 Hz, suggesting that the underlying magnetic signal is not linearly polarized at such times. The high degree of magnetic ellipticity found suggests that the side multiplets of the Schumann resonances corresponding to azimuthally inhomogeneous normal modes are strongly excited in the highly asymmetric earth-ionosphere cavity. The dominant sense of polarization over the measurement passband is found to be right-handed during local daylight hours, and to be left-handed during local nighttime hours. 16 references

  2. Heterodyne detector for measuring the characteristic of elliptically polarized microwaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Michelsen, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, a device is introduced, which is capable of determining the three characteristic parameters of elliptically polarized light (ellipticity, angle of ellipticity, and direction of rotation) for microwave radiation at a frequency of 110 GHz. The device consists of two perpendicu......In the present paper, a device is introduced, which is capable of determining the three characteristic parameters of elliptically polarized light (ellipticity, angle of ellipticity, and direction of rotation) for microwave radiation at a frequency of 110 GHz. The device consists of two...... be calculated. Results from measured and calculated wave characteristics of an elliptically polarized 110 GHz microwave beam for plasma heating launched into the TEXTOR-tokamak experiment are presented. Measurement and calculation are in good agreement. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  3. Development of a superconducting elliptically polarized undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S D; Liang, K S; Jan, J C; Hwang, C S

    2010-01-01

    A superconducting, elliptically polarized undulator (SEPU24) with a period of length 24 mm was developed to provide first-harmonic photons from a 0.8 GeV storage ring for extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography experiment. In SEPU24, two layers of a magnet array structure - with and without rotated magnet arrays - are combined to generate a helical field that provides radiation with wavelength 13.5 nm in the in-band energy. The arrays of iron and aluminium poles were wound with a racetrack coil vertically as for the magnet pole array. The elliptical field is created when the up and down magnet-pole arrays pass excitation currents in alternate directions. SEPU24 is designed with a magnet of gap 6.8 mm, yielding magnetic flux density B x =B z =0.61 T of the helical field. A prototype magnet was fabricated with a diode for quench protection, and assembled in a test dewar to test the magnet performance. A cryogenic Hall-probe system with a precise linear stage was used to measure the distribution of the magnetic field. We describe the design concept and algorithm, the engineering design, the calculation of the magnetic field, the construction and testing of the 10-pole prototype magnet and related issues.

  4. ON ELLIPTICALLY POLARIZED ANTENNAS IN THE PRESENCE OF GROUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of ground reflections upon the far field of an elliptically polarized antenna of ar itrary orientation with r spect to ground is...investigated. The equation of the polarization ellipse produced by an elliptically polarized antenna in the presence of ground is derived, AND SEVERAL...EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATE THE VARIATION IN THE AXIS RATIO OF THE POLARIZATION ELLIPSE AS A FUNCTION OF THE GEOMETRY OF THE MEASURING SETUP. A method is presented

  5. Polarization characteristics of double-clad elliptical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Lit, J W

    1990-12-20

    A scalar variational analysis based on a Gaussian approximation of the fundamental mode of a double-clad elliptical fiber with a depressed inner cladding is studied. The polarization properties and graphic results are presented; they are given in terms of three parameters: the ratio of the major axis to the minor axis of the core, the ratio of the inner cladding major axis to the core major axis, and the difference between the core index and the inner cladding index. The variations of both the spot size and the field intensity with core ellipticity are examined. It is shown that high birefringence and dispersion-free orthogonal polarization modes can be obtained within the single-mode region and that the field intensity distribution may be more confined to the fiber center than in a single-clad elliptical fiber.

  6. Three dimensional alignment of molecules using elliptically polarized laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Bjerre, N.; Hald, K.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, that an intense, elliptically polarized, nonresonant laser field can simultaneously force all three axes of a molecule to align along given axes fixed in space, thus inhibiting the free rotation in all three Euler angles. Theoretically, the effect...

  7. An electrostatic elliptical mirror for neutral polar molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Flórez, A Isabel; Meek, Samuel A; Haak, Henrik; Conrad, Horst; Santambrogio, Gabriele; Meijer, Gerard

    2011-11-14

    Focusing optics for neutral molecules finds application in shaping and steering molecular beams. Here we present an electrostatic elliptical mirror for polar molecules consisting of an array of microstructured gold electrodes deposited on a glass substrate. Alternating positive and negative voltages applied to the electrodes create a repulsive potential for molecules in low-field-seeking states. The equipotential lines are parallel to the substrate surface, which is bent in an elliptical shape. The mirror is characterized by focusing a beam of metastable CO molecules and the results are compared to the outcome of trajectory simulations.

  8. Generation of Elliptically Polarized Terahertz Waves from Antiferromagnetic Sandwiched Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Shu-Fang; Wang, Xuan-Zhang; Song, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xiang-Guang; Qu, Xiu-Rong

    2018-04-01

    The generation of elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave of an antiferromagnetic (AF)/dielectric sandwiched structure in the terahertz range is studied. The frequency and external magnetic field can change the AF optical response, resulting in the generation of elliptical polarization. An especially useful geometry with high levels of the generation of elliptical polarization is found in the case where an incident electromagnetic wave perpendicularly illuminates the sandwiched structure, the AF anisotropy axis is vertical to the wave-vector and the external magnetic field is pointed along the wave-vector. In numerical calculations, the AF layer is FeF2 and the dielectric layers are ZnF2. Although the effect originates from the AF layer, it can be also influenced by the sandwiched structure. We found that the ZnF2/FeF2/ZnF2 structure possesses optimal rotation of the principal axis and ellipticity, which can reach up to about thrice that of a single FeF2 layer.

  9. Atomic processes in strong bichromatic elliptically polarized laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odžak, S., E-mail: senad.odzak@gmail.com; Hasović, E.; Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Čerkić, A., E-mail: anercerkic@yahoo.com; Fetić, B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Kramo, A. [BHANSA, Aeronautical Meteorology Department, Kurta Schorka 36, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Busuladžić, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Čekaluša 90, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Milošević, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bistrik 7, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-25

    Nonlinear quantum-mechanical phenomena in strong laser fields, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) are significantly modified if the applied laser field is bichromatic and/or elliptically polarized. Numerical results obtained within the strong-field approximation are presented for two special cases. We show results for HHG by plasma ablation in a bichromatic linearly polarized laser field. We also consider the ATI process in bicircular field which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields.

  10. Full Alignment of Molecules Using Elliptically Polarized Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Juul; Hald, Kasper; Seideman, Tamar

    When a molecule with an anisotropic polarizability is placed in a strong nonresonant laser field the interaction occurs through the induced dipole moment. The outcome is that the molecule experiences an angular dependent potential energy. It is now well established that a linearly polarized laser...... field can be used to align molecules along their axis of highest polarizability. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, that an elliptically polarized laser field can be used to simultaneously force two axes of a molecule into alignment through the same mechanism. Due to the rigidity...

  11. Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper reported elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned N2 using a linearly polarized driving field [X. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009)]. This observation cannot be explained in the standard treatment of the Lewenstein model and has been ascribed to many...

  12. An elliptically-polarizing undulator with phase adjustable energy and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.

    1993-08-01

    The authors present a planar helical undulator designed to produce elliptically polarized light. Helical magnetic fields may be produced by a variety of undulators with four parallel cassettes of magnets. In their design, all cassettes are mounted in two planes on slides so that they may be moved parallel to the electron beam. This allows the undulator to produce x-rays of left- or right-handed elliptical or circular polarization as well as horizontal or vertical linear polarization. In model calculations, they have found that by sliding the top pair of rows with respect to the bottom pair, or the left pair with respect to the right pair, they retain the polarization setting but change the magnetic field strength, and hence the x-ray energy. This allows them to select both energy and polarization by independent phase adjustments alone, without changing the gap between the rows. Such a design may be simpler to construct than an adjustable gap machine. The authors present calculations that model its operation and its effects on an electron beam

  13. Manipulation of dielectric Rayleigh particles using highly focused elliptically polarized vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bing; Xu, Danfeng; Rui, Guanghao; Lian, Meng; Cui, Yiping; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-09-20

    Generation of vectorial optical fields with arbitrary polarization distribution is of great interest in areas where exotic optical fields are desired. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the versatile generation of linearly polarized vector fields, elliptically polarized vector fields, and circularly polarized vortex beams through introducing attenuators in a common-path interferometer. By means of Richards-Wolf vectorial diffraction method, the characteristics of the highly focused elliptically polarized vector fields are studied. The optical force and torque on a dielectric Rayleigh particle produced by these tightly focused vector fields are calculated and exploited for the stable trapping of dielectric Rayleigh particles. It is shown that the additional degree of freedom provided by the elliptically polarized vector field allows one to control the spatial structure of polarization, to engineer the focusing field, and to tailor the optical force and torque on a dielectric Rayleigh particle.

  14. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on amplitude reconstruction of elliptically polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianjun; Shen, Xueju; Lei, Ming

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel optical asymmetric image encryption method based on amplitude reconstruction of elliptically polarized light, which is free from silhouette problem. The original image is analytically separated into two phase-only masks firstly, and then the two masks are encoded into amplitudes of the orthogonal polarization components of an elliptically polarized light. Finally, the elliptically polarized light propagates through a linear polarizer, and the output intensity distribution is recorded by a CCD camera to obtain the ciphertext. The whole encryption procedure could be implemented by using commonly used optical elements, and it combines diffusion process and confusion process. As a result, the proposed method achieves high robustness against iterative-algorithm-based attacks. Simulation results are presented to prove the validity of the proposed cryptography.

  15. Multiple scattering of elliptically polarized light in two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodnichev, E. E., E-mail: gorodn@theor.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    For elliptically polarized light incident on a two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities, the Stokes parameters of scattered waves are calculated. Multiple scattering is assumed to be sharply anisotropic. The degree of polarization of scattered radiation is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of depth when the incident wave is circularly polarized or its polarization vector is not parallel to the symmetry axis of the inhomogeneities.

  16. Electromagnetically induced transparency in the case of elliptic polarization of interacting fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshkov, Oleg M.

    2018-04-01

    The theoretical investigation results of disintegration effect of elliptic polarized shot probe pulses of electromagnetically induced transparency in the counterintuitive superposed elliptic polarized control field and in weak probe field approximation are presented. It is shown that this disintegration occurs because the probe field in the medium is the sum of two normal modes, which correspond to elliptic polarized pulses with different speeds of propagation. The polarization ellipses of normal modes have equal eccentricities and mutually perpendicular major axes. Major axis of polarization ellipse of one normal mode is parallel to polarization ellipse major axis of control field, and electric vector of this mode rotates in the opposite direction, than electric vector of the control field. The electric vector other normal mode rotates in the same direction that the control field electric vector. The normal mode speed of the first type aforementioned is less than that of the second type. The polarization characteristics of the normal mode depend uniquely on the polarization characteristics of elliptic polarized control field and remain changeless in the propagation process. The theoretical investigation is performed for Λ-scheme of degenerated quantum transitions between 3P0, 3P10 and 3P2 energy levels of 208Pb isotope.

  17. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-06-20

    We demonstrate a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on the principle of elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique. The device of an array of linear polarizers is introduced to achieve linear truncation on the spatially resolved elliptical polarization distribution during image encryption. This encoding process can be characterized as confusion-based optical cryptography that involves no Fourier lens and diffusion operation. Based on the Jones matrix formalism, the intensity transmittance for this truncation is deduced to perform elliptical polarized light reconstruction based on two intensity measurements. Use of a quick response code makes the proposed cryptosystem practical, with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance. Both simulation and preliminary experimental results that support theoretical analysis are presented. An analysis of the resistance of the proposed method on a known public key attack is also provided.

  18. Waveguide elliptic polarizers for ECH at down-shifted frequencies on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    ECH experiments on PLT with resonance frequencies of 80 to 90 GHz at the plasma center use 60 GHz extraordinary mode (X-mode) propagation at 30 0 from the toroidal field. Efficient excitation of this mode requires elliptic polarization of the incident wave at the plasma edge. On PLT the elliptic polarization is achieved outside the vacuum vessel in an elliptically deformed section of circular waveguide propagating TM11, a mode that is intermediate between TE01 and HE11 (which has an ideal radiation pattern). The squeeze and orientation of the TM11 polarizer are adjusted to compensate both for the birefringence of a corrugated bend propagating HE11 and for a flat mirror inside PLT that reverses the sense of rotation of the polarization. 11 refs., 8 figs

  19. Polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules generated by linearly polarized intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations for polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned N 2 , CO 2 , and O 2 molecules generated by linearly polarized lasers. Within the rescattering model, the two polarization amplitudes of the harmonics are determined by the photo-recombination amplitudes for photons emitted with polarization parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the same returning electron wave packet. Our results show clear species-dependent polarization states, in excellent agreement with experiments. We further note that the measured polarization ellipse of the harmonic furnishes the needed parameters for a 'complete' experiment in molecules.

  20. Elliptical quantum dots as on-demand single photons sources with deterministic polarization states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Demory, Brandon; Ku, Pei-Cheng, E-mail: peicheng@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States); Zhang, Lei; Hill, Tyler A.; Deng, Hui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    In quantum information, control of the single photon's polarization is essential. Here, we demonstrate single photon generation in a pre-programmed and deterministic polarization state, on a chip-scale platform, utilizing site-controlled elliptical quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by a top-down approach. The polarization from the QD emission is found to be linear with a high degree of linear polarization and parallel to the long axis of the ellipse. Single photon emission with orthogonal polarizations is achieved, and the dependence of the degree of linear polarization on the QD geometry is analyzed.

  1. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells’ resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.

  2. Evaluation of mode purity of ordinary and extraordinary modes by fixed elliptically polarized wave for ECH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Mikio

    1991-08-01

    Mode separation ratio from an arbitrary elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave to an ordinary and an extraordinary modes on a plasma surface for oblique launch is evaluated quantitatively for designing an electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) antenna. An optimized elliptical polarization for the wide range of injection angles and magnetic fields is firstly investigated for ECCD and ECH experiments. (author)

  3. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-08-01

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.

  4. Interrogation of orbital structure by elliptically polarized intense femtosecond laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation and present investigations of the imprint of the orbital angular node in photoelectron momentum distributions of an aligned atomic p-type orbital following ionization by an intense elliptically polarized laser pulse of femtosecond...

  5. Comparison of two superconducting elliptical undulators for generating circularly polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Hwang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of two planar superconducting elliptical undulators—a vertically wound racetrack coil structure and a staggered array structure—to generate a circularly polarized hard x-ray source was investigated. The magnetic poles and wires of the up and down magnet arrays were rotated in alternating directions on the horizontal plane, an elliptical field is generated to provide circularly polarized light in the electron-storage ring and the energy-recovery linac accelerator. Rapid switching between right- and left-circularly polarized radiations is performed using two undulators with oppositely rotated wires and poles. Given a periodic length of 15 mm and a gap of 5 mm, the magnetic-flux densities in the elliptical undulator are B_{z}=1.2   T (B_{x}=0.6   T and B_{z}=0.35   T (B_{x}=0.15   T in the planar vertically wound racetrack coil and the staggered structure with poles rotated by 35° and 25°, respectively. In maximizing the merit of the flux and the width of the effective field region in the two superconducting elliptical undulators, the trade-off rotation angles of the coils and poles are 20° and 5°, for vertically wound racetrack coil and staggered undulators, respectively.

  6. Theory of the photoelectric effect assisted by an elliptically polarized laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shumin; Jentschura, Ulrich D

    2009-01-01

    The laser-assisted photoelectric effect in atomic hydrogen is investigated for linear, circular and general elliptic polarizations. The perturbative dressed state of the atom in an elliptically polarized nonresonant laser field is derived in the velocity gauge. The continuum state of the ejected electron is described by a Coulomb-Volkov wavefunction. Numerical results show that the ionization cross section by a vacuum ultraviolet photon is enhanced at high laser field intensities and low frequencies. At small and extremely large scattering angles (measured with respect to the wave vector of the incoming vacuum ultraviolet photon), the process for emitting a laser photon is predominant, while at medium angles, the result favours the process without a laser photon exchange. The dependence of the results on the laser polarization and on various geometries is studied, and an interesting pattern is found for the dependence on the frequency of the dressing laser; an intuitive explanation is offered.

  7. Interrogation of orbital structure by elliptically polarized intense femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation and present investigations of the imprint of the orbital angular node in photoelectron momentum distributions of an aligned atomic p-type orbital following ionization by an intense elliptically polarized laser pulse of femtosecond duration. We investigate the role of light ellipticity and the alignment angle of the major polarization axis of the external field relative to the probed orbital by studying radial and angular momentum distributions, the latter at a fixed narrow interval of final momenta close to the peak of the photoelectron momentum distribution. In general only the angular distributions carry a clear signature of the orbital symmetry. Our study shows that circular polarization gives the most clear imprints of orbital nodes. These findings are insensitive to pulse duration.

  8. Sequential double photodetachment of He- in elliptically polarized laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génévriez, Matthieu; Dunseath, Kevin M.; Terao-Dunseath, Mariko; Urbain, Xavier

    2018-02-01

    Four-photon double detachment of the helium negative ion is investigated experimentally and theoretically for photon energies where the transient helium atom is in the 1 s 2 s 3S or 1 s 2 p P3o states, which subsequently ionize by absorption of three photons. Ionization is enhanced by intermediate resonances, giving rise to series of peaks in the He+ spectrum, which we study in detail. The He+ yield is measured in the wavelength ranges from 530 to 560 nm and from 685 to 730 nm and for various polarizations of the laser light. Double detachment is treated theoretically as a sequential process, within the framework of R -matrix theory for the first step and effective Hamiltonian theory for the second step. Experimental conditions are accurately modeled, and the measured and simulated yields are in good qualitative and, in some cases, quantitative agreement. Resonances in the double detachment spectra can be attributed to well-defined Rydberg states of the transient atom. The double detachment yield exhibits a strong dependence on the laser polarization which can be related to the magnetic quantum number of the intermediate atomic state. We also investigate the possibility of nonsequential double detachment with a two-color experiment but observe no evidence for it.

  9. Generation of arbitrary vector fields based on a pair of orthogonal elliptically polarized base vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Danfeng; Gu, Bing; Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen; Cui, Yiping

    2016-02-22

    We present an arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization based on the combination of a pair of orthogonal elliptically polarized base vectors on the Poincaré sphere. It is shown that the created vector field is only dependent on the latitude angle 2χ but is independent on the longitude angle 2ψ on the Poincaré sphere. By adjusting the latitude angle 2χ, which is related to two identical waveplates in a common path interferometric arrangement, one could obtain arbitrary type of vector fields. Experimentally, we demonstrate the generation of such kind of vector fields and confirm the distribution of state of polarization by the measurement of Stokes parameters. Besides, we investigate the tight focusing properties of these vector fields. It is found that the additional degree of freedom 2χ provided by arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization allows one to control the spatial structure of polarization and to engineer the focusing field.

  10. Environmental performance of an elliptical core polarization maintaining optical fiber for fiber optic gyro applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Vincent P.; Squires, Emily M.; Watkins, James J.

    1994-03-01

    Corning has introduced a new polarization-maintaining optical fiber to satisfy customer requirements for a range of commercial and military FOG applications. This fiber has an elliptical core, matched-clad design, and is intended for operation in the 780 to 850 nm wavelength region. The fiber has a beat length less than 1.5 mm, attenuation rate less than 10 dB/km, and a typical coiled h-parameter less than 1.5 X 10-4 m-1 in the designated operating wavelength range. It has a cladding diameter of 80 micrometers and a coating diameter of 185 micrometers . The coating is an acrylate system, similar to that used in telecommunications optical fibers. We report on the performance of this elliptical core fiber for a variety of environmental exposures representative of an automotive application.

  11. Analysis of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states for bell inequality tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; Smirr, J.-L.; Kaiser, F.; Diamanti, E.; Issautier, A.; Alibart, O.; Frey, R.; Zaquine, I.; Tanzilli, S.

    2012-06-01

    When elliptically polarized maximally entangled states are considered, i.e., states having a non random phase factor between the two bipartite polarization components, the standard settings used for optimal violation of Bell inequalities are no longer adapted. One way to retrieve the maximal amount of violation is to compensate for this phase while keeping the standard Bell inequality analysis settings. We propose in this paper a general theoretical approach that allows determining and adjusting the phase of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states in order to optimize the violation of Bell inequalities. The formalism is also applied to several suggested experimental phase compensation schemes. In order to emphasize the simplicity and relevance of our approach, we also describe an experimental implementation using a standard Soleil-Babinet phase compensator. This device is employed to correct the phase that appears in the maximally entangled state generated from a type-II nonlinear photon-pair source after the photons are created and distributed over fiber channels.

  12. Isolated elliptically polarized attosecond soft X-ray with high-brilliance using polarization gating of harmonics from relativistic plasmas at oblique incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ya; Li, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng

    2018-02-19

    The production of intense isolated attosecond pulse is a major goal in ultrafast research. Recent advances in high harmonic generation from relativistic plasma mirrors under oblique incidence interactions gave rise to photon-rich attosecond pulses with circular or elliptical polarization. However, to achieve an isolated elliptical attosecond pulse via polarization gating using currently available long driving pulses remains a challenge, because polarization gating of high harmonics from relativistic plasmas is assumed only possible at normal or near-normal incidence. Here we numerically demonstrate a scheme around this problem. We show that via control of plasma dynamics by managing laser polarization, it is possible to gate an intense single attosecond pulse with high ellipticity extending to the soft X-ray regime at oblique incidence. This approach thus paves the way towards a powerful tool enabling high-time-resolution probe of dynamics of chiral systems and magnetic materials with current laser technology.

  13. Nonadiabatic theory of strong-field atomic effects under elliptical polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xu; Eberly, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Elliptically polarized laser fields provide a new channel for access to strong-field processes that are either suppressed or not present under linear polarization. Quantum theory is mostly unavailable for their analysis, and we report here results of a systematic study based on a classical ensemble theory with solution of the relevant ab inito time-dependent Newton equations for selected model atoms. The study's approach is necessarily nonadiabatic, as it follows individual electron trajectories leading to single, double, and triple ionizations. Of particular interest are new results bearing on open questions concerning experimental reports of unexplained species dependences as well as double-electron release times that are badly matched by a conventional adiabatic quantum tunneling theory. We also report the first analysis of electron trajectories for sequential and non-sequential triple ionization.

  14. Terahertz polarization converter based on all-dielectric high birefringence metamaterial with elliptical air holes

    KAUST Repository

    Zi, Jianchen

    2018-02-15

    Metamaterials have been widely applied in the polarization conversion of terahertz (THz) waves. However, common plasmonic metamaterials usually work as reflective devices and have low transmissions. All-dielectric metamaterials can overcome these shortcomings. An all-dielectric metamaterial based on silicon with elliptical air holes is reported to achieve high artificial birefringence at THz frequencies. Simulations show that with appropriate structural parameters the birefringence of the dielectric metamaterial can remain flat and is above 0.7 within a broad band. Moreover, the metamaterial can be designed as a broadband quarter wave plate. A sample metamaterial was fabricated and tested to prove the validity of the simulations, and the sample could work as a quarter wave plate at 1.76 THz. The all-dielectric metamaterial that we proposed is of great significance for high performance THz polarization converters.

  15. Ionization in elliptically polarized pulses: Multielectron polarization effects and asymmetry of photoelectron momentum distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvetsov-Shilovskiy, Nikolay; Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    In the tunneling regime we present a semiclassical model of above-threshold ionization with inclusion of the Stark shift of the initial state, the Coulomb potential, and a polarization induced dipole potential. The model is used for the investigation of the photoelectron momentum distributions...... in close to circularly polarized light, and it is validated by comparison with ab initio results and experiments. The momentum distributions are shown to be highly sensitive to the tunneling exit point, the Coulomb force, and the dipole potential from the induced dipole in the atomic core...

  16. Polarization modulation in Young's interference experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervo, Jani

    2008-01-01

    Polarization properties at the observation screen in Young's interference experiment are examined. Several recent results on the modulation of Stokes parameters, including the minimum number of modulated parameters, are reviewed. The theory is then applied to find out the relation between the Stokes parameters at the pinholes and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase at the screen.

  17. Longitudinal elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in off-diagonal magnetoelectric split-ring composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, S T; Wang, Weihua; Zhou, L; Lin, Z F

    2009-07-22

    We study the propagation of plane electromagnetic waves through different systems consisting of arrays of split rings of different orientations. Many extraordinary EM phenomena were discovered in such systems, contributed by the off-diagonal magnetoelectric susceptibilities. We find a mode such that the electric field becomes elliptically polarized with a component in the longitudinal direction (i.e. parallel to the wavevector). Even though the group velocity [Formula: see text] and the wavevector k are parallel, in the presence of damping, the Poynting vector does not just get 'broadened', but can possess a component perpendicular to the wavevector. The speed of light can be real even when the product ϵμ is negative. Other novel properties are explored.

  18. Electromagnetic frozen waves with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato-Zanarella, Mateus; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2016-11-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are a class of diffraction- and attenuation-resistant beams whose intensity pattern along the direction of propagation can be chosen arbitrarily, thus making them relevant for engineering the spatial configuration of optical fields. To date, analyses of such beams have been done essentially for the scalar case, with the vectorial nature of the electromagnetic fields often neglected. Although it is expected that the field components keep the fundamental properties of the scalar FWs, a deeper understanding of their electromagnetic counterparts is mandatory in order to exploit their different possible polarization states. The purpose of this paper is to study the properties of electromagnetic FWs with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations under paraxial and nonparaxial regimes in nonabsorbing media. An intensity pattern is chosen for a scalar FW, and the vectorial solutions are built after it via the use of Maxwell's equations. The results show that the field components and the longitudinal component of the time-averaged Poynting vector closely follow the pattern chosen even under highly nonparaxial conditions, showing the robustness of the FW structure to parameters variations.

  19. Probing the ionization wave packet and recollision dynamics with an elliptically polarized strong laser field in the nondipole regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J.; Willenberg, B.; Daněk, J.; Mayer, B. W.; Phillips, C. R.; Gallmann, L.; Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.; Keller, U.

    2018-01-01

    We explore ionization and rescattering in strong mid-infrared laser fields in the nondipole regime over the full range of polarization ellipticity. In three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions (3D PMDs) measured with velocity map imaging spectroscopy, we observe the appearance of a sharp ridge structure along the major polarization axis. Within a certain range of ellipticity, the electrons in this ridge are clearly separated from the two lobes that commonly appear in the PMD with elliptically polarized laser fields. In contrast to the well-known lobes of direct electrons, the sharp ridge is created by Coulomb focusing of the softly recolliding electrons. These ridge electrons are directly related to a counterintuitive shift of the PMD peak opposite to the laser beam propagation direction when the dipole approximation breaks down. The ellipticity-dependent 3D PMDs give access to different ionization and recollision dynamics with appropriate filters in the momentum space. For example, we can extract information about the spread of the initial wave packet and the Coulomb momentum transfer of the rescattering electrons.

  20. Development and fabrication of the vacuum systems for an elliptically polarized undulator at Taiwan Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chun; Chan, Che-Kai; Wu, Ling-Hui; Shueh, Chin; Shen, I.-Ching; Cheng, Chia-Mu; Yang, I.-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Three sets of a vacuum system were developed and fabricated for elliptically polarized undulators (EPU) of a 3-GeV synchrotron facility. These chambers were shaped with low roughness extrusion and oil-free machining; the design combines aluminium and stainless steel. The use of a bimetallic material to connect the EPU to the vacuum system achieves the vacuum sealing and to resolve the leakage issue due to bake process induced thermal expansion difference. The interior of the EPU chamber consists of a non-evaporable-getter strip pump in a narrow space to absorb photon-stimulated desorption and to provide a RF bridge design to decrease impedance effect in the two ends of EPU chamber. To fabricate these chambers and to evaluate the related performance, we performed a computer simulation to optimize the structure. During the machining and welding, the least deformation was achieved, less than 0.1 mm near 4 m. In the installation, the linear slider can provide a stable and precision moved along parallel the electron beam direction smoothly for the EPU chamber to decrease the twist issue during baking process. The pressure of the EPU chamber attained less than 2×10-8 Pa through baking. These vacuum systems of the EPU magnet have been installed in the electron storage ring of Taiwan Photon Source in 2015 May and have normally operated at 300 mA continuously since, and to keep beam life time achieved over than 12 h.

  1. Development and fabrication of the vacuum systems for an elliptically polarized undulator at Taiwan Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Chun, E-mail: chinchun@nsrrc.org.tw; Chan, Che-Kai; Wu, Ling-Hui; Shueh, Chin; Shen, I.-Ching; Cheng, Chia-Mu; Yang, I.-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Three sets of a vacuum system were developed and fabricated for elliptically polarized undulators (EPU) of a 3-GeV synchrotron facility. These chambers were shaped with low roughness extrusion and oil-free machining; the design combines aluminium and stainless steel. The use of a bimetallic material to connect the EPU to the vacuum system achieves the vacuum sealing and to resolve the leakage issue due to bake process induced thermal expansion difference. The interior of the EPU chamber consists of a non-evaporable-getter strip pump in a narrow space to absorb photon-stimulated desorption and to provide a RF bridge design to decrease impedance effect in the two ends of EPU chamber. To fabricate these chambers and to evaluate the related performance, we performed a computer simulation to optimize the structure. During the machining and welding, the least deformation was achieved, less than 0.1 mm near 4 m. In the installation, the linear slider can provide a stable and precision moved along parallel the electron beam direction smoothly for the EPU chamber to decrease the twist issue during baking process. The pressure of the EPU chamber attained less than 2×10{sup −8} Pa through baking. These vacuum systems of the EPU magnet have been installed in the electron storage ring of Taiwan Photon Source in 2015 May and have normally operated at 300 mA continuously since, and to keep beam life time achieved over than 12 h.

  2. Interplay between Coulomb-focusing and non-dipole effects in strong-field ionization with elliptical polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daněk, J.; Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.; Willenberg, B.; Maurer, J.; Mayer, B. W.; Phillips, C. R.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.

    2018-06-01

    We study strong-field ionization and rescattering beyond the long-wavelength limit of the dipole approximation with elliptically polarized mid-IR laser pulses. Full three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions (PMDs) measured with velocity map imaging and tomographic reconstruction revealed an unexpected sharp ridge structure in the polarization plane (2018 Phys. Rev. A 97 013404). This thin line-shaped ridge structure for low-energy photoelectrons is correlated with the ellipticity-dependent asymmetry of the PMD along the beam propagation direction. The peak of the projection of the PMD onto the beam propagation axis is shifted from negative to positive values when the sharp ridge fades away with increasing ellipticity. With classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations and analytical analysis, we study the underlying physics of this feature. The underlying physics is based on the interplay between the lateral drift of the ionized electron, the laser magnetic field induced drift in the laser propagation direction, and Coulomb focusing. To apply our observations to emerging techniques relying on strong-field ionization processes, including time-resolved holography and molecular imaging, we present a detailed classical trajectory-based analysis of our observations. The analysis leads to the explanation of the fine structure of the ridge and its non-dipole behavior upon rescattering while introducing restrictions on the ellipticity. These restrictions as well as the ionization and recollision phases provide additional observables to gain information on the timing of the ionization and recollision process and non-dipole properties of the ionization process.

  3. Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehling, Tien T.; Wu, Sheldon S.Q.; Khairallah, Saad A.; Roehling, John D.; Soezeri, S. Stefan; Crumb, Michael F.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-01-01

    Additively manufactured (AM) metals are often highly textured, containing large columnar grains that initiate epitaxially under steep temperature gradients and rapid solidification conditions. These unique microstructures partially account for the massive property disparity existing between AM and conventionally processed alloys. Although equiaxed grains are desirable for isotropic mechanical behavior, the columnar-to-equiaxed transition remains difficult to predict for conventional solidification processes, and much more so for AM. In this study, the effects of laser intensity profile ellipticity on melt track macrostructures and microstructures were studied in 316L stainless steel. Experimental results were supported by temperature gradients and melt velocities simulated using the ALE3D multi-physics code. As a general trend, columnar grains preferentially formed with increasing laser power and scan speed for all beam profiles. However, when conduction mode laser heating occurs, scan parameters that result in coarse columnar microstructures using Gaussian profiles produce equiaxed or mixed equiaxed-columnar microstructures using elliptical profiles. By modulating spatial laser intensity profiles on the fly, site-specific microstructures and properties can be directly engineered into additively manufactured parts.

  4. Large enhancement of deuteron polarization with frequency modulated microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, S; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin,; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birda, I G; Birsa, R; Bjrkholm, P; Bonner, B E; de Botton, N; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bressan, A; Brullc, A; Buchanan, J; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Chen, J P; Clement, J; Clocchiatti, M; Corcoran, M D; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Deshpande, S; Dalla Torre, A; Van Dantzig, R; Dhawan, S; Dulya, C; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Day, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, B; Garabatos, C; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Giorgi, M; von Goeler, E; Goloutvin, Igor A; Gómez, A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, D; von Harrach, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; De Jong, M; Kabu, E M; Kageya, T; Kaiser, R; Karev, A; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kisselev, Yu; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Kukhtin, V; Kyynarinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Lau, V; Krivokhijinea, K; Layda, T; Le Go, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; López-Ponte, S; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B; McCarthy, J S; van Middelkoop, K; Medved, G; Miller, D; Mitchell, J; Mori, K; Moromisato, J; Mutchler, G S; Nagaitsev, A; Nassalski, J; Naumann, Lutz; Neganov, B; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J E J; Ogawa, A; Okumi, S; Ozben, C S; Penzo, Aldo L; Pérez, C A; Perrot-Kunne, F; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, D; Peshekhonov, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Reyhancan, I; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, E; Rondon, O; Ropelewski, Leszek; Rosado, A; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Salvato, G; Sandacz, A; Sanders, D; Savin, I; Schiavon, Paolo; Schüler, K P; Segel, R; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y; Sergeev, S; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Smirnov, G; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stuhrmann, H; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thiel, W; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, R; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Willumeit, R; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Yañez, A; Zanetti, A M; Zhao, J; Zamiatin, N I

    1996-01-01

    We report a large enhancement of 1.7 in deuteron polarization up to values of 0.6 due to frequency modulation of the polarizing microwaves in a two liters polarized target using the method of dynamic nuclear polarization. This target was used during a deep inelastic polarized muon-deuteron scattering experiment at CERN. Measurements of the electron paramagnetic resonance absorption spectra show that frequency modulation gives rise to additional microwave absorption in the spectral wings. Although these results are not understood theoretically, they may provide a useful testing ground for the deeper understanding of dynamic nuclear polarization.

  5. Compton scattering and electron-atom scattering in an elliptically polarized laser field of relativistic radiation power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, P.; Kaminski, J.Z.; Ehlotzky, F.

    2003-01-01

    Presently available laser sources can yield powers for which the ponderomotive energy of an electron U p can be equal to or even larger than the rest energy mc 2 of an electron. Therefore it has become of interest to consider fundamental radiation-induced or assisted processes in such powerful laser fields. In the present work we consider laser-induced Compton scattering and laser-assisted electron atom scattering in such fields, assuming that the laser beam has arbitrary elliptic polarization. We investigate in detail the angular and polarisation dependence of the differential cross-sections of the two laser-induced or laser-assisted nonlinear processes as a function of the order N of absorbed or emitted laser photons ω. The present work is a generalization of our previous analysis of Compton scattering and electron-atom scattering in a linearly polarized laser field. (authors)

  6. Measurement of third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP using extended Z-scan technique with elliptical polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Tomohisa; Hara, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-01

    The elliptical polarization dependence of the two-photon absorption coefficient β in InP has been measured by the extended Z-scan technique for thick materials in the wavelength range from 1640 to 1800 nm. The analytical formula of the Z-scan technique has been extended with consideration of multiple reflections. The Z-scan results have been fitted very well by the formula and β has been evaluated accurately. The three independent elements of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP have also been determined accurately from the elliptical polarization dependence of β.

  7. Chaos and its control in the pitch motion of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in polar elliptic orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica Aplicada, 26006 Logrono (Spain)], E-mail: manuel.inarrea@unirioja.es

    2009-05-30

    We study the pitch attitude dynamics of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in a polar almost circular orbit under the influence of a gravity gradient torque. The spacecraft is perturbed by the small eccentricity of the elliptic orbit and by a small magnetic torque generated by the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the magnetic moment of the spacecraft. Under both perturbations, we show that the pitch motion exhibits heteroclinic chaotic behavior by means of the Melnikov method. Numerical methods applied to simulations of the pitch motion also confirm the chaotic character of the spacecraft attitude dynamics. Finally, a linear time-delay feedback method for controlling chaos is applied to the governing equations of the spacecraft pitch motion in order to remove the chaotic character of initially irregular attitude motions and transform them into periodic ones.

  8. Elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized quantum electron-positron plasma with effects of exchange-correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmansouri, M., E-mail: mshmansouri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156-8 8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-15

    The dispersion properties of elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized electron-positron-pair (EP-pair) plasma are studied with the effects of particle dispersion associated with the Bohm potential, the Fermi degenerate pressure, and the exchange-correlation force. Two possible modes of the extraordinary or X wave, modified by these quantum effects, are identified and their propagation characteristics are investigated numerically. It is shown that the upper-hybrid frequency and the cutoff and resonance frequencies are no longer constants but are dispersive due to these quantum effects. It is found that the particle dispersion and the exchange-correlation force can have different dominating roles on each other depending on whether the X waves are of short or long wavelengths (in comparison with the Fermi Debye length). The present investigation should be useful for understanding the collective behaviors of EP plasma oscillations and the propagation of extraordinary waves in magnetized dense EP-pair plasmas.

  9. Chaos and its control in the pitch motion of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in polar elliptic orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inarrea, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    We study the pitch attitude dynamics of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in a polar almost circular orbit under the influence of a gravity gradient torque. The spacecraft is perturbed by the small eccentricity of the elliptic orbit and by a small magnetic torque generated by the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the magnetic moment of the spacecraft. Under both perturbations, we show that the pitch motion exhibits heteroclinic chaotic behavior by means of the Melnikov method. Numerical methods applied to simulations of the pitch motion also confirm the chaotic character of the spacecraft attitude dynamics. Finally, a linear time-delay feedback method for controlling chaos is applied to the governing equations of the spacecraft pitch motion in order to remove the chaotic character of initially irregular attitude motions and transform them into periodic ones.

  10. [Research on Spectral Polarization Imaging System Based on Static Modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-bo; Li, Huan; Lin, Xu-ling; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    The main disadvantages of traditional spectral polarization imaging system are: complex structure, with moving parts, low throughput. A novel method of spectral polarization imaging system is discussed, which is based on static polarization intensity modulation combined with Savart polariscope interference imaging. The imaging system can obtain real-time information of spectral and four Stokes polarization messages. Compared with the conventional methods, the advantages of the imaging system are compactness, low mass and no moving parts, no electrical control, no slit and big throughput. The system structure and the basic theory are introduced. The experimental system is established in the laboratory. The experimental system consists of reimaging optics, polarization intensity module, interference imaging module, and CCD data collecting and processing module. The spectral range is visible and near-infrared (480-950 nm). The white board and the plane toy are imaged by using the experimental system. The ability of obtaining spectral polarization imaging information is verified. The calibration system of static polarization modulation is set up. The statistical error of polarization degree detection is less than 5%. The validity and feasibility of the basic principle is proved by the experimental result. The spectral polarization data captured by the system can be applied to object identification, object classification and remote sensing detection.

  11. Infrared and optical polarimetry of the radio elliptical IC 5063 (PKS2048-57): discovery of a highly polarized non-thermal nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, J H; Brindle, C; Axon, D J; Bailey, J; Sparks, W B

    1987-02-15

    Two-aperture optical and near-infrared polarization and flux measurements of the radio elliptical galaxy IC 5063 are presented. Analysis of the polarized flux shows that the large infrared excess in the nucleus most likely arises from a steep-spectrum non-thermal source with a polarization of 17 per cent and near-infrared luminosity 6x10/sup 41/ erg s/sup -1/. This result suggests that IC5063 is closely related to the more luminous blazars. The origin of the polarization in the optical is, however, not clear.

  12. Infrared and optical polarimetry of the radio elliptical IC 5063 (PKS2048-57): discovery of a highly polarized non-thermal nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, J.H.; Brindle, C.; Axon, D.J.; Bailey, J.; Sparks, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two-aperture optical and near-infrared polarization and flux measurements of the radio elliptical galaxy IC 5063 are presented. Analysis of the polarized flux shows that the large infrared excess in the nucleus most likely arises from a steep-spectrum non-thermal source with a polarization of 17 per cent and near-infrared luminosity 6x10 41 erg s -1 . This result suggests that IC5063 is closely related to the more luminous blazars. The origin of the polarization in the optical is, however, not clear. (author)

  13. Theoretical investigation of confocal microscopy using an elliptically polarized cylindrical vector laser beam: Visualization of quantum emitters near interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, Stepan

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically study laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy using elliptically polarized cylindrical vector excitation light as a tool for visualization of arbitrarily oriented single quantum dipole emitters located (1) near planar surfaces enhancing fluorescence, (2) in a thin supported polymer film, (3) in a freestanding polymer film, and (4) in a dielectric planar microcavity. It is shown analytically that by using a tightly focused azimuthally polarized beam, it is possible to exclude completely the orientational dependence of the image intensity maximum of a quantum emitter that absorbs light as a pair of incoherent independent linear dipoles. For linear dipole quantum emitters, the orientational independence degree higher than 0.9 can normally be achieved (this quantity equal to 1 corresponds to completely excluded orientational dependence) if the collection efficiency of the microscope objective and the emitter's total quantum yield are not strongly orientationally dependent. Thus, the visualization of arbitrarily oriented single quantum emitters by means of the studied technique can be performed quite efficiently.

  14. Polarization modulational instability in a birefringent optical fiber ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We obtain conditions for the occurrence of polarization modulational instability in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes for the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation modelling fourth order dispersion effects when the linearly polarized pump is oriented at arbitrary angles with respect to the slow and fast axes of ...

  15. FCC046: A CANDIDATE GASEOUS POLAR RING DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXY IN THE FORNAX CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rijcke, S.; Buyle, P.; Koleva, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-06-20

    FCC046 is a Fornax Cluster dwarf elliptical galaxy. Optical observations have shown that this galaxy, besides an old and metal-poor stellar population, also contains a very young centrally concentrated population and is actively forming stars, albeit at a very low level. Here, we report on 21 cm observations of FCC046 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array which we conducted in the course of a small survey of Fornax Cluster early-type dwarf galaxies. We have discovered a {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} H I cloud surrounding FCC046. We show that the presence of this significant gas reservoir offers a concise explanation for this galaxy's optical morphological and kinematical properties. Surprisingly, the H I gas, as evidenced by its morphology and its rotational motion around the galaxy's optical major axis, is kinematically decoupled from the galaxy's stellar body. This is the first time such a ring of gaseous material in minor-axis rotation is discovered around a dwarf galaxy.

  16. The polarization-angular structure and elliptical dichroism of the cross sections for three-photon bound-bound transitions in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manakov, N.L.; Merem'yanin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Using the electric dipole approximation, we present, in invariant form, the cross section of an arbitrary three-photon transition between the discrete states of an atom with total angular momenta J i and J f . The cross section contains scalar and mixed products of the photon polarization vectors, and invariant atomic parameters dependent only on the photon frequencies. We determine the number of independent atomic parameters at fixed values of J i and J f and obtain their explicit expressions in terms of the reduced composite dipole matrix elements. The polarization dependence of the cross sections is expressed in terms of the degrees l and ξ of linear and circular photon polarizations. We analyze the phenomenon of dissipation-induced circular dichroism in three-photon processes, i.e., the difference Δ of the cross sections for opposite signs of the degree of circular polarization of all the photons. We study in detail the case of two identical photons and the phenomenon of elliptical dichroism, when Δ∼lξ holds and dichroism occurs only when the photons are elliptically polarized, with 0< vertical bar ξ vertical bar <1. Finally, we discuss the dissipation-induced effects of atom polarization in three-photon processes involving linearly polarized or unpolarized photons

  17. Development of a Precise Polarization Modulator for UV Spectropolarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Giono, G.; Tsuneta, S.; Nakayama, S.; Tajima, T.

    2015-10-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU) to rotate a waveplate continuously in order to observe solar magnetic fields by spectropolarimetry. The non-uniformity of the PMU rotation may cause errors in the measurement of the degree of linear polarization (scale error) and its angle (crosstalk between Stokes-Q and -U), although it does not cause an artificial linear polarization signal (spurious polarization). We rotated a waveplate with the PMU to obtain a polarization modulation curve and estimated the scale error and crosstalk caused by the rotation non-uniformity. The estimated scale error and crosstalk were {PMU will be used as a waveplate motor for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) rocket experiment. We confirm that the PMU performs and functions sufficiently well for CLASP.

  18. Optical vector network analyzer with improved accuracy based on polarization modulation and polarization pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Jian Guo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2015-04-15

    We report a novel optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) with improved accuracy based on polarization modulation and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) assisted polarization pulling. The beating between adjacent higher-order optical sidebands which are generated because of the nonlinearity of an electro-optic modulator (EOM) introduces considerable error to the OVNA. In our scheme, the measurement error is significantly reduced by removing the even-order optical sidebands using polarization discrimination. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the OVNA is greatly improved compared to a conventional OVNA.

  19. Polarization division multiple access with polarization modulation for LOS wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we discuss a potential multiple access and modulation scheme based on polarized states (PS of electromagnetic (EM waves for line-of-sight (LOS communications. The proposed scheme is theoretic different from the existing polar modulation for EDGE and WCDMA systems. We propose the detailed bit representation (modulation and multiple access scheme using PS. Because of the inflexibility of polarization information in the time and frequency domains, as well as independence of frequency and space, the polarization information can be used independently for wireless communications, i.e., another independent resource domain that can be utilized. Due to the independence between the PS and the specific features of signals (such as waveform, bandwidth and data rate, the discussed polarization division multiple access (PDMA and polarization modulation (PM are expected to improve the spectrum utilization effectively. It is proved that the polarization filtering technique can be adopted in the PDMA-PM wireless communications to separate the multiuser signals and demodulate the bit information representing by PS for desired user. Some theoretical analysis is done to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and the simulation results are made to evaluate the performance of the suggested system.

  20. Dynamics of self-focusing and self-phase modulation of elliptic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using a direct variational technique involving elliptic Gaussian laser beam trial function, the combined effect of non-linearity and diffraction on wave propagation of optical beam in a homogeneous bulk Kerr-medium is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the variation of beam width and longitudinal phase delay with the ...

  1. Nonlinear Dichroism in Back-to-Back Double Ionization of He by an Intense Elliptically Polarized Few-Cycle Extreme Ultraviolet Pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoko Djiokap, J M; Manakov, N L; Meremianin, A V; Hu, S X; Madsen, L B; Starace, Anthony F

    2014-11-28

    Control of double ionization of He by means of the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an intense, few-cycle extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse is demonstrated numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He interacting with an elliptically polarized XUV pulse. Guided by perturbation theory (PT), we predict the existence of a nonlinear dichroic effect (∝I^{3/2}) that is sensitive to the CEP, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. This dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions for opposite helicities of the ionizing XUV pulse) originates from interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes, allowing one to probe and control S- and D-wave channels of the two-electron continuum. We show that the back-to-back in-plane geometry with unequal energy sharing is an ideal one for observing this dichroic effect that occurs only for an elliptically polarized, few-cycle attosecond pulse.

  2. Nanopatterned bulk metallic glass-based biomaterials modulate macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Mahdis; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Morris, Aaron H; Cheung, Bettina; Smith, Ryan; Schroers, Jan; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2018-06-01

    Polarization of macrophages by chemical, topographical and mechanical cues presents a robust strategy for designing immunomodulatory biomaterials. Here, we studied the ability of nanopatterned bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a new class of metallic biomaterials, to modulate murine macrophage polarization. Cytokine/chemokine analysis of IL-4 or IFNγ/LPS-stimulated macrophages showed that the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-12, CCL-2 and CXCL1 was significantly reduced after 24-hour culture on BMGs with 55 nm nanorod arrays (BMG-55). Additionally, under these conditions, macrophages increased phagocytic potential and exhibited decreased cell area with multiple actin protrusions. These in vitro findings suggest that nanopatterning can modulate biochemical cues such as IFNγ/LPS. In vivo evaluation of the subcutaneous host response at 2 weeks demonstrated that the ratio of Arg-1 to iNOS increased in macrophages adjacent to BMG-55 implants, suggesting modulation of polarization. In addition, macrophage fusion and fibrous capsule thickness decreased and the number and size of blood vessels increased, which is consistent with changes in macrophage responses. Our study demonstrates that nanopatterning of BMG implants is a promising technique to selectively polarize macrophages to modulate the immune response, and also presents an effective tool to study mechanisms of macrophage polarization and function. Implanted biomaterials elicit a complex series of tissue and cellular responses, termed the foreign body response (FBR), that can be influenced by the polarization state of macrophages. Surface topography can influence polarization, which is broadly characterized as either inflammatory or repair-like. The latter has been linked to improved outcomes of the FBR. However, the impact of topography on macrophage polarization is not fully understood, in part, due to a lack of high moduli biomaterials that can be reproducibly processed at the nanoscale. Here, we studied

  3. Polarization states encoded by phase modulation for high bit rate quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaobao; Tang Zhilie; Liao Changjun; Lu Yiqun; Zhao Feng; Liu Songhao

    2006-01-01

    We present implementation of quantum cryptography with polarization code by wave-guide type phase modulator. At four different low input voltages of the phase modulator, coder encodes pulses into four different polarization states, 45 o , 135 o linearly polarized or right, left circle polarized, while the decoder serves as the complementary polarizers

  4. RECOVERY OF LARGE ANGULAR SCALE CMB POLARIZATION FOR INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYING VARIABLE-DELAY POLARIZATION MODULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J.; Marriage, T. A.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Harrington, K.; Rostem, K.; Watts, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chuss, D. T. [Department of Physics, Villanova University, 800 E Lancaster, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Wollack, E. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Switzer, E. R., E-mail: Nathan.J.Miller@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.01. Indeed, r < 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.

  5. Motion model for a charged particle in a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez R, F.; Ondarza R, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analytic model is presented for the description of the motion of a charged particle in the interaction of an elliptically electromagnetic pulse polarized propagating along a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary and modulated width by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radioactive effects. (Author)

  6. Model of the motion of a charged particle into a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez R, F.; Ondarza R, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analytical model for the description of the movement of a charged particle in the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating along of a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation is presented. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary amplitude and modulated by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radiative effects. (Author)

  7. Variable-delay Polarization Modulators for the CLASS Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Marriage, T.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of measuring faint polarized signals at microwave wavelengths have motivated the development of rapid polarization modulators. One scalable technique, called a Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), consists of a stationary wire array in front of a movable mirror. The mirror motion creates a changing phase difference between the polarization modes parallel and orthogonal to the wire array. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will use a VPM as the first optical element in a telescope array that will search for the signature of inflation through the “B-mode” pattern in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In the CLASS VPMs, parallel transport of the mirror is maintained by a voice-coil actuated flexure system which will translate the mirror in a repeatable manner while holding tight parallelism constraints with respect to the wire array. The wire array will use 51 μm diameter copper-plated tungsten wire with 160 μm pitch over a 60 cm clear aperture. We present the status of the construction and testing of the mirror transport mechanism and wire arrays for the CLASS VPMs.

  8. Molecular frame photoemission by a comb of elliptical high-order harmonics: a sensitive probe of both photodynamics and harmonic complete polarization state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrinas, K; Gruson, V; Weber, S J; Barreau, L; Ruchon, T; Hergott, J-F; Houver, J-C; Lucchese, R R; Salières, P; Dowek, D

    2016-12-16

    Due to the intimate anisotropic interaction between an XUV light field and a molecule resulting in photoionization (PI), molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions (MFPADs) are most sensitive probes of both electronic/nuclear dynamics and the polarization state of the ionizing light field. Consequently, they encode the complex dipole matrix elements describing the dynamics of the PI transition, as well as the three normalized Stokes parameters s 1 , s 2 , s 3 characterizing the complete polarization state of the light, operating as molecular polarimetry. The remarkable development of advanced light sources delivering attosecond XUV pulses opens the perspective to visualize the primary steps of photochemical dynamics in time-resolved studies, at the natural attosecond to few femtosecond time-scales of electron dynamics and fast nuclear motion. It is thus timely to investigate the feasibility of measurement of MFPADs when PI is induced e.g., by an attosecond pulse train (APT) corresponding to a comb of discrete high-order harmonics. In the work presented here, we report MFPAD studies based on coincident electron-ion 3D momentum imaging in the context of ultrafast molecular dynamics investigated at the PLFA facility (CEA-SLIC), with two perspectives: (i) using APTs generated in atoms/molecules as a source for MFPAD-resolved PI studies, and (ii) taking advantage of molecular polarimetry to perform a complete polarization analysis of the harmonic emission of molecules, a major challenge of high harmonic spectroscopy. Recent results illustrating both aspects are reported for APTs generated in unaligned SF 6 molecules by an elliptically polarized infrared driving field. The observed fingerprints of the elliptically polarized harmonics include the first direct determination of the complete s 1 , s 2 , s 3 Stokes vector, equivalent to (ψ, ε, P), the orientation and the signed ellipticity of the polarization ellipse, and the degree of polarization P. They are

  9. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization with Variable-delay Polarization Modulators for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; CLASS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The search for inflationary primordial gravitational waves and the optical depth to reionization, both through their imprint on the large angular scale correlations in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), has created the need for high sensitivity measurements of polarization across large fractions of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. These measurements are subjected to instrumental and atmospheric 1/f noise, which has motivated the development of polarization modulators to facilitate the rejection of these large systematic effects.Variable-delay polarization modulators (VPMs) are used in the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) telescopes as the first element in the optical chain to rapidly modulate the incoming polarization. VPMs consist of a linearly polarizing wire grid in front of a moveable flat mirror; varying the distance between the grid and the mirror produces a changing phase shift between polarization states parallel and perpendicular to the grid which modulates Stokes U (linear polarization at 45°) and Stokes V (circular polarization). The reflective and scalable nature of the VPM enables its placement as the first optical element in a reflecting telescope. This simultaneously allows a lock-in style polarization measurement and the separation of sky polarization from any instrumental polarization farther along in the optical chain.The Q-Band CLASS VPM was the first VPM to begin observing the CMB full time in 2016. I will be presenting its design and characterization as well as demonstrating how modulating polarization significantly rejects atmospheric and instrumental long time scale noise.

  10. X-Parameter Based Modelling of Polar Modulated Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yelin; Nielsen, Troels Studsgaard; Sira, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    X-parameters are developed as an extension of S-parameters capable of modelling non-linear devices driven by large signals. They are suitable for devices having only radio frequency (RF) and DC ports. In a polar power amplifier (PA), phase and envelope of the input modulated signal are applied...... at separate ports and the envelope port is neither an RF nor a DC port. As a result, X-parameters may fail to characterise the effect of the envelope port excitation and consequently the polar PA. This study introduces a solution to the problem for a commercial polar PA. In this solution, the RF-phase path...... PA for simulations. The simulated error vector magnitude (EVM) and adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) were compared with the measured data to validate the model. The maximum differences between the simulated and measured EVM and ACPR are less than 2% point and 3 dB, respectively....

  11. Spatiotemporal polarization modulation microscopy with a microretarder array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changqin; Ulcickas, James R. W.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2018-02-01

    A patterned microretarder array positioned in the rear conjugate plane of a microscope enables rapid polarizationdependent nonlinear optical microscopy. The pattern introduced to the array results in periodic modulation of the polarization-state of the incident light as a function of position within the field of view with no moving parts or active control. Introduction of a single stationary optical element and a fixed polarizer into the beam of a nonlinear optical microscope enabled nonlinear optical tensor recovery, which informs on local structure and orientation. Excellent agreement was observed between the measured and predicted second harmonic generation (SHG) of z-cut quartz, selected as a test system with well-established nonlinear optical properties. Subsequent studies of spatially varying samples further support the general applicability of this relatively simple strategy for detailed polarization analysis in both conventional and nonlinear optical imaging of structurally diverse samples.

  12. Polarization-Insensitive Surface Plasmon Polarization Electro-Absorption Modulator Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Indium Tin Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Wen, Long; Liang, Li; Chen, Qin; Sun, Yunfei

    2018-02-01

    CMOS-compatible plasmonic modulators operating at the telecom wavelength are significant for a variety of on-chip applications. Relying on the manipulation of the transverse magnetic (TM) mode excited on the metal-dielectric interface, most of the previous demonstrations are designed to response only for specific polarization state. In this case, it will lead to a high polarization dependent loss, when the polarization-sensitive modulator integrates to a fiber with random polarization state. Herein, we propose a plasmonic modulator utilizing a metal-oxide indium tin oxide (ITO) wrapped around the silicon waveguide and investigate its optical modulation ability for both the vertical and horizontal polarized guiding light by tuning electro-absorption of ITO with the field-induced carrier injection. The electrically biased modulator with electron accumulated at the ITO/oxide interface allows for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode to be excited at the top or lateral portion of the interface depending on the polarization state of the guiding light. Because of the high localized feature of ENZ mode, efficient electro-absorption can be achieved under the "OFF" state of the device, thus leading to large extinction ratio (ER) for both polarizations in our proposed modulator. Further, the polarization-insensitive modulation is realized by properly tailoring the thickness of oxide in two different stacking directions and therefore matching the ER values for device operating at vertical and horizontal polarized modes. For the optimized geometry configuration, the difference between the ER values of two polarization modes, i.e., the ΔER, as small as 0.01 dB/μm is demonstrated and, simultaneously with coupling efficiency above 74%, is obtained for both polarizations at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The proposed plasmonic-combined modulator has a potential application in guiding and processing of light from a fiber with a random polarization state.

  13. Enantiomeric switching of chiral metamaterial for terahertz polarization modulation employing vertically deformable MEMS spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tetsuo; Isozaki, Akihiro; Kanda, Natsuki; Nemoto, Natsuki; Konishi, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2015-10-01

    Active modulation of the polarization states of terahertz light is indispensable for polarization-sensitive spectroscopy, having important applications such as non-contact Hall measurements, vibrational circular dichroism measurements and anisotropy imaging. In the terahertz region, the lack of a polarization modulator similar to a photoelastic modulator in the visible range hampers expansion of such spectroscopy. A terahertz chiral metamaterial has a huge optical activity unavailable in nature; nevertheless, its modulation is still challenging. Here we demonstrate a handedness-switchable chiral metamaterial for polarization modulation employing vertically deformable Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. Vertical deformation of a planar spiral by a pneumatic force creates a three-dimensional spiral. Enantiomeric switching is realized by selecting the deformation direction, where the polarity of the optical activity is altered while maintaining the spectral shape. A polarization rotation as high as 28° is experimentally observed, thus providing a practical and compact polarization modulator for the terahertz range.

  14. Double photoionization of helium at an excess energy of 60 eV using left- and right-elliptically-polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.A.; Cvejanovic, S.; Dawson, C.; Reddish, T.J.; Seccombe, D.P.; Huetz, A.; Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Kazansky, A.K.; Danjo, A.; Soejima, K.; Okuno, K.; Yagishita, A.

    2002-01-01

    Helium double photoionization (γ,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) were measured at an excess energy of 60 eV using a dual toroidal spectrometer and synchrotron radiation from a helical undulator (BL-28A, Photon Factory, Japan). Energy-sharing ratios (R=E 2 /E 1 ) for the two ejected electrons of 5 and 11 are studied with both right- and left-handed elliptically polarized light. The TDCSs are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using the hyperspherical R matrix with semiclassical outgoing waves theory. The circular dichroism for a limited mutual angular range (φ 12 ≅110 deg. -200 deg.) is determined from the experimental data for both R=5 and 11, and compared to theoretical calculations performed over the complete range of mutual angles. No dynamic nodes are found in either the experimental (within the explored φ 12 range) or theoretical circular dichroism for these R values at this excess energy

  15. The tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ChunMin; Zhu, HuaChun; Zhao, Baochang

    2011-05-09

    A space-based tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer (TSMPAMI) is described. It uses the relative movement between the TSMPAMI and the measured target to change optical path difference. The acquisition method of interferogram is presented. The atmospheric temperatures and horizontal winds can be derived from the optical observations. The measurement errors of the winds and temperatures are discussed through simulations. In the presence of small-scale structures of the atmospheric fields, the errors are found to be significantly influenced by the mismatch of the scenes observed by the adjacent CCD sub-areas aligned along the orbiter's track during successive measurements due to the orbital velocity and the exposure time. For most realistic conditions of the orbit and atmosphere, however, the instrument is proven suitable for measuring the atmospheric parameters. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Characterization of polarization-independent phase modulation method for practical plug and play quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Osung; Lee, Min-Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Byung Kwon; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2015-01-01

    We characterized a polarization-independent phase modulation method, called double phase modulation, for a practical plug and play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Following investigation of theoretical backgrounds, we applied the method to the practical QKD system and characterized the performance through comparing single phase modulation (SPM) and double phase modulation. Consequently, we obtained repeatable and accurate phase modulation confirmed by high visibility single photon interference even for input signals with arbitrary polarization. Further, the results show that only 80% of the bias voltage required in the case of single phase modulation is needed to obtain the target amount of phase modulation. (paper)

  17. Design and implementation of VUV-CD and LD measurements using an ac modulated polarizing undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi-Watanabe, K.; Yamada, T.; Tanaka, M.; Kaneko, F.; Kitada, T.; Ohta, Y.; Nakagawa, K.

    2005-01-01

    VUV circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) have been successfully measured at wavelengths beyond the conventional limit by using an ac modulated polarizing undulator. We have developed CD and LD measuring technique by polarization modulation at the source, without using transmission type polarizing modulator, to extend to the coverage to wavelengths shorter than 140-bar nm. AIST developed in 1986 ac polarizing undulator by using a electron storage ring 'TERAS' based on an original concept. The undulator which can produce any desired polarization of vertical- and horizontal-linear polarization (VLP and HLP) and right- and left-handed circular polarization (RCP and LCP) is specially well suited to both measurements of CD and LD. With this undulator, the polarization alternate in the order of VLP-RCP-HLP-RCP-VLP-LCP-HLP-LCP-VLP-, i.e. when circular polarization is modulated in f Hz, linear polarization alters in 2f Hz. This allows us simultaneous measurements of CD and LD. Since the TERAS can produce ac-modulated polarized radiation of wavelength as short as 40-bar nm, it is expected to have CD and LD measurement extended to 40-bar nm

  18. Modulation of electromagnetic fields by a depolarizer of random polarizer array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers with ran......The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers...... with randomly distributed polarization angles, where the incident fields experience a random polarization modulation after passing through the depolarizer. The propagation of the modulated electric fields through any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix to show...

  19. Elliptical As2Se3 filled core ultra-high-nonlinearity and polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber with double hexagonal lattice cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; He, Menghui; Zhang, Xuedian; Chang, Min; Wu, Zhizheng; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Hua

    2018-05-01

    A high birefringence and ultra-high nonlinearity photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed, which is composed of an elliptical As2Se3-doped core and an inner cladding with hexagonal lattice. Optical properties of the PCF are simulated by the full-vector finite element method. The simulation results show that the high birefringence of ∼0.33, ultra-high-nonlinearity coefficient of 300757 W-1km-1 and the low confinement loss can be achieved in the proposed PCF simultaneously at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. Furthermore, by comparison with the other two materials (80PbO•20Ga2O3, As2S3) filled in the core, the As2Se3-doped PCF is found to have the highest birefringence and nonlinearity due to its higher refractive index and nonlinear refractive index. The flattened dispersion feature, as well as the low confinement loss of the proposed PCF structure make it suitable as a wide range of applications, such as the coherent optical communications, polarization-maintaining and nonlinear optics, etc.

  20. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  1. Polarization modulational instability in a birefringent optical fiber ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects on PMI gain spectra of a linearly polarized intense pump wave which experiences periodic nonlinear polarization rotation in a birefringent optical fiber in both the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes. The paper is arranged as follows: In Ü2, we briefly discuss the basic equation. In Ü3, using Floquet theorem ...

  2. Investigation of focusing and correcting aberrations with binary amplitude and polarization modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Peter; Li, Yunqi; Dorrer, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the focusing and correcting wavefront aberration of an optical wave using binary amplitude and polarization modulation. Focusing is performed by selectively modulating the field in different zones of the pupil to obtain on-axis constructive interference at a given distance. The conventional Soret zone plate (binary amplitude profile) is expanded to a polarization Soret zone plate with twice the focusing efficiency. Binary pixelated devices that approximate the sinusoidal transmission profile of a Gabor zone plate by spatial dithering are also investigated with amplitude and polarization modulation. Wavefront aberrations are corrected by modulation of the field in the pupil plane to prevent destructive interference in the focal plane of an ideal focusing element. Polarization modulation improves the efficiency obtained by amplitude-only modulation, with a gain that depends on the aberration. Experimental results obtained with Cr-on-glass devices for amplitude modulation and liquid crystal devices operating in the Mauguin condition for polarization modulation are in very good agreement with simulations.

  3. Intrinsically stable phase-modulated polarization encoding system for quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaobao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liao Changjun [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)], E-mail: chliao@scnu.edu.cn; Mi Jinglong; Wang Jindong; Liu Songhao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-12-22

    We demonstrate experimentally an intrinsically stable polarization coding and decoding system composed of optical-fiber Sagnac interferometers with integrated phase modulators for quantum key distribution. An interference visibility of 98.35% can be kept longtime during the experiment without any efforts of active compensation for coding all four desired polarization states.

  4. Model of the motion of a charged particle into a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field; Modelo del movimiento de una particula cargada en un plasma durante la interaccion de un pulso electromagnetico elipticamente polarizado propagandose en la direccion de un campo magnetico estatico y homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, F. [UAEM, A.P. 2-139, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    An analytical model for the description of the movement of a charged particle in the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating along of a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation is presented. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary amplitude and modulated by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radiative effects. (Author)

  5. Motion model for a charged particle in a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field; Modelo del movimiento de una particula cargada en un plasma durante la interaccion de un pulso electromagnetico elipticamente polarizado propagandose en la direccion de un campo magnetico estatico y homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, F. [UAEM, Facultad de Ciencias, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    An analytic model is presented for the description of the motion of a charged particle in the interaction of an elliptically electromagnetic pulse polarized propagating along a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary and modulated width by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radioactive effects. (Author)

  6. SCIENTIFIC VERIFICATION OF FARADAY ROTATION MODULATORS: DETECTION OF DIFFUSE POLARIZED GALACTIC EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyerman, S.; Bierman, E.; Kaufman, J.; Keating, B. G. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92037 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wales, Cardiff CF24 3YB (United Kingdom); Aiken, R.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Mason, P. V. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barkats, D. [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Bischoff, C.; Kovac, J. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bock, J. J.; Dowell, C. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Chiang, H. C. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Duband, L. [SBT, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (apostrophe), F-38054 Grenoble (France); Hivon, E. F. [Insititut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Holzapfel, W. L. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kuo, C. L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Leitch, E. M., E-mail: smoyerma@ucsd.edu [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2013-03-01

    The design and performance of a wide bandwidth linear polarization modulator based on the Faraday effect is described. Faraday Rotation Modulators (FRMs) are solid-state polarization switches that are capable of modulation up to 10 kHz. Six FRMs were utilized during the 2006 observing season in the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) experiment; three FRMs were used at each of BICEP's 100 and 150 GHz frequency bands. The technology was verified through high signal-to-noise detection of Galactic polarization using two of the six FRMs during four observing runs in 2006. The features exhibit strong agreement with BICEP's measurements of the Galaxy using non-FRM pixels and with the Galactic polarization models. This marks the first detection of high signal-to-noise mm-wave celestial polarization using fast, active optical modulation. The performance of the FRMs during periods when they were not modulated was also analyzed and compared to results from BICEP's 43 pixels without FRMs.

  7. Scientific Verification of Faraday Rotation Modulators: Detection of Diffuse Polarized Galactic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyerman, S.; Bierman, E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aiken, R.; Barkats, D.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The design and performance of a wide bandwidth linear polarization-modulator based on the Faraday effect is described. Faraday Rotation Modulators (FRMs) are solid-state polarization switches that are capable of modulation up to approx 10 kHz. Six FRMs were utilized during the 2006 observing season in the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) experiment; three FRMs were used at each of BICEP fs 100 and 150 GHz frequency bands. The technology was verified through high signal-to-noise detection of Galactic polarization using two of the six FRMs during four observing runs in 2006. The features exhibit strong agreement with BICEP fs measurements of the Galaxy using non-FRM pixels and with the Galactic polarization models. This marks the first detection of high signal-to-noise mm-wave celestial polarization using fast, active optical modulation. The performance of the FRMs during periods when they were not modulated was also analyzed and compared to results from BICEP fs 43 pixels without FRMs.

  8. Elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2014-08-11

    We present in principle and demonstrate experimentally a new kind of vector fields: elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields. This is a significant development in vector fields, as this breaks the cylindrical symmetry and enriches the family of vector fields. Due to the presence of an additional degrees of freedom, which is the interval between the foci in the elliptic coordinate system, the elliptic-symmetry vector fields are more flexible than the cylindrical vector fields for controlling the spatial structure of polarization and for engineering the focusing fields. The elliptic-symmetry vector fields can find many specific applications from optical trapping to optical machining and so on.

  9. Polarized wiggler for NSLS X-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Zhang, X.; Krinsky, S.; Blum, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the properties of an elliptically polarized wiggler that will generate circularly polarized photons with energy spectrum of 3--12 KeV. The vertical wiggler magnetic field is produced by permanent magnets while the horizontal wiggler field is generated by electric coils capable of AC excitation. The radiation parameters of the wiggler is discussed. We consider AC excitation of the wiggler to produce the time modulation of the elliptic polarization. The power is dissipated in the vacuum chamber due to the eddy current

  10. Synchronous-digitization for video rate polarization modulated beam scanning second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shane Z.; DeWalt, Emma L.; Schmitt, Paul D.; Muir, Ryan D.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2015-03-01

    Fast beam-scanning non-linear optical microscopy, coupled with fast (8 MHz) polarization modulation and analytical modeling have enabled simultaneous nonlinear optical Stokes ellipsometry (NOSE) and linear Stokes ellipsometry imaging at video rate (15 Hz). NOSE enables recovery of the complex-valued Jones tensor that describes the polarization-dependent observables, in contrast to polarimetry, in which the polarization stated of the exciting beam is recorded. Each data acquisition consists of 30 images (10 for each detector, with three detectors operating in parallel), each of which corresponds to polarization-dependent results. Processing of this image set by linear fitting contracts down each set of 10 images to a set of 5 parameters for each detector in second harmonic generation (SHG) and three parameters for the transmittance of the fundamental laser beam. Using these parameters, it is possible to recover the Jones tensor elements of the sample at video rate. Video rate imaging is enabled by performing synchronous digitization (SD), in which a PCIe digital oscilloscope card is synchronized to the laser (the laser is the master clock.) Fast polarization modulation was achieved by modulating an electro-optic modulator synchronously with the laser and digitizer, with a simple sine-wave at 1/10th the period of the laser, producing a repeating pattern of 10 polarization states. This approach was validated using Z-cut quartz, and NOSE microscopy was performed for micro-crystals of naproxen.

  11. Integrin-linked kinase interactions with ELMO2 modulate cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ernest; Irvine, Tames; Vilk, Gregory J A; Lajoie, Gilles; Ravichandran, Kodi S; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2009-07-01

    Cell polarization is a key prerequisite for directed migration during development, tissue regeneration, and metastasis. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a scaffold protein essential for cell polarization, but very little is known about the precise mechanisms whereby ILK modulates polarization in normal epithelia. Elucidating these mechanisms is essential to understand tissue morphogenesis, transformation, and repair. Here we identify a novel ILK protein complex that includes Engulfment and Cell Motility 2 (ELMO2). We also demonstrate the presence of RhoG in ILK-ELMO2 complexes, and the localization of this multiprotein species specifically to the leading lamellipodia of polarized cells. Significantly, the ability of RhoG to bind ELMO is crucial for ILK induction of cell polarization, and the joint expression of ILK and ELMO2 synergistically promotes the induction of front-rear polarity and haptotactic migration. This places RhoG-ELMO2-ILK complexes in a key position for the development of cell polarity and forward movement. Although ILK is a component of many diverse multiprotein species that may contribute to cell polarization, expression of dominant-negative ELMO2 mutants is sufficient to abolish the ability of ILK to promote cell polarization. Thus, its interaction with ELMO2 and RhoG is essential for the ability of ILK to induce front-rear cell polarity.

  12. Polarization-sensitive surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Ho, Ho Pui; Wu, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry (SPEE) biosensor scheme based on the use of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) is reported. We show that the polarization parameters of a laser beam, tan , cos and ellipse orientation angle , can be directly measured by detecting the modulation signals at the f......A surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry (SPEE) biosensor scheme based on the use of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) is reported. We show that the polarization parameters of a laser beam, tan , cos and ellipse orientation angle , can be directly measured by detecting the modulation signals...... at the first and second harmonics of the modulated frequency under a certain birefringence geometry. This leads to accurate measurement of refractive index variations within the evanescent field region close to the gold sensor surface, thereby enabling biosensing applications. Our experimental results confirm...

  13. MicroRNA-338 modulates cortical neuronal placement and polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Aron; de Mooij-Malsen, Annetrude J; van Bokhoven, Hans; Kaplan, Barry B; Martens, Gerard J; Kolk, Sharon M; Aschrafi, Armaz

    2017-07-03

    The precise spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression orchestrates the many intricate processes during brain development. In the present study we examined the role of the brain-enriched microRNA-338 (miR-338) during mouse cortical development. Reduction of miR-338 levels in the developing mouse cortex, using a sequence-specific miR-sponge, resulted in a loss of neuronal polarity in the cortical plate and significantly reduced the number of neurons within this cortical layer. Conversely, miR-338 overexpression in developing mouse cortex increased the number of neurons, which exhibited a multipolar morphology. All together, our results raise the possibility for a direct role for this non-coding RNA, which was recently associated with schizophrenia, in the regulation of cortical neuronal polarity and layer placement.

  14. Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mu-Tian; Liu, Shao-Ding; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2008-04-01

    We theoretically investigated the dynamics of exciton populations [ρyy(t ) and ρxx(t )] on two orthogonal polarization eigenstates (∣x⟩ and ∣y⟩) and the polarization ratio P(t )=[ρyy(t )-ρxx(t )]/[ρyy(t )+ρxx(t )] of an anisotropic InGaAs quantum dot modulated by the surface plasmon of an Au nanorod (NR). In the resonance of longitudinal surface plasmon of AuNR, the polarization ratio P(t ) increases from 0.22 to 0.99 during the excitation due to the efficient enhancement of Rabi frequency of the transition between the ∣y⟩ and vacuum states, and decreases from 0.02 to -0.92 after the excitation pulse due to the enhancement of decay rate of the ∣y⟩ state. This offers an approach to modulate the dynamic polarization ratio of radiative emissions.

  15. Drinfeld currents of dynamical elliptic algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Boyu; Fan Heng; Yang Wenli; Cao Junpeng

    2000-01-01

    From the generalized Yang-Baxter relations RLL=LLR*, where R and R* are the dynamical R-matrix of A n-1 (1) type face model with the elliptic module shifted by the center of the algebra, using the Ding-Frenkel correspondence, the authors obtain the Drinfeld currents of dynamical elliptic algebra

  16. Wafer defect detection by a polarization-insensitive external differential interference contrast module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativ, Amit; Feldman, Haim; Shaked, Natan T

    2018-05-01

    We present a system that is based on a new external, polarization-insensitive differential interference contrast (DIC) module specifically adapted for detecting defects in semiconductor wafers. We obtained defect signal enhancement relative to the surrounding wafer pattern when compared with bright-field imaging. The new DIC module proposed is based on a shearing interferometer that connects externally at the output port of an optical microscope and enables imaging thin samples, such as wafer defects. This module does not require polarization optics (such as Wollaston or Nomarski prisms) and is insensitive to polarization, unlike traditional DIC techniques. In addition, it provides full control of the DIC shear and orientation, which allows obtaining a differential phase image directly on the camera (with no further digital processing) while enhancing defect detection capabilities, even if the size of the defect is smaller than the resolution limit. Our technique has the potential of future integration into semiconductor production lines.

  17. Direct visualization of polarization reversal of organic ferroelectric memory transistor by using charge modulated reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2017-11-01

    By using the charge modulated reflectance (CMR) imaging technique, charge distribution in the pentacene organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with a ferroelectric gate insulator [P(VDF-TrFE)] was investigated in terms of polarization reversal of the P(VDF-TrFE) layer. We studied the polarization reversal process and the carrier spreading process in the OFET channel. The I-V measurement showed a hysteresis behavior caused by the spontaneous polarization of P(VDF-TrFE), but the hysteresis I-V curve changes depending on the applied drain bias, possibly due to the gradual shift of the polarization reversal position in the OFET channel. CMR imaging visualized the gradual shift of the polarization reversal position and showed that the electrostatic field formed by the polarization of P(VDF-TrFE) contributes to hole and electron injection into the pentacene layer and the carrier distribution is significantly dependent on the direction of the polarization. The polarization reversal position in the channel region is governed by the electrostatic potential, and it happens where the potential reaches the coercive voltage of P(VDF-TrFE). The transmission line model developed on the basis of the Maxwell-Wagner effect element analysis well accounts for this polarization reversal process in the OFET channel.

  18. Competition of circularly polarized laser modes in the modulation instability of hot magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri Javan, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the problem of modulation instability of an intense laser beam in the hot magnetized plasma. The propagation of intense circularly polarized laser beam along the external magnetic field is considered using a relativistic fluid model. The nonlinear equation describing the interaction of laser pulse with magnetized hot plasma is derived in the quasi-neutral approximation, which is valid for hot plasma. Nonlinear dispersion equation for hot plasma is obtained. For left- and right-hand polarizations, the growth rate of instability is achieved and the effect of temperature, external magnetic field, and kind of polarization on the growth rate is considered. It is observed that for the right-hand polarization, increase of magnetic field leads to the increasing of growth rate. Also for the left-hand polarization, increase of magnetic field inversely causes decrease of the growth rate.

  19. Thermal analysis of a prototype cryogenic polarization modulator for use in a space-borne CMB polarization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Matsumura, T.; Sugai, H.; Imada, H.; Kataza, H.; Ohsaki, H.; Hazumi, M.; Katayama, N.; Yamamoto, R.; Utsunomiya, S.; Terao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We report a thermal analysis of a polarization modulator unit (PMU) for use in a space-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) project. A measurement of the CMB polarization allows us to probe the physics of early universe, and that is the best method to test the cosmic inflation experimentally. One of the key instruments for this science is to use a halfwave plate (HWP) based polarization modulator. The HWP is required to rotate continuously at about 1 Hz below 10 K to minimize its own thermal emission to a detector system. The rotating HWP system at the cryogenic environment can be realized by using a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) without significant heat dissipation by mechanical friction. While the SMB achieves the smooth rotation due to the contactless bearing, an estimation of a levitating HWP temperature becomes a challenge. We manufactured a one-eighth scale prototype model of PMU and built a thermal model. We verified our thermal model with the experimental data. We forecasted the projected thermal performance of PMU for a full-scale model based on the thermal model. From this analysis, we discuss the design requirement toward constructing the full-scale model for use in a space environment such as a future CMB satellite mission, LiteBIRD.

  20. A bioartificial kidney device with polarized secretion of immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevtchik, N V; Mihajlovic, M; Fedecostante, M; Bolhuis-Versteeg, L; Sastre Toraño, J; Masereeuw, R; Stamatialis, D

    2018-05-15

    The accumulation of protein-bound toxins in dialyzed patients is strongly associated with their high morbidity and mortality. The bioartificial kidney device (BAK), containing proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) seeded on functionalized synthetic hollow fiber membranes (HFM), may be a powerful solution for the active removal of those metabolites. In an earlier study, we developed an upscaled BAK containing conditionally immortalized human PTEC (ciPTEC) with functional organic cationic transporter 2 (OCT2). Here, we first extended this development to a BAK device having cells with the organic anionic transporter 1 (OAT1), capable of removing anionic uremic wastes. We confirmed the quality of the ciPTEC monolayer by confocal microscopy and paracellular inulin-FITC leakage, as well as, by the active transport of anionic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS). Furthermore, we assessed the immune-safety of our system by measuring the production of relevant cytokines by the cells after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Upon LPS treatment, we observed a polarized secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the cells: 10-fold higher in the extraluminal space, corresponding to the urine compartment, as compared to the intraluminal space, corresponding to the blood compartment. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to show this favorable cell polarization in a BAK upscaled device. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. ILK modulates epithelial polarity and matrix formation in hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkouskaya, Alena; Welch, Ian; Dagnino, Lina

    2014-03-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple signals and communication between its epithelial and mesenchymal constituents. Cell adhesion protein platforms, which include integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), are critical for hair follicle formation. However, their precise contribution to this process is poorly understood. We show that in the absence of ILK, the hair follicle matrix lineage fails to develop, likely due to abnormalities in development of apical-basal cell polarity, as well as in laminin-511 and basement membrane assembly at the tip of the hair bud. These defects also result in impaired specification of hair matrix and absence of precortex and inner sheath root cell lineages. The molecular pathways affected in ILK-deficient follicles are similar to those in the absence of epidermal integrin β1 and include Wnt, but not sonic hedgehog, signaling. ILK-deficient hair buds also show abnormalities in the dermal papilla. Addition of exogenous laminin-511 restores morphological and molecular markers associated with hair matrix formation, indicating that ILK regulates hair bud cell polarity and functions upstream from laminin-511 assembly to regulate the developmental progression of hair follicles beyond the germ stage.

  2. Polarized wiggler for NSLS x-ray ring design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Krinsky, S.; Blum, E.

    1992-03-01

    We examine the properties of an elliptically polarized wiggler that will generate circularly polarized photons with energy spectrum of 3--12 KeV. The vertical wiggler magnetic field is produced by permanent magnets while the horizontal wiggler field is generated by electric coils capable of AC excitation. The radiation parameters of the wiggler are presented, including photon flux, circular and linear polarization and spectrum. These parameters are compared to the synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet. Numerical values are calculated for radiation from the wiggler and bending magnet for the NSLS X-ray ring parameters. A conceptual design for such a wiggler is discussed and several different alternatives are analyzed. We consider AC excitation of the wiggler to produce the time modulation of the elliptic polarization, and also to produce time modulated linearly polarized radiation

  3. Optimal strategy for polarization modulation in the LSPE-SWIPE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Vittorio, N.; de Gasperis, G.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode experiments are required to control systematic effects with an unprecedented level of accuracy. Polarization modulation by a half wave plate (HWP) is a powerful technique able to mitigate a large number of the instrumental systematics. Aims: Our goal is to optimize the polarization modulation strategy of the upcoming LSPE-SWIPE balloon-borne experiment, devoted to the accurate measurement of CMB polarization at large angular scales. Methods: We departed from the nominal LSPE-SWIPE modulation strategy (HWP stepped every 60 s with a telescope scanning at around 12 deg/s) and performed a thorough investigation of a wide range of possible HWP schemes (either in stepped or continuously spinning mode and at different azimuth telescope scan-speeds) in the frequency, map and angular power spectrum domain. In addition, we probed the effect of high-pass and band-pass filters of the data stream and explored the HWP response in the minimal case of one detector for one operation day (critical for the single-detector calibration process). We finally tested the modulation performance against typical HWP-induced systematics. Results: Our analysis shows that some stepped HWP schemes, either slowly rotating or combined with slow telescope modulations, represent poor choices. Moreover, our results point out that the nominal configuration may not be the most convenient choice. While a large class of spinning designs provides comparable results in terms of pixel angle coverage, map-making residuals and BB power spectrum standard deviations with respect to the nominal strategy, we find that some specific configurations (e.g., a rapidly spinning HWP with a slow gondola modulation) allow a more efficient polarization recovery in more general real-case situations. Conclusions: Although our simulations are specific to the LSPE-SWIPE mission, the general outcomes of our analysis can be easily generalized to other CMB polarization experiments.

  4. TH1 and TH2 cell polarization increases with aging and is modulated by zinc supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    TH1 and TH2 cell polarization increases with aging and is modulated by zinc supplementation correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 241 8080208; fax: +49 241 8082613. (Rink, Lothar) (Rink, Lothar) Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University - Aachen--> - GERMANY (Uciechowski, Peter) Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University - Aachen--> - GERMAN...

  5. Digital Communication System Based on Polarization Self-Modulation in Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarin, V. A.; Ikonnikov, V. P.; Shatalov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Polarization self-modulation in lasers can be used to create instruments for generating optical pulses at very high repetition rates without using high-speed electronics. Self-oscillation is observed when part of the output of a laser is returned to the laser after a 90° polarization change. A practical scheme based on polarization self-modulation in a 3.39-μm helium-neon laser is proposed for pulsed code data transmission with an yttrium-iron garnet magnetooptical Q-switch. Highly efficient transmission of digital signals is implemented with a repetition rate of 75 MHz, equivalent to half the free spectral range of the laser.

  6. Dynamic nuclear polarization by frequency modulation of a tunable gyrotron of 260GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dongyoung; Soundararajan, Murari; Cuanillon, Philippe; Braunmueller, Falk; Alberti, Stefano; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) signal intensity is obtained with a tunable gyrotron producing frequency modulation around 260GHz at power levels less than 1W. The sweep rate of frequency modulation can reach 14kHz, and its amplitude is fixed at 50MHz. In water/glycerol glassy ice doped with 40mM TEMPOL, the relative increase in the DNP enhancement was obtained as a function of frequency-sweep rate for several temperatures. A 68 % increase was obtained at 15K, thus giving a DNP enhancement of about 80. By employing λ/4 and λ/8 polarizer mirrors, we transformed the polarization of the microwave beam from linear to circular, and achieved an increase in the enhancement by a factor of about 66% for a given power. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm “plus” maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth’s magnetic field. PMID:26811473

  8. ANALYSIS OF SEEING-INDUCED POLARIZATION CROSS-TALK AND MODULATION SCHEME PERFORMANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, R.; De Wijn, A. G.; Judge, P. G.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the generation of polarization cross-talk in Stokes polarimeters by atmospheric seeing, and its effects on the noise statistics of spectropolarimetric measurements for both single-beam and dual-beam instruments. We investigate the time evolution of seeing-induced correlations between different states of one modulation cycle and compare the response to these correlations of two popular polarization modulation schemes in a dual-beam system. Extension of the formalism to encompass an arbitrary number of modulation cycles enables us to compare our results with earlier work. Even though we discuss examples pertinent to solar physics, the general treatment of the subject and its fundamental results might be useful to a wider community.

  9. Method for measuring retardation of infrared wave-plate by modulated-polarized visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Song, Feijun

    2012-11-01

    A new method for precisely measuring the optical phase retardation of wave-plates in the infrared spectral region is presented by using modulated-polarized visible light. An electro-optic modulator is used to accurately determine the zero point by the frequency-doubled signal of the Modulated-polarized light. A Babinet-Soleil compensator is employed to make the phase delay compensation. Based on this method, an instrument is set up to measure the retardations of the infrared wave-plates with visible region laser. Measurement results with high accuracy and sound repetition are obtained by simple calculation. Its measurement precision is less than and repetitive precision is within 0.3%.

  10. Investigations of Polarization Dependent Loss in Polarization Modulated Analog Optical Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-29

    performance analog optical links for military applications primarily rely on the most common link architecture employing intensity modulation with...axis as bisector of DD and Ss•) PP = fl i p ( rr, PPO] ; (• flip the P vector imaqe on the PA •) PPh a t = unit[PP ) ; PHI = ArcCos [ PPha t .unit...DD ) ); AA = ((Cos ( PHI / 2])𔃼 • t p (Sin [ PHI / 2 ])𔃼 ) PP • tpDDhat / 2 ; CC2 =- ( MM · AA . SS • (AA . I!M) (I!M. SS)) ; CC3 = AA . SS; ln

  11. Ellipticities of Elliptical Galaxies in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Ko, Chung-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We studied the ellipticity distributions of elliptical galaxies in different environments. From the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we selected galaxies with absolute {r}\\prime -band magnitudes between -21 and -22. We used the volume number densities of galaxies as the criterion for selecting the environments of the galaxies. Our samples were divided into three groups with different volume number densities. The ellipticity distributions of the elliptical galaxies differed considerably in these three groups of different density regions. We deprojected the observed 2D ellipticity distributions into intrinsic 3D shape distributions, and the result showed that the shapes of the elliptical galaxies were relatively spherically symmetric in the high density region (HDR) and that relatively more flat galaxies were present in the low density region (LDR). This suggests that the ellipticals in the HDRs and LDRs have different origins or that different mechanisms might be involved. The elliptical galaxies in the LDR are likely to have evolved from mergers in relatively anisotropic structures, such as filaments and webs, and might contain information on the anisotropic spatial distribution of their parent mergers. By contrast, elliptical galaxies in the HDR might be formed in more isotropic structures, such as galaxy clusters, or they might encounter more torqueing effects compared with galaxies in LDRs, thereby becoming rounder.

  12. Dynamic nuclear polarization using frequency modulation at 3.34 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovav, Y; Feintuch, A; Vega, S; Goldfarb, D

    2014-01-01

    During dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments polarization is transferred from unpaired electrons to their neighboring nuclear spins, resulting in dramatic enhancement of the NMR signals. While in most cases this is achieved by continuous wave (cw) irradiation applied to samples in fixed external magnetic fields, here we show that DNP enhancement of static samples can improve by modulating the microwave (MW) frequency at a constant field of 3.34 T. The efficiency of triangular shaped modulation is explored by monitoring the (1)H signal enhancement in frozen solutions containing different TEMPOL radical concentrations at different temperatures. The optimal modulation parameters are examined experimentally and under the most favorable conditions a threefold enhancement is obtained with respect to constant frequency DNP in samples with low radical concentrations. The results are interpreted using numerical simulations on small spin systems. In particular, it is shown experimentally and explained theoretically that: (i) The optimal modulation frequency is higher than the electron spin-lattice relaxation rate. (ii) The optimal modulation amplitude must be smaller than the nuclear Larmor frequency and the EPR line-width, as expected. (iii) The MW frequencies corresponding to the enhancement maxima and minima are shifted away from one another when using frequency modulation, relative to the constant frequency experiments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Universal holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric spin with phase-modulated polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Naoki; Nakamura, Takaaki; Tanaka, Touta; Mishima, Shota; Kano, Hiroki; Kuroiwa, Ryota; Sekiguchi, Yuhei; Kosaka, Hideo

    2018-05-15

    We demonstrate universal non-adiabatic non-abelian holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric electron spin with phase-modulated polarized light and 93% average fidelity. This allows purely geometric rotation around an arbitrary axis by any angle defined by light polarization and phase using a degenerate three-level Λ-type system in a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Since the control light is completely resonant to the ancillary excited state, the demonstrated holonomic gate not only is fast with low power, but also is precise without the dynamical phase being subject to control error and environmental noise. It thus allows pulse shaping for further fidelity.

  14. In-flight performance of the polarization modulator in the CLASP rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Giono, Gabriel; Beabout, Dyana L.; Beabout, Brent L.; Nakayama, Satoshi; Tajima, Takao

    2016-07-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. In polarization measurements, the continuous rotating waveplate is an important element as well as a polarization analyzer to record the incident polarization in a time series of camera exposures. The control logic of PMU was originally developed for the next Japanese solar observation satellite SOLAR-C by the SOLAR-C working group. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP). CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1 % for the first time and investigate their vector magnetic field by the Hanle effect. The driver circuit was developed to optimize the rotation for the CLASP waveplate (12.5 rotations per minute). Rotation non- uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. We confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity in the ground test and the scale error and crosstalk of Stokes Q and U are less than 0.01 %. After PMU was attached to the CLASP instrument, we performed vibration tests and confirmed all PMU functions performance including rotation uniformity did not change. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity, and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  15. Basis for calculating cross sections for nuclear magnetic resonance spin-modulated polarized neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlarchyk, Michael; Thurston, George M

    2016-12-28

    In this work we study the potential for utilizing the scattering of polarized neutrons from nuclei whose spin has been modulated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). From first principles, we present an in-depth development of the differential scattering cross sections that would arise in such measurements from a hypothetical target system containing nuclei with non-zero spins. In particular, we investigate the modulation of the polarized scattering cross sections following the application of radio frequency pulses that impart initial transverse rotations to selected sets of spin-1/2 nuclei. The long-term aim is to provide a foundational treatment of the scattering cross section associated with enhancing scattering signals from selected nuclei using NMR techniques, thus employing minimal chemical or isotopic alterations, so as to advance the knowledge of macromolecular or liquid structure.

  16. Numerical analysis of fundamental characteristics of superconducting magnetic bearings for a polarization modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terachi, Yusuke; Terao, Yutaka; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Yuki; Matsumura, Tomotake; Sugai, Hajime; Utsunomiya, Shin; Kataza, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out numerical analysis of mechanical properties of a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). A contactless bearing operating at below 10 K with low rotational energy loss is an attractive feature to be used as a rotational mechanism of a polarization modulator for a cosmic microwave background experiment. In such application, a rotor diameter of about 400 mm forces us to employ a segmented magnet. As a result, there is inevitable spatial gap between the segments. In order to understand the path towards the design optimizations, 2D and 3D FEM analyses were carried out to examine fundamental characteristics of the SMBs for a polarization modulator. Two axial flux type SMBs were dealt with in the analysis: (a) the SMB with axially magnetized permanent magnets (PMs), and (b) the SMB with radially magnetized PMs and steel components for magnetic flux paths. Magnetic flux lines and density distributions, electromagnetic force characteristics, spring constants, etc. were compared among some variations of the SMBs. From the numerical analysis results, it is discussed what type, configuration and design of SMBs are more suitable for a polarization modulator. (paper)

  17. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-08

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  18. Optical polarization modulation by competing atomic coherence effects in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Jong; Park, Chang Yong; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of optical polarization modulation of a linearly polarized infrared probe field is studied in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system. We have observed an anomalous transmission spectra of two circular polarization components of the probe field exhibiting an enhanced two-photon absorption and a three-photon gain with comparable magnitude, leading to the lossless transmission and enhanced circular dichroism. We carried out a proof-of-principle experiment of fast optical polarization modulation in such a system by modulating the polarization state of the coupling field. The observed enhanced two-photon absorption and three-photon gain of the probe field are due to the result of competing atomic coherence effects

  19. Modulation of mouse macrophage polarization in vitro using IL-4 delivery by osmotic pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajarinen, Jukka; Tamaki, Yasunobu; Antonios, Joseph K; Lin, Tzu-Hua; Sato, Taishi; Yao, Zhenyu; Takagi, Michiaki; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Goodman, Stuart B

    2015-04-01

    Modulation of macrophage polarization is emerging as promising means to mitigate wear particle-induced inflammation and periprosthetic osteolysis. As a model for continuous local drug delivery, we used miniature osmotic pumps to deliver IL-4 in order to modulate macrophage polarization in vitro from nonactivated M0 and inflammatory M1 phenotypes towards a tissue regenerative M2 phenotype. Pumps delivered IL-4 into vials containing mouse bone marrow macrophage (mBMM) media. This conditioned media (CM) was collected at seven day intervals up to four weeks (week 1 to week 4 samples). IL-4 concentration in the CM was determined by ELISA and its biological activity was assayed by exposing M0 and M1 mBMMs to week 1 or week 4 CM. The IL-4 concentration in the CM approximated the mathematically calculated amount, and its biological activity was well retained, as both M0 and M1 macrophages exposed to either the week 1 or week 4 CM assumed M2-like phenotype as determined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and immunocytochemistry. The results show that IL-4 can be delivered using osmotic pumps and that IL-4 delivered can modulate macrophage phenotype. Results build a foundation for in vivo studies using our previously validated animal models and provide possible strategies to locally mitigate wear particle-induced macrophage activation and periprosthetic osteolysis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Optical-wireless-optical full link for polarization multiplexing quadrature amplitude/phase modulation signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen

    2013-11-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless integration system at the Q-band, in which up to 40 Gb/s polarization multiplexing multilevel quadrature amplitude/phase modulation (PM-QAM) signal can be first transmitted over 20 km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28), then delivered over a 2 m 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless link, and finally transmitted over another 20 km SMF-28. The PM-QAM modulated wireless millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal at 40 GHz is generated based on the remote heterodyning technique, and demodulated by the radio-frequency transparent photonic technique based on homodyne coherent detection and baseband digital signal processing. The classic constant modulus algorithm equalization is used at the receiver to realize polarization demultiplexing of the PM-QAM signal. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we realize the conversion of the PM-QAM modulated wireless mm-wave signal to the optical signal as well as 20 km fiber transmission of the converted optical signal.

  1. Polarization modulation based on the hybrid waveguide of graphene sandwiched structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junbo; Chen, Dingbo; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhaojian; Huang, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitter (PBS) plays an important role to realize beam control and modulation. A novel hybrid structure of graphene sandwiched waveguide is proposed to fulfill polarization manipulation and selection based on the refractive index engineering techniques. The fundamental mode of TM cannot be supported in this case. However, both TE and TM mode are excited and transmitting in the hybrid waveguide if the design parameters, including the waveguide width and the waveguide height, are changed. The incident wavelength largely affects the effective index, which results in supporting/not supporting the TM mode. The proposed design exhibits high extinction ratio, compact in size, flexible to control, compatible with CMOS process, and easy to be integrated with other optoelectronic devices, allowing it to be used in optical communication and optical information processing.

  2. Key scattering mechanisms limiting the lateral transport in a modulation-doped polar heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Nguyen Thanh, E-mail: nttien@ctu.edu.vn; Thao, Pham Thi Bich [College of Natural Sciences, Can Tho University, 3-2 Road, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Thao, Dinh Nhu [Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, College of Education, Hue University, 34 Le Loi Street, Hue City (Viet Nam); Quang, Doan Nhat [Institute of Physics, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 10 Dao Tan Street, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-06-07

    We present a study of the lateral transport of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a modulation-doped polar heterojunction (HJ). In contrast to previous studies, we assume that the Coulomb correlation among ionized impurities and among charged dislocations in the HJ is so strong that the 2DEG low-temperature mobility is not limited by impurity and dislocation scattering. The mobility, however, is specified by alloy disorder scattering and combined roughness scattering, which is the total effect induced by both the potential barrier and polarization roughness. The obtained results show that the alloy disorder and combined roughness scattering strongly depend on the alloy content and on the near-interface electron distribution. Our theory is capable of explaining the bell-shaped dependence of the lateral mobility on alloy content observed in AlGaN/GaN and on 2DEG density observed in AlN/GaN, which have not previously been explained.

  3. Thin-film VO2 submillimeter-wave modulators and polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.C.C.; Fetterman, H.R.; Bachner, F.J.; Zavracky, P.M.; Parker, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave modulators and switchable polarizers have been fabricated from VO 2 thin films deposited on sapphire substrates. By passing electric current pulses through elements made from these films, the films can be thermally cycled through the insulator-to-metal transition that occurs in VO 2 at about 65 degreeC. In the insulating state, the films are found to have negligible effect on the transmission at submillimeter wavelengths, while above the phase transition the transmission is strongly reduced by the free-electron effects characteristic of a metal. Other possible applications of such switchable VO 2 elements include variable bandpass filters and diffraction grating beam-steering devices

  4. INFLUENCE OF POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION ON THE EFFECT OF CROSS-PHASE MODULATION IN INTENSITY MODULATION-DIRECT DETECTION WDM TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Islam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-phase modulation (XPM changes the state-of-polarization (SOP of the channels through nonlinear polarization rotation and induces nonlinear time dependent phase shift for polarization components that leads to amplitude modulation of the propagating waves in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM system. Due to the presence of birefringence, the angle between the SOP changes randomly and as a result polarization mode dispersion (PMD causes XPM modulation amplitude fluctuation random in the perturbed channel. In this paper we analytically determine the probability density function of the random angle between the SOP of pump and probe, and evaluate the impact of polarization mode dispersion on XPM in terms of bit error rate, channel spacing etc for a two channel intensity modulation-direct detection WDM system at 10 Gb/s. It is found that the XPM induced crosstalk is polarization independent for channel spacing greater than 3 nm or PMD coefficient larger than 2 ps/√km. We also investigate the dependence of SOP variance on PMD coefficient and channel spacing.

  5. Kerr ellipticity effect in a birefringent optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiekwene, G.C.; Mensah, S.Y.; Brown, C.S.

    2004-09-01

    An intensity-dependent change in the ellipticity of an input light beam leads to a characteristic shift in polarization instability. Dichroism gives rise to a self-induced ellipticity effect in the polarization state of an intense input light oriented along the fast axis of a birefringent optical fiber. The critical power at which the fiber effective beat length becomes infinite is reduced considerably in the presence of dichroism. (author)

  6. Ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold harmonics of H2 in an elliptical strong laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Peng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-11-18

    We study the ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold (NT) harmonics of pre-aligned H2 molecules using the time-dependent density functional theory. The anomalous maximum appearing at a non-zero ellipticity for the generated NT harmonics can be attributed to multiphoton effects of the orthogonally polarized component of the elliptical driving laser field. Our calculation also shows that the structure of the bound-state, such as molecular alignment and bond length, can be sensitively reflected on the ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold harmonics.

  7. Galectin-3 modulates the polarized surface delivery of β1-integrin in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönig, Ellena; Ringer, Karina; Dewes, Jenny; von Mach, Tobias; Kamm, Natalia; Kreitzer, Geri; Jacob, Ralf

    2018-05-10

    Epithelial cells require a precise intracellular transport and sorting machinery in order to establish and maintain their polarized architecture. This machinery includes beta-galactoside binding galectins for glycoprotein targeting to the apical membrane. Galectin-3 sorts cargo destined for the apical plasma membrane into vesicular carriers. After delivery of cargo to the apical milieu, galectin-3 recycles back into sorting organelles. We analyzed the role of galectin-3 in the polarized distribution of β1-integrin in MDCK cells. Integrins are located primarily at the basolateral domain of epithelial cells. We demonstrate that a minor pool of β1-integrin interacts with galectin-3 at the apical plasma membrane. Knockdown of galectin-3 decreases apical delivery of β1-integrin. This loss is restored by supplementation with recombinant galectin-3 and galectin-3 overexpression. Our data suggest that galectin-3 targets newly synthesized β1-integrin to the apical membrane and promotes apical delivery of β1-integrin internalized from the basolateral membrane. In parallel, galectin-3 knockout results in a reduction in cell proliferation and an impairment in proper cyst development. Our results suggest that galectin-3 modulates the surface distribution of β1-integrin and affects the morphogenesis of polarized cells. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Do not resonate with actions: sentence polarity modulates cortico-spinal excitability during action-related sentence reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tullio Liuzza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theories of embodied language suggest that the motor system is differentially called into action when processing motor-related versus abstract content words or sentences. It has been recently shown that processing negative polarity action-related sentences modulates neural activity of premotor and motor cortices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether reading negative polarity sentences brought about differential modulation of cortico-spinal motor excitability depending on processing hand-action related or abstract sentences. Facilitatory paired-pulses Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pp-TMS was applied to the primary motor representation of the right-hand and the recorded amplitude of induced motor-evoked potentials (MEP was used to index M1 activity during passive reading of either hand-action related or abstract content sentences presented in both negative and affirmative polarity. Results showed that the cortico-spinal excitability was affected by sentence polarity only in the hand-action related condition. Indeed, in keeping with previous TMS studies, reading positive polarity, hand action-related sentences suppressed cortico-spinal reactivity. This effect was absent when reading hand action-related negative polarity sentences. Moreover, no modulation of cortico-spinal reactivity was associated with either negative or positive polarity abstract sentences. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that grammatical cues prompting motor negation reduce the cortico-spinal suppression associated with affirmative action sentences reading and thus suggest that motor simulative processes underlying the embodiment may involve even syntactic features of language.

  9. The selective digital integrator: A new device for modulated polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancic, Aljosa

    1998-12-01

    A new device, a selective digital integrator (SDI), for the acquisition of modulated polarization spectroscopy (MPS) signals is described. Special attention is given to the accurate measurement of very small (AC component of interest 50 kHz) signals at or below noise levels. Various data acquisition methods and problems associated with the collection of modulated signals are discussed. The SDI solves most of these problems and has the following advantages: it provides the average-time resolved profile of a modulated signal; it eliminates errors if the modulation is not sinusoidal; it enables separate measurements of the various phases of the signal modulation cycle; it permits simultaneous measurement of absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) spectra; it facilitates 3-D absorbance measurements; it has a wide gain-switching-free dynamic range (10 orders of magnitude or more); it offers a constant S/N ratio mode of operation; it eliminates the need for photomultiplier voltage feedback, and it has faster scanning speeds. The time-resolution, selectivity, wide dynamic range, and low-overhead on-the-fly data processing are useful for other modulated spectroscopy (MS) and non-MS experiments such as pulse height distribution and time-resolved pulse counting measurements. The advantages of the MPS-SDI method are tested on the first Rydberg electronic transitions of (+)-3- methylcyclopentanone. The experimental results validate the predicted SDI capabilities. However, they also point to two difficulties that had not been noted previously: the presence of LD in a gaseous sample and a pressure- dependence of the relative peak heights of the CD spectrum. Models for these anomalies are proposed. The presence of the oscillatory LD (but not an LD background) is explained with a sample cell model based on the observed polarization-dependent time-resolved profiles of transmitted light intensity. To obtain expressions for these intensities, a theoretical

  10. Modulating macrophage polarization with divalent cations in nanostructured titanium implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung-Ho; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee; Park, Jin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale topographical modification and surface chemistry alteration using bioactive ions are centrally important processes in the current design of the surface of titanium (Ti) bone implants with enhanced bone healing capacity. Macrophages play a central role in the early tissue healing stage and their activity in response to the implant surface is known to affect the subsequent healing outcome. Thus, the positive modulation of macrophage phenotype polarization (i.e. towards the regenerative M2 rather than the inflammatory M1 phenotype) with a modified surface is essential for the osteogenesis funtion of Ti bone implants. However, relatively few advances have been made in terms of modulating the macrophage-centered early healing capacity in the surface design of Ti bone implants for the two important surface properties of nanotopography and and bioactive ion chemistry. We investigated whether surface bioactive ion modification exerts a definite beneficial effect on inducing regenerative M2 macrophage polarization when combined with the surface nanotopography of Ti. Our results indicate that nanoscale topographical modification and surface bioactive ion chemistry can positively modulate the macrophage phenotype in a Ti implant surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that chemical surface modification using divalent cations (Ca and Sr) dramatically induces the regenerative M2 macrophage phenotype of J774.A1 cells in nanostructured Ti surfaces. In this study, divalent cation chemistry regulated the cell shape of adherent macrophages and markedly up-regulated M2 macrophage phenotype expression when combined with the nanostructured Ti surface. These results provide insight into the surface engineering of future Ti bone implants that are harmonized between the macrophage-governed early wound healing process and subsequent mesenchymal stem cell-centered osteogenesis function. (paper)

  11. Modulating macrophage polarization with divalent cations in nanostructured titanium implant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Ho; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee; Park, Jin-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Nanoscale topographical modification and surface chemistry alteration using bioactive ions are centrally important processes in the current design of the surface of titanium (Ti) bone implants with enhanced bone healing capacity. Macrophages play a central role in the early tissue healing stage and their activity in response to the implant surface is known to affect the subsequent healing outcome. Thus, the positive modulation of macrophage phenotype polarization (i.e. towards the regenerative M2 rather than the inflammatory M1 phenotype) with a modified surface is essential for the osteogenesis funtion of Ti bone implants. However, relatively few advances have been made in terms of modulating the macrophage-centered early healing capacity in the surface design of Ti bone implants for the two important surface properties of nanotopography and and bioactive ion chemistry. We investigated whether surface bioactive ion modification exerts a definite beneficial effect on inducing regenerative M2 macrophage polarization when combined with the surface nanotopography of Ti. Our results indicate that nanoscale topographical modification and surface bioactive ion chemistry can positively modulate the macrophage phenotype in a Ti implant surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that chemical surface modification using divalent cations (Ca and Sr) dramatically induces the regenerative M2 macrophage phenotype of J774.A1 cells in nanostructured Ti surfaces. In this study, divalent cation chemistry regulated the cell shape of adherent macrophages and markedly up-regulated M2 macrophage phenotype expression when combined with the nanostructured Ti surface. These results provide insight into the surface engineering of future Ti bone implants that are harmonized between the macrophage-governed early wound healing process and subsequent mesenchymal stem cell-centered osteogenesis function.

  12. Planar elliptic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  13. Temporal and spectral studies of high-order harmonics generated by polarization-modulated infrared fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, I. J.; Zaier, A.; Cormier, E.; Mevel, E.; Constant, E.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Johnsson, P.; Varju, K.; Mauritsson, J.; L'Huillier, A.; Strelkov, V.

    2006-01-01

    The temporal confinement of high harmonic generation (HHG) via modulation of the polarization of the fundamental pulse is studied in both temporal and spectral domains. In the temporal domain, a collinear cross-correlation setup using a 40 fs IR pump for the HHG and a 9 fs IR pulse to probe the generated emission is used to measure the XUV pulse duration. The observed temporal confinement is found to be consistent with theoretical predictions. An increased confinement is observed when a 9 fs pulse is used to generate the harmonics. An important spectral broadening, including a continuum background, is also measured. Theoretical calculations show that with 10 fs driving pulses, either one or two main attosecond pulses are created depending on the value of the carrier envelope phase

  14. Ultrabroadband polarization splitter based on three-core photonic crystal fiber with a modulation core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongtong; Lou, Shuqin; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Min; Lian, Zhenggang

    2016-08-10

    We design an ultrabroadband polarization splitter based on three-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). A modulation core and two fluorine-doped cores are introduced to achieve an ultrawide bandwidth. The properties of three-core PCF are modeled by using the full-vector finite element method along with the full-vector beam propagation method. Numerical results demonstrate that an ultrabroadband splitter with 320 nm bandwidth with an extinction ratio as low as -20  dB can be achieved by using 52.8 mm long three-core PCF. This splitter also has high compatibility with standard single-mode fibers as the input and output ports due to low splicing loss of 0.02 dB. All the air holes in the proposed structure are circular holes and arranged in a triangular lattice that makes it easy to fabricate.

  15. Vibrational characteristics of a superconducting magnetic bearing employed for a prototype polarization modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yuki; Matsumura, Tomotake; Sugai, Hajime; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Utsunomiya, Shin; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Terao, Yutaka; Terachi, Yusuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    We present the vibrational characteristics of a levitating rotor in a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) system operating at below 10 K. We develop a polarization modulator that requires a continuously rotating optical element, called half-wave plate (HWP), for a cosmic microwave background polarization experiment. The HWP has to operate at the temperature below 10 K, and thus an SMB provides a smooth rotation of the HWP at the cryogenic temperature of about 10 K with minimal heat dissipation. In order to understand the potential interference to the cosmological observations due to the vibration of the HWP, it is essential to characterize the vibrational properties of the levitating rotor of the SMB. We constructed a prototype model that consists of an SMB with an array of high temperature superconductors, YBCO, and a permanent magnet ring, NdFeB. The rotor position is monitored by a laser displacement gauge, and a cryogenic Hall sensor via the magnetic field. In this presentation, we present the measurement results of the vibration characteristics using our prototype SMB system. We characterize the vibrational properties as the spring constant and the damping, and discuss the projected performance of this technology toward the use in future space missions. (paper)

  16. Vibrational characteristics of a superconducting magnetic bearing employed for a prototype polarization modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yuki; Matsumura, Tomotake; Sugai, Hajime; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Terao, Yutaka; Terachi, Yusuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Utsunomiya, Shin; Yamamoto, Ryo

    2017-07-01

    We present the vibrational characteristics of a levitating rotor in a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) system operating at below 10 K. We develop a polarization modulator that requires a continuously rotating optical element, called half-wave plate (HWP), for a cosmic microwave background polarization experiment. The HWP has to operate at the temperature below 10 K, and thus an SMB provides a smooth rotation of the HWP at the cryogenic temperature of about 10 K with minimal heat dissipation. In order to understand the potential interference to the cosmological observations due to the vibration of the HWP, it is essential to characterize the vibrational properties of the levitating rotor of the SMB. We constructed a prototype model that consists of an SMB with an array of high temperature superconductors, YBCO, and a permanent magnet ring, NdFeB. The rotor position is monitored by a laser displacement gauge, and a cryogenic Hall sensor via the magnetic field. In this presentation, we present the measurement results of the vibration characteristics using our prototype SMB system. We characterize the vibrational properties as the spring constant and the damping, and discuss the projected performance of this technology toward the use in future space missions.

  17. MiR-146a modulates macrophage polarization by inhibiting Notch1 pathway in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Xue-Jiao; QunZhou; Xie, Juan; Ma, Tao-Tao; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Li, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages are heterogeneous and plastic cells which are able to undergo dynamic transition between M1 and M2 polarized phenotypes in response to the microenvironment signals. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of macrophage polarization are still obscure. In the current study, it was revealed that miR-146a might play a pivotal role in macrophage polarization. As our results indicated, miR-146a was highly expressed in M2 macrophages rather than M1 macrophages. Over-expression of miR-146a resulted in significantly decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including iNOS and TNF-α in M1 macrophages, while increased production of M2 marker genes such as Arg1 and CD206 in M2 macrophages. In contrast, knockdown of miR-146a promoted M1 macrophage polarization but diminished M2 macrophage polarization. Mechanistically, it was revealed that miR-146a modulated macrophage polarization by targeting Notch1. Of note, PPARγ was responsible as another target for miR-146a-mediated macrophage polarization. Taken together, it was suggested that miR-146a might serve as a molecular regulator in macrophage polarization and is a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elliptic Determinantal Processes and Elliptic Dyson Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    We introduce seven families of stochastic systems of interacting particles in one-dimension corresponding to the seven families of irreducible reduced affine root systems. We prove that they are determinantal in the sense that all spatio-temporal correlation functions are given by determinants controlled by a single function called the spatio-temporal correlation kernel. For the four families {A}_{N-1}, {B}_N, {C}_N and {D}_N, we identify the systems of stochastic differential equations solved by these determinantal processes, which will be regarded as the elliptic extensions of the Dyson model. Here we use the notion of martingales in probability theory and the elliptic determinant evaluations of the Macdonald denominators of irreducible reduced affine root systems given by Rosengren and Schlosser.

  19. Elliptic genera from multi-centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaddam, Nava [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena,Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-05-13

    I show how elliptic genera for various Calabi-Yau threefolds may be understood from supergravity localization using the quantization of the phase space of certain multi-center configurations. I present a simple procedure that allows for the enumeration of all multi-center configurations contributing to the polar sector of the elliptic genera — explicitly verifying this in the cases of the quintic in ℙ{sup 4}, the sextic in Wℙ{sub (2,1,1,1,1)}, the octic in Wℙ{sub (4,1,1,1,1)} and the dectic in Wℙ{sub (5,2,1,1,1)}. With an input of the corresponding ‘single-center’ indices (Donaldson-Thomas invariants), the polar terms have been known to determine the elliptic genera completely. I argue that this multi-center approach to the low-lying spectrum of the elliptic genera is a stepping stone towards an understanding of the exact microscopic states that contribute to supersymmetric single center black hole entropy in N=2 supergravity.

  20. Ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics from stretched molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiyan; Dong, Fulong; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Shang; Yang, Shiping; Chen, Yanjun

    2015-11-30

    We study the ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics (NTH) from aligned molecules with large internuclear distances numerically and analytically. The calculated harmonic spectra show a broad plateau for NTH which is several orders of magnitude higher than that for high-order harmonics. In particular, the NTH plateau shows high ellipticity at small and intermediate orientation angles. Our analyses reveal that the main contributions to the NTH plateau come from the transition of the electron from continuum states to these two lowest bound states of the system, which are strongly coupled together by the laser field. Besides continuum states, higher excited states also play a role in the NTH plateau, resulting in a large phase difference between parallel and perpendicular harmonics and accordingly high ellipticity of the NTH plateau. The NTH plateau with high intensity and large ellipticity provides a promising manner for generating strong elliptically-polarized extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses.

  1. Triaxiality in elliptical galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benacchio, L; Galletta, G [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-12-01

    The existence of a triaxial shape for elliptical galaxies has been considered in recent years to explain the new kinematical and geometrical findings, i.e. (a) the low rotation/velocity dispersion ratio found also in some flat systems, (b) the presence of twisting in the isophotes, (c) the recently found correlation between maximum twisting and maximum flattening, (d) the presence of rotation along the minor axis. A simple geometrical model of elliptical galaxies having shells with different axial ratios c/a, b/a has been produced to interpret three fundamental key-features of elliptical galaxies: (i) the distribution of the maximum flattening observed; (ii) the percentage of ellipticals showing twisting; and (iii) the correlation between maximum twisting and maximum flattening. The model has been compared with observational data for 348 elliptical systems as given by Strom and Strom. It is found that a triaxial ellipsoid with coaxial shells having axial ratios c/a and b/a mutually dependent in a linear way can satisfy the observations.

  2. Curcumin Modulates Macrophage Polarization Through the Inhibition of the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression and its Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcumin, the active ingredient in curcuma rhizomes, has a wide range of therapeutic effects. However, its atheroprotective activity in human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells remains unclear. We investigated the activity and molecular mechanism of action of curcumin in polarized macrophages. Methods: Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA-treated THP-1 cells were differentiated to macrophages, which were further polarized to M1 cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 µg/ml and interferon (IFN-γ (20 ng/ml and treated with varying curcumin concentrations. [3H]thymidine (3H-TdR incorporation assays were utilized to measure curcumin-induced growth inhibition. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-12B (p40 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Macrophage polarization and its mechanism were evaluated by flow cytometry and western blot. Additionally, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 small interfering RNA and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors were used to further confirm the molecular mechanism of curcumin on macrophage polarization. Results: Curcumin dose-dependently inhibited M1 macrophage polarization and the production of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-12B (p40. It also decreased TLR4 expression, which regulates M1 macrophage polarization. Furthermore, curcumin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p38, and nuclear factor (NF-γB. In contrast, SiTLR4 in combination with p-JNK, p-ERK, and p-p38 inhibition reduced the effect of curcumin on polarization. Conclusions: Curcumin can modulate macrophage polarization through TLR4-mediated signaling pathway inhibition, indicating that its effect on macrophage polarization is related to its anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective effects. Our data suggest that curcumin could be used as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerosis.

  3. Polarization of the coherent radio emission from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardavan, H.

    1982-01-01

    The polarization characteristics of the radiation from a quasi-steady pulsar magnetosphere are calculated using the amplitude-modulated-noise interpretation of the data on pulse structures. The total emission consists of three incoherently mixed radiation streams. Two of the independent polarization states are elliptically polarized (modes I and II) and one is linearly polarized (mode III). In the regime where the length scale of the radial distribution of the electric current density is appreciably longer than the wavelength of the radiation, the position angles of modes I and II are orthogonal and those of modes I and III coincident. However, the senses of circular polarization of modes I and II are in general uncorrelated. The degrees of circular polarization of the 'orthogonal' modes are decreasing functions of frequency and both approach zero in the limit where the frequency of the radiation is much higher than the rotation frequency of the pulsar. Longitudinal changes in the position angle and in the sense of circular polarization of each of the elliptically polarized modes are shown to arise, together with mode transitions, in part from the stochastic fluctuations and in part from the systematic variations of the electric current density with the azimuthal angle, in a narrow emitting region adjacent to the light cylinder. (author)

  4. PMD compensation in multilevel coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection using BLAST algorithm and iterative polarization cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2008-09-15

    We present two PMD compensation schemes suitable for use in multilevel (M>or=2) block-coded modulation schemes with coherent detection. The first scheme is based on a BLAST-type polarization-interference cancellation scheme, and the second scheme is based on iterative polarization cancellation. Both schemes use the LDPC codes as channel codes. The proposed PMD compensations schemes are evaluated by employing coded-OFDM and coherent detection. When used in combination with girth-10 LDPC codes those schemes outperform polarization-time coding based OFDM by 1 dB at BER of 10(-9), and provide two times higher spectral efficiency. The proposed schemes perform comparable and are able to compensate even 1200 ps of differential group delay with negligible penalty.

  5. ZIFL1.1 transporter modulates polar auxin transport by stabilizing membrane abundance of multiple PINs in Arabidopsis root tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Estelle; Baster, Pawel; Friml, Jiří; Duque, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell directional flow of the phytohormone auxin is primarily established by polar localization of the PIN auxin transporters, a process tightly regulated at multiple levels by auxin itself. We recently reported that, in the context of strong auxin flows, activity of the vacuolar ZIFL1.1 transporter is required for fine-tuning of polar auxin transport rates in the Arabidopsis root. In particular, ZIFL1.1 function protects plasma-membrane stability of the PIN2 carrier in epidermal root tip cells under conditions normally triggering PIN2 degradation. Here, we show that ZIFL1.1 activity at the root tip also promotes PIN1 plasma-membrane abundance in central cylinder cells, thus supporting the notion that ZIFL1.1 acts as a general positive modulator of polar auxin transport in roots. PMID:23857365

  6. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  7. Polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering from spin-density-wave modulation in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal

  8. Snapshot polarization-sensitive plug-in optical module for a Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Manuel J.; Rivet, Sylvain; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    In this communication, we present a proof-of-concept polarization-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) which can be used to characterize the retardance and the axis orientation of a linear birefringent sample. This module configuration is an improvement from our previous work1, 2 since it encodes the two polarization channels on the optical path difference, effectively carrying out the polarization measurements simultaneously (snapshot measurement), whilst retaining all the advantages (namely the insensitivity to environmental parameters when using SM fibers) of these two previous configurations. Further progress consists in employing Master Slave OCT technology,3 which is used to automatically compensate for the dispersion mismatch introduced by the elements in the module. This is essential given the encoding of the polarization states on two different optical path lengths, each of them having dissimilar dispersive properties. By utilizing this method instead of the commonly used re-linearization and numerical dispersion compensation methods an improvement in terms of the calculation time required can be achieved.

  9. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Baumgartner, Matthew; Camacho, Carlos J; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP) assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein) and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery for this important

  10. Frequency modulation of high-order harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicun; Zheng, Yinghui; Ge, Xiaochun; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin

    2016-08-08

    We have experimentally investigated the frequency modulation of high-order harmonics in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field consisting of a mid-infrared 1800nm fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is demonstrated that the high harmonic spectra can be fine-tuned as we slightly change the relative delay of the two-color laser pulses. By analyzing the relative frequency shift of each harmonic at different two-color delays, the nonadiabatic spectral shift induced by the rapid variation of the intensity-dependent intrinsic dipole phase can be distinguished from the blueshift induced by the change of the refractive index during self-phase modulation (SPM). Our comprehensive analysis shows that the frequency modulation pattern is a reflection of the average emission time of high-order harmonic generation (HHG), thus offering a simple method to fine-tune the spectra of the harmonics on a sub-cycle time scale.

  11. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  12. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Grover

    Full Text Available The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery

  13. Real-time photonic sampling with improved signal-to-noise and distortion ratio using polarization-dependent modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Zhang, Zhiyao; Liu, Yong; Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Wei; Tan, Qinggui

    2018-04-01

    A real-time photonic sampling structure with effective nonlinearity suppression and excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance is proposed. The key points of this scheme are the polarization-dependent modulators (P-DMZMs) and the sagnac loop structure. Thanks to the polarization sensitive characteristic of P-DMZMs, the differences between transfer functions of the fundamental signal and the distortion become visible. Meanwhile, the selection of specific biases in P-DMZMs is helpful to achieve a preferable linearized performance with a low noise level for real-time photonic sampling. Compared with the quadrature-biased scheme, the proposed scheme is capable of valid nonlinearity suppression and is able to provide a better SNR performance even in a large frequency range. The proposed scheme is proved to be effective and easily implemented for real time photonic applications.

  14. Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2013-01-01

    Radiation from magnetized plasmas is in general elliptically polarized. In order to convert the elliptical polarization to linear polarization, mirrors with grooved surfaces are currently employed in our collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade. If these mirrors can be substituted...

  15. The properties of radio ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.B.; Disney, M.J.; Rodgers, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Optical and additional radio data are presented for the bright galaxies of the Disney and Wall survey (1977 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 235). These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas. (author)

  16. Spin polarized and density modulated phases in symmetric electron-electron and electron-hole bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishan; Moudgil, R K

    2012-10-17

    We have studied symmetric electron-electron and electron-hole bilayers to explore the stable homogeneous spin phase and the feasibility of inhomogeneous charge-/spin-density ground states. The former is resolved by comparing the ground-state energies in states of different spin polarizations, while the latter is resolved by searching for a divergence in the wavevector-dependent static charge/spin susceptibility. For this endeavour, we have used the dielectric approach within the self-consistent mean-field theory of Singwi et al. We find that the inter-layer interactions tend to change an abrupt spin-polarization transition of an isolated layer into a nearly gradual one, even though the partially spin-polarized phases are not clearly stable within the accuracy of our calculation. The transition density is seen to decrease with a reduction in layer spacing, implying a suppression of spin polarization by inter-layer interactions. Indeed, the suppression shows up distinctly in the spin susceptibility computed from the spin-polarization dependence of the ground-state energy. However, below a critical layer spacing, the unpolarized liquid becomes unstable against a charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state at a density preceding full spin polarization, with the transition density for the CDW state increasing on further reduction in the layer spacing. Due to attractive e-h correlations, the CDW state is found to be more pronounced in the e-h bilayer. On the other hand, the static spin susceptibility diverges only in the long-wavelength limit, which simply represents a transition to the homogeneous spin-polarized phase.

  17. Conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation using optically injected semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Han; Tseng, Chin-Hao; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang

    2018-06-01

    This Letter investigates an optically injected semiconductor laser for conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation. The underlying mechanism relies solely on nonlinear laser characteristics and, thus, only a typical semiconductor laser is required as the key conversion unit. This conversion can be achieved for a broadly tunable frequency range up to at least 65 GHz. After conversion, the microwave phase quality, including linewidth and phase noise, is mostly preserved, and simultaneous microwave amplification up to 23 dB is feasible.

  18. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  19. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  20. Serum corticosteroid binding globulin expression is modulated by fasting in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Obbard, Martyn E; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from several subpopulations undergo extended fasting during the ice-free season. However, the animals appear to conserve protein despite the prolonged fasting, though the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. We hypothesized that elevated concentrations of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary cortisol binding protein in circulation, lead to cortisol resistance and provide a mechanism for protein conservation during extended fasting. The metabolic state (feeding vs. fasting) of 16 field sampled male polar bears was determined based on their serum urea to creatinine ratio (>25 for feeding vs. polar bears sampled. Serum CBG expression was greater in lactating females relative to non-lactating females and males. CBG expression was significantly higher in fasting males when compared to non-fasting males. This leads us to suggest that CBG expression may serve as a mechanism to conserve protein during extended fasting in polar bears by reducing systemic free cortisol concentrations. This was further supported by a lower serum glucose concentration in the fasting bears. As well, a lack of an enhanced adrenocortical response to acute capture stress supports our hypothesis that chronic hunger is not a stressor in this species. Overall, our results suggest that elevated serum CBG expression may be an important adaptation to spare proteins by limiting cortisol bioavailability during extended fasting in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fast computation of complete elliptic integrals and Jacobian elliptic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2009-12-01

    As a preparation step to compute Jacobian elliptic functions efficiently, we created a fast method to calculate the complete elliptic integral of the first and second kinds, K( m) and E( m), for the standard domain of the elliptic parameter, 0 procedure to compute simultaneously three Jacobian elliptic functions, sn( u| m), cn( u| m), and dn( u| m), by repeated usage of the double argument formulae starting from the Maclaurin series expansions with respect to the elliptic argument, u, after its domain is reduced to the standard range, 0 ≤ u procedure is 25-70% faster than the methods based on the Gauss transformation such as Bulirsch’s algorithm, sncndn, quoted in the Numerical Recipes even if the acceleration of computation of K( m) is not taken into account.

  2. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  3. Bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system based on polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Hwan-Wei; Ho, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ming-Te; Huang, Sheng-Jhe; Yang, Zih-Yi; Lin, Xin-Yao

    2016-07-25

    A bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-invisible laser light communication (IVLLC) integrated system that employs polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme for hybrid cable television (CATV)/microwave (MW)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission is proposed and demonstrated. To our knowledge, it is the first one that adopts a polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme in a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system with hybrid CATV/MW/MMW/BB signal. For downlink transmission, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) perform well over 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 10-m RF/50-m optical wireless transport scenarios. For uplink transmission, good BER performance is obtained over 40-km SMF and 50-m optical wireless transport scenario. Such a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system for hybrid CATV/MW/MMW/BB signal transmission will be an attractive alternative for providing broadband integrated services, including CATV, Internet, and telecommunication services. It is shown to be a prominent one to present the advancements for the convergence of fiber backbone and RF/optical wireless feeder.

  4. The polarization modulation and fabrication method of two dimensional silica photonic crystals based on UV nanoimprint lithography and hot imprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuai; Niu, Chunhui; Liang, Liang; Chai, Ke; Jia, Yaqing; Zhao, Fangyin; Li, Ya; Zou, Bingsuo; Liu, Ruibin

    2016-10-04

    Based on a silica sol-gel technique, highly-structurally ordered silica photonic structures were fabricated by UV lithography and hot manual nanoimprint efforts, which makes large-scale fabrication of silica photonic crystals easy and results in low-cost. These photonic structures show perfect periodicity, smooth and flat surfaces and consistent aspect ratios, which are checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, glass substrates with imprinted photonic nanostructures show good diffraction performance in both transmission and reflection mode. Furthermore, the reflection efficiency can be enhanced by 5 nm Au nanoparticle coating, which does not affect the original imprint structure. Also the refractive index and dielectric constant of the imprinted silica is close to that of the dielectric layer in nanodevices. In addition, the polarization characteristics of the reflected light can be modulated by stripe nanostructures through changing the incident light angle. The experimental findings match with theoretical results, making silica photonic nanostructures functional integration layers in many optical or optoelectronic devices, such as LED and microlasers to enhance the optical performance and modulate polarization properties in an economical and large-scale way.

  5. Activation of PPARγ by a Natural Flavonoid Modulator, Apigenin Ameliorates Obesity-Related Inflammation Via Regulation of Macrophage Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujing Feng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available PPARγ has emerged as a master regulator of macrophage polarization and is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione drugs. Here we show that apigenin binds and activates PPARγ by acting as a modulator. Activation of PPARγ by apigenin blocks p65 translocation into nuclei through inhibition of p65/PPARγ complex translocation into nuclei, thereby decreasing NF-κB activation and favoringM2 macrophage polarization. In HFD and ob/ob mice, apigenin significantly reverses M1 macrophage into M2 and reduces the infiltration of inflammatory cells in liver and adipose tissues, as well as decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby alleviating inflammation. Strikingly, apigenin reduces liver and muscular steatosis, decreases the levels of ALT, AST, TC and TG, improving glucose resistance obviously. Unlike rosiglitazone, apigenin does not cause significant weight gain, osteoporosis et al. Our findings identify apigenin as a modulator of PPARγ and a potential lead compound for treatment of metabolic disorders.

  6. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  7. Jacobian elliptic wave solutions for the Wadati-Segur-Ablowitz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, C.G.R.; Koo, W.K.; Lee, B.S.

    1996-07-01

    Jacobian elliptic travelling wave solutions for a new Hamiltonian amplitude equation determining some instabilities of modulated wave train are obtained. By a mere variation of the Jacobian elliptic parameter k 2 from zero to one, these solutions are transformed from a trivial one to the known solitary wave solutions. (author). 9 refs

  8. Unified approach to probing Coulomb effects in tunnel ionization for any ellipticity of laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, A S; Hofmann, C; Pfeiffer, A N; Cirelli, C; Keller, U

    2013-12-27

    We present experimental data that show significant deviations from theoretical predictions for the location of the center of the electron momenta distribution at low values of ellipticity ε of laser light. We show that these deviations are caused by significant Coulomb focusing along the minor axis of polarization, something that is normally neglected in the analysis of electron dynamics, even in cases where the Coulomb correction is otherwise taken into account. By investigating ellipticity-resolved electron momenta distributions in the plane of polarization, we show that Coulomb focusing predominates at lower values of ellipticity of laser light, while Coulomb asymmetry becomes important at higher values, showing that these two complementary phenomena can be used to probe long-range Coulomb interaction at all polarizations of laser light. Our results suggest that both the breakdown of Coulomb focusing and the onset of Coulomb asymmetry are linked to the disappearance of Rydberg states with increasing ellipticity.

  9. Copper-free click reactions with polar bicyclononyne derivatives for modulation of cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, E H P; Meuleners, M H L; Verkade, J M M; Dommerholt, J; Hoenderop, J G J; van Delft, F L

    2014-07-07

    The ability of cells to incorporate azidosugars metabolically is a useful tool for extracellular glycan labelling. The exposed azide moiety can covalently react with alkynes, such as bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne (BCN), by strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC). However, the use of SPAAC can be hampered by low specificity of the cycloalkyne. In this article we describe the synthesis of more polar BCN derivatives and their properties for selective cellular glycan labelling. The new polar derivatives [amino-BCN, glutarylamino-BCN and bis(hydroxymethyl)-BCN] display reaction rates similar to those of BCN and are less cell-permeable. The labelling specificity in HEK293 cells is greater than that of BCN, as determined by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Interestingly, amino-BCN appears to be highly specific for the Golgi apparatus. In addition, the polar BCN derivatives label the N-glycan of the membrane calcium channel TRPV5 in HEK293 cells with significantly enhanced signal-to-noise ratios. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research

  11. Modulation of human macrophage activity by Ascaris antigens is dependent on macrophage polarization state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Sara; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R.

    2018-01-01

    Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro...

  12. Garnet film rotator applied in polarizing microscope for domain image modulation (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K.; Numata, T.; Inokuchi, S.

    1991-04-01

    A garnet film polarization rotator placed before the analyzer in a polarizing microscope was investigated to obtain the difference image of a positive and a negative one of magnetic domain in real time along with an image processor. In the difference image, a nonmagnetic image can be reduced and hence the weak magnetic contrast enhanced. Theoretical calculation of S/N and contrast C of the domain image as a function of the rotation shows they take maxima at the rotation angle of 2.6° and 0.1°, respectively, with the extinction ratio of e=4×10-6 of a polarizing microscope. Thus, since the thickness of the garnet film required is 1 μm or so, the absorption by the garnet rotator does not bring a serious problem even in a visible region for the domain observation. The optimum rotation of the rotator for a high quality observation was obtained by a quantitative study of images obtained experimentally as well as by a visual evaluation. A magnetically unsaturated garnet film with perpendicular magnetization (i.e., multidomain) was employed as a rotator, in which the polarization rotation angle θm of the undeflected beam with respect to the light diffraction could be continuously varied by an applied magnetic field. The dependences of S/N and C on θm were measured, resulting in a well agreement between the measured and the calculated. The visually best image was obtained at θm=0.5° which made the product of S/N and C maximum. The domain image of the Kerr rotation angle of θk=0.22° was observed in S/N=47 dB and C=0.4 when Ar+ laser (λ=515 nm) of tenths of a watt was employed as a light source. Since the domain image with 47 dB S/N does not need an image summation for a noise reduction, a garnet film rotator makes it possible to invert the contrast of a domain image in a real time for an improved domain observation.

  13. Application of Polarization Modulated Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy for electrocatalytic activity studies of laccase adsorbed on modified gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejnik, Piotr; Pawłowska, Aleksandra; Pałys, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Orientation of the enzyme macromolecule on the electrode surface is crucially important for the efficiency of the electron transport between the active site and electrode surface. The orientation can be controlled by affecting the surface charge and the pH of the buffer solution. In this contribution we study laccase physically adsorbed on gold surface modified by mercapto-ethanol, lipid and variously charged diazonium salts. Polarization Modulated Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (PMIRRAS) enables the molecular orientation study of the protein molecule by comparison of the amide I to amide II band intensity ratios assuming that the protein secondary structure does not change. We observe significant differences in the intensity ratios depending on the kind of support and the enzyme deposition. The comparison of infrared spectra and cyclic voltammetry responses of variously prepared laccase layers reveals that the parallel orientation of beta-sheet moieties results in high enzyme activity

  14. Statistical Model and Performance Analysis of a Novel Multilevel Polarization Modulation in Local “Twisted” Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Perrone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission demand continues to grow and higher capacity optical communication systems are required to economically meet this ever-increasing need for communication services. This article expands and deepens the study of a novel optical communication system for high-capacity Local Area Networks (LANs, based on twisted optical fibers. The complete statistical behavior of this system is shown, designed for more efficient use of the fiber single-channel capacity by adopting an unconventional multilevel polarization modulation (called “bands of polarization”. Starting from simulative results, a possible reference mathematical model is proposed. Finally, the system performance is analyzed in the presence of shot-noise (coherent detection or thermal noise (direct detection.

  15. Vesicular transport protein Arf6 modulates cytoskeleton dynamics for polar body extrusion in mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xing; Zhang, Hao-Lin; Pan, Meng-Hao; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2018-02-01

    Arf6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) is known to play important roles in membrane dynamics through the regulation of actin filament reorganization for multiple cellular processes such as cytokinesis, phagocytosis, cell migration and tumor cell invasion. However, the functions of Arf6 in mammalian oocyte meiosis have not been clarified. In present study we showed that Arf6 expressed in mouse oocytes and was mainly distributed around the spindle during meiosis. Depletion of Arf6 by morpholino microinjection caused oocytes failing to extrude first polar body. Further analysis indicated that Arf6 knock down caused the aberrant actin distribution, which further induced the failure of meiotic spindle movement. And the loss of oocyte polarity also confirmed this. The regulation of Arf6 on actin filaments in mouse oocytes might be due to its effects on the phosphorylation level of cofilin and the expression of Arp2/3 complex. Moreover, we found that the decrease of Arf6 caused the disruption of spindle formation, indicating the multiple roles of Arf6 on cytoskeleton dynamics in meiosis. In summary, our results indicated that Arf6 was involved in mouse oocyte meiosis through its functional roles in actin-mediated spindle movement and spindle organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Capacity upgrade in short-reach optical fibre networks: simultaneous 4-PAM 20 Gbps data and polarization-modulated PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoe, G. M.; Wassin, S.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a four-level pulse amplitude modulation (4-PAM) format with a polarization-modulated pulse per second (PPS) clock signal using a single vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) carrier is for the first time experimentally demonstrated. We propose uncomplex alternative technique for increasing capacity and flexibility in short-reach optical communication links through multi-signal modulation onto a single VCSEL carrier. A 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal is directly modulated onto a single mode 10 GHz bandwidth VCSEL carrier at 1310 nm, therefore, doubling the network bit rate. Carrier spectral efficiency is further maximized by exploiting the inherent orthogonal polarization switching of the VCSEL carrier with changing bias in transmission of a PPS clock signal. We, therefore, simultaneously transmit a 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal using a single VCSEL carrier. It is the first time a signal VCSEL carrier is reported to simultaneously transmit a directly modulated 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and a polarization-based PPS clock signal. We further demonstrate on the design of a software-defined digital signal processing (DSP)-assisted receiver as an alternative to costly receiver hardware. Experimental results show that a 3.21 km fibre transmission with simultaneous 20 Gbps 4-PAM data signal and polarization-based PPS clock signal introduced a penalty of 3.76 dB. The contribution of polarization-based PPS clock signal to this penalty was found out to be 0.41 dB. Simultaneous distribution of data and timing clock signals over shared network infrastructure significantly increases the aggregated data rate at different optical network units (ONUs), without costly investment.

  17. Ellipticity and the offset angle of high harmonics generated by homonuclear diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzak, S; Milosevic, D B

    2011-01-01

    In our recent paper (2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 023412) we introduced a theory of high-order harmonic generation by diatomic molecules exposed to an elliptically polarized laser field and have shown that the nth harmonic emission rate has contributions of the components of the T-matrix element in the direction of the laser-field polarization and in the direction perpendicular to it. Using both components of the T-matrix element we now develop a theoretical approach for calculating ellipticity and the offset angle of high harmonics. We show that the emitted harmonics generated by aligned molecules are elliptically polarized even if the applied field is linearly polarized. Using examples of N 2 , O 2 and Ar 2 molecules we show the existence of extrema and sudden changes of the harmonic ellipticity and the offset angle for particular molecular alignment and explain them by the destructive two-centre interference. Taking into account that the aligned molecules are an anisotropic medium for high harmonic generation, we introduce elliptic dichroism as a measure of this anisotropy, for both components of the T-matrix element. We propose that the measurement of the elliptic dichroism may reveal further information about the molecular structure.

  18. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Immunity by Polarizing Human Macrophages to a M2 Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Ortiz

    Full Text Available Current data suggest that Neisseria gonorrhoeae is able to suppress the protective immune response at different levels, such as B and T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. The present report is focused on gonococcus evasion mechanism on macrophages (MФ and its impact in the subsequent immune response. In response to various signals MФ may undergo classical-M1 (M1-MФ or alternative-M2 (M2-MФ activation. Until now there are no reports of the gonococcus effects on human MФ polarization. We assessed the phagocytic ability of monocyte-derived MФ (MDM upon gonococcal infection by immunofluorescence and gentamicin protection experiments. Then, we evaluated cytokine profile and M1/M2 specific-surface markers on MФ challenged with N. gonorrhoeae and their proliferative effect on T cells. Our findings lead us to suggest N. gonorrhoeae stimulates a M2-MФ phenotype in which some of the M2b and none of the M1-MФ-associated markers are induced. Interestingly, N. gonorrhoeae exposure leads to upregulation of a Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1, widely known as an immunosuppressive molecule. Moreover, functional results showed that N. gonorrhoeae-treated MФ are unable to induce proliferation of human T-cells, suggesting a more likely regulatory phenotype. Taken together, our data show that N. gonorroheae interferes with MФ polarization. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of clearance versus long-term persistence of N. gonorroheae infection and might be applicable for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  19. On the use of polarization modulation in combined interferometry and polarimetry. Corrigendum. 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, v. 40 p. 153-161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the main text, the appendix and two curves are corrected in this corrigendum to the paper entitled ''On the use of polarization modulation in combined interferometry and polarimetry'', written by S.E. Segre and published in 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, v. 40 p. 153-161

  20. Magnetic X-ray measurements using the elliptical multipole wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, P. A.; Li, Y.; Beno, M. A.; Jennings, G.; Kimball, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The EMW at the BESSRC beam lines at the APS provides high photon flux at high energies with the capability of producing circular polarization on axis. The authors observe a high degree of circularly polarized x-rays at such energies. The polarization and frequency tunability of the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW) is an ideal source for many magnetic measurements from X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) to Compton scattering experiments. They performed Compton scattering measurements to determine the polarization and photon flux at the sample as a function of the deflection parameters K y and K x . They used for their measurements a Si (220) Laue monochromator providing simultaneous photon energies at 50 keV, 100 keV and 150 keV. Magnetic Compton Profiles were determined by either switching the magnet polarity or the photon helicity. The results obtained using Fe(110) single crystals were very similar

  1. Erythropoietin protects against rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury by modulating macrophage polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Chao; Li, Jiawei; Niyazi, Sidikejiang; Zheng, Long; Xu, Ming; Rong, Ruiming; Yang, Cheng; Zhu, Tongyu

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a well-known hormone that is clinically used for the treatment of anemia. Very recently, an increasing body of evidence showed that EPO could still regulate bioactivities of macrophages. However, the details about the immunomodulatory effect of EPO on macrophages are not fully delineated, particularly in the setting of renal damages. Therefore, in the present study, we determined whether EPO could exert an impact on the dynamics of macrophages in a well-established model of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury and explored the potential mechanisms. EPO was found to ameliorate kidney injuries by reducing macrophages recruitment and promoting phenotype switch toward M2 macrophages in vivo. It was also confirmed that EPO could directly suppress pro-inflammatory responses of M1 macrophages and promote M2 marker expression in vitro. Data indicated the possible involvement of Jak2/STAT3/STAT6 pathway in the augmentation of EPO on M2 polarization. These results improved the understanding of the immunoregulatory capacity of EPO on macrophages, which might optimize the therapeutic modalities of EPO. PMID:28383559

  2. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  3. Modulation of cell polarization by the Na+-K+-ATPase-associated protein FXYD5 (dysadherin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubarski, Irina; Asher, Carol; Garty, Haim

    2014-06-01

    FXYD5 (dysadherin or also called a related to ion channel, RIC) is a transmembrane auxiliary subunit of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase shown to increase its maximal velocity (Vmax). FXYD5 has also been identified as a cancer-associated protein whose expression in tumor-derived cell lines impairs cytoskeletal organization and increases cell motility. Previously, we have demonstrated that the expression of FXYD5 in M1 cells derived from mouse kidney collecting duct impairs the formation of tight and adherence junctions. The current study aimed to further explore effects of FXYD5 at a single cell level. It was found that in M1, as well as three other cell lines, FXYD5 inhibits transformation of adhered single cells from the initial radial shape to a flattened, elongated shape in the first stage of monolayer formation. This is also correlated to less ordered actin cables and fewer focal points. Structure-function analysis has demonstrated that the transmembrane domain of FXYD5, and not its unique extracellular segment, mediates the inhibition of change in cell shape. This domain has been shown before to be involved in the association of FXYD5 with the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, which leads to the increase in Vmax. Furthermore, specific transmembrane point mutations in FXYD5 that either increase or decrease its effect on cell elongation had a corresponding effect on the coimmunoprecipitation of FXYD5 with α Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. These findings lend support to the possibility that FXYD5 affects cell polarization through its transmembrane domain interaction with the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Yet interaction of FXYD5 with other proteins cannot be excluded. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Polarized Moessbauer transitions in mixed hyperfine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.; Tarina, D.

    1975-01-01

    A contribution to the theory of elliptical polarization in the Moessbauer effect for transitions between mixed nuclear states is reported. A relation between the two-dimensional complex vector parameterization and the photon polarization density matrix was used in describing changes in the polarization of the gamma-ray involved. (A.K.)

  5. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  6. Energy and the Elliptical Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Bill

    2009-03-01

    In the January 2007 issue of The Physics Teacher, Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and important. This paper presents an exercise which uses an energy/angular momentum conservation model for elliptical orbits. This exercise can be done easily by an individual student and on regular notebook-sized paper.

  7. Interstellar matter within elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of elliptical galaxies are reviewed, with an emphasis on their implications for theoretical models proposed to explain the origin and evolution of the interstellar matter. Particular attention is given to interstellar matter at T less than 100 K (atomic and molecular gas and dust), gas at T = about 10,000 K, and gas at T = 10 to the 6th K or greater. The data are shown to confirm the occurrence of mass loss from evolved stars, significant accretion from companion galaxies, and cooling inflows; no evidence is found for large mass outflow from elliptical galaxies.

  8. Hydrodynamic simulation of elliptic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, P F; Ruuskanen, P V; Heinz, Ulrich W

    1999-01-01

    We use a hydrodynamic model to study the space-time evolution transverse to the beam direction in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions with nonzero impact parameters. We focus on the influence of early pressure on the development of radial and elliptic flow. We show that at high energies elliptic flow is generated only during the initial stages of the expansion while radial flow continues to grow until freeze-out. Quantitative comparisons with SPS data from semiperipheral Pb+Pb collisions suggest the applicability of hydrodynamical concepts already $\\approx$ 1 fm/c after impact.

  9. Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Facilitate Heart Repair by Modulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization and Neutrophil Recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shaimaa Hasan

    Full Text Available Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs, one of the promising stem cell sources for myocardial repair, have been tested in clinical trials and resulted in beneficial effects; however, the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that CDCs favor heart repair by switching the macrophages from a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1 into a regulatory anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2. Macrophages from mice were cultured with CDCs-conditioned medium or with fibroblasts-conditioned medium as a control. Immunostaining showed that CDCs-conditioned medium significantly enhanced the expression of CD206 (a marker for M2 macrophages, but decreased the expression of CD86 (a marker for M1 macrophages 3 days after culture. For animal studies, we used an acute myocardial infarction model of mice. We injected CDCs, fibroblasts, or saline only into the border zone of infarction. Then we collected the heart tissues for histological analysis 5 and 14 days after treatment. Compared with control animals, CDCs treatment significantly decreased M1 macrophages and neutrophils but increased M2 macrophages in the infarcted heart. Furthermore, CDCs-treated mice had reduced infarct size and fewer apoptotic cells compared to the controls. Our data suggest that CDCs facilitate heart repair by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization and neutrophil recruitment, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of stem cell-based myocardial repair.

  10. Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Facilitate Heart Repair by Modulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization and Neutrophil Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Al Shaimaa; Luo, Lan; Yan, Chen; Zhang, Tian-Xia; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Mangoura, Safwat A.; Abdel-Raheem, Mahmoud H.; Zhang, Shouhua; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), one of the promising stem cell sources for myocardial repair, have been tested in clinical trials and resulted in beneficial effects; however, the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that CDCs favor heart repair by switching the macrophages from a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1) into a regulatory anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2). Macrophages from mice were cultured with CDCs-conditioned medium or with fibroblasts-conditioned medium as a control. Immunostaining showed that CDCs-conditioned medium significantly enhanced the expression of CD206 (a marker for M2 macrophages), but decreased the expression of CD86 (a marker for M1 macrophages) 3 days after culture. For animal studies, we used an acute myocardial infarction model of mice. We injected CDCs, fibroblasts, or saline only into the border zone of infarction. Then we collected the heart tissues for histological analysis 5 and 14 days after treatment. Compared with control animals, CDCs treatment significantly decreased M1 macrophages and neutrophils but increased M2 macrophages in the infarcted heart. Furthermore, CDCs-treated mice had reduced infarct size and fewer apoptotic cells compared to the controls. Our data suggest that CDCs facilitate heart repair by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization and neutrophil recruitment, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of stem cell-based myocardial repair. PMID:27764217

  11. Xinnao Shutong Modulates the Neuronal Plasticity Through Regulation of Microglia/Macrophage Polarization Following Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xinnao shutong (XNST capsules have been clinically used in China to treat cerebrovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that XNST has significant neuroprotective effects against acute cerebral ischemic stroke. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of XNST treatment following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with XNST or vehicle following permanent bilateral common carotid artery (BCCA ligation. Body weight was recorded on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 post-surgery. The Morris water maze (MWM test was used to assess cognitive function in rats. Immunofluorescent staining and western blot were used to assess the severity of neuronal plasticity, white matter injury, and the numbers and/or phenotypic changes incurred to microglia. Protein levels of p-AKT (Thr308 and p-ERK (Thr202/Tyr204 were detected 42 days after BCCA ligation was performed. The results indicate that XNST treatment significantly reduced escape latency, decreased the frequency of platform crossing compared to the vehicle group. Synaptophysin, protein levels improved and white matter injury ameliorated following XNST treatment. Meanwhile, XNST reduced the number of M1 microglia and increased the number of M2 microglia. Furthermore, p-AKT (Thr308 and p-ERK (Thr202/Tyr204 levels were increased 42 days following BCCA ligation. In summary, our results suggest that XNST mitigates memory impairments by restoration of neuronal plasticity and by modulation of microglial polarization following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

  12. In Situ Nondestructive Analysis of Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Surface Structure by Polarization-Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Enami, Shinichi; Shimoaka, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-14

    The outermost surface of the leaves of land plants is covered with a lipid membrane called the cuticle that protects against various stress factors. Probing the molecular-level structure of the intact cuticle is highly desirable for understanding its multifunctional properties. We report the in situ characterization of the surface structure of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Without sample pretreatment, PM-IRRAS measures the IR spectra of the leaf cuticle of a potted K. pinnata plant. The peak position of the CH 2 -related modes shows that the cuticular waxes on the leaf surface are mainly crystalline, and the alkyl chains are highly packed in an all-trans zigzag conformation. The surface selection rule of PM-IRRAS revealed the average orientation of the cuticular molecules, as indicated by the positive and negative signals of the IR peaks. This unique property of PM-IRRAS revealed that the alkyl chains of the waxes and the main chains of polysaccharides are oriented almost perpendicular to the leaf surface. The nondestructive, background-free, and environmental gas-free nature of PM-IRRAS allows the structure and chemistry of the leaf cuticle to be studied directly in its native environment.

  13. Modulation of terahertz generation in dual-color filaments by an external electric field and preformed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Li An-Yuan; Yuan Shuai; Zeng He-Ping; He Bo-Qu

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz generation driven by dual-color filaments in air is demonstrated to be remarkably enhanced by applying an external electric field to the filaments. As terahertz generation is sensitive to the dual-color phase difference, a preformed plasma is verified efficiently in modulating terahertz radiation from linear to elliptical polarization. In the presence of preformed plasma, a dual-color filament generates terahertz pulses of elliptical polarization and the corresponding ellipse rotates regularly with the change of the preformed plasma density. The observed terahertz modulation with the external electric field and the preformed plasma provides a simple way to estimate the plasma density and evaluate the photocurrent dynamics of the dual-color filaments. It provides further experimental evidence of the photo-current model in governing the dual-color filament driven terahertz generation processes. (paper)

  14. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  15. Coercive properties of elliptic-parabolic operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Min Duc.

    1987-06-01

    Using a generalized Poincare inequality, we study the coercive properties of a class of elliptic-parabolic partial differential equations, which contains many degenerate elliptic equations considered by the other authors. (author). 16 refs

  16. Newton flows for elliptic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helminck, G.F.; Twilt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Newton flows are dynamical systems generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for mappings from a Euclidean space to itself. We focus on the special case of meromorphic functions on the complex plane. Inspired by the analogy between the rational (complex) and the elliptic (i.e., doubly

  17. Diffeomorphisms of elliptic 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungbok; McCullough, Darryl; Rubinstein, J Hyam

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns the diffeomorphism groups of 3-manifolds, in particular of elliptic 3-manifolds. These are the closed 3-manifolds that admit a Riemannian metric of constant positive curvature, now known to be exactly the closed 3-manifolds that have a finite fundamental group. The (Generalized) Smale Conjecture asserts that for any elliptic 3-manifold M, the inclusion from the isometry group of M to its diffeomorphism group is a homotopy equivalence. The original Smale Conjecture, for the 3-sphere, was proven by J. Cerf and A. Hatcher, and N. Ivanov proved the generalized conjecture for many of the elliptic 3-manifolds that contain a geometrically incompressible Klein bottle. The main results establish the Smale Conjecture for all elliptic 3-manifolds containing geometrically incompressible Klein bottles, and for all lens spaces L(m,q) with m at least 3. Additional results imply that for a Haken Seifert-fibered 3 manifold V, the space of Seifert fiberings has contractible components, and apart from a small...

  18. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  19. Color gradients in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of the color gradients within ellipticals and the color differences between them are studied. It is found that the local color appears to be strongly related to the escape velocity. This suggests that the local escape velocity is the primary factor that determines the metallicity of the stellar population. Models with and without dark halos give comparable results. 27 refs

  20. Second order degenerate elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1988-08-01

    Using an improved Sobolev inequality we study a class of elliptic operators which is degenerate inside the domain and strongly degenerate near the boundary of the domain. Our results are applicable to the L 2 -boundary value problem and the mixed boundary problem. (author). 18 refs

  1. Elliptical shape of the coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, L.; King, I.R.

    1978-01-01

    The elliptical shape of the Coma cluster is examined quantitatively. The degree of ellipticity is high and depends to some extent on the radial distance of the sample from the Coma center as well as on the brightness of the sample. The elliptical shape does not appear to be caused by rotation; other possible causes are briefly discussed

  2. A class of strongly degenerate elliptic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1988-04-01

    Using a weighted Poincare inequality, we study (ω 1 ,...,ω n )-elliptic operators. This method is applicable to solve singular elliptic equations with conditions in W 1,2 on the boundary. We also get a result about the regularity of solutions of singular elliptic equations. An application to (ω 1 ,...ω n )-parabolic equations is given. (author). 33 refs

  3. Modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization with a warm rapidly rotating half-wave plate on the Atacama B-Mode Search instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, A; Essinger-Hileman, T; Appel, J W; Gallardo, P; Irwin, K D; Jarosik, N; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Sievers, J L; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2014-02-01

    We evaluate the modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization using a rapidly rotating, half-wave plate (HWP) on the Atacama B-Mode Search. After demodulating the time-ordered-data (TOD), we find a significant reduction of atmospheric fluctuations. The demodulated TOD is stable on time scales of 500-1000 s, corresponding to frequencies of 1-2 mHz. This facilitates recovery of cosmological information at large angular scales, which are typically available only from balloon-borne or satellite experiments. This technique also achieves a sensitive measurement of celestial polarization without differencing the TOD of paired detectors sensitive to two orthogonal linear polarizations. This is the first demonstration of the ability to remove atmospheric contamination at these levels from a ground-based platform using a rapidly rotating HWP.

  4. Elliptic Diophantine equations a concrete approach via the elliptic logarithm

    CERN Document Server

    Tzanakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    This book presents in a unified way the beautiful and deep mathematics, both theoretical and computational, on which the explicit solution of an elliptic Diophantine equation is based. It collects numerous results and methods that are scattered in literature. Some results are even hidden behind a number of routines in software packages, like Magma. This book is suitable for students in mathematics, as well as professional mathematicians.

  5. [Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevik, N D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.

  6. Subcycle dynamics of Coulomb asymmetry in strong elliptical laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Liu, Hong; Ning, Qicheng; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Peng, Liang-You; Peng, Liangyou; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-07-12

    We measure photoelectron angular distributions of noble gases in intense elliptically polarized laser fields, which indicate strong structure-dependent Coulomb asymmetry. Using a dedicated semiclassical model, we have disentangled the contribution of direct ionization and multiple forward scattering on Coulomb asymmetry in elliptical laser fields. Our theory quantifies the roles of the ionic potential and initial transverse momentum on Coulomb asymmetry, proving that the small lobes of asymmetry are induced by direct ionization and the strong asymmetry is induced by multiple forward scattering in the ionic potential. Both processes are distorted by the Coulomb force acting on the electrons after tunneling. Lowering the ionization potential, the relative contribution of direct ionization on Coulomb asymmetry substantially decreases and Coulomb focusing on multiple rescattering is more important. We do not observe evident initial longitudinal momentum spread at the tunnel exit according to our simulation.

  7. Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive non-binary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC-coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Murat; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Saunders, Ross; Marcoccia, Roberto M

    2010-02-01

    In order to achieve high-speed transmission over optical transport networks (OTNs) and maximize its throughput, we propose using a rate-adaptive polarization-multiplexed coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection based on component non-binary quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes. Compared to prior-art bit-interleaved LDPC-coded modulation (BI-LDPC-CM) scheme, the proposed non-binary LDPC-coded modulation (NB-LDPC-CM) scheme not only reduces latency due to symbol- instead of bit-level processing but also provides either impressive reduction in computational complexity or striking improvements in coding gain depending on the constellation size. As the paper presents, compared to its prior-art binary counterpart, the proposed NB-LDPC-CM scheme addresses the needs of future OTNs, which are achieving the target BER performance and providing maximum possible throughput both over the entire lifetime of the OTN, better.

  8. Elliptical and lenticular galaxies evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.

    1981-01-01

    Different evolutionnary models for elliptical and lenticular galaxies are discussed. In the first part, we show that, at least some peculiar early types galaxies exhibit some activity. Then we describe the observationnal constraints: the color-magnitude diagram, the color gradient and the high metallicity of intraclusters gas. Among the different models, only the dissipation collapse followed by a hot wind driven by supernovae explosion explain in a natural way these constraints. Finally, the origin of SO is briefly discussed [fr

  9. Holomorphic bundles over elliptic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture we shall examine holomorphic bundles over compact elliptically fibered manifolds. We shall examine constructions of such bundles as well as (duality) relations between such bundles and other geometric objects, namely K3-surfaces and del Pezzo surfaces. We shall be dealing throughout with holomorphic principal bundles with structure group GC where G is a compact, simple (usually simply connected) Lie group and GC is the associated complex simple algebraic group. Of course, in the special case G = SU(n) and hence GC = SLn(C), we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant. In the other cases of classical groups, G SO(n) or G = Sympl(2n) we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant equipped with a non-degenerate symmetric, or skew symmetric pairing. In addition to these classical cases there are the finite number of exceptional groups. Amazingly enough, motivated by questions in physics, much interest centres around the group E8 and its subgroups. For these applications it does not suffice to consider only the classical groups. Thus, while often first doing the case of SU(n) or more generally of the classical groups, we shall extend our discussions to the general semi-simple group. Also, we shall spend a good deal of time considering elliptically fibered manifolds of the simplest type, namely, elliptic curves

  10. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  11. Inhomogeneous nuclear spin polarization induced by helicity-modulated optical excitation of fluorine-bound electron spins in ZnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, F.; Greilich, A.; Zhukov, E. A.; Kirstein, E.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Korenev, V. L.; Yugova, I. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Pawlis, A.; Bayer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Optically induced nuclear spin polarization in a fluorine-doped ZnSe epilayer is studied by time-resolved Kerr rotation using resonant excitation of donor-bound excitons. Excitation with helicity-modulated laser pulses results in a transverse nuclear spin polarization, which is detected as a change of the Larmor precession frequency of the donor-bound electron spins. The frequency shift in dependence on the transverse magnetic field exhibits a pronounced dispersion-like shape with resonances at the fields of nuclear magnetic resonance of the constituent zinc and selenium isotopes. It is studied as a function of external parameters, particularly of constant and radio frequency external magnetic fields. The width of the resonance and its shape indicate a strong spatial inhomogeneity of the nuclear spin polarization in the vicinity of a fluorine donor. A mechanism of optically induced nuclear spin polarization is suggested based on the concept of resonant nuclear spin cooling driven by the inhomogeneous Knight field of the donor-bound electron.

  12. Intrinsic shapes of discy and boxy ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, Giovanni

    1991-01-01

    Statistical tests for intrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxies have given so far inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. These failures have been often charged to the fact that classical tests consider only the two axisymmetric shapes (oblate versus prolate), while ellipticals are truly triaxial bodies. On the other hand, recent analyses indicate that the class of elliptical galaxies could be a mixture of (at least) two families having different morphology and dynamical behaviour: (i) a family of fast-rotating, disc-like ellipticals (discy); (ii) a family of slow-rotating, box-shaped ellipticals (boxy). In this paper we review the tests for instrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxies using data of better quality (CCD) with respect to previous applications. (author)

  13. Cross polarization with phase and amplitude modulation of radio frequency fields in NMR-experiments with sample rotation at magic angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvinskij, S.V.; Chizhik, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    One analyzes cross polarization of nuclei within a rotating system of coordinates as applied to the NMR-experiments with a specimen rotation under the magic angle. One worded a concept of simultaneous phase and amplitude modulation according to which the Hamiltonian form of the restored dipole interaction persisted if inversion of difference of radiofrequency field amplitudes occurred simultaneously with phase inversion. One presents a theoretical substantiation in terms of the average Hamiltonian theory. The concept is demonstrated both experimentally and by means of numerical analysis for a number of special cases. Phase periodic inversion in cross polarized experiments is shown to result into practically important advantage of suppression of interactions of chemical shift and influence of effects of coarse adjustment of radiofrequency field parameters [ru

  14. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A PAIR OF ELLIPTICAL SPUR GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YAZAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, geometrical equations of elliptical spur gears, which are too difficult to manufacture by traditional methods and which require specific machines equipped with special techniques, are developed using the methods in the literature. Using these equations, a LISP program on AutoLISP is created to model elliptical spur gears on AutoCAD with desired tooth number and modules. Elliptical spur gears are manufactured with 5 different modules by Wire EDM through the above-mentioned package program. The variations in the center distances of elliptical spur gears, the most important parameter for workability of gears, are experimentally determined by a simple test unit designed and manufactured within the context this study. In addition, the surface roughness and hardness of elliptical spur gears are obtained and hydraulic pump and noise analysis results are discussed. The experimental and computer-aided results show that the elliptical spur gears may widely be used in many industrial and mechanical applications in the future.

  15. Overdetermined elliptic problems in topological disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Pablo

    2018-06-01

    We introduce a method, based on the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem, to classify solutions to overdetermined problems for fully nonlinear elliptic equations in domains diffeomorphic to a closed disk. Applications to some well-known nonlinear elliptic PDEs are provided. Our result can be seen as the analogue of Hopf's uniqueness theorem for constant mean curvature spheres, but for the general analytic context of overdetermined elliptic problems.

  16. Flattening and radio emission among elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Sparks, W.B.; Wall, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    In a sample of 132 bright elliptical galaxies it is shown that there is a strong correlation between radio activity and flattening in the sense that radio ellipticals are both apparently and inherently rounder than the average elliptical. Both extended and compact sources are subject to the same correlation. No galaxies with axial ratios below 0.65 are found to be radio emitters. (author)

  17. Elliptic hypergeometric functions associated with root systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengren, Hjalmar; Warnaar, S. Ole

    2017-01-01

    We give a survey of elliptic hypergeometric functions associated with root systems, comprised of three main parts. The first two form in essence an annotated table of the main evaluation and transformation formulas for elliptic hypergeometric integeral and series on root systems. The third and final part gives an introduction to Rains' elliptic Macdonald-Koornwinder theory (in part also developed by Coskun and Gustafson).

  18. Arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical invisible cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun; Yu Guanxia; Lin Xianqi; Cheng Qiang; Chin, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea of coordinate transformation (Pendry, Schurig and Smith 2006 Science 312 1780), arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical cloaks are proposed and designed. The elliptical cloak, which is composed of inhomogeneous anisotropic metamaterials in an elliptical-shell region, will deflect incoming electromagnetic (EM) waves and guide them to propagate around the inner elliptical region. Such EM waves will return to their original propagation directions without distorting the waves outside the elliptical cloak. General formulations of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for arbitrarily elliptical axis ratio k, which can also be used for the circular cloak when k = 1. Hence the elliptical cloaks can make a large range of objects invisible, from round objects (when k approaches 1) to long and thin objects (when k is either very large or very small). We also show that the material parameters in elliptical cloaking are singular at only two points, instead of on the whole inner circle for circular cloaking, which are much easier to be realized in actual applications. Full-wave simulations are given to validate the arbitrarily elliptical cloaking

  19. Doppler Velocity Signatures of Idealized Elliptical Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chau Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Doppler radar observations have revealed a class of atmospheric vortices (tropical cyclones, tornadoes, dust devils that possess elliptical radar reflectivity signatures. One famous example is Typhoon Herb (1996 that maintained its elliptical reflectivity structure over a 40-hour period. Theoretical work and dual-Doppler analyses of observed tropical cyclones have suggested two physical mechanisms that can explain the formation of two types of elliptical vortices observed in nature, namely, the combination of a circular vortex with either a wavenumber two vortex Rossby wave or a deformation field. The characteristics of these two types of elliptical vortices and their corresponding Doppler velocity signatures have not been previously examined.

  20. A response regulator interfaces between the Frz chemosensory system and the MglA/MglB GTPase/GAP module to regulate polarity in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Keilberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How cells establish and dynamically change polarity are general questions in cell biology. Cells of the rod-shaped bacterium Myxococcus xanthus move on surfaces with defined leading and lagging cell poles. Occasionally, cells undergo reversals, which correspond to an inversion of the leading-lagging pole polarity axis. Reversals are induced by the Frz chemosensory system and depend on relocalization of motility proteins between the poles. The Ras-like GTPase MglA localizes to and defines the leading cell pole in the GTP-bound form. MglB, the cognate MglA GTPase activating protein, localizes to and defines the lagging pole. During reversals, MglA-GTP and MglB switch poles and, therefore, dynamically localized motility proteins switch poles. We identified the RomR response regulator, which localizes in a bipolar asymmetric pattern with a large cluster at the lagging pole, as important for motility and reversals. We show that RomR interacts directly with MglA and MglB in vitro. Furthermore, RomR, MglA, and MglB affect the localization of each other in all pair-wise directions, suggesting that RomR stimulates motility by promoting correct localization of MglA and MglB in MglA/RomR and MglB/RomR complexes at opposite poles. Moreover, localization analyses suggest that the two RomR complexes mutually exclude each other from their respective poles. We further show that RomR interfaces with FrzZ, the output response regulator of the Frz chemosensory system, to regulate reversals. Thus, RomR serves at the functional interface to connect a classic bacterial signalling module (Frz to a classic eukaryotic polarity module (MglA/MglB. This modular design is paralleled by the phylogenetic distribution of the proteins, suggesting an evolutionary scheme in which RomR was incorporated into the MglA/MglB module to regulate cell polarity followed by the addition of the Frz system to dynamically regulate cell polarity.

  1. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  2. Stellar Populations in Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Lucio; Giannone, Pietro

    The R1/n law for the radial surface brightness of elliptical galaxies and the "Best Accretion Model" together with the "Concentration Model" have been combined in order to determine the mass and dynamical structure of largely-populated star systems. Families of models depending on four parameters have been used to fit the observed surface radial profiles of some spectro-photometric indices of a sample of eleven galaxies. We present the best agreements of the spectral index Mg2 with observations for three selected galaxies representative of the full sample. For them we have also computed the spatial distributions of the metal abundances, which are essential to achieve a population synthesis.

  3. Modified hybrid subcarrier/amplitude/ phase/polarization LDPC-coded modulation for 400 Gb/s optical transmission and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshon, Hussam G; Djordjevic, Ivan; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2010-06-21

    In this paper, we present a modified coded hybrid subcarrier/ amplitude/phase/polarization (H-SAPP) modulation scheme as a technique capable of achieving beyond 400 Gb/s single-channel transmission over optical channels. The modified H-SAPP scheme profits from the available resources in addition to geometry to increase the bandwidth efficiency of the transmission system, and so increases the aggregate rate of the system. In this report we present the modified H-SAPP scheme and focus on an example that allows 11 bits/Symbol that can achieve 440 Gb/s transmission using components of 50 Giga Symbol/s (GS/s).

  4. Convex bodies with many elliptic sections

    OpenAIRE

    Arelio, Isaac; Montejano, Luis

    2014-01-01

    {We show in this paper that two normal elliptic sections through every point of the boundary of a smooth convex body essentially characterize an ellipsoid and furthermore, that four different pairwise non-tangent elliptic sections through every point of the $C^2$-differentiable boundary of a convex body also essentially characterize an ellipsoid.

  5. Kinematically Decoupled Cores in Dwarf (Elliptical) Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Brok, M. d.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    An overview is given of what we know about the frequency of kinematically decoupled cores in dwarf elliptical galaxies. New observations show that kinematically decoupled cores happen just as often in dwarf elliptical as in ordinary early-type galaxies. This has important consequences for the

  6. Performance Analysis of Polarization Modulated DirectDetection Optical CDMA Systems over Turbulent FSO LinksModeled by the Gamma-Gamma Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a theoretical study to characterize the transmission of optical code division multiple access (CDMA systems deploying polarization shift keying (PolSK over a free space optical (FSO link under the impact of atmospheric turbulence. In our analysis, a novel transceiver architecture for atmospheric OCDMA FSO systems based on polarization modulation with direct detection is proposed and discussed. A detailed analytical model for PolSK-OCDMA systems over a turbulent FSO link is provided. Further, we derive a closed-form bit error ratio (BER and outage probability expressions, taking into account the multiple-access interference (MAI, optical noise and the atmospheric turbulence effect on the FSO link modeled by the Gamma-Gamma distribution. Finally, the results of this study show the most significant parameters that degrade the transmission performance of the PolSK-OCDMA signal over FSO links and indicate that the proposed approach offers improved bit error ratio (BER performances compared to the on-off-keying (OOK modulation scheme in the presence of turbulence.

  7. miRNA let-7b modulates macrophage polarization and enhances tumor-associated macrophages to promote angiogenesis and mobility in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Lu; Hu, Yinying; Huang, Yanqin; Zhang, Yujuan; Zheng, Xiufen; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yifan; Yu, Yanrong; Zhang, Meng; Yuan, Keng; Min, Weiping

    2016-05-09

    Macrophage polarization is a highly plastic physiological process that responds to a variety of environmental factors by changing macrophage phenotype and function. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are generally recognized as promoting tumor progression. As universal regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) are functionally involved in numerous critical cellular processes including macrophage polarization. Let-7b, a miRNA, has differential expression patterns in inflamed tissues compared with healthy controls. However, whether and how miRNA let-7b regulates macrophage phenotype and function is unclear. In this report, we find that up-regulation of let-7b is characteristic of prostatic TAMs, and down-regulation of let-7b in TAMs leads to changes in expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12, IL-23, IL-10 and TNF-α. As a result, TAMs treated with let-7b inhibitors reduce angiogenesis and prostate carcinoma (PCa) cell mobility. Let-7b may play a vital role in regulating macrophage polarization, thus modulating the prognosis of prostate cancer.

  8. Modulation of Jahn-Teller effect on magnetization and spontaneous electric polarization of CuFeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guiling; Xia, Zhengcai; Wei, Meng; Huang, Sha; Shi, Liran; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Wu, Huan; Yang, Feng; Song, Yujie; Ouyang, Zhongwen

    2018-03-01

    CuFe0.99Mn0.01O2 and CuFe0.99Co0.01O2 single crystal samples are grown by a floating zone technique and their magnetization and spontaneous electric polarization have been investigated. Similarly with pure CuFeO2, an obviously anisotropic magnetization and spontaneous electric polarization were observed in the both doped samples, and their phase transition critical fields and temperatures are directly doping ion dependent. Considering the different d-shell configuration and ionic size between Mn3+, Co3+ and Fe3+ ions, in which the Mn3+ ion with Jahn-Teller (J-T) effect has different distortion on the geometry frustration from both of Fe3+ and Co3+ ion. Since for Mn3+ ion, the orbital splitting results from the low-symmetry J-T distortion in a crystal-field environment leads to a distorted MnO6 octahedron, which different from undistorted FeO6 and CoO6 octahedrons. The strain between distorted and undistorted octahedrons produces different effects on the spin reorientation transition and spontaneous electric polarization. Although the pure CuFeO2 has a very strong and robust frustration, the presence of the strain due to the random distribution of distorted MnO6 octahedron and undistorted CoO6 (FeO6) octahedrons leads to its spin reorientation transitions and spontaneous electric polarization different from CuFeO2.

  9. Elastin-derived peptides promote abdominal aortic aneurysm formation by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Matthew A; Xiong, Wanfen; Carson, Jeffrey S; Suh, Melissa K; Karpisek, Andrew D.; Meisinger, Trevor M.; Casale, George P.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dynamic vascular disease characterized by inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Damage to elastin in the ECM results in release of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), which are chemotactic for inflammatory cells such as monocytes. Their effect on macrophage polarization is less well known. Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages initially are recruited to sites of injury but, if their effects are prolonged, they can lead to chronic inflammation that prevents normal tissue repair. Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages reduce inflammation and aid in wound healing. Thus, a proper M1/M2 ratio is vital for tissue homeostasis. AAA tissue reveals a high M1/M2 ratio where pro-inflammatory cells and their associated markers dominate. In the present study, in vitro treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with EDPs induced M1 macrophage polarization. By using C57Bl/6 mice, antibody-mediated neutralization of EDPs reduced aortic dilation, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at early and late time points after aneurysm induction. Furthermore, direct manipulation of the M1/M2 balance altered aortic dilation. Injection of M2 polarized macrophages reduced aortic dilation after aneurysm induction. EDPs promoted a pro-inflammatory environment in aortic tissue by inducing M1 polarization and neutralization of EDPs attenuated aortic dilation. The M1/M2 imbalance is vital to aneurysm formation. PMID:27183603

  10. The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)

  11. Multicolor surface photometry of 17 ellipticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.; Heckman, T.

    1989-01-01

    Multicolor two-dimensional surface photometry was used to obtain radial profiles for surface brightness, color, ellipticity, position angle, and the residuals from the fitted ellipses described by the cos(n phi) and sin(n phi) terms (where n = 3 and 4) for 17 elliptical galaxies. It is found that at radii as large as five times the seeing FWHM, seeing can affect the ellipticity at the 10 percent level and introduce uncertainty in the position angles of several degrees, particularly for very round ellipticals. The present profiles are found to agree well with previous data, with rms differences of 0.02 in ellipticity and 2 deg in position angle. The observed color gradients are consistent with a decrease in the metallicity by a factor of about 2 per decade in radius. 61 refs

  12. Elliptical excisions: variations and the eccentric parallelogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Leonard H; Alam, Murad

    2004-02-01

    The elliptical (fusiform) excision is a basic tool of cutaneous surgery. To assess the design, functionality, ease of construction, and aesthetic outcomes of the ellipse. A systematic review of elliptical designs and their site-specific benefits and limitations. In particular, we consider the (1). context of prevailing relaxed skin tension lines and tissue laxity; and (2). removal of the smallest possible amount of tissue around the lesion and in the "dog-ears." Attention is focused on intuitive methods that can be reproducibly planned and executed. Elliptical variations are easily designed and can be adapted to many situations. The eccentric parallelogram excision is offered as a new technique that minimizes notching and focal tension in the center of an elliptical closure. Conclusion The elliptical (fusiform) excision is an efficient, elegant, and versatile technique that will remain a mainstay of the cutaneous surgical armamentarium.

  13. MicroRNA-24 Modulates Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Macrophage Polarization by Suppressing CHI3L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, Zhang; Nan, Zhang; Wei, Wu; Qinghe, Guo; Weijuan, Wang; Peng, Wang; Xiangpeng, Wang

    2017-06-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in host innate anti-Staphylococcus aureus defense, which is tightly regulated by multiple factors, including microRNAs. A recent study showed that miR-24 plays an important role in macrophage polarization. Here, we investigated the biological function of miR-24 in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. The results revealed that miR-24 expression was significantly decreased in both human and mouse macrophage cell lines with S. aureus stimulation in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, miR-24 overexpression significantly decreased the production of M1 phenotype markers, such as IL-6, iNOS, TNF-α, CD86, and CD80, whereas it increased the production of M2 markers, such as Arg1, CCL17, CCL22, CD163, and CD206, in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. Conversely, knockdown of miR-24 promoted M1 macrophage polarization but diminished M2 macrophage polarization in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, CHI3L1 was predicted as a target gene of miR-24 using bioinformatics software and identified by luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, miR-24 overexpression inhibited CHI3L1 expression and downregulated the downstream MAPK pathway in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. Finally, CHI3L1 overexpression rescued macrophage polarization and MAPK pathway inhibition induced by miR-24 mimic transfection in S. aureus-stimulated macrophages. In conclusion, the data suggest that miR-24 serves as a molecular regulator in S. aureus-induced macrophage polarization through targeting of CHI3L1 and regulation of the MAPK pathway, which may provide a promising therapeutic target for S. aureus-related infections and inflammatory diseases.

  14. Wdpcp, a PCP protein required for ciliogenesis, regulates directional cell migration and cell polarity by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP regulates cell alignment required for collective cell movement during embryonic development. This requires PCP/PCP effector proteins, some of which also play essential roles in ciliogenesis, highlighting the long-standing question of the role of the cilium in PCP. Wdpcp, a PCP effector, was recently shown to regulate both ciliogenesis and collective cell movement, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show Wdpcp can regulate PCP by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. These studies were made possible by recovery of a Wdpcp mutant mouse model. Wdpcp-deficient mice exhibit phenotypes reminiscent of Bardet-Biedl/Meckel-Gruber ciliopathy syndromes, including cardiac outflow tract and cochlea defects associated with PCP perturbation. We observed Wdpcp is localized to the transition zone, and in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2, Nphp1, and Mks1 were lost from the transition zone, indicating Wdpcp is required for recruitment of proteins essential for ciliogenesis. Wdpcp is also found in the cytoplasm, where it is localized in the actin cytoskeleton and in focal adhesions. Wdpcp interacts with Sept2 and is colocalized with Sept2 in actin filaments, but in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2 was lost from the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting Wdpcp is required for Sept2 recruitment to actin filaments. Significantly, organization of the actin filaments and focal contacts were markedly changed in Wdpcp-deficient cells. This was associated with decreased membrane ruffling, failure to establish cell polarity, and loss of directional cell migration. These results suggest the PCP defects in Wdpcp mutants are not caused by loss of cilia, but by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with this, Wdpcp mutant cochlea has normal kinocilia and yet exhibits PCP defects. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that a PCP component required for ciliogenesis can directly modulate the actin

  15. Stand-alone polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy instrument optimized for the study of catalytic processes at elevated pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestell, John D.; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Ye, Xinyi; Nam, Chang-Yong; Stacchiola, Dario; Sadowski, Jerzy; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a compact, "user-friendly" polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) instrument at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) of Brookhaven National Laboratory, which allows studying surfaces at pressures ranging from ultra-high vacuum to 100 Torr. Surface infrared spectroscopy is ideally suited for studying these processes as the vibrational frequencies of the IR chromophores are sensitive to the nature of the bonding environment on the surface. Relying on the surface selection rules, by modulating the polarization of incident light, it is possible to separate the contributions from the isotropic gas or solution phase, from the surface bound species. A spectral frequency range between 1000 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1 can be acquired. While typical spectra with a good signal to noise ratio can be obtained at elevated pressures of gases in ˜2 min at 4 cm-1 resolution, we have also acquired higher resolution spectra at 0.25 cm-1 with longer acquisition times. By way of verification, CO uptake on a heavily oxidized Ru(0001) sample was studied. As part of this test study, the presence of CO adsorbed on Ru bridge sites was confirmed, in agreement with previous ambient pressure X ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. In terms of instrument performance, it was also determined that the gas phase contribution from CO could be completely removed even up to pressures close to 100 Torr. A second test study demonstrated the use of the technique for studying morphological properties of a spin coated polymer on a conductive surface. Note that this is a novel application of this technique. In this experiment, the polarization of incident light was modulated manually (vs. through a photoelastic modulator). It was demonstrated, in good agreement with the literature, that the polymer chains preferentially lie parallel with the surface. This PM-IRRAS system is small, modular, and easily

  16. Modeling groundwater flow to elliptical lakes and through multi-aquifer elliptical inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Two new analytic element solutions are presented for steady flow problems with elliptical boundaries. The first solution concerns groundwater flow to shallow elliptical lakes with leaky lake beds in a single-aquifer. The second solution concerns groundwater flow through elliptical cylinder inhomogeneities in a multi-aquifer system. Both the transmissivity of each aquifer and the resistance of each leaky layer may differ between the inside and the outside of an inhomogeneity. The elliptical inhomogeneity may be bounded on top by a shallow elliptical lake with a leaky lake bed. Analytic element solutions are obtained for both problems through separation of variables of the Laplace and modified-Helmholtz differential equations in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the discharge potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials, trigonometric functions, and modified-Mathieu functions. The series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately, but up to machine accuracy provided enough terms are used. The head and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the aquifer. Examples are given of uniform flow through an elliptical lake, a well pumping near two elliptical lakes, and uniform flow through three elliptical inhomogeneities in a multi-aquifer system. Mathieu functions may be applied in a similar fashion to solve other groundwater flow problems in semi-confined aquifers and leaky aquifer systems with elliptical internal or external boundaries.

  17. Excursion Processes Associated with Elliptic Combinatorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hiroya; Katori, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Researching elliptic analogues for equalities and formulas is a new trend in enumerative combinatorics which has followed the previous trend of studying q-analogues. Recently Schlosser proposed a lattice path model in the square lattice with a family of totally elliptic weight-functions including several complex parameters and discussed an elliptic extension of the binomial theorem. In the present paper, we introduce a family of discrete-time excursion processes on Z starting from the origin and returning to the origin in a given time duration 2 T associated with Schlosser's elliptic combinatorics. The processes are inhomogeneous both in space and time and hence expected to provide new models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. By numerical calculation we show that the maximum likelihood trajectories on the spatio-temporal plane of the elliptic excursion processes and of their reduced trigonometric versions are not straight lines in general but are nontrivially curved depending on parameters. We analyze asymptotic probability laws in the long-term limit T → ∞ for a simplified trigonometric version of excursion process. Emergence of nontrivial curves of trajectories in a large scale of space and time from the elementary elliptic weight-functions exhibits a new aspect of elliptic combinatorics.

  18. Scattering by an infinite homogenous anisotropic elliptic cylinder in terms of Mathieu functions and Fourier series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shi-Chun; Wu, Zhen-Sen

    2008-12-01

    An exact solution to the two-dimensional scattering properties of an anisotropic elliptic cylinder for transverse electric polarization is presented. The internal field in an anisotropic elliptic cylinder is expressed as integral representations of Mathieu functions and Fourier series. The coefficients of the series expansion are obtained by imposing boundary conditions on the anisotropic-free-space interface. A matrix is developed to solve the nonorthogonality properties of Mathieu functions at the interface between two different media. Numerical results are given for the bistatic radar cross section and the amplitude of the total magnetic field along the x and y axes. The result is in agreement with that available as expected when an elliptic cylinder degenerates to a circular one.

  19. Dispersive finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis of the elliptic cylindrical cloak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Ahn, D. [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A dispersive full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model is used to calculate the performance of elliptic cylindrical cloaking devices. The permittivity and the permeability tensors for the cloaking structure are derived by using an effective medium approach in general relativity. The elliptic cylindrical invisibility devices are found to show imperfect cloaking, and the cloaking performance is found to depend on the polarization of the incident waves, the direction of the propagation of those waves, the semi-focal distances and the loss tangents of the meta-material. When the semifocal distance of the elliptic cylinder decreases, the performance of the cloaking becomes very good, with neither noticeable scatterings nor field penetrations. For a larger semi-focal distance, only the TM wave with a specific propagation direction shows good cloaking performance. Realistic cloaking materials with loss still show a cloak that is working, but attenuated back-scattering waves exist.

  20. Elliptic hypergeometric functions and the representation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: (author)Elliptic hypergeometric functions were discovered around ten years ago. They represent the top level known generalization of the Euler beta integral and Euler-Gauss 2 F 1 hypergeometric function. In general form they are defined by contour integrals involving elliptic gamma functions. We outline the structure of the simplest examples of such functions and discuss their relations to the representation theory of the classical Lie groups and their various deformations. In one of the constructions elliptic hypergeometric integrals describe purely group-theoretical objects having the physical meaning of superconformal indices of four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge field theories

  1. International Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrohe, Elmar; Seiler, Jörg; Walker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This volume covers the latest research on elliptic and parabolic equations and originates from the international Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations, held September 10-12, 2013 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover. It represents a collection of refereed research papers and survey articles written by eminent scientist on advances in different fields of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations, including singular Riemannian manifolds, spectral analysis on manifolds, nonlinear dispersive equations, Brownian motion and kernel estimates, Euler equations, porous medium type equations, pseudodifferential calculus, free boundary problems, and bifurcation analysis.

  2. On second order effects in a galvanic cell : Part I. Polarization by a sine wave modulated high frequency current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, F. van der; Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented concerning the application of a high-frequency alternating current, amplitude modulated by a low-frequency sine wave, to a galvanic cell. Based on the correlation with the faradaic rectification technique, expressions are given for the low-frequency demodulation

  3. An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L.

    2005-07-01

    Elliptically polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 ± 0.02 µT across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 ± 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 ± 21% and 21 ± 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure. This work is supported by the charity CHILDREN with LEUKAEMIA, registered charity number 298405.

  4. An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L

    2005-01-01

    Elliptically polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 ± 0.02 μT across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 ± 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 ± 21% and 21 ± 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure

  5. Canine distemper virus matrix protein influences particle infectivity, particle composition, and envelope distribution in polarized epithelial cells and modulates virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Erik; Anderson, Danielle E; Castan, Alexandre; von Messling, Veronika; Maisner, Andrea

    2011-07-01

    In paramyxoviruses, the matrix (M) protein mediates the interaction between the envelope and internal proteins during particle assembly and egress. In measles virus (MeV), M mutations, such as those found in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) strains, and differences in vaccine and wild-type M proteins can affect the strength of interaction with the envelope glycoproteins, assembly efficiency, and spread. However, the contribution of the M protein to the replication and pathogenesis of the closely related canine distemper virus (CDV) has not been characterized. To this end this, we generated a recombinant wild-type CDV carrying a vaccine strain M protein. The recombinant virus retained the parental growth phenotype in VerodogSLAMtag cells, but displayed an increased particle-to-infectivity ratio very similar to that of the vaccine strain, likely due to inefficient H protein incorporation. Even though infectious virus was released only from the apical surface, consistent with the release polarity of the wild-type CDV strain, envelope protein distribution in polarized epithelial cells reproduced the bipolar pattern seen in vaccine strain-infected cells. Most notably, the chimeric virus was completely attenuated in ferrets and caused only a mild and transient leukopenia, indicating that the differences in particle infectivity and envelope protein sorting mediated by the vaccine M protein contribute importantly to vaccine strain attenuation.

  6. Naming and categorizing objects: task differences modulate the polarity of semantic effects in the picture-word interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantsch, Ansgar; Jescheniak, Jörg D; Mädebach, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm is a prominent tool for studying lexical retrieval during speech production. When participants name the pictures, interference from semantically related distractor words has regularly been shown. By contrast, when participants categorize the pictures, facilitation from semantically related distractors has typically been found. In the extant studies, however, differences in the task instructions (naming vs. categorizing) were confounded with the response level: While responses in naming were typically located at the basic level (e.g., "dog"), responses were located at the superordinate level in categorization (e.g., "animal"). The present study avoided this confound by having participants respond at the basic level in both naming and categorization, using the same pictures, distractors, and verbal responses. Our findings confirm the polarity reversal of the semantic effects--that is, semantic interference in naming, and semantic facilitation in categorization. These findings show that the polarity reversal of the semantic effect is indeed due to the different tasks and is not an artifact of the different response levels used in previous studies. Implications for current models of language production are discussed.

  7. Clustering and negative feedback by endocytosis in planar cell polarity signaling is modulated by ubiquitinylation of prickle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomsoo Cho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP signaling system, including both transmembrane and peripheral membrane associated proteins, form asymmetric complexes that bridge apical intercellular junctions. While these can assemble in either orientation, coordinated cell polarization requires the enrichment of complexes of a given orientation at specific junctions. This might occur by both positive and negative feedback between oppositely oriented complexes, and requires the peripheral membrane associated PCP components. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying feedback are not understood. We find that the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex Cullin1(Cul1/SkpA/Supernumerary limbs(Slimb regulates the stability of one of the peripheral membrane components, Prickle (Pk. Excess Pk disrupts PCP feedback and prevents asymmetry. We show that Pk participates in negative feedback by mediating internalization of PCP complexes containing the transmembrane components Van Gogh (Vang and Flamingo (Fmi, and that internalization is activated by oppositely oriented complexes within clusters. Pk also participates in positive feedback through an unknown mechanism promoting clustering. Our results therefore identify a molecular mechanism underlying generation of asymmetry in PCP signaling.

  8. Partial differential operators of elliptic type

    CERN Document Server

    Shimakura, Norio

    1992-01-01

    This book, which originally appeared in Japanese, was written for use in an undergraduate course or first year graduate course in partial differential equations and is likely to be of interest to researchers as well. This book presents a comprehensive study of the theory of elliptic partial differential operators. Beginning with the definitions of ellipticity for higher order operators, Shimakura discusses the Laplacian in Euclidean spaces, elementary solutions, smoothness of solutions, Vishik-Sobolev problems, the Schauder theory, and degenerate elliptic operators. The appendix covers such preliminaries as ordinary differential equations, Sobolev spaces, and maximum principles. Because elliptic operators arise in many areas, readers will appreciate this book for the way it brings together a variety of techniques that have arisen in different branches of mathematics.

  9. On mod 2 and higher elliptic genera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kefeng

    1992-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, we construct mod 2 elliptic genera on manifolds of dimensions 8k+1, 8k+2 by mod 2 index formulas of Dirac operators. They are given by mod 2 modular forms or mod 2 automorphic functions. We also obtain an integral formula for the mod 2 index of the Dirac operator. As a by-product we find topological obstructions to group actions. In the second part, we construct higher elliptic genera and prove some of their rigidity properties under group actions. In the third part we write down characteristic series for all Witten genera by Jacobi theta-functions. The modular property and transformation formulas of elliptic genera then follow easily. We shall also prove that Krichever's genera, which come from integrable systems, can be written as indices of twisted Dirac operators for SU-manifolds. Some general discussions about elliptic genera are given. (orig.)

  10. Constructing elliptic curves from Galois representations

    OpenAIRE

    Snowden, Andrew; Tsimerman, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Given a non-isotrivial elliptic curve over an arithmetic surface, one obtains a lisse $\\ell$-adic sheaf of rank two over the surface. This lisse sheaf has a number of straightforward properties: cyclotomic determinant, finite ramification, rational traces of Frobenius, and somewhere not potentially good reduction. We prove that any lisse sheaf of rank two possessing these properties comes from an elliptic curve.

  11. Elliptic and parabolic equations for measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachev, Vladimir I [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krylov, Nikolai V [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Roeckner, Michael [Universitat Bielefeld, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2009-12-31

    This article gives a detailed account of recent investigations of weak elliptic and parabolic equations for measures with unbounded and possibly singular coefficients. The existence and differentiability of densities are studied, and lower and upper bounds for them are discussed. Semigroups associated with second-order elliptic operators acting in L{sup p}-spaces with respect to infinitesimally invariant measures are investigated. Bibliography: 181 titles.

  12. Intense Vibronic Modulation of the Chiral Photoelectron Angular Distribution Generated by Photoionization of Limonene Enantiomers with Circularly Polarized Synchrotron Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee Fanood, Mohammad M; Ganjitabar, Hassan; Garcia, Gustavo A; Nahon, Laurent; Turchini, Stefano; Powis, Ivan

    2018-04-17

    Photoionization of the chiral monoterpene limonene has been investigated using polarized synchrotron radiation between the adiabatic ionization threshold, 8.505 and 23.5 eV. A rich vibrational structure is seen in the threshold photoelectron spectrum and is interpreted using a variety of computational methods. The corresponding photoelectron circular dichroism-measured in the photoelectron angular distribution as a forward-backward asymmetry with respect to the photon direction-was found to be strongly dependent on the vibronic structure appearing in the photoelectron spectra, with the observed asymmetry even switching direction in between the major vibrational peaks. This effect can be ultimately attributed to the sensitivity of this dichroism to small phase shifts between adjacent partial waves of the outgoing photoelectron. These observations have implications for potential applications of this chiroptical technique, where the enantioselective analysis of monoterpene components is of particular interest. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Interferometric polarization control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Novak, Giles

    2006-01-01

    We develop the Jones and Mueller matrices for structures that allow control of the path length difference between two linear orthogonal polarizations and consider the effect of placing multiple devices in series. Specifically, we find that full polarization modulation (measurement of Stokes Q, U, and V) can be achieved by placing two such modulators in series if the relative angles of the beam-splitting grids with respect to the analyzer orientation are appropriately chosen. Such a device has several potential advantages over a spinning wave plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far infrared through millimeter: (i) The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings; (ii) the phase flexibility allows measurement of circular as well as linear polarization; and (iii) this architecture allows for both multiwavelength and broadband modulation. We also present initial laboratory results

  14. Connexin 43-mediated modulation of polarized cell movement and the directional migration of cardiac neural crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Francis, Richard; Wei, Chih Jen; Linask, Kaari L; Lo, Cecilia W

    2006-09-01

    Connexin 43 knockout (Cx43alpha1KO) mice have conotruncal heart defects that are associated with a reduction in the abundance of cardiac neural crest cells (CNCs) targeted to the heart. In this study, we show CNCs can respond to changing fibronectin matrix density by adjusting their migratory behavior, with directionality increasing and speed decreasing with increasing fibronectin density. However, compared with wild-type CNCs, Cx43alpha1KO CNCs show reduced directionality and speed, while CNCs overexpressing Cx43alpha1 from the CMV43 transgenic mice show increased directionality and speed. Altered integrin signaling was indicated by changes in the distribution of vinculin containing focal contacts, and altered temporal response of Cx43alpha1KO and CMV43 CNCs to beta1 integrin function blocking antibody treatment. High resolution motion analysis showed Cx43alpha1KO CNCs have increased cell protrusive activity accompanied by the loss of polarized cell movement. They exhibited an unusual polygonal arrangement of actin stress fibers that indicated a profound change in cytoskeletal organization. Semaphorin 3A, a chemorepellent known to inhibit integrin activation, was found to inhibit CNC motility, but in the Cx43alpha1KO and CMV43 CNCs, cell processes failed to retract with semaphorin 3A treatment. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses suggested close interactions between Cx43alpha1, vinculin and other actin-binding proteins. However, dye coupling analysis showed no correlation between gap junction communication level and fibronectin plating density. Overall, these findings indicate Cx43alpha1 may have a novel function in mediating crosstalk with cell signaling pathways that regulate polarized cell movement essential for the directional migration of CNCs.

  15. Fabrication of elliptical SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.

    2017-03-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the elliptical resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good

  16. Noise-modulated self-polarization effect of impurity doped quantum dots under simultaneous presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas

    2017-10-01

    We explore the profiles of self-polarization effect (SPE) of doped GaAs QD under simultaneous presence of hydrostatic pressure (HP), temperature and in presence of noise. Noise term carries Gaussian white character and it has been administered to the system via two different pathways; additive and multiplicative. Profiles of SPE have been monitored as a function of HP, temperature and noise strength. Under a given condition of HP and temperature, noise marks its prominent signature on the SPE profile. However, the extent to which noise affects the SPE profile visibly depends on the noise strength and the pathway through which noise is introduced. As interesting observations we have found that SPE exhibits minimization at a pressure of ∼ 170 kbar in absence of noise and at ∼ 150 kbar when noise is present. Furthermore, in presence of multiplicative noise SPE exhibits a very faint decrease with increase in T up to T ∼ 420 K. However, beyond T ∼ 420 K, further increase in temperature causes abrupt fall of SPE in a highly sharp way. The findings highlight viable ways of tuning SPE of doped QD system through subtle interplay between HP, temperature and noise.

  17. Thermococcus kodakarensis modulates its polar membrane lipids and elemental composition according to growth stage and phosphate availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis B. Meador

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed significant changes in the elemental and intact polar lipid (IPL composition of the archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis (KOD1 in response to growth stage and phosphorus supply. Reducing the amount of organic supplements and phosphate in growth media resulted in significant decreases in cell size and cellular quotas of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P, which coincided with significant increases in cellular IPL quota and IPLs comprising multiple P atoms and hexose moieties. Relatively more cellular P was stored as IPLs in P-limited cells (2-8% compared to control cells (< 0.8%. We also identified a specific IPL biomarker containing a phosphatidyl-N-acetylhexoseamine headgroup that was relatively enriched during rapid cell division. These observations serve as empirical evidence of IPL adaptations in Archaea that will help to interpret the distribution of these biomarkers in natural systems. The reported cell quotas of C, N, and P represent the first such data for a specific archaeon and suggest that thermophiles are C-rich compared to the cell carbon-to-volume relationship reported for planktonic bacteria.

  18. Simulation of erasure of photoinduced anisotropy by circularly polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajti, Sz.; Kerekes, Á.; Barabás, M.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal evolution of photoinduced birefringence is investigated on the basis of a model proposed by Pedersen and co-workers, This model is extended for the case of elliptically polarized light, and used to describe the erasure of photoinduced birefringence by circularly polarized light...

  19. Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.

    2001-12-01

    We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  20. The Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family regulates polarized growth and modulates the microtubule cytoskeleton in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pöhlmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules (MTs are pivotal for numerous eukaryotic processes ranging from cellular morphogenesis, chromosome segregation to intracellular transport. Execution of these tasks requires intricate regulation of MT dynamics. Here, we identify a new regulator of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe MT cytoskeleton: Asp1, a member of the highly conserved Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family. Inositol pyrophosphates generated by Asp1 modulate MT dynamic parameters independent of the central +TIP EB1 and in a dose-dependent and cellular-context-dependent manner. Importantly, our analysis of the in vitro kinase activities of various S. pombe Asp1 variants demonstrated that the C-terminal phosphatase-like domain of the dual domain Vip1 protein negatively affects the inositol pyrophosphate output of the N-terminal kinase domain. These data suggest that the former domain has phosphatase activity. Remarkably, Vip1 regulation of the MT cytoskeleton is a conserved feature, as Vip1-like proteins of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans and the distantly related pathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis also affect the MT cytoskeleton in these organisms. Consistent with the role of interphase MTs in growth zone selection/maintenance, all 3 fungal systems show aspects of aberrant cell morphogenesis. Thus, for the first time we have identified a conserved biological process for inositol pyrophosphates.

  1. A PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module links Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Brian P; Falke, Joseph J

    2018-01-01

    The leukocyte chemosensory pathway detects attractant gradients and directs cell migration to sites of inflammation, infection, tissue damage, and carcinogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that local Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized leukocytes play central roles in positive feedback loop essential to cell polarization and chemotaxis. These prior studies showed that stimulation of the leading edge Ca2+ signal can strongly activate PI3K, thereby triggering a larger PIP3 signal, but did not elucidate the mechanistic link between Ca2+ and PIP3 signaling. A hypothesis explaining this link emerged, postulating that Ca2+-activated PKC displaces the MARCKS protein from plasma membrane PIP2, thereby releasing sequestered PIP2 to serve as the target and substrate lipid of PI3K in PIP3 production. In vitro single molecule studies of the reconstituted pathway on lipid bilayers demonstrated the feasibility of this PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking Ca2+ and PIP3 signals in the reconstituted system. The present study tests the model predictions in live macrophages by quantifying the effects of: (a) two pathway activators-PDGF and ATP that stimulate chemoreceptors and Ca2+ influx, respectively; and (b) three pathway inhibitors-wortmannin, EGTA, and Go6976 that inhibit PI3K, Ca2+ influx, and PKC, respectively; on (c) four leading edge activity sensors-AKT-PH-mRFP, CKAR, MARCKSp-mRFP, and leading edge area that report on PIP3 density, PKC activity, MARCKS membrane binding, and leading edge expansion/contraction, respectively. The results provide additional evidence that PKC and PI3K are both essential elements of the leading edge positive feedback loop, and strongly support the existence of a PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking the leading edge Ca2+ and PIP3 signals. As predicted, activators stimulate leading edge PKC activity, displacement of MARCKS from the leading edge membrane and increased leading edge PIP3 levels, while inhibitors

  2. A PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module links Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Ziemba

    Full Text Available The leukocyte chemosensory pathway detects attractant gradients and directs cell migration to sites of inflammation, infection, tissue damage, and carcinogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that local Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized leukocytes play central roles in positive feedback loop essential to cell polarization and chemotaxis. These prior studies showed that stimulation of the leading edge Ca2+ signal can strongly activate PI3K, thereby triggering a larger PIP3 signal, but did not elucidate the mechanistic link between Ca2+ and PIP3 signaling. A hypothesis explaining this link emerged, postulating that Ca2+-activated PKC displaces the MARCKS protein from plasma membrane PIP2, thereby releasing sequestered PIP2 to serve as the target and substrate lipid of PI3K in PIP3 production. In vitro single molecule studies of the reconstituted pathway on lipid bilayers demonstrated the feasibility of this PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking Ca2+ and PIP3 signals in the reconstituted system. The present study tests the model predictions in live macrophages by quantifying the effects of: (a two pathway activators-PDGF and ATP that stimulate chemoreceptors and Ca2+ influx, respectively; and (b three pathway inhibitors-wortmannin, EGTA, and Go6976 that inhibit PI3K, Ca2+ influx, and PKC, respectively; on (c four leading edge activity sensors-AKT-PH-mRFP, CKAR, MARCKSp-mRFP, and leading edge area that report on PIP3 density, PKC activity, MARCKS membrane binding, and leading edge expansion/contraction, respectively. The results provide additional evidence that PKC and PI3K are both essential elements of the leading edge positive feedback loop, and strongly support the existence of a PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking the leading edge Ca2+ and PIP3 signals. As predicted, activators stimulate leading edge PKC activity, displacement of MARCKS from the leading edge membrane and increased leading edge PIP3 levels, while

  3. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

  4. Nonlinear elliptic equations of the second order

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear elliptic differential equations are a diverse subject with important applications to the physical and social sciences and engineering. They also arise naturally in geometry. In particular, much of the progress in the area in the twentieth century was driven by geometric applications, from the Bernstein problem to the existence of Kähler-Einstein metrics. This book, designed as a textbook, provides a detailed discussion of the Dirichlet problems for quasilinear and fully nonlinear elliptic differential equations of the second order with an emphasis on mean curvature equations and on Monge-Ampère equations. It gives a user-friendly introduction to the theory of nonlinear elliptic equations with special attention given to basic results and the most important techniques. Rather than presenting the topics in their full generality, the book aims at providing self-contained, clear, and "elementary" proofs for results in important special cases. This book will serve as a valuable resource for graduate stu...

  5. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  7. Electromagnetic Invisibility of Elliptic Cylinder Cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Yao; Chao, Li; Fang, Li

    2008-01-01

    Structures with unique electromagnetic properties are designed based on the approach of spatial coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations. This approach is applied to scheme out invisible elliptic cylinder cloaks, which provide more feasibility for cloaking arbitrarily shaped objects. The transformation expressions for the anisotropic material parameters and the field distribution are derived. The cloaking performances of ideal and lossy elliptic cylinder cloaks are investigated by finite element simulations. It is found that the cloaking performance will degrade in the forward direction with increasing loss. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  8. Quantum W-algebras and elliptic algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigin, B.; Kyoto Univ.; Frenkel, E.

    1996-01-01

    We define a quantum W-algebra associated to sl N as an associative algebra depending on two parameters. For special values of the parameters, this algebra becomes the ordinary W-algebra of sl N , or the q-deformed classical W-algebra of sl N . We construct free field realizations of the quantum W-algebras and the screening currents. We also point out some interesting elliptic structures arising in these algebras. In particular, we show that the screening currents satisfy elliptic analogues of the Drinfeld relations in U q (n). (orig.)

  9. Nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Le Dret, Hervé

    2018-01-01

    This textbook presents the essential parts of the modern theory of nonlinear partial differential equations, including the calculus of variations. After a short review of results in real and functional analysis, the author introduces the main mathematical techniques for solving both semilinear and quasilinear elliptic PDEs, and the associated boundary value problems. Key topics include infinite dimensional fixed point methods, the Galerkin method, the maximum principle, elliptic regularity, and the calculus of variations. Aimed at graduate students and researchers, this textbook contains numerous examples and exercises and provides several comments and suggestions for further study.

  10. Elliptic Tales Curves, Counting, and Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ash, Avner

    2012-01-01

    Elliptic Tales describes the latest developments in number theory by looking at one of the most exciting unsolved problems in contemporary mathematics--the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture. The Clay Mathematics Institute is offering a prize of 1 million to anyone who can discover a general solution to the problem. In this book, Avner Ash and Robert Gross guide readers through the mathematics they need to understand this captivating problem. The key to the conjecture lies in elliptic curves, which are cubic equations in two variables. These equations may appear simple, yet they arise from

  11. Abundance ratios in dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Ş.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Mentz, J. J.; Paudel, S.; Salo, H.; Sybilska, A.; Toloba, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2018-04-01

    We determine abundance ratios of 37 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in the nearby Virgo cluster. This sample is representative of the early-type population of galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 originate from late-type dwarfs or small spirals. Na-yields appear to be very metal-dependent, in agreement with studies of giant ellipticals, probably due to the large dependence on the neutron-excess in stars. We conclude that dEs have undergone a considerable amount of chemical evolution, they are therefore not uniformly old, but have extended SFH, similar to many of the Local Group galaxies.

  12. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  13. Cholera Toxin Promotes Th17 Cell Differentiation by Modulating Expression of Polarizing Cytokines and the Antigen-Presenting Potential of Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ok; Lee, Jee-Boong; Chang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT), an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholera, acts as a mucosal adjuvant. In a previous study, we showed that CT skews differentiation of CD4 T cells to IL-17-producing Th17 cells. Here, we found that intranasal administration of CT induced migration of migratory dendritic cell (DC) populations, CD103+ DCs and CD11bhi DCs, to the lung draining mediastinal lymph nodes (medLN). Among those DC subsets, CD11bhi DCs that were relatively immature had a major role in Th17 cell differentiation after administration of CT. CT-treated BMDCs showed reduced expression of MHC class II and CD86, similar to CD11bhi DCs in medLN, and these BMDCs promoted Th17 cell differentiation more potently than other BMDCs expressing higher levels of MHC class II and CD86. By analyzing the expression of activation markers such as CD25 and CD69, proliferation and IL-2 production, we determined that CT-treated BMDCs showed diminished antigen-presenting potential to CD4+ T cells compared with normal BMDCs. We also found that CT-stimulated BMDCs promote activin A expression as well as IL-6 and IL-1β, and activin A had a synergic role with TGF-β1 in CT-mediated Th17 cell differentiation. Taken together, our results suggest that CT-stimulated DCs promote Th17 cell differentiation by not only modulating antigen-presenting potential but also inducing Th polarizing cytokines.

  14. Broadband photonic single sideband frequency up-converter based on the cross polarization modulation effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier for radio-over-fiber systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jong-In

    2014-01-13

    A broadband photonic single sideband (SSB) frequency up-converter based on the cross polarization modulation (XPolM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An optical radio frequency (RF) signal in the form of an optical single sideband (OSSB) is generated by the photonic SSB frequency up-converter to solve the power fading problem caused by fiber chromatic dispersion. The generated OSSB RF signal has almost identical optical carrier power and optical sideband power. This SSB frequency up-conversion scheme shows an almost flat electrical RF power response as a function of the RF frequency in a range from 31 GHz to 75 GHz after 40 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission. The photonic SSB frequency up-conversion technique shows negligible phase noise degradation. The phase noise of the up-converted RF signal at 49 GHz for an offset of 10 kHz is -93.17 dBc/Hz. Linearity analysis shows that the photonic SSB frequency up-converter has a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) value of 79.51 dB · Hz(2/3).

  15. Thiamet G mediates neuroprotection in experimental stroke by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization and inhibiting NF-κB p65 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yating; Ma, Xiaofeng; Li, Daojing; Hao, Junwei

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory responses are accountable for secondary injury induced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Previous studies indicated that O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is involved in the pathology of AIS, and increase of O-GlcNAcylation by glucosamine attenuated the brain damage after ischemia/reperfusion. Inhibition of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA) with thiamet G (TMG) is an alternative option for accumulating O-GlcNAcylated proteins. In this study, we investigate the neuroprotective effect of TMG in a mouse model of experimental stroke. Our results indicate that TMG administration either before or after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery dramatically reduced infarct volume compared with that in untreated controls. TMG treatment ameliorated the neurological deficits and improved clinical outcomes in neurobehavioral tests by modulating the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, TMG administration reduced the number of Iba1 + cells in MCAO mice, decreased expression of the M1 markers, and increased expression of the M2 markers in vivo. In vitro, M1 polarization of BV2 cells was inhibited by TMG treatment. Moreover, TMG decreased the expression of iNOS and COX2 mainly by suppressing NF-κB p65 signaling. These results suggest that TMG exerts a neuroprotective effect and could be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent for ischemic stroke therapy.

  16. Index profile measurement of asymmetrical elliptical preforms or fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitterswijk, van W.; Smit, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    An extension of the beam-deflection method to the case of elliptical preforms with eccentric core (asymmetrical elliptical preforms) is presented, which can be easily implemented on automatic measurement equipment

  17. Elliptic genus of singular algebraic varieties and quotients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libgober, Anatoly

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the basic properties of various versions of the two-variable elliptic genus with special attention to the equivariant elliptic genus. The main applications are to the elliptic genera attached to non-compact GITs, including the theories regarding the elliptic genera of phases on N  =  2 introduced in Witten (1993 Nucl. Phys. B 403 159-222).

  18. Impedances in lossy elliptical vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwinski, A.

    1994-04-01

    The wake fields of a bunched beam caused by the resistivity of the chamber walls are investigated for a vacuum chamber with elliptical cross section. The longitudinal and transverse impedances are calculated for arbitrary energies and for an arbitrary position of the beam in the chamber. (orig.)

  19. Quasilinear infiltration from an elliptical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Warrick, Arthur W.

    2008-08-01

    We develop analytic solutions to the linearized steady-state Richards equation for head and total flowrate due to an elliptic cylinder cavity with a specified pressure head boundary condition. They are generalizations of the circular cylinder cavity solutions of Philip [Philip JR. Steady infiltration from circular cylindrical cavities. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1984;48:270-8]. The circular and strip sources are limiting cases of the elliptical cylinder solution, derived for both horizontally- and vertically-aligned ellipses. We give approximate rational polynomial expressions for total flowrate from an elliptical cylinder over a range of sizes and shapes. The exact elliptical solution is in terms of Mathieu functions, which themselves are generalizations of and computed from trigonometric and Bessel functions. The required Mathieu functions are computed from a matrix eigenvector problem, a modern approach that is straightforward to implement using available linear algebra libraries. Although less efficient and potentially less accurate than the iterative continued fraction approach, the matrix approach is simpler to understand and implement and is valid over a wider parameter range.

  20. Carleman estimates for some elliptic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, M

    2008-01-01

    A Carleman estimate for a certain first order elliptic system is proved. The proof is elementary and does not rely on pseudo-differential calculus. This estimate is used to prove Carleman estimates for the isotropic Lame system as well as for the isotropic Maxwell system with C 1 coefficients

  1. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This article shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of a set of confocal elliptic...

  2. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all R R . Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower ...

  3. Vortex precession in thin elliptical ferromagnetic nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaspel, C.E., E-mail: craig.zaspel@umwestern.edu

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A general form for the magnetostatic energy is calculated for the vortex state in a ferromagnetic ellipse. • The ellipse magnetostatic energy is minimized by conformal mapping the circular disk onto the ellipse. • The gyrotropic precession frequency is obtained in general for a range of ellipticities. - Abstract: The magnetostatic energy is calculated for a magnetic vortex in a noncircular elliptical nanodisk. It is well-known that the energy of a vortex in the circular disk is minimized though an ansatz that eliminates the magnetostatic charge at the disk edge. Beginning with this ansatz for the circular disk, a conformal mapping of a circle interior onto the interior of an ellipse results in the magnetization of the elliptical disk. This magnetization in the interior of an ellipse also has no magnetostatic charge at the disk edge also minimizing the magnetostatic energy. As expected the energy has a quadratic dependence on the displacement of the vortex core from the ellipse center, but reflecting the lower symmetry of the ellipse. Through numerical integration of the magnetostatic integral a general expression for the energy is obtained for ellipticity values from 1.0 to about 0.3. Finally a general expression for the gyrotropic frequency as described by the Thiele equation is obtained.

  4. Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.

    The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is

  5. Elastic plastic buckling of elliptical vessel heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alix, M.; Roche, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    The risks of buckling of dished vessel head increase when the vessel is thin walled. This paper gives the last results on experimental tests of 3 elliptical heads and compares all the results with some empirical formula dealing with elastic and plastic buckling

  6. Equivalent operator preconditioning for elliptic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2009), s. 297-380 ISSN 1017-1398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Elliptic problem * Conjugate gradient method * preconditioning * equivalent operators * compact operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://en.scientificcommons.org/42514649

  7. Hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces ‘hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography’, in which a single high-security group supports fast genus-2-hyperelliptic-curve formulas for variable-base-point single-scalar multiplication (for example, Diffie–Hellman shared-secret computation) and at the same time supports fast

  8. Local identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    systematize the local identities by deriving four local 'master identities' analogous to the ... involving Jacobi elliptic functions can be explicitly evaluated and a number of .... most of these integrals do not seem to be known in the literature. In §6 ...

  9. New developments on the generation of arbitrary polarized radiation from insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleaume, P.

    1991-01-01

    The complete description of the polarization of a beam of radiation is described in terms of the total energy and three polarization rates. The polarization characteristics from conventional undulators and wigglers is recalled. A presentation is made of some new insertion devices that were proposed and/or built to generate circular polarization and more generally to improve the control of polarization. They are the asymmetric and elliptical wigglers and the helical and crossed undulators

  10. Elliptic polylogarithms and iterated integrals on elliptic curves. II. An application to the sunrise integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broedel, Johannes; Duhr, Claude; Dulat, Falko; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2018-06-01

    We introduce a class of iterated integrals that generalize multiple polylogarithms to elliptic curves. These elliptic multiple polylogarithms are closely related to similar functions defined in pure mathematics and string theory. We then focus on the equal-mass and non-equal-mass sunrise integrals, and we develop a formalism that enables us to compute these Feynman integrals in terms of our iterated integrals on elliptic curves. The key idea is to use integration-by-parts identities to identify a set of integral kernels, whose precise form is determined by the branch points of the integral in question. These kernels allow us to express all iterated integrals on an elliptic curve in terms of them. The flexibility of our approach leads us to expect that it will be applicable to a large variety of integrals in high-energy physics.

  11. Elliptic Flow, Initial Eccentricity and Elliptic Flow Fluctuations in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouicer, Rachid; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.

    2008-12-01

    We present measurements of elliptic flow and event-by-event fluctuations established by the PHOBOS experiment. Elliptic flow scaled by participant eccentricity is found to be similar for both systems when collisions with the same number of participants or the same particle area density are compared. The agreement of elliptic flow between Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions provides evidence that the matter is created in the initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions with transverse granularity similar to that of the participant nucleons. The event-by-event fluctuation results reveal that the initial collision geometry is translated into the final state azimuthal particle distribution, leading to an event-by-event proportionality between the observed elliptic flow and initial eccentricity.

  12. Centrality dependence of directed and elliptic flow at the SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskanzer, A.M.; Voloshin, S.A.; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Blyth, C.O.; Boimska, B.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Carr, L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fischer, H.G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Hlinka, V.; Hoehne, C.; Igo, G.; Ivanov, M.; Jacobs, P.; Janik, R.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Mayes, B.W.; Melkumov, G.L.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Odyniec, G.; Oldenburg, M.D.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schaefer, E.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Yoo, I.K.; Zimanyi, J.

    1999-01-01

    New data with a minimum bias trigger for 158 GeV/nucleon Pb + Pb have been analyzed. Directed and elliptic flow as a function of rapidity of the particles and centrality of the collision are presented. The centrality dependence of the ratio of elliptic flow to the initial space elliptic anisotropy is compared to models

  13. Systematics of elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We analyze elliptic flow from SIS to RHIC energies systematically in a realistic dynamical cascade model. We compare our results with the recent data from STAR and PHOBOS collaborations on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions at RHIC. In the analysis of elliptic flow at RHIC energy, we find ...

  14. Metamaterial polarization converter analysis: limits of performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovich, Dmitry L.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    and a single layer with a ground plane can have 100 % polarization conversion efficiency. We tested our conclusions numerically reaching the designated limits of efficiency using a simple metamaterial design. Our general analysis provides useful guidelines for the metamaterial polarization converter design......In this paper, we analyze the theoretical limits of a metamaterial-based converter with orthogonal linear eigenpolarizations that allow linear-to-elliptical polarization transformation with any desired ellipticity and ellipse orientation. We employ the transmission line approach providing a needed...... level of the design generalization. Our analysis reveals that the maximal conversion efficiency for transmission through a single metamaterial layer is 50 %, while the realistic reflection configuration can give the conversion efficiency up to 90 %. We show that a double layer transmission converter...

  15. Cross-phase modulational instability in an elliptical birefringent fiber ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    measured by a gain given byG = Imk where Imk denotes the imaginary part ofk. We next investigate the MI conditions for various regimes of pulse propagation. We now discuss the results obtained for the three different cases mentioned in Ü2. (i) MI condition governing the generation of ultrashort pulses in the femto second ...

  16. Ellipticity dependence of high harmonics generated using 400 nm driving lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Khan, Sabih; Zhao, Kun; Zhao, Baozhen; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu

    2011-05-01

    High order harmonics generated from 400 nm driving pulses hold promise of scaling photon flux of single attosecond pulses by one to two orders of magnitude. We report ellipticity dependence and phase matching of high order harmonics generated from such pulses in Neon gas target and compared them with similar measurements using 800 nm driving pulses. Based on measured ellipticity dependence, we predict that double optical gating (DOG) and generalized double optical gating (GDOG) can be employed to extract intense single attosecond pulses from pulse train, while polarization gating (PG) may not work for this purpose. This material is supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under grant number W911NF-07-1-0475, and by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Developing a composite based elliptic spring for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talib, Abdul Rahim Abu; Ali, Aidy; Goudah, G.; Lah, Nur Azida Che; Golestaneh, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    An automotive suspension system is designed to provide both safety and comfort for the vehicle occupants. In this study, finite element models were developed to optimize the material and geometry of the composite elliptical spring based on the spring rate, log life and shear stress parameters. The influence of the ellipticity ratio on the performance of woven roving-wrapped composite elliptical springs was investigated both experimentally and numerically. The study demonstrated that composite elliptical springs can be used for light and heavy trucks with substantial weight reduction. The results showed that the ellipticity ratio significantly influenced the design parameters. Composite elliptic springs with ellipticity ratios of a/b = 2 had the optimum spring parameters.

  18. Nonlinear polarization effects in a birefringent single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiekwene, G.C.; Mensah, S.Y.; Brown, C.S.

    2001-04-01

    The nonlinear polarization effects in a birefringent single mode optical fiber is studied using Jacobi elliptic functions. We find that the polarization state of the propagating beam depends on the initial polarization as well as the intensity of the input light in a complicated way. The Stokes polarization parameters are either periodic or aperiodic depending on the value of the Jacobian modulus. Our calculations suggest that the effective beat length of the fiber can become infinite at a higher critical value of the input power when polarization dependent losses are considered. (author)

  19. Performance of an elliptically tapered neutron guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, Sebastian; Stadlbauer, Martin; Boeni, Peter; Schanzer, Christan; Stahn, Jochen; Filges, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Supermirror coated neutron guides are used at all modern neutron sources for transporting neutrons over large distances. In order to reduce the transmission losses due to multiple internal reflection of neutrons, ballistic neutron guides with linear tapering have been proposed and realized. However, these systems suffer from an inhomogeneous illumination of the sample. Moreover, the flux decreases significantly with increasing distance from the exit of the neutron guide. We propose using elliptically tapered guides that provide a more homogeneous phase space at the sample position as well as a focusing at the sample. Moreover, the design of the guide system is simplified because ellipses are simply defined by their long and short axes. In order to prove the concept we have manufactured a doubly focusing guide and investigated its properties with neutrons. The experiments show that the predicted gains using the program package McStas are realized. We discuss several applications of elliptic guides in various fields of neutron physics

  20. A holomorphic anomaly in the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of gauged linear sigma models (GLSMs) in two dimensions that flow to non-compact (2,2) superconformal field theories in the infra-red, a prototype of which is the SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) (cigar) coset. We compute the elliptic genus of the GLSMs as a path-integral on the torus using supersymmetric localization. We find that the result is a Jacobi-like form that is non-holomorphic in the modular parameter τ of the torus, with mock modular behavior. This agrees with a previously-computed expression in the cigar coset. We show that the lack of holomorphicity of the elliptic genus arises from the contributions of a compact boson carrying momentum and winding excitations. This boson has an axionic shift symmetry and plays the role of a compensator field that is needed to cancel the chiral anomaly in the rest of the theory.

  1. Elliptic differential equations theory and numerical treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This book simultaneously presents the theory and the numerical treatment of elliptic boundary value problems, since an understanding of the theory is necessary for the numerical analysis of the discretisation. It first discusses the Laplace equation and its finite difference discretisation before addressing the general linear differential equation of second order. The variational formulation together with the necessary background from functional analysis provides the basis for the Galerkin and finite-element methods, which are explored in detail. A more advanced chapter leads the reader to the theory of regularity. Individual chapters are devoted to singularly perturbed as well as to elliptic eigenvalue problems. The book also presents the Stokes problem and its discretisation as an example of a saddle-point problem taking into account its relevance to applications in fluid dynamics.

  2. Nonlinear elliptic equations and nonassociative algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Nadirashvili, Nikolai; Vlăduţ, Serge

    2014-01-01

    This book presents applications of noncommutative and nonassociative algebras to constructing unusual (nonclassical and singular) solutions to fully nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations of second order. The methods described in the book are used to solve a longstanding problem of the existence of truly weak, nonsmooth viscosity solutions. Moreover, the authors provide an almost complete description of homogeneous solutions to fully nonlinear elliptic equations. It is shown that even in the very restricted setting of "Hessian equations", depending only on the eigenvalues of the Hessian, these equations admit homogeneous solutions of all orders compatible with known regularity for viscosity solutions provided the space dimension is five or larger. To the contrary, in dimension four or less the situation is completely different, and our results suggest strongly that there are no nonclassical homogeneous solutions at all in dimensions three and four. Thus this book gives a complete list of dimensions...

  3. On rotational solutions for elliptically excited pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, Anton O.

    2011-01-01

    The author considers the planar rotational motion of the mathematical pendulum with its pivot oscillating both vertically and horizontally, so the trajectory of the pivot is an ellipse close to a circle. The analysis is based on the exact rotational solutions in the case of circular pivot trajectory and zero gravity. The conditions for existence and stability of such solutions are derived. Assuming that the amplitudes of excitations are not small while the pivot trajectory has small ellipticity the approximate solutions are found both for high and small linear dampings. Comparison between approximate and numerical solutions is made for different values of the damping parameter. -- Highlights: → We study rotations of the mathematical pendulum when its pivot moves along an ellipse. → There are stable exact solutions for a circular pivot trajectory and zero gravity. → Asymptotic solutions are found for an elliptical pivot trajectory

  4. A FUNDAMENTAL LINE FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Preethi; Van den Bergh, Sidney; Abraham, Roberto G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that massive galaxies in the distant universe are surprisingly compact, with typical sizes about a factor of three smaller than equally massive galaxies in the nearby universe. It has been suggested that these massive galaxies grow into systems resembling nearby galaxies through a series of minor mergers. In this model the size growth of galaxies is an inherently stochastic process, and the resulting size-luminosity relationship is expected to have considerable environmentally dependent scatter. To test whether minor mergers can explain the size growth in massive galaxies, we have closely examined the scatter in the size-luminosity relation of nearby elliptical galaxies using a large new database of accurate visual galaxy classifications. We demonstrate that this scatter is much smaller than has been previously assumed, and may even be so small as to challenge the plausibility of the merger-driven hierarchical models for the formation of massive ellipticals.

  5. Type A Jacobi Elliptic One-Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2010-01-01

    We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this generalized solution with Θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric Jacobi elliptic generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solution of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a regular non-BPS finite energy solution.

  6. Integrable mappings via rational elliptic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Teruhisa

    2004-01-01

    We present a geometric description of the QRT map (which is an integrable mapping introduced by Quispel, Roberts and Thompson) in terms of the addition formula of a rational elliptic surface. By this formulation, we classify all the cases when the QRT map is periodic; and show that its period is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. A generalization of the QRT map which acts birationally on a pencil of K3 surfaces, or Calabi-Yau manifolds, is also presented

  7. On a fourth order superlinear elliptic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of a nonzero solution for the fourth order elliptic equation $$Delta^2u= mu u +a(xg(u$$ with boundary conditions $u=Delta u=0$. Here, $mu$ is a real parameter, $g$ is superlinear both at zero and infinity and $a(x$ changes sign in $Omega$. The proof uses a variational argument based on the argument by Bahri-Lions cite{BL}.

  8. A Jacobian elliptic single-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro de Astrofisica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Gallo, Emanuel [FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), CONICET, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2015-06-15

    In the scenario of single-field inflation, this field is described in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions. This approach provides, when constrained to particular cases, analytic solutions already known in the past, generalizing them to a bigger family of analytical solutions. The emergent cosmology is analyzed using the Hamilton-Jacobi approach and then the main results are contrasted with the recent measurements obtained from the Planck 2015 data. (orig.)

  9. The elliptic model for communication fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Yagüe, C; Schneider, C M; González, M C; Smoreda, Z; Couronné, T; Zufiria, P J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a model (called the elliptic model) is proposed to estimate the number of social ties between two locations using population data in a similar manner to how transportation research deals with trips. To overcome the asymmetry of transportation models, the new model considers that the number of relationships between two locations is inversely proportional to the population in the ellipse whose foci are in these two locations. The elliptic model is evaluated by considering the anonymous communications patterns of 25 million users from three different countries, where a location has been assigned to each user based on their most used phone tower or billing zip code. With this information, spatial social networks are built at three levels of resolution: tower, city and region for each of the three countries. The elliptic model achieves a similar performance when predicting communication fluxes as transportation models do when predicting trips. This shows that human relationships are influenced at least as much by geography as is human mobility. (paper)

  10. Can elliptical galaxies be equilibrium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-08-01

    This paper deals with the question of whether elliptical galaxies can be considered as equilibrium systems (i.e., the gravitational + centrifugal potential is constant on the external surface). We find that equilibrium models such as Emden-Chandrasekhar polytropes and Roche polytropes with n = 0 can account for the main part of observations relative to the ratio of maximum rotational velocity to central velocity dispersion in elliptical systems. More complex models involving, for example, massive halos could lead to a more complete agreement. Models that are a good fit to the observed data are characterized by an inner component (where most of the mass is concentrated) and a low-density outer component. A comparison is performed between some theoretical density distributions and the density distribution observed by Young et al. (1978) in NGC 4473, but a number of limitations must be adopted. Alternative models, such as triaxial oblate non-equilibrium configurations with coaxial shells, involve a number of problems which are briefly discussed. We conclude that spheroidal oblate models describing elliptical galaxies cannot be ruled out until new analyses relative to more refined theoretical equilibrium models (involving, for example, massive halos) and more detailed observations are performed.

  11. Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fulong; Tian, Yiqun; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Shang; Yang, Shiping; Chen, Yanjun

    2015-07-13

    We investigate the polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields numerically and analytically. We focus on lower-order harmonics (LOHs). Our simulations show that the ellipticity of below-threshold LOHs depends strongly on the orientation angle and differs significantly for different harmonic orders. Our analysis reveals that this LOH ellipticity is closely associated with resonance effects and the axis symmetry of the molecule. These results shed light on the complex generation mechanism of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules.

  12. Elliptical optical solitary waves in a finite nematic liquid crystal cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Sciberras, Luke W.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.

    2015-05-01

    The addition of orbital angular momentum has been previously shown to stabilise beams of elliptic cross-section. In this article the evolution of such elliptical beams is explored through the use of an approximate methodology based on modulation theory. An approximate method is used as the equations that govern the optical system have no known exact solitary wave solution. This study brings to light two distinct phases in the evolution of a beam carrying orbital angular momentum. The two phases are determined by the shedding of radiation in the form of mass loss and angular momentum loss. The first phase is dominated by the shedding of angular momentum loss through spiral waves. The second phase is dominated by diffractive radiation loss which drives the elliptical solitary wave to a steady state. In addition to modulation theory, the "chirp" variational method is also used to study this evolution. Due to the significant role radiation loss plays in the evolution of an elliptical solitary wave, an attempt is made to couple radiation loss to the chirp variational method. This attempt furthers understanding as to why radiation loss cannot be coupled to the chirp method. The basic reason for this is that there is no consistent manner to match the chirp trial function to the generated radiating waves which is uniformly valid in time. Finally, full numerical solutions of the governing equations are compared with solutions obtained using the various variational approximations, with the best agreement achieved with modulation theory due to its ability to include both mass and angular momentum losses to shed diffractive radiation.

  13. Elliptical Galaxies: Rotationally Distorted, After All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of earlier investigations onhomeoidally striated Mac Laurin spheroids and Jacobi ellipsoids (Caimmi and Marmo2005, Caimmi 2006a, 2007, different sequences of configurations are defined and represented in the ellipticity-rotation plane, $({sf O}hat{e}chi_v^2$. The rotation parameter, $chi_v^2$, is defined as the ratio, $E_mathrm{rot}/E_mathrm{res}$, of kinetic energy related to the mean tangential equatorial velocity component, $M(overline{v_phi}^2/2$, to kineticenergy related to tangential equatorial component velocity dispersion, $Msigma_{phiphi}^2/2$, andresidual motions, $M(sigma_{ww}^2+sigma_{33}^2/2$.Without loss of generality (above a thresholdin ellipticity values, the analysis is restricted to systems with isotropic stress tensor, whichmay be considered as adjoint configurationsto any assigned homeoidally striated density profile with anisotropic stress tensor, different angular momentum, and equal remaining parameters.The description of configurations in the$({sf O}hat{e}chi_v^2$ plane is extendedin two respects, namely (a from equilibriumto nonequilibrium figures, where the virialequations hold with additional kinetic energy,and (b from real to imaginary rotation, wherethe effect is elongating instead of flattening,with respect to the rotation axis.An application is made toa subsample $(N=16$ of elliptical galaxies extracted from richer samples $(N=25,~N=48$of early type galaxies investigated within theSAURON project (Cappellari et al. 2006, 2007.Sample objects are idealized as homeoidallystriated MacLaurinspheroids and Jacobi ellipsoids, and theirposition in the $({sf O}hat{e}chi_v^2$plane is inferred from observations followinga procedure outlined in an earlier paper(Caimmi 2009b. The position of related adjoint configurations with isotropic stresstensor is also determined. With a singleexception (NGC 3379, slow rotators arecharacterized by low ellipticities $(0lehat{e}<0.2$, low anisotropy parameters$(0ledelta<0

  14. Lectures on Selected Topics in Mathematical Physics: Elliptic Functions and Elliptic Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalm, William A.

    2015-12-01

    This volume is a basic introduction to certain aspects of elliptic functions and elliptic integrals. Primarily, the elliptic functions stand out as closed solutions to a class of physical and geometrical problems giving rise to nonlinear differential equations. While these nonlinear equations may not be the types of greatest interest currently, the fact that they are solvable exactly in terms of functions about which much is known makes up for this. The elliptic functions of Jacobi, or equivalently the Weierstrass elliptic functions, inhabit the literature on current problems in condensed matter and statistical physics, on solitons and conformal representations, and all sorts of famous problems in classical mechanics. The lectures on elliptic functions have evolved as part of the first semester of a course on theoretical and mathematical methods given to first- and second-year graduate students in physics and chemistry at the University of North Dakota. They are for graduate students or for researchers who want an elementary introduction to the subject that nevertheless leaves them with enough of the details to address real problems. The style is supposed to be informal. The intention is to introduce the subject as a moderate extension of ordinary trigonometry in which the reference circle is replaced by an ellipse. This entre depends upon fewer tools and has seemed less intimidating that other typical introductions to the subject that depend on some knowledge of complex variables. The first three lectures assume only calculus, including the chain rule and elementary knowledge of differential equations. In the later lectures, the complex analytic properties are introduced naturally so that a more complete study becomes possible.

  15. Polarization extinction ratio of the polarization crosstalk caused by point pressure force in the polarization-maintaining fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtubayev, Azamat B.; Aksarin, Stanislav M.; Strigalev, Vladimir E.

    2017-11-01

    A study of the orthogonal polarization modes crosstalk changes in the point of different mechanical actions (pressure force) in the polarization-maintaining fiber with straining elliptical cladding is presented. It was found that by increasing of the pressure force the polarization extinction ratio increases nonlinearly. Also revealed the dependence of the extinction coefficient and the angle between vector of the mechanical action and polarization axes of the test fiber, which leads to change the extinction coefficient variable from -57 dB to -25 dB under the pressure force of 0.7 N. Also it was found that the cross angle of the fiber axes doesn't influence on the extinction ratio value of the mechanical induced polarization crosstalk.

  16. Performances study of UWB monopole antennas using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djidel, S.; Bouamar, M.; Khedrouche, D., E-mail: dkhedrouche@yahoo.com [LASS (Laboratoired’Analyse des Signaux et Systèmes), Department of Electronics, University of M’sila BP.166, Route Ichebilia, M’sila, 28000 Algeria (Algeria)

    2016-04-21

    This paper presents a performances study of UWB monopole antenna using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface. The proposed antenna, simulated using microwave studio computer CST and High frequency simulator structure HFSS, is designed to operate in frequency interval over 3.1 to 40 GHz. Good return loss and radiation pattern characteristics are obtained in the frequency band of interest. The proposed antenna structure is suitable for ultra-wideband applications, which is, required for many wearable electronics applications.

  17. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L.

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  18. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  19. Effect of atomic noise on optical squeezing via polarization self-rotation in a thermal vapor cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, M.T.L.; Hetet, G.; Peng, A.

    2006-01-01

    The traversal of an elliptically polarized optical field through a thermal vapor cell can give rise to a rotation of its polarization axis. This process, known as polarization self-rotation (PSR), has been suggested as a mechanism for producing squeezed light at atomic transition wavelengths. We ...

  20. Chirality-induced polarization effects in the cuticle of scarab beetles: 100 years after Michelson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arwin, Hans; Magnusson, Roger; Landin, Jan; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2012-04-01

    One hundred years ago Michelson discovered circular polarization in reflection from beetles. Today a novel Mueller-matrix ellipsometry setup allows unprecedented detailed characterization of the beetles' polarization properties. A formalism based on elliptical polarization for description of reflection from scarab beetles is here proposed and examples are given on four beetles of different character: Coptomia laevis - a simple dielectric mirror; Cetonia aurata - a left-hand narrow-band elliptical polarizer; Anoplognathus aureus - a broad-band elliptical polarizer; and Chrysina argenteola - a left-hand polarizer for visible light at small angles, whereas for larger angles, red reflected light is right-handed polarized. We confirm the conclusion of previous studies which showed that a detailed quantification of ellipticity and degree of polarization of cuticle reflection can be performed instead of only determining whether reflections are circularly polarized or not. We additionally investigate reflection as a function of incidence angle. This provides much richer information for understanding the behaviour of beetles and for structural analysis.

  1. Polarization in free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Polarization of electromagnetic radiation is required very often in numerous scientific and industrial applications: studying of crystals, molecules and intermolecular interaction high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors and their transitions, polymers and liquid crystals. Using polarized radiation allows to obtain important data (otherwise inaccessible) in astrophysics, meteorology and oceanology. It is promising in chemistry and biology for selective influence on definite parts of molecules in chain synthesis reactions, precise control of various processes at cell and subcell levels, genetic engineering etc. Though polarization methods are well elaborated in optics, they can fail in far-infrared, vacuum-ultraviolet and X-ray regions because of lack of suitable non-absorbing materials and damaging of optical elements at high specific power levels. Therefore, it is of some interest to analyse polarization of untreated FEL radiation obtained with various types of undulators, with and without axial magnetic field. The polarization is studied using solutions for electron orbits in various cases: plane or helical undulator with or without axial magnetic field, two plane undulators, a combination of right- and left-handed helical undulators with equal periods, but different field amplitudes. Some examples of how a desired polarization (elliptical circular or linear) can be obtained or changed quickly, which is necessary in many experiments, are given.

  2. Sound Attenuation in Elliptic Mufflers Using a Regular Perturbation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Subhabrata; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2012-01-01

    The study of sound attenuation in an elliptical chamber involves the solution of the Helmholtz equation in elliptic coordinate systems. The Eigen solutions for such problems involve the Mathieu and the modified Mathieu functions. The computation of such functions poses considerable challenge. An alternative method to solve such problems had been proposed in this paper. The elliptical cross-section of the muffler has been treated as a perturbed circle, enabling the use of a regular perturbatio...

  3. Elliptic genus derivation of 4d holomorphic blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    We study elliptic vortices on ℂ × T 2 by considering the 2d quiver gauge theory describing their moduli spaces. The elliptic genus of these moduli spaces is the elliptic version of vortex partition function of the 4d theory. We focus on two examples: the first is a N = 1, U( N ) gauge theory with fundamental and anti-fundamental matter; the second is a N = 2, U( N ) gauge theory with matter in the fundamental representation. The results are instances of 4d "holomorphic blocks" into which partition functions on more complicated surfaces factorize. They can also be interpreted as free-field representations of elliptic Virasoro algebrae.

  4. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  5. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Hikami, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M 24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M 24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M 24 . In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  6. Statistics about elliptic curves over finite prime fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gekeler, Ernst-Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    We derive formulas for the probabilities of various properties (cyclicity, squarefreeness, generation by random points) of the point groups of randomly chosen elliptic curves over random prime fields.

  7. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schombert, James M., E-mail: jschombe@uoregon.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  8. Constraints on stellar populations in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Photographic image-tube spectra in the wavelength interval 3400--4500 A have been obtained for 12 elliptical galaxy nuclei and for a number of Galactic globular and open clusters in integrated light. The spectra have a wavelength resolution of 2.5 A and a high signal-to-noise ratio. A new quantitative three-dimensional spectral-classification system that has been calibrated on a sample of approx.200 individual stars (Rose 1984) is used to analyze the integrated spectra of the ellipical galaxy nuclei and to compare them with those of the globular clusters. This system is based on spectral indices that are formed by comparing neighborhood spectral features and is unaffected by reddening. The following results have been found: (1) Hot stars (i.e., spectral types A and B) contribute only 2% to the integrated spectra of elliptical galaxies at approx.4000 A, except in the nucleus of NGC 205, where the hot component dominates. This finding is based on a spectral index formed from the relative central intensities in the Ca II H+Hepsilon and Ca II K lines, which is shown to be constant for late-type (i.e., F, G, and K) stars, but changes drastically at earlier types. The observed Ca II H+Hepsilon/Ca II K indices in ellipticals can be reproduced by the inclusion of a small metal-poor population (as in the globular cluster M5) that contributes approx.8% of the light at 4000 A. Such a contribution is qualitatively consistent with the amount of

  9. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schombert, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  10. Effects of fiber ellipticity and orientation on dynamic stress concentrations in porous fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminejad, Seyyed M.; Sanaei, Roozbeh

    2007-11-01

    Interaction of time harmonic fast longitudinal and shear incident plane waves with an elliptical fiber embedded in a porous elastic matrix is studied. The novel features of Biot dynamic theory of poroelasticity along with the classical method of eigen-function expansion and the pertinent boundary conditions are employed to develop a closed form series solution involving Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions of complex arguments. The complications arising due to the non-orthogonality of angular Mathieu functions corresponding to distinct wave numbers in addition to the problems associated with appearance of additional angular dependent terms in the boundary conditions are all avoided by expansion of the angular Mathieu functions in terms of transcendental functions and subsequent integration, leading to a linear set of independent equations in terms of the unknown scattering coefficients. A MATHEMATICA code is developed for computing the Mathieu functions in terms of complex Fourier coefficients which are themselves calculated by numerically solving appropriate sets of eigen-systems. The analytical results are illustrated with numerical examples in which an elastic fiber of elliptic cross section is insonified by a plane fast compressional or shear wave at normal incidence. The effects of fiber cross sectional ellipticity, angle of incidence (fiber two-dimensional orientation), and incident wave polarization (P, SV, SH) on dynamic stress concentrations are studied in a relatively wide frequency range. Limiting cases are considered and fair agreements with well-known solutions are established.

  11. Streamline integration as a method for two-dimensional elliptic grid generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesenberger, M., E-mail: Matthias.Wiesenberger@uibk.ac.at [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Held, M. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Einkemmer, L. [Numerical Analysis group, Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new numerical algorithm to construct a structured numerical elliptic grid of a doubly connected domain. Our method is applicable to domains with boundaries defined by two contour lines of a two-dimensional function. Furthermore, we can adapt any analytically given boundary aligned structured grid, which specifically includes polar and Cartesian grids. The resulting coordinate lines are orthogonal to the boundary. Grid points as well as the elements of the Jacobian matrix can be computed efficiently and up to machine precision. In the simplest case we construct conformal grids, yet with the help of weight functions and monitor metrics we can control the distribution of cells across the domain. Our algorithm is parallelizable and easy to implement with elementary numerical methods. We assess the quality of grids by considering both the distribution of cell sizes and the accuracy of the solution to elliptic problems. Among the tested grids these key properties are best fulfilled by the grid constructed with the monitor metric approach. - Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Construct structured, elliptic numerical grids with elementary numerical methods. • Align coordinate lines with or make them orthogonal to the domain boundary. • Compute grid points and metric elements up to machine precision. • Control cell distribution by adaption functions or monitor metrics.

  12. Guided modes of elliptical metamaterial waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halterman, Klaus; Feng, Simin; Overfelt, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of guided electromagnetic waves in open elliptical metamaterial waveguide structures is investigated. The waveguide contains a negative-index media core, where the permittivity ε and permeability μ are negative over a given bandwidth. The allowed mode spectrum for these structures is numerically calculated by solving a dispersion relation that is expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. By probing certain regions of parameter space, we find the possibility exists to have extremely localized waves that transmit along the surface of the waveguide

  13. Evolution of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This theory grant was awarded to study the curious nature, origin and evolution of hot gas in elliptical galaxies and their surrounding groups. Understanding the properties of this X-ray emitting gas has profound implications over the broad landscape of modern astrophysics: cosmology, galaxy formation, star formation, cosmic metal enrichment, galactic structure and dynamics, and the physics of hot gases containing dust and magnetic fields. One of our principal specific objectives was to interpret the marvelous new observations from the XMM and Chandru satellite X-ray telescopes.

  14. Neutral hydrogen in elliptical and IO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1979-01-01

    New HI detections have been obtained using the Nancay radiotelescope for NGC 2974 and 3962. These results and the large scale distribution obtained for NGC 3962 indicate that the HI-rich elliptical galaxies exhibit common properties which are not easily explained by accretion of an intergalactic cloud. The field aroud NGC 1052 has been mapped and there is an HI connection with the neighbouring galaxies. The HI content of several IO galaxies indicates that the galaxies which are members of groups are relatively HI-rich; this could be produced by additional HI coming from companion galaxies [fr

  15. Polarization-independent broadband meta-holograms via polarization-dependent nanoholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Li, Xiong; Jin, Jinjin; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Jun; Guo, Yinghui; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-05-17

    Composed of ultrathin metal or dielectric nanostructures, metasurfaces can manipulate the phase, amplitude and polarization of electromagnetic waves at a subwavelength scale, which is promising for flat optical devices. In general, metasurfaces composed of space-variant anisotropic units are sensitive to the incident polarization due to the inherent polarization dependent geometric phase. Here, we implement polarization-independent broadband metasurface holograms constructed by polarization-dependent anisotropic elliptical nanoholes by elaborate design of complex amplitude holograms. The fabricated meta-hologram exhibits a polarization insensitive feature with an acceptable image quality. We verify the feasibility of the design algorithm for three-dimensional (3D) meta-holograms with simulation and the feasibility for two-dimensional (2D) meta-holograms is experimentally demonstrated at a broadband wavelength range from 405 nm to 632.8 nm. The effective polarization-independent broadband complex wavefront control with anisotropic elliptical nanoholes proposed in this paper greatly promotes the practical applications of the metasurface in technologies associated with wavefront manipulation, such as flat lens, colorful holographic displays and optical storage.

  16. Calculations of spin-polarized Goos-Hänchen displacement in magnetically confined GaAs/Al x Ga1-x As nanostructure modulated by spin-orbit couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mao-Wang; Chen, Sai-Yan; Zhang, Gui-Lian; Huang, Xin-Hong

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically investigate Goos-Hänchen (GH) displacement by modelling the spin transport in an archetypal device structure—a magnetically confined GaAs/Al x Ga1-x As nanostructure modulated by spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Both Rashba and Dresselhaus SOCs are taken into account. The degree of spin-polarized GH displacement can be tuned by Rashba or Dresselhaus SOC, i.e. interfacial confining electric field or strain engineering. Based on such a semiconductor nanostructure, a controllable spatial spin splitter can be proposed for spintronics applications.

  17. Calculations of spin-polarized Goos-Hänchen displacement in magnetically confined GaAs/Al x Ga1-x As nanostructure modulated by spin-orbit couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mao-Wang; Chen, Sai-Yan; Zhang, Gui-Lian; Huang, Xin-Hong

    2018-04-11

    We theoretically investigate Goos-Hänchen (GH) displacement by modelling the spin transport in an archetypal device structure-a magnetically confined GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As nanostructure modulated by spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Both Rashba and Dresselhaus SOCs are taken into account. The degree of spin-polarized GH displacement can be tuned by Rashba or Dresselhaus SOC, i.e. interfacial confining electric field or strain engineering. Based on such a semiconductor nanostructure, a controllable spatial spin splitter can be proposed for spintronics applications.

  18. Can mergers make slowly rotating elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The results of numerical experiments are used to guide an analytic discussion of hyperbolic mergers among an uncorrelated galaxy population. The expected merger rate is derived as a function of progenitor mass and relative angular momentum, and is used to predict the distribution of the parameter V/sub c//sigma 0 for merger products where V/sub c/ is the maximum observed rotation velocity in a galaxy and sigma 0 is its central velocity dispersion. The median value of this parameter for mergers between comparable galaxies is estimated to be 0.65 and is higher than the observed value in any of the 14 galaxies for which data are available. It seems unlikely that most elliptical galaxies are the result of single or multiple mergers between initially unbound stellar systems; further observational and theoretical work is suggested which should lead to a conclusive test of this picture. The present arguments cannot, however, exclude formation from low angular momentum elliptical orbits

  19. Thermodynamics of Inozemtsev's elliptic spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabbers, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behaviour of Inozemtsev's long-range elliptic spin chain using the Bethe ansatz equations describing the spectrum of the model in the infinite-length limit. We classify all solutions of these equations in that limit and argue which of these solutions determine the spectrum in the thermodynamic limit. Interestingly, some of the solutions are not selfconjugate, which puts the model in sharp contrast to one of the model's limiting cases, the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. Invoking the string hypothesis we derive the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations (TBA-equations) from which we determine the Helmholtz free energy in thermodynamic equilibrium and derive the associated Y-system. We corroborate our results by comparing numerical solutions of the TBA-equations to a direct computation of the free energy for the finite-length hamiltonian. In addition we confirm numerically the interesting conjecture put forward by Finkel and González-López that the original and supersymmetric versions of Inozemtsev's elliptic spin chain are equivalent in the thermodynamic limit.

  20. FEL polarization control studies on Dalian coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Deng Haixiao; Wang Dong; Zhao Zhentang; Zhang Weiqing; Wu Guorong; Dai Dongxu; Yang Xueming

    2013-01-01

    The polarization switch of a free-electron laser (FEL) is of great importance to the user scientific community. In this paper, we investigate the generation of controllable polarization FEL from two well-known approaches for Dalian coherent light source, i.e., crossed planar undulator and elliptical permanent undulator. In order to perform a fair comparative study, a one-dimensional time-dependent FEL code has been developed, in which the imperfection effects of an elliptical permanent undulator are taken into account. Comprehensive simulation results indicate that the residual beam energy chirp and the intrinsic FEL gain may contribute to the degradation of the polarization performance for the crossed planar undulator. The elliptical permanent undulator is not very sensitive to the undulator errors and beam imperfections. Meanwhile, with proper configurations of the main planar undulators and additional elliptical permanent undulator section, circular polarized FEL with pulse energy exceeding 100 μJ could be achieved at Dalian coherent light source. (authors)

  1. Dichroism, chirality, and polarization eigenstates in Babinet nanoslot-dimer membrane metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Kremers, Christian; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed theoretical description of the optical properties of planar metamaterials comprising a metal membrane patterned with openings (microslots) arranged in closely located couples (dimers). Using the covariant coupled-dipole approach, the effective material tensors of such a metamaterial are recovered, and contributions responsible for elliptical dichroism and optical activity are identified. Polarization conversion properties of II-shaped and V-shaped dimers are determined and explained in terms of elliptically polarized eigenmodes of the metamaterial. Good agreement with direct numerical simulations is demonstrated. The results obtained are promising for the design of thin-film frequency selective polarization shapers for terahertz waves.

  2. Vector optical fields with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Si, Yu; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-09-15

    We focus on a new kind of vector optical field with bipolar symmetry of linear polarization instead of cylindrical and elliptical symmetries, enriching members of family of vector optical fields. We design theoretically and generate experimentally the demanded vector optical fields and then explore some novel tightly focusing properties. The geometric configurations of states of polarization provide additional degrees of freedom assisting in engineering the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications such as lithography, optical trapping, and material processing.

  3. Picone-type inequalities for nonlinear elliptic equations and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaŝi Kusano

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Picone-type inequalities are derived for nonlinear elliptic equations, and Sturmian comparison theorems are established as applications. Oscillation theorems for forced super-linear elliptic equations and superlinear-sublinear elliptic equations are also obtained.

  4. Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Nieber, John L.

    2004-12-01

    New analytic element solutions are presented for unsaturated, two-dimensional steady flow in vertical planes that include nonoverlapping impermeable elliptical layers and elliptical inhomogeneities. The hydraulic conductivity, which is represented by an exponential function of the pressure head, differs between the inside and outside of an elliptical inhomogeneity; both the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters are allowed to differ between the inside and outside. The Richards equation is transformed, through the Kirchhoff transformation and a second standard transformation, into the modified Helmholtz equation. Analytic element solutions are obtained through separation of variables in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the Kirchhoff potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials and modified Mathieu functions. In practical applications the series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately but up to machine accuracy, provided that enough terms are used. The pressure head, saturation, and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the vadose zone. Examples are given of the shadowing effect of an impermeable elliptical layer in a uniform flow field and funnel-type flow between two elliptical inhomogeneities. The presented solutions may be applied to study transport processes in vadose zones containing many impermeable elliptical layers or elliptical inhomogeneities.

  5. Elliptical Orbit [arrow right] 1/r[superscript 2] Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentis, Jeffrey; Fulton, Bryan; Hesse, Carol; Mazzino, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Newton's proof of the connection between elliptical orbits and inverse-square forces ranks among the "top ten" calculations in the history of science. This time-honored calculation is a highlight in an upper-level mechanics course. It would be worthwhile if students in introductory physics could prove the relation "elliptical orbit" [arrow right]…

  6. Newton flows for elliptic functions: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, F.; Helminck, G.F.; Snuverink, M.; van den Brug, L.

    2008-01-01

    Elliptic Newton flows are generated by a continuous, desingularized Newton method for doubly periodic meromorphic functions on the complex plane. In the special case, where the functions underlying these elliptic Newton flows are of second-order, we introduce various, closely related, concepts of

  7. Multiple solutions for a quasilinear (p,q-elliptic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohsen Khalkhali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show the existence of three weak solutions of a Dirichlet quasilinear elliptic system of differential equations which involves a general (p,q-elliptic operator in divergence, with $1

  8. three solutions for a semilinear elliptic boundary value problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    69

    Keywords: The Laplacian operator, elliptic problem, Nehari man- ifold, three critical points, weak solution. 1. Introduction. Let Ω be a smooth bounded domain in RN , N ≥ 3 . In this work, we show the existence of at least three solutions for the semilinear elliptic boundary- value problem: (Pλ).. −∆u = f(x)|u(x)|p−2u(x) + ...

  9. Rotational magnetization of anisotropic media: Lag angle, ellipticity and accommodation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, G.R.; Della Torre, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the change in the ellipticity of two-dimensional magnetization trajectories as the applied field rotates from the easy axis to the hard axis of a material. Furthermore, the impact that the reversible magnetization has on the ellipticity is discussed, including the relationship between the magnetization squareness and the reversible component of the magnetization

  10. Weierstrass Elliptic Function Solutions to Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jianping; Sun Yongli

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the relations between projection Riccati equations and Weierstrass elliptic equation, combined with the Groebner bases in the symbolic computation. Then the novel method for constructing the Weierstrass elliptic solutions to the nonlinear evolution equations is given by using the above relations

  11. Near-infrared photometry of bright elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.

    High-quality visual-infrared color profiles have been determined for elliptical galaxies for the first time. Surface photometry in J and K is presented for 12 bright elliptical galaxies, and the results have been combined with CCD data in visual passbands. It is shown that the galaxies become bluer

  12. On the Behavior of Eisenstein Series Through Elliptic Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, D.; Pippich, A.-M. V.

    2009-12-01

    Let Γ be a Fuchsian group of the first kind acting on the hyperbolic upper half plane {mathbb{H}}, and let {M = Γbackslash mathbb{H}} be the associated finite volume hyperbolic Riemann surface. If γ is a primitive parabolic, hyperbolic, resp. elliptic element of Γ, there is an associated parabolic, hyperbolic, resp. elliptic Eisenstein series. In this article, we study the limiting behavior of these Eisenstein series on an elliptically degenerating family of finite volume hyperbolic Riemann surfaces. In particular, we prove the following result. The elliptic Eisenstein series associated to a degenerating elliptic element converges up to a factor to the parabolic Eisenstein series associated to the parabolic element which fixes the newly developed cusp on the limit surface.

  13. Type-2 fuzzy elliptic membership functions for modeling uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayacan, Erdal; Sarabakha, Andriy; Coupland, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Whereas type-1 and type-2 membership functions (MFs) are the core of any fuzzy logic system, there are no performance criteria available to evaluate the goodness or correctness of the fuzzy MFs. In this paper, we make extensive analysis in terms of the capability of type-2 elliptic fuzzy MFs...... in modeling uncertainty. Having decoupled parameters for its support and width, elliptic MFs are unique amongst existing type-2 fuzzy MFs. In this investigation, the uncertainty distribution along the elliptic MF support is studied, and a detailed analysis is given to compare and contrast its performance...... advantages mentioned above, elliptic MFs have comparable prediction results when compared to Gaussian and triangular MFs. Finally, in order to test the performance of fuzzy logic controller with elliptic interval type-2 MFs, extensive real-time experiments are conducted for the 3D trajectory tracking problem...

  14. Multipacting studies in elliptic SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ram; Jana, Arup Ratan; Kumar, Vinit

    2017-09-01

    Multipacting is a resonant process, where the number of unwanted electrons resulting from a parasitic discharge rapidly grows to a larger value at some specific locations in a radio-frequency cavity. This results in a degradation of the cavity performance indicators (e.g. the quality factor Q and the maximum achievable accelerating gradient Eacc), and in the case of a superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity, it leads to a quenching of superconductivity. Numerical simulations are essential to pre-empt the possibility of multipacting in SRF cavities, such that its design can be suitably refined to avoid this performance limiting phenomenon. Readily available computer codes (e.g.FishPact, MultiPac,CST-PICetc.) are widely used to simulate the phenomenon of multipacting in such cases. Most of the contemporary two dimensional (2D) codes such as FishPact, MultiPacetc. are unable to detect the multipacting in elliptic cavities because they use a simplistic secondary emission model, where it is assumed that all the secondary electrons are emitted with same energy. Some three-dimensional (3D) codes such as CST-PIC, which use a more realistic secondary emission model (Furman model) by following a probability distribution for the emission energy of secondary electrons, are able to correctly predict the occurrence of multipacting. These 3D codes however require large data handling and are slower than the 2D codes. In this paper, we report a detailed analysis of the multipacting phenomenon in elliptic SRF cavities and development of a 2D code to numerically simulate this phenomenon by employing the Furman model to simulate the secondary emission process. Since our code is 2D, it is faster than the 3D codes. It is however as accurate as the contemporary 3D codes since it uses the Furman model for secondary emission. We have also explored the possibility to further simplify the Furman model, which enables us to quickly estimate the growth rate of multipacting without

  15. Ferroelectric Polarization-Modulated Interfacial Fine Structures Involving Two-Dimensional Electron Gases in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangbao; Bai, Yuhang; Xie, Lin; Li, Chen; Key, Julian D; Wu, Di; Wang, Peng; Pan, Xiaoqing

    2018-01-10

    Interfacial fine structures of bare LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 (LAO/STO) heterostructures are compared with those of LAO/STO heterostructures capped with upward-polarized Pb(Zr 0.1 ,Ti 0.9 )O 3 (PZT up ) or downward-polarized Pb(Zr 0.5 ,Ti 0.5 )O 3 (PZT down ) overlayers by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments. By combining the acquired electron energy-loss spectroscopy mapping, we are able to directly observe electron transfer from Ti 4+ to Ti 3+ and ionic displacements at the interface of bare LAO/STO and PZT down /LAO/STO heterostructure unit cell by unit cell. No evidence of Ti 3+ is observed at the interface of the PZT up /LAO/STO samples. Furthermore, the confinement of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface is determined by atomic-column spatial resolution. Compared with the bare LAO/STO interface, the 2DEG density at the LAO/STO interface is enhanced or depressed by the PZT down or PZT up overlayer, respectively. Our microscopy studies shed light on the mechanism of ferroelectric modulation of interfacial transport at polar/nonpolar oxide heterointerfaces, which may facilitate applications of these materials as nonvolatile memory.

  16. Measuring and acquisition unit of the polarized neutron spectrometer SPN-1; Izmeritel`no0nakopitel`nyj modul` spektrometra na polyarizovannykh nejtronakh SPI-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, V V; Korneev, D A; Litvinenko, E I; Lyapin, D I

    1996-12-31

    SPN-1 polarized neutron time-of-flight spectrometer operates on IBR-2 reactor in JINR LNF. It is used to investigate into micromagnetism in ferromagnetics and superconductors as well as to investigate into mono and multilayer magnetic and superconducting thin films. 14 refs.; 3 figs.

  17. Design And Implementation of Low Area/Power Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Hardware Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Sghaier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm(ECDSA is the analog to the Digital Signature Algorithm(DSA. Based on the elliptic curve, which uses a small key compared to the others public-key algorithms, ECDSA is the most suitable scheme for environments where processor power and storage are limited. This paper focuses on the hardware implementation of the ECDSA over elliptic curveswith the 163-bit key length recommended by the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology. It offers two services: signature generation and signature verification. The proposed processor integrates an ECC IP, a Secure Hash Standard 2 IP (SHA-2 Ip and Random Number Generator IP (RNG IP. Thus, all IPs will be optimized, and different types of RNG will be implemented in order to choose the most appropriate one. A co-simulation was done to verify the ECDSA processor using MATLAB Software. All modules were implemented on a Xilinx Virtex 5 ML 50 FPGA platform; they require respectively 9670 slices, 2530 slices and 18,504 slices. FPGA implementations represent generally the first step for obtaining faster ASIC implementations. Further, the proposed design was also implemented on an ASIC CMOS 45-nm technology; it requires a 0.257 mm2 area cell achieving a maximum frequency of 532 MHz and consumes 63.444 (mW. Furthermore, in this paper, we analyze the security of our proposed ECDSA processor against the no correctness check for input points and restart attacks.

  18. Enhancement of TE polarized light extraction efficiency in nanoscale (AlN)m /(GaN)n (m>n) superlattice substitution for Al-rich AlGaN disorder alloy: ultra-thin GaN layer modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xin-he; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhong, Hong-xia; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-min; Yu, Tong-jun; Shen, Bo; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xihua

    2014-01-01

    The problem of achieving high light extraction efficiency in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N is of paramount importance for the realization of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) optoelectronic devices. To solve this problem, we investigate the microscopic mechanism of valence band inversion and light polarization, a crucial factor for enhancing light extraction efficiency, in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N alloy using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof hybrid functional, local-density approximation with 1/2 occupation, and the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof functional, in which the spin–orbit coupling effect is included. We find that the microscopic Ga-atom distribution can effectively modulate the valence band structure of Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N. Moreover, we prove that the valence band arrangement in the decreasing order of heavy hole, light hole, and crystal-field split-off hole can be realized by using nanoscale (AlN) m /(GaN) n (m>n) superlattice (SL) substituting for Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N disorder alloy as the active layer of optoelectronic devices due to the ultra-thin GaN layer modulation. The valence band maximum, i.e., the heavy hole band, has p x - and p y -like characteristics and is highly localized in the SL structure, which leads to the desired transverse electric (TE) polarized (E⊥c) light emission with improved light extraction efficiency in the DUV spectral region. Some important band-structure parameters and electron/hole effective masses are also given. The physical origin for the valence band inversion and TE polarization in (AlN) m /(GaN) n SL is analyzed in depth. (paper)

  19. Elliptic flow and incomplete equilibration at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bhalerao, R S; Borghini, N; Ollitrault, Jean Yves

    2005-01-01

    We argue that RHIC data, in particular those on the anisotropic flow coefficients v_2 and v_4, suggest that the matter produced in the early stages of nucleus-nucleus collisions is incompletely thermalized. We interpret the parameter (1/S)(dN/dy), where S is the transverse area of the collision zone and dN/dy the multiplicity density, as an indicator of the number of collisions per particle at the time when elliptic flow is established, and hence as a measure of the degree of equilibration. This number serves as a control parameter which can be varied experimentally by changing the system size, the centrality or the beam energy. We provide predictions for Cu-Cu collisions at RHIC as well as for Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC.

  20. Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-10

    We explore the tight focusing behavior of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities, and analyze the influences of the number, position, and topological charge of the singularities on the focal fields. It is found that the ellipticity of the local polarization states at the focal plane could be determined by the spatial distribution of the polarization singularities of the vector beam. When the spatial location and topological charge of singularities have even-fold rotation symmetry, the transverse fields at the focal plane are locally linearly polarized. Otherwise, the polarization state becomes a locally hybrid one. By appropriately arranging the distribution of the polarization singularities in the vector beam, the polarization distributions of the focal fields could be altered while the intensity maintains unchanged.

  1. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  2. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  3. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  4. Wavelength Dependence of the Polarization Singularities in a Two-Mode Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. G. Krishna Inavalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here an experimental demonstration of the wavelength dependence of the polarization singularities due to linear combination of the vector modes excited directly in a two-mode optical fiber. The coherent superposition of the vector modes excited by linearly polarized Gaussian beam as offset skew rays propagated in a helical path inside the fiber results in the generation of phase singular beams with edge dislocation in the fiber output. The polarization character of these beams is found to change dramatically with wavelength—from left-handed elliptically polarized edge dislocation to right-handed elliptically polarized edge-dislocation through disclinations. The measured behaviour is understood as being due to intermodal dispersion of the polarization corrections to the propagating vector modes, as the wavelength of the input beam is scanned.

  5. Measuring fluorescence polarization with a dichrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John C

    2017-09-01

    A method for obtaining fluorescence polarization data from an instrument designed to measure circular and linear dichroism is compared with a previously reported approach. The new method places a polarizer between the sample and a detector mounted perpendicular to the direction of the incident beam and results in determination of the fluorescence polarization ratio, whereas the previous method does not use a polarizer and yields the fluorescence anisotropy. A similar analysis with the detector located axially with the excitation beam demonstrates that there is no frequency modulated signal due to fluorescence polarization in the absence of a polarizer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Observation of long-range elliptic azimuthal anisotropies in √s = 13 and 2.76 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Penc, Ondřej; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 17 (2016), 1-20, č. článku 172301. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CERN LHC Coll * factorization * enhancement * correlation * long-range * elliptic flow * modulation * anisotropy * tracks: multi plicity Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  7. Investigation on computation of elliptical microwave plasma cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaoli; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Kai

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, the advance of the elliptical resonant cavity and focus cavity is known by many people. There are homogeneous and multipatternal virtues in the focus dimensional microwave field of the elliptical resonant cavity. It is very suitable for applying the low power microwave biological effect equipment. However, when designing the elliptical resonant cavity may meet the problems of complex and huge computation need to be solved. This paper proposed the simple way of approximate processing the Mathieu function. It can greatly simplify the difficulty and decrease the scale of computation. This method can satisfy the requirements of research and development within project permitted precision.

  8. Multilevel quadrature of elliptic PDEs with log-normal diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Harbrecht, Helmut

    2015-01-07

    We apply multilevel quadrature methods for the moment computation of the solution of elliptic PDEs with lognormally distributed diffusion coefficients. The computation of the moments is a difficult task since they appear as high dimensional Bochner integrals over an unbounded domain. Each function evaluation corresponds to a deterministic elliptic boundary value problem which can be solved by finite elements on an appropriate level of refinement. The complexity is thus given by the number of quadrature points times the complexity for a single elliptic PDE solve. The multilevel idea is to reduce this complexity by combining quadrature methods with different accuracies with several spatial discretization levels in a sparse grid like fashion.

  9. Convergence criteria for systems of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with convergence criteria for a special system of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations. A fixed-point algorithm is used, which iteratively solves one linearized elliptic partial differential equation at a time. Conditions are established that help foresee the convergence of the algorithm. Under reasonable hypotheses it is proved that the algorithm converges for such nonlinear elliptic systems. Extensive experimental results are reported and they show the algorithm converges in a wide variety of cases and the convergence is well correlated with the theoretical conditions introduced in this thesis

  10. Dusty Feedback from Massive Black Holes in Two Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.; Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.

    2013-01-01

    Far-infrared dust emission from elliptical galaxies informs us about galaxy mergers, feedback energy outbursts from supermassive black holes and the age of galactic stars. We report on the role of AGN feedback observationally by looking for its signatures in elliptical galaxies at recent epochs in the nearby universe. We present Herschel observations of two elliptical galaxies with strong and spatially extended FIR emission from colder grains 5-10 kpc distant from the galaxy cores. Extended excess cold dust emission is interpreted as evidence of recent feedback-generated AGN energy outbursts in these galaxies, visible only in the FIR, from buoyant gaseous outflows from the galaxy cores.

  11. Dual circularly polarized broadside beam antenna based on metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, A.; Caminita, F.; Martini, E.; Ederra, I.; Teniente, J.; Iriarte, J. C.; Gonzalo, R.; Maci, S.

    2018-02-01

    Design details of a Ku band metasurface (MTS) antenna with dual circularly polarized (CP) broadside radiation is shown in this work. By means of the surface impedance tensor modulation, synchronized propagation of two transversal magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) surface waves (SWs) is ensured in the structure, which contribute to the radiation in broadside direction by the generation of a CP leaky wave. The structure is implemented by elliptical subwavelength metallic elements with a cross-shaped aperture in the center, printed on top of a thin substrate with high permittivity (AD1000 with a thickness of λ0/17). For the experimental validation, the MTS prototype has been excited employing an orthomode transducer composed by a metallic stepped septum inside an air-filled waveguide. Two orthogonal TE11 modes excited with ±90° phase shift in the feed couple with the TM and TE SWs supported by the MTS and generate RHCP or LHCP broadside beam. Experimental results are compared with the simulation predictions. Finally, conclusions are drawn.

  12. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  13. Optical properties of an elliptic quantum ring: Eccentricity and electric field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Doina; Stan, Cristina; Niculescu, Ecaterina C.

    2018-04-01

    We have theoretically studied the electronic and optical properties of a GaAs/AlGaAs elliptic quantum ring under in-plane electric field. The effects of an eccentric internal barrier -placed along the electric field direction, chosen as x-axis- and incident light polarization are particularly taken into account. The one-electron energy spectrum and wave functions are found using the adiabatic approximation and the finite element method within the effective-mass model. We show that it is possible to repair the structural distortion by applying an appropriate in-plane electric field, and the compensation is almost complete for all electronic states under study. For both concentric and eccentric quantum ring the intraband optical properties are very sensitive to the electric field and probe laser polarization. As expected, in the systems with eccentricity distortions the energy spectrum, as well as the optical response, strongly depends on the direction of the externally applied electric field, an effect that can be used as a signature of ring eccentricity. We demonstrated the possibility of generating second harmonic response at double resonance condition for incident light polarized along the x-axis if the electric field or/and eccentric barrier break the inversion symmetry. Also, strong third harmonic signal can be generated at triple resonance condition for a specific interval of electric field values when using y-polarized light.

  14. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  15. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B.; Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ∼10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes

  16. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B., E-mail: rbah@lle.rochester.edu; Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ∼10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes.

  17. RBF Multiscale Collocation for Second Order Elliptic Boundary Value Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Farrell, Patricio; Wendland, Holger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss multiscale radial basis function collocation methods for solving elliptic partial differential equations on bounded domains. The approximate solution is constructed in a multilevel fashion, each level using compactly

  18. Multilevel quadrature of elliptic PDEs with log-normal diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Harbrecht, Helmut; Peters, Michael; Siebenmorgen, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Each function evaluation corresponds to a deterministic elliptic boundary value problem which can be solved by finite elements on an appropriate level of refinement. The complexity is thus given by the number

  19. C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.

  20. Electromagnetic fields and Green functions in elliptical vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084216; Biancacci, Nicolo; Migliorati, Mauro; Palumbo, Luigi; Vaccaro, Vittorio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic interaction between a point charge travelling inside a waveguide of elliptical cross section, and the waveguide itself. By using a convenient expansion of the Mathieu functions, useful in particular for treating a variety of problems in applied mathematics and physics with elliptic geometry, we first obtain the longitudinal electromagnetic field of a point charge (Green function) in free space in terms of elliptical coordinates. This expression allows, then, to calculate the scattered field due to the boundary conditions in our geometry. By summing the contribution of the direct or primary field and the indirect field scattered by the boundary, after a careful choice of some expansion expressions, we derive a novel formula of the longitudinal electric field, in any transverse position of the elliptical cross section, generated by the charge moving along the longitudinal axis of the waveguide. The obtained expression is represented in a closed form, it can be diffe...

  1. Vertical elliptic operator for efficient wave propagation in TTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Elliptic wave extrapolation operators require significantly less computational cost than the ones for transversely isotropic (TI) media. However, it does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for the prevalent TI media. We propose a new vertical elliptically anisotropic (VEA) wave equation by decomposing the acoustic TI pseudo-differential wave equation. The decomposition results in a vertical elliptic differential equation and a scalar operator. The new VEA-like wave equation shares the same dispersion relation as that of the original acoustic TI wave equation. Therefore, the kinematic contents are correctly matched to the original equation. Moreover, the proposed decomposition yields better amplitude properties than the isotropic decomposition without increasing the computational load. Therefore, it exhibits better cost versus accuracy tradeoff compared to the isotropic or the tilted elliptic decompositions. We demonstrate with numerical examples that the proposed methodology is numerically stable for complex models and is free from shear-wave artifacts.

  2. Topology of the elliptical billiard with the Hooke's potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radnović Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Fomenko graphs, we present a topological description of the elliptical billiard with Hooke's potential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174020: Geometry and Topology of Manifolds and Integrable Dynamical Systems

  3. Electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Holovatsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire and elliptic semiconductor nanotubes are investigated within the effective mass approximation. The solution of Schrodinger equation based on the Mathieu functions is obtained in elliptic coordinates. The dependencies of the electron size quantization spectrum on the size and shape of the core-shell nanowire and nanotube are calculated. It is shown that the ellipticity of a quantum wire leads to break of degeneration of quasiparticle energy spectrum. The dependences of the energy of odd and even electron states on the ratio between semiaxes are of a nonmonotonous character. The anticrosing effects are observed at the dependencies of electron energy spectrum on the transversal size of the core-shell nanowire.

  4. Vertical elliptic operator for efficient wave propagation in TTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-08-19

    Elliptic wave extrapolation operators require significantly less computational cost than the ones for transversely isotropic (TI) media. However, it does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for the prevalent TI media. We propose a new vertical elliptically anisotropic (VEA) wave equation by decomposing the acoustic TI pseudo-differential wave equation. The decomposition results in a vertical elliptic differential equation and a scalar operator. The new VEA-like wave equation shares the same dispersion relation as that of the original acoustic TI wave equation. Therefore, the kinematic contents are correctly matched to the original equation. Moreover, the proposed decomposition yields better amplitude properties than the isotropic decomposition without increasing the computational load. Therefore, it exhibits better cost versus accuracy tradeoff compared to the isotropic or the tilted elliptic decompositions. We demonstrate with numerical examples that the proposed methodology is numerically stable for complex models and is free from shear-wave artifacts.

  5. Orbits in general relativity: the Jacobian elliptic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro Rodriguez, C

    1987-03-11

    The Jacobian elliptic functions are applied to the motion of nonzero-rest-mass particles in the Schwarzschild geometry. The bound and unbound trajectories are analysed together with their classical and special-relativity limits.

  6. Jacobian elliptic function expansion solutions of nonlinear stochastic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Caimin; Xia Zunquan; Tian Naishuo

    2005-01-01

    Jacobian elliptic function expansion method is extended and applied to construct the exact solutions of the nonlinear Wick-type stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) and some new exact solutions are obtained via this method and Hermite transformation

  7. Mergers of elliptical galaxies and the fundamental plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, AC; van Albada, TS; AvilaReese,; Firmani, C; Frenk, CS; Allen, YC

    2003-01-01

    N-body simulations have been carried out in order to explore the final state of elliptical galaxies after encounters and more expecifically whether the Fundamental Plane (FP hereafter) relation is affected by merging.

  8. Optimal Rendezvous and Docking Simulator for Elliptical Orbits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop and implement a simulation of spacecraft rendezvous and docking guidance, navigation, and control in elliptical orbit. The foundation of...

  9. Reduction of Elliptic Curves in Equal Characteristic 3 (and 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyamoto, Roland; Top, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    We determine conductor exponent, minimal discriminant and fibre type for elliptic curves over discrete valued fields of equal characteristic 3. Along the same lines, partial results are obtained in equal characteristic 2.

  10. An imbedding theorem and its applications in degenerate elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1988-06-01

    We improve the Rellich-Kondrachov theorem and apply it to study strongly degenerate and singular elliptic equations. We obtain the maximum principle, Harnacks's inequality and global regularity for solutions of those equations. (author). 11 refs

  11. Diffraction limited focusing with controllable arbitrary three-dimensional polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weibin; Zhan, Qiwen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new approach that enables full control over the three-dimensional state of polarization and the field distribution near the focus of a high numerical aperture objective lens. By combining the electric dipole radiation and a vectorial diffraction method, the input field at the pupil plane for generating arbitrary three-dimensionally oriented linear polarization at the focal point with a diffraction limited spot size is found analytically by solving the inverse problem. Arbitrary three-dimensional elliptical polarization can be obtained by introducing a second electric dipole oriented in the orthogonal plane with appropriate amplitude and phase differences

  12. Handbook of elliptic and hyperelliptic curve cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri; Avanzi, Roberto; Doche, Christophe; Lange, Tanja; Nguyen, Kim; Vercauteren, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    … very comprehensive coverage of this vast subject area … a useful and essential treatise for anyone involved in elliptic curve algorithms … this book offers the opportunity to grasp the ECC technology with a diversified and comprehensive perspective. … This book will remain on my shelf for a long time and will land on my desk on many occasions, if only because the coverage of the issues common to factoring and discrete log cryptosystems is excellent.-IACR Book Reviews, June 2011… the book is designed for people who are working in the area and want to learn more about a specific issue. The chapters are written to be relatively independent so that readers can focus on the part of interest for them. Such readers will be grateful for the excellent index and extensive bibliography. … the handbook covers a wide range of topics and will be a valuable reference for researchers in curve-based cryptography. -Steven D. Galbraith, Mathematical Reviews, Issue 2007f.

  13. Elliptic flow based on a relativistic hydrodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi [Department of Physics, Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Based on the (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the space-time evolution of hot and dense nuclear matter produced in non-central relativistic heavy-ion collisions is discussed. The elliptic flow parameter v{sub 2} is obtained by Fourier analysis of the azimuthal distribution of pions and protons which are emitted from the freeze-out hypersurface. As a function of rapidity, the pion and proton elliptic flow parameters both have a peak at midrapidity. (author)

  14. Central $L$-values of elliptic curves and local polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlen, Stephan; Guerzhoy, Pavel; Kane, Ben; Rolen, Larry

    2018-01-01

    Here we study the recently introduced notion of a locally harmonic Maass form and its applications to the theory of $L$-functions. In particular, we find finite formulas for certain twisted central $L$-values of a family of elliptic curves in terms of finite sums over canonical binary quadratic forms. This yields vastly simpler formulas related to work of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer for such $L$-values, and extends beyond their framework to special non-CM elliptic curves.

  15. Radial, sideward and elliptic flow at AGS energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the sideward flow, the elliptic flow and the radial transverse mass distribution of protons data at. AGS energies. In order to ... data on both sideward and elliptic flow, NL3 model is better at 2 A¡GeV, while NL23 model is at 4–8. A¡GeV. ... port approach RBUU which is based on a coupled set of covariant transport equations for.

  16. Thickness shear mode quartz crystal resonators with optimized elliptical electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ting-Feng; Feng Guan-Ping; Zhang Chao; Jiang Xiao-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Quartz crystal resonators (QCRs) with circular electrodes have been widely used for various liquid and gas sensing applications. In this work, quartz crystal resonators with elliptical electrodes were studied and tested for liquid property measurement. Mindlin's theory was used to optimize the dimension and geometry of the electrodes and a 5-MHz QCR with minimum series resistance and without any spurious modes was obtained. A series of AT-cut QCRs with elliptical electrodes of different sizes were fabricated and their sensing performances were compared to devices with circular electrodes. The experimental result shows that the device with elliptical electrodes can obtain lower resonance impedance and a higher Q factor, which results in a better loading capability. Even though the sensitivities of devices with elliptical and circular electrodes are found to be similar, the sensor with elliptical electrodes has much higher resolution due to a better frequency stability. The study indicates that the performance of QCRs with elliptical electrodes is superior to that of traditional QCRs with circular electrodes. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Acoustic backscattering and radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane progressive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a formal analytical theory using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates, to calculate the acoustic backscattering form function as well as the radiation force-per-length on an infinitely long elliptical (non-circular) cylinder in plane progressive waves. The major (or minor) semi-axis of the ellipse coincides with the direction of the incident waves. The scattering coefficients for the rigid elliptical cylinder are determined by imposing the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface and solving a resulting system of linear equations by matrix inversion. The present method, which utilizes standard cylindrical (Bessel and Hankel) wave functions, presents an advantage over the solution for the scattering that is ordinarily expressed in a basis of elliptical Mathieu functions (which are generally non-orthogonal). Furthermore, an integral equation showing the direct connection of the radiation force function with the square of the scattering form function in the far-field from the scatterer (applicable for plane waves only), is noted and discussed. An important application of this integral equation is the adequate evaluation of the radiation force function from a bistatic measurement (i.e., in the polar plane) of the far-field scattering from any 2D object of arbitrary shape. Numerical predictions are evaluated for the acoustic backscattering form function and the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density, and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb, without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation, acousto-fluidics and particle dynamics applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. NOSH-NBP, a Novel Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide- Releasing Hybrid, Attenuates Ischemic Stroke-Induced Neuroinflammatory Injury by Modulating Microglia Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available NOSH-NBP, a novel nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S-releasing hybrid, protects brain from ischemic stroke. This study mainly aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of NOSH-NBP on ischemic stroke and the underlying mechanisms. In vivo, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO was performed in C57BL/6 mice, with NO-NBP and H2S-NBP as controls. NO and H2S scavengers, carboxy-PTIO and BSS, respectively, were used to quench NO and H2S of NOSH-NBP. In vitro, BV2 microglia/BMDM were induced to the M1/2 phenotype, and conditioned medium (CM experiments in BV2 microglia, neurons and b.End3 cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (ECs were performed. Microglial/macrophage activation/polarization was assessed by flow cytometry, Western blot, RT-qPCR, and ELISA. Neuronal and EC survival was measured by TUNEL, flow cytometry, MTT and LDH assays. Transmission electron microscopy, EB extravasation, brain water content, TEER measurement and Western blot were used to detect blood–brain barrier (BBB integrity and function. Interestingly, NOSH-NBP significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume and ameliorated neurological deficit, with superior effects compared with NO-NBP and/or H2S-NBP in mice after tMCAO. Both NO and H2S-releasing groups contributed to protection by NOSH-NBP. Additionally, NOSH-NBP decreased neuronal death and attenuated BBB dysfunction in tMCAO-treated mice. Furthermore, NOSH-NBP promoted microglia/macrophage switch from an inflammatory M1 phenotype to the protective M2 phenotype in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome were involved in the inhibitory effects of NOSH-NBP on M1 polarization, while peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma signaling contributed to NOSH-NBP induced M2 polarization. These findings indicated that NOSH-NBP is a potential therapeutic agent that preferentially promotes microglial/macrophage M1–M2 switch in ischemic stroke.

  19. Globally Polarized Quark-gluon Plasma in Non-central A+ACollisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zuo-tang; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-10-01

    Produced partons have large local relative orbital angular momentum along the direction opposite to the reaction plane in the early stage of non-central heavy-ion collisions. Parton scattering is shown to polarize quarks along the same direction due to spin-orbital coupling.Such global quark polarization will lead to many observable consequences,such as left-right asymmetry of hadron spectra, global transverse polarization of thermal photons, dileptons and hadrons. Hadrons from the decay of polarized resonances will have azimuthal asymmetry similar to the elliptic flow. Global hyperon polarization is predicted with indifferent hadronization scenarios and can be easily tested.

  20. The new polarized neutron reflectometer in Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruecker, U.; Alefeld, B.; Bergs, W.; Kentzinger, E.; Brueckel, T.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the HADAS spectrometer in the guide hall of the Juelich research reactor FRJ-2 a polarized neutron reflectometer is build with a 2D-position sensitive detector system. The new spectrometer is optimized for reflectivity and diffuse magnetic scattering measurements with small incident angles on thin magnetic films with thicknesses in the nm range. The polarization analyzer covers the whole detector area, so that a range of 2.5 deg in the scattering angle can be measured simultaneously. The analyzer consists of a stack of supermirrors tilted against the scattering plane. In this reflection geometry, the momentum transfer resolution of the instrument is not reduced, but the sample height is limited to 17 mm. For the monochromator, polarizer and collimation different setups have been compared on the basis of Monte-Carlo calculations: a focusing elliptical supermirror monochromator, a cylindrical mirror, a focusing pyrolytic graphite double monochromator and a double monochromator with bent perfect Si crystals. (author)

  1. Electron nonelastic scattering by confined and interface polar optical phonons in a modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well

    CERN Document Server

    Pozela, K

    2001-01-01

    The calculations of electron scattering rates by polar optical (PO) phonons in an AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well (QW) with a different width and doping level are performed. The electron-PO-phonon scattering mechanisms which are responsible for the alternate dependence of electron mobility on a QW width, as well as for the decrease of conductivity in the QW with increasing electron concentration are determined. It is shown that the degeneration of electron gas decreases the electron scattering rate by PO-phonon emission and increases the scattering rate by phonon absorption. The competition between the decrease of the intrasubband scattering and the increase of the intersubband scattering by PO-phonon absorption is responsible for the alternate changes of the mobility with a QW width

  2. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  3. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  4. Polarization-insensitive all-optical dual pump-phase transmultiplexing from 2 x 10-GBd OOKs to 10-GBd RZ-QPSK using cross-phase modulation in a passive nonlinear birefringent photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tanvir

    Considering the network size, bit rate, spectral and channel capacity limitations, different modulation formats may be selectively used in future optical networks. Although the traditional metropolitan area networks (MANs) still uses the non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation format due to its technical simplicity and therefore low cost, QPSK format is more advantageous in spectrally efficient long-haul fiber optic transmission systems because of its constant power envelope, and robustness to various transmission impairments. Consequently, an important problem may arise, in particular how to route the OOK-data streams from MANs to long-haul backbone networks when the state of polarization (SOP) of the remotely generated OOK is unpredictable. Hence, the focus of this dissertation was to investigate a polarization insensitive (PI) all-optical nonlinear optical signal processing (NOSP) method that can be implemented at the network cross-connect (X-connect) to transfer data from a remotely and a locally generated OOK data simultaneously to more effectual QPSK format for long-haul transmission. By utilizing cross-phase modulation (XPM) and inherent birefringence of the device, the work demonstrated, for the first time, PI all-optical data transfer utilizing dual pump-phase transmultiplexing (DPTM) from 2 x 10-GBd OOKs to 10-GBd RZ-QPSK in a passive nonlinear birefringent photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Polarization insensitivity was achieved by scrambling the SOP of the remotely generated OOK pump and launching the locally generated OOK pump and the probe off-axis. To mitigate polarization induced power fluctuations and detrimental effects due to nearby partially degenerate and non-degenerate four wave mixings, an optimum pump-probe detuning was also utilized. The PI DPTM RZ-QPSK demonstrated a pre-amplified receiver sensitivity penalty < 5.5 dB at 10--9 bit-error-rate (BER), relative to relative to the FPGA-precoded RZ-DQPSK baseline in ASE

  5. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  6. Polarization-Dependent Quasi-Far-Field Superfocusing Strategy of Nanoring-Based Plasmonic Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Zhu, Yechuan; Gao, Bo; Wang, Ping; Yu, Yiting

    2017-12-01

    The two-dimensional superfocusing of nanoring-based plasmonic lenses (NRPLs) beyond the diffraction limit in the far-field region remains a great challenge at optical wavelengths. In this paper, in addition to the modulation of structural parameters, we investigated the polarization-dependent focusing performance of a NRPL employing the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. By utilizing the state of polarization (SOP) of incident light, we successfully realize the elliptical-, donut-, and circular-shape foci. The minimum full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) of these foci are ~0.32, ~0.34, and ~0.42 λ 0 in the total electric field, respectively, and the depth of focus (DOF) lies in 1.41~1.77 λ 0 . These sub-diffraction-limit foci are well controlled in the quasi-far-field region. The underlying physical mechanism on the focal shift and an effective way to control the focusing position are proposed. Furthermore, in the case of a high numerical aperture, the longitudinal component, which occupies over 80% of the electric-field energy, decides the focusing patterns of the foci. The achieved sub-diffraction-limit focusing can be widely used for many engineering applications, including the super-resolution imaging, particle acceleration, quantum optical information processing, and optical data storage.

  7. Transmembrane potential polarization, calcium influx, and receptor conformational state modulate the sensitivity of the imidacloprid-insensitive neuronal insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; List, Olivier; Calas-List, Delphine; Marques, Olivier; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Thany, Steeve H; Lapied, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent studies revealed that their efficiency was altered by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process and the intracellular signaling pathway involved in the regulation of nAChRs. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology adapted for dissociated cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, we demonstrated that intracellular factors involved in the regulation of nAChR function modulated neonicotinoid sensitivity. DUM neurons were known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR subtypes: nAChR1 and nAChR2. Whereas nAChR1 was sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 was insensitive to this insecticide. Here, we demonstrated that, like nicotine, acetamiprid and clothianidin, other types of neonicotinoid insecticides, acted as agonists on the nAChR2 subtype. Using acetamiprid, we revealed that both steady-state depolarization and hyperpolarization affected nAChR2 sensitivity. The measurement of the input membrane resistance indicated that change in the acetamiprid-induced agonist activity was related to the receptor conformational state. Using cadmium chloride, ω-conotoxin GVIA, and (R,S)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline-1-yl)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-acetamide (LOE 908), we found that inhibition of calcium influx through high voltage-activated calcium channels and transient receptor potential γ (TRPγ) activated by both depolarization and hyperpolarization increased nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Finally, using N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W7), forskolin, and cAMP, we demonstrated that adenylyl cyclase sensitive to the calcium/calmodulin complex regulated internal cAMP concentration, which in turn modulated TRPγ function and nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Similar TRPγ-induced modulatory effects were also obtained when clothianidin was tested. These findings bring insights into the signaling pathway modulating

  8. Electric field and substrate–induced modulation of spin-polarized transport in graphene nanoribbons on A3B5 semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyasov, Victor V.; Nguyen, Chuong V.; Ershov, Igor V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the density functional theory calculations of the effect of an oriented electric field on the electronic structure and spin-polarized transport in a one dimensional (1D) zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) channel placed on a wide bandgap semiconductor of the A3B5 type. Our calculations show that carrier mobility in the 1D semiconductor channel of the ZGNR/A3B5(0001) type is in the range from 1.7×10 4 to 30.5×10 4 cm 2 /Vs and can be controlled by an electric field. In particular, at the critical value of the positive potential, even though hole mobility in an one-dimensional 8-ZGNR/h-BN semiconductor channel for spin down electron subsystems is equal to zero, hole mobility can be increased to 4.1×10 5 cm 2 /Vs for spin up electron subsystems. We found that band gap and carrier mobility in a 1D semiconductor channel of the ZGNR/A3B5(0001) type depend strongly on an external electric field. With these extraordinary properties, ZGNR/A3B5(0001) can become a promising materials for application in nanospintronic devices

  9. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  10. Advanced topics in the arithmetic of elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    1994-01-01

    In the introduction to the first volume of The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves (Springer-Verlag, 1986), I observed that "the theory of elliptic curves is rich, varied, and amazingly vast," and as a consequence, "many important topics had to be omitted." I included a brief introduction to ten additional topics as an appendix to the first volume, with the tacit understanding that eventually there might be a second volume containing the details. You are now holding that second volume. it turned out that even those ten topics would not fit Unfortunately, into a single book, so I was forced to make some choices. The following material is covered in this book: I. Elliptic and modular functions for the full modular group. II. Elliptic curves with complex multiplication. III. Elliptic surfaces and specialization theorems. IV. Neron models, Kodaira-Neron classification of special fibers, Tate's algorithm, and Ogg's conductor-discriminant formula. V. Tate's theory of q-curves over p-adic fields. VI. Neron's theory of can...

  11. The two-loop sunrise integral and elliptic polylogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Luise; Weinzierl, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Bogner, Christian [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk, we present a solution for the two-loop sunrise integral with arbitrary masses around two and four space-time dimensions in terms of a generalised elliptic version of the multiple polylogarithms. Furthermore we investigate the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in higher orders in the dimensional regularisation ε of the two-dimensional equal mass solution. Around two space-time dimensions the solution consists of a sum of three elliptic dilogarithms where the arguments have a nice geometric interpretation as intersection points of the integration region and an elliptic curve associated to the sunrise integral. Around four space-time dimensions the sunrise integral can be expressed with the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solution around two dimensions, mass derivatives thereof and simpler terms. Considering higher orders of the two-dimensional equal mass solution we find certain generalisations of the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solutions around two and four space-time dimensions. We show that these higher order-solutions can be found by iterative integration within this class of functions.

  12. Elliptic flow from Coulomb interaction and low density elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuliang; Li, Qingfeng; Wang, Fuqiang

    2018-04-01

    In high energy heavy ion collisions and interacting cold atom systems, large elliptic flow anisotropies have been observed. For the large opacity (ρ σ L ˜103 ) of the latter hydrodynamics is a natural consequence, but for the small opacity (ρ σ L ˜1 ) of the former the hydrodynamic description is questionable. To shed light onto the situation, we simulate the expansion of a low density argon ion (or atom) system, initially trapped in an elliptical region, under the Coulomb interaction (or elastic scattering). Significant elliptic anisotropy is found in both cases, and the anisotropy depends on the initial spatial eccentricity and the density of the system. The results may provide insights into the physics of anisotropic flow in high energy heavy ion collisions and its role in the study of quantum chromodynamics.

  13. Iron abundance evolution in spiral and elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteucci, F.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical evolution models for the Galaxy and ellipticals, which take into account the most recent developments on theories of nucleosynthesis and supernova progenitors, are presented. The evolution of the abundance of iron in these systems, under the assumption that this element is mainly produced by type I SNe, originating from white dwarfs in binary systems, has been computed and the results have been compared with the observations. Overabundances of O, Si, Ne and Mg with respect to iron have been predicted for halo stars in their Galaxy. The existence of an Fe - total mass relation with a slope steeper than the corresponding relations for Mg and O has been predicted for ellipticals. The masses of Fe ejected by ellipticals of various masses into the intergalactic medium have also been computed in detail. The general agreement obtained between these theoretical models and the observations for galaxies of different morphological type supports the assumptions made about the origin of iron

  14. Dirac Particles Emission from An Elliptical Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuant Tiandho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the general theory of relativiy, a black hole is defined as a region of spacetime with super-strong gravitational effects and there is nothing can escape from it. So in the classical theory of relativity, it is safe to say that black hole is a "dead" thermodynamical object. However, by using quantum mechanics theory, Hawking has shown that a black hole may emit particles. In this paper, calculation of temperature of an elliptical black hole when emitting the Dirac particles was presented. By using the complexpath method, radiation can be described as emission process in the tunneling pictures. According to relationship between probability of outgoing particle with the spectrum of black body radiation for fermion particles, temperature of the elliptical black hole can be obtained and it depend on the azimuthal angle. This result also showed that condition on the surface of elliptical black hole is not in thermal equilibrium.

  15. Modern cryptography and elliptic curves a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Shemanske, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    This book offers the beginning undergraduate student some of the vista of modern mathematics by developing and presenting the tools needed to gain an understanding of the arithmetic of elliptic curves over finite fields and their applications to modern cryptography. This gradual introduction also makes a significant effort to teach students how to produce or discover a proof by presenting mathematics as an exploration, and at the same time, it provides the necessary mathematical underpinnings to investigate the practical and implementation side of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). Elements of abstract algebra, number theory, and affine and projective geometry are introduced and developed, and their interplay is exploited. Algebra and geometry combine to characterize congruent numbers via rational points on the unit circle, and group law for the set of points on an elliptic curve arises from geometric intuition provided by Bézout's theorem as well as the construction of projective space. The structure of the...

  16. Applications of elliptic Carleman inequalities to Cauchy and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Choulli, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a unified approach to studying the stability of both elliptic Cauchy problems and selected inverse problems. Based on elementary Carleman inequalities, it establishes three-ball inequalities, which are the key to deriving logarithmic stability estimates for elliptic Cauchy problems and are also useful in proving stability estimates for certain elliptic inverse problems. The book presents three inverse problems, the first of which consists in determining the surface impedance of an obstacle from the far field pattern. The second problem investigates the detection of corrosion by electric measurement, while the third concerns the determination of an attenuation coefficient from internal data, which is motivated by a problem encountered in biomedical imaging.

  17. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2007-06-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  18. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer: Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to detect the characteristic signature of gravity waves created during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. PIPER combines cold /I.G K\\ optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. I will discuss the current status and plans for the PIPER instrument.

  19. Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickols, W.; Tinoco, I.; Katz, J.E.; Maestre, M.F.; Bustamante, C.

    1985-01-01

    A differential polarization microscope forms two images: one of the transmitted intensity and the other due to the change in intensity between images formed when different polarizations of light are used. The interpretation of these images for linear dichroism and circular dichroism are described. The design constraints on the data acquisition systems and the polarization modulation are described. The advantage of imaging several biological systems which contain optically anisotropic structures are described

  20. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  2. Propagation of polarized light through azobenzene polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, L; Matharu, A; Nikolova, Ludmila

    2002-01-01

    When elliptically polarized light of appropriate wavelength Corresponding to trans-cis-trans isomerisation process is incident on thin films of azobenzene polyesters, a helical structure is induced. We investigate the propagation of the exciting light beam (self-induced) as well as a probe light...... beam outside the absorption band through the polyester films. Investigations are carried out in one amorphous and one liquid crystalline polyester. We show that amorphous polyester after irradiation behaves like classical helical material....

  3. Transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboya, S.M.; Saboya, F.E.M.

    1981-01-01

    In order to determine transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube exchangers, mass transfer experiments have been performed using the naphthalene sublimation technique. By means of the heat-mass transfer analogy, the results can be converted to heat transfer results. The transfer coefficients were compared with those for circular tube exchangers and the comparison revealed no major differences. This is a positive outcome, since the use of elliptical tubes may reduce substantially the pressure drop, without affecting the transfer characteristics.(Author) [pt

  4. Landau-Ginzburg Orbifolds, Mirror Symmetry and the Elliptic Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, P.; Henningson, M.

    1994-01-01

    We compute the elliptic genus for arbitrary two dimensional $N=2$ Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds. This is used to search for possible mirror pairs of such models. We show that if two Landau-Ginzburg models are conjugate to each other in a certain sense, then to every orbifold of the first theory corresponds an orbifold of the second theory with the same elliptic genus (up to a sign) and with the roles of the chiral and anti-chiral rings interchanged. These orbifolds thus constitute a possible mirr...

  5. FDM for Elliptic Equations with Bitsadze-Samarskii-Dirichlet Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method is proposed for solving nonlocal boundary value problem for the multidimensional elliptic partial differential equation with the Bitsadze-Samarskii-Dirichlet condition. The first and second-orders of accuracy stable difference schemes for the approximate solution of this nonlocal boundary value problem are presented. The stability estimates, coercivity, and almost coercivity inequalities for solution of these schemes are established. The theoretical statements for the solutions of these nonlocal elliptic problems are supported by results of numerical examples.

  6. Coexistence of a General Elliptic System in Population Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a strongly-coupled elliptic system representing a competitive interaction between two species. We give a sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions. An example is also given to show that there is a coexistence of a steady state if the cross-diffusion......This paper is concerned with a strongly-coupled elliptic system representing a competitive interaction between two species. We give a sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions. An example is also given to show that there is a coexistence of a steady state if the cross...

  7. UV Visibility of Moderate-Redshift Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Rhee

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We show quantitatively whether giant elliptical galaxies would be visible at far UV wavelengths if they were placed at moderate redshift of 0.4-0.5. On the basis of simple cosmological tests, we conclude that giant elliptical galaxies can be detectable upto the redshift of 0.4-0.5 in the proposed GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey. We also show that obtaining UV color index such as m_1550 - V from upcoming GALEX and SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations should be feasible.

  8. Plasma blob generation due to cooperative elliptic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, P; Xu, M; Müller, S H; Fedorczak, N; Thakur, S C; Yu, J H; Tynan, G R

    2011-11-04

    Using fast-camera measurements the generation mechanism of plasma blobs is investigated in the linear device CSDX. During the ejection of plasma blobs the plasma is dominated by an m=1 mode, which is a counterrotating vortex pair. These flows are known to be subject to the cooperative elliptic instability, which is characterized by a cooperative disturbance of the vortex cores and results in a three-dimensional breakdown of two-dimensional flows. The first experimental evidence of a cooperative elliptic instability preceding the blob-ejection is provided in terms of the qualitative evolution of the vortex geometries and internal wave patterns.

  9. Inflation of polymer melts into elliptic and circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Christensen, Jens Horslund; Gøttsche, Søren

    2000-01-01

    A thin sheet (membrane) of the polymeric material is clamped between a Teflon-coated thermostated plate and a thermostated aluminium cylinder. By applying thermostated air through the plate, the polymer membrane deforms into an elliptic or a circular cylinder. The position of the top of the infla......A thin sheet (membrane) of the polymeric material is clamped between a Teflon-coated thermostated plate and a thermostated aluminium cylinder. By applying thermostated air through the plate, the polymer membrane deforms into an elliptic or a circular cylinder. The position of the top...

  10. Large N elliptic genus and AdS/CFT Correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Jan de

    1998-01-01

    According to one of Maldacena's dualities, type IIB string theory on AdS 3 x S 3 x K3 is equivalent to a certain N = (4, 4) superconformal field theory. In this note we compute the elliptic genus of the boundary theory in the supergravity approximation. A finite quantity is obtained once we introduce a particular exclusion principle. In the regime where the supergravity approximation is reliable, we find exact agreement with the elliptic genus of a sigma model with target space K3 N /S N

  11. Hörmander spaces, interpolation, and elliptic problems

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailets, Vladimir A; Malyshev, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    The monograph gives a detailed exposition of the theory of general elliptic operators (scalar and matrix) and elliptic boundary value problems in Hilbert scales of Hörmander function spaces. This theory was constructed by the authors in a number of papers published in 2005-2009. It is distinguished by a systematic use of the method of interpolation with a functional parameter of abstract Hilbert spaces and Sobolev inner product spaces. This method, the theory and their applications are expounded for the first time in the monographic literature. The monograph is written in detail and in a

  12. Elliptic interpretation of black holes and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The lectures as delivered contained an elementary introduction to the classical theory of black holes together with an account of Hawking's original derivation of the thermal emission from black holes in the quantum theory. Also described here is what is here called the elliptic interpretation partly because of its possible relevance to the lectures of Professor 't Hooft. A rather more detailed account of the elliptic interpretation is given and the reader is referred to the original literature for the elementary material. 22 references

  13. Elliptic Genera of Symmetric Products and Second Quantized Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    In this note we prove an identity that equates the elliptic genus partition function of a supersymmetric sigma model on the $N$-fold symmetric product $M^N/S_N$ of a manifold $M$ to the partition function of a second quantized string theory on the space $M \\times S^1$. The generating function of these elliptic genera is shown to be (almost) an automorphic form for $O(3,2,\\Z)$. In the context of D-brane dynamics, this result gives a precise computation of the free energy of a gas of D-strings inside a higher-dimensional brane.

  14. Event-by-Event Elliptic Flow Fluctuations from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosiek, B.; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2009-04-01

    Recently PHOBOS has focused on the study of fluctuations and correlations in particle production in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies delivered by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this report, we present results on event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations in (Au+Au) collisions at sqrt {sNN}=200 GeV. A data-driven method was used to estimate the dominant contribution from non-flow correlations. Over the broad range of collision centralities, the observed large elliptic flow fluctuations are in agreement with the fluctuations in the initial source eccentricity.

  15. Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Carla M.; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ngyuen, M.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2005-04-01

    Elliptic flow is an interesting probe of the dynamical evolution of the dense system formed in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). The elliptic flow dependences on transverse momentum, centrality and pseudorapidity were measured using data collected by the PHOBOS detector, which offers a unique opportunity to study the azimuthal anisotropies of charged particles over a wide range of pseudorapidity. These measurements are presented, together with an overview of the analysis methods and a discussion of the results.

  16. Angular ellipticity correlations in a composite alignment model for elliptical and spiral galaxies and inference from weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugendhat, Tim M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2018-05-01

    We investigate a physical, composite alignment model for both spiral and elliptical galaxies and its impact on cosmological parameter estimation from weak lensing for a tomographic survey. Ellipticity correlation functions and angular ellipticity spectra for spiral and elliptical galaxies are derived on the basis of tidal interactions with the cosmic large-scale structure and compared to the tomographic weak-lensing signal. We find that elliptical galaxies cause a contribution to the weak-lensing dominated ellipticity correlation on intermediate angular scales between ℓ ≃ 40 and ℓ ≃ 400 before that of spiral galaxies dominates on higher multipoles. The predominant term on intermediate scales is the negative cross-correlation between intrinsic alignments and weak gravitational lensing (GI-alignment). We simulate parameter inference from weak gravitational lensing with intrinsic alignments unaccounted; the bias induced by ignoring intrinsic alignments in a survey like Euclid is shown to be several times larger than the statistical error and can lead to faulty conclusions when comparing to other observations. The biases generally point into different directions in parameter space, such that in some cases one can observe a partial cancellation effect. Furthermore, it is shown that the biases increase with the number of tomographic bins used for the parameter estimation process. We quantify this parameter estimation bias in units of the statistical error and compute the loss of Bayesian evidence for a model due to the presence of systematic errors as well as the Kullback-Leibler divergence to quantify the distance between the true model and the wrongly inferred one.

  17. The Closest Point Method and Multigrid Solvers for Elliptic Equations on Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yujia; Macdonald, Colin B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Elliptic partial differential equations are important from both application and analysis points of view. In this paper we apply the closest point method to solve elliptic equations on general

  18. Efficient method for finding square roots for elliptic curves over OEF

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Elliptic curve cryptosystems like others public key encryption schemes, require computing a square roots modulo a prime number. The arithmetic operations in elliptic curve schemes over Optimal Extension Fields (OEF) can be efficiently computed...

  19. Design of an elliptical solenoid magnet for transverse beam matching to the spiral inflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present the design study of an elliptical solenoid magnet to be used for transverse beam matching at the input of a spiral inflector for efficient transmission. We have studied the dependence of axial field and gradients in the transverse directions of the elliptical solenoid magnet with ellipticity of the aperture. Using the beam envelope equations we have studied the feasibility of using an elliptical solenoid for transverse beam matching to the acceptance of a spiral inflector. (author)

  20. Wave-vector and polarization dependence of conical refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, A; Loiko, Yu V; Kalkandjiev, T K; Tomizawa, H; Mompart, J

    2013-02-25

    We experimentally address the wave-vector and polarization dependence of the internal conical refraction phenomenon by demonstrating that an input light beam of elliptical transverse profile refracts into two beams after passing along one of the optic axes of a biaxial crystal, i.e. it exhibits double refraction instead of refracting conically. Such double refraction is investigated by the independent rotation of a linear polarizer and a cylindrical lens. Expressions to describe the position and the intensity pattern of the refracted beams are presented and applied to predict the intensity pattern for an axicon beam propagating along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal.

  1. Optimization of elliptic neutron guides for triple-axis spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoschek, M.; Boeni, P.; Braden, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the performance of neutron guides for the transport of neutrons has been significantly increased. The most recent developments have shown that elliptic guide systems can be used to focus neutron beams while simultaneously reducing the number of neutron reflections, hence, leading to considerable gains in neutron flux. We have carried out Monte-Carlo simulations for a new triple-axis spectrometer that will be built at the end position of the conventional cold guide NL-1 in the neutron guide hall of the research reactor FRM-II in Munich, Germany. Our results demonstrate that an elliptic guide section at the end of a conventional guide can be used to at least maintain the total neutron flux onto the sample, while significantly improving the energy resolution of the spectrometer. The simulation further allows detailed insight how the defining parameters of an elliptic guide have to be chosen to obtain optimum results. Finally, we show that the elliptic guide limits losses in the neutron flux that generally arise at the gaps, where the monochromator system of the upstream instrument is situated.

  2. The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.

    2014-01-01

    The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r b , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.

  3. Monotone difference schemes for weakly coupled elliptic and parabolic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Matus (Piotr); F.J. Gaspar Lorenz (Franscisco); L. M. Hieu (Le Minh); V.T.K. Tuyen (Vo Thi Kim)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe present paper is devoted to the development of the theory of monotone difference schemes, approximating the so-called weakly coupled system of linear elliptic and quasilinear parabolic equations. Similarly to the scalar case, the canonical form of the vector-difference schemes is

  4. Global weighted estimates for second-order nondivergence elliptic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fengping Yao

    2018-03-21

    Mar 21, 2018 ... One of the key a priori estimates in the theory of second-order elliptic .... It is well known that the maximal functions satisfy strong p–p .... Here we prove the following auxiliary result, which will be a crucial ingredient in the proof.

  5. Acoustic scattering by multiple elliptical cylinders using collocation multipole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the collocation multipole method for the acoustic scattering induced by multiple elliptical cylinders subjected to an incident plane sound wave. To satisfy the Helmholtz equation in the elliptical coordinate system, the scattered acoustic field is formulated in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions which also satisfy the radiation condition at infinity. The sound-soft or sound-hard boundary condition is satisfied by uniformly collocating points on the boundaries. For the sound-hard or Neumann conditions, the normal derivative of the acoustic pressure is determined by using the appropriate directional derivative without requiring the addition theorem of Mathieu functions. By truncating the multipole expansion, a finite linear algebraic system is derived and the scattered field can then be determined according to the given incident acoustic wave. Once the total field is calculated as the sum of the incident field and the scattered field, the near field acoustic pressure along the scatterers and the far field scattering pattern can be determined. For the acoustic scattering of one elliptical cylinder, the proposed results match well with the analytical solutions. The proposed scattered fields induced by two and three elliptical–cylindrical scatterers are critically compared with those provided by the boundary element method to validate the present method. Finally, the effects of the convexity of an elliptical scatterer, the separation between scatterers and the incident wave number and angle on the acoustic scattering are investigated.

  6. Dynamic stress intensity factors for a longitudinal semi-elliptical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elliptical crack in a thick-walled cylinder subjected to transient dynamic stresses. First, the problem of dynamic elasticity in a thick-walled cylinder is solved analytically using the finite Hankel transform. Transient pressure is assumed to act on ...

  7. Eliminating line of sight in elliptic guides using gravitational curving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klenø, Kaspar H.; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    result in a breakdown of the geometrical focusing mechanism inherent to the elliptical shape, resulting in unwanted reflections and loss of transmission. We present a new and yet untried idea by curving a guide in such a way as to follow the ballistic curve of a neutron in the gravitational field, while...

  8. Refined functional relations for the elliptic SOS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galleas, W., E-mail: w.galleas@uu.nl [ARC Centre of Excellence for the Mathematics and Statistics of Complex Systems, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2013-02-21

    In this work we refine the method presented in Galleas (2012) [1] and obtain a novel kind of functional equation determining the partition function of the elliptic SOS model with domain wall boundaries. This functional relation arises from the dynamical Yang-Baxter relation and its solution is given in terms of multiple contour integrals.

  9. Influence of Some Variable Parameters on Horizontal Elliptic Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the laminar flow and heat transfer characteristics in elliptic micro-channels of varying axis ratios and with internal longitudinal fins, operating in a region that is hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed; purposely to determine the effects of some salient fluid and geometry parameters such as ...

  10. Recombination plus fragmentation model at RHIC: elliptic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, C [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Fries, R J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Mueller, B [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bass, S A [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Asakawa, M [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    We discuss hadron production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the framework of the recombination and fragmentation model. We propose elliptic flow as a useful tool for exploring final interactions of resonances, the hadron structure of exotic particles and the phase structure of the reaction.

  11. Tearing mode stability of tokamak plasmas with elliptical cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Lynch, V.E.

    1981-02-01

    The effect of the ellipticity of the plasma cross section on tearing mode stability is investigated. The induced coupling between modes is shown to be destabilizing; however, the modification of the equilibrium tends to stabilize the tearing modes. The net effect depends on the manner in which the equilibrium is modified as the plasma cross-section shape is changed

  12. The shortage of long-period comets in elliptical orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everhart, E.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the number of 'new' comets seen on near-parabolic orbits, one can predict the number of comets that should be found on definitely elliptical orbits on their subsequent returns. The author shows that about three out of four of these returning comets are not observed. (Auth.)

  13. On nonlocal semi linear elliptic problem with an indefinite term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yechoui, Akila

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the existence of solutions of a nonlocal semi linear elliptic equation with an indefinite term. The monotone method, the method of upper and lower solutions and the classical maximum principle are used to obtain our results. (author)

  14. Existence of positive solutions to semilinear elliptic problems with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    In mathematical modeling, elliptic partial differential equations are used together with boundary conditions specifying the .... Note that the trace map X ↩→ Lq(∂Ω) is compact for q ∈ [1, 2∗) (see, e.g., [4, ..... [2] Ambrosetti A and Rabinowitz P H, Dual variational methods in critical point theory and applications, J. Functional ...

  15. Flexible hardware design for RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batina, L.; Bruin - Muurling, G.; Örs, S.B.; Okamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable hardware implementation of both commonly used public key cryptosystems, RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC) on the same platform. The introduced hardware accelerator features a design which can be varied from very small (less than 20 Kgates) targeting wireless

  16. Diffraction and Dirchlet problem for parameter-elliptic convolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we evaluate the difference between the inverse operators of a Dirichlet problem and of a diffraction problem for parameter-elliptic convolution operators with constant symbols. We prove that the inverse operator of a Dirichlet problem can be obtained as a limit case of such a diffraction problem. Quaestiones ...

  17. Fast elliptic-curve cryptography on the Cell Broadband Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costigan, N.; Schwabe, P.; Preneel, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the first to investigate the power of the Cell Broadband Engine for state-of-the-art public-key cryptography. We present a high-speed implementation of elliptic-curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange for this processor, which needs 697080 cycles on one Synergistic Processor Unit for

  18. Nonconforming h-p spectral element methods for elliptic problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In [6,7,13,14] h-p spectral element methods for solving elliptic boundary value problems on polygonal ... Let M denote the number of corner layers and W denote the number of degrees of .... β is given by Theorem 2.2 of [3] which can be stated.

  19. hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elliptic boundary value problems on non-smooth domains in R3. For Dirichlet problems, ... of variable degree bounded by W. Let N denote the number of layers in the geomet- ric mesh ... We prove a stability theorem for mixed problems when the spectral element functions vanish ..... Applying Theorem 3.1,. ∫ r l. |Mu|2dx −.

  20. Implementing parallel elliptic solver on a Beowulf cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Paprzycki

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper cite{zara} a parallel direct solver for the linear systems arising from elliptic partial differential equations has been proposed. The aim of this note is to present the initial evaluation of the performance characteristics of this algorithm on Beowulf-type cluster. In this context the performance of PVM and MPI based implementations is compared.

  1. Radial solutions to semilinear elliptic equations via linearized operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Let $u$ be a classical solution of semilinear elliptic equations in a ball or an annulus in $\\mathbb{R}^N$ with zero Dirichlet boundary condition where the nonlinearity has a convex first derivative. In this note, we prove that if the $N$-th eigenvalue of the linearized operator at $u$ is positive, then $u$ must be radially symmetric.

  2. Nonlinear anisotropic elliptic equations with variable exponents and degenerate coercivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocine Ayadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence and the regularity of distributional solutions for a class of nonlinear anisotropic elliptic equations with $p_i(x$ growth conditions, degenerate coercivity and $L^{m(\\cdot}$ data, with $m(\\cdot$ being small, in appropriate Lebesgue-Sobolev spaces with variable exponents. The obtained results extend some existing ones [8,10].

  3. The use of MACSYMA for solving elliptic boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll, Peter; Gilbert, Robert P.

    1990-01-01

    A boundary method is presented for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems. An approach based on the use of complete systems of solutions is emphasized. The discussion is limited to the Dirichlet problem, even though the present method can possibly be adapted to treat other boundary value problems.

  4. An elliptic analogue of the Franklin-Schneider theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A.

    1980-01-01

    Let p be a Weierstrass elliptic function with algebraic invariants g2 and g3. Let a and b be complex numbers such that a and b are not among the poles of p. A lower bound is given for the simultaneous approximation of p(a), b and p(ab) by algebraic numbers, expressed in their heights and degrees. By

  5. Transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboya, S.M.

    1979-09-01

    Mean transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers were determined by application of heat and mass transfer analogy in conjunction with the naphthalene sublimation technique. The transfer coefficients are presented in a dimensionless form as functions of the Reynolds number. By using the least squares method analytical expressions for the transfer coefficients were determined with low scattering. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Refined functional relations for the elliptic SOS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galleas, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we refine the method presented in Galleas (2012) [1] and obtain a novel kind of functional equation determining the partition function of the elliptic SOS model with domain wall boundaries. This functional relation arises from the dynamical Yang–Baxter relation and its solution is given in terms of multiple contour integrals.

  7. Elliptic hypergeometric integrals and 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, V.P.; Vartanov, G.S.

    2012-03-01

    Elliptic hypergeometric integrals describe superconformal indices of 4d supersymmetric field theories. We show that all 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for Seiberg dual theories can be derived from SL(3, Z)-modular transformation properties of the kernels of dual indices.

  8. Multiple solutions for inhomogeneous nonlinear elliptic problems arising in astrophyiscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calahorrano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Using variational methods we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions for some nonlinear inhomogeneous elliptic problems on a bounded domain in $mathbb{R}^n$, with $ngeq 2$ and a smooth boundary, and when the domain is $mathbb{R}_+^n$

  9. A Primer on Elliptic Functions with Applications in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizard, Alain J.

    2009-01-01

    The Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic functions used to be part of the standard mathematical arsenal of physics students. They appear as solutions of many important problems in classical mechanics: the motion of a planar pendulum (Jacobi), the motion of a force-free asymmetric top (Jacobi), the motion of a spherical pendulum (Weierstrass) and the…

  10. On the elliptic flow for nearly symmetric collisions and nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    10Ne20+13Al27, 18Ar40+21Sc45, 30Zn64+28Ni58, 36Kr86+41Nb93) using the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model. General features of elliptic flow are investigated with the help of theoretical simulations. The simulations are ...

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid attenuates the inflammatory response by modulating microglia polarization through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway following experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangrong; Chen, Chunnuan; Fan, Sining; Wu, Shukai; Yang, Fuxing; Fang, Zhongning; Fu, Huangde; Li, Yasong

    2018-04-20

    development of the neuroinflammatory response after TBI. The results of our study showed that ω-3 PUFA supplementation promoted a shift from the M1 microglial phenotype to the M2 microglial phenotype and inhibited microglial activation, thus reducing TBI-induced inflammatory factors. In addition, ω-3 PUFA-mediated downregulation of HMGB1 acetylation and its extracellular secretion was found to be likely due to increased SIRT1 activity. We also found that treatment with ω-3 PUFA inhibited HMGB1 acetylation and induced direct interactions between SIRT1 and HMGB1 by elevating SIRT1 activity following TBI. These events lead to inhibition of HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation/extracellular secretion and alleviated HMGB1-mediated activation of the NF-κB pathway following TBI-induced microglial activation, thus inhibiting the subsequent inflammatory response. The results of this study suggest that ω-3 PUFA supplementation attenuates the inflammatory response by modulating microglial polarization through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway, leading to neuroprotective effects following experimental traumatic brain injury.

  12. Reduction of coating induced polarization aberrations by controlling the polarization state variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanghui; Shen, Weidong; Zheng, Zhenrong; Zhang, Yueguang; Liu, Xu; Hao, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of coating induced polarization state variation is analysed by the Jones matrix. Pauli spin matrices are used to establish the relationship between coating induced polarization state variation and polarization aberrations. To reduce coating induced polarization aberrations, we propose that δ = 0 and T s = T p at arbitrary incident angle should be appended as two additional optimization goals of optical coating design when the requirements of transmittance are met. Two typical anti-reflection (AR) coatings are designed and the polarization state variation induced by them is simulated. The MTF (modulation transfer function) calculated by polarization ray tracing is applied to evaluate the polarization aberrations of the practical lithography objective system with the two AR coatings. All the obtained results show that the coating induced polarization aberrations can be reduced by optimizing the angle dependent properties of the optical coating without additional optical elements

  13. Stellar populations as a function of radius in giant elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Valentijn, Edwin A.

    Accurate surface photometry has been obtained in J and K for 12 giant elliptical galaxies. Ellipses have been fitted, to obtain luminosity, ellipticity, and major axis position angle profiles. The results have been combined with visual profiles from CCD observations. It is found that elliptical

  14. Structure and stellar content of dwarf elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, N.

    1983-01-01

    A small number of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster and around other prominent galaxies have been studied using photoelectric and photographic techniques. The color-magnitude relation for ellipticals now extends from M/sub v/ = -23 to -15, and is linear over that range with a slope of 0.10 in U-V per visual magnitude. Galaxies which are known to contain a large number of young stars (''extreme cases'') are from 0.10 to 0.20 mag bluer in U-V than the lower envelope of the dwarf elliptical color-magnitude relation. This difference can be accounted for if the dwarf elliptical galaxies are young, but do not contain the massive blue stars that probably exist in the young populations of the extreme cases. Surface brightness profiles of the dwarfs have revealed some interesting distinctions between themselves and the brighter E's. In general, their intensity profiles are shallower than those of the bright E's, meaning they are of lower mean density. These mean densities are also a function of the total luminosity. Unlike the bright E's, the surface brightnesses near the centers are also a strong function of the total luminosity. The presence of a nucleation, which can be as much as 2 mag brighter than what the outer envelope would predict, does not appear to depend on any other measurable property of the galaxies. The variation in surface brightness profiles at the same total luminosity is suggestive that the low-luminosity dwarfs formed in more than one way. The flattening distribution of the dwarfs is like that of the bright ellipticals, and is also similar to the flattening distribution of field irregular galaxies

  15. Compact Elliptically Tapered Slot Antenna with Non-uniform Corrugations for Ultra-wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A small size elliptically tapered slot antenna (ETSA fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is proposed. It is printed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a size of 37×34×0.8 mm^3. A pair of quarter circular shapes is etched on the radiator to reduce the size. To overcome the limitation of uniform corrugation, non-uniform corrugation is utilized to reduce the cross-polarization level. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of circular cut and corrugations. In order to validate the design, a prototype is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results confirm that the proposed antenna achieves a good performance of a reflection coefficient below -10 dB from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, including a maximum antenna gain of 8.1dBi, directional patterns in the end-fire direction, low cross-polarization level below -20 dB and linear phase response. The antenna is promising for applications in UWB impulse radar imaging.

  16. Applications of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1993-01-01

    The additional spin degree of freedom of the neutron can be made use of in neutron scattering work in two fundamental ways: (a) directly for the identification of magnetic scattering effects and (b) indirectly as a spectroscopic tool for modulating and analysing beams. Although strong magnetic scattering contributions can often be studied by unpolarized neutrons, a fully unambiguous separation of nuclear and magnetic phenomena can only be achieved by the additional information provided by polarized neutrons, especially if one of the two kinds of contributions is weak compared to the other. In the most general case a sample with both magnetic and nuclear features can be characterized by as many as 16 independent dynamic correlation functions instead of the single well known S(q, ω) for non-magnetic nuclear scattering only. Polarization analysis in principle allows one to determine all these 16 functions. The indirect applications of polarized neutrons are also steadily gaining importance. The most widely used method of this kind, the application of Larmor precessions for high resolution energy analysis in Neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy opened up a whole new domain in inelastic neutron scattering which was not accessible to any other spectroscopic method with or without neutrons before. (author)

  17. Circularly polarized light to study linear magneto-optics for ferrofluids: θ-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshen; Huang, Yan; He, Zhenghong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Decai; Li, Jian; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Circularly polarized light can be divided into two vertically linearly polarized light beams with  ±π/2 phase differences. In the presence of an external magnetic field, when circularly polarized light travels through a ferrofluid film, whose thickness is no more than that of λ/4 plate, magneto-optical, magnetic birefringence and dichroism effects cause the transmitted light to behave as elliptically polarized light. Using angular scan by a continuously rotating polarizer as analyzer, the angular (θ) distribution curve of relative intensity (T) corresponding to elliptically polarized light can be measured. From the T  ‑  θ curve having ellipsometry, the parameters such as the ratio of short to long axis, and angular orientation of the long axis to the vertical field direction can be obtained. Thus, magnetic birefringence and dichroism can be probed simultaneously by measuring magneto-optical, positive or negative birefringence and dichroism features from the transmission mode. The proposed method is called θ-scan technique, and can accurately determine sample stability, magnetic field direction, and cancel intrinsic light source ellipticity. This study may be helpful to further research done to ferrofluids and other similar colloidal samples with anisotropic optics.

  18. Elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules within the strong-field approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    A correction term is introduced in the stationary-point analysis on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules. Arising from a multi-centre expansion of the electron wave function, this term brings our numerical calculations of the Lewenstein model into qualitative agreement...

  19. Terahertz polarization converter based on all-dielectric high birefringence metamaterial with elliptical air holes

    KAUST Repository

    Zi, Jianchen; Xu, Quan; Wang, Qiu; Tian, Chunxiu; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2018-01-01

    metamaterial can remain flat and is above 0.7 within a broad band. Moreover, the metamaterial can be designed as a broadband quarter wave plate. A sample metamaterial was fabricated and tested to prove the validity of the simulations, and the sample could work

  20. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  1. Structure and Formation of Elliptical and Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Fisher, David B.; Cornell, Mark E.; Bender, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    New surface photometry of all known elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster is combined with published data to derive composite profiles of brightness, ellipticity, position angle, isophote shape, and color over large radius ranges. These provide enough leverage to show that Sérsic log I vprop r 1/n functions fit the brightness profiles I(r) of nearly all ellipticals remarkably well over large dynamic ranges. Therefore, we can confidently identify departures from these profiles that are diagnostic of galaxy formation. Two kinds of departures are seen at small radii. All 10 of our ellipticals with total absolute magnitudes MVT 4 uncorrelated with MVT . They also are α-element enhanced, implying short star-formation timescales. And their stellar populations have a variety of ages but mostly are very old. Extra light ellipticals generally rotate rapidly, are more isotropic than core Es, and have disky isophotes. We show that they have n sime 3 ± 1 almost uncorrelated with MVT and younger and less α-enhanced stellar populations. These are new clues to galaxy formation. We suggest that extra light ellipticals got their low Sérsic indices by forming in relatively few binary mergers, whereas giant ellipticals have n > 4 because they formed in larger numbers of mergers of more galaxies at once plus later heating during hierarchical clustering. We confirm that core Es contain X-ray-emitting gas whereas extra light Es generally do not. This leads us to suggest why the E-E dichotomy arose. If energy feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) requires a "working surface" of hot gas, then this is present in core galaxies but absent in extra light galaxies. We suggest that AGN energy feedback is a strong function of galaxy mass: it is weak enough in small Es not to prevent merger starbursts but strong enough in giant Es and their progenitors to make dry mergers dry and to protect old stellar populations from late star formation. Finally, we verify that there is a strong

  2. Vector model for polarized second-harmonic generation microscopy under high numerical aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiang-Hui; Chang, Sheng-Jiang; Lin, Lie; Wang, Lin-Rui; Huo, Bing-Zhong; Hao, Shu-Jian

    2010-01-01

    Based on the vector diffraction theory and the generalized Jones matrix formalism, a vector model for polarized second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is developed, which includes the roles of the axial component P z , the weight factor and the cross-effect between the lateral components. The numerical results show that as the relative magnitude of P z increases, the polarization response of the second-harmonic signal will vary from linear polarization to elliptical polarization and the polarization orientation of the second-harmonic signal is different from that under the paraxial approximation. In addition, it is interesting that the polarization response of the detected second-harmonic signal can change with the value of the collimator lens NA. Therefore, it is more advantageous to adopt the vector model to investigate the property of polarized SHG microscopy for a variety of cases

  3. The Convergence Problems of Eigenfunction Expansions of Elliptic Differential Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Anvarjon

    2018-03-01

    In the present research we investigate the problems concerning the almost everywhere convergence of multiple Fourier series summed over the elliptic levels in the classes of Liouville. The sufficient conditions for the almost everywhere convergence problems, which are most difficult problems in Harmonic analysis, are obtained. The methods of approximation by multiple Fourier series summed over elliptic curves are applied to obtain suitable estimations for the maximal operator of the spectral decompositions. Obtaining of such estimations involves very complicated calculations which depends on the functional structure of the classes of functions. The main idea on the proving the almost everywhere convergence of the eigenfunction expansions in the interpolation spaces is estimation of the maximal operator of the partial sums in the boundary classes and application of the interpolation Theorem of the family of linear operators. In the present work the maximal operator of the elliptic partial sums are estimated in the interpolation classes of Liouville and the almost everywhere convergence of the multiple Fourier series by elliptic summation methods are established. The considering multiple Fourier series as an eigenfunction expansions of the differential operators helps to translate the functional properties (for example smoothness) of the Liouville classes into Fourier coefficients of the functions which being expanded into such expansions. The sufficient conditions for convergence of the multiple Fourier series of functions from Liouville classes are obtained in terms of the smoothness and dimensions. Such results are highly effective in solving the boundary problems with periodic boundary conditions occurring in the spectral theory of differential operators. The investigations of multiple Fourier series in modern methods of harmonic analysis incorporates the wide use of methods from functional analysis, mathematical physics, modern operator theory and spectral

  4. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Random source generating far field with elliptical flat-topped beam profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yongtao; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-01-01

    Circular and rectangular multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) sources which generate far fields with circular and rectangular flat-topped beam profiles were introduced just recently (Sahin and Korotkova 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 2970; Korotkova 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 64). In this paper, a random source named an elliptical MGSM source is introduced. An analytical expression for the propagation factor of an elliptical MGSM beam is derived. Furthermore, an analytical propagation formula for an elliptical MGSM beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived, and its propagation properties in free space are studied. It is interesting to find that an elliptical MGSM source generates a far field with an elliptical flat-topped beam profile, being qualitatively different from that of circular and rectangular MGSM sources. The ellipticity and the flatness of the elliptical flat-topped beam profile in the far field are determined by the initial coherence widths and the beam index, respectively. (paper)

  6. Influences of magma chamber ellipticity on ring fracturing and eruption at collapse calderas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holohan, Eoghan P; Walsh, John J; Vries, Benjamin van Wyk de; Troll, Valentin R; Walter, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Plan-view ellipticity of a pre-caldera magma reservoir, and its influence on the development of caldera ring fracturing and eruptive behaviour, have not previously been subjected to dedicated evaluation. We experimentally simulated caldera collapse into elliptical magma chambers and found that collapse into highly-elliptical chambers produced a characteristic pattern of ring-fault localization and lateral propagation. Although results are preliminary, the general deformation pattern for elliptical resurgence shows strong similarities to elliptical collapse. Ring faults accommodating uplift again initiate around the chamberos short axis and are reverse, but dip inward. Field and geophysical observations at several elliptical calderas of varying scale (e.g. Long Valley, Katmai, and Rabaul calderas) are consistent with a control from elliptical magma chamber geometry on ring fracturing and eruption, as predicted from our experiments.

  7. Influences of magma chamber ellipticity on ring fracturing and eruption at collapse calderas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holohan, Eoghan P; Walsh, John J [Fault Analysis Group, School of Geological Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vries, Benjamin van Wyk de [Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, 5 rue Kessler, 63038 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Troll, Valentin R [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-752 36, Uppsala (Sweden); Walter, Thomas R [GFZ Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, D-14473 (Germany)], E-mail: Eoghan.Holohan@ucd.ie

    2008-10-01

    Plan-view ellipticity of a pre-caldera magma reservoir, and its influence on the development of caldera ring fracturing and eruptive behaviour, have not previously been subjected to dedicated evaluation. We experimentally simulated caldera collapse into elliptical magma chambers and found that collapse into highly-elliptical chambers produced a characteristic pattern of ring-fault localization and lateral propagation. Although results are preliminary, the general deformation pattern for elliptical resurgence shows strong similarities to elliptical collapse. Ring faults accommodating uplift again initiate around the chamberos short axis and are reverse, but dip inward. Field and geophysical observations at several elliptical calderas of varying scale (e.g. Long Valley, Katmai, and Rabaul calderas) are consistent with a control from elliptical magma chamber geometry on ring fracturing and eruption, as predicted from our experiments.

  8. Study of the Polarization Strategy for Electron Cyclotron Heating Systems on HL-2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Huang, M.; Xia, D. H.; Song, S. D.; Wang, J. Q.; Huang, B.; Wang, H.

    2016-06-01

    As important components integrated in transmission lines of electron cyclotron heating systems, polarizers are mainly used to obtain the desired polarization for highly efficient coupling between electron cyclotron waves and plasma. The polarization strategy for 105-GHz electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak is studied in this paper. Considering the polarizers need high efficiency, stability, and low loss to realize any polarization states, two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers, which include a linear polarizer and an elliptical polarizer, are designed with the coordinate transformation method. The parameters, the period p and the depth d, of two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers are optimized by a phase difference analysis method to achieve an almost arbitrary polarization. Finally, the optimized polarizers are manufactured and their polarization characteristics are tested with a low-power test platform. The experimental results agree well with the numerical calculations, indicating that the designed polarizers can meet the polarization requirements of the electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak.

  9. Voltage linearity modulation and polarity dependent conduction in metal-insulator-metal capacitors with atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nano-stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Wei, Lei; Zhang, David Wei; Jiang, Anquan; Ding, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjding@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-07-07

    Excellent voltage linearity of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors is highly required for next generation radio frequency integration circuits. In this work, employing atomic layer deposition technique, we demonstrated how the voltage linearity of MIM capacitors was modulated by adding different thickness of SiO{sub 2} layer to the nano-stack of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}. It was found that the quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance (α) can be effectively reduced from 1279 to −75 ppm/V{sup 2} with increasing the thickness of SiO{sub 2} from zero to 4 nm, which is more powerful than increasing the thickness of ZrO{sub 2} in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} stack. This is attributed to counteraction between the positive α for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} and the negative one for SiO{sub 2} in the MIM capacitors with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stacks. Interestingly, voltage-polarity dependent conduction behaviors in the MIM capacitors were observed. For electron bottom-injection, the addition of SiO{sub 2} obviously suppressed the leakage current; however, it abnormally increased the leakage current for electron top-injection. These are ascribed to the co-existence of shallow and deep traps in ZrO{sub 2}, and the former is in favor of the field-assisted tunnelling conduction and the latter contributes to the trap-assisted tunnelling process. The above findings will be beneficial to device design and process optimization for high performance MIM capacitors.

  10. M-strings, Elliptic Genera and N=4 String Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Hohenegger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We study mass-deformed N=2 gauge theories from various points of view. Their partition functions can be computed via three dual approaches: firstly, (p,q)-brane webs in type II string theory using Nekrasov's instanton calculus, secondly, the (refined) topological string using the topological vertex formalism and thirdly, M theory via the elliptic genus of certain M-strings configurations. We argue for a large class of theories that these approaches yield the same gauge theory partition function which we study in detail. To make their modular properties more tangible, we consider a fourth approach by connecting the partition function to the equivariant elliptic genus of R^4 through a (singular) theta-transform. This form appears naturally as a specific class of one-loop scattering amplitudes in type II string theory on T^2, which we calculate explicitly.

  11. Seiberg-Witten curves and double-elliptic integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminov, G.; Braden, H.W.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Zotov, A.

    2015-01-01

    An old conjecture claims that commuting Hamiltonians of the double-elliptic integrable system are constructed from the theta-functions associated with Riemann surfaces from the Seiberg-Witten family, with moduli treated as dynamical variables and the Seiberg-Witten differential providing the pre-symplectic structure. We describe a number of theta-constant equations needed to prove this conjecture for the N-particle system. These equations provide an alternative method to derive the Seiberg-Witten prepotential and we illustrate this by calculating the perturbative contribution. We provide evidence that the solutions to the commutativity equations are exhausted by the double-elliptic system and its degenerations (Calogero and Ruijsenaars systems). Further, the theta-function identities that lie behind the Poisson commutativity of the three-particle Hamiltonians are proven.

  12. Dynamic separation of nanomagnet sublattices by orientation of elliptical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, Y.; Berk, C. R.; Harteneck, B. D.; Cabrini, S. D.; Schmidt, H.

    2014-04-01

    We report the separation of the magnetization dynamics of densely packed nanomagnets depending on their orientation. The arrays consist of interleaved sublattices of identical nickel elliptical disks. By controlling the orientation of the elliptic disks relative to the external field in each sublattice, we simultaneously analyzed the magnetization dynamics in each sublattice using a time-resolved magnetooptic Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) microscopy system. The Fourier spectra showed clearly separated precession modes for sublattices with different orientations. The spectra were shown to be robust against the error in applied field orientation. The sublattice response can be tuned to a single collective frequency by choosing a symmetric field orientation. We analyzed the effect of the interelement coupling with various spacing between nanomagnets and found a relatively weak dependence on dipolar interactions in good agreement with micromagnetic simulations.

  13. Nuclear limits on gravitational waves from elliptically deformed pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastev, Plamen G.; Li Baoan; Worley, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational radiation is a fundamental prediction of General Relativity. Elliptically deformed pulsars are among the possible sources emitting gravitational waves (GWs) with a strain-amplitude dependent upon the star's quadrupole moment, rotational frequency, and distance from the detector. We show that the gravitational wave strain amplitude h 0 depends strongly on the equation of state of neutron-rich stellar matter. Applying an equation of state with symmetry energy constrained by recent nuclear laboratory data, we set an upper limit on the strain-amplitude of GWs produced by elliptically deformed pulsars. Depending on details of the EOS, for several millisecond pulsars at distances 0.18 kpc to 0.35 kpc from Earth, the maximalh 0 is found to be in the range of ∼[0.4-1.5]x10 -24 . This prediction serves as the first direct nuclear constraint on the gravitational radiation. Its implications are discussed

  14. Fully plastic solutions of semi-elliptical surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, Genki; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Kitajima, Yasumi; Ueda, Hiroyoshi.

    1990-01-01

    Nonlinear finite element analyses of semi-elliptical surface cracks are performed under the fully plastic condition. The power-law hardening materials and the deformation theory of plasticity are assumed. Either the penalty function method or the Uzawa's algorithm is utilized to treat the incompressibility of plastic strains. The local and global J-integral values are obtained using a virtual crack extension technique for plates and cylinders with semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to uniform tensions. The fully plastic solutions for surface cracked plates are given in the form of polynominals with geometric parameters a/t, a/c and the strain hardening exponent (n). In addition, the effects of curvature on fully plastic solutions are discussed through the comparison between the results of plates and cylinders. (author)

  15. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application.

  16. A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Kaikai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth based on the low cycle strain damage accumulation near the crack tip along the cracking direction and the Newman–Raju formula is developed. The crack is regarded as a sharp notch with a small curvature radius and the process zone is assumed to be the size of cyclic plastic zone. The modified Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren (HRR formulations are used in the presented study. Assuming that the shape of surface crack front is controlled by two critical points: the deepest point and the surface point. The theoretical model is applied to semi-elliptic surface cracked Al 7075-T6 alloy plate under cyclic loading, and five different initial crack shapes are discussed in present study. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is obtained.

  17. Analytical model of impedance in elliptical beam pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Pesah, Arthur Chalom

    2017-01-01

    Beam instabilities are among the main limitations in building higher intensity accelerators. Having a good impedance model for every accelerators is necessary in order to build components that minimize the probability of instabilities caused by the interaction beam-environment and to understand what piece to change in case of intensity increasing. Most of accelerator components have their impedance simulated with finite elements method (using softwares like CST Studio), but simple components such as circular or flat pipes are modeled analytically, with a decreasing computation time and an increasing precision compared to their simulated model. Elliptical beam pipes, while being a simple component present in some accelerators, still misses a good analytical model working for the hole range of velocities and frequencies. In this report, we present a general framework to study the impedance of elliptical pipes analytically. We developed a model for both longitudinal and transverse impedance, first in the case of...

  18. Electric sail elliptic displaced orbits with advanced thrust model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of an Electric Solar Wind Sail for generating and maintaining an elliptic, heliocentric, displaced non-Keplerian orbit. In this sense, this paper extends and completes recent studies regarding the performances of an Electric Solar Wind Sail that covers a circular, heliocentric, displaced orbit of given characteristics. The paper presents the general equations that describe the elliptic orbit maintenance in terms of both spacecraft attitude and performance requirements, when a refined thrust model (recently proposed for the preliminary mission design) is taken into account. In particular, the paper also discusses some practical applications on particular mission scenarios in which an analytic solution of the governing equations has been found.

  19. Halos around ellipticals and the environment dependence of Hubble type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.; Quinn, P.J.; Salmon, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is not surprising that the baryonic material inside the more compact halos will tend to form a more compact, luminous elliptical. What needs to be explained is the difference in the value of the spin parameter (lambda). It might be tempting to speculate that more compact, dense halos have systematically smaller values of lambda. Such an effect is predicted by linear calculations. Our simulations show that it may exist but it appears to be too small compared to the random scatter of the values of lambda and rho to be decisive. It is more likely that the baryonic material has initially similar lambda both in the future spirals and elliptical but compact halos damp out the lambda of the dissipative, baryonic material more readily

  20. Elliptic Double-Box Integrals: Massless Scattering Amplitudes beyond Polylogarithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjaily, Jacob L.; McLeod, Andrew J.; Spradlin, Marcus; von Hippel, Matt; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    We derive an analytic representation of the ten-particle, two-loop double-box integral as an elliptic integral over weight-three polylogarithms. To obtain this form, we first derive a fourfold, rational (Feynman-)parametric representation for the integral, expressed directly in terms of dual-conformally invariant cross ratios; from this, the desired form is easily obtained. The essential features of this integral are illustrated by means of a simplified toy model, and we attach the relevant expressions for both integrals in ancillary files. We propose a normalization for such integrals that renders all of their polylogarithmic degenerations pure, and we discuss the need for a new "symbology" of mixed iterated elliptic and polylogarithmic integrals in order to bring them to a more canonical form.