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Sample records for modular vault dry

  1. Engineering and safety features of modular vault dry storage

    Deacon, D.; Wheeler, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for interim dry storage and reviews detailed features of the Modular Vault Dry storage concept. The concept meets three basic utility requirements. Firstly, the technology and safety features have been demonstrated on existing plant; secondly, it can be built and licensed in an acceptably short timescale; and thirdly, economic analysis shows that a modular vault dry store is often the cheapest option for interim storage

  2. Implementation of safeguards at modular vault dry store at Paks NPP in Hungary

    Safar, J.; Czoch, I.; Szoellosi, E.F.; Janov, J.; Sannie, G.; Daniel, G.; Szabo, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A safeguards system has been implemented at the GEC-Alsthom designed Modular Vault Dry Store at Paks NPP in Hungary without previous safeguards related experience for this type of spent fuel storage. C/S measures and sealing have primary importance. In addition. spent fuel attribute signatures are detected by a fuel transfer monitor at the cask load/unload port. These are complemented with the corresponding accounting measures. (author)

  3. Modular vault dry storage system for interim storage of irradiated fuel

    Cundill, B.R.; Ealing, C.J.; Agarwal, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Foster Wheeler Energy Application (FWEA) Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) is a dry storage concept for the storage of all types of irradiated reactor fuel. For applications in the US, FWEA submitted an MVDS Topical Report to the US NRC during 1986. Following NRC approval of the MVDS Topical Report concept for unconsolidated LWR fuel, US utilities have available a new, compact, economic and flexible system for the storage of irradiated fuel at the reactor site for time periods of at least 20 years (the period of the first license). The MVDS concept jointly developed by FWEA and GEC in the U.K., has other applications for large central away from reactor storage facilities such as a Monitorable Retrievable Storage (MRS) installation. This paper describes the licensed MVDS design, aspects of performance are discussed and capital costs compared with alternative concepts. Alternative configurations of MVDS are outlined

  4. The subtle attractions of dry vault storage

    Ealing, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Utilities in the United States of America, Scotland and Hungary have all adopted dry vault technology in their plans for spent fuel storage. This article looks at what makes dry storage an attractive option. (author)

  5. Construction gets underway on Hungary's Modern Vault Dry Store

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A construction licence has recently been granted for a Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) for spent fuel at the Paks reactor site in Hungary. The store will be used for medium term (50 years) storage of spent fuel from four VVER-440 reactors. It is anticipated that storage capacity for 1350 fuel assemblies will be available by 1996. Two further construction phases will take the capacity to 4950, covering the first ten years of reactor operation. The design provides for further extension to accommodate a total 15000 assemblies, corresponding to 30 years of reactor operation. The MVDS has developed out of the first application of dry store technology to spent Magnox reactor fuel at the Wylfa power station in the United Kingdom 25 years ago. (UK)

  6. Choosing the right materials for a dry vault store

    Walters, J.

    1985-01-01

    Britain's National Nuclear Corporation has been treating various materials to see if they would be suitable for the construction of a dry vault store for spent fuel and/or vitrified waste. The factors influencing the choice of materials are considered. (UK)

  7. Operating experience of vault type dry storage and its relevance to future storage needs

    Maxwell, E.O.; Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    An outline description of the early passive cooled vault type dry stores for irradiated magnox fuel at the Wylfa Nuclear Power Station together with the valuable operating experience gained over many years. An outline description of the world's first air-cooled vault type dry store (350 Te) and comments on its construction and successful operation. A description of the basic principles that were used in the design of this store and how these principles have been developed for use on vault type storage systems for oxide fuel and vitrified waste. An examination of the basic parameters that the author's consider should be used to measure the adequacy of the many storage options currently being considered around the world is included in order that a better assessment of the various systems may be obtained

  8. Dry storage technologies: keys to choosing among metal casks, concrete shielded steel canister modules and vaults

    Roland, V.; Solignac, Y.; Chiguer, M.; Guenon, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The current international trend towards expanding Spent Fuel Interim Dry Storage capabilities goes with an improvement of the performance of the proposed systems which have to accommodate Spent fuel Assemblies characterized by ever increasing burn-up, fissile isotopes contents, thermal releases, and total inventory. Due to heterogeneous worldwide reactor pools and specific local constraints the proposed solutions have also to cope with a wide fuel design variety. Moreover, the Spent fuel Assemblies stored temporarily for cooling may have to be transported either to reprocessing facilities or to interim storage facilities before direct disposal; it is the reason why the retrievability, including or not transportability of the proposed systems, is often specified by the Utilities for the design of their Storage systems and sometimes by law. This paper shows on examples developed within companies of AREVA Group the key parameters and elements that can direct toward the selection of a technology in a user specific context. Some of the constraints are ability to dry store at once a large number of spent fuel assemblies, readily available, on a given site. No urgent need for further move of the fuel is foreseen. Then clearly a Vault Type Storage system developed and implemented by SGN is an excellent solution: It combines passive safety with immediate large capacity, which allows quick amortization of fuel receiving equipment. In addition the versatile storage position can easily accept in the same facility different fuel types, and also intermediate and High Level Waste. This is the reason why a vault system is often a preferred solution for a long-term dry interim centralized storage, for a multiplicity of spent fuel. It can be also a choice solution when the ISFSI stands on a site that is dedicated permanently to many different nuclear activities.In most cases, the producers of spent fuel require a large capacity that is cumulated over many years, each reload at a

  9. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  10. Filigree Vaults

    2017-01-01

    Filigree Vaults takes its point of departure in the use of ceramics in architecture.Today ceramic is in buildings mostly used as uniform modular elements for surface application - bricks and tiles. This project discusses and exemplifies new possibilities for ceramics in architecture, which emerge...

  11. Dry vault for spent fuel depository, basic outsets, operating results and safety of the 'CASCAD' plant

    Bardelle, Ph.; Mercier, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    CEA built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist of a dry depository, which presents a low cost of operation, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Fuel elements are cooled by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. This facility, known as 'CASCAD' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29th 1990. The basic design data of the facility, are reviewed the main techniques used for its construction are outlined the safety concepts are drawn and the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working are presented. (K.A.). 1 tab

  12. Dry vault for spent fuel depository, basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    Mercier, J.P.; Bardelle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist of a dry depository, which presents a low cost of operation, against a wet on which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a depository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as ''CASCAD'' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29th 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author). 1 fig

  13. Dry vault for spent fuel depository. Basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    Bardelle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist in a dry depositary, which presents a low cost of working, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a depository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as ''CASCAD'' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29 th 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author)

  14. Key technical issues relating to safety of spent fuel dry storage in vaults: CASCAD system

    Berge, F [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    1994-12-31

    The operating CASCAD Facility at the Cadarashe site (FR) was commissioned in May 1990. Fuel is received in tight canisters which are transferred to storage pits in the vault and scheduled to be stored for up to 50 years. Canistering operations are performed in a cell of the reactor building.The paper describes the main functions of the facility as: cask receipt and shipping; fuel unloading; fuel conditioning; canisters emplacements in storage location; fuel storage; fuel retrieving and shipping at the end of the storage period; operation system and operation organization. Safety characteristics of the facility discussed are: fuel decay heat removal; subcriticality control and radiological protection. The fuel decay heat removal has two main purposes: (1) maintaining rod cladding temperature below a set limit in order to keep the fuel in its as received condition; (2) maintaining structures and equipment performing a safety function below the design temperature. The features of the sub-criticality control in the storage vault are such that sub-criticality in normal and accidental conditions is provided by the arrangement of pits in the vault. Radiological protection is based on limiting collective and individual annual dose equivalent to ALARA levels ensuring that they remain in any case below the set limits. Radiological protection system described consists in: confinement of radioactive materials for protection against its dissemination; radiation shielding for protection against irradiation. It is pointed out that all technical solutions presented are based on or adapted from proven technologies used in operating facilities in France or in other countries. The solution not only benefits from the experience of SGN in the design, construction and start-up of facilities for fuel or high level waste handling and storage, but also from the experience of the CEA and COGEMA groups in operating such facilities. 2 figs., 1 ref.

  15. The long and short of dry vault storage [for spent fuel

    Bradley, N.; O'Tallamhain, C.; Grine, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The case has been made for purchasing Magnox reactors outside the UK without any prior commitment to reprocessing, the fuel being stored for an interim period. Two alternative storage concepts using natural draught air-cooled vaults have been presented, one based upon experience of 'buffer' storage at gas-cooled reactors in Britain, and te second based on the long term 'interim' storage developed to a detailed design stage for British AGRs. Although storage scenarios for new Magnox stations are discussed, they may also be of interest in relation to other types of reactor. (U.K.)

  16. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  17. Dry vault for spent fuel depository. Basic outsets, operating results and safety of the CASCAD plant

    Bardelle, P.

    1997-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist in a dry repository, which presents a low cost of working, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous control of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a repository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as 'CASCAD' (= CASemate CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29, 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concept and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author)

  18. Progress with Scottish Nuclear Limited's dry fuel store proposals

    Cathro, I.S.

    1994-01-01

    At present Scottish Nuclear plc's largest operating cost, associated with the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors that it manages, is the reprocessing of spent fuels. Looking to reduce the costs, the company has considered alternative disposal options. Dry vault storage has emerged as a clear leader. An adaption of the United States Modular Vault Dry Storage design is being studied in order to examine the feasibility of a store of this type at each of its power stations. (UK)

  19. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    Dixon, K.; Harbour, J.; Phifer, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  20. MRS using a FUELSTOR vault

    Valentine, M.K.; Gunther, H.

    1992-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power Corporation and Siemens-KWU have developed a dry-vault storage concept for interim storage of the nation's spent commercial nuclear fuel. This paper discusses the concept called a FUELSTOR vault which seals individual PWR fuel assemblies in an inert atmosphere within a welded canister, then stores the canisters in a horizontal array. The canisters are cooled passively by natural convection. The FUELSTOR vault assures safe, long-term storage with high fuel-storage density, and is designed for maximum radiation shielding and protection of the fuel against natural and man-made accidents

  1. Development of evaluation method for heat removal design of dry storage facilities. pt. 1. Heat removal test on vault storage system of cross flow type

    Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Koga, Tomonari; Wataru, Masumi; Hattori, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the result of heat removal test of passive cooling vault storage system of cross flow type using 1/5 scale model. Based on a prospect of steady increase in the amount of spent fuel, it is needed to establish large capacity dry storage technologies for spent fuel. Air flow patterns, distributions of air temperature and velocity were measured, by which heat removal characteristics of the system were made clear. Air flow patterns in the storage module depended on the ratio of the buoyant force to the inertial force; the former generated by the difference of air temperatures and the height of the storage module, the latter by the difference of air densities between the outlet of the storage module and ambience and the height of the chimney of the storage facility. A simple method to estimate air flow patterns in the storage module was suggested, where Ri(Richardson) number was applied to represent the ratio. Moreover, heat transfer coefficient from a model of storage tube to cooling air was evaluated, and it was concluded that the generalized expression of heat transfer coefficient for common heat exchangers could be applied to the vault storage system of cross flow type, in which dozens of storage tubes were placed in a storage module. (author)

  2. Dry fuel store for advanced gas cooled reactor fuels

    Grant, J.S.; Boocock, P.M.; Ealing, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fuel storage requirements in Scotland and the selection of a Dry Fuel Store of the Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) design developed by GEC ALSTHOM Engineering Systems Limited (GECA). A similar design of store has been selected and has been constructed in the USA by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation in collaboration with GECA

  3. Preliminary Design of KAIST Micro Modular Reactor with Dry Air Cooling

    Baik, Seung Joon; Bae, Seong Jun; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    KAIST research team recently proposed a Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) concept which integrates power conversion unit (PCU) with the reactor core in a single module. Using supercritical CO{sub 2} as a working fluid of cycle can achieve physically compact size due to small turbomachinery and heat exchangers. The objective of this project is to develop a concept that can operate at isolated area. The design focuses especially on the operation in the inland area where cooling water is insufficient. Thus, in this paper the potential for dry air cooling of the proposed reactor will be examined by sizing the cooling system with preliminary approach. The KAIST MMR is a recently proposed concept of futuristic SMR. The MMR size is being determined to be transportable with land transportation. Special attention is given to the MMR design on the dry cooling, which the cooling system does not depend on water. With appropriately designed air cooling heat exchanger, the MMR can operate autonomously. Two types of air cooling methods are suggested. One is using fan and the other is utilizing cooling tower for the air flow. With fan type air cooling method it consumes about 0.6% of generated electricity from the nuclear reactor. Cooling tower occupies an area of 227 m{sup 2} and 59.6 m in height. This design is just a preliminary estimation of the dry cooling method, and therefore more detailed and optimal design will be followed in the next phase.

  4. Nuclear waste vault sealing

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded, it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating groundwater. Vault sealing entails four major aspects, i.e.: (a) vault grouting; (b) borehole sealing; (c) buffer packing; and (d) backfilling. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing material, its long-term durability and stability, and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present sealing technology and sealing materials are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of vault sealing. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  5. Design of saltstone vaults

    Aiyar, G.S.; Hsiu, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive waste from processed spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina, are stored in underground tanks. The wastes consist of sludge and supernate. Most of the radionuclides and some nonradioactive constituents are removed from the supernate. These along with the sludge are converted into a glass-crystallite matrix and cast into stainless steel cansisters for future disposal in a geological repository. The decontaminated salt solution is mixed with cement, fly ash, and a set-retarding agent, and the resulting grout is transferred to reinforced concrete vaults where it sets into a monolith termed saltstone. The vault is then capped with concrete. A total of 21 vaults measuring 600 x 100 x 27 ft are planned for disposal of the existing supernate plus any additional supernate generated up to the year 2000

  6. Development of evaluation method for heat removal design of dry storage facilities. Pt. 4. Numerical analysis on vault storage system of cross flow type

    Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Hattori, Yasuo; Koga, Tomonari; Wataru, Masumi

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the result of the heat removal test on vault storage system of cross flow type using the 1/5 scale model, an evaluation method for the heat removal design was established. It was composed of the numerical analysis for the convection phenomena of air flow inside the whole facility and that for the natural convection and the detailed turbulent mechanism near the surface of the storage tube. In the former analysis, air temperature distribution in the storage area obtained by the calculation gave good agreement within ±3degC with the test result. And fine turbulence models were introduced in the latter analysis to predict the separation flow in the boundary layer near the surface of the storage tube and the buoyant flow generated by the heat from the storage tube. Furthermore, the properties of removing the heat in a designed full-scale storage facility, such as flow pattern in the storage area, temperature and heat transfer rate of the storage tubes, were evaluated by using each of three methods, which were the established numerical analysis method, the experimental formula demonstrated in the heat removal test and the conventional evaluation method applied to the past heat removal design. As a result, the safety margin and issues included in the methods were grasped, and the measures to make a design more rational were proposed. (author)

  7. Westinghouse Hanford Company special nuclear material vault storage study

    Borisch, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Category 1 and 2 Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) require storage in vault or vault type rooms as specified in DOE orders 5633.3A and 6430.1A. All category 1 and 2 SNM in dry storage on the Hanford site that is managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co (WHC) is located in the 200 West Area at Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facilities. This document provides current and projected SNM vault inventories in terms of storage space filled and forecasts available space for possible future storage needs

  8. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  9. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal

  10. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  11. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination

  12. Vault mobility depends in part on microtubules and vaults can be recruited to the nuclear envelope

    Zon, Arend van; Mossink, Marieke H.; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Vaults are ribonucleoproteins that may function in intracellular transport processes. We investigated the intracellular distribution and dynamics of vaults in non-small cell lung cancer cells in which vaults are labeled with the green fluorescent protein. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that vaults are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm; a small fraction is found in close proximity to microtubules. Immunoprecipitation experiments corroborated these results showing co-precipitation of MVP and β-tubulin. Using quantitative fluorescence-recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we demonstrated that vault mobility over longer distances in part depends on intact microtubules; vaults moving slower when microtubules are depolymerized by nocodazole. Biochemical fractionation indicated a small fraction of MVP associated with the nucleus, however, no GFP-tagged vaults could be observed inside the nucleus. We observed an accumulation of vaults at the nuclear envelope upon treatment of cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Analysis of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport using a fluorescent substrate containing a classical NLS and NES expressed in MVP +/+ and MVP -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated no differences in nuclear import/export kinetics, suggesting no role for vaults in these processes. We hypothesize that a subset of vaults moves directionally via microtubules, possibly towards the nucleus

  13. Grouting of nuclear waste vault shafts

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating ground water. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing materials its long-term durability and stability and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present grouting technology and grout material are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of shaft grouting. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  14. Modular implicits

    Leo White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present modular implicits, an extension to the OCaml language for ad-hoc polymorphism inspired by Scala implicits and modular type classes. Modular implicits are based on type-directed implicit module parameters, and elaborate straightforwardly into OCaml's first-class functors. Basing the design on OCaml's modules leads to a system that naturally supports many features from other languages with systematic ad-hoc overloading, including inheritance, instance constraints, constructor classes and associated types.

  15. Service Modularity

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...

  16. Kinematic variables of table vault on artistic gymnastics

    FERNANDES,Sarah Maria Boldrini; CARRARA,Paulo; SERRÃO,Júlio Cerca; AMADIO,Alberto Carlos; MOCHIZUKI,Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The table vault is an event of male and female Artistics Gymnastics. Although it can be performed in a variety of rotations and body positions in different phases, it can be separated in three groups: handspring, Yurchenko and Tsukahara. It is believed that kinematic variables of vault may vary according to group of vault or gymnast body position, but few studies compares the real differences among the three groups of vaults, comparing and describing the variables in different phases...

  17. Characterization of MVP and VPARP assembly into vault ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Zheng, Chun-Lei; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Che, Xiao-Fang; Tsuyama, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Haraguchi, Misako; Gao, Hui; Gotanda, Takenari; Jueng, Hei-Cheul; Murata, Fusayoshi; Akiyama, Shin-Ichi

    2005-01-07

    Vaults are barrel-shaped cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles composed of three proteins: the major vault protein (MVP), the vault poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (VPARP), and the telomerase-associated protein 1, together with one or more small untranslated RNAs. To date, little is known about the process of vault assembly or about the stability of vault components. In this study, we analyzed the biosynthesis of MVP and VPARP, and their half-lives within the vault particle in human ACHN renal carcinoma cells. Using an immunoprecipitation assay, we found that it took more than 4h for newly synthesized MVPs to be incorporated into vault particles but that biosynthesized VPARPs were completely incorporated into vaults within 1.5h. Once incorporated into the vault complex, both MVP and VPARP were very stable. Expression of human MVP alone in Escherichia coli resulted in the formation of particles that had a distinct vault morphology. The C-terminal region of VPARP that lacks poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity co-sedimented with MVP particles. This suggests that the activity of VPARP is not essential for interaction with MVP-self-assembled vault-like particles. In conclusion, our findings provide an insight into potential mechanisms of physiological vault assembly.

  18. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  19. Modular forms

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  20. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  1. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  2. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No. TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed in HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  3. Kinematic variables of table vault on artistic gymnastics

    Sarah Maria Boldrini FERNANDES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The table vault is an event of male and female Artistics Gymnastics. Although it can be performed in a variety of rotations and body positions in different phases, it can be separated in three groups: handspring, Yurchenko and Tsukahara. It is believed that kinematic variables of vault may vary according to group of vault or gymnast body position, but few studies compares the real differences among the three groups of vaults, comparing and describing the variables in different phases. Vault kinematic variables could be diversifying according to the approach or position of the vaulting, but little has been studied about the biomechanical differences, comparing and describing behaviours at different stages. The aim of this study was to organize critical, objective and to systematize the most relevant kinematic variables to performance on vaulting. A Meta analysis over the basis Pubmed, Sport Discus and Web of Science were performed about this issue. From the selected references, we described and analyzed the kinematics of the table vault. Vault can be characterized in seven phases of analysis. Most of the studies are descriptive, and some do not descript all phases. Differences among vault variables according to group vaults, technical level and gender were analysed only in recent studies. There still gaps of knowledge about kinematic variables of table vault, in order to provide comprehensive information about all possibilities of vaults in this gymnastic event. It is concluded that kinematic variables of table vault depends upon vault group and may be considered to the improvement of technical performance. More researches are needed to approach the coaching interface with biomechanics applicable knowledge.

  4. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  5. Modular entanglement.

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  6. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    Phifer, M. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  7. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I and A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I and

  8. CSER 94-014: Storage of metal-fuel loaded EBR-II casks in concrete vault on PFP grounds

    Hess, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation is presented to permit EBR-2 spent fuel casks loaded with metallic fuel rods to be stored in an 8-ft diameter, cylindrical concrete vault inside the PFP security perimeter. The specific transfer of three casks with Pu alloy fuel from the Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment from the burial grounds to the vault is thus covered. Up to seven casks may be emplaced in the casing with 30 inches center to center spacing. Criticality safety is assured by definitive packaging rules which keep the fissile medium dry and at a low effective volumetric density

  9. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  10. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Lagomarsino, Sergio [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, Genoa (Italy); Milani, Gabriele [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Milan Polytechnic University, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  11. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MVP and vaults: a role in the radiation response

    Lara, Pedro C; Pruschy, Martin; Zimmermann, Martina; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Vaults are evolutionary highly conserved ribonucleoproteins particles with a hollow barrel-like structure. The main component of vaults represents the 110 kDa major vault protein (MVP), whereas two minor vaults proteins comprise the 193 kDa vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (vPARP) and the 240 kDa telomerase-associated protein-1 (TEP-1). Additionally, at least one small and untranslated RNA is found as a constitutive component. MVP seems to play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance. This particle has also been implicated in the regulation of several cellular processes including transport mechanisms, signal transmission and immune responses. Vaults are considered a prognostic marker for different cancer types. The level of MVP expression predicts the clinical outcome after chemotherapy in different tumour types. Recently, new roles have been assigned to MVP and vaults including the association with the insulin-like growth factor-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, and the two major DNA double-strand break repair machineries: non-homologous endjoining and homologous recombination. Furthermore, MVP has been proposed as a useful prognostic factor associated with radiotherapy resistance. Here, we review these novel actions of vaults and discuss a putative role of MVP and vaults in the response to radiotherapy

  13. MVP and vaults: a role in the radiation response

    Zimmermann Martina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vaults are evolutionary highly conserved ribonucleoproteins particles with a hollow barrel-like structure. The main component of vaults represents the 110 kDa major vault protein (MVP, whereas two minor vaults proteins comprise the 193 kDa vault poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (vPARP and the 240 kDa telomerase-associated protein-1 (TEP-1. Additionally, at least one small and untranslated RNA is found as a constitutive component. MVP seems to play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance. This particle has also been implicated in the regulation of several cellular processes including transport mechanisms, signal transmission and immune responses. Vaults are considered a prognostic marker for different cancer types. The level of MVP expression predicts the clinical outcome after chemotherapy in different tumour types. Recently, new roles have been assigned to MVP and vaults including the association with the insulin-like growth factor-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, and the two major DNA double-strand break repair machineries: non-homologous endjoining and homologous recombination. Furthermore, MVP has been proposed as a useful prognostic factor associated with radiotherapy resistance. Here, we review these novel actions of vaults and discuss a putative role of MVP and vaults in the response to radiotherapy.

  14. MVP and vaults: a role in the radiation response.

    Lara, Pedro C; Pruschy, Martin; Zimmermann, Martina; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto

    2011-10-31

    Vaults are evolutionary highly conserved ribonucleoproteins particles with a hollow barrel-like structure. The main component of vaults represents the 110 kDa major vault protein (MVP), whereas two minor vaults proteins comprise the 193 kDa vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (vPARP) and the 240 kDa telomerase-associated protein-1 (TEP-1). Additionally, at least one small and untranslated RNA is found as a constitutive component. MVP seems to play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance. This particle has also been implicated in the regulation of several cellular processes including transport mechanisms, signal transmission and immune responses. Vaults are considered a prognostic marker for different cancer types. The level of MVP expression predicts the clinical outcome after chemotherapy in different tumour types. Recently, new roles have been assigned to MVP and vaults including the association with the insulin-like growth factor-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, and the two major DNA double-strand break repair machineries: non-homologous endjoining and homologous recombination. Furthermore, MVP has been proposed as a useful prognostic factor associated with radiotherapy resistance. Here, we review these novel actions of vaults and discuss a putative role of MVP and vaults in the response to radiotherapy.

  15. 309 plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchanger vault deactivitation report

    Griffin, P.W.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the deactivation of the ion exchanger vault at the 309 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Facility in the 300 Area. The vault deactivation began in May 1995 and was completed in June 1995. The final site restoration and shipment of the low-level waste for disposal was finished in September 1995. The ion exchanger vault deactivation project involved the removal and disposal of twelve ion exchangers and decontaminating and fixing of residual smearable contamination on the ion exchanger vault concrete surfaces

  16. Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium (DU) storage vault

    Robinson, T.; Cucchiara, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results

  17. Criticality design evaluation of the White Sands reactor building storage vault

    Philbin, J.S.; Nelson, W.E.

    1979-03-01

    This report describes the conceptual design and criticality evaluation of a storage vault for components of the fast pulse reactor at White Sands Missile Range. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO-IV Monte Carlo code for various storage configurations in order to investigate the coupling between the portable reactor and storage arrays of spare reactor rings or other fissile components of similar mass. Abnormal conditions corresponding to pseudo--random arrays of the fuel components, as well as a number of flooded configurations, were also evaluated to assess criticality potential for highly unlikely situations. In a normal, dry configuration, the neutron self-multiplication factor, k/sub eff/, of the fully loaded 3 x 8 planar array plus the reactor is less than 0.87. A completely flooded vault was found to produce self-multiplication factors in excess of 1.2

  18. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    Larsen, P.K.; Hansen, Tessa Kvist

    A new mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults was tested in a full scale experiment in Annisse Church, DK. The mortar consists of perlite, a highly porous aggregate, mixed with slaked lime. These materials are compatible with the fired clay bricks and the lime mortar joints....... The lambda-value of the insulation mortar is 0.08 W/m K or twice the lambda-value for mineral wool. The water vapour permeability is equal to a medieval clay brick, and it has three times higher capacity for liquid water absorption. The mortar was applied to the top side of the vaults in a thickness of 10 cm......, despite a water vapour pressure gradient up to 500 Pa between the nave and attic. There was no reduction in energy consumption the first winter, possibly due to the increased heat loss related to the drying of the mortar....

  19. Modularizing development

    Müller, Anders Riel; Doucette, Jamie

    a deeper and wider understanding of Korea’s development experience with the hope that Korea’s past can offer lessons for developing countries in search of sustainable and broad‐based development" (KSP 2011). To do so, the KSP provides users with a modularized set of policy narratives that represent Korea...

  20. Concept study: Use of grout vaults for disposal of long-length contaminated equipment

    Clem, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Study considers the potential for use of grout vaults for disposal of untreated long length equipment removed from waste tanks. Looks at ways to access vaults, material handling, regulatory aspects, and advantages and disadvantages of vault disposal

  1. Sea urchin vault structure, composition, and differential localization during development

    Dickey-Sims Carrie

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaults are intriguing ribonucleoprotein assemblies with an unknown function that are conserved among higher eukaryotes. The Pacific coast sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is an invertebrate model organism that is evolutionarily closer to humans than Drosophila and C. elegans, neither of which possesses vaults. Here we compare the structures of sea urchin and mammalian vaults and analyze the subcellular distribution of vaults during sea urchin embryogenesis. Results The sequence of the sea urchin major vault protein (MVP was assembled from expressed sequence tags and genome traces, and the predicted protein was found to have 64% identity and 81% similarity to rat MVP. Sea urchin MVP includes seven ~50 residue repeats in the N-terminal half of the protein and a predicted coiled coil domain in the C-terminus, as does rat MVP. A cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM reconstruction of isolated sea urchin vaults reveals the assembly to have a barrel-shaped external structure that is nearly identical to the rat vault structure. Analysis of the molecular composition of the sea urchin vault indicates that it contains components that may be homologs of the mammalian vault RNA component (vRNA and protein components (VPARP and TEP1. The sea urchin vault appears to have additional protein components in the molecular weight range of 14–55 kDa that might correspond to molecular contents. Confocal experiments indicate a dramatic relocalization of MVP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during sea urchin embryogenesis. Conclusions These results are suggestive of a role for the vault in delivering macromolecules to the nucleus during development.

  2. CLEARANCE OF ARCHIVE TAPE VAULT (BUILDING 186)

    EP Division

    1999-01-01

    The archive tape vault is being cleared to make way for the LHC experiments silicon facility.Experiments were contacted in February to arrange for the extended storage or destruction of archived volumes. Any who have not yet done so are asked to contactR. Minchin/IT immediately.This is also an opportunity to clear unused tapes or cartridges from around the site and have them destroyed ecologically. Please contact ep.smi.helpdesk@cern.ch to arrange for collection.A.E. Ball/EP-SMI

  3. Geometric principles in additive systems for construction of vaults

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2015-01-01

    della Fiore. The Barouque style followed with the domes of Borromini; Bernini and Guarini. The Period of Enlightenment had iconic tunnel- and dome vault projects by Etienne l. Boulée. All these stone vaults were made by additive systems in bricks and mortar. In the 20.th century concrete was introduced...

  4. Mapping genetic variants for cranial vault shape in humans

    Roosenboom, Jasmien; Lee, Myoung Keun; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2018-01-01

    The shape of the cranial vault, a region comprising interlocking flat bones surrounding the cerebral cortex, varies considerably in humans. Strongly influenced by brain size and shape, cranial vault morphology has both clinical and evolutionary relevance. However, little is known about the geneti...

  5. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    LANEY, T.

    2000-01-01

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated

  6. Super-light pearl-chain arch vaults

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Halding, Philip Skov

    2014-01-01

    Arch vaults are known as optimal and impressive structures, but due to their curved shapes they are extremely costly to produce in countries, where the cost of labor is high. By means of super-light pearl-chain technology arch vaults can be constructed from equal plane prefabricated elements, which...... that it is also applicable as basic elements for super-light pearl-chain vaults. Machines and software have been developed for automatic mass production of the elements, and the first factory has started production in Denmark in 2014 delivering SL-deck elements for a variety of building projects. This means...... is known from curved voluminous elements. The paper describes the first full-scale test of an arch vault made of SL-deck elements demonstrating the principle, documenting the load-bearing capacity, and solving a number of details needed in order to create vaults in practice. Considerations and plans...

  7. 324 Radiochemical engineering cells and high level vault tanks mixed waste compliance status

    1994-01-01

    The 324 Building in the Hanford 300 Area contains Radiochemical Engineering Cells and High Level Vault tanks (the open-quotes REC/HLVclose quotes) for research and development activities involving radioactive materials. Radioactive mixed waste within this research installation, found primarily in B-Cell and three of the high level vault tanks, is subject to RCRA/DWR (open-quotes RCRAclose quotes) regulations for storage. This white paper provides a baseline RCRA compliance summary of MW management in the REC/HLV, based on best available knowledge. The REC/HLV compliance project, of which this paper is a part, is intended to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable given the special technical difficulties of managing high activity radioactive materials, and to assure protection of human health and safety and the environment. The REC/HLV was constructed in 1965 to strict standards for the safe management of highly radioactive materials. Mixed waste in the REC/HLV consists of discarded tools and equipment, dried feed stock from nuclear waste melting experiments, contaminated particulate matter, and liquid feed stock from various experimental programs in the vault tanks. B-Cell contains most of these materials. Total radiological inventory in B-Cell is estimated at 3 MCi, about half of which is potentially open-quotes dispersibleclose quotes, that is, it is in small pieces or mobile particles. Most of the mixed waste currently in the REC/HLV was generated or introduced before mixed wastes were subjected to RCRA in 1987

  8. Metric modular spaces

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  9. The cascad spent fuel dry storage facility

    Guay, P.; Bonnet, C.

    1991-01-01

    France has a wide variety of experimental spent fuels different from LWR spent fuel discharged from commercial reactors. Reprocessing such fuels would thus require the development and construction of special facilities. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has consequently opted for long-term interim storage of these spent fuels over a period of 50 years. Comparative studies of different storage concepts have been conducted on the basis of safety (mainly containment barriers and cooling), economic, modular design and operating flexibility criteria. These studies have shown that dry storage in a concrete vault cooled by natural convection is the best solution. A research and development program including theoretical investigations and mock-up tests confirmed the feasibility of cooling by natural convection and the validity of design rules applied for fuel storage. A facility called CASCAD was built at the CEA's Cadarache Nuclear Research Center, where it has been operational since mid-1990. This paper describes the CASCAD facility and indicates how its concept can be applied to storage of LWR fuel assemblies

  10. Expression of the Major Vault Protein (MVP) and Cellular Vault Particles in Fish.

    Margiotta, Alyssa L; Bain, Lisa J; Rice, Charles D

    2017-11-01

    Cellular vaults are ubiquitous 13 mega Da multi-subunit ribonuceloprotein particles that may have a role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Seventy percent of the vault's mass consists of a ≈100 kDa protein, the major vault protein (MVP). In humans, a drug resistance-associated protein, originally identified as lung resistance protein in metastatic lung cancer, was ultimately shown to be the previously described MVP. In this study, a partial MVP sequence was cloned from channel catfish. Recombinant MVP (rMVP) was used to generate a monoclonal antibody that recognizes full length protein in distantly related fish species, as well as mice. MVP is expressed in fish spleen, liver, anterior kidney, renal kidney, and gills, with a consistent expression in epithelial cells, macrophages, or endothelium at the interface of the tissue and environment or vasculature. We show that vaults are distributed throughout cells of fish lymphoid cells, with nuclear and plasma membrane aggregations in some cells. Protein expression studies were extended to liver neoplastic lesions in Atlantic killifish collected in situ at the Atlantic Wood USA-EPA superfund site on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA. MVP is highly expressed in these lesions, with intense staining at the nuclear membrane, similar to what is known about MVP expression in human liver neoplasia. Additionally, MVP mRNA expression was quantified in channel catfish ovarian cell line following treatment with different classes of pharmacological agents. Notably, mRNA expression is induced by ethidium bromide, which damages DNA. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1981-1992, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pilonidal cyst on the vault: case report

    BORGES GUILHERME

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilonidal cysts and sinuses are described as dermoid cysts which contain follicles of hairs and sebaceous glands. They clinically present as a classic case of inflammation which comes with pain, local infection and redness. The origin of pilonidal disease remains controverse. There are many hypothesis as lack of hygiene on the affected area and a penetration and growth of a hair in the subcutaneus tissue caused by constant friction or direct trauma on the damaged area. The option for clinical treatment is very frequent. However, taking into consideration the incidence and the possibility of recidive, surgical treatment is presently recommended. Complications include cellulitis and abscess formation. Pilonidal cysts are mostly found on the sacral region. In the literature is found description of pilonidal cysts on the penis, interdigital region on the hands as well as on the cervical region. We present a case of pilonidal cyst located on the vault biparietal region, without malignant degeneration.

  12. Structure of the vault, a ubiquitous celular component.

    Kong, L B; Siva, A C; Rome, L H; Stewart, P L

    1999-04-15

    The vault is a ubiquitous and highly conserved ribonucleoprotein particle of approximately 13 MDa. This particle has been shown to be upregulated in certain multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and to share a protein component with the telomerase complex. Determination of the structure of the vault was undertaken to provide a first step towards understanding the role of this cellular component in normal metabolism and perhaps to shed some light on its role in mediating drug resistance. Over 1300 particle images were combined to calculate an approximately 31 A resolution structure of the vault. Rotational power spectra did not yield a clear symmetry peak, either because of the thin, smooth walls or inherent flexibility of the vault. Although cyclic eightfold (C8) symmetry was imposed, the resulting reconstruction may be partially cylindrically averaged about the eightfold axis. Our results reveal the vault to be a hollow, barrel-like structure with two protruding caps and an invaginated waist. Although the normal cellular function of the vault is as yet undetermined, the structure of the vault is consistent with either a role in subcellular transport, as previously suggested, or in sequestering macromolecular assemblies.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Saltstone Vault 4 Vapor Space

    Lee, Si Young

    2005-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have been used to estimate the flow patterns for vapor space inside the Saltstone Vault No.4 under different operating scenarios. The purpose of this work is to examine the gas motions inside the vapor space under the current vault configurations. A CFD model took three-dimensional transient momentum-energy coupled approach for the vapor space domain of the vault. The modeling calculations were based on prototypic vault geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Waste Solidification Engineering. The modeling analysis was focused on the air flow patterns near the ventilated corner zones of the vapor space inside the Saltstone vault. The turbulence behavior and natural convection mechanism used in the present model were benchmarked against the literature information and theoretical results. The verified model was applied to the Saltstone vault geometry for the transient assessment of the air flow patterns inside the vapor space of the vault region using the boundary conditions as provided by the customer. The present model considered two cases for the estimations of the flow patterns within the vapor space. One is the reference baseline case. The other is for the negative temperature gradient between the roof inner and top grout surface temperatures intended for the potential bounding condition. The flow patterns of the vapor space calculated by the CFD model demonstrate that the ambient air comes into the vapor space of the vault through the lower-end ventilation hole, and it gets heated up by the Benard-cell type circulation before leaving the vault via the higher-end ventilation hole. The calculated results are consistent with the literature information

  14. AES Modular Power Systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  15. Monitoring and detection of plutonium movement in storage vaults

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Bieri, J.M.; Caldwell, J.T.; France, S.W.; Hastings, R.D.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.; Goin, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    We investigated a method for monitoring a typical large storage vault for unauthorized removal of plutonium. The method is based on the assumption that the neutron field in a vault produced by a particular geometric configuration of bulk plutonium remains constant in time and space as long as the configuration is undisturbed. To observe such a neutron field, we installed an array of 25 3 He proportional counters in the ceiling of a plutonium storage vault at Argonne National Laboratory West. Data collected by each counter were processed to determine whether statistically significant changes had occurred in the neutron field. Continuous observation experiments measured the long-term stability of the system. Removal experiments were performed in which known quantities of plutonium were removed from the vault. Both types of experiments demonstrated that the neutron monitoring system can detect removal or addition of bulk plutonium (11% 240 Pu) whose mass is as small as 0.04% of the total inventory

  16. Data Vaults: Database Technology for Scientific File Repositories

    M.G. Ivanova (Milena); M.L. Kersten (Martin); S. Manegold (Stefan); Y. Kargin (Yagiz)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractCurrent data-management systems and analysis tools fail to meet scientists’ data-intensive needs. A "data vault" approach lets researchers effectively and efficiently explore and analyze information.

  17. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    Cook, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater) and on waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders. (author)

  18. Seismic review of vault for MFTF upgrade project

    Franklin, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    This letter report was prepared in accordance with the scope of work for the preconceptual seismic evaluation of the (α + T) Tandem Mirror Fusion Machine concrete vault. The scope of the work was developed with the assistance of the Bechtel site representative Dr. Sunil Ghose. The report contains comments and preconceptual recommendations on wall upgrading for an 150-ton crane installation, concrete vault seismic capability for (α + T) conditions, and recommendations for future work

  19. Dynamic research of masonry vault in a technical scale

    Golebiewski, Michal; Lubowiecka, Izabela; Kujawa, Marcin

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents preliminary results of dynamic tests of the masonry barrel vault in a technical scale. Experimental studies are intended to identify material properties of homogenized masonry vaults under dynamic loads. The aim of the work is to create numerical models to analyse vault's dynamic response to dynamic loads in a simplest and accurate way. The process of building the vault in a technical scale is presented in the paper. Furthermore a excitation of vibrations with an electrodynamic modal exciter placed on the vault, controlled by an arbitrary waveform function generator, is discussed. Finally paper presents trends in the research for homogenization algorithm enabling dynamic analysis of masonry vaults. Experimental results were compared with outcomes of so-called macromodels (macromodel of a brick masonry is a model in which masonry, i.e. a medium consisting of two different fractions - bricks and mortar, is represented by a homogenized, uniformed, material). Homogenization entail significant simplifications, nevertheless according to the authors, can be a useful approach in a static and dynamic analysis of masonry structures.

  20. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults. PMID:28793697

  1. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults.

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-11-27

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L'Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults.

  2. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Marco Corradi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers. For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults.

  3. Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault

    Penitente Gabriella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz and two portable force platforms (500 Hz were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg. Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force 0.8 × body weight. These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001 differences were observed in peak force (t(24 = 4.75, ES = 3.37 and time to peak force (t(24 = 2.07, ES = 1.56. Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault.

  4. Dualisme Modular

    Natas Setiabudhi Daryono Putra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dualisme merupakan konsep filsafat yang menyatakan bahwa segala sesuatu memiliki dua hal yang berlawanan atau prinsip. Hidup dan mati, laki dan perempuan, siang dan malam, jiwa dan raga, sehat dan sakit, kaya dan miskin, baik dan buruk, halal dan haram, pro dan kontra, aktif dan pasif, statis dan dinamis, tampan dan buruk rupa, besar dan kecil, panjang dan pendek, manis dan pahit, mahal dan murah, kuat dan lemah, dan seterusnya. Dalam konteks karya ini merupakan representasi dari manusia yang pada dasarnya memiliki 2 kepribadian, baik dan buruk. Keduanya diterjemahkan ke dalam konsep modular dalam menyusun sebuah konfigurasi karya. Pesan yang ingin penulis sampaikan adalah seseorang tidak bisa dinilai dari “baju atau seragam” yang ia pakai. Selain itu keseimbangan dalam baik dan buruk yang direpresentasikan dengan modul positif dan negatif menjadi ambigu dalam kaitan dengan pahala dan dosa dalam Islam. Karya ini meminjam gambar Rubin’s vase/goblet (vas/piala Rubin karya seorang psikolog gestalt Edgar Rubin asal Denmark yang ditransformasi menjadi sebuah karya keramik 3 dimensional [1]. Vas/piala Rubin ini secara perseptual memiliki 2 makna, yaitu gambar vas/piala dan siluet wajah dari samping yang saling berhadapan (pengaruh antarobjek dan latar secara bergiliran. Proses kreasi berasal dari pengalaman empirik personal yang dihubungkan dengan teori-teori pendukung. Perpaduan keduanya menghasilkan karya seni yang merupakan representasi dari realitas. Dalam penciptaan karya seni rupa sebenarnya tidak ada metode baku seperti halnya dalam riset pada umumnya. Proses kreasi kadang berdasarkan intuisi, pengalaman personal yang dominan dan mengandung narasi yang sangat subjektif. Kesemuanya itu dikaitkan dengan disiplin ilmu lainnya (sosial, ekonomi, budaya dan politik untuk menghasilkan sebuah representasi. Modular Dualism Abstract. Dualism is the concept that everything has two opposite sides or principles. Life and death, male and female, day

  5. Exploring Modularity in Services

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    the effects of modularity and integrality on a range of different analytical levels in service architectures. Taking a holistic approach, the authors synthesize and empirically deploy a framework comprised of the three most prevalent themes in modularity and service design literature: Offering (service...... insights on the mirroring hypothesis of modularity theory to services. Originality/value The paper provides a conceptualization of service architectures drawing on service design, modularity, and market relationships. The study enriches service design literature with elements from modularity theory...

  6. Modular robot

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs

  7. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV's) in S area. The FESV's are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request

  8. Neutron monitoring of plutonium at the ZPPR storage vault

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Bieri, J.M.; France, S.W.; Goin, R.W.; Hastings, R.D.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-12-01

    We investigated a method for monitoring a typical large storage vault for unauthorized removal of plutonium. The method is based on the assumption that the neutron field in a vault produced by a particular geometric configuration of bulk plutonium remains constant in time and space as long as the configuration is undisturbed. To observe such a neutron field, we installed an array of 25 neutron detectors in the ceiling of a plutonium storage vault at Argonne National Laboratory West. Each neutron detector provided an independent spatial measurement of the vault neutron field. Data collected by each detector were processed to determine whether statistically significant changes had occurred in the neutron field. Continuous observation experiments measured the long-term stability of the system. Removal experiments were performed in which known quantities of plutonium were removed from the vault. Both types of experiments demonstrated that the neutron monitoring system can detect removal or addition of bulk plutonium (11% 240 Pu) whose mass is as small as 0.04% of the total inventory

  9. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  10. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  11. Design analysis report for the 244-AR vault Interim Stabilization interior transfer system

    CARLSON, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to verify that the 244-AR Vault Interior Transfer System piping installed in the vault meets ASME B31.3 code requirements. This calculation also evaluates the pipe support loads

  12. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  13. Vault lining for 340 waste handling facility, 300 area

    Hollenbeck, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Coating systems by Protection Enterprises, Ameron, Carboline, and Steelcote were evaluated. Each manufacturer has a coating system that is acceptable for use in the 340 Vault (see Appendix A). The choice of which system to use will be made after in-place adhesion tests are complete. The Protection Enterprises coating has the greatest potential for acceptable adhesion with minimal surface preparation. Total project cost for engineering and construction is $1,220,000 including 50% for contingency (see Appendix B). If the existing vault coverblock access hatch can satisfy entry requirements, $95,000 can be saved from the removal of coverblocks and the erection and disassembly of the greenhouse

  14. Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Vault-Slab Structures

    Chesi, Claudio; Butti, Ferdinando; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Spandrel walls typically play a structural role in masonry buildings, transferring load from a slab to the supporting vault. Some indications are given in the literature on the behaviour of spandrels under the effect of vertical loads, but little attention is given to the effect coming from lateral forces acting on the building. An opportunity to investigate this problem has come from the need of analyzing a monumental building which was damaged by the Nov. 24, 2004 Val Sabbia earthquake in the north of Italy. The finite element model set up for the analysis of the vault-spandrel-slab system is presented and the structural role resulting for the spandrels is discussed

  15. Seismic analysis of the mirror fusion test facility shielding vault

    Gabrielsen, B.L.; Tsai, K.

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a seismic analysis of the vault in Building 431 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which houses the mirror Fusion Test Facility. The shielding vault structure is approximately 120 ft long by 80 ft wide and is constructed of concrete blocks approximately 7 x 7 x 7 ft. The north and south walls are approximately 53 ft high and the east wall is approximately 29 ft high. These walls are supported on a monolithic concrete foundation that surrounds a 21-ft deep open pit. Since the 53-ft walls appeared to present the greatest seismic problem they were the first investigated

  16. Modular dry storage of spent fuel

    Baxter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Long term uncertainties in US spent fuel reprocessing and storage policies and programs are forcing the electric utilities to consider means of storing spent fuel at the reactor site in increasing quantitities and for protracted periods. Utilities have taken initial steps in increasing storage capacity. Existing wet storage pools have in many cases been reracked to optimize their capacity for storing spent fuel assemblies

  17. Portable modular detection system

    Brennan, James S [Rodeo, CA; Singh, Anup [Danville, CA; Throckmorton, Daniel J [Tracy, CA; Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  18. The performance assessment and the design of an intermediate level tritium disposal vault

    Yu, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    The topic of this report is the assessment of the performance and design of the tritium disposal vault for the Westinghouse River Company at the Savannah River Laboratory. This paper describes how the groundwater modeling has affected the design of a tritium disposal vault at the Savannah River Site and this new vault will meet the regulatory performance requirements. (MB)

  19. Correlation of Palatal Rugoscopy with Gender, Palatal Vault Height ...

    Background: Palatal rugae (PR) are asymmetrical irregular elevations, recorded during maxillary cast fabrication , that can be used for identification purpose if previous comparative sources are available. Aim: This study investigated uniqueness of PR patterns in relation to gender, palatal vault forms, and ABO blood groups ...

  20. Major vault protein in cardiac and smooth muscle.

    Shults, Nataliia V; Das, Dividutta; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    Major vault protein (MVP) is the major component of the vault particle whose functions are not well understood. One proposed function of the vault is to serve as a mechanism of drug transport, which confers drug resistance in cancer cells. We show that MVP can be found in cardiac and smooth muscle. In human airway smooth muscle cells, knocking down MVP was found to cause cell death, suggesting that MVP serves as a cell survival factor. Further, our laboratory found that MVP is S-glutathionylated in response to ligand/receptor-mediated cell signaling. The S-glutathionylation of MVP appears to regulate protein-protein interactions between MVP and a protein called myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9). Through MYH9 and Vsp34, MVP may form a complex with Beclin-1 that regulates autophagic cell death. In pulmonary vascular smooth muscle, proteasome inhibition promotes the ubiquitination of MVP, which may function as a mechanism of proteasome inhibition-mediated cell death. Investigating the functions and the regulatory mechanisms of MVP and vault particles is an exciting new area of research in cardiovascular/pulmonary pathophysiology.

  1. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: open cycle vault

    Smith, R.I.

    1983-11-01

    This report provides a modified description of the Open Cycle Vault Storage Concept which meets a specified set of requirements; an estimate of the costs of construction, operation, and decommissioning of the concepts; the costs required to expand the facility throughput and storage capability; and the life-cycle costs of the facility. 11 references, 23 figures, 35 tables

  2. Overexpression of the human major vault protein in gangliogliomas.

    Aronica, E; Gorter, J.A.; Vliet, van EA; Spliet, WG; Veelen, van CW; Rijen, van PC; Leenstra, S.; Ramkema, MD; Scheffer, G.L.; Scheper, R.J.; Sisodiya, SM; Troost, D.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recent evidence has been obtained that the major vault protein (MVP) may play a role in multidrug resistance (MDR). We investigated the expression and cellular localization of MVP in gangliogliomas (GGs), which are increasingly recognized causes of chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

  3. Overexpression of the human major vault protein in gangliogliomas

    Aronica, Eleonora; Gorter, Jan A.; van Vliet, Erwin A.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; van Veelen, Cees W. M.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Leenstra, Sieger; Ramkema, Marja D.; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Troost, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence has been obtained that the major vault protein (MVP) may play a role in multidrug resistance (MDR). We investigated the expression and cellular localization of MVP in gangliogliomas (GGs), which are increasingly recognized causes of chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

  4. 244-AR vault cooling water stream-specific report

    1990-08-01

    The proposed wastestream designation for the 244-AR Vault cooling water wastestream is that this stream is not a dangerous waste, pursuant to the Washington (State) Administration Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations. A combination of process knowledge and sampling data was used to make this determination. 21 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Data vaults: a database welcome to scientific file repositories

    Ivanova, M.; Kargın, Y.; Kersten, M.; Manegold, S.; Zhang, Y.; Datcu, M.; Espinoza Molina, D.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient management and exploration of high-volume scientific file repositories have become pivotal for advancement in science. We propose to demonstrate the Data Vault, an extension of the database system architecture that transparently opens scientific file repositories for efficient in-database

  6. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    2010-10-01

    ... explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before removing the cover; (2) If the vault or pit is vented, there must be a means of preventing external sources... ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter; (2) The ventilation must be enough to...

  7. Correlation of Palatal Rugoscopy with Gender, Palatal Vault Height ...

    Allen in 1889[3] discussed their role as an identification method. ... a typical orientation pattern, once formed; only changed in its length due to ... along with palatal vault forms as well as ABO blood groups for racial and individualistic soft.

  8. Modularity and Economic Organization

    Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance to the organ......This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...... to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies...... markets. We also discuss an evolutionary perspective on modularity as an emergent phenomenon in firms and industries. We explain how modularity as a relatively new field of strategy and economic research may provide a new theoretical perspective on economic organizing that has significant potential...

  9. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  10. Corrosion of copper containers prior to saturation of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    King, F.; Kolar, M.

    1997-12-01

    The buffer material surrounding the containers in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault will partially desiccate as a result of the elevated temperature at the container surface. This will lead to a period of corrosion in a moist air atmosphere. Corrosion will either take the form of slow oxidation if the container surface remains dry or aqueous electrochemical corrosion if the surface is wetted by a thin liquid film. The relevant literature is reviewed, from which it is concluded that corrosion should be uniform in nature, except if the surface is wetted, in which case localized corrosion is a possibility. A quantitative analysis of the extent and rate of uniform corrosion during the unsaturated period is presented. Two bounding cases are considered: first, the case of slow oxidation in moist air following either logarithmic or parabolic oxide-growth kinetics and, second, the case of electrochemically based corrosion occurring in a thin liquid film uninhibited by the growth of corrosion products. (author)

  11. Economics of dry storage systems

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  12. The Effect of the Crystalline Lens on Central Vault After Implantable Collamer Lens Implantation.

    Qi, Meng-Ying; Chen, Qian; Zeng, Qing-Yan

    2017-08-01

    To identify associations between crystalline lens-related factors and central vault after Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) (Staar Surgical, Monrovia, CA) implantation. This retrospective clinical study included 320 eyes from 186 patients who underwent ICL implantation surgery. At 1 year after surgery, the central vault was measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Preoperative anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens position (lens position = anterior chamber depth + 1/2 lens thickness), and vault were analyzed to investigate the effects of lens-related factors on postoperative vault. The mean vault was 513 ± 215 µm at 1 year after surgery. Vault was positively correlated with preoperative anterior chamber depth (r = 0.495, P lens position (r = 0.371, P lens thickness (r = -0.262, P lens position than eyes in the other two vault groups (which had vaults ≥ 250 µm) (P lens position less than 5.1 mm had greatly reduced vaults (P lens could have an important influence on postoperative vault. Eyes with a shallower anterior chamber and a forward lens position will have lower vaults. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):519-523.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Structural and seismic analyses of waste facility reinforced concrete storage vaults

    Wang, C.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Facility 317 of Argonne National Laboratory consists of several reinforced concrete waste storage vaults designed and constructed in the late 1940's through the early 1960's. In this paper, structural analyses of these concrete vaults subjected to various natural hazards are described, emphasizing the northwest shallow vault. The natural phenomenon hazards considered include both earthquakes and tornados. Because these vaults are deeply embedded in the soil, the SASSI (System Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction) code was utilized for the seismic calculations. The ultimate strength method was used to analyze the reinforced concrete structures. In all studies, moment and shear strengths at critical locations of the storage vaults were evaluated. Results of the structural analyses show that almost all the waste storage vaults meet the code requirements according to ACI 349--85. These vaults also satisfy the performance goal such that confinement of hazardous materials is maintained and functioning of the facility is not interrupted

  14. Service Modularity and Architecture

    Brax, Saara A.; Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    , platform-based and mass-customized service business models, comparative research designs, customer perspectives and service experience, performance in context of modular services, empirical evidence of benefits and challenges, architectural innovation in services, modularization in multi-provider contexts......Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots...... of the emerging research stream on service modularity, provide a concise overview of existing work on the subject, and outline an agenda for future research on service modularity and architecture. The articles in the special issue offer four diverse sets of research on service modularity and architecture. Design...

  15. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  16. Modular Robotic Wearable

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  17. Efflux kinetics and intracellular distribution of daunorubicin are not affected by major vault protein/lung resistance-related protein (vault) expression.

    Zon, van A; Mossink, MH; Schoester, M.; Scheper, R.J.; Sonneveld, P.; Wiemer, EA

    2004-01-01

    Vaults may contribute to multidrug resistance by transporting drugs away from their subcellular targets. To study the involvement of vaults in the extrusion of anthracyclines from the nucleus, we investigated the handling of daunorubicin by drug-sensitive and drug-resistant non-small lung cancer

  18. Accounting for cranial vault growth in experimental design.

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B; Holdsworth, David W

    2014-05-01

    Earlier studies have not accounted for continued growth when using the rat calvarial defect model to evaluate bone healing in vivo. The purpose of this study was: 1) to calculate rat cranial vault growth over time; and 2) to determine the effects of accounting for growth on defect healing. Bilateral parietal defects were created in 10 adult Wistar rats. Serial microscopic computerized tomography scans were performed. Bone mineral content (BMC) measured according to standard technique and repeated accounting for cranial growth over time was compared with the use of parametric and nonparametric tests. Cranial vault growth continued through 22 weeks of age, increasing 7.5% in width and 9.1% in length, and calvarial defects expanded proportionately. BMC was greater within defects accounting for growth 2-12 weeks postoperatively (P accounting for cranial growth given advances in serial imaging techniques. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    Vega C, H.R.; Mendez, R.; Iniguez, M.P.; Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I.; Barquero, R.

    2006-01-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during 18 F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  20. Modularization and Flexibilization.

    Van Meel, R. M.

    Publications in the fields of educational science, organization theory, and project management were analyzed to identify the possibilities that modularization offers to institutions of higher professional education and to obtain background information for use in developing a method for modularization in higher professional education. It was…

  1. Modular tree automata

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  2. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  3. Phase II Vault Testing of the Argonne RFID System

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-45)) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  4. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step

  5. Proposal of 'Modular Heliotron'

    Yamazaki, Kozo

    1994-01-01

    A new modular helical system named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  6. Evolution of Modularity Literature

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the modularity literature to identify the established and emerging perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature search and review was conducted through the use of bibliometrics and network analysis. The analysis...... identified structure within the literature, which revealed how the research area evolved between 1990 and 2015. Based on this search, the paper establishes the basis for analyzing the structure of modularity literature. Findings Factors were identified within the literature, demonstrating how it has evolved...... from a primary focus on the modularity of products to a broader view of the applicability of modularity. Within the last decade, numerous research areas have emerged within the broader area of modularity. Through core-periphery analysis, eight emerging sub-research areas are identified, of which one...

  7. Designing Modular Robotic Playware

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Marti, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the design of modular robotic objects that may enhance playful experiences. The approach builds upon the development of modular robotics to create a kind of playware, which is flexible in both set-up and activity building for the end-user to allow easy creation of games....... Key features of this design approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, activity design by end-users, and creative exploration of play activities. These features permit the use of such modular playware by a vast array of users, including disabled...... children who often could be prevented from using and taking benefits from modern technologies. The objective is to get any children moving, exchanging, experimenting and having fun, regardless of their cognitive or physical ability levels. The paper describes two prototype systems developed as modular...

  8. Proposal of 'modular heliotron'

    Yamazaki, Kozo.

    1993-11-01

    A new modular helical configuration named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  9. Seismic analysis of the ICPP high level liquid waste tanks and vaults

    Uldrich, E.D.; Malik, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two buried, closely spaced, reinforced concrete vaults founded on base rock were evaluated for gravity and safe shutdown earthquake loads. These vaults enclose steel tanks used to store high level radioactive liquid waste. Detailed 3-dimensional finite element models were used for state-of-the-art structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) analyses. Three soil dynamic property profiles were used to address soil variability. Vault accelerations are not significantly affected by the variability of soil dynamic properties. Lower bound soil properties yield maximum member forces and moments. Demands on the side closer to the other vault due to horizontal motions are lower due to SSSI effects. Combined gravity and seismic demand on the vault force resisting system was calculated. The vaults were qualified, using member capacities based on current design codes

  10. A modular optical sensor

    Conklin, John Albert

    This dissertation presents the design of a modular, fiber-optic sensor and the results obtained from testing the modular sensor. The modular fiber-optic sensor is constructed in such manner that the sensor diaphragm can be replaced with different configurations to detect numerous physical phenomena. Additionally, different fiber-optic detection systems can be attached to the sensor. Initially, the modular sensor was developed to be used by university of students to investigate realistic optical sensors and detection systems to prepare for advance studies of micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS). The design accomplishes this by doing two things. First, the design significantly lowers the costs associated with studying optical sensors by modularizing the sensor design. Second, the sensor broadens the number of physical phenomena that students can apply optical sensing techniques to in a fiber optics sensor course. The dissertation is divided into seven chapters covering the historical development of fiber-optic sensors, a theoretical overview of fiber-optic sensors, the design, fabrication, and the testing of the modular sensor developed in the course of this work. Chapter 1 discusses, in detail, how this dissertation is organized and states the purpose of the dissertation. Chapter 2 presents an historical overview of the development of optical fibers, optical pressure sensors, and fibers, optical pressure sensors, and optical microphones. Chapter 3 reviews the theory of multi-fiber optic detection systems, optical microphones, and pressure sensors. Chapter 4 presents the design details of the modular, optical sensor. Chapter 5 delves into how the modular sensor is fabricated and how the detection systems are constructed. Chapter 6 presents the data collected from the microphone and pressure sensor configurations of the modular sensor. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the data collected and draws conclusions about the design based on the data collected. Chapter 7 also

  11. Vault submodel for the second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    LeNeveu, D.M.

    1986-02-01

    The consequences to man and the environment of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste are being studied within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The concept being assessed is that of a sealed disposal vault at a depth of 1000 m in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. To determine the consequences, the vault and its environment are simulated using a SYstem Variability Analysis Code (SYVAC), a stochastic model of the disposal system. SYVAC contains three submodels that represent the three major parts of the disposal system: the vault, the geosphere and the biosphere. This report documents the conceptual and mathematical framework of the vault submodel

  12. An automated magnetic tape vault at CERN computer center

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly changing data processing landscape the underlying long-term storage technology remains the tried and tested magnetic tape. This robust and mature technology is used to store the complete LHC data set, from which a fraction of the data is copied to overlying disk caches for fast and widespread access. The handling of the magnetic tape cartridges is now fully automated, as they are racked in vaults where they are moved between the storage shelves and the tape drives by robotic arms.

  13. Backfill formulations for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    Yong, R.N.; Boonsinsuk, P.; Wong, G.; Ming, X.D.; Caporuscio, F.; Lytle, P.

    1987-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro are studying the concept of disposing of nuclear fuel wastes in a vault within the Canadian Shield. After nuclear waste containers have been emplaced in a vault, the vault will have to be backfilled permanently. A suitable backfill material should have low hydraulic conductivity and high radionuclide sorption capacity. The research was done with a goal of recommending a specification for formulating this backfill material. This report suggests that such a backfill material should be a mixture of coarse aggregates and swelling clay. Actual trial mixtures were prepared using crushed granite and natural Lake Agassiz clay. Various trial mixtures were subjected to constant-head permeability tests. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductivity of the aggregate-clay mixtures could be close to those of the clay (by itself) when the clay content was in the range of 25% or more. The resulting hydraulic conductivity of about 10 -10 m/s is considered to be low, especially since the maximum grain size is 19.1 mm. Selected mixtures were evaluated for free swell and swelling pressure, both of which increased with increasing clay content. When the clay content was 25%, the free swell was about 4%, compared with 6% for the 100% clay. The corresponding swelling pressure was about 16 kPa - in comparison to 48 kPa for the 100% clay. These results indicate that the proposed backfill material should contain about 25% clay, with a maximum grain size of 19.1 mm. The selected mixture was also tested to evaluate the effects of mixing methods, load-carrying capacity and compaction techniques suitable for the underground vault conditions. The proposed backfill material appeared to perform satisfactorily according to the criteria demanded. The backfill material proposed was further tested for its behaviour during water intake. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was found to be approximately 10 -10 m/s and the swelling pressure was

  14. Modular Lego-Electronics

    Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    . Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance

  15. A modular control system

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  16. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage.

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions.

  17. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage-system components in dry interim storage

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions

  18. Duality ensures modular covariance

    Li Miao; Yu Ming

    1989-11-01

    We show that the modular transformations for one point functions on the torus, S(n), satisfy the polynomial equations derived by Moore and Seiberg, provided the duality property of the model is ensured. The formula for S(n) is derived by us previously and should be valid for any conformal field theory. As a consequence, the full consistency conditions for modular invariance at higher genus are completely guaranteed by duality of the theory on the sphere. (orig.)

  19. Fusée ceramic vaults and domes in the Netherlands

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the fusée Ceramique vaults and domes constructed in The Netherlands just after World War II and describes the technique of construction as well as the advantages and disadvantages. Using only a minimum of concrete and steel, the environmental load of the vaults is

  20. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  3. Safety assessment for deep underground disposal vault-pathways analysis

    Lyon, R.B.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The concept verification phase of the Canadian programme for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste encompasses a period of about three years before the start of site selection. During this time, the methodology for Environmental and Safety Assessment studies is being developed by focusing on a model site. Pathways analysis is an important component of these studies. It involves the prediction of the rate at which radionuclides might be released from a disposal vault and travel through the geosphere and biosphere to reach man. The pathways analysis studies cover three major topics: geosphere pathways analysis, biosphere pathways analysis and potentially-disruptive-phenomena analysis. Geosphere pathways analysis includes a total systems analysis, using the computer program GARD2, vault analysis, which considers container failure and waste leaching, hydrogeological modelling and geochemical modelling. Biosphere pathways analysis incorporates a compartmental modelling approach using the computer program RAMM, and a food chain analysis using the computer program FOOD II. Potentially-disruptive-phenomena analysis involves the estimation of the probability and consequences of events such as earthquakes which might reduce the effectiveness of the barriers preventing the release of radionuclides. The current stage of development of the required methodology and data is discussed in each of the three areas and preliminary results are presented. (author)

  4. Present states and views on vault storage systems

    Yoshimura, Eiji

    2003-01-01

    Storage capacity of spent nuclear fuel storage pools in nuclear power station is reaching to a condition near its limit, and under a condition inevitable on delay of the Pu-thermal utilization plan importance on interim storage of the spent nuclear fuels is further rising. In U.S.A., Germany, and so on, a condition incapable of presenting nuclear energy business itself without its intermediate storage is approaching, so in Japan it will also be a key to smoothly promote the nuclear energy business how the interim storage is used and operated. Under such condition, in Japan storage facilities using a system called by 'metal cask' are established at areas of nuclear power stations to begin their operations. As on the system expensive metal containers are used for storage in themselves, it has a demerit of its high cost. On the other hand, on foreign countries, a storing system called by concrete cask, horizontal silo, or vault is occupying its main stream. Here was introduced present states and future views on vault storage system. (G. K)

  5. Novel Technique for the UX15 Cavern Vault Support System

    Rammer, H

    2000-01-01

    The overall LHC project schedule requires the civil engineering work to begin before the final LEP shutdown. The new caverns for the ATLAS experiment will be built in and around the existing underground structures at point 1. In order to make the best possible use of the time available for the LHC civil engineering before the shutdown of LEP, a particular arrangement for the construction of the UX15 cavern vault has been developed. The basic concept of this arrangement consists of the excavation of the cavern top heading and the installation of the concrete vault immediately afterwards, prior to the subsequent bench excavation after LEP shutdown. A temporary support of the dead weight of the concrete roof will be achieved by the suspension of the roof by 38 no. pre-stressed ground anchors of 225 tons capacity each. This support system will work up to the construction of the cavern base slab and walls and the completion of the permanent concrete lining.

  6. Preliminary assessment of alternative dry storage methods for the storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the (1) state of technology, (2) licensability, (3) implementation schedule, and (4) costs of alternative dry methods for storage of spent fuel at a reactor location when used to supplement reactor pool storage facilities. The methods of storage that were considered included storage in casks, drywells, concrete silos and air-cooled vaults. The impact of disassembly of spent fuel and storage of consolidated fuel rods was also determined. The economic assessments were made based on the current projected storage requirements of Virginia Electric and Power Company's Surry Station for the period 1985 to 2009, which has two operating pressurized water reactors (824 MWe each). It was estimated that the unit cost for storage of spent fuel in casks would amount to $117/kgU and that such costs for storage in drywells would amount to $137/kgU. However, based on the overall assessment it was concluded both storage methods were equal in merit. Modular methods of storage were generally found to be more economic than those requiring all or most of the facilities to be constructed prior to commencement of storage operations

  7. 3D SURVEYING AND GEOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF A GOTHIC NAVE VAULTING FROM POINT CLOUDS

    A. Costa-Jover

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of massive data captures techniques (MDC in recent years, such as the Terrestrial laser Scanner (TLS, raises the possibility of developing new assessment procedures for architectural heritage. The 3D models that it is able to obtain is a great potential tool, both for conservation purposes and for historical and architectural studies. The paper proposes a simple, non-invasive methodology for the assessment of masonry vaults from point clouds which makes it possible to obtain relevant data about the formal anomalies. The methodology is tested in Tortosa’s Gothic Cathedral’s vaults, where the geometrical differences between vaults, a priori equal, are identified and related with the partially known construction phases. The procedure can be easily used on any other vaulted construction of any kind, but is especially useful to deal with the complex geometry of Gothic masonry vaults.

  8. Vault Nanoparticles Packaged with Enzymes as an Efficient Pollutant Biodegradation Technology.

    Wang, Meng; Abad, Danny; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Mahendra, Shaily

    2015-11-24

    Vault nanoparticles packaged with enzymes were synthesized as agents for efficiently degrading environmental contaminants. Enzymatic biodegradation is an attractive technology for in situ cleanup of contaminated environments because enzyme-catalyzed reactions are not constrained by nutrient requirements for microbial growth and often have higher biodegradation rates. However, the limited stability of extracellular enzymes remains a major challenge for practical applications. Encapsulation is a recognized method to enhance enzymatic stability, but it can increase substrate diffusion resistance, lower catalytic rates, and increase the apparent half-saturation constants. Here, we report an effective approach for boosting enzymatic stability by single-step packaging into vault nanoparticles. With hollow core structures, assembled vault nanoparticles can simultaneously contain multiple enzymes. Manganese peroxidase (MnP), which is widely used in biodegradation of organic contaminants, was chosen as a model enzyme in the present study. MnP was incorporated into vaults via fusion to a packaging domain called INT, which strongly interacts with vaults' interior surface. MnP fused to INT and vaults packaged with the MnP-INT fusion protein maintained peroxidase activity. Furthermore, MnP-INT packaged in vaults displayed stability significantly higher than that of free MnP-INT, with slightly increased Km value. Additionally, vault-packaged MnP-INT exhibited 3 times higher phenol biodegradation in 24 h than did unpackaged MnP-INT. These results indicate that the packaging of MnP enzymes in vault nanoparticles extends their stability without compromising catalytic activity. This research will serve as the foundation for the development of efficient and sustainable vault-based bioremediation approaches for removing multiple contaminants from drinking water and groundwater.

  9. Modular design in fahion industry

    Ying Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available "Modular design" is a kind of design mode that not only can made clothing more interesting, makes the wearer can participate in choices, increase the possibility of clothing style .but also can extend the service cycle of clothing. In this "fast fashion" run market, the design idea of modular design can be a breakthrough point, help us find the way to balance the low-carbon and environmentally-friendly need and fashion. The article will combine the existing examples put the modular design summarized into three categories: component modular design and geometric modular design and compounded modular design.

  10. Symmetric modular torsatron

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  11. Criteria for software modularization

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  12. The prospects for dry fuel storage

    Harris, G.G.; Elliott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dry storage of spent nuclear fuels is one method of dealing with radioactive waste. This article reports from a one day seminar on future prospects for dry fuel storage held in November 1993. Dry storage in an inert gas or air environment in vaults or casks, is an alternative to wet storage in water-filled ponds. Both wet and dry storage form part of the Interim Storage option for radioactive waste materials, and form alternatives to reprocessing or direct disposal in a deep repository. It has become clear that a large market for dry fuel storage will exist in the future. It will therefore be necessary to ensure that the various technical, safety, commercial, legislative and political constraints associated with it can be met effectively. (UK)

  13. Dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuels and vitrified wastes

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of the work of GEC Energy Systems Ltd. over the years in the dry storage of irradiated fuel. The dry-storage module (designated as Cell 4) for irradiated magnox fuel recently constructed at Wylfa nuclear power station is described. Development work on the long-term dry storage of irradiated oxide fuels is reported. Four different methods of storage are compared. These are the pond, vault, cask and caisson stores. It is concluded that there are important advantages with the passive air-cooled ESL dry stove. (U.K.)

  14. Electrochemical desalination of the ionic mixture measured in the vault of Rørby Church - Laboratory scale

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Bøllingtoft, P.

    2011-01-01

    Salt induced deterioration of the vault in Rørby Church has resulted in extensive deterioration of the vault itself and of the murals on the lower surface of the vault. The upper surface of the vault has previously been covered with cement mortar. After removing this cement mortar some...... of the bricks erode and form brick powder. The brick powder was collected in 2002, 2005 and 2011 and measured for the most common salts in Danish vault structures. On the basis of the actual measured ions two different salt mixtures were made and used for contamination of brick specimens. By use of an applied...

  15. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  16. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  17. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  18. Nitrate Diffusional Releases from the Saltstone Facility, Vault 2, with Respect to Different Concrete Wall Thicknesses

    ROBERT, HIERGESELL

    2005-01-01

    To assist the Saltstone Vault 2 Design Team, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative concrete wall thicknesses in limiting nitrate diffusion away from the planned facility. While the current design calls for 18-inch concrete walls, alternative thicknesses of 12-in, 8-in, and 6-in were evaluated using a simplified 1-D numerical model. To serve as a guide for Saltstone Vault 2 conceptual design, the results of this investigation were applied to Saltstone Vault 4 to determine what the hypothetical limits would be for concrete wall thicknesses thinner than the planned 18-inches. This was accomplished by adjusting the Vault 4 Limits, based on the increased nitrate diffusion rates through the thinner concrete walls, such that the 100-m well limit of 44 mg/L of nitrate as nitrate was not exceeded. The implication of these preliminary results is that as thinner vault walls are implemented there is a larger release of nitrate, thus necessitating optimal vault placement to minimize the number of vaults placed along a single groundwater flow path leading to the discharge zone

  19. The Acoustics of the Double Elliptical Vault of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Italy

    Umberto Berardi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the acoustic characteristics of the double elliptical vault, which overlooks the Grand Staircase of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Italy. The Royal Palace was built by the architect Luigi Vanvitelli in the Seventeenth Century and it is the largest royal building in Italy. The double elliptical vault presents a great scenography effect. Inside the vault, on the planking level, musicians used to play for the king and his guests when the royal procession, going up the grand staircase, entered the royal apartments, creating astonishment among the guests who heard the music without understanding from where it was coming. Since the musicians were inside the vault, the long reverberation made the listeners perceive the vault to be enveloped by the music. To investigate this effect, the acoustic characteristics of the double vault were measured, putting the sound source on the planking level of the vault, while the microphones were put along the staircase and in the vestibule towards the royal apartments. Finally, the spatial distribution of several acoustic parameters is evaluated also using architectural acoustic simulations.

  20. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC

  1. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC.

  2. Vaginal vault recurrences of endometrial cancer in non-irradiated patients

    Hardarson, Hordur Alexander; Nyhøj Heidemann, Lene; Christensen, René dePont

    2015-01-01

    are few and limited to previously irradiated patients or patients with advanced disease. Investigation of surgical treatment for isolated vaginal vault recurrence is practically nonexistent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of RT and ST in a non-irradiated group with recurrent endometrial...... cancer limited to the vaginal vault. METHODS: Patients treated for recurrent endometrial cancer at Odense University Hospital, Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were identified, n = 118. Thirty-three patients had an isolated vaginal vault recurrence and were treated with either RT, ST or both. Re...

  3. ROLE OF MESH REPAIR IN PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPSE, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO VAULT PROLAPSE & NULLIPAROUS PROLAPSE

    Geeta Vandana Reddi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pelvic organ prolapse is a common complaint in gynaecological practice. Nulliparous prolapse is seen in 2% of female population and vault prolapse in 0.5% following hysterectomy. Various surgical procedures have been described for the repair of vault prolapse e.g. transvaginal sacrospinous colpopexy, transabdominal sacral colpopexy, Le Forte's operation, colpoclesis, posterior intravaginal sling plasty etc. The introduction of synthetic mesh like Prolene, Mersilene for the repair of vault prolapse have the advantage of tensile strength. In nulliparous prolapse and uterovaginal prolapse also, the supports of uterus are weakened, so there seems to be a definite advantage of mesh repair over sling surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study done in 50 patients with vault prolapse, Nulliparous prolapse and patients with UV prolapse who want to retain their menstrual and reproductive function were identified and repair of defects were done. 2 cases who underwent both hysterectomy and sacral colpopexy in two sittings were included in the study. They were followed up for a period of 6 weeks - 29 months. RESULTS In the present study, the mean age for vault prolapse was 52.14 years, mean parity was 3.36. Vault prolapses were found to be more common after abdominal hysterectomy 60.97% compared to vaginal 39.02%. Common indication for hysterectomy is pelvic organ prolapse followed by DUB in this study. The mean time between the hysterectomy and vault prolapse in this study was 5.46 years. Importance should be given to proper enterocoele repair and vault suspense time of primary surgery. In this study incidence of smoking in vault prolapse cases was 34.14% significant. In cases of sacral colpopexy for vault prolapse in this study there were no major mesh related complications and the cure rate was 97.5%. So, sacral colpopexy with prolene mesh i.e. abdominal mesh repair can be employed as the primary surgery for vault prolapse. The safety

  4. First experiences with electrochemical in-situ desalination of bricks in a church vault construction

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    was chosen. Salt profiles from three different bricks within this area clarified two bricks with low ion contents and one with a high ion content which is representative for church vault constructions. The idea of using a climate chamber for dissolution of present salts for minimizing additional water supply...... problematic in relation to church vault constructions with murals as the surface deterioration can result in loss of valuable cultural heritage. An electrochemical method has been investigated with focus on possible use for desalination of salt loaded vault constructions with murals in laboratory scale...

  5. Experimental modelling of core debris dispersion from the vault under a PWR pressure vessel: Part 1

    Macbeth, R.V.; Trenberth, R.

    1987-12-01

    Modelling experiments have been done on a 1/25 scale model in Perspex of the vault under a PWR pressure vessel. Various liquids have been used to simulate molten core debris assumed to have fallen on to the vault floor from a breach at the bottom of the pressure vessel. High pressure air and helium have been used to simulate the discharge of steam and gas from the breach. The dispersion of liquid via the vault access shafts has been measured. Photographs have been taken of fluid flow patterns and velocity profiles have been obtained. The requirements for further experiments are indicated. (author)

  6. Seismic scoping evaluation of high level liquid waste tank vaults at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Uldrich, E.D.; McGee, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic scoping evaluation of buried vaults enclosing high level liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been performed. The objective of this evaluation was to scope out which of the vaults could be demonstrated to be seismically adequate against the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Using approximate analytical methods, earthquake experience data, and engineering judgement, this study determined that one vault configuration would be expected to meet ICPP seismic design criteria, one would not be considered seismically adequate against the SSE, and one could be shown to be seismically adequate against the SSE using nonlinear analysis

  7. Adaptive Modular Playware

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...

  8. Modularization of Courses.

    Eastern Arizona Coll., Thatcher.

    Eastern Arizona College has developed a modularized system of instruction for five vocational and vocationally related courses--Introduction to Business, Business Mathematics, English, Drafting, and Electronics. Each course is divided into independent segments of instruction and students have open-entry and exit options. This document reviews the…

  9. Modular Cure Provision

    Winther-Hansen, Casper; Frandsen, Thomas

    facilitate co-creation through open platforms and service modularity. Based on data from two pharmaceuticals we explore issues of governance related to the relative openness of platforms and their completeness. Whereas some pharmaceuticals should cater to sophisticated needs of competent users through open...

  10. The Challenges of Modularization.

    Brown, Sally; Saunders, Danny

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the movement towards credit accumulation and transfer in higher education institutions based on experiences at two universities in the United Kingdom, the University of Northumbria and the University of Glamorgan. Modularization, or unitization, and semesterization are considered, and three key areas are addressed: management, student…

  11. Modular co-ordination

    Blach, K.

    Notatet er på engelsk, idet det er lavet som et oplæg til den internationale standardiseringsorganisations (ISO) arbejde med målkoordinering i byggeriet. Materialet har også været forelagt ekspertgrupperne i CIB W24 og i International Modular Group. Det i notatet præsenterede materiale er blevet...

  12. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  13. Quality assurance plan for placement of cold-cap grout, demonstration vault, Hanford Grout Vault Program. Final report

    Harrington, P.T.; Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; Walley, D.M.

    1992-08-01

    During FY 91, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold cap, a nonradioactive layer, between the solidified waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration waste disposal vault at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Facility. This document recommends requirements for a quality assurance (QA) plan for field mixing and placing of the cold-cap grout during final closure of the demonstration vault. Preplacement activities emphasize selection and testing of materials that will match the performance of materials used in the WES grout. Materials sources and applicable American Society of Testing and Materials, American Concrete Institute, and American Petroleum Institute specifications and requirements are provided. Archiving of physical samples of materials is essential, in addition to careful maintenance of test reports and laboratory data. Full-scale field trial mixing and a detailed preconstruction conference are recommended. Placement activities focus on production and placement of a grout that remains sufficiently constant throughout all batches and meets performance requirements. QA activities must be coordinated between the batch plant and delivery site. Recommended sampling during placement includes cylinders cast for subsequent tests of compressive strength and for nondestructive evaluation and prisms cast for monitoring volume stability. A minimum of two lifts is recommended. Postplacement activities include long-term monitoring of the properties of grout specimens cast during placement. Minimum testing of cylinders includes pulse velocity, fundamental frequency, and unconfined compressive strength. Monitoring characteristics of the microstructure also are recommended. The QA plan should designate an organization to have responsibility for maintaining complete records, reports, and archived samples, including details of deviations from plans written before field placement.

  14. Effect of known clad and pellet reactions on the GEC ESL design of dry vault store

    Wheeler, D.

    1984-01-01

    The more important clad and pellet reactions and their temperature dependence are briefly reviewed, followed by an outline of the economical GEC ESL interim spent fuel storage concept that highlights: The ability of the concept to reduce the temperature of the fuel to values where the clad and pellet reactions are minimal. The containment philosophy that enables any consequences of the reactions to be safely retained to ALARA principles. The maintenance of an air storage environment that can never be lost. The utilisation of passive, naturally induced cooling regimes. The ability to continuously monitor for long-term degradation, together with ease of inspection at any time during storage

  15. Dry vault for spent fuel depository. Basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    Bardelle, P.; Mercier, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The building includes a depository concrete cell equipped with 315 depository wells. The cooling of these wells is guaranteed by an air natural circulation. A handling cell completes the installation. The depository layout allows to guarantee the safety-criticality even in case of 9 MSK strength earthquake. The biological protections supplied by concrete walls, the lead glass window and the shielding doors has been calculated in order to limit to 2 μ Sv/h, the dose rate at the work place. No staff contamination or irradiation was observed

  16. Modularization of Industrial Service Processes

    Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    In this paper we examine how complex service processes can be dealt with through the lenses of modularization strategies. Through an illustrative case study of a manufacturer of industrial equipment for process industries we propose the use of the service modularity function to conceptualize...... and assess the service modularity of service offerings. The measured degree of modularity would allow us to sharpen our understanding of modularity in the context of industrial services, such as the role of standardization and component reuse on architecture flexibility. It would also provide a foundation...

  17. Survey and assessment of radioactive waste management facilities in the United States. Section 2.5. Air-cooled vault storage facilities

    1986-01-01

    There are two basic types of air-cooled vaults for the storage of spent nuclear fuel or vitrified HLRW. The two types, differentiated by the method of air cooling used, are the open-vault concept and the closed-vault concept. The following aspects of these air-cooled vault storage facility concepts are discussed: description and operation of facilities; strucutral design considerations and analysis; nuclear design considerations and analyses; vault environmental design considerations; unique design features; and accident analysis

  18. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  19. Experimental modelling of core debris dispersion from the vault under a PWR pressure vessel. Pt. 2

    Rose, P.W.

    1987-12-01

    In previous experiments, done on a 1/25 scale model in Perspex of the vault under a PWR pressure vessel, the instrument tubes support structure built into the vault was not included. It consists of a number of grids made up of fairly massive steel girders. These have now been added to the model and experiments performed using water to simulate molten core debris assumed to have fallen on to the vault floor and high-pressure air to simulate the discharge of steam or gas from the assumed breach at the bottom of the pressure vessel. The results show that the tubes support structure considerably reduces the carry-over of liquid via the vault access shafts. (author)

  20. GOTHIC analysis of post-accident hydrogen mixing behaviour in CANDU fuelling machine vault

    Yim, K.; Wong, R.C.; Fluke, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The GOTHIC code was used to assess the post-accident hydrogen gas mixing patterns in a CANDU reactor containment and demonstrate the acceptability of Ontario Hydro Nuclear's hydrogen mitigation methods. The fuelling machine vault, being a small volume room containing major reactor piping, is the room of most concern with respect to hydrogen concentrations. Detailed three dimensional modelling of the gas mixing patterns in the fuelling machine vault was completed. Results showed that, even without forced air circulation, there is enough dispersion of hydrogen to other parts of containment to preclude the build-up of sensitive mixtures in the vault. For a brief time during the peak period of hydrogen release, hydrogen concentrations rise to close to the lower ignition limit in a small portion of the vault, but these hydrogen-steam-air mixtures are considered acceptable. Natural mixing alone is sufficient to preclude damaging hydrogen burns. (author)

  1. Health physics challenges involved with opening a "seventeen-inch" concrete waste vault.

    Sullivan, Patrick T; Pizzulli, Michelle

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the various activities involved with opening a sealed legacy "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault and the health physics challenges and solutions employed. As part of a legacy waste stream that was removed from the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault labeled 1-95 was moved to the new Waste Management Facility for ultimate disposal. Because the vault contained 239Pu foils with a total activity in excess of the transuranic waste limits, the foils needed to be removed and repackaged for disposal. Conventional diamond wire saws could not be used because of facility constraints, so this project relied mainly on manual techniques. The planning and engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to open the vault and remove the waste while keeping dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  2. Vaginal vault drainage after complicated single-port access laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy

    Soo-Jeong Lee

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Vaginal vault drainage could be a safe alternative that allows for the management of postoperative morbidity and retains the advantages of minimally invasive surgery after complicated SPA-LAVH.

  3. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

  4. The Application of Carbon Composites in the Rehabilitation of Historic Baroque Vaults

    Jiří Witzany; Jiří Brožovský; Tomáš Čejka; Klára Kroftová; Jan Kubát; Daniel Makovička; Radek Zigler

    2015-01-01

    The stabilization and reinforcement of damaged barrel vaults with lunettes over an arcaded walk, applying composite strips based on high-strength carbon fibers and epoxy resin, was performed during the restoration of a historic monastery. The application of reinforcing composite strips in the soffit of damaged barrel vaults was preceded by relatively extensive experimental research and theoretical analyses. This method significantly reduces the interventions into and the degradation of the or...

  5. The Application of Carbon Composites in the Rehabilitation of Historic Baroque Vaults

    Jiří Witzany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stabilization and reinforcement of damaged barrel vaults with lunettes over an arcaded walk, applying composite strips based on high-strength carbon fibers and epoxy resin, was performed during the restoration of a historic monastery. The application of reinforcing composite strips in the soffit of damaged barrel vaults was preceded by relatively extensive experimental research and theoretical analyses. This method significantly reduces the interventions into and the degradation of the original historic structure (surface application and is reversible.

  6. Vault Safety and Inventory System users manual, PRIME 2350. Revision 1

    Downey, N.J.

    1994-12-14

    This revision is issued to request review of the attached document: VSIS User Manual, PRIME 2350, which provides user information for the operation of the VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System). It describes operational aspects of Prime 2350 minicomputer and vault data acquisition equipment. It also describes the User`s Main Menu and menu functions, including REPORTS. Also, system procedures for the Prime 2350 minicomputer are covered.

  7. Vault Safety and Inventory System users manual, PRIME 2350. Revision 1

    Downey, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    This revision is issued to request review of the attached document: VSIS User Manual, PRIME 2350, which provides user information for the operation of the VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System). It describes operational aspects of Prime 2350 minicomputer and vault data acquisition equipment. It also describes the User's Main Menu and menu functions, including REPORTS. Also, system procedures for the Prime 2350 minicomputer are covered

  8. The universal modular platform

    North, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A new and patented design for offshore wellhead platforms has been developed to meet a 'fast track' requirement for increased offshore production, from field locations not yet identified. The new design uses modular construction to allow for radical changes in the water depth of the final location and assembly line efficiency in fabrication. By utilizing high strength steels and structural support from the well conductors the new design accommodates all planned production requirements on a support structure significantly lighter and less expensive than the conventional design it replaces. Twenty two platforms based on the new design were ready for installation within 18 months of the project start. Installation of the new platforms began in 1992 for drilling support and 1993 for production support. The new design has become the Company standard for all future production platforms. Large saving and construction costs have been realized through its light weight, flexibility in both positioning and water depth, and its modular construction

  9. Modular chemiresistive sensor

    Alam, Maksudul M.; Sampathkumaran, Uma

    2018-02-20

    The present invention relates to a modular chemiresistive sensor. In particular, a modular chemiresistive sensor for hypergolic fuel and oxidizer leak detection, carbon dioxide monitoring and detection of disease biomarkers. The sensor preferably has two gold or platinum electrodes mounted on a silicon substrate where the electrodes are connected to a power source and are separated by a gap of 0.5 to 4.0 .mu.M. A polymer nanowire or carbon nanotube spans the gap between the electrodes and connects the electrodes electrically. The electrodes are further connected to a circuit board having a processor and data storage, where the processor can measure current and voltage values between the electrodes and compare the current and voltage values with current and voltage values stored in the data storage and assigned to particular concentrations of a pre-determined substance such as those listed above or a variety of other substances.

  10. Fast quantum modular exponentiation

    Meter, Rodney van; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the impact on quantum modular exponentiation of architectural features and possible concurrent gate execution. Various arithmetic algorithms are evaluated for execution time, potential concurrency, and space trade-offs. We find that to exponentiate an n-bit number, for storage space 100n (20 times the minimum 5n), we can execute modular exponentiation 200-700 times faster than optimized versions of the basic algorithms, depending on architecture, for n=128. Addition on a neighbor-only architecture is limited to O(n) time, whereas non-neighbor architectures can reach O(log n), demonstrating that physical characteristics of a computing device have an important impact on both real-world running time and asymptotic behavior. Our results will help guide experimental implementations of quantum algorithms and devices

  11. An estimation of tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults

    Yu, A.D.; Cook, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    At the request of Waste Management, Interim Waste Technology has conducted a modeling study to estimate the tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults. These inventory limits are based on the groundwater impact of the planned waste disposal. The tritium inventory limit for an Intermediate Level Tritium Vault (ILTV) is estimated to be 400,000 Curies with a 100 year storage period. During this period, it is assumed that the ILTV will be vented, any leachate will be extracted, and its performance will be carefully monitored. The tritium inventory limits for a Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV) and an Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vault (ILNTV) are estimated to be 15,000 and 11,000 Curies, respectively. Venting and leachate extraction were not assumed necessary. These operational alternatives would further enhance the performance of these vaults. These limits are significantly higher than the forecasted maximum tritium inventories for the vaults. Details of the modeling study are described in the attached report

  12. Experiments for post accident hydrogen dispersion in F.M. vault using helium

    Bajaj, S.S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Mishra, S.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain postulated accident scenarios involving a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) simultaneous with impairment of Emergency Core Cooling (ECC), generation of hydrogen due to reaction between the zirconium clad and coolant is predicted in the coolant channel. The hydrogen generated in the coolant channels would eventually get released either in Fuelling Machine (FM) vault or in the pump room atmosphere depending on the location of the break. Analytical studies carried out so far to estimate the time dependent hydrogen concentration in the accident FM Vault consider the entire vault as a single volume. Tests were, therefore, planned to assess the mixing within the FM vault atmosphere with and without the availability of cooling fan units by releasing a known quantity of helium (instead of hydrogen) at selected locations and monitoring the relative concentration of helium in air at various locations. Test was conducted by releasing about 360 1 helium over a period of to 4 minutes at preselected locations and by measuring the relative concentration (leak rates indicated by helium leak detectors) at various locations in the FM vault. The results of cases with fans operating indicate repeatable and consistent trends of good mixing in the vault. For other cases (non turbulent, still condition) the results are sensitive to various factors including orientation of release. The former set of cases (turbulent. fans operating) are more relevant for postulated accident conditions. (author). 1 tab., 18 figs

  13. A COMPARISON OF UPPER-EXTREMITY REACTION FORCES BETWEEN THE YURCHENKO VAULT AND FLOOR EXERCISE

    Matthew Kirk Seeley

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables were peak vertical and peak anterior-posterior reaction forces. Each participant performed three trials of both conditions with the trail hand contacting a force platform. Vertical and anterior-posterior reaction forces, normalized to body weight, were greater (p < 0.05 during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault (2.38 than during the floor exercise round-off (2.15. Vertical reaction forces during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise round-off are similar to reaction forces transmitted to upper extremities during other gymnastic skills and ground reaction forces transmitted to lower extremities while running and walking at various speeds. Results of this study reveal a need for further research considering methods aimed at reducing reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities during the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise.

  14. The potential for microbial life in a Canadian high-level nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1989-12-01

    Recent studies have concluded that microbial contamination of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is inevitable. Factors that will affect the development of substantial population of micro-organisms include: physiological tolerance of microbes; fluid movement in a vault; availability of nutrients; and availability of energy sources. It is difficult to resolve whether microbial growth will either positively or negatively affect the performance of a vault. One of the necessary steps towards ultimately answering this question is to assess the potential for microbial growth in a disposal vault, based on a nutrient and energy budget. This report gives a quantitative (but conservative) inventory of nutrients and potential energy sources present in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste vault, which hypothetically could support the growth of micro-organisms. Maximum population densities are calculated based on these inventories and assuming that all conditions for microbial growth are optimal, although this will certainly not be the case. Laboratory studies under the vault-relevant conditions are being performed to put realistic boundaries on the calculated numbers. Initial results from these studies, combined with data from a natural analogue site indicate that the calculated population densities could be overestimated by four to five orders of magnitude. Limited data show no effect of the presence of microbes on the transport of Tc, I, and Sr in backfill sand columns. Additional work is needed to address transport effects on buffer and backfill clay columns

  15. Preoperative Biometric Parameters Predict the Vault after ICL Implantation: A Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Zheng, Qian-Yin; Xu, Wen; Liang, Guan-Lu; Wu, Jing; Shi, Jun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the preoperative biometric parameters of the anterior segment and the vault after implantable Collamer lens (ICL) implantation via this retrospective study. Retrospective clinical study. A total of 78 eyes from 41 patients who underwent ICL implantation surgery were included in this study. Preoperative biometric parameters, including white-to-white (WTW) diameter, central corneal thickness, keratometer, pupil diameter, anterior chamber depth, sulcus-to-sulcus diameter, anterior chamber area (ACA) and central curvature radius of the anterior surface of the lens (Lenscur), were measured. Lenscur and ACA were measured with Rhinoceros 5.0 software on the image scanned with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). The vault was assessed by UBM 3 months after surgery. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was employed to identify the variables that were correlated with the vault. The results showed that the vault was correlated with 3 variables: ACA (22.4 ± 4.25 mm2), WTW (11.36 ± 0.29 mm) and Lenscur (9.15 ± 1.21 mm). The regressive equation was: vault (mm) = 1.785 + 0.017 × ACA + 0.051 × Lenscur - 0.203 × WTW. Biometric parameters of the anterior segment (ACA, WTW and Lenscur) can predict the vault after ICL implantation using a new regression equation. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Modular Mobile Application Design

    Jim Hahn; Nathaniel Ryckman

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also r...

  17. Modular remote radiation monitor

    Lacerda, Fabio; Farias, Marcos S.; Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Remote Radiation Monitor (MRRM) is a novel radiation monitor suitable for monitoring environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a portable compact-size low-power microprocessor-based electronic device which provides its monitoring data to other electronic systems, physically distant from it, by means of an electronic communication channel, which can be wired or wireless according to the requirements of each application. Besides its low-power highly-integrated circuit design, the Modular Remote Radiation Monitor is presented in a modular architecture, which promotes full compliance to the technical requirements of different applications while minimizing cost, size and power consumption. Its communication capability also supports the implementation of a network of multiple radiation monitors connected to a supervisory system, capable of remotely controlling each monitor independently as well as visualizing the radiation levels from all monitors. A prototype of the MRRM, functionally equivalent to the MRA-7027 radiation monitor, was implemented and connected to a wired MODBUS network of MRA-7027 monitors, responsible for monitoring ionizing radiation inside Argonauta reactor room at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. Based on the highly positive experimental results obtained, further design is currently underway in order to produce a consumer version of the MRRM. (author)

  18. MUSIC, MODULARITY AND SYNTAX

    Javier Valenzuela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available First generation cognitive science has always maintained that the mind/brain is a modular system. This has been especially apparent in linguistics, where the modularity thesis goes largely unquestioned by the linguistic mainstream. Cognitive linguists have long disputed the reality of modular architectures of grammar. Instead of conceiving syntax as a computational system of a relatively small set of formal principles and parameters, cognitive linguists take the notion of grammatical construction to be the basic unit of syntax: syntax is simply our repertoire of form-meaning pairings. On such a view, there is no a-priori reason to believe that semantics and phonology cannot affect syntax. In the present paper, we want to take things a step further and suggest, more generally, that language is not a module of cognition in any strict sense. We present preliminary results from research in progress concerning the effect of music on grammatical constructions. More specifically, our experiment compares reaction times between two grammatical constructions that differ in semantics and intonational curves but share lexical material. Our data so far suggests that subjects take less time reading the construction when the semantic bias and intonation match than in non-matching cases. This, we argue, suggests not only that semantics, phonology and syntax form an information bundle (i.e. a construction in the cognitive linguistic sense, but that perceived similarity of music can influence linguistic cognition.

  19. On sub-modularization and morphological heterogeneity in modular robotics

    Lyder, A. H.; Stoy, K.; Garciá, R. F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Modular robots are a kind of robots built from mechatronic modules, which can be assembled in many different ways allowing the modular robot to assume a wide range of morphologies and functions. An important question in modular robotics is to which degree modules should be heterogeneous....... In this paper we introduce two contributing factors to heterogeneity namely morphological heterogeneity and sub-functional modularization. Respectively, the ideas are to create modules with significantly different morphologies and to spread sub-functionality across modules. Based on these principles we design...... and implement the Thor robot and evaluate it by participating in the ICRA Planetary Robotic Contingency Challenge. The Thor robot demonstrates that sub-functional modularity and morphological heterogeneity may increase the versatility of modular robots while reducing the complexity of individual modules, which...

  20. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  1. Searchable Data Vault: Encrypted Queries in Secure Distributed Cloud Storage

    Geong Sen Poh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage services allow users to efficiently outsource their documents anytime and anywhere. Such convenience, however, leads to privacy concerns. While storage providers may not read users’ documents, attackers may possibly gain access by exploiting vulnerabilities in the storage system. Documents may also be leaked by curious administrators. A simple solution is for the user to encrypt all documents before submitting them. This method, however, makes it impossible to efficiently search for documents as they are all encrypted. To resolve this problem, we propose a multi-server searchable symmetric encryption (SSE scheme and construct a system called the searchable data vault (SDV. A unique feature of the scheme is that it allows an encrypted document to be divided into blocks and distributed to different storage servers so that no single storage provider has a complete document. By incorporating the scheme, the SDV protects the privacy of documents while allowing for efficient private queries. It utilizes a web interface and a controller that manages user credentials, query indexes and submission of encrypted documents to cloud storage services. It is also the first system that enables a user to simultaneously outsource and privately query documents from a few cloud storage services. Our preliminary performance evaluation shows that this feature introduces acceptable computation overheads when compared to submitting documents directly to a cloud storage service.

  2. Cryoelectron microscopy imaging of recombinant and tissue derived vaults: localization of the MVP N termini and VPARP.

    Mikyas, Yeshi; Makabi, Miriam; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Harrington, Lea; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Stewart, Phoebe L

    2004-11-12

    The vault is a highly conserved ribonucleoprotein particle found in all higher eukaryotes. It has a barrel-shaped structure and is composed of the major vault protein (MVP); vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP); telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1); and small untranslated RNA (vRNA). Although its strong conservation and high abundance indicate an important cellular role, the function of the vault is unknown. In humans, vaults have been implicated in multidrug resistance during chemotherapy. Recently, assembly of recombinant vaults has been established in insect cells expressing only MVP. Here, we demonstrate that co-expression of MVP with one or both of the other two vault proteins results in their co-assembly into regularly shaped vaults. Particles assembled from MVP with N-terminal peptide tags of various length are compared. Cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM) and single-particle image reconstruction methods were used to determine the structure of nine recombinant vaults of various composition, as well as wild-type and TEP1-deficient mouse vaults. Recombinant vaults with MVP N-terminal peptide tags showed internal density that varied in size with the length of the tag. Reconstruction of a recombinant vault with a cysteine-rich tag revealed 48-fold rotational symmetry for the vault. A model is proposed for the organization of MVP within the vault with all of the MVP N termini interacting non-covalently at the vault midsection and 48 copies of MVP forming each half vault. CryoEM difference mapping localized VPARP to three density bands lining the inner surface of the vault. Difference maps designed to localize TEP1 showed only weak density inside of the caps, suggesting that TEP1 may interact with MVP via a small interaction region. In the absence of atomic-resolution structures for either VPARP or TEP1, fold recognition methods were applied. A total of 21 repeats were predicted for the TEP1 WD-repeat domain, suggesting an unusually large beta-propeller fold.

  3. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  4. The mechanism of vault opening from the high resolution structure of the N-terminal repeats of MVP.

    Querol-Audí, Jordi; Casañas, Arnau; Usón, Isabel; Luque, Daniel; Castón, José R; Fita, Ignasi; Verdaguer, Nuria

    2009-11-04

    Vaults are ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in a diversity of cellular processes, including multidrug resistance, transport mechanisms and signal transmission. The vault particle shows a barrel-shaped structure organized in two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein MVP. Earlier data indicated that vault halves can dissociate at acidic pH. The crystal structure of the vault particle solved at 8 A resolution, together with the 2.1-A structure of the seven N-terminal domains (R1-R7) of MVP, reveal the interactions governing vault association and provide an explanation for a reversible dissociation induced by low pH. The structural comparison with the recently published 3.5 A model shows major discrepancies, both in the main chain tracing and in the side chain assignment of the two terminal domains R1 and R2.

  5. Modular organization and hospital performance.

    Kuntz, Ludwig; Vera, Antonio

    2007-02-01

    The concept of modularization represents a modern form of organization, which contains the vertical disaggregation of the firm and the use of market mechanisms within hierarchies. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the use of modular structures has a positive effect on hospital performance. The empirical section makes use of multiple regression analyses and leads to the main result that modularization does not have a positive effect on hospital performance. However, the analysis also finds out positive efficiency effects of two central ideas of modularization, namely process orientation and internal market mechanisms.

  6. Modular analysis of biological networks.

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of complex biological networks has traditionally relied on decomposition into smaller, semi-autonomous units such as individual signaling pathways. With the increased scope of systems biology (models), rational approaches to modularization have become an important topic. With increasing acceptance of de facto modularity in biology, widely different definitions of what constitutes a module have sparked controversies. Here, we therefore review prominent classes of modular approaches based on formal network representations. Despite some promising research directions, several important theoretical challenges remain open on the way to formal, function-centered modular decompositions for dynamic biological networks.

  7. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  8. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  9. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type

  10. Modular biometric system

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  11. Architecture - re-Construction - Geometry: a knowledge path applied to the study of Plantery's vaults in Turin

    Roberta Spallone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantery's vaults, by the name of the architect working in Turin since first years of '700, are composed by a main vault intersected by some axial and angular secondary vaults. Plantery's vaults allow to roof over unitary spaces obtaining effects of lightness also by small rises. Their diffusion, up to the '80s of the century, in boardrooms as palaces halls, and the richness of variations on the theme, justifies a research, that makes use of survey and digital modeling. This research is focused on the relationships between geometric models and built architecture, connected by use of materials, construction techniques and decorative styles.

  12. Modular gamma systems

    Millegan, D.R.; Nixon, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards requires sensitive, easily operated instruments for rapid inspection of personnel and vehicles to ensure that no uranium or plutonium is being diverted. Two portable gamma-ray detection systems have been developed. The Modular Gamma System (MGS) is very sensitive and two or more systems can be connected for even better performance. The multiunit configuration can be deployed by motor vehicle for search of large areas too extensive to search on foot. The Programmable Rate Monitor (PRM) is less sensitive but much smaller and therefore is more suitable for search of vehicles, personnel, or smaller areas. The PRM is programmable, which implements measurement and alarm algorithms for individual applications

  13. Emotion, Modularity and Rationalaction

    Martínez Manrique, Fernando; Universidad de Granada

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary theories of emotion view it as related to rational action. This paper begins stating two ways in which a system could be deemed rational, which I call the contributive and constitutive way. I assess the possibility whether emotion can be rational in both ways, as a system capable of producing rational action by itself. To this end I analyze the modular view of emotion, especially in a version of dual-system theory. I will argue that this view has at least two problems –the proble...

  14. Modular Mobile Application Design

    Jim Hahn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also reports on the findings of two rounds of usability testing and the plans for future development of the app.

  15. Modular power station

    Inoue, T; Kanazawa, T

    1979-03-19

    In order to shorten the construction period of powerstations, to reduce the number of specialists at site and to prevent technical breakdowns, it was proposed that considerable parts of the powerstation should be assembled on a floating platform and then be towed to site by water, where they are set on foundations and then connected. It is now proposed that the necessary additional equipment (such as water supply plant, storage plant, Diesel generator and service buildings etc.) should be assembled on a second platform, and also transported by water on this. This modular construction will also reduce costs.

  16. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  17. Dry Eye

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  18. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system studies: closed-cycle vault

    Washington, J.A.; Ganley, J.T.

    1984-02-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires the DOE to submit a proposal to Congress by June 1985 for the construction of one or more Monitored Retrieval Storage (MRS) facilities. In response, the DOE initiated studies to develop system descriptions and cost estimates for preconceptual designs of storage concepts suitable for use at MRS facilities. This report provides a system description and cost estimates for a Closed-Cycle Vault (CCV) MRS facility. The facility description is divided into four parts: (1) the R and H area, (2) the interface facility, (3) the on-site transport system, and (4) the storage system. The MRS facility has been designed to meet handling rates of 1800 and 3000 MTU/yr. The corresponding peak inventories are 15,000 and 72,000 MTU. Three types of cases were considered, based on the material to be stored: (1) Spent fuel only; (2) HLW and TRU waste; and (3) HLW only. For each of these three types, a cost estimate was done for a 15,000 and a 72,000 MTU facility, resulting in six different cost estimates. Section 4 presents the cost analysis of the CCV MRS system. Tables 4-2 through 4-7 give the construction or capital costs for the six cases. Tables 4-8 through 4-13 show the total discounted life-cycle costs for each of the six cases. These life-cycle costs include operating and decommissioning costs. These tables also show the time distribution of the capital costs. Table 2-1 summarizes the capital, operating, and discounted costs for the six cases studied. 2 references, 15 figures, 18 tables

  19. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  20. Analysis of Hydrogen Generation and Accumulation in U-233 Tube Vaults

    Ally, M.R.; Willis, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the 233 U Safe Storage Program is to enhance the safe storage of 233 U-bearing materials. This report describes the work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiochemical Development Facility (RDF) to address questions related to possible hydrogen generation and accumulation in 233 U tube vaults. The objective of this effort was to verify assumptions in the mathematical model used to estimate the hydrogen content of the gaseous atmosphere that possibly could occur inside the tube vaults in Building 3019 and to evaluate proposed measures for mitigating any hydrogen concerns. A mathematical model was developed using conservative assumptions to evaluate possible hydrogen generation and accumulation in the tube vaults. The model concluded that an equilibrium concentration would be established below the lower flammability limit (LFL) of 4.1% hydrogen. The major assumptions used in the model that were validated are as follows: (1) The shield plug does not form a seal with the tube vault wall, thus allowing the hydrogen gas to diffuse past the shield plug to the upper section of the tube vault. (2) The tube vault end-cap leaks sufficiently to allow air to be drawn into the tube vault by the off-gas system, thereby purging hydrogen from the upper section of the tube vault. (3) Any hydrogen gas generated completely mixes with the other gases present in the lower section of the tube vault and does not stratify beneath the shield plug. (4) The diffusion coefficient determined from the literature for constant diffusion of hydrogen in air is valid. The coefficient is corrected for temperatures from 0 to 25 C. Another assumption used in the model, that hydrogen generated by radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-bearing materials (e.g., moisture and plastic) leaks from the cans under steady-state condition, as opposed to a sudden release resulting from rupture of the can(s), was beyond the scope of this investigation. Several parameters from the original

  1. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  2. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  3. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  4. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant.

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J; Kelly, Kathleen A

    2017-01-19

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia -vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation.

  5. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    Janina Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation.

  6. Fable: Socially Interactive Modular Robot

    Magnússon, Arnþór; Pacheco, Moises; Moghadam, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Modular robots have a significant potential as user-reconfigurable robotic playware, but often lack sufficient sensing for social interaction. We address this issue with the Fable modular robotic system by exploring the use of smart sensor modules that has a better ability to sense the behavior...

  7. Modular Engineering of Production Plants

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...

  8. Modular Flooring System

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  9. The potential for vault-induced seismicity in nuclear fuel waste disposal: experience from Canadian mines

    Martin, C.D.; Chandler, N.A.

    1996-12-01

    A seismic event which causes damage to an underground opening is called a rockburst. Practical experience indicates that these damaging seismic events are associated with deep mines where extraction ratios are greater than 0.6. For the arrangement being considered by AECL for nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults, extraction ratios, for the room and pillar design, will be less than 0.3. At this extraction ratio the stress magnitudes will not be sufficient to induce seismic events that can damage the underground openings. Documented world-wide experience shows that unless the underground opening is very close to the source of a naturally occurring seismic event, such as an earthquake, the opening will also not experience any significant damage. Backfilling a disposal vault will improve its resistance to earthquake damage. Backfilling a disposal vault will also reduce the total convergence of the openings caused by thermal loads and hence minimize the potential for thermally-induced seismic events. (author)

  10. Side loading vault system and method for the disposal of radioactive waste

    Meess, D.C.; Jones, B.J.; Mello, R.M.; Weiss, T.G. Jr.; Wright, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for the disposal of hazardous radioactive waste. It comprises: constructing a floor slab in the earth; constructing an elongated wall assembly over the floor slab having sidewalls and a front wall and a back wall at either end the side walls being longer than the front and back walls; providing an accessway in the front wall; constructing a ceiling slab over the wall assembly that is supported at least in part by the wall assembly to form a vault cell; inspecting the vault cell for structural defects, introducing hazardous radioactive waste through the accessway in the front wall and loading the cell with the waste from the back wall to the front wall in rows, each of which is substantially parallel to the back wall to minimize radiation exposure to workers loading the cell, and closing the accessway of the vault cell by constructing a removable wall structure within the accessway

  11. CANDU 3 - Modularization

    McAskie, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The CANDU 3 Heavy Water Reactor is the newest design developed by AECL CANDU. It has set as a major objective, the achievement of significant reductions in both cost and schedule over previous designs. The basic construction strategy is to incorporate extensive modularization of the plant in order to parallel the civil and mechanical installation works. This results in a target 38 month construction schedule from first concrete to in-service compared to 68 months for the Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 actually achieved and the 54 months envisaged for an improved CANDU 6. This paper describes the module concepts that have been developed and explains how they contribute to the overall construction program and achieve the desired cost and schedule targets set for the CANDU 3. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  13. A preliminary assessment of temperature distributions associated with a radioactive waste vault

    Tammemagi, H.Y.

    1978-09-01

    The temperature distributions of models which simulated radioactive waste vaults were determined, using a finite difference computer code to solve the transient heat conduction equation. Input parameters to the code included thermal properties for granitic rock and heat generation decay data for wastes that would be separated from CANDU fuel if it were recycled. Due to the preliminary nature of the study, only simple models were analysed. A disc source was utilized to approximate a one-level repository. Various parameters were investigated such as depth of disc, thermal properties of rock, and long-term effects. It was shown that, for a vault at 500 m depth with an initial areal heat flux of 31 W/m 2 , a maximum temperature increase of about 80 deg C occurs at the vault level about 30 years after waste emplacement; maximum increases near the earth's surface occur after about 1000 years and are less than 1 deg C. Modelling the vault by a number of vertical waste boreholes on one horizontal level, instead of by a disc, with the gross areal heat flux again 31 W/m 2 , did not cause serious local temperature increases as long as the initial heat generation rate of each container was less than about 750 W. It was also shown that, by using the vertical dimension available in granitic plutons and constructing either multiple-level vaults or very deep boreholes, initial areal heat fluxes greater than 31 W/m 2 can be utilized without exceeding the 80 deg C maximum temperature increase anywhere in the vault. (author)

  14. Disruption of the murine major vault protein (MVP/LRP) gene does not induce hypersensitivity to cytostatics

    M.H. Mossink (Marieke); A. van Zon (Arend); A.A. Fränzel-Luiten (Erna); M. Schoester (Martijn); V.A. Kickhoefer; G.L. Scheffer (George); R.J. Scheper (Rik); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractVaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a distinct structure and a high degree of conservation between species. Although no function has been assigned to the complex yet, there is some evidence for a role of vaults in multidrug resistance. To confirm a direct

  15. GOTHIC CHURCHES IN PARIS ST GERVAIS ET ST PROTAIS IMAGE MATCHING 3D RECONSTRUCTION TO UNDERSTAND THE VAULTS SYSTEM GEOMETRY

    M. Capone

    2015-02-01

    benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  16. Remote tooling for inspection and repair in Pickering NGS-A calandria vault

    Hadji-Mirzai, M.; Tokarz, A.; Vandenberg, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years it has been necessary to develop capabilities for the inspection and repair of carbon steel components located within calandria vaults at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station 'A'. Concerns about corrosion of piping and some of the structural components have made necessary the development of remote manipulators to inspect and repair carbon steel components within the vaults to ensure continued reliable operation of the units. Remote manipulators for this program have been designed to perform a number of inspection and repair tasks, and several versions have been developed to specialise in detailed inspection techniques and precision tooling module manipulation. (author)

  17. Dispersion, mixing and intentional ignition of hydrogen in the Darlington reactor vault

    Lee, J.H.S.; Knystautas, R.

    1989-03-01

    The present report reviews the Darlington Safety Report (DSR) which has been used as basis for decisions regarding intentional ignition in the Darlington reactor vault. The validity of the assumptions in the DSR regarding mixing of contents is assessed and possible hydrogen release scenarios, specific to the Darlington reactor vault, are examined. The combustion analysis in the DSR vent code calculations are reviewed in the light of existing state of the art information on high speed turbulent flames and transition to detonation. Limitations of the vent code, in this context, are identified and improvements recommended

  18. In-situ radiation measurements of the C1 and C2 waste storage tank vault

    Yong, L.K.; Womble, P.C.; Weems, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    In August of 1996, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department (ARMD) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked with characterizing the radiation fields in the C 1 and C 2 Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank vault located at ORNL. These in-situ measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the potential radiological conditions for personnel working in or around the vault during future planned activities. This report describes the locations where measurements were made, the types of radiation detection instruments used, the methods employed, the problems encountered and resolved, and discusses the results obtained

  19. Device for providing a leak-tight penetration for electric cables through a reactor vault roof

    Eyral, M.; Mahe, A.

    1979-01-01

    The device for providing a cable penetration through the vault roof of a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor comprises a vertical tube closed at the top end by a flange-plate. Electric cables connected to measuring and detecting instruments are passed through the flange-plate which is joined to the reactor vault roof in leak-tight manner and enclosed within a removable hood. At least one horizontal plate is mounted within the vertical tube and provided with orifices for the leak-tight passage of the cables. Cable storage reels are placed within the tube and can be locked in position or released by controlled mechanical means

  20. Design Of Dry Cask Storage For Serpong Multipurpose Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Dyah Sulistyani Rahayu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available DESIGN OF DRY CASK STORAGE FOR SERPONG MULTI PURPOSE REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF from Serpong Multipurpose Reactor, after 100 days storing in the reactor pond, is transferred to water pool interim storage for spent fuel (ISFSF. At present there are a remaining of 245 elements of SNF on the ISSF,198 element of which have been re-exported to the USA. The dry-cask storage allows the SNF, which has already been cooled in the ISSF, to lower its radiation exposure and heat decayat a very low level. Design of the dry cask storage for SNF has been done. Dual purpose of unventilated vertical dry cask was selected among other choices of metal cask, horizontal concrete modules, and modular vaults by taking into account of technical and economical advantages. The designed structure of cask consists of SNF rack canister, inner steel liner, concrete shielding of cask, and outer steel liner. To avoid bimetallic corrosion, the construction material for canister and inner steel liner follows the same material construction of fuel cladding, i.e. the alloy of AlMg2. The construction material of outer steel liner is copper to facilitate the heat transfer from the cask to the atmosphere. The total decay heat is transferred from SNF elements bundle to the atmosphere by a serial of heat transfer resistance for canister wall, inner steel liner, concrete shielding, and outer steel liner respectedly. The rack canister optimum capacity of 34 fuel elements was designed by geometric similarity method basedon SNF position arrangement of 7 x 6 triangular pitch array of fuel elements for prohibiting criticality by spontaneous neutron. The SNF elements are stored vertically on the rack canister.  The thickness of concrete wall shielding was calculated by trial and error to give air temperature of 30 oC and radiation dose on the wall surface of outer liner of 200 mrem/h. The SNF elements bundles originate from the existing racks of wet storage, i

  1. From the semicircular vault to the flattened vault in masonry bridges. The influence of rise/span ratio and the resistant backfill in the breaking load

    J. R. Urruchi-Rojo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The shape of the vaults in masonry bridges has evolved during the history, so that we can find bibliography where, besides recommending one way of build instead of others depending on the period, is also prescribed the way to carry out the backfill of the extrados. All of this emerged initially as a result of the experiences acquired during the construction and the observation of bridges. Hence, during the 18th century new formulations started to arise, but they led to one result in some cases and to the opposite in others. This article tries to make a comparison between some of these formulations, as well as carrying out an analysis of the influence of both, the lowering rise/span ratio of the vaults and the presence of a resistant backfill in its extrados, on the variation of the breaking load.

  2. Modular reconfigurable machines incorporating modular open architecture control

    Padayachee, J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available degrees of freedom on a single platform. A corresponding modular Open Architecture Control (OAC) system is presented. OAC overcomes the inflexibility of fixed proprietary automation, ensuring that MRMs provide the reconfigurability and extensibility...

  3. Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...

  4. Activity release during the dry storage of fuel assemblies

    Valentine, M.K.; Fettel, W.; Gunther, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that wet storage is the predominant storage method in the USA for spent fuel assemblies. Nevertheless, most utilities have stretched their storage capacities and several reactors will lose their full-core reserve in the 90's. A great variety of out-of-pool storage methods already exist, including the FUELSTOR vault-type dry storage concept. A FUELSTOR vault relies on double containment of the spent fuel (intact cladding as the primary containment and sealing of assemblies in canisters filled with an inert gas as the secondary containment) to reduce radiation levels at the outside wall of the vault to less than site boundary levels. Investigation of accident scenarios reveals that radiation release limits are only exceeded following complete failure of all canisters and simultaneous cladding breach for more than 40% of the rods (or for more than 1% of failed rods if massive fuel oxidation occurs following cladding failure). Such failures are considered highly improbable. Thus, it can be concluded that this type of dry storage is safe and individual canister monitoring is not required in the facility

  5. Habidite: viviendas modulares industrializadas

    Gómez Jáuregui, V.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an introduction to one of the most relevant constructive systems of the last years: The integral industrialized construction. This method, based on three-dimensional modules, produces buildings made mainly from spatial cells of big dimensions; these three-dimensional modules are fabricated entirely in factory and, once they are finished, they are carried out to the site, where they are assembled in an easy manner. Even though it’s not a totally new system (in fact, the precedents will also be mentioned in this essay, Habidite is very confident in backing this tendency and doing its part in order to obtain modular reinforced concrete buildings of extraordinary quality, with domotic implements totally integrated in the dwellings and a high degree of sustainability, eco-technology and energetic efficiency. Many advantages are exposed and explained, dealing with the optimization of the productive processes in construction by means of the most advanced technologies.En este artículo se realiza una breve introducción a uno de los sistemas constructivos que más auge está teniendo en los últimos años: la edificación industrializada integral. Realizado a base de módulos tridimensionales, es éste un método de construcción en el cual los edificios se conforman básicamente por medio de células espaciales de grandes dimensiones; estos módulos tridimensionales se elaboran íntegramente en fábrica y, una vez están totalmente terminados, se transportan a obra, donde son montados de forma sencilla y rápida. Aunque no es un sistema totalmente novedoso (de hecho sus antecedentes también serán tratados brevemente en este texto, Habidite apuesta fuertemente por esta tendencia y aporta su grano de arena para conseguir edificios modulares de hormigón armado de extraordinaria calidad, con implementos domóticos totalmente integrados en la vivienda y un alto grado de sostenibilidad, eco-tecnología y eficiencia energética. Se abordan

  6. The modularity of pollination networks

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Bascompte, J.; Dupont, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    In natural communities, species and their interactions are often organized as nonrandom networks, showing distinct and repeated complex patterns. A prevalent, but poorly explored pattern is ecological modularity, with weakly interlinked subsets of species (modules), which, however, internally...... consist of strongly connected species. The importance of modularity has been discussed for a long time, but no consensus on its prevalence in ecological networks has yet been reached. Progress is hampered by inadequate methods and a lack of large datasets. We analyzed 51 pollination networks including...... almost 10,000 species and 20,000 links and tested for modularity by using a recently developed simulated annealing algorithm. All networks with >150 plant and pollinator species were modular, whereas networks with

  7. Dry socket

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  8. The TROVE module: A common element in Telomerase, Ro and Vault ribonucleoproteins

    Bateman Alex

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribonucleoproteins carry out a variety of important tasks in the cell. In this study we show that a number of these contain a novel module, that we speculate mediates RNA-binding. Results The TROVE module – Telomerase, Ro and Vault module – is found in TEP1 and Ro60 the protein components of three ribonucleoprotein particles. This novel module, consisting of one or more domains, may be involved in binding the RNA components of the three RNPs, which are telomerase RNA, Y RNA and vault RNA. A second conserved region in these proteins is shown to be a member of the vWA domain family. The vWA domain in TEP1 is closely related to the previously recognised vWA domain in VPARP a second component of the vault particle. This vWA domain may mediate interactions between these vault components or bind as yet unidentified components of the RNPs. Conclusions This work suggests that a number of ribonucleoprotein components use a common RNA-binding module. The TROVE module is also found in bacterial ribonucleoproteins suggesting an ancient origin for these ribonucleoproteins.

  9. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than...

  10. SHAPE AND CONSTRUCTION OF BRICK VAULTS. CRITERIA, METHODS AND TOOLS FOR A POSSIBLE CATALOGUE

    R. Brumana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of cloister vaults in the construction of noble buildings, as covering elements for square or rectangular rooms, is widespread and well-known. The geometric continuity at the intrados makes generally possible the execution all over the span of frescoes, stucco and decorations. The construction of brick vaults, from the late Middle Age, was sped up by limiting the centering to the wooden planks arches that were instrumental in the profile determination. Nowadays, the availability of several procedures, phases and tools for carrying out a survey allows to draw reliable assumptions about the construction methods and the execution time. It is mandatory to determine the properties of the binders, the shape and dimensions of the bricks, and to carry out a comparison between the geometry of the intrados surface and the evidences emerging at the extrados. The support of the laser scanner technique allows to accurately identify the surface profile and thickness. All these indications, in turn, are useful, in view of an interpretation of the structural behavior, to identify weaknesses, and to highlight contributing factors of instability (if any. The paper focuses on a well-documented case, the Magio Grasselli palace in Cremona in which the cloister vaults of two main rooms show different construction systems, although they were built almost at the same time. The thermographic recordings and laser-scanner surveys highlight the various arrangements used for the cloister vaults.

  11. PFP vault operations containers for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function

  12. Expression and proteasomal degradation of the major vault protein (MVP) in mammalian oocytes and zygotes.

    Sutovsky, Peter; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Laurincik, Jozef; Letko, Juraj; Caamaño, Jose Nestor; Day, Billy N; Lai, Liangxue; Prather, Randall S; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L; Zimmer, Randall; Sutovsky, Miriam

    2005-03-01

    Major vault protein (MVP), also called lung resistance-related protein is a ribonucleoprotein comprising a major part (>70%) of the vault particle. The function of vault particle is not known, although it appears to be involved in multi-drug resistance and cellular signaling. Here we show that MVP is expressed in mammalian, porcine, and human ova and in the porcine preimplantation embryo. MVP was identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) peptide sequencing and Western blotting as a protein accumulating in porcine zygotes cultured in the presence of specific proteasomal inhibitor MG132. MVP also accumulated in poor-quality human oocytes donated by infertile couples and porcine embryos that failed to develop normally after in vitro fertilization or somatic cell nuclear transfer. Normal porcine oocytes and embryos at various stages of preimplantation development showed mostly cytoplasmic labeling, with increased accumulation of vault particles around large cytoplasmic lipid inclusions and membrane vesicles. Occasionally, MVP was associated with the nuclear envelope and nucleolus precursor bodies. Nucleotide sequences with a high degree of homology to human MVP gene sequence were identified in porcine oocyte and endometrial cell cDNA libraries. We interpret these data as the evidence for the expression and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent turnover of MVP in the mammalian ovum. Similar to carcinoma cells, MVP could fulfill a cell-protecting function during early embryonic development.

  13. Long-term quality-of-life outcome after mesh sacrocolpopexy for vaginal vault prolapse.

    Thomas, Arun Z

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcome of mesh sacrocolpopexy (MSC, which aims to restore normal pelvic floor anatomy to alleviate prolapse related symptoms) and its effect on patient\\'s quality of life, as women with vaginal vault prolapse commonly have various pelvic floor symptoms that can affect urinary, rectal and sexual function.

  14. Skull morphometry and vault sutures of Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla

    Camila M. de S. Hossotani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to examine the relationship between skull size and the level of cranial vault suture closure. A total of 50 Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 and 178 Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 skulls were analyzed in relation to 18 skull dimensions. The skulls were grouped into three levels of suture closure: no sutures closed (level 0, one or all the fallowing sutures closed: interfrontalis, sagitalis and coronalis (level 1 and all sutures closed (level 2. The results indicated that among the 18 variables measured, 17 showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.01 between level 0 and level 1 skulls of T. tetradactyla; as well as between level 0 and level 1, and level 0 and level 2 skulls of M. tridactyla. M. tridactyla level 1 and level 2 had no significant difference among any of the 18 dimensions. The foramen magnum height in both species showed no significant difference (p > 0.05 among any suture categories. In principle, suture closure level and cranial dimensions are related. The specimens with larger cranial dimensions showed greater number of cranial vault sutures closed for both species of anteaters. Tamandua tetradactyla and M. tridactyla specimens with none of the cranial vault suture closed have a foramen magnum height similar to those with cranial vault suture closed.

  15. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    1994-01-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled

  16. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault

  17. Data Vaults: a Database Welcome to Scientific File Repositories

    M.G. Ivanova (Milena); Y. Kargin (Yagiz); M.L. Kersten (Martin); S. Manegold (Stefan); Y. Zhang (Ying); M. Datcu (Mihai); D. Espinoza Molina

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEfficient management and exploration of high-volume scientific file repositories have become pivotal for advancement in science. We propose to demonstrate the Data Vault, an extension of the database system architecture that transparently opens scientific file repositories for efficient

  18. Follow-up after repair of vaginal vault prolapse with abdominal colposacropexy

    Pilsgaard, K; Mouritsen, L

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaginal vault prolapse after hysterectomy is a rare complication, with a prevalence of less than 1/2%. The vaginal depth an axis can be restored by colposacropexy with preservation of coital function. The aim of this follow-up study was to assess the results of colposacropexy with spe...

  19. Operational readiness review of the Low Level Waste vaults at Savannah River Site: A case study

    Ahmad, M.; McVay, C.; Venkatesh, S.

    1994-01-01

    Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site at Aiken, South Carolina, has traditionally been disposed of using engineered trenches in accordance with the guidelines and technology existing at the time. Recently, subgrade concrete vaults known as E-Area Vaults (EAV) have been constructed at SRS. The EAV project is a comprehensive effort for upgrading LLW disposal at SRS based on meeting the requirements of current Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, and addressing more stringent federal and state regulations. The EAV is a first of its kind state-of-the-art facility designed and built in the United States to receive LLW. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) conducted an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of the vaults prior to startup. The objective of the EAV ORR was to perform a comprehensive review of the operational readiness of the facilities per DOE guidelines including Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendations. This review included assessing construction of the vaults as per design, adequate approved procedures, and training of all the personnel associated with the facility operations. EAV ORR incorporated the lessons learned from other DOE ORRs, included DNFSB recommendations, used a graded approach, and utilized subject matter experts for each functional area of assessment

  20. Siim Nestor soovitab : Stereo ÖÖ. Mutant Disco. Beats from the Vault. Turbodisko / Siim Nestor

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Oma debüütalbumit "Migration" tutvustav ameerika diskor Alex Attias üritustel "Stereo ÖÖ" 19. mail Tallinnas Von Krahlis. Üritustest "Mutant Disco" 19. mail Tallinnas klubis Privé ja Tartus 20. mail klubis Illusion, "Beats from the Vault" 19. mail Tallinnas klubis Võit ja "Turbodisko" 20. mail Tallinnas klubis KuKu

  1. The TROVE module: a common element in Telomerase, Ro and Vault ribonucleoproteins.

    Bateman, Alex; Kickhoefer, Valerie

    2003-10-16

    Ribonucleoproteins carry out a variety of important tasks in the cell. In this study we show that a number of these contain a novel module, that we speculate mediates RNA-binding. The TROVE module--Telomerase, Ro and Vault module--is found in TEP1 and Ro60 the protein components of three ribonucleoprotein particles. This novel module, consisting of one or more domains, may be involved in binding the RNA components of the three RNPs, which are telomerase RNA, Y RNA and vault RNA. A second conserved region in these proteins is shown to be a member of the vWA domain family. The vWA domain in TEP1 is closely related to the previously recognised vWA domain in VPARP a second component of the vault particle. This vWA domain may mediate interactions between these vault components or bind as yet unidentified components of the RNPs. This work suggests that a number of ribonucleoprotein components use a common RNA-binding module. The TROVE module is also found in bacterial ribonucleoproteins suggesting an ancient origin for these ribonucleoproteins.

  2. Modular Lego-Electronics

    Shaikh, Sohail F.

    2017-10-24

    Electronic system components have thousands of individual field effect transistors (FETs) interconnected executing dedicated functions. Assembly yield of >80% will guarantee system failure since a single interconnect failure will result in undesired performance. Hence, a paradigm shift is needed in the self-assembly or integration of state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) for a physically compliant system. Traditionally, most ICs share same geometry with only variations in dimensions and packaging. Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance throughput. Various geometries at the backside of the silicon die and on the destination site having the same geometry with relaxed dimension (up to 50 µm extra) allow targeted site binding like DNA assembly. Different geometries, angles, and heights for different modules provide a unique identity to each of the ICs. A two-level geometric combination presented here helps in maintaining the uniqueness of individual module to assemble at exact matching site like a perfect lock-and-key model. The assembled ICs offer uncompromised electrical performance, higher yield, and fabrication ease. In future, this method can further be expanded for fluidic assisted self-assembly.

  3. Pre-Conceptual Design of a Fluoride-Salt-Cooled Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR)

    Greene, Sherrell R [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Cisneros, Anselmo T [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    This document presents the results of a study conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 2010 to explore the feasibility of small modular fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors (FHRs). A preliminary reactor system concept, SmATHR (for Small modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor) is described, along with an integrated high-temperature thermal energy storage or salt vault system. The SmAHTR is a 125 MWt, integral primary, liquid salt cooled, coated particle-graphite fueled, low-pressure system operating at 700 C. The system employs passive decay heat removal and two-out-of-three , 50% capacity, subsystem redundancy for critical functions. The reactor vessel is sufficiently small to be transportable on standard commercial tractor-trailer transport vehicles. Initial transient analyses indicated the transition from normal reactor operations to passive decay heat removal is accomplished in a manner that preserves robust safety margins at all times during the transient. Numerous trade studies and trade-space considerations are discussed, along with the resultant initial system concept. The current concept is not optimized. Work remains to more completely define the overall system with particular emphasis on refining the final fuel/core configuration, salt vault configuration, and integrated system dynamics and safety behavior.

  4. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: the vault model for postclosure assessment

    Johnson, L.H.; LeNeveu, D.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Oscarson, D.W.; Gray, M.N.; Lemire, R.J.; Garisto, N.C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves emplacing the waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of thc Canadian Shield. The solid waste would be isolated from the biosphere by a multibarrier system consisting of engineered barriers, including corrosion-resistant containers and clay- and cement-based sealing materials, and the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation. The technical feasibility of this concept, and its impact on the environment and human health, is being documented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that will be submitted for review under the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. The present report is one of nine EIS primary references. The report describes the vault model, which is used to calculate the time-dependent release of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants from the engineered barrier system (vault) into the surrounding rock (geosphere). The model calculations presented are for a specific reference vault design that comprises used CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) fuel bundles in Grade-2 titanium containers, which would be emplaced in boreholes in the floor of a mined excavation located at a depth of 500 m in plutonic rock. The containers would be surrounded by a compacted buffer material that is a mixture of 50 wt. % sand and 50 wt. % bentonite. Disposal rooms and tunnels would be sealed with a layer of backfill mixture composed of 25 % glacial lake clay and 75% crushed granite and an overlying layer of buffer material. The vault model is a computer code that calculates the failure times of titanium containers, the rate of release of radionuclides from used-fuel bundles into the groundwater that would flow into the failed containers, and the rate of transport of radionuclides from the fuel through the groundwater-saturated buffer and backfill materials and into the surrounding rock. The vault model uses distributed or probabilistic

  5. Thickened cranial vault and parasagittal keeling: correlated traits and autapomorphies of Homo erectus?

    Balzeau, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.) is a key species in the hominin fossil record for the study of human evolution, being one of the first species discovered and perhaps the most documented, but also because of its long temporal range and having dispersed out of Africa earlier than any other human species. Here I test two proposed autapomorphic traits of H. erectus, namely the increased thickness of the upper cranial vault and parasagittal keeling. The definition of these two anatomical features and their expression and variation among hominids are discussed. The results of this study indicate that the upper vault in Asian H. erectus is not absolutely thicker compared with fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens, whereas Broken Hill and Petralona have values above the range of variation of H. erectus. Moreover, this anatomical region in Asian H. erectus is not significantly thicker compared with Pan paniscus. In addition, these results demonstrate that cranial vault thickness should not be used to make hypotheses regarding sexual attribution of fossil hominin specimens. I also show that the relation between relief on the external surface of the upper vault, parasagittal keeling and bregmatic eminence, and bone thickness is complex. In this context, the autapomorphic status of the two analysed traits in H. erectus may be rejected. Nevertheless, different patterns in the distribution of bone thickness on the upper vault were identified. Some individual variations are visible, but specificities are observable in samples of different species. The pattern of bone thickness distribution observed in Asian H. erectus, P. paniscus, possibly australopiths, and early Homo or Homo ergaster/erectus appears to be shared by these different species and would be a plesiomorphic trait among hominids. In contrast, two apomorphic states for this feature were identified for Neandertals and H. sapiens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation survey of first Hi-Art II Tomotherapy vault design in India

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Jamema, S.V.; Pai, Rajeshree; Sharma, P.K. Dash; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2009-01-01

    A vault as per government-regulation compliance with adequate shielding needs was designed and constructed for Hi-Art II Tomotherapy machine being the first in India. Radiation measurements around this Tomotherapy treatment vault were carried out to check the shielding adequacy of the source housing and the vault. It was mandatory to get this un-conventional machine 'Type Approved' by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. The aim of this paper was to report on the radiation levels measured during the radiation survey carried out for this machine. The radiation levels in and around the vault were measured for stationary as well as rotational treatment procedures with the largest open field size (5 cm x 40 cm) at the isocenter with and without scattering medium. The survey was performed at three locations near each wall surrounding the vault as well. The leakage radiation from the source housing was measured both in the patient plane outside the treatment field and one meter distance from the source outside the patient plane. The radiation levels both for stationary as well as rotational procedures were within 1 mR/h. No significance difference was observed in the radiation levels measured for rotational procedures with and without scattering medium. The leakage radiation in the patient plane was found to be 0.04% (Tolerance 0.2%), while the head leakage was 0.007% (Tolerance 0.5%) of the dose rate at the isocenter. The treatment delivery with Tomotherapy does play safe radiation levels around the installation layout and also passes the leakage criteria as well.

  7. Development of spent fuel dry storage technology

    Maruoka, Kunio; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The spent fuels are the recycle fuel resources, and it is very important to store the spent fuels in safety. There are two types of the spent fuel interim storage system. One is wet storage system and another is dry storage system. In this study, the dry storage technology, dual purpose metal cask storage and canister storage, has been developed. For the dual purpose metal cask storage, boronated aluminum basket cell, rational cask body shape and shaping process have been developed, and new type dual purpose metal cask has been designed. For the canister storage, new type concrete cask and high density vault storage technology have been developed. The results of this study will be useful for the spent fuel interim storage. Safety and economical spent fuel interim storage will be realized in the near future. (author)

  8. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2

    Carrell, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault's two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations

  9. Lectures on Hilbert modular varieties and modular forms

    Goren, Eyal Z

    2001-01-01

    This book is devoted to certain aspects of the theory of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication. The theory of p-adic modular forms is presented first in the elliptic case, introducing the reader to key ideas of N. M. Katz and J.-P. Serre. It is re-interpreted from a geometric point of view, which is developed to present the rudiments of a similar theory for Hilbert modular forms. The theory of moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication is presented first very explicitly over the complex numbers. Aspects of the general theory are then exposed, in particular, local deformation theory of abelian varieties in positive characteristic. The arithmetic of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and the geometry of moduli spaces of abelian varieties are related. This relation is used to study q-expansions of Hilbert modular forms, on the one hand, and stratifications of moduli spaces on the other hand. The book is addressed to graduate students and non-exper...

  10. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  11. Monte Carlo study of neutronics properties of the modular storage geometry

    Bell, Z.W.

    1995-01-01

    The modular storage vault (MSV) geometry was investigated for its effects on the spectrum of neutrons from the spontaneous and induced fission of plutonium. Zinc alloy and aluminum alloy plates that will house neutron detectors and weight sensors were included. It was found that because of the large number of captures by plutonium and the steel and concrete MSV structure, only 12% of the neutron spectrum in the vicinity of the detector position was thermalized and over half of the neutrons incident on the detector position have energy in excess of 100 keV. Based on this, it is recommended that both fast and slow neutron detectors be included in the instrumentation package if plutonium is to be stored an MSV structure. No differences in the neutron spectra were found with different zinc alloys. In addition, insufficient differences in the spectra were found when aluminum was substituted for zinc to warrant any recommendation for one material over the other

  12. Design of dry cask storage for Serpong multi purpose reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Dyah Sulistyani Rahayu; Yuli Purwanto; Zainus Salimin

    2018-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from Serpong Multipurpose Reactor, after 100 days storing in the reactor pond, is transferred to water pool interim storage for spent fuel (ISFSF). At present there are a remaining of 245 elements of SNF on the ISSF, 198 element of which have been re-exported to the USA. The dry-cask storage allows the SNF, which has already been cooled in the ISSF, to lower its radiation exposure and heat decay at a very low level. Design of the dry cask storage for SNF has been done. Dual purpose of unventilated vertical dry cask was selected among other choices of metal cask, horizontal concrete modules, and modular vaults by taking into account of technical and economical advantages. The designed structure of cask consists of SNF rack canister, inner steel liner, concrete shielding of cask, and outer steel liner. To avoid bimetallic corrosion, the construction material for canister and inner steel liner follows the same material construction of fuel cladding, i.e. the alloy of AlMg 2 . The construction material of outer steel liner is copper to facilitate the heat transfer from the cask to the atmosphere. The total decay heat is transferred from SNF elements bundle to the atmosphere by a serial of heat transfer resistance for canister wall, inner steel liner, concrete shielding, and outer steel liner respectedly. The rack canister optimum capacity of 34 fuel elements was designed by geometric similarity method based on SNF position arrangement of 7 x 6 triangular pitch array of fuel elements for prohibiting criticality by spontaneous neutron. The SNF elements are stored vertically on the rack canister. The thickness of concrete wall shielding was calculated by trial and error to give air temperature of 30 °C and radiation dose on the wall surface of outer liner of 200 mrem/h. The SNF elements bundles originate from the existing racks of wet storage, i.e. rack canister no 3, 8 and 10. The value of I 0 from the rack no 3, 8 and 10 are 434.307; 446

  13. From modular invariants to graphs: the modular splitting method

    Isasi, E; Schieber, G

    2007-01-01

    We start with a given modular invariant M of a two-dimensional su-hat(n) k conformal field theory (CFT) and present a general method for solving the Ocneanu modular splitting equation and then determine, in a step-by-step explicit construction (1) the generalized partition functions corresponding to the introduction of boundary conditions and defect lines; (2) the quantum symmetries of the higher ADE graph G associated with the initial modular invariant M. Note that one does not suppose here that the graph G is already known, since it appears as a by-product of the calculations. We analyse several su-hat(3) k exceptional cases at levels 5 and 9

  14. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  15. SIIOS in Alaska - Testing an `In-Vault' Option for a Europa Lander Seismometer.

    Bray, V. J.; Weber, R. C.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Bailey, H.; Schmerr, N. C.; Pettit, E. C.; Dahl, P.; Albert, D.; Avenson, B.; Byrne, S.; Siegler, M.; Bland, M. T.; Patterson, G. W.; Selznick, S.

    2017-12-01

    The surface environment of Europa within the radiation-heavy jovian system, poses extreme technical challenges for potential landed missions. The need for radiation shielding and protection from the cold requires instruments to be housed within a thermally insulated and radiation protected `vault'. Unfortunately, this is non-ideal for seismometers as instrument-to-surface coupling is an important factor in the quality of returned data. Delivering a seismic package to an icy world would therefore benefit from the development of a cold-tolerant, radiation-hardened sensor that can survive outside of a protective vault. If such an instrument package were not technologically mature enough, or if lander safety considerations prevent deployment on lander legs, an in-vault location is still a viable option. For such a case, a better understanding of the transmission of seismic signals received through the lander legs is necessary for interpretation of the received signals. The performance, mass, and volume of the `Seismometer to investigate ice and ocean structure' (SIIOS) already meet or exceed flight requirements identified in lander studies for the icy moon Europa. We are testing this flight-candidate in several configurations around and within a lander mock-up, assuming a 1x1 meter vault with extended legs. We compare the received signals from a SIIOS device on the ice with those received by an identical sensor directly above it in the `vault'. We also compare the data from these single-point receivers to that received by two short base-line arrays - A 4-point "in-vault" array and another 4-point array arranged at the ice surface at the base of the lander legs. Our field-testing is performed at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska. The summer melt season provides kilometer-scale regions of coexisting ice, water, and silicate material, thereby providing seismic contrasts analogous to the ice-water layers and possible sub-surface lakes expected at Europa. We demonstrate the

  16. Association of lens vault with narrow angles among different ethnic groups.

    Lee, Roland Y; Huang, Guofu; Cui, Qi N; He, Mingguang; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2012-06-01

    To compare lens vault between open-angle and narrow-angle eyes in African-, Caucasian-, Hispanic-, Chinese- and Filipino-Americans. In this prospective study, 436 patients with open angle and narrow angle based on the Shaffer gonioscopic grading classification underwent anterior-segment optical coherence tomography. The Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program was used to calculate lens vault. The narrow-angle group included 32 Chinese-Americans, 22 Filipino-Americans, 26 African-Americans, 24 Hispanic-Americans and 73 Caucasian-Americans. The open-angle group included 56 Chinese-Americans, 29 Filipino-Americans, 45 African-Americans, 27 Hispanic-Americans and 102 Caucasian-Americans. Linear mixed effect regression models, accounting for the use of both eyes and adjusting for age, sex, pupil diameter and spherical equivalent, were used to test for the ethnicity and angle coefficients. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups. Significant difference in lens vault was found among the open-angle racial groups (P = 0.022). For the open-angle patients, mean values for the lens vault measurements were 265 ± 288 µm for Chinese-Americans, 431 ± 248 µm for Caucasian-Americans, 302 ± 213 µm for Filipino-Americans, 304 ± 263 µm for Hispanic-Americans and 200 ± 237 µm for African-Americans. Using Tukey's multiple comparison for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups, a significant difference was found between African-American and Caucasian-Americans groups (P values for the rest of the pairwise comparisons were not statistically significant. No significant difference was found among the narrow-angle racial groups (P = 0.14). Comparison between the open angle and narrow angle within each racial group revealed significant difference for all racial groups (P < 0.05). Among all the ethnicities included in this study, narrow-angle eyes have greater lens vault compared to open

  17. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  18. Modular invariance and stochastic quantization

    Ordonez, C.R.; Rubin, M.A.; Zwanziger, D.

    1989-01-01

    In Polyakov path integrals and covariant closed-string field theory, integration over Teichmueller parameters must be restricted by hand to a single modular region. This problem has an analog in Yang-Mills gauge theory---namely, the Gribov problem, which can be resolved by the method of stochastic gauge fixing. This method is here employed to quantize a simple modular-invariant system: the Polyakov point particle. In the limit of a large gauge-fixing force, it is shown that suitable choices for the functional form of the gauge-fixing force can lead to a restriction of Teichmueller integration to a single modular region. Modifications which arise when applying stochastic quantization to a system in which the volume of the orbits of the gauge group depends on a dynamical variable, such as a Teichmueller parameter, are pointed out, and the extension to Polyakov strings and covariant closed-string field theory is discussed

  19. Modularity in New Market Formation

    Sanchez, Ron; Hang, Chang Chieh

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we appraise the ways in which use of closed-system proprietary product architectures versus open-system modular product architectures is likely to influence the dynamics and trajectory of new product market formation. We compare the evolutions of new markets in China for gas......-powered two-wheeled vehicles (G2WVs) based (initially) on closed-system proprietary architectures and for electric-powered two-wheeled vehicles (E2WVs) based on open-system modular architectures. We draw on this comparison to suggest ways in which the use of the two different kinds of architectures...... as the basis for new kinds of products may result in very different patterns and speeds of new market formation. We then suggest some key implications of the different dynamics of market formation associated with open-system modular architectures for both the competence-based strategic management (CBSM...

  20. Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits

    Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic ‘lumped’ circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems.

  1. Modular system design and evaluation

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2015-01-01

    This book examines seven key combinatorial engineering frameworks (composite schemes consisting of algorithms and/or interactive procedures) for hierarchical modular (composite) systems. These frameworks are based on combinatorial optimization problems (e.g., knapsack problem, multiple choice problem, assignment problem, morphological clique problem), with the author’s version of morphological design approach – Hierarchical Morphological Multicritieria Design (HMMD) – providing a conceptual lens with which to elucidate the examples discussed. This approach is based on ordinal estimates of design alternatives for systems parts/components, however, the book also puts forward an original version of HMMD that is based on new interval multiset estimates for the design alternatives with special attention paid to the aggregation of modular solutions (system versions). The second part of ‘Modular System Design and Evaluation’ provides ten information technology case studies that enriches understanding of th...

  2. Emergent interfaces for feature modularization

    Ribeiro, Márcio; Brabrand, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Developers frequently introduce errors into software systems when they fail to recognise module dependencies. Using forty-three software families and Software Product Lines (SPLs), where the majority are commonly used in industrial practice, the authors reports on the feature modularization problem and provides a study of how often it may occur in practice. To solve the problem they present the concept of emergent feature modularization which aims to establish contracts between features to prevent developers from breaking other features when performing a maintenance task.

  3. Modular Firewalls for Storage Areas

    Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Giant honeycomb structures assembled in modular units. Flammable materials stored in cells. Walls insulated with firebrick to prevent spread of fire among cells. Portable, modular barrier withstands heat of combustion for limited time and confines combustion products horizontally to prevent fire from spreading. Barrier absorbs heat energy by ablation and not meant to be reused. Designed to keep fires from spreading among segments of solid rocket propellant in storage, barrier erected between storage units of other flammable or explosive materials; tanks of petroleum or liquid natural gas. Barrier adequate for most industrial purposes.

  4. Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs

    Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Modular nuclear fuel assembly rack

    Davis, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A modular nuclear fuel assembly rack constructed of an array of identical cells, each cell constructed of a plurality of identical flanged plates. The unique assembly of the plates into a rigid rack provides a cellular compartment for nuclear fuel assemblies and a cavity between the cells for accepting neutron absorbing materials thus allowing a closely spaced array. The modular rack size can be easily adapted to conform with available storage space. U-shaped flanges at the edges of the plates are nested together at the intersection of four cells in the array. A bar is placed at the intersection to lock the cells together

  6. Modular envelopes, OSFT and nonsymmetric (non-$\\sum$) modular operads

    Markl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 775-809 ISSN 1661-6952 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : open string * surface * modular completion Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 http://www.ems-ph.org/journals/show_abstract.php?issn=1661-6952&vol=10&iss=2&rank=12

  7. Dry Etching

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  8. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  9. Evaluating the potential for large-scale fracturing at a disposal vault: an example using the underground research laboratory

    Martin, C D; Chandler, N A; Brown, Anton

    1994-09-01

    The potential for large-scale fracturing (> 10 m{sup 2}) around a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is investigated in this report. The disposal vault is assumed to be located at a depth of 500 m in the plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The rock mass surrounding the disposal vault is considered to have similar mechanical properties and in situ stress conditions to that found at a depth of 420 m at the Underground Research Laboratory. Theoretical, experimental and field evidence shows that Mode I fractures propagate in a plane perpendicular to {sigma}{sub 3} and only if the tensile stress at the tip of the advancing crack is sufficient to overcome the tensile strength of the rock. Because the stress state at a depth of 500 m or more is compressive, and will very probably stay so during the 10,000 year life of the disposal vault, there does not appear to be any mechanism which could propagate large-scale Mode I fracturing in the rock mass surrounding the vault. In addition because {sigma}{sub 3} is near vertical any Mode I fracture propagation that might occur would be in a horizontal plane. The development of either Mode I or large-scale shear fractures would require a drastic change in the compressive in situ stress state at the depth of the disposal vault. The stresses developed as a result of both thermal and glacial loading do not appear sufficient to cause new fracturing. Glacial loading would reduce the shear stresses in the rock mass and hence improve the stability of the rock mass surrounding the vault. Thus, it is not feasible that large-scale fracturing would occur over the 10,000 year life of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield, at depths of 500 m or greater, where the compressive stress state is similar to that found at the Underground Research Laboratory. 107 refs., 44 figs.

  10. The solubility of U, Np, Pu, Th and Tc in a geological disposal vault for used nuclear fuel

    Lemire, R.J.; Garisto, F.

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the solubility model used to calculate the concentrations of uranium, thorium, technetium, neptunium and plutonium in a geological disposal vault for used nuclear fuel. This model is incorporated in the vault model of SYVAC3-CC3 - the third generation of the Systems Variability Analysis Code used to assess the long-term safety of the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The data for the solubility model and the sources for these data are also reported

  11. Preliminary modelling study of geochemical interactions between a used-fuel disposal vault and the surrounding geosphere

    McMurry, J.

    1995-10-01

    In the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the related documents that describe the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept (AECL 1994), it has been assumed that a disposal vault would have no significant geochemical impact on the geosphere, and so no such effects were included explicitly in the postclosure assessment model. The purpose of this study was to estimate the general magnitude and significance of vault-induced geochemical changes over an expected range of temperatures. The results of the preliminary modelling are used broadly to evaluate the implications of these changes for the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. The geochemical modelling program PHREEQE was used to calculate the changes in mineral solubilities that would result from the transfer of aqueous species from the vault to the geosphere or that would result from groundwater-granite interactions enhanced by vault-derived elevated temperatures. Twelve representative vault water compositions, derived from predicted interactions with buffer material and backfill over a range of temperatures up to 95 deg C, were used in the modelling. For the conditions modelled it was determined that the interactions of the geosphere with dissolved vault constituents, and the relatively modest maximum increase in groundwater temperature produced by a vault, would have a limited impact on the geosphere. The conclusions of this preliminary study are qualified by some of the simplifying assumptions used in the modelling. More realistic modelling of natural systems requires a more detailed representation of water-solid interactions with a variety of vault materials at elevated temperatures. (author) 48 refs., 13 tabs, 4 figs

  12. Radiological Assessment for the Vance Road Facility Source Vault, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Morton, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    From the 1950s, the Vance Road laboratories had been used for a broad range of nuclear medicine research involving numerous radionuclides. These radionuclides were stored in the a source vault located on the first floor of the facility. The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of ORISE performed a radiological assessment survey of the source vault after it had been remediated and in preparation for converting the area to office space

  13. Evaluating the potential for large-scale fracturing at a disposal vault: an example using the underground research laboratory

    Martin, C.D.; Chandler, N.A.; Brown, Anton.

    1994-09-01

    The potential for large-scale fracturing (> 10 m 2 ) around a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is investigated in this report. The disposal vault is assumed to be located at a depth of 500 m in the plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The rock mass surrounding the disposal vault is considered to have similar mechanical properties and in situ stress conditions to that found at a depth of 420 m at the Underground Research Laboratory. Theoretical, experimental and field evidence shows that Mode I fractures propagate in a plane perpendicular to σ 3 and only if the tensile stress at the tip of the advancing crack is sufficient to overcome the tensile strength of the rock. Because the stress state at a depth of 500 m or more is compressive, and will very probably stay so during the 10,000 year life of the disposal vault, there does not appear to be any mechanism which could propagate large-scale Mode I fracturing in the rock mass surrounding the vault. In addition because σ 3 is near vertical any Mode I fracture propagation that might occur would be in a horizontal plane. The development of either Mode I or large-scale shear fractures would require a drastic change in the compressive in situ stress state at the depth of the disposal vault. The stresses developed as a result of both thermal and glacial loading do not appear sufficient to cause new fracturing. Glacial loading would reduce the shear stresses in the rock mass and hence improve the stability of the rock mass surrounding the vault. Thus, it is not feasible that large-scale fracturing would occur over the 10,000 year life of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield, at depths of 500 m or greater, where the compressive stress state is similar to that found at the Underground Research Laboratory. 107 refs., 44 figs

  14. A modular interpretation of various cubic towers

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound.......In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound....

  15. Adding EUNIS and VAULT rocket data to the VSO with Modern Perl frameworks

    Mansky, Edmund

    2017-08-01

    A new Perl code is described, that uses the modern Object-oriented Moose framework, to add EUNIS and VAULT rocket data to the Virtual Solar Observatory website. The code permits the easy fixing of FITS header fields in the case where some FITS fields that are required are missing from the original data files. The code makes novel use of the Moose extensions “before” and “after” to build in dependencies so that database creation of tables occurs before the loading of data, and that the validation of file-dependent tables occurs after the loading is completed. Also described is the computation and loading of the deferred FITS field CHECKSUM into the database following the loading and validation of the file-dependent tables. The loading of the EUNIS 2006 and 2007 flight data, and the VAULT 2.0 flight data is described in detail as illustrative examples.

  16. Improving the Aesthetic Outcome in Scaphocephaly Correction: Hairline Lowering During Vault Remodeling Procedures.

    Wittig, Joern; Duncan, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The bossed forehead in patients with scaphocephaly often leads to a high hairline. A new technique to improve the aesthetic outcome of patients undergoing scaphocephaly correction is described. Sixteen patients with scaphocephaly and having a high hairline due to frontal bossing who underwent scaphocephaly correction by subtotal or total vault remodeling were analyzed. The median age at surgery was 18 months. The mean distance between the nasofrontal suture and the hairline was preoperatively 70 mm (range 58-91). An obvious lowering of the hairline could be achieved in all 16 patients. The mean postoperative distance nasofrontal suture to hairline was 59 mm (range 50-73). There were no complications associated with the technique. The hairline lowering technique is a useful addition to vault remodeling techniques and can improve the postoperative aesthetic appearance considerably. The authors recommend this technique in scaphocephaly patients, who present with a high hairline.

  17. Development of a New Cryptographic Construct Using Palmprint-Based Fuzzy Vault

    Amioy Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of cryptology and biometrics has emerged as promising component of information security. Despite the current popularity of palmprint biometric, there has not been any attempt to investigate its usage for the fuzzy vault. This paper therefore investigates the possible usage of palmprint in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. We suggest the use of both symmetric and asymmetric approach for the encryption. The ciphertext of any document is generated by symmetric cryptosystem; the symmetric key is then encrypted by asymmetric approach. Further, Reed and Solomon codes are used on the generated asymmetric key to provide some error tolerance while decryption. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint-based key generation system.

  18. Giant osteoma of the skull vault: A rare case of mixed variety

    Harisha P.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma is the most common primary bone tumor in the craniofacial skeleton. However, most of these are small, asymptomatic and arise from the facial bones or in relation to the paranasal sinuses. Cranial vault osteomas, that too giant and symptomatic are much rarer. We report a case of sixty year-old gentleman presented with a very slowly increasing, painless, hard swelling on the left side of his head. Computerized tomography scan showed the left parietal calvarial tumor to be having large exostotic and enostotic components. He underwent an en-bloc excision of the tumor and cranioplasty. Giant, symptomatic cranial vault osteoma with concurrent exostotic and enostotic components is extremely rare. These lesions can be safely and completely excised with careful planning and attention to detail.

  19. Anterior vaulting of single piece in-the-bag intraocular lens after blunt trauma

    Seung Hoon Oh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old man complained of difficulty with far vision in the right eye after blunt trauma by his hand during sleep. He had undergone uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL implantation of both eyes one week before the event. On slit lamp examination, the anterior chamber was shallow compared to postoperative one day or the left eye. After mydriasis, IOL position was perfect, within the capsulorrhexis margin, and no haptics were protruded. SE of his right eye was −4.00 diopter after trauma, although spherical equivalent (SE of both eyes was near emmetropia one day after cataract surgery. We decided on IOL reposition or exchange. Intraoperatively, we pushed the IOL posteriorly; the IOL was vaulted posteriorly, as expected. After surgery, his SE was +0.25 with the same diopter IOL. We report the case on the possibility of 4-point haptic IOL vaulting anteriorly by blunt trauma within the capsular bag.

  20. Safety assessment of a vault-based disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    Kelly, E.; Kim, C.-L.; Lietava, P.; Little, R.; Simon, I.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to testing the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Vault Test Case (VTC), related to the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) to a hypothetical facility comprising a set of above surface vaults. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the VTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  1. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. Appendices A through M

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file. (GHH)

  2. Is Postoperative Intensive Care Unit Care Necessary following Cranial Vault Remodeling for Sagittal Synostosis?

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Howell, Lori K; Fahradyan, Artur; Azadgoli, Beina; McComb, J Gordon; Urata, Mark M

    2017-12-01

    Of U.S. craniofacial and neurosurgeons, 94 percent routinely admit patients to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for correction of sagittal synostosis. This study aims to examine the outcomes and cost of direct ward admission following primary cranial vault remodeling for sagittal synostosis. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was undertaken of the records of all patients who underwent primary cranial vault remodeling for isolated sagittal craniosynostosis from 2009 to 2015 at a single pediatric hospital. Patient demographics, perioperative course, and outcomes were recorded. One hundred ten patients met inclusion criteria with absence of other major medical problems. Average age at operation was 6.7 months, with a mean follow-up of 19.8 months. Ninety-eight patients (89 percent) were admitted to a general ward for postoperative care, whereas the remaining 12 (11 percent) were admitted to the intensive care unit for preoperative or perioperative concerns. Among ward-admitted patients, there were four (3.6 percent) minor complications; however, there were no major adverse events, with none necessitating intensive care unit transfers from the ward and no mortalities. Average hospital stay was 3.7 days. The institution's financial difference in cost of intensive care unit stay versus ward bed was $5520 on average per bed per day. Omitting just one intensive care unit postoperative day stay for this patient cohort would reduce projected health care costs by a total of $540,960 for the study period. Despite the common practice of postoperative admission to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for sagittal craniosynostosis, the authors suggest that postoperative care be considered on an individual basis, with only a small percentage requiring a higher level of care. Therapeutic, III.

  3. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Emma Hall

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT on handspring vault (HV performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05 were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  4. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file

  5. Microbially influenced corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault

    King, F

    1996-11-01

    An assessment of the potential for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault is presented. The assessment is based on a consideration of the microbial activity within a disposal vault, the reported cases of MIC of Cu alloys in the literature and the known corrosion behaviour of Cu. Because of the critical role of biofilms in the reported cases of MIC, their formation and properties are discussed in detail. Next, the literature on the MIC of Cu alloys is briefly reviewed. The various MIC mechanisms proposed are critically discussed and the implications for the corrosion of Cu containers considered. In the majority of literature cases, MIC depends on alternating aerated and deaerated environments, with accelerated corrosion being observed when fresh aerated water replaces stagnant water, e.g., the MIC of Cu-Ni heat exchangers in polluted seawater and the microbially influenced pitting of Cu water pipes. Finally, because of the predominance of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the MIC literature, the abiotic behaviour of Cu alloys in sulphide solutions is also reviewed. The effect of the evolving environment in a disposal vault on the extent and location of microbial activity is discussed. Biofilm formation on the container surface is considered unlikely throughout the container lifetime, but especially initially when the environmental conditions will be particularly aggressive. Microbial activity in areas of the vault away from the container is possible, however. Corrosion of the container could then occur if microbial metabolic by-products diffuse to the container surface. Sulphide, produced by the action of SRB are considered to be the most likely cause of container corrosion. It is concluded that the only likely form of MIC of Cu containers will result from sulphide produced by SRB diffusing to the container surface. A modelling procedure for predicting the extent of corrosion is

  6. Treatment vault shielding for a flattening filter-free medical linear accelerator

    Kry, Stephen F.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Polf, Jerimy; Mohan, Radhe; Vassiliev, Oleg N.

    2009-03-01

    The requirements for shielding a treatment vault with a Varian Clinac 2100 medical linear accelerator operated both with and without the flattening filter were assessed. Basic shielding parameters, such as primary beam tenth-value layers (TVLs), patient scatter fractions, and wall scatter fractions, were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of 6, 10 and 18 MV beams. Relative integral target current requirements were determined from treatment planning studies of several disease sites with, and without, the flattening filter. The flattened beam shielding data were compared to data published in NCRP Report No. 151, and the unflattened beam shielding data were presented relative to the NCRP data. Finally, the shielding requirements for a typical treatment vault were determined for a single-energy (6 MV) linac and a dual-energy (6 MV/18 MV) linac. With the exception of large-angle patient scatter fractions and wall scatter fractions, the vault shielding parameters were reduced when the flattening filter was removed. Much of this reduction was consistent with the reduced average energy of the FFF beams. Primary beam TVLs were reduced by 12%, on average, and small-angle scatter fractions were reduced by up to 30%. Head leakage was markedly reduced because less integral target current was required to deliver the target dose. For the treatment vault examined in the current study, removal of the flattening filter reduced the required thickness of the primary and secondary barriers by 10-20%, corresponding to 18 m3 less concrete to shield the single-energy linac and 36 m3 less concrete to shield the dual-energy linac. Thus, a shielding advantage was found when the linac was operated without the flattening filter. This translates into a reduction in occupational exposure and/or the cost and space of shielding.

  7. Treatment vault shielding for a flattening filter-free medical linear accelerator

    Kry, Stephen F; Howell, Rebecca M; Polf, Jerimy; Mohan, Radhe; Vassiliev, Oleg N [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org

    2009-03-07

    The requirements for shielding a treatment vault with a Varian Clinac 2100 medical linear accelerator operated both with and without the flattening filter were assessed. Basic shielding parameters, such as primary beam tenth-value layers (TVLs), patient scatter fractions, and wall scatter fractions, were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of 6, 10 and 18 MV beams. Relative integral target current requirements were determined from treatment planning studies of several disease sites with, and without, the flattening filter. The flattened beam shielding data were compared to data published in NCRP Report No. 151, and the unflattened beam shielding data were presented relative to the NCRP data. Finally, the shielding requirements for a typical treatment vault were determined for a single-energy (6 MV) linac and a dual-energy (6 MV/18 MV) linac. With the exception of large-angle patient scatter fractions and wall scatter fractions, the vault shielding parameters were reduced when the flattening filter was removed. Much of this reduction was consistent with the reduced average energy of the FFF beams. Primary beam TVLs were reduced by 12%, on average, and small-angle scatter fractions were reduced by up to 30%. Head leakage was markedly reduced because less integral target current was required to deliver the target dose. For the treatment vault examined in the current study, removal of the flattening filter reduced the required thickness of the primary and secondary barriers by 10-20%, corresponding to 18 m{sup 3} less concrete to shield the single-energy linac and 36 m{sup 3} less concrete to shield the dual-energy linac. Thus, a shielding advantage was found when the linac was operated without the flattening filter. This translates into a reduction in occupational exposure and/or the cost and space of shielding.

  8. Treatment vault shielding for a flattening filter-free medical linear accelerator

    Kry, Stephen F; Howell, Rebecca M; Polf, Jerimy; Mohan, Radhe; Vassiliev, Oleg N

    2009-01-01

    The requirements for shielding a treatment vault with a Varian Clinac 2100 medical linear accelerator operated both with and without the flattening filter were assessed. Basic shielding parameters, such as primary beam tenth-value layers (TVLs), patient scatter fractions, and wall scatter fractions, were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of 6, 10 and 18 MV beams. Relative integral target current requirements were determined from treatment planning studies of several disease sites with, and without, the flattening filter. The flattened beam shielding data were compared to data published in NCRP Report No. 151, and the unflattened beam shielding data were presented relative to the NCRP data. Finally, the shielding requirements for a typical treatment vault were determined for a single-energy (6 MV) linac and a dual-energy (6 MV/18 MV) linac. With the exception of large-angle patient scatter fractions and wall scatter fractions, the vault shielding parameters were reduced when the flattening filter was removed. Much of this reduction was consistent with the reduced average energy of the FFF beams. Primary beam TVLs were reduced by 12%, on average, and small-angle scatter fractions were reduced by up to 30%. Head leakage was markedly reduced because less integral target current was required to deliver the target dose. For the treatment vault examined in the current study, removal of the flattening filter reduced the required thickness of the primary and secondary barriers by 10-20%, corresponding to 18 m 3 less concrete to shield the single-energy linac and 36 m 3 less concrete to shield the dual-energy linac. Thus, a shielding advantage was found when the linac was operated without the flattening filter. This translates into a reduction in occupational exposure and/or the cost and space of shielding.

  9. From laboratory experiments to a geological disposal vault: calculation of used nuclear fuel dissolution rates

    Sunder, S.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Kolar, M.; Leneveu, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Calculation of used nuclear fuel dissolution rates in a geological disposal vault requires a knowledge of the redox conditions in the vault. For redox conditions less oxidizing than those causing UO 2 oxidation to the U 3 O 7 , stage, a thermodynamically-based model is appropriate. For more oxidizing redox conditions a kinetic or an electrochemical model is needed to calculate these rates. The redox conditions in a disposal vault will be affected by the radiolysis of groundwater by the ionizing radiation associated with the fuel. Therefore, we have calculated the alpha-, beta- and gamma-dose rates in water in contact with the reference used fuel in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) as a function of cooling time. Also, we have determined dissolution rates of UO 2 fuel as a function of alpha and gamma dose rates from our electrochemical measurements. These room-temperature rates are used to calculate the dissolution rates of used fuel at 100 o C, the highest temperature expected in a container in the CNFWMP, as a function of time since emplacement. It is shown that beta radiolysis of water will be the main cause of oxidation of used CANDU fuel in a failed container. The use of a kinetic or an electrochemical corrosion model, to calculate fuel dissolution rates, is required for a period of ∼1000 a following emplacement of copper containers in the geologic disposal vault envisaged in the CNFWMP. Beyond this time period a thermodynamically-based model adequately predicts the fuel dissolution rates. The results presented in this paper can be adopted to calculate used fuel dissolution rates for other used UO 2 fuels in other waste management programs. (author)

  10. Archaeological finds from the vaulted building at Krševica

    Popović Petar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The completely preserved building with barrel vault was discovered in 2008 in the course of investigation of the remains of an urban settlement dating from the 4th /3rd centuries BC at the site Kale in the village Krševica (southeast Serbia. We are presenting in this work the archaeological finds discovered in this structure. They included pottery, worked stone and many skeletons of horses and dogs that are assumed to be the ritual sacrifice.

  11. Introduction of microbial nutrients in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault as a result of excavation and operation activities

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Gascoyne, M.; Onagi, D.; Thomas, D.A.; Hamon, C.J.; Watson, R.; Porth, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    A nuclear fuel waste disposal vault would not likely be a sterile environment. Bacterial activity would be expected in those areas of the vault conducive to bacterial life, i.e., where effects of heat, moisture content, radiation and compaction would not prevent or severely restrict bacterial life and where suitable and sufficient nutrients would be present. An inventory of bacterial nutrients that would be emplaced 'intentionally' with vault materials (fuel waste, waste containers, buffer and backfill materials) has been made previously. This report assesses bacterial nutrients that would be added 'inadvertently' to a vault in the form of residues of materials used to excavate and operate a vault. Measurements of blasting material residues in the various water supplies, excavated broken rock (muck) and in cores drilled in old and new tunnel walls were made at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory. Results show that the largest potential nutrient addition (both carbon and nitrogen) to a vault would result from using untreated excavated broken rock as part of the backfill. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  12. Disruption of the murine major vault protein (MVP/LRP) gene does not induce hypersensitivity to cytostatics.

    Mossink, Marieke H; van Zon, Arend; Fränzel-Luiten, Erna; Schoester, Martijn; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Scheffer, George L; Scheper, Rik J; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2002-12-15

    Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a distinct structure and a high degree of conservation between species. Although no function has been assigned to the complex yet, there is some evidence for a role of vaults in multidrug resistance. To confirm a direct relation between vaults and multidrug resistance, and to investigate other possible functions of vaults, we have generated a major vault protein (MVP/lung resistance-related protein) knockout mouse model. The MVP(-/-) mice are viable, healthy, and show no obvious abnormalities. We investigated the sensitivity of MVP(-/-) embryonic stem cells and bone marrow cells derived from the MVP-deficient mice to various cytostatic agents with different mechanisms of action. Neither the MVP(-/-) embryonic stem cells nor the MVP(-/-) bone marrow cells showed an increased sensitivity to any of the drugs examined, as compared with wild-type cells. Furthermore, the activities of the ABC-transporters P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein and breast cancer resistance protein were unaltered on MVP deletion in these cells. In addition, MVP wild-type and deficient mice were treated with the anthracycline doxorubicin. Both groups of mice responded similarly to the doxorubicin treatment. Our results suggest that MVP/vaults are not directly involved in the resistance to cytostatic agents.

  13. Introduction of microbial nutrients in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault as a result of excavation and operation activities

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; Gascoyne, M; Onagi, D; Thomas, D A; Hamon, C J; Watson, R; Porth, R J

    1996-08-01

    A nuclear fuel waste disposal vault would not likely be a sterile environment. Bacterial activity would be expected in those areas of the vault conducive to bacterial life, i.e., where effects of heat, moisture content, radiation and compaction would not prevent or severely restrict bacterial life and where suitable and sufficient nutrients would be present. An inventory of bacterial nutrients that would be emplaced `intentionally` with vault materials (fuel waste, waste containers, buffer and backfill materials) has been made previously. This report assesses bacterial nutrients that would be added `inadvertently` to a vault in the form of residues of materials used to excavate and operate a vault. Measurements of blasting material residues in the various water supplies, excavated broken rock (muck) and in cores drilled in old and new tunnel walls were made at AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory. Results show that the largest potential nutrient addition (both carbon and nitrogen) to a vault would result from using untreated excavated broken rock as part of the backfill. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. Conceptual design of shaft seals for a nuclear waste disposal vault

    1993-04-01

    The concept of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield for the effective isolation of nuclear fuel wastes is being assessed as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The vault would be accessed from the surface by a number of shafts, which would likely penetrate the vault environment and intersect significant rock fractures and thereby form preferential pathways for the migration of radionuclides from the disposal area to the biosphere. Golder Associates were retained to conduct a conceptual design study of sealing and backfilling the shafts. The first volume of this report reviews current shaft sinking and lining technologies, and recommends the preferred construction methods for the shafts. Factors that could affect the design of a shaft seal system are reviewed, and a conceptual shaft seal is proposed. The second volume addresses the performance assessment of a shaft seal system. While there are no specific performance criteria against which to compare the anticipated containment characteristics of the shaft seal system proposed, the methodology developed for the performance assessment of the reference design should enable the design to be modified to meet performance criteria as they are developed. The report estimates that it will cost $133.7 million in 1986 Canadian dollars to seal three reference shafts, including $18 million for labour and equipment, $103.4 million for backfill and sealing materials, $9.5 million for project indirect costs, and $2.8 million project management. (author). 53 refs., 36 tabs., 43 figs

  15. Conceptual design of shaft seals for a nuclear waste disposal vault

    NONE

    1993-04-01

    The concept of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield for the effective isolation of nuclear fuel wastes is being assessed as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The vault would be accessed from the surface by a number of shafts, which would likely penetrate the vault environment and intersect significant rock fractures and thereby form preferential pathways for the migration of radionuclides from the disposal area to the biosphere. Golder Associates were retained to conduct a conceptual design study of sealing and backfilling the shafts. The first volume of this report reviews current shaft sinking and lining technologies, and recommends the preferred construction methods for the shafts. Factors that could affect the design of a shaft seal system are reviewed, and a conceptual shaft seal is proposed. The second volume addresses the performance assessment of a shaft seal system. While there are no specific performance criteria against which to compare the anticipated containment characteristics of the shaft seal system proposed, the methodology developed for the performance assessment of the reference design should enable the design to be modified to meet performance criteria as they are developed. The report estimates that it will cost $133.7 million in 1986 Canadian dollars to seal three reference shafts, including $18 million for labour and equipment, $103.4 million for backfill and sealing materials, $9.5 million for project indirect costs, and $2.8 million project management. (author). 53 refs., 36 tabs., 43 figs.

  16. The evolution of cerebellar tonsillar herniation after cranial vault remodeling surgery.

    Leikola, J; Hukki, A; Karppinen, A; Valanne, L; Koljonen, V

    2012-10-01

    We sought to examine the pre- and postoperative changes of cerebellar tonsillar herniation by MR imaging in asymptomatic pediatric patients with nonsyndromic, single-suture craniosynostosis (N-SSSC), who underwent cranial vault remodeling surgery without suboccipital decompression. We required cerebellar tonsillar herniation through foramen magnum ≥3 mm for Chiari type I malformation (CMI). We hypothesized that the increase of intracranial volume by cranial vault remodeling would correct the asymptomatic CMI. We identified 9 patients among 121 N-SSSC children undergoing craniofacial surgery from January 2004 to October 2010 with CMI. However, two of them were excluded from the study due to missing postoperative MR images. In the final study population, six were males, five were scaphocephalic, while two were diagnosed with coronal synostosis. In four of the cases, the CMI was decreased in postoperative MR imaging varying from 6 to 12 mm. In three cases, the herniation remained stable. The median change of cerebellar tonsillar herniation was -6.5 mm. We conclude that asymptomatic patients with existing CMI may benefit from cranial vault remodeling surgery alone increasing the intracranial volume.

  17. Radiation protection of cyclotron vault with maze in PET Cyclotron Center

    Fueloep, Marko

    2003-01-01

    The PET Cyclotron center (PCC) is a complex for production, research and application of positron radiopharmaceuticals for PET (Positron Emission Tomography), which was commissioned this year (2004) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Positron radionuclides are produced by 18/9 MeV proton/deuteron cyclotron CYCLONE 18/9. Radiation protection of personnel and inhabitants against ionizing radiation in the PCC is solved with regard to the ICRP recommendations and Slovak regulatory system, protection rules and criteria and optimization of radiation protection. In the article comparisons of calculated and measured neutron and gamma dose equivalent rates around the CYCLONE 18/9 and at various points behind the shielding of cyclotron vault with maze are presented. Description of the CYCLONE 18/9 as a source of angular distribution of neutron energy spectra (production of 18 F was considered) was simulated by Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Code MCNP4B was used for shielding calculation of cyclotron vault with maze. Neutron energy spectra behind the shielding were measured by Bonner spectrometer. The values of neutron dose equivalent, which were calculated and measured around the CYCLONE 18/9 and at various points behind the shielding of cyclotron vault with maze, are within the range of factor 2. (authors)

  18. Final characterization report for the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory

    Encke, D.B.; Harris, R.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of the characterization data collected from the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Trillium Laboratory. The characterization activities were organized and implemented to evaluate the radiological status and identify any hazardous materials. The data contained in this report reflects the current conditions and status of the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. This information is intended to be utilized in support of future building decontamination and demolition, to allow for proper disposal of the demolition debris as required by the Washington Administrative Code, WAC 173-303, the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, WHC-EP-0063, and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria, BHI-00139. Based on the historical information and facility inspections, the only hazardous materials sampling and analysis activities necessary were to identify lead paint and asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. Asbestos samples were obtained from the outer boundary of the roof areas to confirm the presence and type of asbestos containing fibers. Lead paint samples were obtained to confirm the presence and quantity of lead paint on the roof trim, doors and vents

  19. Fibrous dysplasia of the cranial vault: quantitative analysis based on neural networks

    Arana, E.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Paredes, R.; Molla, E.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the utility of statistical analysis and neural networks in the quantitative analysis of fibrous dysplasia of the cranial vault. Ten patients with fibrous dysplasia (six women and four men with a mean age of 23.60±17.85 years) were selected from a series of 167 patients with lesions of the cranial vault evaluated by plain radiography and computed tomography (CT). Nineteen variables were taken from their medical records and radiological study. Their characterization was based on statistical analysis and neural network, and was validated by means of the leave-one-out method. The performance of the neural network was estimated by means of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, using as a parameter the area under the curve A z . Bivariate analysis identified age, duration of symptoms, lytic and sclerotic patterns, sclerotic margin, ovoid shape, soft-tissue mas and periosteal reaction as significant variables. The area under the neural network curve was 0.9601±0.0435. The network selected the matrix and soft-tissue mass a variables that were indispensable for diagnosis. The neural network presents a high performance in the characterization of fibrous dysplasia of the cranial vault, disclosing occult interactions among the variables. (Author) 24 refs

  20. Studies concerning the degradation of concrete vaults for intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal

    Duffo, Gustavo S.; Arva, Esteban A; Giordano, Celia M.; Lafont, Claudio J.

    2007-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the responsible for developing a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of this concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in the structure. All the information obtained from the sensors will be used for the final design of the container in order to achieve a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities. (author) [es

  1. Experimental investigation of the long term dissolution properties of a cement-based vault backfill

    Butcher, E.J.; Borwick, J.; Thorburn, A.A.; Williams, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    One concept for the long-term management of packages of intermediate-level radioactive waste (ILW) is to place them in underground vaults in a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF). After the packaged waste is placed in the vault it is planned to fill the space around the waste packages with a cement-based backfill prior to closure of the facility. The currently specified backfill is the NRVB (Nirex Reference Vault Backfill), composed of a blend of Portland cement, limestone flour and hydrated lime. Leaching trials are ongoing at the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to investigate the dissolution of NRVB until pH values typical of calcium carbonate are achieved. The objective of this work is to determine the buffering capacity of samples of the NRVB, and to allow the sequential release of the alkalinity from the intact samples to be monitored. Leaching is being performed utilising three leachants: deionised water and two saline solutions. Trials have been performed in duplicate for each leachant to allow an initial assessment to be made of the reproducibility of the data produced. In order to simulate the conditions expected in the GDF the approach being used in the trials is a flow through experiment utilising a flexible wall permeameter, within a 35 deg temperature-controlled cell

  2. Reasoning and change management in modular ontologies

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Klein, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of modular representations are well known from many areas of computer science. While in software engineering modularization is mainly a vehicle for supporting distributed development and re-use, in knowledge representation, the main goal of modularization is efficiency of reasoning. In

  3. Modular invariance of N=2 minimal models

    Sidenius, J.

    1991-01-01

    We prove modular covariance of one-point functions at one loop in the diagonal N=2 minimal superconformal models. We use the recently derived general formalism for computing arbitrary conformal blocks in these models. Our result should be sufficient to guarantee modular covariance at arbitrary genus. It is thus an important check on the general formalism which is not manifestly modular covariant. (orig.)

  4. A Modularized Counselor-Education Program.

    Miller, Thomas V.; Dimattia, Dominic J.

    1978-01-01

    Counselor-education programs may be enriched through the use of modularized learning experiences. This article notes several recent articles on competency-based counselor education, the concepts of simulation and modularization, and describes the process of developing a modularized master's program at the University of Bridgeport in Connecticut.…

  5. Prospect of small modular reactor development

    Li Huailin; Zhu Qingyuan; Wang Suli; Xia Haihong

    2014-01-01

    Small modular reactor has the advantages of modular construction, enhanced safety/robustness from simplified designs, better ecomonic, clean and carbon free, compatible with the needs of smaller utilities and diversified application. In this paper, the prospect of small modular reactor is discussed from technology development status, constraints, economic. (authors)

  6. Integrity and change in modular ontologies

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Klein, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of modular representations arc well known from many areas of computer science. In this paper, we concentrate on the benefits of modular ontologies with respect to local containment of terminological reasoning. We define an architecture for modular ontologies that supports local

  7. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  8. Modularity in Cancer Care Provision

    Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a case study research conducted within the Danish healthcare system aimed at analyzing how modularity is deployed in the process of delivery cancer care. Three cancer packages are presented into detailed describing the process of defining the diagnosis and treat...

  9. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  10. Physical Modeling Modular Boxes: PHOXES

    Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a set of musical instruments, which are based on known physical modeling sound synthesis techniques. The instruments are modular, meaning that they can be combined in various ways. This makes it possible to experiment with physical interaction and sonic...

  11. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  12. Modular forms a classical approach

    Cohen, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The theory of modular forms is a fundamental tool used in many areas of mathematics and physics. It is also a very concrete and "fun" subject in itself and abounds with an amazing number of surprising identities. This comprehensive textbook, which includes numerous exercises, aims to give a complete picture of the classical aspects of the subject, with an emphasis on explicit formulas. After a number of motivating examples such as elliptic functions and theta functions, the modular group, its subgroups, and general aspects of holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms are explained, with an emphasis on explicit examples. The heart of the book is the classical theory developed by Hecke and continued up to the Atkin-Lehner-Li theory of newforms and including the theory of Eisenstein series, Rankin-Selberg theory, and a more general theory of theta series including the Weil representation. The final chapter explores in some detail more general types of modular forms such as half-integral weight, Hilbert, Jacob...

  13. EFFECTS OF RUN-UP VELOCITY ON PERFORMANCE, KINEMATICS, AND ENERGY EXCHANGES IN THE POLE VAULT

    Nicholas P. Linthorne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of run-up velocity on the peak height achieved by the athlete in the pole vault and on the corresponding changes in the athlete's kinematics and energy exchanges. Seventeen jumps by an experienced male pole vaulter were video recorded in the sagittal plane and a wide range of run-up velocities (4.5-8.5 m/s was obtained by setting the length of the athlete's run-up (2-16 steps. A selection of performance variables, kinematic variables, energy variables, and pole variables were calculated from the digitized video data. We found that the athlete's peak height increased linearly at a rate of 0.54 m per 1 m/s increase in run-up velocity and this increase was achieved through a combination of a greater grip height and a greater push height. At the athlete's competition run-up velocity (8.4 m/s about one third of the rate of increase in peak height arose from an increase in grip height and about two thirds arose from an increase in push height. Across the range of run-up velocities examined here the athlete always performed the basic actions of running, planting, jumping, and inverting on the pole. However, he made minor systematic changes to his jumping kinematics, vaulting kinematics, and selection of pole characteristics as the run-up velocity increased. The increase in run-up velocity and changes in the athlete's vaulting kinematics resulted in substantial changes to the magnitudes of the energy exchanges during the vault. A faster run-up produced a greater loss of energy during the take-off, but this loss was not sufficient to negate the increase in run-up velocity and the increase in work done by the athlete during the pole support phase. The athlete therefore always had a net energy gain during the vault. However, the magnitude of this gain decreased slightly as run-up velocity increased

  14. EVALUATION OF SULFATE ATTACK ON SALTSTONE VAULT CONCRETE AND SALTSTONESIMCO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. PART1 FINAL REPORT

    Langton, C.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a durability analysis performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. to assess the effects of contacting saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes with highly alkaline solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfate. The STADIUM(reg s ign) code and data from two surrogate concretes which are similar to the Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes were used in the preliminary durability analysis. Simulation results for these surrogate concrete mixes are provided in this report. The STADIUM(reg s ign) code will be re-run using transport properties measured for the SRS Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concrete samples after SIMCO personnel complete characterization testing on samples of these materials. Simulation results which utilize properties measured for samples of Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes will be provided in Revision 1 of this report after property data become available. The modeling performed to date provided the following information on two concrete mixes that will be used to support the Saltstone PA: (1) Relationship between the rate of advancement of the sulfate front (depth of sulfate ion penetration into the concrete) and the rate of change of the concrete permeability and diffusivity. (2) Relationship between the sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate and the rate of the sulfate front progression. (3) Equation describing the change in hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity) as a function of sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate. These results have been incorporated into the current Saltstone PA analysis by G. Flach (Flach, 2008). In addition, samples of the Saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes have been prepared by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. Transport and physical properties for these materials are currently being measured and sulfate exposure testing to three high alkaline, high sulfate leachates provided by SRNL is

  15. Bundling Products and Services Through Modularization Strategies

    Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi

    2012-01-01

    Modularity has been recognized as a powerful tool in improving the efficiency and management of product design and manufacturing. However, the integrated view on covering both, product and service modularity for product-service systems (PSS), is under researched. Therefore, in this paper our...... objective is to contribute to the PSS modularity. Thus, we describe configurations of PSSs and the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies. So far there have not been tools to analyze and determine the correct combinations of degrees of product and service modularities....

  16. RoboMusic with modular playware

    Falkenberg, Kasper; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and modular playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited in the modular playware approach are modularity, fl exibility, construction......, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, creative exploration of play activities, and in some cases activity design by end-users (e.g., DJs). We exemplify the approach with the development of 11 rock genres and 6 pop music pieces for modular I-BLOCKS, which are exhibited and in daily use at the Rock Me...

  17. RoboMusic with Modular Playware

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and Modular Playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices, which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited from the Modular Playware approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction......, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, creative exploration of play activities, and in some cases activity design by end-users (e.g. DJ’s). We exemplify the approach with the development of 11 rock genres and 6 pop music pieces for modular I-BLOCKS, which are exhibited and in daily use at the Rock Me...

  18. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR

  20. Vault-Scale Modelling of pH Buffering Capacity in Crushed Granite Backfills

    Benbow, Steven; Savage, David; Robinson, Peter; Watson, Sarah

    2004-04-01

    consist of grains of quartz of uniform size of either 4 or 32 mm diameter. The cement pore fluid diffusing from the waste package was assumed to be pure water saturated with portlandite [Ca(OH) 2 ] at 25 deg C. The pore fluid saturating the backfill was assumed to be pure water equilibrated with quartz at 25 deg C. A number of different simulations were carried out for both 4 and 32 mm diameter gravel backfill grains: 1. A 2D horizontal slice through the vault length with a transmissive feature in the host rock parallel to the vault length, but positioned roughly two vault widths from the vault. 2. As (1) above, but considering a 2D vertical slice through the vault. 3. A 2D horizontal slice through the vault width with a transmissive feature in the host rock normal to the vault length. 4. A 2D horizontal slice through the vault length with a transmissive feature in the host rock intersecting the vault at 45 deg to the vault. An additional simulation was also carried out for the geometry considered in model variant (4) above where reaction of quartz was excluded so that only the reaction of Ca(OH) 2 -saturated fluid with ambient groundwater was simulated. The results of the model variants incorporating reaction of quartz were broadly similar, with few differences apparent for the different orientations of the transmissive feature in the host rock. Most simulations showed that the gravel backfill was capable of maintaining pH 4 moles after 10,000 years in a representative 1 m thick slice through the backfill) were dissolved in the gravel adjacent to the waste package to achieve pH buffering. All of the dissolved quartz was converted to CSH solids (tobermorite and gyrolite). Reactions in simulations with the 4 mm diameter backfill grains were slightly faster, but the results were otherwise identical to those for the 32 mm diameter grains. The model variant with no chemical reaction of the backfill particles was considerably different from the other simulations with pH > 11

  1. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  2. CP violation and modular symmetries

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent non-invariance of the results under duality. We find an unambiguous modular CP invariance condition, applicable to predictive models of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated a...

  3. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  4. A Modular Instant Messaging System

    Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad

    2017-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...

  5. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  6. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve

  7. Modular programming method at JAERI

    Asai, Kiyoshi; Katsuragi, Satoru

    1982-02-01

    In this report the histories, concepts and a method for the construction and maintenance of nuclear code systems of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) are presented. The method is mainly consisted of novel computer features. The development process of the features and experiences with them which required many man-months and efforts of scientists and engineers of JAERI and a computer manufacturer are also described. One of the features is a file handling program named datapool. The program is being used in code systems which are under development at JAERI. The others are computer features such as dynamic linking, reentrant coding of Fortran programs, interactive programming facility, document editor, quick system output viewer and editor, flexible man-machine interactive Fortran executor, and selective use of time-sharing or batch oriented computer in an interactive porgramming environment. In 1980 JAERI has replaced its two old computer systems by three FACOM M-200 computer systems and they have such features as mentioned above. Since 1981 most code systems, or even big single codes can be changed to modular code systems even if the developers or users of the systems will not recognize the fact that they are using modular code systems. The purpose of this report is to describe our methodology of modular programming from aspects of computer features and some of their applications to nuclear codes to get sympathetic understanding of it from persons of organizations who are concerned with the effective use of computers, especially, in nuclear research fields. (author)

  8. The "Akopian" vault performed by elite male gymnasts: Which biomechanical variables are related to a judge's score?

    Roman Farana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A vaulting performance takes a short time and it is influenced by and affects the quantity of mechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vaulting score and specific aspects of the gymnast's vault should conduct coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of the Akopian vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. Methods: Fifteen top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data were digitized by the Simi motion software. The Hay and Reid method was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear and angular motions of the handspring and front somersault vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges' scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p < .05. Results: In the Akopian vaults, in five out of 24 variables arising from the deterministic model showed a significant relationship to the score. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body center of mass in the second flight phase, in the height of the body center of mass at the mat touchdown, in the change of the vertical velocity during the take-off from the vaulting table, and in the duration of the second flight phase. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Akopian vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to maximize the change in vertical velocity in the table contact phase and maximize vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to maximize the amplitude of the second flight phase, which is determined by the duration of the second flight phase, by the maximum

  9. Self-organized modularization in evolutionary algorithms.

    Dauscher, Peter; Uthmann, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The principle of modularization has proven to be extremely successful in the field of technical applications and particularly for Software Engineering purposes. The question to be answered within the present article is whether mechanisms can also be identified within the framework of Evolutionary Computation that cause a modularization of solutions. We will concentrate on processes, where modularization results only from the typical evolutionary operators, i.e. selection and variation by recombination and mutation (and not, e.g., from special modularization operators). This is what we call Self-Organized Modularization. Based on a combination of two formalizations by Radcliffe and Altenberg, some quantitative measures of modularity are introduced. Particularly, we distinguish Built-in Modularity as an inherent property of a genotype and Effective Modularity, which depends on the rest of the population. These measures can easily be applied to a wide range of present Evolutionary Computation models. It will be shown, both theoretically and by simulation, that under certain conditions, Effective Modularity (as defined within this paper) can be a selection factor. This causes Self-Organized Modularization to take place. The experimental observations emphasize the importance of Effective Modularity in comparison with Built-in Modularity. Although the experimental results have been obtained using a minimalist toy model, they can lead to a number of consequences for existing models as well as for future approaches. Furthermore, the results suggest a complex self-amplification of highly modular equivalence classes in the case of respected relations. Since the well-known Holland schemata are just the equivalence classes of respected relations in most Simple Genetic Algorithms, this observation emphasizes the role of schemata as Building Blocks (in comparison with arbitrary subsets of the search space).

  10. The effect of organic matter in clay sealing materials on the performance of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    Oscarson, D.W.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Cheung, S.C.H.

    1986-12-01

    The potential effect of organic matter in clay sealing materials on the performance of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault was examined. The available data indicate that the engineering properties of clays are not significantly affected by the relatively low levels of organic matter (< 1.2 wt.%) present in the clay sealing materials. Complexing of radionuclides by organic substances that are released from the clay sealing materials or produced by microorganisms will likely inhibit rather than promote radionuclide mobility in the compacted sealing materials because of the relatively large size of organic complexing species. Decreasing the level of organic matter in the clay sealing materials will not eliminate microorganisms, and perhaps not decrease their numbers significantly, because chemolithotrophic microorganisms (microorganisms that utilize inorganic forms of C) will be present in a disposal vault. Furthermore, an examination of the nutrient budget in a disposal vault indicates that N, rather than C, will likely be the limiting nutrient for microbial growth. Finally, there is not suitable, proven method for decreasing the level of organic matter in the large amounts of clay needed to seal a vault. It is concluded that the organic matter present in the clay sealing material will not adversely affect the performance of a disposal vault

  11. Development of vault model 'VERMIN' for post closure behaviour of repositories for non-heat generating radioactive wastes

    1983-10-01

    The computer model VERMIN has been developed to simulate the post closure time dependent behaviour of the vault section of a Land 3 and a Land 2 type repository. Development was carried out within the constraints of the computer code SYVAC. Output from the new model, in terms of radionuclide fluxes versus time, provides the source term for that code. A number of conceptual designs for different geological conditions were produced and used to develop the model. Unlike SYVAC, the boundary of the vault was considered to be at the interface between the damaged rock zone and the undamaged host rock. VERMIN treats the vault as a series of engineered barriers namely: waste matrix, waste package, backfill material liner and the damaged rock zone. For the Land 3 repository, the vault was considered to be fully saturated and consequently corrosion, leading to eventual package failure, will occur. VERMIN allows for package failure and subsequent leaching and then calculates the migration of nuclides from within the vault out to its boundary. One dimensional advection and two dimensional diffusion/dispersion are modelled allowing for retardation due to sorption radionuclide saturation and radionuclide decay. Radioactive decay chains up to eight members can be modelled by VERMIN. (author)

  12. What sampling device is the most appropriate for vaginal vault cytology in gynaecological cancer follow up?

    Lino, Del Pup; Vincenzo, Canzonieri; Diego, Serraino; Elio, Campagnutta

    2012-01-01

    In women with cancer-related hysterectomy, the vaginal vault cytology has a low efficacy - when performed by conventional methods – for the early detection of vaginal recurrence. The amount of exfoliated cells collected is generally low because of atrophy, and the vaginal vault corners can be so narrow that the commonly used Ayres spatula cannot often penetrate deeply into them. This prospective study aimed at identifying the advantages obtained in specimens collection using the cytobrush, as compared to the Ayres’s spatula. 141 gynaecologic cancer patients were studied to compare samplings collected with Ayre’s spatula or with cytobrush. In a pilot setting of 15 patients, vaginal cytology samples obtained by both Ayre’s spatula and cytobrush were placed at the opposite sites of a single slide for quali-quantitative evaluation. Thereafter, the remaining 126 consecutive women were assigned to either group A (spatula) or B (cytobrush) according to the order of entry. The same gynaecologist performed all the procedures. In all 15 pilot cases, the cytobrush seemed to collect a higher quantity of material. The comparative analysis of the two complete groups indicated that the cytobrush technique was more effective than the spatula one. The odds ratio (OR) for an optimal cytology using the cytobrush was 2.8 (95% confidence interval -C.I. 1.3–6.2; chi-square test, p=0.008). Vaginal vault cytology with cytobrush turned out to better perform than the traditional Ayre’s spatula to obtain an adequate sampling in gynecological cancer patients

  13. The military health system's personal health record pilot with Microsoft HealthVault and Google Health.

    Do, Nhan V; Barnhill, Rick; Heermann-Do, Kimberly A; Salzman, Keith L; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2011-01-01

    To design, build, implement, and evaluate a personal health record (PHR), tethered to the Military Health System, that leverages Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health infrastructure based on user preference. A pilot project was conducted in 2008-2009 at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington. Our PHR was architected to a flexible platform that incorporated standards-based models of Continuity of Document and Continuity of Care Record to map Department of Defense-sourced health data, via a secure Veterans Administration data broker, to Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health based on user preference. The project design and implementation were guided by provider and patient advisory panels with formal user evaluation. The pilot project included 250 beneficiary users. Approximately 73.2% of users were Microsoft® HealthVault, and 81 (32.4%) selected Google® Health as their PHR of preference. Sample evaluation of users reflected 100% (n = 60) satisfied with convenience of record access and 91.7% (n = 55) satisfied with overall functionality of PHR. Key lessons learned related to data-transfer decisions (push vs pull), purposeful delays in reporting sensitive information, understanding and mapping PHR use and clinical workflow, and decisions on information patients may choose to share with their provider. Currently PHRs are being viewed as empowering tools for patient activation. Design and implementation issues (eg, technical, organizational, information security) are substantial and must be thoughtfully approached. Adopting standards into design can enhance the national goal of portability and interoperability.

  14. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L. [and others

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  15. Intensive care unit course of infants and children after cranial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis

    Jansen David A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniosynostosis (CSS results from the premature closure of one or more cranial sutures, leading to deformed calvaria at birth. It is a common finding in children with an incidence of one in 2000 births. Surgery is required in order to release the synostotic constraint and promote normal calvaria growth. Cranial vault remodeling is the surgical approach to CSS repair at our institution and it involves excision of the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones. The purpose of this article is to describe the post-operative course of infants and children admitted to our PICU after undergoing cranial vault remodeling for primary CSS. Findings Complete data was available for analyses in only 82 patients, 44 males (M and 38 females (F; M: F ratio was 1:1.2. Patients (pts age in months (mo ranged from 2 mo to 132 mo, mean 18.2 ±-24.9 mo and weights (wt ranged from 4.7 kg to 31.4 kg, mean 10.24 ± 5.5 Kg.. Duration of surgery (DOS ranged from 70 minutes to 573 minutes mean 331.6 ± 89.0 minutes. No significant correlation exist between duration of surgery, suture category, patient's age or use of blood products (P > 0.05. IOP blood loss was higher in older pts (P 3 days in 32%. Pts with fever had prolonged LOS (P Conclusions Post-op morbidities from increased use of blood products can be minimized if cranial vault remodeling is done at a younger age in patients with primary CSS. PICU length of stay is determined in part by post-op pyrexia and it can be reduced if extensive evaluations of post-op fever are avoided.

  16. Bilateral sacrospinous vault fixation with tailored synthetic mesh arms: clinical outcomes at one year.

    Geoffrion, Roxana; Hyakutake, Momoe T; Koenig, Nicole A; Lee, Terry; Cundiff, Geoffrey W

    2015-02-01

    Bilateral sacrospinous fixation with tailored mesh arms (bSSVF) uses polypropylene mesh to suspend the vault to the sacrospinous ligaments bilaterally with minimal tension, recreating nulliparous midline anatomy. It can be used with uterine conservation. Our primary objective was to determine objective cure rate at one year following bSSVF compared with a control group undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). Secondary objectives were to compare symptoms, quality of life, sexual function, pain, and global satisfaction before and after surgery and between bSSVF and ASC groups at one year. This prospective cohort study enrolled patients with symptomatic prolapse who chose to undergo bSSVF or ASC. Baseline demographics were obtained. Prolapse quantification, validated symptom questionnaire scores, and McGill pain scores were obtained at baseline, six weeks, and one-year postoperatively. Global satisfaction was recorded. The primary outcome measure was the difference in cure rate (vault stage ≤ 1) between groups. Fifty patients were recruited: 30 underwent bSSVF and 17 ASC. Forty-three patients were available for one-year follow-up. Baseline data were similar. There was no difference in vault stage between bSSVF and ASC groups at one year. Five women who underwent bSSVF had cervical elongation, and four of these were classified as POP recurrence. Women who underwent bSSVF had more anterior recurrences but fewer postoperative complications, shorter hospital stay, and less use of narcotics than controls. Questionnaire scores were similar at one year. All respondents felt subjective improvement after either surgical procedure. Objective and subjective cure rates are comparable after bSSVF and ASC. Hysteropexy may cause cervical elongation that merits further research.

  17. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility

  18. High speed drying of saturated steam

    Marty, C.; Peyrelongue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the drying process for the saturated steam used in the PWR nuclear plant turbines in order to prevent negative effects of water on turbine efficiency, maintenance costs and equipment lifetime. The high speed drying concept is based on rotating the incoming saturated steam in order to separate water which is more denser than the steam; the water film is then extracted through an annular slot. A multicellular modular equipment has been tested. Applications on high and low pressure extraction of various PWR plants are described (Bugey, Loviisa)

  19. POLE.VAULT: A Semantic Framework for Health Policy Evaluation and Logical Testing.

    Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Shin, Eun Kyong; Davis, Robert L; Buckeridge, David L

    2017-01-01

    The major goal of our study is to provide an automatic evaluation framework that aligns the results generated through semantic reasoning with the best available evidence regarding effective interventions to support the logical evaluation of public health policies. To this end, we have designed the POLicy EVAlUation & Logical Testing (POLE.VAULT) Framework to assist different stakeholders and decision-makers in making informed decisions about different health-related interventions, programs and ultimately policies, based on the contextual knowledge and the best available evidence at both individual and aggregate levels.

  20. Design considerations for sealing the shafts of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    Mortazavi, M.H.S.; Chan, H.T.; Radhakrishna, H.S.

    1985-05-01

    The shafts in an underground disposal system, which constitute potential pathways between the disposal vault and the biosphere, should be effectively sealed if the system is to perform as a hydrodynamic and geochemical barrier for the safe containment of nuclear fuel waste. In the design of the shaft backfill, consideration should be given to ensure that the backfill and the backfill/rock interface remain intact. Design-related problems, including critical pathways for the transport or radionuclides, configuration of shaft backfill and its functional requirements, the state of stress in a backfilled shaft with particular emphasis on the arching and load transfer phenomenon are discussed in this report

  1. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the first revision to ''Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0

  2. Microbially influenced corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault

    King, F.

    1996-11-01

    An assessment of the potential for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault is presented. The assessment is based on a consideration of the microbial activity within a disposal vault, the reported cases of MIC of Cu alloys in the literature and the known corrosion behaviour of Cu. Because of the critical role of biofilms in the reported cases of MIC, their formation and properties are discussed in detail. Next, the literature on the MIC of Cu alloys is briefly reviewed. The various MIC mechanisms proposed are critically discussed and the implications for the corrosion of Cu containers considered. In the majority of literature cases, MIC depends on alternating aerated and deaerated environments, with accelerated corrosion being observed when fresh aerated water replaces stagnant water, e.g., the MIC of Cu-Ni heat exchangers in polluted seawater and the microbially influenced pitting of Cu water pipes. Finally, because of the predominance of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the MIC literature, the abiotic behaviour of Cu alloys in sulphide solutions is also reviewed. The effect of the evolving environment in a disposal vault on the extent and location of microbial activity is discussed. Biofilm formation on the container surface is considered unlikely throughout the container lifetime, but especially initially when the environmental conditions will be particularly aggressive. Microbial activity in areas of the vault away from the container is possible, however. Corrosion of the container could then occur if microbial metabolic by-products diffuse to the container surface. Sulphide, produced by the action of SRB are considered to be the most likely cause of container corrosion. It is concluded that the only likely form of MIC of Cu containers will result from sulphide produced by SRB diffusing to the container surface. A modelling procedure for predicting the extent of corrosion is

  3. A methodology for sunlight urban planning: a computer-based solar and sky vault obstruction analysis

    Pereira, Fernando Oscar Ruttkay; Silva, Carlos Alejandro Nome [Federal Univ. of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Architecture and Urbanism, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Turkienikz, Benamy [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Faculty of Architecture, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to describe a planning methodology to improve the quality of the built environment based on the rational control of solar radiation and the view of the sky vault. The main criterion used to control the access and obstruction of solar radiation was the concept of desirability and undesirability of solar radiation. A case study for implementing the proposed methodology is developed. Although needing further developments to find its way into regulations and practical applications, the methodology has shown a strong potential to deal with an aspect that otherwise would be almost impossible. (Author)

  4. Dry storage

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  5. Modular properties of 6d (DELL) systems

    Aminov, G.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-11-01

    If super-Yang-Mills theory possesses the exact conformal invariance, there is an additional modular invariance under the change of the complex bare charge [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. The low-energy Seiberg-Witten prepotential ℱ( a), however, is not explicitly invariant, because the flat moduli also change a - → a D = ∂ℱ/∂ a. In result, the prepotential is not a modular form and depends also on the anomalous Eisenstein series E 2. This dependence is usually described by the universal MNW modular anomaly equation. We demonstrate that, in the 6 d SU( N) theory with two independent modular parameters τ and \\widehat{τ} , the modular anomaly equation changes, because the modular transform of τ is accompanied by an ( N -dependent!) shift of \\widehat{τ} and vice versa. This is a new peculiarity of double-elliptic systems, which deserves further investigation.

  6. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Benz, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  7. Modular Robotics in an African Context

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the concept, development and use of modular robotic devices for education, health improvements, and business in Africa. The modular robotics inspired technology has the advantage of allowing any user easy access to a physical construction of new and advanced technology. We...... conceptualized several educational tools inspired by modular robotics for contextualized IT education in Tanzania, leading to a novel IT degree program and the development of East Africa’s first science and business park in Iringa, Tanzania. The prototypes inspired by modular robotics were developed in the local......, rural context and tested by local users in hospitals and rehabilitation centres. In this paper, we review the development of both modular building blocks for education and modular robotic tiles for rehabilitation in Tanzania....

  8. (Automated) software modularization using community detection

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The modularity of a software system is known to have an effect on, among other, development effort, change impact, and technical debt. Modularizing a specific system and evaluating this modularization is, however, challenging. In this paper, we apply community detection methods to the graph...... of class dependencies in software systems to find optimal modularizations through communities. We evaluate this approach through a study of 111 Java systems contained in the Qualitas Corpus. We found that using the modularity function of Newman with an Erdős-Rényi null-model and using the community...... detection algorithm of Reichardt and Bornholdt improved community quality for all systems, that coupling decreased for 99 of the systems, and that coherence increased for 102 of the systems. Furthermore, the modularity function correlates with existing metrics for coupling and coherence....

  9. Anomalies and modular invariance in string theory

    Schellekens, A.N.; Warner, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    All known anomaly cancellations of heterotic string theories are derived directly from one-loop modular invariance, and are shown to be related to a property of modular functions of weight 2. Using modular invariance infinite classes of anomaly free field theories are constructed in (8m+2) dimensions for any m. A generating function is obtained for the anomalies of string-related field theories in (8m+2) dimensions. (orig.)

  10. KWU's modular approach to HTR commercialization

    Frewer, H.; Weisbrodt, I.

    1983-01-01

    As a way of avoiding the uncertainties, delays and unacceptable commercial risks which have plagued advanced reactor projects in Germany, KWU is advocating a modular approach to commercialization of the high-temperature reactor (HTR), using small size standard reactor units. KWU has received a contract for the study of a co-generation plant based on this modular system. Features of the KWU modular HTR, process heat, gasification, costs and future development are discussed. (UK)

  11. Identification of drivers for modular production

    Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...... is required. This paper presents an analysis whether and which module drivers from general product development can be applied to the development process of a modular manufacturing system. The result is a compiled list of modular drivers for manufacturing and examples of their use....

  12. The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor

    Lutz, D.E.; Lipps, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Due to relatively high operating temperatures, the gas-cooled reactor has the potential to serve a wide variety of energy applications. This paper discusses the energy applications which can be served by the modular HTGR, the magnitude of the potential markets, and the HTGR product cost incentives relative to fossil fuel competition. Advantages of the HTGR modular systems are presented along with a description of the design features and performance characteristics of the current reference HTGR modular systems

  13. Modular invariance, chiral anomalies and contact terms

    Kutasov, D.

    1988-03-01

    The chiral anomaly in heterotic strings with full and partial modular invariance in D=2n+2 dimensions is calculated. The boundary terms which were present in previous calculations are shown to be cancelled in the modular invariant case by contact terms, which can be obtained by an appropriate analytic continuation. The relation to the low energy field theory is explained. In theories with partial modular invariance, an expression for the anomaly is obtained and shown to be non zero in general. (author)

  14. Influence of the program of prophylaxis of violations of vaults of foot on physical preparedness of children of midchildhood

    Valkevich A.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - to probe influence of the program of prophylaxis of violations of vaults of foot on physical preparedness of children of midchildhood. 40 children which studied in a tourist class took part in experiment. All of children on the state a health were attributed to the basic group. In the process of testing determined the indexes of speed (run 30 meters, flexibility (forerake from position «sitting», adroitness (shuttle run 4x9 meters, speed-power qualities (broad jump from a place, force (undercutting on a low cross-beam and endurance (run, meters. The substantive provisions of the program of prophylaxis of violations of vaults of foot are reflected for children. Certain and analysed dynamics of indexes of physical preparedness of schoolboys on completion of the program of prophylaxis of violations of vaults of foot in educational process.

  15. Modular Structures in a Multinational Force Headquarters

    Stewart, K; Christie, M

    2004-01-01

    .... It is proposed that future Multinational Force (MNF) military headquarters (HQ) can achieve this flexibility through a modular organizational structure enabled by networked information management and communication technologies...

  16. A Modular SOS for Action Notation - Revisited

    Mosses, Peter David

    A draft modular SOS for the new version of AN, referred to as AN-2, has been available since 2000. It is written in CASL and has been checked for well-formedness using CATS (CASL Tool Set). It appears to be significantly more accessible than the original SOS of AN-1. However, it now appears......-notation for the modular SOS rules. After discussing the issues, we look at some illustrative examples taken from an improved modular SOS of AN-2 (in preparation). We also look at the possibility of empirical testing of the modular SOS by a straightforward translation to Prolog....

  17. Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic

    Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Erik Hermann; Meseguer, José

    Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution and verif......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...

  18. Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic

    Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Meseguer, José

    2003-01-01

    Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution and verif......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...

  19. Modular representation and analysis of fault trees

    Olmos, J; Wolf, L [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1978-08-01

    An analytical method to describe fault tree diagrams in terms of their modular compositions is developed. Fault tree structures are characterized by recursively relating the top tree event to all its basic component inputs through a set of equations defining each of the modulus for the fault tree. It is shown that such a modular description is an extremely valuable tool for making a quantitative analysis of fault trees. The modularization methodology has been implemented into the PL-MOD computer code, written in PL/1 language, which is capable of modularizing fault trees containing replicated components and replicated modular gates. PL-MOD in addition can handle mutually exclusive inputs and explicit higher order symmetric (k-out-of-n) gates. The step-by-step modularization of fault trees performed by PL-MOD is demonstrated and it is shown how this procedure is only made possible through an extensive use of the list processing tools available in PL/1. A number of nuclear reactor safety system fault trees were analyzed. PL-MOD performed the modularization and evaluation of the modular occurrence probabilities and Vesely-Fussell importance measures for these systems very efficiently. In particular its execution time for the modularization of a PWR High Pressure Injection System reduced fault tree was 25 times faster than that necessary to generate its equivalent minimal cut-set description using MOCUS, a code considered to be fast by present standards.

  20. Problems in the theory of modular forms

    Murty, M Ram; Graves, Hester

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the fascinating world of modular forms through a problem-solving approach. As such, besides researchers, the book can be used by the undergraduate and graduate students for self-instruction. The topics covered include q-series, the modular group, the upper half-plane, modular forms of level one and higher level, the Ramanujan τ-function, the Petersson inner product, Hecke operators, Dirichlet series attached to modular forms and further special topics. It can be viewed as a gentle introduction for a deeper study of the subject. Thus, it is ideal for non-experts seeking an entry into the field. .

  1. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  2. Decentralizing decision making in modularization strategies

    Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    which distorts the economic effects of modularization at the level of the individual product. This has the implication that decisions on modularization can only be made by top management if decision authority and relevant information are to be aligned. To overcome this problem, we suggest a solution...... that aligns the descriptions of the economic consequences of modularization at the project and portfolio level which makes it possible to decentralize decision making while making sure that local goals are congruent with the global ones in order to avoid suboptimal behaviour. Keywords: Modularization......; Accounting; Cost allocation; Decision rule; Decentralization...

  3. Homology of the cranial vault in birds: new insights based on embryonic fate-mapping and character analysis

    Maddin, Hillary C.; Piekarski, Nadine; Sefton, Elizabeth M.; Hanken, James

    2016-08-01

    Bones of the cranial vault appear to be highly conserved among tetrapod vertebrates. Moreover, bones identified with the same name are assumed to be evolutionarily homologous. However, recent developmental studies reveal a key difference in the embryonic origin of cranial vault bones between representatives of two amniote lineages, mammals and birds, thereby challenging this view. In the mouse, the frontal is derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) but the parietal is derived from mesoderm, placing the CNC-mesoderm boundary at the suture between these bones. In the chicken, this boundary is located within the frontal. This difference and related data have led several recent authors to suggest that bones of the avian cranial vault are misidentified and should be renamed. To elucidate this apparent conflict, we fate-mapped CNC and mesoderm in axolotl to reveal the contributions of these two embryonic cell populations to the cranial vault in a urodele amphibian. The CNC-mesoderm boundary in axolotl is located between the frontal and parietal bones, as in the mouse but unlike the chicken. If, however, the avian frontal is regarded instead as a fused frontal and parietal (i.e. frontoparietal) and the parietal as a postparietal, then the cranial vault of birds becomes developmentally and topologically congruent with those of urodeles and mammals. This alternative hypothesis of cranial vault homology is also phylogenetically consistent with data from the tetrapod fossil record, where frontal, parietal and postparietal bones are present in stem lineages of all extant taxa, including birds. It further implies that a postparietal may be present in most non-avian archosaurs, but fused to the parietal or supraoccipital as in many extant mammals.

  4. Expression profiles of vault components MVP, TEP1 and vPARP and their correlation to other multidrug resistance proteins in ovarian cancer.

    Szaflarski, Witold; Sujka-Kordowska, Patrycja; Pula, Bartosz; Jaszczyńska-Nowinka, Karolina; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Zawierucha, Piotr; Dziegiel, Piotr; Nowicki, Michał; Ivanov, Pavel; Zabel, Maciej

    2013-08-01

    Vaults are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles composed of three proteins (MVP, TEP1, vPARP) and vault‑associated RNAs (vRNAs). Although the cellular functions of vaults remain unclear, vaults are strongly linked to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), the major obstacle to the efficient treatment of cancers. Available published data suggest that vaults and their components are frequently upregulated in broad variety of multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and tumors of different histological origin. Here, we provide detailed analysis of vault protein expression in post-surgery ovarian cancer samples from patients that were not exposed to chemotherapy. Our analysis suggests that vault proteins are expressed in the ovaries of healthy individuals but their expression in cancer patients is changed. Specifically, MVP, TEP1 and vPARP mRNA levels are significantly decreased in cancer samples with tendency of lower expression in higher-grade tumors. The pattern of vault protein mRNA expression is strongly correlated with the expression of other MDR-associated proteins such as MDR1, MRP1 and BCRP. Surprisingly, the protein levels of MVP, TEP1 and vPARP are actually increased in the higher‑grade tumors suggesting existence of post-transcriptional regulation of vault component production.

  5. SU-E-T-267: Construction and Evaluation of a Neutron Wall to Shield a 15 MV Linac in a Low-Energy Vault.

    Speiser, M; Hager, F; Foster, R; Solberg, T

    2012-06-01

    To design and quantify the shielding efficacy of an inner Borated Polyethylene (BPE)wall for a 15 MV linac in a low energy vault. A Varian TrueBeam linac with a maximum photon energy of 15 MV was installed in asmaller, preexisting vault. This vault originally housed a low-energy machine and did not havesufficient maze length recommended for neutron attenuation. Effective dose rate calculationswere performed using the Modified Kersey's Method as detailed in NCRP Report No. 151 andfound to be unacceptably high. An initial survey following the machine installation confirmedthese calculations. Rather than restrict the linac beam energy to 10 MV, BPE was investigatedas a neutron moderating addition. An inner wall and door were planned and constructed using4'×8'×1″ thick 5% BPE sheets. The resulting door and wall had 2″ of BPE; conduits and ductwork were also redesigned and shielded. A survey was conducted following construction of thewall. The vault modification reduced the expected effective dose at the vault door from 36.23to 0.010 mSv/week. As specific guidelines for vault modification are lacking, this project quantitativelydemonstrates the potential use of BPE for vault modification. Such modifications may provide alow-cost shielding solution to allow for the use of high energy modes in smaller treatment vaults. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. On modular stellarator reactor coils

    Rau, F.; Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H.

    1985-01-01

    Modular twisted coils are discussed which produce magnetic fields of the Advanced Stellarator WENDELSTEIN VII-AS type. Reducing the number coils/FP offers advantage for maintenance of coils, but increases the magnetic ripple and B m /B o . Computation of force densities within the coils of ASR and ASB yield local maximum values of about 80 and 180 MN/m 3 , respectively. A system of mutual coil support is being developed. Twisted coils in helical arrangement provide a reactor-sized HELIAC system. In order to reduce the magnetic ripple, a large number of 14 coils/FP in special arrangement is used

  7. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  8. CP violation and modular symmetries

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent noninvariance of the results under duality. We find a modular CP invariance condition, applicable to any predictive model of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated as a source of CP violation, but is likely experimentally excluded. We consider the prospects for explaining CP violation in strongly coupled strings and brane worlds

  9. A thermal model of the immobilization of low-level radioactive waste as grout in concrete vaults

    Shadday, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Salt solution, from radioactive waste generated by the production of plutonium and tritium in nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Site, will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be poured into above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 o C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  10. Grout for closure of waste-disposal vaults at the US DOE Hanford Site

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; McDaniel, E.W.; Voogd, J.

    1991-01-01

    For permanent disposal of radioactive wastes from reprocessing, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to grout wastes in concrete vaults within a subsurface multiple-barrier system. The subject of this research is the non-radioactive, or ''cold cap'' grout, which fills the upper 120 cm of these vaults, and provides support for overlying barriers. Because of the heat evolved by the wasteform, this void-filling grout must perform at temperatures higher than those of usual large-volume grouting operations. It must have: low potential for thermal expansion and heat retention; a low modulus to withstand thermal and mechanical stresses without cracking; strength adequate to support overlying barrier-system components; and minimal potential for shrinkage. In addition, it must be pumpable, self-leveling, and non-segregating. Materials for formulation included a large percentage of Class F fly ash, and coarsely ground oil-well cement. Grout development included chemical and physical characterization, and physical and thermal modeling

  11. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C; Gee, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  12. Frescoed Vaults: Accuracy Controlled Simplified Methodology for Planar Development of Three-Dimensional Textured Models

    Marco Giorgio Bevilacqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of documentation and preservation of cultural heritage, there is keen interest in 3D metric viewing and rendering of architecture for both formal appearance and color. On the other hand, operative steps of restoration interventions still require full-scale, 2D metric surface representations. The transition from 3D to 2D representation, with the related geometric transformations, has not yet been fully formalized for planar development of frescoed vaults. Methodologies proposed so far on this subject provide transitioning from point cloud models to ideal mathematical surfaces and projecting textures using software tools. The methodology used for geometry and texture development in the present work does not require any dedicated software. The different processing steps can be individually checked for any error introduced, which can be then quantified. A direct accuracy check of the planar development of the frescoed surface has been carried out by qualified restorers, yielding a result of 3 mm. The proposed methodology, although requiring further studies to improve automation of the different processing steps, allowed extracting 2D drafts fully usable by operators restoring the vault frescoes.

  13. Slight conductive hearing loss in children with narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault.

    Kiki, A; Kiliç, N; Oktay, H

    2015-01-01

    PROBLEM/OBJECTIVES: Maxillary constriction and high palatal arch are associated with increased risk of chronic eustachian tube dysfunction and conductive hearing loss (CHL) due to chronic effusion. However, this relationship has not been clearly demonstrated. This study assessed CHL in school children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault. Thirty-two children with maxillary constriction were randomly selected for the study group and 28 children with normal transverse maxillary development were selected for the control group. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained for all children, and hearing levels and air-bone gaps were measured. Air-bone gap measurements in the control group ranged from 5.50 to 14.50 decibels (dB), and in the study group they were between 5.00 and 24.00 dB. In the study group, 14 (43.8%) children had slight CHL, and the remaining 18 (56.2%) children had normal hearing levels. In the control group, all of the children had normal hearing levels. Hearing levels and air-bone gaps were greater in the study group than the control group. This study showed that children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault may have slight CHL. Therefore, the onset of CHL should be followed with hearing screening programs.

  14. 3D-Conformal Versus Intensity-Modulated Postoperative Radiotherapy of Vaginal Vault: A Dosimetric Comparison

    Cilla, Savino; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Romanella, Michele; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Padula, Gilbert; Picardi, Vincenzo; Scambia, Giovanni; Piermattei, Angelo; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a step-and-shoot IMRT plan in the postoperative irradiation of the vaginal vault compared with equispaced beam arrangements (3-5) 3D-radiotherapy (RT) optimized plans. Twelve patients were included in this analysis. Four plans for each patient were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, homogeneity index (HI), and conformity index (CI): (1) 3 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (2) 4 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (3) 5 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (4) step-and-shoot IMRT technique. CI showed a good discrimination between the four plans. The mean scores of CI were 0.58 (range: 0.38-0.67) for the 3F-CRT plan, 0.58 (range: 0.41-0.66) for 4F-CRT, 0.62 (range: 0.43-0.68) for 5F-CRT and 0.69 (range: 0.58-0.78) for the IMRT plan. A significant improvement of the conformity was reached by the IMRT plan (p mean , V90%, V95%, V100% was recorded for rectal and bladder irradiation with the IMRT plan. Surprisingly, IMRT supplied a significant dose reduction also for rectum and bladder V30% and V50%. A significant dosimetric advantage of IMRT over 3D-RT in the adjuvant treatment of vaginal vault alone in terms of treatment conformity and rectum and bladder sparing is shown.

  15. Range and Image Based Modelling: a way for Frescoed Vault Texturing Optimization

    Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the restoration of the frescoed vaults it is not only important to know the geometric shape of the painted surface, but it is essential to document its chromatic characterization and conservation status. The new techniques of range-based and image-based modelling, each with its limitations and advantages, offer a wide range of methods to obtain the geometric shape. In fact, several studies widely document that laser scanning enable obtaining three-dimensional models with high morphological precision. However, the quality level of the colour obtained with built-in laser scanner cameras is not comparable to that obtained for the shape. It is possible to improve the texture quality by means of a dedicated photographic campaign. This procedure, however, requires to calculate the external orientation of each image identifying the control points on it and on the model through a costly step of post processing. With image-based modelling techniques it is possible to obtain models that maintain the colour quality of the original images, but with variable geometric precision, locally lower than the laser scanning model. This paper presents a methodology that uses the camera external orientation parameters calculated by image based modelling techniques to project the same image on the model obtained from the laser scan. This methodology is tested on an Italian mirror (a schifo) frescoed vault. In the paper the different models, the analysis of precision and the efficiency evaluation of proposed methodology are presented.

  16. Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture

    Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.

  17. Modular plants for small deposits

    Josa, J.M.; Moral, A.; Otero, J.L.; Suarez, E.

    1985-01-01

    The large investment required to recover uranium from small deposits is the greatest obstacle to their economic development. Various concepts (caravan mill, pure mill or semimobile mill) have been elaborated in different countries. Studies have also been made in Spain to develop a simple and economic flowsheet suitable for the beneficiation of small uranium deposits. An acid heap-leaching and solvent extraction process was chosen because there is already a great deal of experience of it in Spain. Modifications were necessary to make the equipment easy to transport and also to have a low and reusable investment when this flowsheet is used for small deposits. The aim was to develop a modular plant with all the elements fitted in compact units that needs little site preparation and little time and effort to connect the units. A standard small portable crushing plant can be borrowed and the mining operation and heap construction can be put to contract. There is a solvent extraction unit (150 m 3 /d) in continuous operation (24 h/d) and concentrate precipitation and handling facilities. The whole of the equipment is standard and as light as possible. Little civil engineering is required and the erection of the plant only needs a few months. The uranium capacity of these modular plants is between 35 and 50 t U 3 O 8 /a. Special consideration has been paid to regulations and the environmental aspects. (author)

  18. Hydraulic Modular Dosaging Systems for Machine Drives

    A. J. Kotlobai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The justified principle of making modular dosaging systems for positive-displacement multimotor hydraulic drives used in running gear and technological equipment of mobile construction, road and agricultural machines makes it possible to synchronize motion of running parts. The examples of the realization of modular dosaging systems and an algorithm of their operation are given in the paper.

  19. Theta function identities associated with Ramanujan's modular ...

    In Chapter 20 of his second notebook [6], Ramanujan recorded several theta function identities associated with modular equations of composite degree 15. These identities have previously been proved by Berndt in [3]. But he proved most of these theta function identities using modular equations. These identities can also ...

  20. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  1. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    Hadasz, Leszek, E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.p [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Jaskolski, Zbigniew, E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Suchanek, Paulina, E-mail: paulina@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-02-22

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  2. Modular bootstrap in Liouville field theory

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2010-02-01

    The modular matrix for the generic 1-point conformal blocks on the torus is expressed in terms of the fusion matrix for the 4-point blocks on the sphere. The modular invariance of the toric 1-point functions in the Liouville field theory with DOZZ structure constants is proved.

  3. Curriculum Development through YTS Modular Credit Accumulation.

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document reports the evaluation of the collaborately developed Modular Training Framework (MainFrame), a British curriculum development project, built around a commitment to a competency-based, modular credit accumulation program. The collaborators were three local education authorities (LEAs), those of Bedfordshire, Haringey, and Sheffield,…

  4. Higher-order (non-)modularity

    Appel, Claus; van Oostrom, Vincent; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We show that, contrary to the situation in first-order term rewriting, almost none of the usual properties of rewriting are modular for higher-order rewriting, irrespective of the higher-order rewriting format. We show that for the particular format of simply typed applicative term rewriting...... systems modularity of confluence, normalization, and termination can be recovered by imposing suitable linearity constraints....

  5. Modular interdependency in complex dynamical systems.

    Watson, Richard A; Pollack, Jordan B

    2005-01-01

    Herbert A. Simon's characterization of modularity in dynamical systems describes subsystems as having dynamics that are approximately independent of those of other subsystems (in the short term). This fits with the general intuition that modules must, by definition, be approximately independent. In the evolution of complex systems, such modularity may enable subsystems to be modified and adapted independently of other subsystems, whereas in a nonmodular system, modifications to one part of the system may result in deleterious side effects elsewhere in the system. But this notion of modularity and its effect on evolvability is not well quantified and is rather simplistic. In particular, modularity need not imply that intermodule dependences are weak or unimportant. In dynamical systems this is acknowledged by Simon's suggestion that, in the long term, the dynamical behaviors of subsystems do interact with one another, albeit in an "aggregate" manner--but this kind of intermodule interaction is omitted in models of modularity for evolvability. In this brief discussion we seek to unify notions of modularity in dynamical systems with notions of how modularity affects evolvability. This leads to a quantifiable measure of modularity and a different understanding of its effect on evolvability.

  6. Analytic properties of the Virasoro modular kernel

    Nemkov, Nikita [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISIS, The Laboratory of Superconducting metamaterials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    On the space of generic conformal blocks the modular transformation of the underlying surface is realized as a linear integral transformation. We show that the analytic properties of conformal block implied by Zamolodchikov's formula are shared by the kernel of the modular transformation and illustrate this by explicit computation in the case of the one-point toric conformal block. (orig.)

  7. Modularity and its effects on innovation

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    systematic work and management type of tasks, although it conflicts with the typical characteristics associated with the entrepreneur. If not managed properly, modularization can foster the modularity trap over time. At this stage intrapreneurial activities can help the organization stay ahead of the game...

  8. A Formal Theory for Modular ERDF Ontologies

    Analyti, Anastasia; Antoniou, Grigoris; Damásio, Carlos Viegas

    The success of the Semantic Web is impossible without any form of modularity, encapsulation, and access control. In an earlier paper, we extended RDF graphs with weak and strong negation, as well as derivation rules. The ERDF #n-stable model semantics of the extended RDF framework (ERDF) is defined, extending RDF(S) semantics. In this paper, we propose a framework for modular ERDF ontologies, called modular ERDF framework, which enables collaborative reasoning over a set of ERDF ontologies, while support for hidden knowledge is also provided. In particular, the modular ERDF stable model semantics of modular ERDF ontologies is defined, extending the ERDF #n-stable model semantics. Our proposed framework supports local semantics and different points of view, local closed-world and open-world assumptions, and scoped negation-as-failure. Several complexity results are provided.

  9. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    This research centres on assembly systems designed for utilizing product modularization. Altogether, the task for companies has become an issue of managing the overall trade-off between the external market’s desire for variety and the internal efficiency and effectiveness. Product modularization...... a number of theoretical and managerial implications are identified. From a management point of view, the most im-portant finding is that modularization needs to be configured for the two competitive situations, i.e. 1) the volume flexible configuration focusing on generational product variety and 2......) the mix flexible con-figuration focusing on the simultaneous product variety. These two views are in particular different in respect to the understanding of product modularization. All in all, modularization needs to be, and can be, configured in regard to the specific task, which is believed constituting...

  10. Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    far less attention compared to the theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems. Harvesting the full potential of modularization, particularly in relation to product development agility, depends on more than an optimal architecture. Key enablers in this context......Although modularization is becoming both a well-described domain in academia and a broadly applied concept in business, many of today’s firm still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received...... are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...

  11. Synthesizing Modular Invariants for Synchronous Code

    Pierre-Loic Garoche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore different techniques to synthesize modular invariants for synchronous code encoded as Horn clauses. Modular invariants are a set of formulas that characterizes the validity of predicates. They are very useful for different aspects of analysis, synthesis, testing and program transformation. We describe two techniques to generate modular invariants for code written in the synchronous dataflow language Lustre. The first technique directly encodes the synchronous code in a modular fashion. While in the second technique, we synthesize modular invariants starting from a monolithic invariant. Both techniques, take advantage of analysis techniques based on property-directed reachability. We also describe a technique to minimize the synthesized invariants.

  12. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  13. Experimental research into dynamic properties of masonry barrel vaults non-reinforced and reinforced with carbon composite strips

    Zigler, R.; Witzany, J.; Makovička, D.; Urushadze, Shota; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Kubát, J.; Kroftová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 3 (2016) ISSN 1805-2576 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : rehabilitation * strengthening * masonry vaults * FRP fabrics * dynamic load * static load Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https:// doaj .org/article/a4197d0d1b974dbeadf9188398d45fc8

  14. The effects of vault drainage on postoperative morbidity after vaginal hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    Dua, A; Galimberti, A; Subramaniam, M; Popli, G; Radley, S

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of vault drainage in reducing the immediate postoperative morbidity associated with vaginal hysterectomy carried out for benign gynaecological conditions. Randomised controlled trial. A tertiary referral gynaecology centre in UK. A total of 272 women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy for benign conditions between March 2005 and June 2010. The 272 women were randomised to have a drain inserted or not inserted, 'drain' or 'no drain', respectively, before vault closure during vaginal hysterectomy, using a sealed envelope technique. The surgical procedures were performed using the surgeons' standard technique and postoperative care was delivered according to the unit's protocol. The primary outcome measure was reduction in postoperative febrile morbidity. Secondary outcome measures were hospital readmission rate, blood transfusion, change in postoperative haemoglobin and length of stay. In all, 135 women were randomised to have a drain and 137 to 'no drain'. There were no differences in the incidence of febrile morbidity, length of stay, change in haemoglobin or need for postoperative blood transfusion between the two groups. The routine use of vault drain at vaginal hysterectomy for benign disorders has no significant effect on postoperative morbidity. The use of vault drain in this context is not recommended. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  15. Recruitment of the major vault protein by InlK: a Listeria monocytogenes strategy to avoid autophagy.

    Laurent Dortet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available L. monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterium responsible for listeriosis. It is able to invade, survive and replicate in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. The infectious process at the cellular level has been extensively studied and many virulence factors have been identified. Yet, the role of InlK, a member of the internalin family specific to L. monocytogenes, remains unknown. Here, we first show using deletion analysis and in vivo infection, that InlK is a bona fide virulence factor, poorly expressed in vitro and well expressed in vivo, and that it is anchored to the bacterial surface by sortase A. We then demonstrate by a yeast two hybrid screen using InlK as a bait, validated by pulldown experiments and immunofluorescence analysis that intracytosolic bacteria via an interaction with the protein InlK interact with the Major Vault Protein (MVP, the main component of cytoplasmic ribonucleoproteic particules named vaults. Although vaults have been implicated in several cellular processes, their role has remained elusive. Our analysis demonstrates that MVP recruitment disguises intracytosolic bacteria from autophagic recognition, leading to an increased survival rate of InlK over-expressing bacteria compared to InlK(- bacteria. Together these results reveal that MVP is hijacked by L. monocytogenes in order to counteract the autophagy process, a finding that could have major implications in deciphering the cellular role of vault particles.

  16. Creep in the sparsely fractured rock between a disposal vault and a zone of highly fractured rock

    Wilkins, B.J.S.; Rigby, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    AECL Research is responsible for investigating the feasibility and safety of the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste deep in the plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The excavation of the disposal vault, the installation of sealing systems and the heat generated by the fuel waste will all perturb the in situ stress state of the rock mass. This computer codes HOTROK, MCROC and MCDIRC are used to analyze the influence of these stress perturbations on the mechanical behaviour of the rock mass. Time-dependent microcracking of the rock mass will lead to creep around openings in the vault. The analysis specifically estimates the resulting creep strain in the sparsely fractured rock between the edge of the disposal vault and a postulated zone of highly fractured rock. The estimates are extremely conservative. The conclusion reached is that the rock mass more than 3 m beyond the edge of the vault will experience < 0.001 creep strain 100 000 years after the fuel waste is emplaced. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  17. Mattia Preti’s vault in St John’s, Valletta: New light on a complex iconography

    Svenningsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The article aims at casting new light on Mattia Preti’s well-known decoration of the vault of the conventual church of the Knight Hospitallers, now the Co-cathedral of Valletta. To a modern viewer the iconography of the decoration is all but simple. The iconographic scheme, I argue, seeks to clai...

  18. The Casa Pizano and the Construction of Light Vaults in Colombia. The Origin of a Modern Tradition

    Julián García

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th Century several buildings were covered with tile vaults all through Latin America. However, two houses designed and built by Le Corbusier (the Maisons Sarabhai (Ahmadabad 1955 and Jaoul (Paris 1955 have traditionally been considered the main influence for later vaulted buildings covered with this technique in the area in the 60s and 70s. Since there were built examples contemporary or previous to the buildings by the Swiss architect, it seems logical to think that the influence of the Jaoul or Sarabhai houses in Latin American vault construction might have been somehow less relevant. There are several examples that support that idea: the most relevant is the Casa Pizano, a missing Bogota building designed by the local architect Francisco Pizano de Brigard, which was Le Corbusier's main inspiration for the aforementioned houses. The hypothesis of this paper is that local networks were also essential in the task of connecting similar technical initiatives regarding vault construction. To verify this hypothesis, several examples of buildings from different Latin American countries, starting from the Casa Pizano, will be studied, and some possible contacts between architects will be proposed.

  19. Modular crystals as modulated structures

    Elcoro, L.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Friese, K.

    2008-01-01

    The use of the superspace formalism is extended to the description and refinement of the homologous series of modular structures with two symmetry-related modules with different orientations. The lillianite homologous series has been taken as a study case. Starting from a commensurate modulated...... composite description with two basic subsystems corresponding to the two different modules, it is shown how a more efficient description can be achieved using so-called zigzag modulation functions. These linear zigzag modulations, newly implemented in the program JANA2006, have very large fixed amplitudes...... and introduce in the starting model the two orientations of the underlying module sublattices. We show that a composite approach with this type of function, which treats the cations and anions as two separate subsystems forming a misfit compound, is the most appropriate and robust method for the refinements....

  20. Modular reactor head shielding system

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  1. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  2. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Geisinger, Joseph W. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  3. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  4. Distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete walls of a compact medical cyclotron vault room.

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Baba, Shingo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Komiya, Isao; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Compact medical cyclotrons have been set up to generate the nuclides necessary for positron emission tomography. In accelerator facilities, neutrons activate the concrete used to construct the vault room; this activation increases with the use of an accelerator. The activation causes a substantial radioactive waste management problem when facilities are decommissioned. In the present study, several concrete cores from the walls, ceiling and floor of a compact medical cyclotron vault room were samples 2 years after the termination of operations, and the radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides were estimated. Cylindrical concrete cores 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length were bored from the concrete wall, ceiling and floor. Core boring was performed at 18 points. The gamma-ray spectrum of each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The degree of activation of the concrete in the cyclotron vault room was analyzed, and the range and tendency toward activation in the vault room were examined. (60)Co and (152)Eu were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. (152)Eu and (60)Co are produced principally from the stable isotopes of europium and cobalt by neutron capture reactions. The radioactivity concentration did not vary much between the surface of the concrete and at a depth of 10 cm. Although the radioactivity concentration near the target was higher than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean radioactivity concentration in the walls and floor was lower than the clearance level. The radioactivity concentration of the inner concrete wall of the medical cyclotron vault room was not uniform. The areas exceeding the clearance level were in the vicinity of the target, but most of the building did not exceed the clearance levels.

  5. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  6. Determination of the biodegradation rate of asphalt for the Hanford grout vaults

    Luey, J.; Li, S.W.

    1993-04-01

    Testing was initiated in March 1991 and completed in November 1992 to determine the rate at which asphalt is biodegraded by microorganisms native to the Hanford Site soils. The asphalt tested (AR-6000, US Oil, Tacoma, Washington) is to be used in the construction of a diffusion barrier for the Hanford grout vaults. Experiments to determine asphalt biodegradation rates were conducted using three separate test sets. These test sets were initiated in March 1991, January 1992, and June 1992 and ran for periods of 6 months, 11 months, and 6 months, respectively. The experimental method used was one originally developed by Bartha and Pramer (1965), and further refined by Bowerman et al. (1985), that determined the asphalt biodegradation rate through the measurement of carbon dioxide evolved

  7. Evaluation of remote monitoring at the Oak Ridge HEU storage vault -- First thoughts and final application

    Sheely, K.B.; Whitaker, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Remote monitoring provides a more timely and comprehensive way to meet national and international requirements for monitoring nuclear material inventories. Unattended monitoring technologies could be used to meet national needs for nuclear material safety, protection, control and accountability. Unattended systems possessing a remote data transmission capability could be used to meet international requirements for nuclear material safeguards and transparency. Even though more enhancements are required to improve system reliability, remote monitoring''s future potential seems great. The key questions are: (1) how will remote monitoring systems be used (configuration and operation); (2) how effective will the system be (vs. current activities); and (3) how much will it cost. This paper provides preliminary answers to these questions based on the experience gained from a joint IAEA-United States Support Program (USSP) task to evaluate remote monitoring at the Oak Ridge HEU Storage vault. This paper also draws on experience gained from US involvement in other remote monitoring projects

  8. Dose analysis on high performance vault storage system of spent nuclear fuel

    Shibata, Kei-ichiro; Maki, Koichi; Shimizu, Masashi; Oda, Masashi; Kumagai, Naoki [Hitachi, Ltd., Power and Industrial Systems R and D Laboratory, Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Oyama, Kenichi; Kanai, Hidetoshi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works

    2000-03-01

    The radiation shielding design for the high performance vault storage system is studied in order to satisfy the design targets at the controlled area and the site boundaries. The additional gamma-ray shields in front of the storage tubes and the shielding structures at the entrance of the ducts are installed. The dose rates at the inlet and the outlet of the ducts are estimated by 3D calculation. And the dose rates at the controlled area and the site boundaries are evaluated taking the effect of the direct radiation and the indirect one (skyshine) into consideration. The dose rates at the controlled area and the site boundaries are about 7x10{sup -7} Sv/h and 3x10{sup -10} Sv/h, respectively. Thus, we have the prospect to satisfy the design targets. (author)

  9. Nondestructive Analysis of MET-5 Paint Can at TA35 Building 2 A-Wing Vault

    Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-03

    In Building 2 A-wing vault MET-5 has some drums and other packages they wanted NEN-1 help identifying nondestructively. Measurements using a mechanically cooled portable high-purity germanium HPGe Ortec detective were taken of a paint can container labeled DU-2A to determine if any radioactive material was inside. The HPGe detector measures the gamma rays emitted by radioactive material and displays it as a spectrum. The spectrum is used to identify this radioactive material by using appropriate analysis software and identifying the gamma ray peaks. A paint can container, DU-2A, was analyzed with PeakEasy 4.84 and FRAM 5.2. The FRAM report is shown. The enrichment is 0.091% U235 and 99.907% U238. This material is depleted uranium. The measurement was performed in the near field, and to extract a mass a far field measurement will need to be taken.

  10. An approach to underground characterization of a disposal vault in granite

    Everitt, R.A.; Martin, C.D.; Thompson, P.M.

    1994-12-01

    The concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste by sealing it in a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield is being investigated as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Engineered and natural barriers would isolate the waste from the biosphere. Underground characterization and testing have been under way since 1983 at the Underground Research Laboratory in support of this program. This report draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization to obtain information to optimize the design of the excavation and the engineered barriers, and to provide a baseline against which to monitor the performance of the facility during and following its operation. (author). 35 refs., 12 tabs., 49 figs

  11. Addendum to the Composite Analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Cook, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Revision 1 of the Composite Analysis (CA) Addendum has been prepared to respond to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Federal Review Group review of the CA. This addendum to the composite analysis responds to the conditions of approval. The composite analysis was performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of the Savannah River Site and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, the chemical separation facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities, as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material

  12. Comparison of source-term calculations using the AREST and SYVAC-Vault models: [Final report

    Apted, M.J.; Engel, D.W.; Garisto, N.C.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1988-07-01

    A comparison of the calculated radionuclide release from a waste package in a geologic repository has been performed using the verified SYVAC-Vault Model and AREST Model. the purpose of this comparison is to further establish the credibility of these codes for predictive performance assessment and to identify improvements that may be required. A reference case for a Canadian conceptual design with spent fuel as the waste form was chosen to make an initial comparison. The results from the two models were in good agreement, including peak release rates, time to reach peak release, and long term release rates. Differences in results from the two models are attributed to differences in computational approaches. Studies of the effects of sorption, convective flow, distributed containment failure, and precipitation are identified as key areas for further comparisons and are currently in progress. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Specialization can drive the evolution of modularity.

    Carlos Espinosa-Soto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organismal development and many cell biological processes are organized in a modular fashion, where regulatory molecules form groups with many interactions within a group and few interactions between groups. Thus, the activity of elements within a module depends little on elements outside of it. Modularity facilitates the production of heritable variation and of evolutionary innovations. There is no consensus on how modularity might evolve, especially for modules in development. We show that modularity can increase in gene regulatory networks as a byproduct of specialization in gene activity. Such specialization occurs after gene regulatory networks are selected to produce new gene activity patterns that appear in a specific body structure or under a specific environmental condition. Modules that arise after specialization in gene activity comprise genes that show concerted changes in gene activities. This and other observations suggest that modularity evolves because it decreases interference between different groups of genes. Our work can explain the appearance and maintenance of modularity through a mechanism that is not contingent on environmental change. We also show how modularity can facilitate co-option, the utilization of existing gene activity to build new gene activity patterns, a frequent feature of evolutionary innovations.

  14. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  15. Vault sealing research and development for the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    Lopez, R.S.; Johnson, L.H.

    1986-08-01

    The major research and development activities in the disposal vault sealing program are buffer development, backfill development, grouting, tunnel and shaft sealing development, and borehole sealing development. The buffer is likely to be a mixture of clay and sand surrounding the waste package and is intended, primarily, to minimize near-field mass transport. The backfill would fill the remainder of the underground workings and most of the volume of the access shafts. Its major component would be crushed rock or sand, or both, with sufficient clay added to achieve the required permeability specification. Boreholes would be sealed throughout their length with low-permeability materials. These may be cements or clays. Shaft seals would be emplaced at specific locations and, probably, would be composed of a low-permeability clay or concrete plug, together with grouting of the rock surrounding the plug. Progress to date and planned future activities for each major part of the program are described. The principal foci of the program are the research and development activities required to assess the concept of underground disposal in plutonic rock and the design and implementation of vault sealing experiments in the Underground Research Laboratory. Program plans are presented that describe the logical progression of each major component of the program, and that indicate the timing of major events that contribute to the final objective of the program, which is to develop engineering specifications for the buffer, backfill and seals, and to justify these specifications in terms of the performance of the waste disposal system. 131 refs

  16. Integrated thermal analysis of top-shield and reactor vault of Indian FBR-600

    Rajendrakumar, M.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    The design for next generation fast breeder reactors (FBR-600) has been commenced with enhanced safety and improved economy as the main targets. The Top Shield (TS) of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a box type structure consisting of Roof Slab (RS), Small Rotatable Plug (SRP), and Large Rotatable Plug (LRP). The large box type structure with many penetrations posed difficulties during manufacturing. Because of the required high load carrying capabilities, a dome shaped thick plate roof slab is conceived for FBR-600. Main Vessel (MV) which holds the primary sodium and associated components is welded to the RS through a triple joint. Reactor vault (RV) is a thick concrete structure which supports MV and Safety Vessel (SV). The temperature of RV concrete has to be less than 338 K (65°C) under normal operating heat loads (full and part load conditions) and less than 363 K (90°C) under Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal (SGDHR) conditions with one cooling loop in service. The temperature in the component penetrations of the RS should be greater than 120°C to avoid sodium aerosol deposition. Similarly, the temperature of the LRP and SRP has to be ∼120°C to protect the elastomeric seals provided to these structures. Further, the heat load to RV transferred by direct conduction by roof slab support has to be minimum. To meet these conflicting thermal requirements, detailed multi-physics CFD calculations have been performed to finalize, (i) the insulation requirements on the top of roof slab, (ii) number and position of reflective insulation plates below the bottom plate of roof slab/rotating plugs, (iii) air flow rate for various zones of the top shield and (iv) water flow rate and pitch of water cooling pipes for the reactor vault. (author)

  17. Underground Parking structure built with deep foundations and vault precast elements in Spain

    Fernández-Ordóñez, D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In many cases the only places available for the construction of a new car park are the existing streets or roads. These streets may also have important or historic buildings very close to the structure, which means that they cannot be disturbed in any way during the construction of the parking structure. In this particular case, the novelty is that the top deck is solved with a unique structure: a vault that interacts with the pile wall not only for vertical but also for horizontal loads due to the arch mechanism. The construction of the vault is solved as a large precast element of one piece of more than 16 in length and 2.40m in width, which is built in the factory, transported with the help of trucks and erected on site with large cranes.

    En muchos casos las únicas localizaciones para construir aparcamientos son las calles o carreteras. Estas calles también suelen tener alrededor importantes edificios históricos muy cercanos a la propia estructura. En este caso particular la novedad reside en que el forjado superior está resuelto con una estructura especial: una bóveda que interacciona con la pantalla de pilotes no solo en el sentido vertical sino también en el horizontal formando un verdadero mecanismo de arco. La construcción de la bóveda se ha resuelto con grandes elementos prefabricados de una pieza de más de 16m de longitud y de 2,40m de ancho. Se han fabricado en una factoría, transportados y montados en obra con grandes grúas.

  18. Alteration of major vault protein in human glioblastoma and its relation with EGFR and PTEN status.

    Navarro, L; Gil-Benso, R; Megías, J; Muñoz-Hidalgo, L; San-Miguel, T; Callaghan, R C; González-Darder, J M; López-Ginés, C; Cerdá-Nicolás, M J

    2015-06-25

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumor. Conventional therapy of surgical removal, radiation and chemotherapy is largely palliative. Major vault protein (MVP), the main component of the vault organelle has been associated with multidrug resistance by reducing cellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents. With regard to cancer, MVP has been shown to be overexpressed in drug resistance development and malignant progression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the MVP gene dosage levels in 113 archival samples from GBM and its correlation with patients' survival and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene dosages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed polysomy of chromosome 7 in 76.1% of the GBMs and EGFR amplification in a 64.6% of the tumors. Genetic status of EGFR, PTEN and MVP copies was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique. 31% of the tumors showed the EGFR is variant III mutation (EGFRvIII) mutation and 74.3% of them presented amplification of MVP gene. Amplification of EGFR and MVP was found in a 63.7% and 56.6% of the GBM, respectively. An inverse correlation between MVP and PTEN dosage values was observed. Besides, an inverse relationship between the survival of the patients treated with chemotherapy and the levels of MVP copies was determined. In conclusion, our study reveals an important role of MVP, together with EGFRvIII and PTEN, in the progression of GBM and proposes it as a novel and interesting target for new treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pole-vaulting program of the energy sector: the Philippines: an energy exporter: a program for pole-vaulting into the 21-st century

    Balce, Guillermo R.

    1997-01-01

    Focus on ocean, solar and wind energy resources is emphasized in the proposed program as the means to achieve the goal of converting the Philippines into an energy exporter in the future. A nationwide assessment of the availability of these renewable resources for large-scale energy generation is first in the series of activities proposed. Establishment of a renewable energy resource administration system expected to open up wide opportunities for private sector participation. A center for renewable energy development and application is envisioned to provide leadership and technical guidance. Short-term targets include: a) establishment of solar manufacturing plants in the country; b) extensive application of solar energy systems such as solar water heaters, solar pumps and solar refrigerators; c) piloting of one megawatt tidal current plant in an appropriate site such as in San Bernardino Strait, Hinatuan Passage and Basiao Channel; and d) design and packaging of power plants for specific areas identified through accurate resource assessment. Long-term targets include: a) establishment of an Asian power grid; b) establishment of an Asian power market centered in the Philippines; c) construction of large-scale ocean, solar and wind power plants; and d) establishment of manufacturing industries for various facets of ocean, solar and wind power systems. Development of ocean, solar and wind energy systems would provide the Philippines the technological and economic advantage to approach the goal of becoming an energy exporter in the future. If the pole-vaulting program is seriously pursued from now, the Philippines would have the superiority in energy technology and resource availability twenty years hence when neighboring countries would start feeling the problem of dwindling fossil fuels that they have in abundance at present. (author)

  20. Generalized epidemic process on modular networks.

    Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-05-01

    Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

  1. Algebra and Arithmetic of Modular Forms

    Rustom, Nadim

    In [Rus14b] and [Rus14a], we study graded rings of modular forms over congruence subgroups, with coefficients in subrings A of C, and determine bounds of the weights of modular forms constituting a minimal set of generators, as well as on the degree of the generators of the ideal of relations...... between them. We give an algorithm that computes the structures of these rings, and formulate conjectures on the minimal generating weight for modular forms with coefficients in Z. We discuss questions of finiteness of systems of Hecke eigenvalues modulo pm, for a prime p and an integer m ≥ 2, in analogy...

  2. Modularity for Modulating Exercises and Levels

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Nielsen, Camilla Balslev

    2011-01-01

    The modular interactive tiles aim at engaging anybody (elderly, carer, hospital personnel, children) in performing playful and motivating physical activities. Inspired by modular robotics, each tile is a self-contained module with processing power and communication to neighbouring modules....... In this paper, we investigate the therapeutic use. We show how the tiles are tested extensively with cardiac patients, COLD patients and stroke patients in hospitals and in the private homes of patients and elderly. We find that therapists are using the modular aspect of the tiles for personalized training...

  3. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be 'passive control laws', i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  6. Radiological Assessment Survey of the Vance road Facility Source Vault Building Materials, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Morton, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    From the 1950s, the Vance Road laboratory was the site of extensive nuclear medical research and involved the used of numerous radionuclides. These nuclides were stored in a source vault stored on the first floor of the facility. Nuclear medical research is no longer conducted in this facility, and the source vault was remediated in preparation for converting the area to office space and general use. The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of ORISE performed a radiological assessment survey of the source vault and its associated miscellaneous building materials and laboratory equipment in preparation for the conversion to general use space

  7. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel dry storage studies at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    Anderson, K.J.

    1980-09-01

    Conceptual designs are presented utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant for the dry interim storage of spent light water reactor fuel. Studies were conducted to determine feasible approaches to storing spent fuel by methods other than wet pool storage. Fuel that has had an opportunity to cool for several years, or more, after discharge from a reactor is especially adaptable to dry storage since its thermal load is greatly reduced compared to the thermal load immediately following discharge. A thermal analysis was performed to help in determining the feasibility of various spent fuel dry storage concepts. Methods to reject the heat from dry storage are briefly discussed, which include both active and passive cooling systems. The storage modes reviewed include above and below ground caisson-type storage facilities and numerous variations of vault, or hot cell-type, storage facilities

  8. Safety aspects of dry spent fuel storage and spent fuel management

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Kasparek, E.

    2014-01-01

    The storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Safety aspects like safe enclosure of radioactive materials, safe removal of decay heat, nuclear criticality safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure must be achieved throughout the storage period. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. In Germany dual purpose casks for SF or HLW are used for safe transportation and interim storage. TUV and BAM, who work as independent experts for the competent authorities, present the storage licensing process including sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, based on their long experience in these fields (authors)

  9. Prefabricated solution to modular construction in Cape Verde

    Vieira, Nuno; Amado, Miguel; Pinho, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the lack of adequate housing in Cape Verde is a growing problem. The migration of the population living in the countryside to the major cities generates an increase of the diameter of the cities. With the lack of economic power, the migrating families tend to occupy the land with houses which don't present proper conditions to living. Praia is the capital of Cape Verde and so on the biggest city of the country. This fact leads Praia to being the city with major economic power and job offer in all country. Consequently, Praia has developed the biggest slum of the Cape Verde and it is urgent to approach this problem in order to create solutions that reveal capacity to start solving it. Cape Verde's unique dry subtropical climate turns indispensable a careful resolution of the housing, in order to ensure the comfort of the occupants. The modular construction is a solution with potential to approach this problem with a fast and economic response. In order to answer the situation, this article introduces a modular solution in order to reach the needing of thermal comfort to the specific case of Praia.

  10. Modular Actuators for Space Applications, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocketstar Robotics is proposing the development of a modern dual drive actuator. Rocketstar has put together numerous modern concepts for modular actuators that...

  11. Massive Modularity of Space and Surface Systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will conduct a systems level investigation of a modular design and operations approach for future NASA exploration systems. Particular emphasis will be...

  12. Honeywell modular automation system computer software documentation

    Cunningham, L.T.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-21I

  13. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    2010-10-01

    ... the Government is not required to procure additional increments. (e) To avoid obsolescence, a modular... maximum extent practicable, deliveries under the contract should be scheduled to occur within 18 months...

  14. Contrasting platform thinking and product modularization

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Persson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Product modularization and platform thinking are both practices that seek to alleviate the negative impact of product customization and variety on internal operations by relying on economies of substitution. Through the use of a standardized pool of components and interfaces, these practices aim...... to create a broad spectrum of product choices. At first sight, product modularization and platform thinking are very similar. The difference between these practices can, however, be found in the manner in which they employ standardization. Where product modularization focuses on creating standardized...... variants. There is a general lack of research addressing the contingency factors that dictate the appropriateness of the use of product modularization and platform thinking in different contexts. To our knowledge, no large-scale empirical research has been reported in which the two concepts, contextual...

  15. Automatic Modeling and Simulation of Modular Robots

    Jiang, C.; Wei, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The ability of reconfiguration makes modular robots have the ability of adaptable, low-cost, self-healing and fault-tolerant. It can also be applied to a variety of mission situations. In this manuscript, a robot platform which relied on the module library was designed, based on the screw theory and module theory. Then, the configuration design method of the modular robot was proposed. And the different configurations of modular robot system have been built, including industrial mechanical arms, the mobile platform, six-legged robot and 3D exoskeleton manipulator. Finally, the simulation and verification of one system among them have been made, using the analyses of screw kinematics and polynomial planning. The results of experiments demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of this modular system.

  16. Modular thought in the circuit analysis

    Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Applied to solve the problem of modular thought, provides a whole for simplification's method, the complex problems have become of, and the study of circuit is similar to the above problems: the complex connection between components, make the whole circuit topic solution seems to be more complex, and actually components the connection between the have rules to follow, this article mainly tells the story of study on the application of the circuit modular thought. First of all, this paper introduces the definition of two-terminal network and the concept of two-terminal network equivalent conversion, then summarizes the common source resistance hybrid network modular approach, containing controlled source network modular processing method, lists the common module, typical examples analysis.

  17. Automatic Specialization of Modular Robot Limbs

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modular robotic systems have the potential to be adapted to varying tasks using a single platform and enable customizable robots to be developed faster and more...

  18. Small modular reactors are 'crucial technology'

    Johnston, Hamish

    2018-03-01

    Small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) offer a way for the UK to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation, while allowing the country to meet the expected increase in demand for electricity from electric vehicles and other uses.

  19. Outsourcing Sealift for the Modular Force

    Donnie Walker, Jr, Flem B

    2008-01-01

    .... Army transforms its force to modular expeditionary brigade combat teams to compensate for these evolving challenges and threats, the importance of strategic sealift becomes paramount in terms of power projection...

  20. Understanding Complex Construction Systems Through Modularity

    Jensen, Tor Clarke; Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for understanding complexity in construction projects by combining theories of complexity management and modularization. The framework incorporates three dimensions of product, process, and organizational modularity with the case of gypsum wall elements. The analysis...... system, rather than a modular, although the industry forces modular organizational structures. This creates a high complexity degree caused by the non-alignment of building parts and organizations and the frequent swapping of modules....... finds that the main driver of complexity is the fragmentation of the design and production, which causes the production modules to construct and install new product types and variants for each project as the designers are swapped for every project. The many interfaces are characteristics of an integral...

  1. Drying system for steam generators, particularly for steam generators of nuclear power stations

    Lavalerie, Claude; Borrel, Christian.

    1982-01-01

    A drying system is described which allows for modular construction and which provides a significant available exchange area in a reduced volume. All the drying elements are identical and are distributed according to a ternay circular symmetry and are placed radially and associated to steam guiding facilities which alternately provide around the axis of revolution an output volume of dry steam from one element and an input volume of wet steam in the following element [fr

  2. Sound insulation design of modular construction housing

    Yates, D. J.; Hughes, Lawrence; Campbell, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an insight into the acoustic issues of modular housing using the Verbus System of construction. The paper briefly summarises the history of the development of Verbus modular housing and the acoustic design considerations of the process. Results are presented from two sound insulation tests conducted during the course of the project. The results are discussed in terms of compliance with Approved Document E1 and increased performance standards such as EcoHomes2.

  3. Reliability and diagnostic of modular systems

    J. Kohlas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and diagnostic are in general two problems discussed separately. Yet the two problems are in fact closely related to each other. Here, this relation is considered in the simple case of modular systems. We show, how the computation of reliability and diagnostic can efficiently be done within the same Bayesian network induced by the modularity of the structure function of the system.

  4. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  5. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  6. Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems

    Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

    2013-03-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

  7. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Jagung untuk Produk Modular dengan Teknik Pilin

    Artarita Ginting

    2016-04-01

    utilize although available in abundance. Production and consumption is a part of the whole living system therefore both should be parts of the industrial consideration in asssuring nature support capability. This posttest-only experimental research of corn husk is intended to optimally utilize corn husk as a raw material alternative in craft industry towards zero waste production. The highest tensile force and the brightest color is attained by soaking corn husk in CH3COOH chemical liquid and drying them for 3 hours from 9.00 AM to 12.00PM. The twisting technic has enhanced its tensile capability through its twisting density. The result of the material experimental research is used to create a product performance specification for designing a modular woven rack, produced by using a practical rod pegs connection. Keywords: zero waste, twisted corn husk, used tin can, modular

  8. Sex determination by three-dimensional geometric morphometrics of the vault and midsagittal curve of the neurocranium in a modern Greek population sample.

    Chovalopoulou, Maria-Eleni; Valakos, Efstratios D; Manolis, Sotiris K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess sexual dimorphism of adult crania in the vault and midsagittal curve of the vault using three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods. The study sample consisted of 176 crania of known sex (94 males, 82 females) belonging to individuals who lived during the 20th century in Greece. The three-dimensional co-ordinates of 31 ecto-cranial landmarks and 30 semi-landmarks were digitized using a MicroScribe 3DX contact digitizer. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) was used to obtain size and shape variables for statistical analysis. Shape, size and form analyses were carried out by logistic regression and three discriminant function analyses. Results indicate that there are shape differences between sexes. Females in the region of the parietal bones are narrower and the axis forming the frontal and occipital bones is more elongated; the frontal bone is more vertical. Sex-specific shape differences give better classification results in the vault (79%) compared with the midsagittal curve of the neurocranium (68.8%). Size alone yielded better results for cranial vault (82%), while for the midsagittal curve of the vault the result is poorer (68.1%). As anticipated, the classification accuracy improves when both size and shape are combined (89.2% for vault, and 79.4% for midsagittal curve of the vault). These latter findings imply that, in contrast to the midsagittal curve of the neurocranium, the shape of the cranial vault can be used as an indicator of sex in the modern Greek population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Quantitative estimation of the state of vault feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training

    O.V. Makarova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the vaults given about the state is conducted feet gymnasts on the different stages of the long-term training. 93 sportswomen of different qualification took part in research. The system of Big foot was used. It is set that on the early stages of the long-term training for gymnasts observed flattening heights of unevenness of navicular bone above the floor. With growth of qualification of sportswomen to avoid development of pathological changes of vaults feet actually not possibly. It is conditioned the rules of competitions to complication of competition compositions and technique of execution of elements of calisthenics. It is marked that appearance of flattening feet requires: corrections in the system of training; introduction of the specially developed methods on the removal of existent deformations; prophylaxis of flat-footedness; strengthening of musculoskeletal system feet.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  12. Continental glaciation and its potential impact on a used-fuel disposal vault in the Canadian Shield

    Ates, Y.; Bruneau, D.; Ridgway, W.R.

    1997-09-01

    AECL has been assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a vault excavated at a depth ranging between 500 m and 1000 m in a plutonic rock mass of the Canadian Shield. Glaciation is a natural process that has occurred in the past, and is likely to occur in the future, thus causing changes in the loading conditions on the rock mass hosting the disposal vault. Because the rock mass is a natural barrier to the migration of radionuclides, it is important to evaluate its integrity under load changes caused by the glaciation process. Assuming that the magnitude and extent of the future glaciation will be similar to those of the past, we have reviewed published data pertaining to the last continental ice sheet that covered a large area of North America. Estimates have been made for the magnitude of stresses due to ice sheet loading for a vault located at depths of 500 to 1000 m. These analyses have shown that the uniform loading of a continental ice sheet would reduce the deviatoric stresses in the Canadian Shield, creating more favourable conditions than those existing at the present time, namely, high horizontal stresses. The effects of surface erosion and increase in the in-situ shear stresses have also been examined. Based on the existing data and structural modelling studies, there would be no significant structural effect on a disposal vault located at 1000-m depth in a plutonic rock. At its maximum size, an ice sheet comparable to the Laurentide ice sheet could reactivate the faults and fracture zones along the perimeter areas. Our analyses have been based on fully drained conditions only. At a potential disposal site, it would be important also to consider the potential for excess pore pressure in the analyses. (author)

  13. Criteria for identification of carbonate reservoirs according to well logging data (carboniferous deposits of Astrakhan' vault taken as an example)

    Makarova, A.N.; Mitalev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    Described are the criteria for identification of carbonate reservoirs according to well logging data (carboniferous deposits of Astrakhan' vault taken as an example). According to gamma logging and cavitymetry data clay areas (decreased readings of neutron-gamma logging opposite dense rocks) are distinguished in a well log. ''Reservoir-nonreserVoir'' boundary is relatively drawn on the basis of the relation between neutron-gamma logaing indications and average general porosity of carbonate rocks determined by accoustic and neutron gamma logging

  14. Continental glaciation and its potential impact on a used-fuel disposal vault in the Canadian Shield

    Ates, Y.; Bruneau, D.; Ridgway, W.R

    1997-09-01

    AECL has been assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a vault excavated at a depth ranging between 500 m and 1000 m in a plutonic rock mass of the Canadian Shield. Glaciation is a natural process that has occurred in the past, and is likely to occur in the future, thus causing changes in the loading conditions on the rock mass hosting the disposal vault. Because the rock mass is a natural barrier to the migration of radionuclides, it is important to evaluate its integrity under load changes caused by the glaciation process. Assuming that the magnitude and extent of the future glaciation will be similar to those of the past, we have reviewed published data pertaining to the last continental ice sheet that covered a large area of North America. Estimates have been madefor the magnitude of stresses due to ice sheet loading for a vault located at depths of 500 to 1000 m. These analyses have shown that the uniform loading of a continental ice sheet would reduce the deviatoric stresses in the Canadian Shield, creating more favourable conditions than those existing at the present time, namely, high horizontal stresses. The effects of surface erosion and increase in the in-situ shear stresses have also been examined. Based on the existing data and structural modelling studies, there would be no significant structural effect on a disposal vault located at 1000-m depth in a plutonic rock. At its maximum size, an ice sheet comparable to the Laurentide ice sheet could reactivate the faults and fracture zones along the perimeter areas. Our analyses have been based on fully drained conditions only. At a potential disposal site, it would be important also to consider the potential for excess pore pressure in the analyses. (author)

  15. Decontamination of the activation product based on a legal revision of the cyclotron vault room on the non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron

    Komiya, Isao; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Baba, Shingo; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron and the cyclotron vault room were in operation for 27 years. They have now been decommissioned. We efficiently implemented a technique to identify an activation product in the cyclotron vault room. Firstly, the distribution of radioactive concentrations in the concrete of the cyclotron vault room was estimated by calculation from the record of the cyclotron operation. Secondly, the comparison of calculated results with an actual measurement was performed using a NaI scintillation survey meter and a high-purity germanium detector. The calculated values were overestimated as compared to the values measured using the Nal scintillation survey meter and the high-purity germanium detector. However, it could limit the decontamination area. By simulating the activation range, we were able to minimize the concrete core sampling. Finally, the appropriate range of radioactivated area in the cyclotron vault room was decontaminated based on the results of the calculation. After decontamination, the radioactive concentration was below the detection limit value in all areas inside the cyclotron vault room. By these procedures, the decommissioning process of the cyclotron vault room was more efficiently performed. (author)

  16. TARGET-DIRECTED RUNNING IN GYMNASTICS: THE ROLE OF THE SPRINGBOARD POSITION AS AN INFORMATIONAL SOURCE TO REGULATE HANDSPRINGS ON VAULT

    T. Heinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence highlights the role of visual information to control gymnastics vaulting and thus neglects a stereotyped approach run. However, there is no evidence on which informational source this regulation is based on. The aim of this study was to examine the position of the springboard as an informational source in the regulation of the handspring on vault. The hypothesis tested was that the action of running towards the springboard brings about changes in the approach run kinematics and handspring kinematics that relate directly to the position of the springboard. Therefore, kinematics of N = 14 female expert gymnasts’ handsprings on vault and their approach runs were examined while manipulating the position of the springboard. The results revealed that expert gymnasts placed their feet on average in the same position on the springboard and adapted to the springboard position during the last three steps of the approach run. A smaller springboard distance to the front edge of the vaulting table resulted in a different hand placement on the vaulting table, a shorter first flight phase, a take-off angle closer to 90° and a longer second flight phase. Findings suggest that the position of the springboard is a relevant informational source in gymnastics vaulting. We state that knowledge about relationships between informational sources in the environment and the resulting regulatory processes in athletes may help coaches to develop specific training programmes in order to optimize performance in complex skills.

  17. Modular Rake of Pitot Probes

    Dunlap, Timothy A.; Henry, Michael W.; Homyk, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a modular rake of 17 pitot probes for measuring both transient and steady-state pressures in a supersonic wind tunnel. In addition to pitot tubes visible in the figure, the probe modules contain (1) high-frequency dynamic-pressure transducers connected through wires to remote monitoring circuitry and (2) flow passages that lead to tubes that, in turn, lead to remote steady-state pressure transducers. Prior pitot-probe rakes were fabricated as unitary structures, into which the individual pitot probes were brazed. Repair or replacement of individual probes was difficult, costly, and time-consuming because (1) it was necessary to remove entire rakes in order to unbraze individual malfunctioning probes and (2) the heat of unbrazing a failed probe and of brazing a new probe in place could damage adjacent probes. In contrast, the modules in the present probe are designed to be relatively quickly and easily replaceable with no heating and, in many cases, without need for removal of the entire rake from the wind tunnel. To remove a malfunctioning probe, one first removes a screw-mounted V-cross-section cover that holds the probe and adjacent probes in place. Then one removes a screw-mounted cover plate to gain access to the steady-state pressure tubes and dynamicpressure wires. Next, one disconnects the tube and wires of the affected probe. Finally, one installs a new probe in the reverse of the aforementioned sequence. The wire connections can be made by soldering, but to facilitate removal and installation, they can be made via miniature plugs and sockets. The connections between the probe flow passages and the tubes leading to the remote pressure sensors can be made by use of any of a variety of readily available flexible tubes that can be easily pulled off and slid back on for removal and installation, respectively.

  18. Modular architectures for quantum networks

    Pirker, A.; Wallnöfer, J.; Dür, W.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the problem of generating multipartite entangled states in a quantum network upon request. We follow a top-down approach, where the required entanglement is initially present in the network in form of network states shared between network devices, and then manipulated in such a way that the desired target state is generated. This minimizes generation times, and allows for network structures that are in principle independent of physical links. We present a modular and flexible architecture, where a multi-layer network consists of devices of varying complexity, including quantum network routers, switches and clients, that share certain resource states. We concentrate on the generation of graph states among clients, which are resources for numerous distributed quantum tasks. We assume minimal functionality for clients, i.e. they do not participate in the complex and distributed generation process of the target state. We present architectures based on shared multipartite entangled Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states of different size, and fully connected decorated graph states, respectively. We compare the features of these architectures to an approach that is based on bipartite entanglement, and identify advantages of the multipartite approach in terms of memory requirements and complexity of state manipulation. The architectures can handle parallel requests, and are designed in such a way that the network state can be dynamically extended if new clients or devices join the network. For generation or dynamical extension of the network states, we propose a quantum network configuration protocol, where entanglement purification is used to establish high fidelity states. The latter also allows one to show that the entanglement generated among clients is private, i.e. the network is secure.

  19. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    David Meunier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  20. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  1. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre

    2006-01-01

    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights

  2. YB-1 facilitates basal and 5-fluorouracil-inducible expression of the human major vault protein (MVP) gene.

    Stein, Ulrike; Bergmann, Stephan; Scheffer, George L; Scheper, Rik J; Royer, Hans-Dieter; Schlag, Peter M; Walther, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    Vaults have been suggested to play a direct role in multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs. The human major vault protein (MVP) also known as lung resistance-related protein (LRP) represents the predominant component of vaults that may be involved in the defense against xenobiotics. Here, we demonstrate that besides MDR-related cytostatics, also the non-MDR-related drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was able to induce MVP mRNA and protein expression. Treatment with 5-FU amplified the binding activity and interaction of the transcription factor Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) with the Y-box of the human MVP gene promoter in a time-dependent manner. 5-FU also induced reporter expressions driven by a panel of newly generated MVP promoter deletion mutants. Interestingly, stably YB-1 overexpressing cell clones showed enhanced binding of YB-1 to the Y-box motif, associated with enhanced basal as well as 5-FU-inducible MVP promoter-driven reporter expressions. Moreover, transduction of YB-1 cDNA led to increased expression of endogenous MVP protein. Under physiological conditions, we observed a strong coexpression of MVP and YB-1 in human colon carcinoma specimen. In summary, our data demonstrate a direct involvement of YB-1 in controlling basal and 5-FU-induced MVP promoter activity. Therefore, YB-1 is directly linked to MVP-mediated drug resistance.

  3. Near-field thermal transient and thermomechanical stress analysis of a disposal vault in crystalline hard rock

    Tsui, K.K.; Tsai, A.; Lee, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program currently focuses on the development of a disposal vault in crystalline hard rock at a reference depth of 1 km below the surface in a suitable pluton in the Canadian Shield. As part of Ontario Hydro's technical assistance to the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in this program, studies are being carried out to determine the effects of radiogenic heat on the near-field behaviour of a disposal vault. This paper presents the study results obtained to date. Temperature and stress fields were computed and cross-checked by several finite element codes. A comparison between vertical and horizontal borehole emplacement concepts is made. The effects of material non-linearity (temperature dependence) and three-dimensionality on the thermomechanical response are evaluated. Case histories of thermal spalling or fracturing in rock were summarized and discussed to illustrate the possible mechanisms and processes involved in thermal fracturing. An assessment of the thermomechanical stability of the rock mass around a disposal vault under a state of high horizontal in-situ stress is also presented

  4. NSun2-Mediated Cytosine-5 Methylation of Vault Noncoding RNA Determines Its Processing into Regulatory Small RNAs

    Shobbir Hussain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal-recessive loss of the NSUN2 gene has been identified as a causative link to intellectual disability disorders in humans. NSun2 is an RNA methyltransferase modifying cytosine-5 in transfer RNAs (tRNAs, yet the identification of cytosine methylation in other RNA species has been hampered by the lack of sensitive and reliable molecular techniques. Here, we describe miCLIP as an additional approach for identifying RNA methylation sites in transcriptomes. miCLIP is a customized version of the individual-nucleotide-resolution crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP method. We confirm site-specific methylation in tRNAs and additional messenger and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs. Among these, vault ncRNAs contained six NSun2-methylated cytosines, three of which were confirmed by RNA bisulfite sequencing. Using patient cells lacking the NSun2 protein, we further show that loss of cytosine-5 methylation in vault RNAs causes aberrant processing into Argonaute-associated small RNA fragments that can function as microRNAs. Thus, impaired processing of vault ncRNA may contribute to the etiology of NSun2-deficiency human disorders.

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  6. Materials used to build the wooden vault over the Plenary Hall in the Spanish Senate Buiding

    Bustamante, R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The constituent materials used to build the wooden vault over the Plenary Hall in the Spain’s Senate Building (ca 1814-1820 are analyzed in this paper. Characteristics of gypsum mortar applied on pine beams, boards and blockboard, have been determined. The esparto (=needlegrass fibre provides a framework for the gypsum mortar to ensure adhesion and forming the surface of the dome. Physical-mechanical properties of the burnt clay-lightened gypsum mortars were determined with laboratory tests, while the composition of these materials was found with XRD,SEM and IR.

    En este artículo se analizan los materiales de la bóveda encamonada que cubre el Salón de Plenos del Senado de España (hacia 1814-1820. Se han determinado en particular las características físico-mecánicas del mortero de yeso aplicado sobre vigas, tablas y enlistonados de madera de pino, entomizados con fibra de esparto para asegurar la adherencia y conformar la superficie de la bóveda. Con los análisis de DRX, SEM e IR, se ha completado la caracterización del mortero que presenta adiciones de cerámica cocida.

  7. Cranial vault remodeling in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II and craniosynostosis.

    Engel, Michael; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Egermann, Marcus; Freudlsperger, Christian; Thiele, Oliver Christian

    2012-09-01

    This is a survey of the long-term result after various surgical treatments in a child with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) and craniosynostosis. We report a 17-year-old patient with MOPD II but some unusual clinical signs including bilateral knee dislocation, a misplaced upper lobe bronchus, and hypoplasia of the anterior corpus callosum. Because of premature fusion of several cranial sutures, the child developed signs of increased intracranial pressure with somnolence and papilledema. Cranial vault remodeling with fronto-orbital advancement was performed twice at the age of 16 and 21 months to open the abnormally closed suture, increase the intracranial volume, and relieve the elevated intracranial pressure. Following this procedure, the child's neurologic situation recovered significantly. Surgical procedure of fronto-orbital advancement and the performed reoperation in our patient were safe with no major complications intraoperatively and postoperatively with good functional and satisfying aesthetic outcomes in the long-term follow-up, expressed by the patient, his parents, and the surgeons.

  8. Measuring Modularity in Open Source Code Bases

    Roberto Milev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with growth of the software development community, the incentives for voluntary code contribution, and a reduction in the number of users who take code without contributing back to the community. As a theoretical construct, modularity links OSS to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development. However, measuring the modularity of an OSS design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. In this article, we describe some preliminary results of recent research at Carleton University that examines the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems. We describe a measurement method and a new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size, introduce an open source toolkit that implements this method and metric, and provide an analysis of the evolution of the Apache Tomcat application server as an illustrative example of the insights gained from this approach. Although these results are preliminary, they open the door to further cross-discipline research that quantitatively links the concerns of business managers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and open source software developers.

  9. Modular low-voltage electron emitters

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    Modular, low-voltage electron emitters simplify electron beam (EB) technology for many industrial uses and for research and development. Modular electron emitters are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory, eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A plug-out-plug-in method of replacement facilitates servicing. By using an ultra-thin 6-7 μm titanium foil window, solid-state power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, these modular units combine ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 kV and 150 kV with beam currents up to 40 mA per 25 cm across the beam window. These new devices have been made in three widths: 5 cm, 25 cm, and 40 cm. Details of the beam construction and illustrations of industrial uses will be presented. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas have welcomed this modular technology as well as uses for surface sterilization. Being compact and lightweight (∼15 kg/emitter), these modular beams have been configured around complex shapes to achieve three-dimensional surface curing at high production rates

  10. Modular low-voltage electron emitters

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2005-12-01

    Modular, low-voltage electron emitters simplify electron beam (EB) technology for many industrial uses and for research and development. Modular electron emitters are produced in quantity as sealed systems that are evacuated at the factory, eliminating the need for vacuum pumps at the point of use. A plug-out-plug-in method of replacement facilitates servicing. By using an ultra-thin 6-7 μm titanium foil window, solid-state power supplies, an innovative design to extract and spread the beam (enabling systems to be placed adjacent to each other to extend beam width) and touch-screen computer controls, these modular units combine ease of use and electrical transfer efficiency at voltages that can be varied between 80 kV and 150 kV with beam currents up to 40 mA per 25 cm across the beam window. These new devices have been made in three widths: 5 cm, 25 cm, and 40 cm. Details of the beam construction and illustrations of industrial uses will be presented. Traditional uses in the graphic arts and coatings areas have welcomed this modular technology as well as uses for surface sterilization. Being compact and lightweight (∼15 kg/emitter), these modular beams have been configured around complex shapes to achieve three-dimensional surface curing at high production rates.

  11. Advantages of going modular in HTRs

    Reutler, H.; Lohnert, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    A multitude of problems that are encountered in large HTR power plans, constructively as well as concerning plant safety, can be related to the mere physical size of a large reactor core. In limiting the thermal power of an HTR-module to approximately 200 MW an inherent limitation of the fuel element temperature below critical values can be guaranteed for all possible core heat up accidents. Consequently, a significant failure rate of coated particles can be excluded and, hence, out of physical reasons, no intolerable fission product release from the core will ever have to be considered. The HTR-module is so qualified and very well suited for all possible plant sides which have to be taken into consideration for medium sized plants for the production of process steam and electricity. The cost investigations show considerable cost advantages for modular HTRs. For German conditions it was found that even a four-modular plant (800 MW/thermal) is competitive with a fossile-fueled plant of the same size, the specific plant costs were evaluated to be DM 4700/kW (electric). Moreover the investigations show that the increase of the power of the modular unit yields only small cost advantages, therefore in a modularized power plant it even would be possible to reduce the power of a modular unit below 200 MW without having to cope with severe economic penalties, if the distance from technological or safety limits is felt to be too small. (orig.)

  12. Modular co-evolution of metabolic networks

    Yu Zhong-Hao

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The architecture of biological networks has been reported to exhibit high level of modularity, and to some extent, topological modules of networks overlap with known functional modules. However, how the modular topology of the molecular network affects the evolution of its member proteins remains unclear. Results In this work, the functional and evolutionary modularity of Homo sapiens (H. sapiens metabolic network were investigated from a topological point of view. Network decomposition shows that the metabolic network is organized in a highly modular core-periphery way, in which the core modules are tightly linked together and perform basic metabolism functions, whereas the periphery modules only interact with few modules and accomplish relatively independent and specialized functions. Moreover, over half of the modules exhibit co-evolutionary feature and belong to specific evolutionary ages. Peripheral modules tend to evolve more cohesively and faster than core modules do. Conclusion The correlation between functional, evolutionary and topological modularity suggests that the evolutionary history and functional requirements of metabolic systems have been imprinted in the architecture of metabolic networks. Such systems level analysis could demonstrate how the evolution of genes may be placed in a genome-scale network context, giving a novel perspective on molecular evolution.

  13. Heat removal tests on dry storage facilities for nuclear spent fuels

    Wataru, M.; Saegusa, T.; Koga, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Hattori, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, spent fuel generated in NPP is controlled and stored in dry storage facility away-from reactor. Natural convection cooling system of the storage facility is considered advantageous from both safety and economic point of view. In order to realize this type of facility it is necessary to develop an evaluation method for natural convection characteristics and to make a rational design taking account safety and economic factors. Heat removal tests with the reduces scale models of storage facilities (cask, vault and silo) identified the the flow pattern in the test modules. The temperature and velocity distributions were obtained and the heat transfer characteristics were evaluated

  14. On the tenth value distance of the photon field along the maze of high-energy linear accelerator vaults.

    Han, Zhaohui; Chin, Lee M

    2018-03-01

    There is a wide range in the reported photon tenth value distance (TVD) in the maze of high-energy linear accelerator vaults. In order to gain insight into the appropriate use of the TVD value during door design, we performed measurements of the photon dose in the maze of four vaults. In addition, our study represents the first to describe a scenario where an inner borated polyethylene (BPE) door for neutron shielding is installed in the maze downstream to Point A, the point on the maze centerline that is just visible from the isocenter. The measurements were made along the maze centerline at 1 m above the floor. In all cases, the accelerator operated at a nominal energy of 15 MV. Of the four vaults, three were equipped with an inner BPE door at a distance of 1.0-2.1 m downstream to Point A. The door was made of 10.16 cm (4″) BPE sandwiched between two 0.635 cm (1/4″) steel face plates. The photon dose in the maze without a BPE door decreases exponentially with a characteristic TVD of 6 m beyond a distance of 2.5 m from Point A. The presence of a BPE door in an identical vault not only reduces the photon intensity in the maze by about an order of magnitude, but also softens the energy spectrum with a shortened TVD of 4.7 m, significantly lessening the shielding burden at the outer maze entrance. In contrast to the common use of Point A as the reference point to specify distance, the photon dose in the maze with a BPE door located downstream to Point A can be satisfactorily described as exponential functions of the distance measured from the door, which shows good consistency among the three vaults of different room parameters. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Burnup credit in a dry storage module

    Thornton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of spent fuel storage expansion options available to Oconee Nuclear Station revealed that dry storage could be economically competitive with transshipment and rod consolidation. Economic competitiveness, however, mandated large unit capacity while existing cask handling facilities at Oconee severely limited size and weight. The dry storage concept determined to best satisfy these conflicting criteria is a 24 pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly capacity NUTECH Horizontal Modular Storage (NUHOMS) system. The Oconee version of the NUHOMS system takes advantage of burnup credit in demonstrating criticality safety. The burnup credit criticality analysis was performed by Duke Power Company's Design Engineering Department. This paper was prepared to summarize the criticality control design features employed in the Oconee NUHOMS-24P DSC basket and to describe the incentives for pursuing a burnup credit design. Principal criticality design parameters, criteria, and analysis methodology are also presented

  16. Capital costs of modular HTR reactors

    Kugeler, K.; Froehling, W.

    1993-01-01

    A decisive factor in the introduction of a reactor line, in addition of its safety, which should exclude releases of radioactivity into the environment, is its economic development and, consequently, its competitiveness. The costs of the pressurized water reactor are used for comparison with the modular HTR reactor. If the measures proposed for evolutionary increases in safety of the PWR are taken, cost increases will have to be expected for that line. The modular HTR can now attain specific construction costs of 3000 deutschmarks per electric kilowatt. Mass production and the introduction of cost-reducing innovations can improve the economy of this line even further. In this way, the modular HTR concept offers the possibility to vendors and operators to set up new economic yardsticks in safety technology. (orig.) [de

  17. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  18. Robustness and modular structure in networks

    Bagrow, James P.; Lehmann, Sune; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    -12]. Many complex systems, from power grids and the Internet to the brain and society [13-15], can be modeled using modular networks comprised of small, densely connected groups of nodes [16, 17]. These modules often overlap, with network elements belonging to multiple modules [18, 19]. Yet existing work...... on robustness has not considered the role of overlapping, modular structure. Here we study the robustness of these systems to the failure of elements. We show analytically and empirically that it is possible for the modules themselves to become uncoupled or non-overlapping well before the network disintegrates....... If overlapping modular organization plays a role in overall functionality, networks may be far more vulnerable than predicted by conventional percolation theory....

  19. PLM system support for modular product development

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A modular design strategy both enables, but also demands, parallelism in design activities and collaboration between a diversity of disciplines in companies, which often involves supporting computer-based tools for enhancing interaction, design management, and communication. Product data management...... (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational...... properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper...

  20. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds