WorldWideScience

Sample records for modified zincex process

  1. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  2. Modified Claus process probabilistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of La Laguna (Spain)

    2006-03-15

    A model is proposed for the simulation of an industrial Claus unit with a straight-through configuration and two catalytic reactors. Process plant design evaluations based on deterministic calculations does not take into account the uncertainties that are associated with the different input variables. A probabilistic simulation method was applied in the Claus model to obtain an impression of how some of these inaccuracies influences plant performance. (orig.)

  3. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  4. Processes Modifying Cratered Terrains on Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The July encounter with Pluto by the New Horizons spacecraft permitted imaging of its cratered terrains with scales as high as approximately 100 m/pixel, and in stereo. In the initial download of images, acquired at 2.2 km/pixel, widely distributed impact craters up to 260 km diameter are seen in the near-encounter hemisphere. Many of the craters appear to be significantly degraded or infilled. Some craters appear partially destroyed, perhaps by erosion such as associated with the retreat of scarps. Bright ice-rich deposits highlight some crater rims and/or floors. While the cratered terrains identified in the initial downloaded images are generally seen on high-to-intermediate albedo surfaces, the dark equatorial terrain informally known as Cthulhu Regio is also densely cratered. We will explore the range of possible processes that might have operated (or still be operating) to modify the landscape from that of an ancient pristinely cratered state to the present terrains revealed in New Horizons images. The sequence, intensity, and type of processes that have modified ancient landscapes are, among other things, the record of climate and volatile evolution throughout much of the Pluto's existence. The deciphering of this record will be discussed. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  5. SUPRIM: easily modified image processing software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, J P; Bretaudiere, J P

    1996-01-01

    A flexible, modular software package intended for the processing of electron microscopy images is presented. The system consists of a set of image processing tools or filters, written in the C programming language, and a command line style user interface based on the UNIX shell. The pipe and filter structure of UNIX and the availability of command files in the form of shell scripts eases the construction of complex image processing procedures from the simpler tools. Implementation of a new image processing algorithm in SUPRIM may often be performed by construction of a new shell script, using already existing tools. Currently, the package has been used for two- and three-dimensional image processing and reconstruction of macromolecules and other structures of biological interest.

  6. Preparation of montmorillonite modified phenolic resin for shell process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Jianmin; Li Yuancai; Wang Wenqing; Xia Chun

    2009-01-01

    The development of montmodllonite modified phenolic resin under microwave irradiation heating was investigated. The effect of montmorillonite content and stirring time on the structure and morphology of synthetic resin was analyzed. The optimum processing procedure was found to be 45 rain stirring time with 5.4% montmorillonite addition. Further, the platelet spacing increases with stirring time till montmorillonite exfoliated to nanoscales platelet. When montmorillonite is exfoliated, layered structure at nanoscale can be uniformly distributed in the resin. The overall performance of montmorillonite modified phenolic resin is improved remarkably, such as flow ability, tensile strength and toughness property of resin coated sand. However, the gelation speed decreased slightly by adding montmorillonite.

  7. Modified Frequency Scaling Algorithm for FMCW SAR Data Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhihong; Huang Fukan; Wan Jianwei; Cheng Zhu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a modified frequency scaling algorithm for frequency modulated continuous wave synthetic aperture radar(FMCW SAR) data processing. The relative motion between radar and target in FMCW SAR during reception and between transmission and reception will introduce serious dilation in the received signal. The dilation can cause serious distortions in the reconstructed images using conventional signal processing methods. The received signal is derived and the received signal in range-Doppler domain is given.The relation between the phase resulting from antenna motion and the azimuth frequency is analyzed. The modified frequency scaling algorithm is proposed to process the received signal with serious dilation. The algorithm can effectively eliminate the impact of the dilation. The algorithm performances are shown by the simulation results.

  8. Gap bridging enhancement of modified Urca process in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Alford, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear matter at neutron-star densities and temperatures, Cooper pairing leads to the formation of a gap in the nucleon excitation spectra resulting in exponentially strong Boltzmann suppression of many transport coefficients. Previous calculations have shown evidence that density oscillations of sufficiently large amplitude can overcome this suppression for flavor-changing beta processes, via the mechanism of "gap bridging". We address the simplifications made in that initial work, and show that gap bridging can counteract Boltzmann suppression of neutrino emissivity for the realistic case of modified Urca processes in matter with $^3P_2$ neutron pairing.

  9. Effects of poling process on KNN-modified piezoceramic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rubio, F.; Romero, J. J.; Ochoa Guerrero, Diego A.; García García, José Eduardo; Pérez Pérez, Rafael; Fernández, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition near room temperature in the poling process of KNN-modified piezoceramics was studied. Poling temperatures of 25° and 120°C were used. The percentage of 90° domains reorientation induced by poling was evaluated trough X-ray diffraction analysis. The improvement of the piezoelectric properties when the poling temperature was 25°C could not be explained by the reorientation of 90° domains alone. Raman spectroscopy evidenced that t...

  10. QUANTIFICATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE MON 810 IN PROCESSED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Siekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L. represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C, elevated pressure (0.1 MPa and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa. The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.doi:10.5219/212

  11. A Modified Surface on Titanium Deposited by a Blasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline O’Sullivan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA coating of hard tissue implants is widely employed for its biocompatible and osteoconductive properties as well as its improved mechanical properties. Plasma technology is the principal deposition process for coating HA on bioactive metals for this application. However, thermal decomposition of HA can occur during the plasma deposition process, resulting in coating variability in terms of purity, uniformity and crystallinity, which can lead to implant failure caused by aseptic loosening. In this study, CoBlastTM, a novel blasting process has been used to successfully modify a titanium (V substrate with a HA treatment using a dopant/abrasive regime. The impact of a series of apatitic abrasives under the trade name MCD, was investigated to determine the effect of abrasive particle size on the surface properties of both microblast (abrasive only and CoBlast (HA/abrasive treatments. The resultant HA treated substrates were compared to substrates treated with abrasive only (microblasted and an untreated Ti. The HA powder, apatitic abrasives and the treated substrates were characterized for chemical composition, coating coverage, crystallinity and topography including surface roughness. The results show that the surface roughness of the HA blasted modification was affected by the particle size of the apatitic abrasives used. The CoBlast process did not alter the chemistry of the crystalline HA during deposition. Cell proliferation on the HA surface was also assessed, which demonstrated enhanced osteo-viability compared to the microblast and blank Ti. This study demonstrates the ability of the CoBlast process to deposit HA coatings with a range of surface properties onto Ti substrates. The ability of the CoBlast technology to offer diversity in modifying surface topography offers exciting new prospects in tailoring the properties of medical devices for applications ranging from dental to orthopedic settings.

  12. [The modified process for preparing natural organic polymer flocculant chitosan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, D; Yu, G; Zhang, P; Feng, Z

    2001-05-01

    The modified process for preparing chitosan from crab or lobster shells was developed. In the decalcification stage, 10% HCl was used as soaking solution with addition of a small quantity of A as a promoter, and the mass ratio of reactants was 10% HCl:A:crab or lobster shells = 3.5:0.5:1, continuously stirring the crab or lobster shells at 30 degrees C for 3 h in place of simply soaking the crab or lobster shells at room temperature for 16-24 h in the previous process. In the deacetylation stage, 40% NaOH solution was used with addition of a small quantity of B as a promoter, and the mass ratio of reactants was 40% NaOH:B:chitin = 4:0.2:1, keeping reaction at 105 degrees C for 2 h in place of at 115 degrees C for 6 h in the previous process. By this new process, the cost of the raw materials used for preparing chitosan was cut down 49%, the preparation time was shortened by one half, and the main properties of this chitosan such as viscosity, deacetylation and molecular weight all approached or exceeded those of the Sigma' commercial chitosan (Chitosan C-3646).

  13. Optimal modifying and refining processes for A356 aluminium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Xiu-rong; ZHONG Zhi-guo

    2006-01-01

    The influence of Ti, B, RE (cerium-rich mixtures of rare earth) and Sr, applied in modification and refining processes, on A356 aluminum alloys has been studied with the aids of OM, etc. The results show that the grain refining efficiency of Grain-Refining Aluminium Ingot (GRAI) and Al-Ti master alloys is similar. But the Ti addition from GRAI has lower costs than that with Al-Ti master alloys. So A356 aluminum alloys produced with GRAI are feasible in economy.Grain refining with GRAI with 0.01%Ti plus additional 0.03% B offers significant advantages over that from GRAI with 0.1% Ti only in A356 aluminum alloys, which made the dendrite α (Al) grain structure transform into equiaxed α (Al) grain structure, plus a partially modified eutectic silicon structure. RE addition to A356 aluminum alloys with Sr modifier is enable to achieve small DAS,reduced pores, well-refined fibrous silicon, small and dispersive eutectic colonies.

  14. 西方国家再生有色金属工业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰兴华

    2004-01-01

    近期开发的溶剂萃取法为zincex法(zincex Process)和改进的zincex法(Modified Zincex Process.MZP)。Zincex法是西班牙Tecnicas Reunidas公司开发的,1976年在该国毕尔巴鄂(Bilbao)的MQN厂工业生产,生产能力为8000吨/年,处理的是再生锌原料。证实生产成功后,1980年又在葡萄牙的里斯本建立另一家工厂,生产能力为115万吨/年,处理来自各种原料的氧化物浸出液。

  15. A Modified Post Processing Correction Matrix For SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, D. J.; DeNardo, G. L.; DeNardo, S. J.; Seibert, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A post reconstruction method of attenuation compensation for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has been investigated that offers a new approach to the problem of quantitation. A modified correction matrix is generated for attenuation compensation in which the Linear Attenuation Coefficient (LAC) for each pixel is assigned a value depending on the radial distance of the pixel from the true section boundary. Attenuation compensation of transverse section images of small and large volume sources of Tc-99m in phantoms using this modified matrix indicated that a known quantity of radionuclide could be determined to better than 10%. The scatter fraction was estimated as the difference in the corrected section images using a multiplicative matrix generated with a constant LAC for each pixel and the modified matrix proposed in this report.

  16. New processable modified polyimide resins for adhesive and matrix applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, D.

    1985-01-01

    A broad product line of bismaleimide modified epoxy adhesives which are cured by conventional addition curing methods is described. These products fill a market need for 232 C (450 F) service adhesives which are cured in a manner similar to conventional 177 C (350 F) epoxy adhesives. The products described include film adhesives, pastes, and a primer. Subsequent development work has resulted in a new bismaleimide modified epoxy resin which uses a unique addition curing mechanism. This has resulted in products with improved thermomechanical properties compared to conventional bismaleimide epoxy resins. A film adhesive, paste, and matrix resin for composites using this new technology are described. In all cases, the products developed are heat cured by using typical epoxy cure cycles i.e., 1 hour at 177 C (350 F) followed by 2 hours postcure at 246 C (475 F).

  17. Metal ion exchange process by natural and modified clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiadis, K.; Petter, C.; Hilliges, R.; Helmreich, B.; Wilderer, P.A. [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    2003-07-01

    Clinoptilolite, one of the most frequently studied natural zeolites, was shown to have high selectivity for certain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and nickel. The aim of this study is to present equilibrium and kinetic data for Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} exchange on natural and modified clinoptilolite for two different pH values. Selectivity series and kinetic data from these three heavy metals are presented. (orig.)

  18. Integration Processes of Delay Differential Equation Based on Modified Laguerre Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeguo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose long-time convergent numerical integration processes for delay differential equations. We first construct an integration process based on modified Laguerre functions. Then we establish its global convergence in certain weighted Sobolev space. The proposed numerical integration processes can also be used for systems of delay differential equations. We also developed a technique for refinement of modified Laguerre-Radau interpolations. Lastly, numerical results demonstrate the spectral accuracy of the proposed method and coincide well with analysis.

  19. Modified Testing for Structural Changes in Autoregressive Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao JIN; Zheng TIAN; Yun Feng YANG

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting for structural changes in the autoregressive processes including AR(p) process. In performing a test, we employ the conventional residual CUSUM of squares test (RCUSQ) statistic. The RCUSQ test is based on the subsampiing method introduced by Jach and Kokoszka [J. Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability 25(2004)]. It is shown that under regularity conditions, the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is the function of a standard Brownian bridge. Simulation results as to AR(1)process and an example of real data analysis axe provided for illustration.

  20. Stimulus Familiarity Modifies Perceived Duration in Prerecognition Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Lloyd L.; Lyman, Paul J.

    1975-01-01

    Three experiments further explored the Avant, Lyman, and Antes finding that, during prerecognition processing, differences in subjects' familiarity with letters, words, and nonwords generate differences in the apparent duration of tachistoscopic flashes. (Editor)

  1. A Modified Bio-Ecological Process for Rural Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited water resources and ensuring access to clean water are critical environmental challenges, especially for the developing world. In particular, rural domestic wastewater has become a significant source for the pollution of freshwater bodies. A modified bio-ecological A2O-wetland system for rural wastewater treatment consisting of a biological unit (anaerobic baffled reactor, anoxic tank and oxic unit, A2O and an ecological unit (horizontal flow constructed wetland was developed, and key performance indicators were identified. The bio-ecological treatment system showed high removal efficiency for pollutants, successfully achieving 91%, 85%, 78%, and 92% removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium (NH4–N, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP, respectively. The concentrations of pollutants in the effluent from the system were lower than the Class 1 A regulated values of the Chinese National Standard GB18918-2002. The system offered high removal efficiency, simple operation, and low energy consumption. The A2O-wetland is a good alternative for rural wastewater treatment systems.

  2. Motion compensated image processing and optimal parameters for egg crack detection using modified pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell eggs with microcracks are often undetected during egg grading processes. In the past, a modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with microcracks without adversely affecting the quality of normal intact eggs. The basic idea of the modified pressure imaging system was to ap...

  3. Downstream Processability of Crystal Habit-Modified Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pudasaini, Nawin; Upadhyay, Pratik Pankaj; Parker, Christian Richard

    2017-01-01

    Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability and tablet......Efficient downstream processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can depend strongly on their particulate properties, such as size and shape distributions. Especially in drug products with high API content, needle-like crystal habit of an API may show compromised flowability...

  4. Modifying yeast tolerance to inhibitory conditions of ethanol production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCaspeta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. cerevisiae tolerance to inhibitory conditions of lignocellulosic ethanol production processes is the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of its cellular signaling network in response to stress. Here we highlight the inhibitory conditions found in ethanol production processes, the targeted cellular functions, the key contributions of integrated –omics analysis to reveal cellular stress responses according to these inhibitors, and current status on design-based engineering of tolerant and efficient S. cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from lignocellulose.

  5. MECHANISM OF IMPACT OF ELECTRIC FIELDS ON PROCESSES OF MODIFYING OF Fe-C ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Minenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of physical model of process of impact of electric field on process of modifying of an alloy is stated. Major factors of the processing electric current arising from imposing on metal fusion of electric field are considered. The mechanism of influence of energy of electric field and power interaction of free current carrier with the centers of crystallization of an alloy is shown. The periodicity of stages of modifying of gray cast iron is offered. Results of impact of electric field on mechanical properties of cast iron depending on the content of silicon in the modifier are yielded. Influence of thermotemporary processing of fusion of the modified steel on its strength properties is shown.

  6. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Titanium Surface Modified by PVD/PACVD Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Lee, Min-Joo; Park, Sang-Won; Lee, Kwangmin; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) via crystal violet staining assay on titanium surface modified by physical vapor deposition/plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. Specimens were divided into the following three groups: polished titanium (control group), titanium modified by DC magnetron sputtering (group TiN-Ti), and titanium modified by plasma nitriding (group N-Ti). Surface characteristics of specimens were observed by using nanosurface 3D optical profiler and field emission scanning electron microscope. Group TiN-Ti showed TiN layer of 1.2 microm in thickness. Group N-Ti was identified as plasma nitriding with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Roughness average (Ra) of all specimens had values 0.05). Within the process condition of this study, modified titanium surfaces by DC magnetron sputtering and plasma nitriding did not influence the adhesion of S. mutans.

  7. Evaluation of aeration energy saving in two modified activated sludge processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ingyu; Lim, Honglae; Jung, Byunghun; Colosimo, Mark F; Kim, Hyunook

    2015-12-01

    A variety of modified activated sludge processes are widely used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing organics and nutrients (N and P). Since energy consumption in aeration basin accounts for the major part of the overall energy usage in WWTPs, efforts have been made to find ways to reduce aeration energy. In this study, two modified activated sludge processes in a pilot scale designed for nutrient removal were evaluated for the extent of energy saving: (1) ABA(2) process - adjusting air on/off period (i.e., with a temporal change); and (2) MB-A(2)O process - changing volume ratio of aerobic tank to anoxic tank (i.e., with a spatial change). For the 1st process, the air on/off period was fixed at 60min/45min with aerobic fraction being 0.57, while for the 2nd process, the aerobic/anoxic volume ratio was reduced from 0.58 to 0.42. The results demonstrate that the effluent COD, TN, NH4(+) and TP concentrations are acceptable while reduced aeration time/volume certainly saves significant energy consumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is 1st attempt to reduce the aeration period or aeration volume to save the aeration energy in these two modified activated sludge processes. The implication of these observations is further discussed.

  8. Preparation of TiO2 Inverse Opal via a Modified Filling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qian; DONG Peng; YI Gui-Yun; LIU Li-Xia; CHENG Bing-Ying

    2005-01-01

    @@ By applying polystyrene opals made by a vertical deposition method as the templates, a modified filling method and a well-controlled calcination process, we have successfully obtained a large-area ordered TiO2 inverse opal with a higher volume fraction (14.5%) and a visible photonic bandgap. The influences of the filling process and calcination conditions on the fabrication of the TiO2 inverse opal are investigated.

  9. The Effect of Using Modified Flask on the Porosity of Processed Heat- Cure Acrylic Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed T. Al-Khafagy; Rajaa M. Al-Musawi; Abbas Taher Alaboudy

    2013-01-01

    Porosity is an important property of acrylic resin material because it affect other properties like strength, esthetic and cause bacterial or fungal growth lead to unhealthy dentures. This paper Study the possibility of reducing the porosity of heat- cure acrylic resin by making a modification in the flask of processing .The processing flask was modified by constructing a tongue like projection fixed to the upper half of the flask in order to spread the high temperature occurred in the cente...

  10. Modified graphical autocatalytic set model of combustion process in circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Nurul Syazwani; Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Ismail, Razidah

    2014-07-01

    Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler (CFB) is a device for generating steam by burning fossil fuels in a furnace operating under a special hydrodynamic condition. Autocatalytic Set has provided a graphical model of chemical reactions that occurred during combustion process in CFB. Eight important chemical substances known as species were represented as nodes and catalytic relationships between nodes are represented by the edges in the graph. In this paper, the model is extended and modified by considering other relevant chemical reactions that also exist during the process. Catalytic relationship among the species in the model is discussed. The result reveals that the modified model is able to gives more explanation of the relationship among the species during the process at initial time t.

  11. Modified coprecipitation process of synthesizing Bi-system superconductor precursor powder and its stoichiometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛传斌; 杜泽华; 周廉

    1996-01-01

    A modified coprecipitation process is presented based on the stoichiometry study of oxalate coprecipitation process in water medium to synthesize Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O multi-component powder.Its characteristic is that the coprecipitation reaction takes place in a mixed solution medium composed of water and a kind of organic solvent (volume percentage >90%).Thus,it overcomes the serious shortcoming of inability to maintain stoichiometry in Bi-system superconductor powder synthesized by water-medium coprecipitation.The effects of pH value,oxalic acid concentration and aging time on stoichiometry maintenance in precipitate are systematically studied.Bulk material made from the powder prepared by the new modified coprecipitation also shows the success of the new process.

  12. Estimation of Energy Consumption in COREX Process Using a Modified Rist Operating Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-long ZHAN; Keng WU; Zhi-jun HE; Qi-hang LIU; Xiao-juan WU

    2015-01-01

    Fuel consumption in the COREX-3000 process run in Baosteel is currently higher than the design index. Therefore,mass and heat balance equations for the COREX process were established using the basic principles in-cluded in the Rist operating diagram for blast furnace (BF)as a reference.Thermodynamic calculations were then used to modify the Rist operating diagram so that it was suitable for the COREX process.The modified Rist operating dia-gram was then applied for the evaluation of metallization rate (MR)and fuel structure to reduce the energy consump-tion in the COREX process.The modified Rist operating diagram for the shaft furnace (SF)provided a nearly ideal value for the restriction point W when the metallization rate was increased,while the point P on the operating line for the melter gasifier (MG)moved upward due to reduction in the heat required in hearth.The feasibility of reduc-ing the energy consumption during the COREX process by changing the fuel structure was also demonstrated.

  13. SERS spectroelectrochemical study of electrode processes at copper hexacyanoferrate modified electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mažeikienė, Regina; Niaura, Gediminas; Malinauskas, Albertas

    2017-06-01

    Electrochemical redox processes taking place at copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) modified electrode have been investigated by near-infrared laser (785 nm) induced surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Raman bands observed within the spectral ranges of 2200-2000 cm- 1 and 500-100 cm- 1, as well as their dependence on electrode potential, have been analysed. The most characteristic Raman bands, related to triple CN bond vibrations and centered at 2187 and 2127 cm- 1 were assigned to the oxidised and the reduced forms of CuHCF, respectively. Time-resolved Raman spectroelectrochemical study shows that the electrochemical redox interconversions between these two forms proceed relatively slow, thus resembling the behaviour of structurally related cobalt hexacyanoferrate, and differing essentially from that of Prussian blue layer studied previously. It has been shown by the time-resolved Raman spectroelectrochemistry that the rate of some redox processes of solute species like the anodic oxidation of ascorbate or cathodic reduction of hydrogen peroxide at CuHCF modified electrode appears to be limited by the slow electrochemical redox transformations within the modifier layer itself rather than by the redox interactions of a modifier with the solute species.

  14. Real-time integrated process supervision for autotuners and modified cerebellar model articulation controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Quek, H. C.; Lim, B. H.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents the use of a micro-controller-based Integrated Process Supervision as a tool for investigate work in expert control. Two different control theories integrated within process serve as examples of structured approach to expert control. The Integrated Process Supervision is a refinement of the Expert Control Architecture as proposed by Karl J. Astrom by allowing integration of several control techniques in a single generic framework. Specifically, the paper presents the result for experiments performed on an implementation of the Integrated Process Supervision on a PC and micro-controller environment. Autotuning techniques were first integrated within the process supervision. Three Autotuners based on specification of phase and amplitude margins were investigated. A modified version of Cerebellar MOdel Articulation Controller was then implemented in IPS as a direct controller. Results collected verify its integration in the integrated process supervision and also provide evidence of improved performance as compared to Autotuning.

  15. Development of a high-value care culture survey: a modified Delphi process and psychometric evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, R.(Panjab University, Chandigarh, India); Moriates, C; Harrison, JD; Valencia, V; Ong, M; Clarke, R.; Steers, N; Hays, RD; Braddock, CH; De Wachter, R

    2016-01-01

    Organisational culture affects physician behaviours. Patient safety culture surveys have previously been used to drive care improvements, but no comparable survey of high-value care culture currently exists. We aimed to develop a High-Value Care Culture Survey (HVCCS) for use by healthcare leaders and training programmes to target future improvements in value-based care.We conducted a two-phase national modified Delphi process among 28 physicians and nurse experts with diverse backgrounds. We...

  16. Threat Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Evidence from a Modified Negative Priming Task

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Nader; Cobb, Michelle; Morrison, Amanda S.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often experience intrusive thoughts. These intrusions may be due to biases in information processing mechanisms, including attention, memory, and learning. To examine this hypothesis, we presented a modified negative priming (NP) paradigm with idiographically-selected words to 19 individuals with OCD (OCs) and 19 matched non-anxious control participants (NACs). The words included OCD-relevant threat, OCD-relevant positive, and neutral words...

  17. Removal characteristics of dissolved organic matters in modified A2O process of pilot test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo LI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the running effect of Guodian Shenyang North Wastewater Treatment Plant, based on excitation-emission matrix (EEM fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence regional integration (FRI and material balance are used to evaluate the dissolved organic matter removal performance of modified A2O process. The results suggest that the albuminoid matters are the dominant components in modified A2O process influent, and there is small amount of fulvic-like materials. The removal efficiencies of the normalized integral volume of region Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅳ are 81.5%, 54.0% and 63.4%, respectively, while the removal performance of normalized integral volume of region Ⅲ and Ⅴ is low, and the removal efficiencies are 30.2%, 27.8%, respectively. The calculation of material balance shows that pre-anoxic and anaerobic zones are mainly used for the material removal in the region Ⅰ and Ⅳ. Anoxic zone is mainly used for material removal in the region Ⅰ. Aerobic zone could remove material in all regions. In addition, normalized integral volume of region Ⅳ and the soluble chemical oxygen demand have nice linear correlation, and the correlation coefficient R2 is 0.991 1. The normalized integral volume of region Ⅳ can better reflect the variation trend of soluble chemical oxygen demand in modified A2O process.

  18. The Effect of Using Modified Flask on the Porosity of Processed Heat- Cure Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed T. Al-Khafagy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porosity is an important property of acrylic resin material because it affect other properties like strength, esthetic and cause bacterial or fungal growth lead to unhealthy dentures. This paper Study the possibility of reducing the porosity of heat- cure acrylic resin by making a modification in the flask of processing .The processing flask was modified by constructing a tongue like projection fixed to the upper half of the flask in order to spread the high temperature occurred in the center of the muffle. In the this research; forty lower denture base with bite rim samples were prepared from heat-cure acrylic resin denture base. The study include 4 testing groups depending on the type of curing cycle and using of ordinary traditional and modified flask in curing process, each group contain 10 samples. One way ANOVA with Tukey's test between tested groups in regarding the type of flasking and curing cycle are indicated, the results revealed a significant difference at (P=0.05 when compare between group 2(I.I.O.Fand 3(S.C.M.F and between group2and 4(S.C.O.F, and also between group 3and 4. While there was a non significant differences between group 1,2 and1,3 and finally between group1and4. Less Porosity was observed in the group of samples that cured with slow curing cycle in modified flask when compare with other groups.

  19. Process control on modified III Quadruple Tank using LabVIEW aplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, Zahrotul; Arlita, Amalia Dyah; Rahayu, Santi Puteri; Arifin, Imam; Hisyam, Anwaruddin; Renanto, Juwari

    2017-05-01

    Generally, chemical industry processes have the characteristics of a multi-variable process, and influenced by the disturbances which may be detrimental to the process. Quadruple tank process is a simple prototype which represents the complicated multivariable dynamic process. However, this system originally doesn't have time delay that always occure in industrial process. Thus, this study modify the system by adding heater in tank I and tank 2. In addition, interaction between tank I and tank 2 also tank 3 and tank 4 was modified [2]. Two controllers are implemented to maintain level and temperature of tank I and tank 2 i.e. PI-PID and 2DoF IMC. The PI-PID controller parameters are determined by Ziegler-Nichols tuning method which detuned by Mc Avoy method and BLT method, while the 2DoF IMC controller parameter is determined by MP-GM method. In the minimum phase, based on the value of IAE, the PI controller with detuning Mc Avoy better than the 2DoF-IMC in controlling levels and 2DoF-IMC better than control of temperature compared with PI-PID controllers. In the non-minimum phase, based on the value of IAE, the PI-PID controller is better than the control 2DoF-IMC.

  20. Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

  1. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Hema A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  2. Stress and Strain During the Process of Thermal Stabilization of Modified Pan Precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wang-xi; WANG Yan-zhi; PAN Wei

    2007-01-01

    Thermal mechanical analysis, FT- IR, WAXD and some conventional measurements, such as densities and mechanical properties, were used to characterize the effect of the modification using KMnO4 and SnCl4 on the thermal mechanical behaviors and structural changes dining the process of thermal stabilization of modified PAN precursors. to the unmodified original PAN precursors, some conclusions were drawn that the thermal stabilization starts at a lower temperature for modified PAN fibers, for example, the peak of thermal stress changes for modified PAN precursors using KMnO4 displays a decrease of 20℃ and a increase of 30% in the ultimate thermal stress, that chemical modification makes structural transformation perfect and increases by 25% of the thermal stress at the temperature range of 230℃- 300℃, that the modified PAN fibers display an increase of 100% in the thermal strain, once after pre-oxidized, show an increase of 7.8% in orientation index, and a decrease of 9.9% in crystal size for identical preload in the region of 13.1 - 14.5 MPa. It was also concluded that the modification using SnCl4 would alleviate the changes in physical and chemical stress regimes and result in improvement in structure and decrease in defects.

  3. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh M. Hegde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  4. Techniques for modifying impulsive processes associated with unhealthy eating: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Samantha B; Greaves, Colin J; Smith, Jane R; Abraham, Charles

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to (a) identify and categorize techniques used to modify or manage impulsive processes associated with unhealthy eating behavior, (b) describe the mechanisms targeted by such techniques, and (c) summarize available evidence on the effectiveness of these techniques. Searches of 5 bibliographic databases identified studies, published in English since 1993, that evaluated at least 1 technique to modify impulsive processes affecting eating in adults. Data were systematically extracted on study characteristics, population, study quality, intervention techniques, proposed mechanisms of action, and outcomes. Effectiveness evidence was systematically collated and described without meta-analysis. Ninety-two studies evaluated 17 distinct impulse management techniques. They were categorized according to whether they aimed to (a) modify the strength of impulses or (b) engage the reflective system or other resources in identifying, suppressing, or otherwise managing impulses. Although higher quality evidence is needed to draw definitive conclusions, promising changes in unhealthy food consumption and food cravings were observed for visuospatial loading, physical activity, and if-then planning, typically for up to 1-day follow-up. A wide range of techniques have been evaluated and some show promise for use in weight management interventions. However, larger-scale, more methodologically robust, community-based studies with longer follow-up times are needed to establish whether such techniques can have a long-term impact on eating patterns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Carbon foam derived from pitches modified with mineral acids by a low pressure foaming process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyntsarski, B.; Petrova, B.; Budinova, T.; Petrov, N.; Krzesinska, M.; Pusz, S.; Majewska, J.; Tzvetkov, P. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    2010-10-15

    Carbon foams with an anisotropic texture and high mechanical strength were produced using precursors obtained after thermo-oxidation treatment of commercial coal-tar pitch with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HNO{sub 3}. The investigations of the relation between the properties of the precursor and the structure of obtained foam indicate, that the composition and softening point of the pitch precursor significantly affect the foaming process, foam structure and foam mechanical strength. The composition and properties of the modified pitches allow foam formation at relatively low pressure and fast heating rate during the foaming process without a stabilization treatment. The foaming process of pitch-based carbon foams, pretreatment of the precursors, and the properties of resultant foams are discussed in this paper.

  6. Tensile and creep properties of thermomechanically processed boron modified Timetal 834 titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Kartik, E-mail: kartik@dmrl.drdo.in [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Sarkar, Rajdeep; Ghosal, P.; Satyanarayana, D.V.V.; Kamat, S.V.; Nandy, T.K. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India)

    2011-08-25

    Highlights: {yields} 0.2 wt.% boron refines the as-cast microstructure of Timetal 834 alloy. {yields} The boron addition leads to an improvement in strength (0.2% YS and UTS). {yields} The B modified alloy shows better creep resistance as compared to base alloy. {yields} These effects are attributed to load sharing mechanism by the TiB whiskers. - Abstract: The effect of addition of 0.2 wt.% B on the tensile and creep properties of Timetal 834 alloy was studied in the thermomechanically processed condition after subjecting it to different heat treatments. The 0.2% YS and UTS of the boron modified alloy was found to be higher than that of the base alloy irrespective of the heat treatment employed. The creep strain for 100 h as well as the steady state creep rate at a temperature of 600 deg. C and initial stress of 150 MPa stress was also significantly lower for the B modified alloy. The results were explained on the basis of load sharing by the TiB whiskers.

  7. Characterization of lignin extracted from birch wood by a modified hydrotropic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabov, Konstantin; Gosselink, Richard J A; Smeds, Annika I; Fardim, Pedro

    2014-11-05

    In this work an environmentally friendly hydrotropic process was used to extract lignin from industrial birch wood chips. Two hydrotropic treatments were performed, a conventional and a modified process. The lignins were characterized using FTIR, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC-MS), (31)P and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR, and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The chemical (carbohydrates, extractives, etc.) and elemental compositions of the lignins were also determined. The yields of both lignins were 16.1% (dry wood basis), and the obtained lignins had very low contents of non-lignin compounds. The treatments resulted in significant changes of the structure of the lignins, a decrease in aliphatic hydroxyls and an increase in phenolic ones. The lignin isolated by the modified treatment underwent more substantial change than the reference one. It is believed that the data presented will facilitate utilization of hydrotropic lignin and promote the adoption of the hydrotropic process in the pulp and biorefinery industry.

  8. Synthesis of YSZ@Ni Nanoparticle by Modified Electroless Plating Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Zheng, Haizhong; Li, Guifa; Xiong, Lingling; Luo, Qinhao

    2015-12-01

    Ni-YSZ (Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) composites with core-shell structure (YSZ@Ni) were produced by modified electroless plating process. It was found that YSZ nanoparticles were well encapsulated by nickel powders at 65 degrees C with pH = 12. The spherical nanopowders had core-shell structure and the shell layer was less than 20 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis inferred the production was composed of YSZ and Ni crystals. In the end, the formation mechanism was discussed.

  9. Modified Augmented Lagrange Multiplier Methods for Large-Scale Chemical Process Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chemical process optimization can be described as large-scale nonlinear constrained minimization. The modified augmented Lagrange multiplier methods (MALMM) for large-scale nonlinear constrained minimization are studied in this paper. The Lagrange function contains the penalty terms on equality and inequality constraints and the methods can be applied to solve a series of bound constrained sub-problems instead of a series of unconstrained sub-problems. The steps of the methods are examined in full detail. Numerical experiments are made for a variety of problems, from small to very large-scale, which show the stability and effectiveness of the methods in large-scale problems.

  10. Whiteness process of tile ceramics: using a synthetic flow as a modifier agent of color firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, G. R.; Pereira, M. C.; Olzon-Dionysio, M.; de Souza, S. D.; Morelli, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic flow is proposed as a modifier agent of color firing in tile ceramic mass during the sinterization process, turning the red color firing into whiteness. Therefore, the 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to understand how the interaction of the iron element in the mechanism of color firing mass occurs in this system. The results suggest that the change of color firing can be alternatively due to two main factors: (i) diluting the hematite content in the sample because of the use of synthetic flow and (ii) part of the hematite is converted in other uncolored crystal structures, which makes the final color firing lighter.

  11. Accelerating BP-Based Iterative Low-Density Parity-Check Decoding by Modified Vertical and Horizontal Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing-wen; YANG Feng-fan; LUO Lin; THO Le-Ngoc

    2009-01-01

    Two modified BP algorithms related to vertical and horizontal processes are proposed to accelerate iterative low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoding over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, where the newly updated extrinsic information is immediately used in the current decoding round. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that both the modified approaches provide significant performance improvements over the traditional BP algorithm with almost no additional decoding complexity. The proposed algorithm with modified horizontal process offers even better performance than another algorithm with the modified horizontal process. The two modified BP algorithms are very promising in practical communications since both can achieve an excellent trade-off between the performance and decoding complexity.

  12. Process optimization of ultrasound-assisted curcumin nanoemulsions stabilized by OSA-modified starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Shabbar; Bashari, Mohanad; Akhtar, Waseem; Li, Wei Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on the process optimization of ultrasound-assisted, food-grade oil-water nanoemulsions stabilized by modified starches. In this work, effects of major emulsification process variables including applied power in terms of power density and sonication time, and formulation parameters, that is, surfactant type and concentration, bioactive concentration and dispersed-phase volume fraction were investigated on the mean droplet diameter, polydispersity index and charge on the emulsion droplets. Emulsifying properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches, that is, Purity Gum 2000, Hi-Cap 100 and Purity Gum Ultra, and the size stability of corresponding emulsion droplets during the 1 month storage period were also investigated. Results revealed that the smallest and more stable nanoemulsion droplets were obtained when coarse emulsions treated at 40% of applied power (power density: 1.36 W/mL) for 7 min, stabilized by 1.5% (w/v) Purity Gum Ultra. Optimum volume fraction of oil (medium chain triglycerides) and the concentration of bioactive compound (curcumin) dispersed were 0.05 and 6 mg/mL oil, respectively. These results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted emulsification could be successfully used for the preparation of starch-stabilized nanoemulsions at lower temperatures (40-45 °C) and reduced energy consumption.

  13. Surface treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy by modified advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Cheng-lin; WANG Ru-meng; YIN Li-hong; PU Yue-pu; DONG Yin-sheng; GUO Chao; SHENG Xiao-bo; LIN Ping-hua; CHU Paul-K

    2009-01-01

    A modified advanced oxidation process(AOP) utilizing a UV/electrochemically-generated peroxide system was used to fabricate titania films on chemically polished NiTi shape memory alloy(SMA). The microstructure and biomedical properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICPMS), hemolysis analysis, and blood platelet adhesion test. It is found that the modified AOP has a high processing effectiveness and can result in the formation of a dense titania film with a Ni-free zone near its top surface. In comparison, Ni can still be detected on the outer NiTi surface by the conventional AOP using the UV/H2O2 system. The depth profiles of O, Ni, Ti show that the film possesses a smooth graded interface structure next to the NiTi substrate and this structure enhances the mechanical stability of titania film. The titania film can dramatically reduce toxic Ni ion release and also improve the hemolysis resistance and thromboresistance of biomedical NiTi SMA.

  14. Consumers’ response to genetically modified ingredients in processed food in an emerging economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yormirzoev, Mirzobobo; Teuber, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    with their willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients. Moreover, a higher risk perception of GM food is negatively associated with the probability to purchase and consume such foods. However, our results indicate that risk perceptions of GM food seem to be relatively low in comparison to other...... studies with 41.5% of Tajik respondents connecting no risks with GM food. This result is surprising given the existing knowledge about post–Soviet Union consumers who are usually assumed to reject GM food due to their strong focus on naturalness.......Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients...

  15. Activation of midbrain and ventral striatal regions implicates salience processing during a modified beads task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Esslinger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, i.e. critically reflecting on and monitoring one's own reasoning, has been linked behaviorally to the emergence of delusions and is a focus of cognitive therapy in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the neural processing underlying metacognitive function. To address this issue, we studied brain activity during a modified beads task which has been used to measure a "Jumping to Conclusions" (JTC bias in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural systems active in twenty-five healthy subjects when solving a modified version of the "beads task", which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of data has been requested by the participants. We assessed brain activation over the duration of a trial and at the time point of decision making. RESULTS: Analysis of activation during the whole process of probabilistic reasoning showed an extended network including the prefronto-parietal executive functioning network as well as medial parieto-occipital regions. During the decision process alone, activity in midbrain and ventral striatum was detected, as well as in thalamus, medial occipital cortex and anterior insula. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that probabilistic reasoning shares neural substrates with executive functions. In addition, our finding that brain regions commonly associated with salience processing are active during probabilistic reasoning identifies a candidate mechanism that could underlie the behavioral link between dopamine-dependent aberrant salience and JTC in schizophrenia. Further studies with delusional schizophrenia patients will have to be performed to substantiate this link.

  16. Artificial Intelligence Mechanisms on Interactive Modified Simplex Method with Desirability Function for Optimising Surface Lapping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchanun Luangpaiboon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made to optimise the influential parameters of surface lapping process. Lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure were chosen from the preliminary studies as parameters to determine process performances in terms of material removal, lap width, and clamp force. The desirability functions of the-nominal-the-best were used to compromise multiple responses into the overall desirability function level or D response. The conventional modified simplex or Nelder-Mead simplex method and the interactive desirability function are performed to optimise online the parameter levels in order to maximise the D response. In order to determine the lapping process parameters effectively, this research then applies two powerful artificial intelligence optimisation mechanisms from harmony search and firefly algorithms. The recommended condition of (lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure at (33, 35, 6.0, and 5.0 has been verified by performing confirmation experiments. It showed that the D response level increased to 0.96. When compared with the current operating condition, there is a decrease of the material removal and lap width with the improved process performance indices of 2.01 and 1.14, respectively. Similarly, there is an increase of the clamp force with the improved process performance index of 1.58.

  17. Sludge reduction and performance analysis of a modified sludge reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Qiao, Weimin; Xing, Can; Wang, Yingjun; Wang, Chunying; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Yiru; Wang, Luochun

    2014-01-01

    A modified sludge process reduction activated sludge (SPRAS) technology was developed by inserting a sludge process reduction (SPR) module, composed of an aeration tank and a settler, before the activated sludge system was proposed in this study. Compared with the anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (AAO) process, the SPRAS resulted in a remarkable decrease in sludge production by 76.6%; sludge decay owing to lengthy solids retention time (about 121.5 d) could be the major cause. During the 217-day operation, the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) (from 54 to -198 mV) and pH (from 7.8 to 5.0) at the bottom of the SPR settler gradually decreased, and low ORP and pH were in favor of sludge reduction in the SPRAS system. The insertion of the SPR module improved the removal efficiencies of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and ammonium nitrogen, and total nitrogen concentration in the effluent was reduced from 23.89 ± 4.82 to 14.16 ± 3.98 mg/L by 50% influent bypassing the SPR module. These results indicated that the SPRAS process could produce much less excess sludge and guarantee better effluent quality than the AAO process.

  18. Influence of modified processing on structure and properties of hot isostatically pressed superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G. Appa [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh (P.O.), Hyderabad 500 058 (India)]. E-mail: gouduapparao@rediffmail.com; Srinivas, M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh (P.O.), Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Sarma, D.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2006-02-25

    Inert gas atomized (IGA) superalloy Inconel 718 powder was consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) at 1200 deg. C under 120 MPa pressure for 3 h. The HIPed alloy heat treated as per the aerospace materials specification (AMS) 5662J standard schedule, viz. solution treatment (ST) at 980 deg. C for 1 h/water quenching (WQ) to room temperature (RT) and a two-step ageing treatment (AT) at 720 deg. C for 8 h/furnace cooling (FC) at 55 deg. C h{sup -1} to 620 deg. C and holding at 620 deg. C for 8 h and air cooling (AC) to room temperature has exhibited the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) comparable to that of the conventionally processed (forged and heat treated) IN 718. However, its ductility and stress rupture properties at 650 deg. C were found to be poor due to the presence of prior particle boundary (PPB) networks decorated with highly stable oxides (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}) and brittle MC (Nb, Ti)C carbides. To mitigate this problem, the HIPed alloy was subjected to solution treatment at 1270 deg. C for 1 h followed by re-HIPing at 1100 deg. C/130 MPa/3 h before heat-treating it as per AMS 5662J standard schedule. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the alloy processed under modified HIPing and heat treatment conditions have shown the dissolution of MC-carbides, breaking up of PPB networks and formation of equiaxed grains with an average diameter of about 50 {mu}m. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of this alloy has revealed uniform distribution of {gamma}'' and {gamma}' strengthening precipitates in the {gamma}-matrix and the presence of {delta}(Ni{sub 3}Nb) phase as well as very fine oxide particles near the grain boundaries. The tensile properties of the alloy processed under modified conditions have shown quite satisfactory levels of YS and UTS combined with a significantly improved elongation (EL) values at room temperature (19.5%) and at 650 deg. C (8.0%). The improvement in alloy

  19. Remediation of a biodiesel blend-contaminated soil by using a modified Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Fernando; Rosas, Juana M; Santos, Aurora; Romero, Arturo

    2014-11-01

    A soil contaminated with a B20 biodiesel blend (20 % biodiesel, 80 % diesel) has been treated by modified Fenton process with or without chelant addition. All experiments were conducted without pH adjustment. The reagents used were as follows: hydrogen peroxide as oxidant (400-4,000 mmol L(-1)), ferric ion as catalyst (5-20 mmol L(-1)), and trisodium citrate (50 mmol L(-1)) as chelating agent. Soil was spiked at two different pollutant concentrations (1,000-10,000 mg diesel kg(-1) soil). Higher total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiencies were obtained (up to 75 %) after the treatment in the absence of the chelant due to the low pH obtained in this case. In the presence of chelant, the TPH conversion obtained was lower because both higher pH is obtained and chelant competes with diesel for the oxidant. On the other hand, at neutral pH, the lifetime of the oxidant was increased. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are easier to remove than diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons from the blend. An important decrease of the aqueous phase toxicity was observed after the modified Fenton reaction, supporting that nontoxic by-products were released to the aqueous phase during the treatment.

  20. Developmental changes in children’s processing of redundant modifiers in definite object descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Koolen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates developmental changes in children’s processing of redundant information in definite object descriptions. In two experiments, children of two age groups (six or seven, and nine or ten years old were presented with pictures of sweets. In the first experiment (pairwise comparison, two identical sweets were shown, and one of these was described with a redundant modifier. After the description, the children had to indicate the sweet they preferred most in a forced-choice task. In the second experiment (graded rating, only one sweet was shown, which was described with a redundant color modifier in half of the cases (e.g., the blue sweet and in the other half of the cases simply as the sweet. This time, the children were asked to indicate on a 5-point rating scale to what extent they liked the sweets. In both experiments, the results showed that the younger children had a preference for the sweets described with redundant information, while redundant information did not have an effect on the preferences for the older children. These results imply that children are learning to distinguish between situations in which redundant information carries an implicature and situations in which this is not the case.

  1. Developmental Changes in Children’s Processing of Redundant Modifiers in Definite Object Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, Ruud; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates developmental changes in children’s processing of redundant information in definite object descriptions. In two experiments, children of two age groups (6 or 7, and 9 or 10 years old) were presented with pictures of sweets. In the first experiment (pairwise comparison), two identical sweets were shown, and one of these was described with a redundant modifier. After the description, the children had to indicate the sweet they preferred most in a forced-choice task. In the second experiment (graded rating), only one sweet was shown, which was described with a redundant color modifier in half of the cases (e.g., “the blue sweet”) and in the other half of the cases simply as “the sweet.” This time, the children were asked to indicate on a 5-point rating scale to what extent they liked the sweets. In both experiments, the results showed that the younger children had a preference for the sweets described with redundant information, while redundant information did not have an effect on the preferences for the older children. These results imply that children are learning to distinguish between situations in which redundant information carries an implicature and situations in which this is not the case. PMID:27994569

  2. Model-based process development for the purification of a modified human growth hormone using multimodal chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejergaard, Lars; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Krarup, Janus Kristian; Hagel, Anne Birgitte Bagge; Cramer, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the multimodal Capto adhere resin can be used in concert with calcium chloride or arginine hydrochloride as mobile phase modifiers to create a highly selective purification process for a modified human growth hormone. Importantly, these processes are shown to result in significant clearance of product related aggregates and host cell proteins. Furthermore, the steric mass action model is shown to be capable of accurately describing the chromatographic process and the aggregate removal. Finally, justification of the selected operating ranges is evaluated using the model together with Latin hypercube sampling. The results in this article establish the utility of multimodal chromatography when used with appropriate mobile phase modifiers for the downstream bioprocessing of a modified human growth hormone and offer new approaches for bioprocess verification.

  3. Enhanced PID Controllers Design Based on Modified Smith Predictor Control for Unstable Process with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqiang Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-degree-of-freedom control structure is proposed for a class of unstable processes with time delay based on modified Smith predictor control; the superior performance of disturbance rejection and good robust stability are gained for the system. The set-point tracking controller is designed using the direct synthesis method; the IMC-PID controller for disturbance rejection is designed based on the internal mode control design principle. The controller for set-point response and the controller for disturbance rejection can be adjusted and optimized independently. Meanwhile, the two controllers are designed in the form of PID, which is convenient for engineering application. Finally, simulation examples demonstrate the validity of the proposed control scheme.

  4. A Modified Lotka–Volterra Model for Diffusion and Substitution of Multigeneration DRAM Processing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chih Hung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to develop an effective forecasting model for the diffusion and substitution of multigeneration Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM processing technologies. We consider market share data and propose a modified Lotka–Volterra model, in which an additional constraint on the summation of market share is introduced. The mean absolute error is used to measure the accuracy of our market share predictions. Market share data in DRAM industries from quarter one (Q1 of 2005 to 2013 Q4 is collected to validate the prediction accuracy. Our model significantly outperforms other benchmark forecasting models of both revenue and market share data, including the Bass and Lotka–Volterra models. Compared to prior studies on forecasting the diffusion and substitution of multigeneration technologies, our model has two new perspectives: (1 allowing undetermined number of multigeneration technologies and inconsecutive adoption of new technologies and (2 requiring less data for forecasting newborn technologies.

  5. Processing effects on physicochemical properties of creams formulated with modified milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, J C; Duncan, S E; Eigel, W N; Waterman, K M

    2005-04-01

    Type of thermal process [high temperature, short time pasteurization (HTST) or ultra-high temperature pasteurization (UHT)] and homogenization sequence (before or after pasteurization) were examined for influence on the physicochemical properties of natural cream (20% milk fat) and creams formulated with 20% low-melt, fractionated butteroil emulsified with skim milk, or buttermilk and butter-derived aqueous phase. Homogenization sequence influenced physicochemical makeup of the creams. Creams homogenized before pasteurization contained more milk fat surface material, higher phospholipid levels, and less protein at the milk fat interface than creams homogenized after pasteurization. Phosphodiesterase I activity was higher (relative to protein on lipid globule surface) when cream was homogenized before pasteurization. Creams formulated with skim milk and modified milk fat had relatively more phospholipid adsorbed at the milk fat interface. Ultra-high-temperature-pasteurized natural and reformulated creams were higher in viscosity at all shear rates investigated compared with HTST-pasteurized creams. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized natural cream was more viscous than HTST-pasteurized reformulated creams at most shear rates investigated. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized creams had better emulsion stability than UHT-pasteurized creams. Cream formulated with buttermilk had creaming stability most comparable to natural cream, and cream formulated with skim milk and modified butteroil was least stable to creaming. Most creams feathered in a pH range of 5.00 to 5.20, indicating that they were moderately stable to slightly unstable emulsions. All processing sequences yielded creams within sensory specifications with the exception of treatments homogenized before UHT pasteurization and skim milk formulations homogenized after UHT pasteurization.

  6. Polyacrylonitrile nanofibers coated with silver nanoparticles using a modified coaxial electrospinning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu DG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deng-Guang Yu,1 Jie Zhou,2 Nicholas P Chatterton,3 Ying Li,1 Jing Huang,2 Xia Wang11School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Faculty of Life Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London, United KingdomBackground: The objective of this investigation was to develop a new class of antibacterial material in the form of nanofibers coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using a modified coaxial electrospinning approach. Through manipulation of the distribution on the surface of nanofibers, the antibacterial effect of Ag can be improved substantially.Methods: Using polyacrylonitrile (PAN as the filament-forming polymer matrix, an electrospinnable PAN solution was prepared as the core fluid. A silver nitrate (AgNO3 solution was exploited as sheath fluid to carry out the modified coaxial electrospinning process under varied sheath-to-core flow rate ratios.Results: Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the sheath AgNO3 solution can take a role in reducing the nanofibers' diameters significantly, a sheath-to-core flow rate ratio of 0.1 and 0.2 resulting in PAN nanofibers with diameters of 380 ± 110 nm and 230 ± 70 nm respectively. AgNPs are well distributed on the surface of PAN nanofibers. The antibacterial experiments demonstrated that these nanofibers show strong antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis Wb800, and Escherichia coli dh5α.Conclusion: Coaxial electrospinning with AgNO3 solution as sheath fluid not only facilitates the electrospinning process, providing nanofibers with reduced diameters, but also allows functionalization of the nanofibers through coating with functional ingredients, effectively ensuring that the active antibacterial component is on the surface of the material, which leads to

  7. Fabrication of ultrafine Nd-Fe-B powder by a modified reduction-diffusion process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANG T.S.; LEE D.H.; YU J.H.; CHOI C.J.; SEO W.S.; LEE Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain ultrafine Nd-Fe-B powder, a spray-dried precursor was treated by reduction-diffusion (R/D) process.And, unlike the conventional R/D process, calcium reduction that is a crucial step for the formation of Nd2Fe14B was performed without conglomerating the precursor with Ca powder.By adopting this modified process, it is possible to synthesize the hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B at the reaction temperature as low as 850 ℃.The average size of Nd2Fe14B particles that are uniformly distributed in the optimally treated powder was < <1 μm.Most Nd2Fe14B particles were enclosed with thin layers of Nd-rich phase.Typical magnetic properties of such powder without eliminating impurity CaO were iHc=~5.9 kOe, Br=~5.5 kG, and (BH)max=~6 MGOe.

  8. Block Copolymer Modified Epoxy Amine System for Reactive Rotational Molding: Structures, Properties and Processability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Eva; Nony, Fabien; Tcharkhtchi, Abbas; Gérard, Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Poly(styrene-butadiene-methylmethacrylate) (SBM) and poly(methylmethacrylate-butyle-acrylate-methylmethacrylate) (MAM) triblock copolymers have been dissolved in liquid DGEBA epoxy resin which is subsequently polymerized by meta-xylene diamine (MXDA) or Jeffamine EDR-148. A chemorheology study of these formulations by plate-plate rheology and by thermal analysis has allowed to conclude that the addition of these copolymer blocks improve the reactive rotational moulding processability without affecting the processing time. Indeed, it prevents the pooling of the formulation at the bottom of the mould and a too rapid build up of resin viscosity of these thermosetting systems. The morphology of the cured blends examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows an increase of fracture surface area and thereby a potential increase of the toughness with the modification of epoxy system. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMA) and opalescence of final material show that the block PMMA, initially miscible, is likely to induce phase separation from the epoxy-amine matrix. Thereby, the poor compatibilisation between the toughener and the matrix has a detrimental effect on the tensile mechanical properties. The compatibilisation has to be increased to improve in synergy the processability and the final properties of these block copolymer modified formulations. First attempts could be by adapting the length and ratio of each block.

  9. A Modified Delphi Process to Define Competencies for Assessment Leads Supporting a Doctor of Pharmacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Kristin K; Kelley, Katherine A; Sweet, Burgunda V; Kuba, Sarah E

    2016-12-25

    Objective. To define the competencies for individuals designated as assessment leads in colleges and schools of pharmacy. Methods. Twenty-three assessment experts in pharmacy participated in a modified Delphi process to describe competencies for an assessment lead, defined as the individual responsible for curricular assessment and assessment-related to doctor of pharmacy program accreditation. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Round 2 grouped responses for comment and rating for consensus, which was prospectively set at 80%. Results. Twelve competencies were defined and grouped into 3 areas: Context for Assessment, Managing the Process of Assessment, and Leadership of Assessment Activities. In order to verify the panel's work, assessment competencies from other disciplines were reviewed and compared. Conclusions. The competencies describe roles for assessment professionals as experts, managers, and leaders of assessment processes. They can be used by assessment professionals in self-assessing areas for professional development and by administrators in selecting, developing, and supporting designated leads.

  10. Degradation of transgene DNA in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant rice during food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shangxin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Liangyan; Dai, Sifa; Xu, Xinglian; Xiao, Hongmei

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess the effect of food processing on the degradation of exogenous DNA components in sweet rice wine and rice crackers made from genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L.), we developed genomic DNA extraction methods and compared the effect of different food processing procedures on DNA degradation. It was found that the purity, quantity and quality of DNA by alkaline lysis method were higher than by CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) method. For sweet rice wine, CAMV35S (cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) promoter and NOS (nopaline synthase) terminator were degraded by the third day, whereas the exogenous gene Bar (bialaphos resistance) remained unaffected. For rice crackers, boiling, drying and microwaving contributed to the initial degradations of DNA. Baking resulted in further degradations, and frying led to the most severe changes. These results indicated that the stability of DNA in GM rice was different under different processing conditions. For sweet rice wine, Bar was most stable, followed by NOS, CAMV35S, and SPS. For rice crackers, CAMV35S was most stable, followed by SPS, NOS, and Bar.

  11. Evaluation of the quality of logistic process of industrial enterprise with modified method of generalized parameter. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Dobrowolska; Jan Mikus

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of process-oriented management is essential challenge for most enterprises in the world. It requires from organization to define processes and establish a system of evaluation of the quality of processes including criterion, measures and method of evaluation. Unfortunately, for most processes, especially auxiliary ones, there is lack of theoretical solution to these issues, especially there is no method for quality evaluation. In the paper, use of a modified method of gener...

  12. Accomplishing equilibrium in ALSEP: demonstrations of modified process chemistry on 3-D printed enhanced annular centrifugal contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Wardle, K.E.; Gelis, A.V. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, 60439 (United States); Lumetta, G. [Paccific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The ALSEP (Actinide Lanthanide Separation Process) was developed to treat a PUREX raffinate stream by liquid-liquid extraction with the intent of separating trivalent minor actinides (Am/Cm; An) from trivalent fission-product lanthanides (Ln) and selected transition metals. The major components of the modified ALSEP process have been demonstrated on a modified 2-cm annular centrifugal contactor with an enhanced mixing zone using stable fission products and radiotracers. The results show that by decreasing the pH of the minor actinide stripping solution, using HEDTA instead of DTPA, and increasing contact time, the process is very effective in separating americium from the lanthanides and the fission products.

  13. Optimizing the lanthanum adsorption process onto chemically modified biomaterials using factorial and response surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Andreea; Davidescu, Corneliu Mircea; Negrea, Adina; Ciopec, Mihaela; Grozav, Ion; Negrea, Petru; Duteanu, Narcis

    2017-01-29

    The rare metals' potential to pollute air, water, soil, and especially groundwater has received lot of attention recently. One of the most common rare earth group elements, lanthanum, is used in many industrial branches, and due to its toxicity, it needs to be eliminated from all residual aqueous solutions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the control of the adsorption process for lanthanum removal from aqueous solutions, using cellulose, a known biomaterial with high adsorbent properties, cheap, and environment friendly. The cellulose was chemically modified by functionalization with sodium β-glycerophosphate. The experimental results obtained after factorial design indicate optimum adsorption parameters as pH 6, contact time 60 min, and temperature 298 K, when the equilibrium concentration of lanthanum was 250 mg L(-1), and the experimental adsorption capacity obtained was 31.58 mg g(-1). Further refinement of the optimization of the adsorption process by response surface design indicates that at pH 6 and the initial concentration of 256 mg L(-1), the adsorption capacity has maximum values between 30.87 and 36.73 mg g(-1).

  14. Elements in the Development of a Production Process for Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Sandig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of several viral vaccines depends on chicken embryo fibroblasts or embryonated chicken eggs. To replace this logistically demanding substrate, we created continuous anatine suspension cell lines (CR and CR.pIX, developed chemically-defined media, and established production processes for different vaccine viruses. One of the processes investigated in greater detail was developed for modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. MVA is highly attenuated for human recipients and an efficient vector for reactogenic expression of foreign genes. Because direct cell-to-cell spread is one important mechanism for vaccinia virus replication, cultivation of MVA in bioreactors is facilitated if cell aggregates are induced after infection. This dependency may be the mechanism behind our observation that a novel viral genotype (MVA-CR accumulates with serial passage in suspension cultures. Sequencing of a major part of the genomic DNA of the new strain revealed point mutations in three genes. We hypothesize that these changes confer an advantage because they may allow a greater fraction of MVA-CR viruses to escape the host cells for infection of distant targets. Production and purification of MVA-based vaccines may be simplified by this combination of designed avian cell line, chemically defined media and the novel virus strain.

  15. Modifying an Insect Cell N-Glycan Processing Pathway Using CRISPR-Cas Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabashi-Asazuma, Hideaki; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Jarvis, Donald L

    2015-10-16

    Fused lobes (FDL) is an enzyme that simultaneously catalyzes a key trimming reaction and antagonizes elongation reactions in the insect N-glycan processing pathway. Accordingly, FDL function accounts, at least in part, for major differences in the N-glycosylation patterns of glycoproteins produced by insect and mammalian cells. In this study, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the fdl gene in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. CRISPR-Cas9 editing produced a high frequency of site-specific nucleotide insertions and deletions, reduced the production of insect-type, paucimannosidic products (Man3GlcNAc2), and led to the production of partially elongated, mammalian-type complex N-glycans (GlcNAc2Man3GlcNAc2) in S2 cells. As CRISPR-Cas9 has not been widely used to analyze or modify protein glycosylation pathways or edit insect cell genes, these results underscore its broad utility as a tool for these purposes. Our results also confirm the key role of FDL at the major branch point distinguishing insect and mammalian N-glycan processing pathways. Finally, the new FDL-deficient S2 cell derivative produced in this study will enable future bottom-up glycoengineering efforts designed to isolate insect cell lines that can efficiently produce recombinant glycoproteins with chemically predefined oligosaccharide side-chain structures.

  16. Species effects on ecosystem processes are modified by faunal responses to habitat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Dyson, Kirstie E; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Luque, Patricia; Pierce, Graham J; Raffaelli, Dave; Paterson, David M; White, Piran C L

    2008-12-01

    Heterogeneity is a well-recognized feature of natural environments, and the spatial distribution and movement of individual species is primarily driven by resource requirements. In laboratory experiments designed to explore how different species drive ecosystem processes, such as nutrient release, habitat heterogeneity is often seen as something which must be rigorously controlled for. Most small experimental systems are therefore spatially homogeneous, and the link between environmental heterogeneity and its effects on the redistribution of individuals and species, and on ecosystem processes, has not been fully explored. In this paper, we used a mesocosm system to investigate the relationship between habitat composition, species movement and sediment nutrient release for each of four functionally contrasting species of marine benthic invertebrate macrofauna. For each species, various habitat configurations were generated by selectively enriching patches of sediment with macroalgae, a natural source of spatial variability in intertidal mudflats. We found that the direction and extent of faunal movement between patches differs with species identity, density and habitat composition. Combinations of these factors lead to concomitant changes in nutrient release, such that habitat composition effects are modified by species identity (in the case of NH4-N) and by species density (in the case of PO4-P). It is clear that failure to accommodate natural patterns of spatial heterogeneity in such studies may result in an incomplete understanding of system behaviour. This will be particularly important for future experiments designed to explore the effects of species richness on ecosystem processes, where the complex interactions reported here for single species may be compounded when species are brought together in multi-species combinations.

  17. Modified sodium diuranate process for the recovery of uranium from uranium hexafluoride transport cylinder wash solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Austin Dean

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) containment cylinders must be emptied and washed every five years in order to undergo recertification, according to ANSI standards. During the emptying of the UF6 from the cylinders, a thin residue, or heel, of UF6 is left behind. This heel must be removed in order for recertification to take place. To remove it, the inside of the containment cylinder is washed with acid and the resulting solution generally contains three or four kilograms of uranium. Thus, before the liquid solution can be disposed of, the uranium must be separated. A modified sodium diuranate (SDU) uranium recovery process was studied to support development of a commercial process. This process was sought to ensure complete uranium recovery, at high purity, in order that it might be reused in the nuclear fuel cycle. An experimental procedure was designed and carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of the commercial process in a laboratory setting. The experiments involved a small quantity of dried UO2F2 powder that was dosed with 3wt% FeF3 and was dissolved in water to simulate the cylinder wash solution. Each experiment series started with a measured amount of this powder mixture which was dissolved in enough water to make a solution containing about 120 gmU/liter. The experiments involved validating the modified SDU extraction process. A potassium diuranate (KDU) process was also attempted. Very little information exists regarding such a process, so the task was undertaken to evaluate its efficacy and determine whether a potassium process yields any significant differences or advantages as compared to a sodium process. However, the KDU process ultimately proved ineffective and was abandoned. Each of the experiments was organized into a series of procedures that started with the UO2F2 powder being dissolved in water, and proceeded through the steps needed to first convert the uranium to a diuranate precipitate, then to a carbonate complex solution, and finally

  18. DNA degradation in genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab by food processing methods: implications for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ⩾ 100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.

  20. Threat processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from a modified negative priming task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Cobb, Michelle; Morrison, Amanda S

    2008-06-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often experience intrusive thoughts. These intrusions may be due to biases in information processing mechanisms, including attention, memory, and learning. To examine this hypothesis, we presented a modified negative priming (NP) paradigm with idiographically selected words to 19 individuals with OCD (OCs) and 19 matched non-anxious control participants (NACs). The words included OCD-relevant threat, OCD-relevant positive, and neutral words. This paradigm typically elicits positive priming because participants may learn the contingency between the prime and probe that facilitates responding [Frings and Wentura (2006). Strategy effects counteract distractor inhibition: NP with constantly absent probe distractors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 854-864]. As predicted, NACs showed facilitation (i.e., positive priming) rather than NP for all word types, whereas OCs exhibited facilitation for only neutral words. For positive words, OCs exhibited no priming and for threat words they exhibited NP. These results suggest that for idiographic, OCD-relevant threat information, individuals with OCD show difficulty learning the contingency between the information in the prime and probe displays relative to the NACs.

  1. Improvement of NOM Removal from Water Resources by Modifying the Coagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Vaezi, A Mohagheghian, J Nouri, MR Eshraghian, A Ghasri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the regulations on DBPs, interest in NOM removal is increasing and many water treatment plants in developed countries have started to measure the concentration of TOC in their finished waters. Promulgation of the rules will substantially increase these efforts in other countries too. Since the cost of TOC (and DBPs determination was high, it was decided to study the traditional analysis of COD as a surrogate measure to detect the organic constituents in raw water and the extent to which optimized coagulation with ferric chloride can increase COD removal. The two water samples studied belonged to Karaj and Jajrood Rivers. For both samples the observed values of COD removal by coagulation at lower pH (about 1-1.5 pH values less than the regular pH were about 85-95 percent without making water turbidity unacceptable. In order to determine the effects of organic content on coagulation, synthetic samples were also prepared with much higher COD values. Again, considerable increases in COD removal have been observed for most of these samples only by decreasing 0.5-2 pH value. The results indicated that a modified coagulation process without need to much increasing the amount of coagulant can be developed for these water samples.

  2. Effect of modifying process on mechanical properties of EN AC-43300 silumin cast into sand moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Significance of alloy modification in course of casting process is the most explicitly visible on example of Al-Si alloys. Broad application of these alloys in foundry industry has become possible after invention of a method which changes solidification form of Al-Si eutectic mixture. Such primarily thick, acicular shape of silicon crystals becomes changed into fine and compact structure due to introduction of a small quantity of modifier to liquid alloy. The paper presents an attempt of assessment of melting and modification with strontium effects on mechanical properties of EN AC-43300 alloy cast into sand moulds. Obtained results concern selection of optimal quantity of strontium additive in aspect of obtained mechanical properties (Rm, A5, KCV, HB. Effect of strontium additive on change of mechanical properties of the investigated alloy was presented in graphical form. Further investigations shall be connected with determination of an effect of strontium additive on mechanical properties of the alloy after solution heat treatment and ageing treatment.

  3. Catalytic performance of heteroatom-modified carbon nanotubes in advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    João Restivo; Raquel P. Rocha; Adrián M. T. Silva; José J. M. Órfão; Manuel F. R. Pereira; José L. Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were submitted to chemical and thermal treatments in or-der to incorporate different heteroatoms on the surface. O-, S-and N-containing groups were suc-cessfully introduced onto the CNTs without significant changes of the textural properties. The cata-lytic activity of these heteroatom-modified CNTs was studied in two liquid phase oxidation pro-cesses:catalytic ozonation and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), using oxalic acid and phenol as model compounds. In both cases, the presence of strongly acidic O-containing groups was found to decrease the catalytic activity of the CNTs. On the other hand, the introduction of S species (mainly sulfonic acids) enhanced the removal rate of the model compounds, particularly in the CWAO of phenol. Additional experiments were performed with a radical scavenger and sodium persulfate, in order to clarify the reaction mechanism. Nitrogen functionalities improve the catalytic performance of the original CNTs, regardless of the process or of the pollutant.

  4. Facile and Controlled Synthesis of Silica Sol Nanospheres Through a Modified Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; CHEN Lianxi; ZHANG Zhongming; JIAO Caibin

    2014-01-01

    An effective and reproducible preparation of silica sol nanospheres via a modified sol-gel process has been described. Monodisperse and stable silica sol nanospheres with uniformsize were successfully obtained through the optimized synthesis in which the mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ethanol was followed by the addition of water and ammonium hydroxide (NH3) separately, and the size of silica sol spheres was strictly controlled in the range of 25-119 nm with a narrow size distribution by fine adjustment of several reaction parameters. Results showed that in the presence of low concentration of TEOS, spheres size rose first and reached maximum when H2O concentration was up to 66 g/L. However, the diameter of silica sol spheres decreased above 66 g/L of H2O concentration. Furthermore, it was also found that the size and size distribution of silica sol nanospheres were affected by NH3 concentration. As NH3 concentration increased from 15 to 35 g/L, the diameter declined from 83 to 64 nm. Nevertheless, higher NH3 concentration would result in relatively broad size distribution, and gelation occurred when NH3 concentration reached 44 g/L. In addition, the effect of the different feed rates of NH3 on the size growth of silica sol nanospheres was also discussed.

  5. Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Sergej; Podgornik, Ales; Cankar, Katarina; Cadet, Neza; Skrt, Mihaela; Zel, Jana; Raspor, Peter

    2005-02-11

    The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pretreated corn meal were chosen as model food. Two commercially available CIM disk columns were tested: DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) and QA (quaternary amine). Preliminary separations were performed with standard solution of salmon DNA at different pH values and different NaCl concentrations in mobile phase. DEAE groups and pH 8 were chosen for further isolations of DNA from a complex matrix-food extract. The quality and quantity of isolated DNA were tested on agarose gel electrophoresis, with UV-scanning spectrophotometry, and by amplification with real-time PCR. DNA isolated in this way was of suitable quality for further PCR analyses. The described method is also applicable for DNA isolation from processed foods with decreased DNA content. Furthermore, it is more effective and less time-consuming in comparison with the existing proposed methods for isolation of DNA from plant-derived foods.

  6. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights.

  7. Self-organization processes in polysiloxane block copolymers, initiated by modifying fullerene additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznyakovskii, A. P.; Kudoyarova, V. Kh.; Kudoyarov, M. F.; Patrova, M. Ya.

    2017-08-01

    Thin films of a polyblock polysiloxane copolymer and their composites with a modifying fullerene C60 additive are studied by atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and neutron scattering. The data of atomic force microscopy show that with the addition of fullerene to the bulk of the polymer matrix, the initial relief of the film surface is leveled more, the larger the additive. This trend is associated with the processes of self-organization of rigid block sequences, which are initiated by the field effect of the surface of fullerene aggregates and lead to an increase in the number of their domains in the bulk of the polymer matrix. The data of Rutherford backscattering and neutron scattering indicate the formation of additional structures with a radius of 60 nm only in films containing fullerene, and their fraction increases with increasing fullerene concentration. A comparative analysis of the data of these methods has shown that such structures are, namely, the domains of a rigid block and are not formed by individual fullerene aggregates. The interrelation of the structure and mechanical properties of polymer films is considered.

  8. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  9. Modified biopolymers as sorbents for the removal of naphthenic acids from oil sands process affected water (OSPW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad; Khosa, M A; Siddique, Tariq; Ullah, Aman

    2016-11-01

    Oil sands operations consume large volumes of water in bitumen extraction process and produce tailings that express pore water to the surface of tailings ponds known as oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). The OSPW is toxic and cannot be released into the environment without treatment. In addition to metals, dissolved solids, dissolved gases, hydrocarbons and polyaromatic compounds etc., OSPW also contains a complex mixture of dissolved organic acids, referred to as naphthenic acids (NAs). The NAs are highly toxic and react with metals to develop highly corrosive functionalities which cause corrosion in the oil sands processing and refining processes. We have chemically modified keratin biopolymer using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) nanocages and goethite dopant to unfold keratinous structure for improving functionality. The untreated neat keratin and two modified sorbents were characterized to investigate structural, morphological, dimensional and thermal properties. These sorbents were then tested for the removal of NAs from OSPW. The NAs were selectively extracted and quantified before and after sorption process. The biosorption capacity (Q), rejection percentage (R%) and isotherm models were studied to investigate NAs removal efficiency of POSS modified keratin biopolymer (PMKB) and goethite modified keratin biopolymer (GMKB) from aliquots of OSPW.

  10. Effect of processing methods on the mechanical properties of natural rubber filled with stearic acid modified soy protein particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber was reinforced with stearic acid modified soy protein particles prepared with a microfluidizing and ball milling process. Longer ball milling time tends to increase tensile strength of the rubber composites. Elastic modulus of the composites increased with the increasing filler concen...

  11. Patients' considerations in the decision-making process of initiating disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nota, Ingrid; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Taal, Erik; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore what considerations patients have when deciding about disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and what information patients need to participate in the decision-making process. Methods In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 inflammatory arthritis patien

  12. Modified random errors S-iterative process for stochastic fixed point theorems in a generalized convex metric space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plern Saipara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest the modified random S-iterative process and prove the common random fixed point theorems of a finite family of random uniformly quasi-Lipschitzian operators in a generalized convex metric space. Our results improves and extends various results in the literature.

  13. High oxygen and high carbon dioxide modified atmospheres for shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.; Slump, R.A.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The impact of high O2 + high CO2 modified atmospheres (MA), on the preservation of minimally processed carrots was studied. A combination of 50% O2 + 30% CO2 prolonged the shelf life of sliced carrots compared to storage in air by 2 to 3 d. When the carrots received a pre-treatment with a 0.1%

  14. Students' Attitudes, Self-Efficacy and Experiences in a Modified Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Undergraduate Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnumolakala, Venkat Rao; Southam, Daniel C.; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro; Qureshi, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    This one-semester, mixed methods study underpinning social cognition and theory of planned behaviour investigated the attitudes, self-efficacy, and experiences of 559 first year undergraduate chemistry students from two cohorts in modified process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) classes. Versions of attitude toward the study of chemistry…

  15. High oxygen and high carbon dioxide modified atmospheres for shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.; Slump, R.A.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The impact of high O2 + high CO2 modified atmospheres (MA), on the preservation of minimally processed carrots was studied. A combination of 50% O2 + 30% CO2 prolonged the shelf life of sliced carrots compared to storage in air by 2 to 3 d. When the carrots received a pre-treatment with a 0.1% citri

  16. Improving the quality of patchouli oil by adsorption process using surfactant modified of natural zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntari, Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Wiyantoko, Bayu; Kurniawati, Puji; Prasetyoko, Didik; Suprapto

    2017-03-01

    This research concerns with the development of natural material i.e. natural zeolite. Natural zeolite were modified by surfactant treatment. Material modification has been done using cetyltrimethyllammonium bromide as cationic surfactant for mesopore template. The physicochemical characters of natural material modified and unmodified was investigated by using XRD, FTIR, nitrogen physisorption, and SEM-EDX. The XRD was used to show crystallinity structure of natural material modified and unmodified. Surfactant treatment caused decreasing crystallinity of natural zeolite. The FTIR spectra showed characteristic peaks for natural zeolite modified and unmodified, the bands around 3400-3500 cm-1 and 1635-1641 cm-1 correspond to adsorbed water and bands around finger print area were characteristic for silica and alumina. Meanwhile physisorption nitrogen profiles gave information that the pore modification by surfactant. The morphologies of natural material modified and unmodified as well as chemical composition of the particles were shown by SEM-EDX. The usage of modified material decrease acidity number into 19.47% than unmodified material, which is 7,62%. The GC analysis showed that percentage of patchouli alcohol increases and new peaks were not identified indicated there was not any reaction appeared.

  17. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND pH OF MODIFICATION PROCESS ON THE PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED CASSAVA STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Wicaksono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of cassava starch for excipient in the manufacturing of the tablet has some problems, especially on physical-mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the differentness of temperature and pH in the process of modification on the physical-mechanical properties of modified cassava starch. Modifications were performed by suspending cassava starch into a solution of 3 % (w/v PVP K30. The effect of the difference of temperature was observed at temperatures of 25; 45 and 65 0C, while the effect of the difference of pH was observed at pH of 4.0; 7.0 and 12.0. The results showed that the temperature and pH did not affect the physical-mechanical properties of the modified cassava starch. Modification of cassava starch at pH and temperature of 7.0 and 45 0C was produced modified cassava starch with the most excellent solubility, while the best swelling power were formed by the modification process at pH and temperature of 7.0 and 25 0C. Overall, the most excellent compression properties of modified cassava starch resulted from the modification process at pH 12.

  18. Adsorption of aluminum and lead from wastewater by chitosan-tannic acid modified biopolymers: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and process mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, M A; Negm, N A; Abou Kana, M T H; Hefni, H H; Abdel Moneem, M M

    2017-06-01

    Chitosan was reacted by tannic acid to obtain three modified chitosan biopolymer. Their chemical structures were characterized by FTIR and elemental analysis. The prepared biopolymers were used to adsorb Al(III) and Pb(II) metal ions from industrial wastewater. The factors affecting the adsorption process were biosorbent amount, initial concentration of metal ion and pH of the medium. The adsorption efficiency increased considerably with the increase of the biosorbent amount and pH of the medium. The adsorption process of biosorbent on different metal ions was fitted by Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption kinetics was followed Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process occurred according to diffusion mechanism which was confirmed by the interparticle diffusion model. The modified biopolymers were efficient biosorbents for removal of Pb(II) and Al(III) metal ions from the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Constraining the processes modifying the surfaces of the classical Uranian satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Richard J.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2016-10-01

    emplacement. We will present work related to our goals of constraining the processes modifying the surfaces of the classical Uranian moons.

  20. Establishing a risk-assessment process for release of genetically modified wine yeast into the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Heidi; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Botha, Alfred; van Rensburg, Pierre; Pretorius, Isak S

    2009-08-01

    The use and release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is an issue of intense public concern and, in the case of food and beverages, products containing GMOs or products thereof carry the risk of consumer rejection. The recent commercialization of 2 GM wine yeasts in the United States and Canada has made research and development of risk assessments for GM microorganisms a priority. The purpose of this study was to take a first step in establishing a risk-assessment process for future use and potential release of GM wine yeasts into the environment. The behaviour and spread of a GM wine yeast was monitored in saturated sand columns, saturated sand flow cells, and conventional flow cells. A widely used commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast, VIN13, a VIN13 transgenic strain (LKA1, which carries the LKA1 alpha-amylase gene of Lipomyces kononenkoae), a soil bacterium (Dyadobacter fermentens), and a nonwine soil-borne yeast (Cryptococcus laurentii) were compared in laboratory-scale microcosm systems designed to monitor microbial mobility behaviour, survival, and attachment to surfaces. It was found that LKA1 cells survived in saturated sand columns, but showed little mobility in the porous matrix, suggesting that the cells attached with high efficiency to sand. There was no significant difference between the mobility patterns of LKA1 and VIN13. All 3 yeasts (VIN13, LKA1, and C. laurentii) were shown to form stable biofilms; the 2 S. cerevisiae strains either had no difference in biofilm density or the LKA1 biofilm was less dense than that of VIN13. When co-inoculated with C. laurentii, LKA1 had no negative influence on the breakthrough of the Cryptococcus yeast in a sand column or on its ability to form biofilms. In addition, LKA1 did not successfully integrate into a stable mixed-biofilm community, nor did it disrupt the biofilm community. Overall, it was concluded that the LKA1 transgenic yeast had the same reproductive success as VIN13 in these 3

  1. Adsorption-regeneration by heterogeneous Fenton process using modified carbon and clay materials for removal of indigo blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Sánchez, Perla Tatiana; Solache-Ríos, Marcos J; Linares-Hernández, Ivonne; Martínez-Miranda, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Indigo blue dye is mainly used in dyeing of denim clothes and its presence in water bodies could have adverse effects on the aquatic system; for this reason, the objective of this study was to promote the removal of indigo blue dye from aqueous solutions by iron and copper electrochemically modified clay and activated carbon and the saturated materials were regenerated by a Fenton-like process. Montmorillonite clay was modified at pH 2 and 7; activated carbon at pH 2 and pH of the system. The elemental X-ray dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the optimum pH for modification of montmorillonite with iron and copper was 7 and for activated carbon was 2. The dye used in this work was characterized by infrared. Unmodified and modified clay samples showed the highest removal efficiencies of the dye (90-100%) in the pH interval from 2 to 10 whereas the removal efficiencies decrease as pH increases for samples modified at pH 2. Unmodified clay and copper-modified activated carbon at pH 2 were the most efficient activated materials for the removal of the dye. The adsorption kinetics data of all materials were best adjusted to the pseudo-second-order model, indicating a chemisorption mechanism and the adsorption isotherms data showed that the materials have a heterogeneous surface. The iron-modified clay could be regenerated by a photo-Fenton-like process through four adsorption-regeneration cycles, with 90% removal efficiency.

  2. Effects of genetically modified plants on microbial communities and processes in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs) has been a topic of considerable public debate in recent years. GMPs hold great promise for improving agricultural output, but the potential for unwanted effects of GMP use is still not fully understood. The majority of studies addressing

  3. Estimating and determining the effect of a therapy on tumor dynamics by means of a modified Gompertz diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Giuseppina; Giorno, Virginia; Román-Román, Patricia; Román-Román, Sergio; Torres-Ruiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A modified Gompertz diffusion process is considered to model tumor dynamics. The infinitesimal mean of this process includes non-homogeneous terms describing the effect of therapy treatments able to modify the natural growth rate of the process. Specifically, therapies with an effect on cell growth and/or cell death are assumed to modify the birth and death parameters of the process. This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the time-dependent functions representing the effect of a therapy when one of the functions is known or can be previously estimated. This is the case of therapies that are jointly applied, when experimental data are available from either an untreated control group or from groups treated with single and combined therapies. Moreover, this procedure allows us to establish the nature (or, at least, the prevalent effect) of a single therapy in vivo. To accomplish this, we suggest a criterion based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence (or relative entropy). Some simulation studies are performed and an application to real data is presented.

  4. Investigation of aging processes of graphite tubes modified with iridium and rhodium used for atomic spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulska, Ewa; Piaścik, Marek; Katskov, Dmitri; Darangwa, Nicholas; Grotti, Marco

    2007-11-01

    UV spectrometry (187-380 nm) with charge coupled device (CCD) detection was used to study the evolution of absorption spectra during the vaporization of various species in the pyrocoated graphite furnace, with electrodeposited Ir and Rh as modifiers. In order to mimic a typical matrix composition, various salts of aluminum, manganese, copper, magnesium, sodium, and lead were used in microgram amounts. Changes in spectra and vapor release rate, along with aging of the tubes in the repetitive temperature cycles, were observed. Compared to the unmodified pyrocoated tubes, the presence of Ir or Rh causes a significant reduction in the vaporization efficiency, especially for microgram amounts of copper and aluminum introduced as nitrates, and manganese introduced as a sulfate. The vaporization efficiency, for magnesium and sodium as chlorides, and for lead as a sulfate, remained unchanged. Interestingly, the aging of the tubes was accompanied by partial restoration of the spectral characteristics for unmodified tubes. For example, with unmodified pyrocoated tubes, the vaporization spectrum, appearing as a consequence of the decomposition of aluminum nitrate, consisted of Al2O bands overlapped by Al atomic lines. In the freshly modified tubes, intensities of those lines and bands were substantially reduced, and in this case, the dominance of AlO molecules was observed. The efficiency of vaporization of aluminum species increased in the aged modified tubes. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the modified surfaces for the new and aged tubes indicated that aging of the tubes is accompanied by the destruction of the pyrocoating, formation of pyrographite shells around the areas where the modifier was electrodeposited, and finally, complete substitution of the metal on the graphite surface by pyrographite debris.

  5. Pt-Ru Catalysts Prepared by a Modified Polyol Process for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junmin; ZHU Fangfang; ZHANG Kunhua; LIU Weiping; GUAN Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Supported PtRu/C catalysts used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) were prepared by a new modified polyol method.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammograms (CVs) were carried out to characterize the morphology,composition and the electrochemical properties of the PtRu/C catalyst.The results revealed that the PtRu nanoparticles with small average particle size (≈2.5 nm),and highly dispersed on the carbon support.The PtRu/C catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity and anti-poisoned performance than that of the JM PtRu/C.It is imply that the modified polyol method is efficient for PtRu/C catalyst preparation.

  6. Process for modifying the architecture and improving the yield of crop plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo, Enrique; Sanmartín, Maite; Sánchez Serrano, José J.

    2011-01-01

    This invention identifies the plant MINIYO (IYO) gene and the AtRTR1 gene which are essential for the initiation of cell differentiation in all plant meristems and in embryogenesis. This invention relates methods for generating transgenic plants in which expression of the IYO and/or At RTR1 genes or their orthologous genes is modified to advancing or delaying the onset of differentiation in one or more meristems of the plant.

  7. Study of the adsorption and electroadsorption process of Cu (II) ions within thermally and chemically modified activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-García, A; Gómez Corzo, M; Alfaro Domínguez, M; Alexandre Franco, M; Martínez Naharro, J

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this work is to modify the porous texture and superficial groups of a commercial activated carbon through chemical and thermal treatment and subsequently study the kinetics of adsorption and electroadsorption of Cu (II) ion for these carbons. Samples of three activated carbons were used. These were a commercial activated carbon, commercial activated carbon modified thermically (C-N2-900) and finally commercial activated carbon modified chemically C-SO2-H2S-200. The activated carbons were characterized chemically and texturally and the electrical conductivity of them determined. Different kinetic models were applied. The kinetics of the adsorption and electroadsorption process of the Cu (II) ion fits a pseudo second order model and the most likely mechanism takes place in two stages. A first step through transfer of the metal mass through the boundary layer of the adsorbent and distribution of the Cu (II) on the external surface of the activated carbon and a second step that represents intraparticle diffusion and joining of the Cu (II) with the active centres of the activated carbon. Finally, the kinetics of the adsorption process are faster than the kinetics of the electroadsorption but the percentage of the Cu (II) ion retained is much higher in the electroadsorption process.

  8. Involvement of the modifier gene of a human Mendelian disorder in a negative selection process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jéru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of modifier genes and characterization of their effects represent major challenges in human genetics. SAA1 is one of the few modifiers identified in humans: this gene influences the risk of renal amyloidosis (RA in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, a Mendelian autoinflammatory disorder associated with mutations in MEFV. Indeed, the SAA1 alpha homozygous genotype and the p.Met694Val homozygous genotype at the MEFV locus are two main risk factors for RA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HERE, WE INVESTIGATED ARMENIAN FMF PATIENTS AND CONTROLS FROM TWO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES: Armenia, where RA is frequent (24%, and Karabakh, where RA is rare (2.5%. Sequencing of MEFV revealed similar frequencies of p.Met694Val homozygotes in the two groups of patients. However, a major deficit of SAA1 alpha homozygotes was found among Karabakhian patients (4% as compared to Armenian patients (24% (p = 5.10(-5. Most importantly, we observed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE in the two groups of patients, and unexpectedly, in opposite directions, whereas, in the two control populations, genotype distributions at this locus were similar and complied with (HWE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The excess of SAA1alpha homozygotes among Armenian patients could be explained by the recruitment of patients with severe phenotypes. In contrast, a population-based study revealed that the deficit of alpha/alpha among Karabakhian patients would result from a negative selection against carriers of this genotype. This study, which provides new insights into the role of SAA1 in the pathophysiology of FMF, represents the first example of deviations from HWE and selection involving the modifier gene of a Mendelian disorder.

  9. Use of Ligand-based Iron Complexes for Phenol Degradation by Fenton Modified Process

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of phenol degradation by the iron complexes ([Fe(TBMA)Cl33H2O] and [Fe(terpy)Cl2]) is compared with that of the Fenton reaction. The results show that although the Fenton reaction efficiently oxidizes phenol at low pHs, the Fenton modified reagents (iron complexes/H2O2) effectively oxidize phenol at neutral pH. Besides, the factorial designingstudy is performed by considering three independent variables: (i) [Fe] (A), (ii) pH (B), and (iii) [H2O2] (C). For the Fenton re...

  10. Preparation of Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) Modified Tungsten Oxide Hybrid Films via Sol-Gel Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Poly (ethylene axide) (PEO) modified WO3 thin films were prepared on glass substrates with special temperature.The sol-gel transition proess was investigated by using DTA-TG,SEM and XRD.The electrochemical characteristic of the films was studied by cyclic voltmmetry measurement.The results show that PEO has heavy effects on the crystallization of WO3 during structure evolution because of the interaction between PEO and WO3.It increases the crystallization temperature of the gels and thus improves the electrochemical properties and cyclic life of WO3 film as electrochromic materials.

  11. Denoising performance of modified dual-tree complex wavelet transform for processing quadrature embolic Doppler signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbes, Gorkem; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2014-01-01

    Quadrature signals are dual-channel signals obtained from the systems employing quadrature demodulation. Embolic Doppler ultrasound signals obtained from stroke-prone patients by using Doppler ultrasound systems are quadrature signals caused by emboli, which are particles bigger than red blood cells within circulatory system. Detection of emboli is an important step in diagnosing stroke. Most widely used parameter in detection of emboli is embolic signal-to-background signal ratio. Therefore, in order to increase this ratio, denoising techniques are employed in detection systems. Discrete wavelet transform has been used for denoising of embolic signals, but it lacks shift invariance property. Instead, dual-tree complex wavelet transform having near-shift invariance property can be used. However, it is computationally expensive as two wavelet trees are required. Recently proposed modified dual-tree complex wavelet transform, which reduces the computational complexity, can also be used. In this study, the denoising performance of this method is extensively evaluated and compared with the others by using simulated and real quadrature signals. The quantitative results demonstrated that the modified dual-tree-complex-wavelet-transform-based denoising outperforms the conventional discrete wavelet transform with the same level of computational complexity and exhibits almost equal performance to the dual-tree complex wavelet transform with almost half computational cost.

  12. Degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab during food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2014-05-01

    In order to assess the degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes during food processing, genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab was used as raw material to produce 4 processed foods: steamed rice, rice noodles, rice crackers, and sweet rice wine. The results showed various processing procedures caused different degrees of degradation of both endogenous and exogenous genes. During the processing of steamed rice and rice noodles, the procedures were so mild that only genes larger than 1500 bp were degraded, and no degradation of NOS terminator and Hpt gene was detected. For rice crackers, frying was the most severe procedure, followed by microwaving, baking, boiling, 1st drying, and 2nd drying. For sweet rice wine, fermentation had more impact on degradation of genes than the other processing procedures. All procedures in this study did not lead to degradation of genes to below 200 bp, except for NOS terminator. In the case of stability of the genes studied during processing of rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS gene was the most, followed by the Cry1Ab gene, Hpt gene, Pubi promoter, and NOS terminator. In our study, we gained some information about the degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes during 4 foods processing, compared the different stabilities between endogenous and exogenous genes, and analyzed different effects of procedure on degradation of genes. In addition, the fragments of endogenous and exogenous genes about 200 bp could be detected in final products, except NOS terminator. As a result, we provided some base information about risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) food and appropriate length of fragment to detect GM component in processed foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Effect of modified atmosphere applied to minimally processed radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. submitted to different sanitizing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana de Moura Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of minimally processed radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. was evaluated under modified atmosphere (2% O2, 5% CO2, and 93% N2 on 3, 5, 7 and 10 days of storage at 5°C. The samples were hygienized in sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide solutions to identify the most effective sanitizing solution to remove microorganisms. Microbiological analysis was conducted to identify the presence of coliforms at 35°C and 45°C, mesophilic microorganisms, and yeast and mold. Physicochemical analyses of mass loss, pH, soluble solids, and total acidity were conducted. The color measurements were performed using a Portable Colorimeter model CR-400. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic methods. The sensory evaluation was carried out using a hedonic scale to test overall acceptance of the samples during storage. The sodium hypochlorite (150 mg.L-1 solution provided greater safety to the final product. The values of pH ranged from 6.17 to 6.25, total acidity from 0.405 to 0.435%, soluble solids from 0.5 to 0.6 °Brix, mass loss from 1.7 to 7.2%, and chlorophyll from 1.068 to 0.854 mg/100g. The antioxidant activity of radicchio did not show significant changes during the first 3 days of storage. The overall acceptance of the sample stored in the sealed package without modified atmosphere was 70%, while the fresh sample was obtained 77% of approval. Although the samples packaged under modified atmosphere had a higher acceptance score, the samples in sealed packages had satisfactory results during the nine days of storage. The use of modified atmosphere, combined with cooling and good manufacturing practices, was sufficient to prolong the life of minimally processed radicchio, Folha Larga cultivar, for up to ten days of storage.

  14. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  15. Modified method of splitting with respect to physical processes for solving radiation gas dynamics equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, N. Ya.

    2017-02-01

    An approach based on a modified splitting method is proposed for solving the radiation gas dynamics equations in the multigroup kinetic approximation. The idea of the approach is that the original system of equations is split using the thermal radiation transfer equation rather than the energy equation. As a result, analytical methods can be used to solve integrodifferential equations and problems can be computed in the multigroup kinetic approximation without iteration with respect to the collision integral or matrix inversion. Moreover, the approach can naturally be extended to multidimensional problems. A high-order accurate difference scheme is constructed using an approximate Godunov solver for the Riemann problem in two-temperature gas dynamics.

  16. Pulsed-laser-deposited YBCO thin films using modified MTG processed targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C H; Kim, I T; Hahn, T S

    1999-01-01

    YBCO thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition from targets fabricated using the modified melt-textured growth (MTG) method and the solid-state sintering (SSS) method. All of the films showed c-axis orientations, but the films from the MTG targets had better crystallinity than those from the SSS targets. As the substrate temperature was increased, T sub c and J sub c of the films increased. The films from the MTG targets showed better superconducting properties than those from the SSS targets. From the composition analysis of the targets, the Y-richer vapor species arriving at the substrate from the MTG targets are thought to form a thermodynamically more stable YBCO phase with less cation disorder.

  17. Performance evaluation of a modified step-feed anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process for organic and nutrient removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R. Majdi Nasab; S.M. Soleymani; M. Nosrati; S.M. Mousavi

    2016-01-01

    A pilot scale modified step-feed process was improved to increase nutrient (N and P) and organic removal operations from municipal wastewater. It combined the step-feed process and a method named“University of Cape Town (UCT)”. The effect of nutrient ratios and inflow distribution ratios were studied. The highest uptake efficiency of 95%for chemical oxygen demand (COD) has been achieved at the inflow distribution ratio of 40/35/25. However, maximum removal efficiency obtained for total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus at 93%and 78%, respectively. The average mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was 5500 mg·L−1. In addition, convenient values for dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, and pH were obtained throughout different stages. The proposed system was identified to be an appropriate enhanced biological nutrient removal process for wastewater treatment plants owing to relatively high nutrient removal, sturdy sludge settle ability and COD removal.

  18. Modified reconstruction algorithm based on space-time adaptive processing for multichannel synthetic aperture radar systems in azimuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojiang; Gao, Yesheng; Wang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xingzhao

    2016-07-01

    A spectrum reconstruction algorithm based on space-time adaptive processing (STAP) can effectively suppress azimuth ambiguity for multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems in azimuth. However, the traditional STAP-based reconstruction approach has to estimate the covariance matrix and calculate matrix inversion (MI) for each Doppler frequency bin, which will result in a very large computational load. In addition, the traditional STAP-based approach has to know the exact platform velocity, pulse repetition frequency, and array configuration. Errors involving these parameters will significantly degrade the performance of ambiguity suppression. A modified STAP-based approach to solve these problems is presented. The traditional array steering vectors and corresponding covariance matrices are Doppler-variant in the range-Doppler domain. After preprocessing by a proposed phase compensation method, they would be independent of Doppler bins. Therefore, the modified STAP-based approach needs to estimate the covariance matrix and calculate MI only once. The computation load could be greatly reduced. Moreover, by combining the reconstruction method and a proposed adaptive parameter estimation method, the modified method is able to successfully achieve multichannel SAR signal reconstruction and suppress azimuth ambiguity without knowing the above parameters. Theoretical analysis and experiments showed the simplicity and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  19. Evaluating Fidelity to a Modified NIATx Process Improvement Strategy for Improving HIV Services in Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Jennifer; Willett, Jennifer; Yang, Yang; Swan, Holly; Dembo, Richard; Burdon, William M; Patterson, Yvonne; Pearson, Frank S; Belenko, Steven; Frisman, Linda K

    2017-04-24

    In a study aimed at improving the quality of HIV services for inmates, an organizational process improvement strategy using change teams was tested in 14 correctional facilities in 8 US states and Puerto Rico. Data to examine fidelity to the process improvement strategy consisted of quantitative ratings of the structural and process components of the strategy and qualitative notes that explicate challenges in maintaining fidelity to the strategy. Fidelity challenges included (1) lack of communication and leadership within change teams, (2) instability in team membership, and (3) issues with data utilization in decision-making to implement improvements to services delivery.

  20. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  1. Zirconium and technetium recovery and partitioning in the presence of actinides in modified Purex process for ATW program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzekun, E.G.; Fedorov, Y.S.; Galkin, B.Y.; Lyubtsev, R.I.; Mashkin, A.N.; Mishin, E.N.; Zilberman, B.Y. [Radievyj Inst., Leningrad (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The modified Purex process flowsheet is based on combination of all irradiated materials, their joint dissolution and reprocessing as a NPP spent fuel solution with abnormal Pu content after addition of recycled depleted U concentrate. Some groups of long-lived radionuclides could be completely recovered and localized at the stage of extraction reprocessing using 30% TBP. Studies were conducted for 10 y to develop the process for recovery, concentration, and localization of U, Pu, Np, Tc, and Zr within 1st extraction cycle. Actinides are recovered from high-level raffinate of this cycle after evaporation and feed adjustment. Results in this report show that combined deep recovery of several elements from highly irradiated materials by TBP extraction, for further transmutation, is possible. Selective stripping of Zr from solvent phase containing U, Pu, Np, and Tc is quite effective. Development of the modified Purex process is not complete; main problem to be solved should be oxide separation from the loop and permissible storage duration before reprocessing and reuse in the loop.

  2. Synthesis of Nb-doped SrTiO3 by a modified glycine-nitrate process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Wallenberg, L.R.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to develop a technique to synthesize submicronic particles of Nb-doped strontium titanate with a homogeneous composition. This was achieved by a modified glycine-nitrate process, using Ti-lactate, Nb-oxalate, and Sr(NO3)(2) as starting materials......, and the uniformity of heating during the thermal dehydration step were found to have significant influence on the final phase purity of the material. Calcination at 1100 degrees C in 7% H-2 in N-2 produced single phase Nb-doped strontium titanate with grain sizes of about 100 nm in diameter on average. (c) 2007...

  3. APPRAISAL OF FINAL TAILINGS APPLICABILITY FOR PROCESSING AND PRODUCTION OF MODIFIERS OF IRON-CARBON ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Panasugin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of rating of the galvanic final tailings applicability for further processing in the interests of needs of metallurgical production of the Republic Belarus is offered.

  4. End Uses Mechanical Properties Settled By The Modified Sintering Conditions Of The Metal Injection Molding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marray, Tarek; Jaccquet, Philippe; Moinard-Checot, Delphine; Fabre, Agnès; Barrallier, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Most common mechanical applications require parts with specific properties as hard faced features. It is well known that treating parts under suitable atmospheres may improve hardness and strength yield of steels. Heat treatment process and more particularly thermo-chemical diffusion processes (such as carburizing or its variation: carbonitriding) can be performed to reach the industrial hardness profile requirements. In this work, a low-alloyed steel feedstock based on water soluble binder system is submitted to the MIM process steps (including injection molding, debinding and sintering). As-sintered parts are then treated under a low pressure carbonitriding treatment. This contribution focuses on preliminary results such as microstructural analyses and mechanical properties which are established at each stage of the process to determine and monitor changes.

  5. Towards a commercial process for the manufacture of genetically modified T cells for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A D; Assenmacher, M; Schröder, B; Meyer, M; Orentas, R; Bethke, U; Dropulic, B

    2015-03-01

    The recent successes of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies have highlighted the need for manufacturing processes that are robust and scalable for product commercialization. Here we review some of the more outstanding issues surrounding commercial scale manufacturing of personalized-adoptive T-cell medicinal products. These include closed system operations, improving process robustness and simplifying work flows, reducing labor intensity by implementing process automation, scalability and cost, as well as appropriate testing and tracking of products, all while maintaining strict adherence to Current Good Manufacturing Practices and regulatory guidelines. A decentralized manufacturing model is proposed, where in the future patients' cells could be processed at the point-of-care in the hospital.

  6. P/M Processing of Rare Earth Modified High Strength Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    poder of Hat 971(0.43%Ce) 164 * - ’-’ ~ ~ ~ --- (a) Magnification, 10OX (b) Magnification, 100OX Figure 6. SEM photographs of hydrogen gas atomized...earth elements was made by the RSR atomization process at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, Government Products Division , while another RSR heat of 4340...powders with characteristics similar to RSR powders, This process was developed by Universal-Cyclops Specialty Steel Division , Cyclops Corporation, as

  7. Preparation of surface-modified ZnO quantum dots through an ultrasound assisted sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghaddam, E, E-mail: e.moghaddam@merc.ac.ir; Youzbashi, AA; Kazemzadeh, A; Eshraghi, MJ

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Surface-modified ZnO QDs could be synthesized through a simple method. • The surface-modified ZnO QDs can be used in organic–inorganic hybrid materials. • The use of ultrasonic bath could result in the pure and more crystalline ZnO QDs. • Effective grafting of the capping agent was created to the surface of ZnO QDs. - Abstract: A synthetic process of zinc oxide quantum dots (QDs) is presented. It is based on a sol–gel process, carried out in an ultrasonic bath. It allows the formation of the stable colloids, containing surface-modified ZnO QDs with the aid of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as a capping agent. For this purpose, alcoholic solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate and potassium hydroxide were used as the reactants. Effect of KOH concentration, ultrasonic irradiation, and also the presence of capping agent on the characteristics of the final product were investigated. The synthesized samples were characterized by various analytical techniques such as XRD, TEM, FT-IR, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed the direct formation of hexagonal wurtzite nanocrystals with average size of ∼3 nm confirmed by TEM and UV–vis spectroscopy. The PL spectroscopy indicated the influence of the capping agent on reducing the defects formation during the growth of the QDs. The present synthesis method was found to be a cost-effective and simple solution route for producing pure semiconductor ZnO QDs, exhibiting the quantum confinement effects, suitable for optical and optoelectronic applications.

  8. Assessment of DNA degradation induced by thermal and UV radiation processing: implications for quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, Rajashekhar V; Martin, Asha

    2013-12-01

    DNA quality is an important parameter for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO's) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Food processing leads to degradation of DNA, which may impair GMO detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of various processing treatments such as heating, baking, microwaving, autoclaving and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the relative transgenic content of MON 810 maize using pRSETMON-02, a dual target plasmid as a model system. Amongst all the processing treatments examined, autoclaving and UV irradiation resulted in the least recovery of the transgenic (CaMV 35S promoter) and taxon-specific (zein) target DNA sequences. Although a profound impact on DNA degradation was seen during the processing, DNA could still be reliably quantified by Real-time PCR. The measured mean DNA copy number ratios of the processed samples were in agreement with the expected values. Our study confirms the premise that the final analytical value assigned to a particular sample is independent of the degree of DNA degradation since the transgenic and the taxon-specific target sequences possessing approximately similar lengths degrade in parallel. The results of our study demonstrate that food processing does not alter the relative quantification of the transgenic content provided the quantitative assays target shorter amplicons and the difference in the amplicon size between the transgenic and taxon-specific genes is minimal.

  9. Modified Range-Doppler Processing for FM-CW Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of compact frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) technology and high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing techniques should pave the way for the development of a lightweight, cost-effective, high-resolution, airborne imaging radar. Regarding FM-CW SAR signal pro

  10. Developmental Changes in Children’s Processing of Redundant Modifiers in Definite Object Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, Ruud; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates developmental changes in children’s processing of redundant information in definite object descriptions. In two experiments, children of two age groups (6 or 7, and 9 or 10 years old) were presented with pictures of sweets. In the first experiment (pairwise comparison), two i

  11. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the...

  12. Combining a modified vector field histogram algorithm and real-time image processing for unknown environment navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Kumud; Fine, Adam; Imam, Nabil; Pietrocola, David; Robertson, Neil; Ahlgren, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Q is an unmanned ground vehicle designed to compete in the Autonomous and Navigation Challenges of the AUVSI Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). Built on a base platform of a modified PerMobil Trax off-road wheel chair frame, and running off a Dell Inspiron D820 laptop with an Intel t7400 Core 2 Duo Processor, Q gathers information from a SICK laser range finder (LRF), video cameras, differential GPS, and digital compass to localize its behavior and map out its navigational path. This behavior is handled by intelligent closed loop speed control and robust sensor data processing algorithms. In the Autonomous challenge, data taken from two IEEE 1394 cameras and the LRF are integrated and plotted on a custom-defined occupancy grid and converted into a histogram which is analyzed for openings between obstacles. The image processing algorithm consists of a series of steps involving plane extraction, normalizing of the image histogram for an effective dynamic thresholding, texture and morphological analysis and particle filtering to allow optimum operation at varying ambient conditions. In the Navigation Challenge, a modified Vector Field Histogram (VFH) algorithm is combined with an auto-regressive path planning model for obstacle avoidance and better localization. Also, Q features the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS) Level 3 compliance. All algorithms are developed and implemented using National Instruments (NI) hardware and LabVIEW software. The paper will focus on explaining the various algorithms that make up Q's intelligence and the different ways and modes of their implementation.

  13. Structural and electrical properties of microwave processed Ag modified KNN-LS ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palei, Prakash; Kumar, Pawan; Agrawal, Dinesh K

    2012-01-01

    Microwave processing steps of 0.95[(K0.5Na0.5)0.94Ag0.06NbO3]-0.05[LiSbO3]/(KNAN-LS) lead free ferroelectric ceramics were optimized for better densification and electrical properties. Calcination temperature and time for single perovskite phase formation were optimized and found to be 850 degrees C for 60 min., respectively. Crystal structural study revealed the presence of mixed structure in the microwave processed (MWP) KNAN-LS ceramics. The sintering of the KNAN-LS ceramics was carried out at 1080 degrees C for 10 min, 20 min and 30 min, respectively, and the sample sintered for 20 min exhibited best properties.

  14. Liquid composite molding-processing and characterization of fiber-reinforced composites modified with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, R.; Khalid, U.; Kuttner, C.; Kothmann, M.; Dijkstra, D. J.; Fery, A.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The increasing demand in fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) necessitates economic processing of high quality, like the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. FRPs exhibit excellent in-plane properties but weaknesses in off-plane direction. The addition of nanofillers into the resinous matrix phase embodies a promising approach due to benefits of the nano-scaled size of the filler, especially its high surface and interface areas. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are preferable candidates for resin modification in regard of their excellent mechanical properties and high aspect ratios. However, especially the high aspect ratios give rise to withholding or filtering by fibrous fabrics during the impregnation process, i.e. length dependent withholding of tubes (short tubes pass through the fabric, while long tubes are restrained) and a decrease in the local CNT content in the laminate along the flow path can occur. In this study, hybrid composites containing endless glass fiber reinforcement and surface functionalized CNTs dispersed in the matrix phase were produced by VARTM. New methodologies for the quantification of the filtering of CNTs were developed and applied to test laminates. As a first step, a method to analyze the CNT length distribution before and after injection was established for thermosetting composites to characterize length dependent withholding of nanotubes. The used glass fiber fabric showed no perceptible length dependent retaining of CNTs. Afterward, the resulting test laminates were examined by Raman spectroscopy and compared to reference samples of known CNT content. This Raman based technique was developed further to assess the quality of the impregnation process and to quantitatively follow the local CNT content along the injection flow in cured composites. A local decline in CNT content of approx. 20% was observed. These methodologies allow for the quality control of the filler content and size-distribution in CNT based hybrid

  15. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, S L; Hall, W J; Steckler, A; Schneider, M; Thompson, D; Mobley, C; Pham, T; El ghormli, L

    2013-12-01

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the process evaluation findings concerning the extent to which the HEALTHY nutrition intervention was implemented during the HEALTHY trial. Overall, the observed fidelity of implementing nutrition strategies improved from baseline to the end of the study. By the last semester, all but two nutrition process evaluation goals were met. The most challenging goal to implement was serving high fiber foods, including grain-based foods and legumes. The easiest goals to implement were lowering the fat content of foods offered and offering healthier beverages. The most challenging barriers experienced by research dietitians and food service staff were costs, availability of foods and student acceptance. Forming strong relationships between the research dietitians and food service staff was identified as a key strategy to meet HEALTHY nutrition goals.

  16. Surface characterisation of Ti–15Mo alloy modified by a PEO process in various suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Dercz, Grzegorz [Institute of Materials Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pułku Piechoty Street 1 A, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Kalemba, Izabela [Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza Street 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Suchanek, Katarzyna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego Street 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Kukharenko, Andrey I.; Korotin, Danila M. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Michalska, Joanna [Faculty of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Silesian University of Technology, Krasińskiego Street 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland); Krząkała, Agnieszka; Piotrowski, Jerzy [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kurmaev, Ernst Z. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Cholakh, Seif O. [Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Simka, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.simka@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on the surface modification of a Ti–15Mo alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). This process was carried out in solutions of 0.1 M Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 2}){sub 2} with various concentrations of tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}), wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}), or silica (SiO{sub 2}) using voltages of up to 350 V. The surface microstructure (SEM, cross-section of coating), roughness and chemical composition (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thin layer X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy) of the porous oxide layers were investigated. The concentration of powder added to the solution changed the chemical composition and morphology of PEO coatings on the Ti–15Mo alloy surface. Calcium and phosphorous compounds were detected in the coatings formed on the substrate by the PEO process at 300 V. - Highlights: • Porous coatings were formed on β-type Ti–15Mo alloy by PEO process. • Bioactive compounds were incorporated into PEO coatings on the substrate. • Influence of PEO parameters on oxide layer properties was presented.

  17. The enhanced processing of visual novel events in females: ERP correlates from two modified three-stimulus oddball tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Xu, Shuang; Li, Chengqiang; Yang, Jiemin; Li, Hong; Yuan, Yin; Huang, Yu

    2012-02-09

    The ability to detect and cope with unpredictable novel events is fundamental for adapting to a rapidly changing environment and ensuring the survival of the organism. Despite knowledge of gender differences in emotional processing, little is currently known about the impact of gender on neural processing of emotion-irrelevant, novel stimuli. Using two modified three-stimulus oddball tasks and event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated the impact of sex on brain processing of novel events and the associated neurophysiological correlates. With novel and non-novel control stimuli used as task-irrelevant distracters, Experiment 1 showed higher novelty rating scores and larger size of novelty effects in brain potentials at 200-300 ms and 300-430 ms time intervals in females compared to males. After excluding the contribution of stimulus probability, Experiment 2 continued to display significant novelty effects in the response times and the amplitudes of the 130-500 ms time windows. Most importantly, females displayed a sustained novelty effect in the late positive component (LPC) amplitudes of the 500-600 ms interval, which was not observed in males. Therefore, Experiment 1 and 2 demonstrated that females are equipped with enhanced brain processing of emotion-irrelevant, novel stimuli. This phenomenon is independent of the established gender difference in infrequent stimulus processing. We suggest that our findings reflect the differential adaptive demands on females and males during evolution.

  18. Low Temperature Processing of Nanocrystalline Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Thick Films and Ceramics by a Modified Sol-Gel Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiguang; Wang, Zhihong; Zhao, Changlei; Tan, Ooi Kiang; Hng, Huey Hoon

    2002-11-01

    Dispersing fine particles into a sol-gel matrix is a promising process to get a thick 0-3 composite coating layer. In this paper, we have further improved this modified sol-gel process by nanocrystalline composite technique to realize the low temperature annealing. Dense Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thick films of 10 to 50 μm in thickness have been obtained on the platinum-coated silicon substrates by spin-coating at sintering temperature of 600-700°C and fully developed submicron-sized grains have been demonstrated in screen-printing piezoelectric films on alumina substrates at sintering temperature of 700-800°C. The dependence of various properties such as microstructure, crystallization, ferroelectric and dielectric properties of such made thick films on the processing parameters have been investigated. For a 10 μm-thick film spin-coated on silicon wafer, the dielectric loss and relative permittivity are 0.010 and 1024, respectively, at 1 kHz. The remanent polarization (Pr) and the coercive field (Ec) are 13.6 μC/cm2 and 34.5 kV/cm, respectively. Obviously, such made thick film has comparable properties with bulk PZT ceramic. This novel technique can be extensively used in sol-gel, screen-printing, tape-casting, even in traditional ceramic process to reduce the process temperature.

  19. Experimental Characterisation of Catalyst-Free Carbon Nanomaterials from Mixed Vegetable and Animal Base Oils through Modified Traditional Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Venkatanarayanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new process for the preparation of catalyst-free pure carbon nanomatereials is described here. These nanomaterials are then experimentally investigated. The process is simple and traditional so that the operator can have full control over the flame geometry and oil consumption in a span of time. A slight modification is carried out in the traditional process with an option of external heating (forced convection. Two types of samples are prepared (S1 & S2 from two different processes, Modified Traditional Process without external heating (MTP1 and with external heating (MTP2. Deep investigation on yield, morphology and structure of prepared samples are carried out by sophisticated analytical instruments. It is noted that the S1 sample contains pure carbon nano crystals along with well grown thin nano tubular structures whereas S2 sample contains pure carbon nanocrystals in a chain formation and likely possibility for the growth of nanotubes without any further treatment. It is observed clearly that the average weight gain of sample S2 is 22% for MTP1 and 7% for MTP2 more than that of the sample S1 over the same period of time. The range in dimension of the nanoparticles is varying from 6–45 nm.

  20. Evaluation of the cryogenic helium recovery process from natural gas based on flash separation by advanced exergy cost method - Linde modified process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarinasab, Hojat; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Parivazh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, exergy cost analysis method is used to evaluate a new cryogenic Helium recovery process from natural gas based on flash separation. Also advanced exergoeconomic analysis was made to determine the amount of avoidable exergy destruction cost of the process component. This proposed process can extract Helium from a feed gas stream with better efficiency than other existing processes. The results indicate that according to the avoidable endogenous exergy destruction cost C-4 (287.2/hr), C-5 (257.3/hr) and C-6 (181.6/hr) compressors should be modified first, respectively. According to the endogenous investment and exergy destruction cost, the interactions between the process components are not strong. In compressors, a high proportion of the cost of exergy destruction is avoidable while in these components, investment costs are unavoidable. In heat exchangers and air coolers, a high proportion of the exergy destruction cost is unavoidable while in these components, investment costs are avoidable. Finally, three different strategies are suggested to improve performance of each component, and the sensitivity of exergoeconomic factor and cost of exergy destruction to operating variables of the process are studied.

  1. Cancer associated aberrant protein o-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Caroline B; Petersen, Cecilie; Lavrsen, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing...... response to a cancer related tumor antigen, Balb/c or B6.Cg(CB)-Tg(HLA-A/H2-D)2Enge/J (HLA-A2 transgenic) mice were immunized with a non-glycosylated or GalNAc-glycosylated MUC1 derived peptide followed by comparison of T cell proliferation, IFN-¿ release, and antibody induction. Gal...

  2. Effects of reactive filters based on modified zeolite in dairy industry wastewater treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaković Srđan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of adsorbents based on organo-zeolites has certain advantages over conventional methods applied in food industry wastewater treatment process. The case study presented in this paper examines the possibilities and effects of treatment of dairy industry wastewater by using adsorbents based on organo-zeolites. The obtained results indicate favorable filtration properties of organo-zeolite, their high level of adsorption of organic matter and nitrate nitrogen in the analyzed wastewater. This paper concludes with recommendations of optimal technical and technological parameters for the application of these filters in practice.

  3. Forming a filter media from zeolite modified with SDBAC for wastewater treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaković Srđan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of several parameters (amounts of organic matter, grain size, content of solid phase, stirring rate, and temperature on the adsorption of stearyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (SDBAC in natural zeolite tuff in the process of formation of adsorbents based on organo-zeolite, a potential filter in waste water treatment process. Obtained results show that the most favorable ratio between the amount of SDBAC and zeolites is 50-75 mmol M+/kg. Larger grains have lower zeolite adsorption power of organic cations on the surface of zeolite, while favorable percentage of content of solids in the zeolite suspension is 10-20%. Interference between adsorption of mixture and temperature, especially in volumes of SDBAC lower than 75 mmol M+/kg of zeolite, have no significant impact on adsorption of organic cations on the surface of the zeolite. The obtained results present an initial step for defining the optimal operating parameters for forming adsorbents based on organo-zeolite as a filter potentially utilized in waste water treatment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37018 i br. TR 37003

  4. Experimental Investigation of Modified Polypropylene Shell-Tube Column Using Humidification-Dehumidification Desalination Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The polypropylene tubes with surface modification were installed in a baffled shell-tube column to conduct the thermally coupled humidification and dehumidification desalination process. The effects of several operating parameters (feed water temperature, water flow rate, carrier air flow rate, and external steam flow rate) on the productivity and thermal efficiency of this column were investigated experimentally. The results show that the feed water temperature has a positive effect on the productivity and thermal efficiency, while the flow rates of external steam, feed water, and carrier air should be optimized within the ranges of 0.006-0.020 kg· m-2· s-1, 0.005-0.015 kg· m-1· s-1, and 0.7-1.3 kg· m-2· s-1,respectively; the flow rates of feed water and carrier air are greatly controlled by the wetting state of the tubes. In comparison with the previous desalination column installing the coppery tubes, the present column can reach nearly the same production capacity of distilled water, which demonstrates the feasibility of applying such a plastic column to the humidification and dehumidification desalination process.

  5. Surface characterisation of Ti-15Mo alloy modified by a PEO process in various suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja; Dercz, Grzegorz; Kalemba, Izabela; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Kukharenko, Andrey I; Korotin, Danila M; Michalska, Joanna; Krząkała, Agnieszka; Piotrowski, Jerzy; Kurmaev, Ernst Z; Cholakh, Seif O; Simka, Wojciech

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on the surface modification of a Ti-15Mo alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). This process was carried out in solutions of 0.1M Ca(H2PO2)2 with various concentrations of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2), wollastonite (CaSiO3), or silica (SiO2) using voltages of up to 350V. The surface microstructure (SEM, cross-section of coating), roughness and chemical composition (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thin layer X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy) of the porous oxide layers were investigated. The concentration of powder added to the solution changed the chemical composition and morphology of PEO coatings on the Ti-15Mo alloy surface. Calcium and phosphorous compounds were detected in the coatings formed on the substrate by the PEO process at 300V. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of a Solution-Processable, Nonspecific Surface Modifier for Low Cost, High Work Function Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Allison C; Wang, Congcong; Pfattner, Raphael; Kong, Desheng; Zhou, Yan; Ecker, Ben; Gao, Yongli; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-08-03

    We demonstrate the ability of the highly fluorinated, chemically inert copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) to significantly increase the work function of a variety of common electrode materials. The work function change is hypothesized to occur via physisorption of the polymer layer and formation of a surface dipole at the polymer/conductor interface. When incorporated into organic solar cells, an interlayer of PVDF-HFP at an Ag anode increases the open circuit voltage by 0.4 eV and improves device power conversion efficiency by approximately an order of magnitude relative to Ag alone. Solution-processable in air, PVDF-HFP thin films provide one possible route toward achieving low cost, nonreactive, high work function electrodes.

  7. Electric properties of La-modified lead titanate thin films fabricated by sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, June Won; Kim, Gang Bae [Dankook Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-01

    Ferroelectric lead lanthanum titanate (PLT) thin films were fabricated by sol-gel processing and spin-coating on Pt substrates. The electric properties and the microstructure were studied by changing the La content from 18 to 28 mol%. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the PLT films sintered at 650 .deg. C for 30 min were crystallized with a stable perovskite structure. The dielectric constant of PLT films increased with addition of La content up to 21 mol%, and then decreased with La content up to 28 mol% at room temperature. The remanent polarization, coercive field, and leakage current density of the PLT thin films decreased with increasing La content. The fatigue property did not change significantly as the number of switching cycles was increased.

  8. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  9. Modifying welding process parameters can reduce the neurotoxic potential of manganese-containing welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Stone, Samuel; Afshari, Aliakbar; Keane, Michael J; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Roberts, Jenny R; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2015-02-03

    Welding fumes (WF) are a complex mixture of toxic metals and gases, inhalation of which can lead to adverse health effects among welders. The presence of manganese (Mn) in welding electrodes is cause for concern about the potential development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological disorder. Consequently, from an occupational safety perspective, there is a critical need to prevent adverse exposures to WF. As the fume generation rate and physicochemical characteristics of welding aerosols are influenced by welding process parameters like voltage, current or shielding gas, we sought to determine if changing such parameters can alter the fume profile and consequently its neurotoxic potential. Specifically, we evaluated the influence of voltage on fume composition and neurotoxic outcome. Rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation (40 mg/m(3); 3h/day × 5 d/week × 2 weeks) to fumes generated by gas-metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes (GMA-SS) at standard/regular voltage (25 V; RVSS) or high voltage (30 V; HVSS). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited similar particulate morphology, appearing as chain-like aggregates; however, HVSS fumes comprised of a larger fraction of ultrafine particulates that are generally considered to be more toxic than their fine counterparts. Paradoxically, exposure to HVSS fumes did not elicit dopaminergic neurotoxicity, as monitored by the expression of dopaminergic and PD-related markers. We show that the lack of neurotoxicity is due to reduced solubility of Mn in HVSS fumes. Our findings show promise for process control procedures in developing prevention strategies for Mn-related neurotoxicity during welding; however, it warrants additional investigations to determine if such modifications can be suitably adapted at the workplace to avert or reduce adverse neurological risks.

  10. Molecular Chemistry and Engineering of Boron-Modified Polyorganosilazanes as New Processable and Functional SiBCN Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Antoine; Fonblanc, Diane; Schmidt, Marion; Lale, Abhijeet; Salameh, Chrystelle; Soleilhavoup, Anne; Wynn, Mélanie; Champagne, Philippe; Cerneaux, Sophie; Babonneau, Florence; Chollon, Georges; Rossignol, Fabrice; Gervais, Christel; Bernard, Samuel

    2017-07-06

    A series of boron-modified polyorganosilazanes was synthesized from a poly(vinylmethyl-co-methyl)silazane and controlled amounts of borane dimethyl sulfide. The role of the chemistry behind their synthesis has been studied in detail by using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The intimate relationship between the chemistry and the processability of these polymers is discussed. Polymers with low boron contents displayed appropriate requirements for facile processing in solution, such as impregnation of host carbon materials, which resulted in the design of mesoporous monoliths with a high specific surface area after pyrolysis. Polymers with high boron content are more appropriate for solid-state processing to design mechanically robust monolith-type macroporous and dense structures after pyrolysis. Boron acts as a crosslinking element, which offers the possibility to extend the processability of polyorganosilazanes and suppress the distillation of oligomeric fragments in the low-temperature region of their thermal decomposition (i.e., pyrolysis) at 1000 °C under nitrogen. Polymers with controlled and high ceramic yields were generated. We provide a comprehensive mechanistic study of the two-step thermal decomposition based on a combination of thermogravimetric experiments coupled with elemental analysis, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Selected characterization tools allowed the investigation of specific properties of the monolith-type SiBCN materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  12. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  13. Permeability Changes on Wellbore Cement Fractures Modified by Geochemical and Geomechanical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Um, W.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomography (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways and permeability, and cement fracture propagation with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Portland cement-basalt interface sample with artificial fractures was prepared to study the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects caused by subsurface activities. Cement-basalt interface sample was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the chemical reaction. CFD modeling was performed to simulate flow of supercritical CO2 within the fractures before and after the application of mechanical stress. The model results highlighted the complex flow characteristics within the fracture and also changes in flow patterns due to application of geomechanical stress. The CFD model predicted ~45% increase in permeability after the application of geomechanical force, which increases the fracture aperture. The same sample was reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater with impurity H2S (1 wt.%) at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Even after a 3.5-month reaction with CO2-H2S-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa, CaCO3 (s) precipitation occurred more extensively within the cement fracture rather than along the cement-basalt interfaces. Micro X-ray diffraction analysis also showed that major cement carbonation products of CO2-saturated groundwater reacting with impurity H2S were calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, consistent with cement carbonation by pure CO2-saturated groundwater, while pyrite was not identified due to low H2S content. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated

  14. Removal of ofloxacin antibiotic using heterogeneous Fenton process over modified alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titouhi, Hana; Belgaied, Jamel-Eddine

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the heterogeneous oxidative degradation of ofloxacin antibiotic using a composite material prepared from sodium alginate and cyclohexane dinitrilo tetraacetic acid (CDTA). The characterization tests indicated the successful incorporation of metal chelator and iron. It was also demonstrated that the synthesized beads are mesoporous. The influence of several experimental parameters (i.e.: H2O2 dose, working temperature, beads loading and initial drug concentration) on the process performances was evaluated. The reaction temperature significantly affects the drug conversion efficiency. It was also observed that the synthesized material was efficient toward the target antibiotic degradation in the presence of small quantities of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimum conditions (0.05 g of granules, initial drug concentration=10mg/L, 25μL of 10mmol/L H2O2), conducted in a batch reaction, 94% degradation of ofloxacin was reached. The results also indicate that the composite material showed a reasonable stability; a relatively low decrease of activity after four successive runs (only 9%) and a negligible iron leaching (0.8%) have been observed. The synthesized composite material offered interesting advantages in terms of simplicity, good stability, ease of recovery from the liquid medium after use and its efficiency in the presence of low quantities of oxidant. It constitutes a good candidate in the water treatment area.

  15. [Association between processes of hemispheric selection of information in the modified Stroop task and creative achievements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vol'f, N V; Razumnikova, O M; Onishchenko, M A

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between creative abilities and indices of selective attention were studied in lateralized serial Stroop Test presented in two conditions: color and word integrated or separated in a stimulus. The study enrolled 69 male and female subjects who were divided into high- and low-creative achievement groups by mean split of the originality score in figural tasks of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. It was found that features of hemispheric organization of selective attention assessed by the difference in reaction time to incongruent and a congruent color-word stimuli pairs individually administered in the right and left visual hemifields were differently correlated with creative abilities of men and women. High creativity of men was associated with lower attention-related selective processes in the right hemisphere and inversion of hemispheric asymmetry (as compared to low-creative men). There was no difference in these parameters between high- and low-creative women. Independently of gender, hemispheric asymmetry of selective attention indices reversed after transition from integrated to spatially separated presentation of color and word, which provided evidence for the use of flexible strategies.

  16. Cancer associated aberrant protein O-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B Madsen

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing, and presentation on MHC class I and II molecules. The effect of GalNAc O-glycosylation was monitored with a model system based on ovalbumin (OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides (+/- glycosylation loaded onto dendritic cells co-cultured with IL-2 secreting OVA peptide-specific T cell hybridomas. To evaluate the in vivo response to a cancer related tumor antigen, Balb/c or B6.Cg(CB-Tg(HLA-A/H2-D2Enge/J (HLA-A2 transgenic mice were immunized with a non-glycosylated or GalNAc-glycosylated MUC1 derived peptide followed by comparison of T cell proliferation, IFN-γ release, and antibody induction. GalNAc-glycosylation promoted presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class II molecules and the MUC1 antigen elicited specific Ab production and T cell proliferation in both Balb/c and HLA-A2 transgenic mice. In contrast, GalNAc-glycosylation inhibited the presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class I and abolished MUC1 specific CD8+ T cell responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. GalNAc glycosylation of MUC1 antigen therefore facilitates uptake, MHC class II presentation, and antibody response but might block the antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells.

  17. Modifying the processing and handling of frozen broccoli for increased sulforaphane formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosz, Edward B; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2013-09-01

    Frozen broccoli can provide a cheaper product, with a longer shelf life and less preparation time than fresh broccoli. We previously showed that several commercially available frozen broccoli products do not retain the ability to generate the cancer-preventative agent sulforaphane. We hypothesized that this was because the necessary hydrolyzing enzyme myrosinase was destroyed during blanching, as part of the processing that frozen broccoli undergoes. This study was carried out to determine a way to overcome loss of hydrolyzing activity. Industrial blanching usually aims to inactivate peroxidase, although lipoxygenase plays a greater role in product degradation during frozen storage of broccoli. Blanching at 86 °C or higher inactivated peroxidase, lipoxygenase, and myrosinase. Blanching at 76 °C inactivated 92% of lipoxygenase activity, whereas there was only an 18% loss in myrosinase-dependent sulforaphane formation. We considered that thawing frozen broccoli might disrupt membrane integrity, allowing myrosinase and glucoraphanin to come into contact. Thawing frozen broccoli for 9 h did not support sulforaphane formation unless an exogenous source of myrosinase was added. Thermal stability studies showed that broccoli root, as a source of myrosinase, was not more heat stable than broccoli floret. Daikon radish root supported some sulforaphane formation even when heated at 125 °C for 10 min, a time and temperature comparable to or greater than microwave cooking. Daikon radish (0.25%) added to frozen broccoli that was then allowed to thaw supported sulforaphane formation without any visual alteration to that of untreated broccoli. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids modify human cortical visual processing--a double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Isabelle; Crewther, David P; Pipingas, Andrew; Rowsell, Renee; Cockerell, Robyn; Crewther, Sheila G

    2011-01-01

    While cardiovascular and mood benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are manifest, direct neurophysiological evidence of their effects on cortical activity is still limited. Hence we chose to examine the effects of two proprietary fish oil products with different EPA:DHA ratios (EPA-rich, high EPA:DHA; DHA-rich) on mental processing speed and visual evoked brain activity. We proposed that nonlinear multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) would be sensitive to any alteration of the neural function induced by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, because the higher order kernel responses directly measure the degree of recovery of the neural system as a function of time following stimulation. Twenty-two healthy participants aged 18-34, with no known neurological or psychiatric disorder and not currently taking any nutritional supplementation, were recruited. A double-blind, crossover design was utilized, including a 30-day washout period, between two 30-day supplementation periods of the EPA-rich and DHA-rich diets (with order of diet randomized). Psychophysical choice reaction times and multi-focal nonlinear visual evoked potential (VEP) testing were performed at baseline (No Diet), and after each supplementation period. Following the EPA-rich supplementation, for stimulation at high luminance contrast, a significant reduction in the amplitude of the first slice of the second order VEP kernel response, previously related to activation in the magnocellular pathway, was observed. The correlations between the amplitude changes of short latency second and first order components were significantly different for the two supplementations. Significantly faster choice reaction times were observed psychophysically (compared with baseline performance) under the EPA-rich (but not DHA-rich) supplementation, while simple reaction times were not affected. The reduced nonlinearities observed under the EPA

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids modify human cortical visual processing--a double-blind, crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bauer

    Full Text Available While cardiovascular and mood benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are manifest, direct neurophysiological evidence of their effects on cortical activity is still limited. Hence we chose to examine the effects of two proprietary fish oil products with different EPA:DHA ratios (EPA-rich, high EPA:DHA; DHA-rich on mental processing speed and visual evoked brain activity. We proposed that nonlinear multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP would be sensitive to any alteration of the neural function induced by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, because the higher order kernel responses directly measure the degree of recovery of the neural system as a function of time following stimulation. Twenty-two healthy participants aged 18-34, with no known neurological or psychiatric disorder and not currently taking any nutritional supplementation, were recruited. A double-blind, crossover design was utilized, including a 30-day washout period, between two 30-day supplementation periods of the EPA-rich and DHA-rich diets (with order of diet randomized. Psychophysical choice reaction times and multi-focal nonlinear visual evoked potential (VEP testing were performed at baseline (No Diet, and after each supplementation period. Following the EPA-rich supplementation, for stimulation at high luminance contrast, a significant reduction in the amplitude of the first slice of the second order VEP kernel response, previously related to activation in the magnocellular pathway, was observed. The correlations between the amplitude changes of short latency second and first order components were significantly different for the two supplementations. Significantly faster choice reaction times were observed psychophysically (compared with baseline performance under the EPA-rich (but not DHA-rich supplementation, while simple reaction times were not affected. The reduced nonlinearities observed under the

  20. Hydrophilic Graphene Preparation from Gallic Acid Modified Graphene Oxide in Magnesium Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Li, Zhenhuan; Su, Kunmei; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophilic graphene sheets were synthesized from a mixture of magnesium and gallic acid (GA) modified graphene oxide (GO) in a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, and hydrophilic graphene sheets displayed the higher C/O ratio (16.36), outstanding conductivity (~88900 S/m) and excellent water-solubility. GO sheets were connected together by GA, and GA was captured to darn GO structure defects through the formation of hydrogen bonds and ester bonds. In SHS process, the most oxygen ions of GO reacted with magnesium to prevent the escape of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to from the structure defects associated with vacancies, and GA could take place the high-temperature carbonization, during which a large-area graphene sheets formed with a part of the structure defects being repaired. When only GO was reduced by magnesium in SHS process, and the reduced GO (rGO) exhibited the smaller sheets, the lower C/O ratio (15.26), the weaker conductivity (4200 S/m) and the poor water-solubility because rGO inevitably left behind carbon vacancies and topological defects. Therefore, the larger sheet, less edge defects and free structure defects associated with vacancies play a key role for graphene sheets good dispersion in water.

  1. A Modified Soil Quality Index to Assess the Influence of Soil Degradation Processes on Desertification Risk: The Apulia Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ancona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Apulia is one of the most prone Italian regions to soil alteration phenomena, due to geographical and climatic conditions and also to human activities’ impact. In this study, in order to investigate regional soil degradation processes, following the “European Directive for Soil Protection”, the ESA’s method has been adopted. It is based on the use of an indicator’s set to assess the desertification risk. This approach simplifies the diagnosis and monitoring of soil degradation processes, defining their status and trend. Special attention has been given to Soil Quality Index (SQI determined by six predisposing indicators (parent material, soil texture, rock fragment, soil depth, drainage and slope grade. The integration in the SQI calculation of two additional soil parameters (organic matter content and soil salinity has been considered particularly significant. In fact, through the evaluation of a so “modified SQI” and the Apulia land use too, it could be possible to assess the role of agriculture management on soil degradation processes, which predisposing regional area to desertification threat. Moreover this approach provides short, but accurate, information thanks to GIS integration, which defines phenomena in detail, offering helpful planning tools.

  2. NMDA-dependent mechanisms only affect the BOLD response in the rat dentate gyrus by modifying local signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Regina; Krautwald, Karla; Fincke, Anja; Angenstein, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The role of N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated mechanisms in the formation of a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was studied using electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway. Stimulation of this fiber bundle triggered BOLD responses in the right hippocampal formation and in the left entorhinal cortex. The perforant pathway projects to and activates the dentate gyrus monosynaptically, activation in the contralateral entorhinal cortex is multisynaptic and requires forwarding and processing of signals. Application of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 during stimulation had no effect on BOLD responses in the right dentate gyrus, but reduced the BOLD responses in the left entorhinal cortex. In contrast, application of MK801 before the first stimulation train reduced the BOLD response in both regions. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the initial stimulation trains changed the local processing of the incoming signals in the dentate gyrus. This altered electrophysiological response was not further changed by a subsequent application of MK801, which is in agreement with an unchanged BOLD response. When MK801 was present during the first stimulation train, a dissimilar electrophysiological response pattern was observed and corresponds to an altered BOLD response, indicating that NMDA-dependent mechanisms indirectly affect the BOLD response, mainly via modifying local signal processing and subsequent propagation. PMID:22167232

  3. Hydrophilic Graphene Preparation from Gallic Acid Modified Graphene Oxide in Magnesium Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Li, Zhenhuan; Su, Kunmei; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophilic graphene sheets were synthesized from a mixture of magnesium and gallic acid (GA) modified graphene oxide (GO) in a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, and hydrophilic graphene sheets displayed the higher C/O ratio (16.36), outstanding conductivity (~88900 S/m) and excellent water-solubility. GO sheets were connected together by GA, and GA was captured to darn GO structure defects through the formation of hydrogen bonds and ester bonds. In SHS process, the most oxygen ions of GO reacted with magnesium to prevent the escape of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to from the structure defects associated with vacancies, and GA could take place the high-temperature carbonization, during which a large-area graphene sheets formed with a part of the structure defects being repaired. When only GO was reduced by magnesium in SHS process, and the reduced GO (rGO) exhibited the smaller sheets, the lower C/O ratio (15.26), the weaker conductivity (4200 S/m) and the poor water-solubility because rGO inevitably left behind carbon vacancies and topological defects. Therefore, the larger sheet, less edge defects and free structure defects associated with vacancies play a key role for graphene sheets good dispersion in water. PMID:27725757

  4. Modified kernel principal component analysis using double-weighted local outlier factor and its application to nonlinear process monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaogang; Wang, Lei

    2017-10-07

    Traditional kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) based nonlinear process monitoring method may not perform well because its Gaussian distribution assumption is often violated in the real industrial processes. To overcome this deficiency, this paper proposes a modified KPCA method based on double-weighted local outlier factor (DWLOF-KPCA). In order to avoid the assumption of specific data distribution, local outlier factor (LOF) is introduced to construct two LOF-based monitoring statistics, which are used to substitute for the traditional T(2) and SPE statistics, respectively. To provide better online monitoring performance, a double-weighted LOF method is further designed, which assigns the weights for each component to highlight the key components with significant fault information, and uses the moving window to weight the historical statistics for reducing the drastic fluctuations in the monitoring results. Finally, simulations on a numerical example and the Tennessee Eastman (TE) benchmark process are used to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed DWLOF-KPCA method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Thin-Film Composite Membrane with Nanowire-Modified Support for Forward Osmosis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Xian Low

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal concentration polarization (ICP in forward osmosis (FO process is a characteristic problem for asymmetric thin-film composite (TFC FO membrane which leads to lower water flux. To mitigate the ICP effect, modification of the substrates’ properties has been one of the most effective methods. A new polyethersulfone-based ultrafiltration membrane with increased surface porosity and high water flux was recently produced by incorporating Zn2GeO4 nanowires. The composite membrane was used as a substrate for the fabrication of TFC FO membrane, by coating a thin layer of polyamide on top of the substrate. The substrate and the nanowires were characterized by a range of techniques such as SEM, XRD, and contact angle goniometry. The water permeability and molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO of the substrate; and the FO performance of the TFC membrane were also determined. The Zn2GeO4-modified membrane showed ~45% increase in water permeability and NaCl salt rejection of 80% under RO mode. In FO mode, the ratio of water flux to reverse solute flux was also improved. However, lower FO flux was obtained which could be due to ICP. The result shows that Zn2GO4 nanowire may be used as a modifier to the substrate to improve the quality of the polyamide layer on the substrate to improve the flux and selectivity, but not as effective in reducing ICP. This work demonstrates that the incorporation of nanomaterials to the membrane substrate may be an alternative approach to improve the formation of polyamide skin layer to achieve better FO performance.

  6. Wastewater from wood and pulp industry treated by combination of coagulation, adsorption on modified clinoptilolite tuff and membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani, Yasmina; Kosutić, Kresimir; Drazević, Emil; Rozeć, Mirela

    2012-06-01

    Wastewater from the wood and pulp industry is of environmental concern. It contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter. In this work a combined method of coagulation, adsorption and nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (NF/RO) was investigated in the purification of biologically treated wastewater from wood processing. Coagulation with 0.8 g dm(-3) AlCl3 x 6H2O and adsorption on 2.5 g m(-3) modified clinoptilolite tuff resulted in removal efficiencies of total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (IC) up to 67.1%, 77.4% and 49.5%, respectively. Almost complete removal of solutes was achieved after NF/RO treatment. The TOC removal efficiency with RO membrane (CPA-3, LFC-1, XLE) and tight NF membrane (NF90) was 98% and with highly porous NF membrane (DK), 88%. After the proposed treatment the purified water stream can be recycled into the process or safely disposed to the river.

  7. Preparation of surface-modified ZnO quantum dots through an ultrasound assisted sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, E.; Youzbashi, AA; Kazemzadeh, A.; Eshraghi, MJ

    2015-08-01

    A synthetic process of zinc oxide quantum dots (QDs) is presented. It is based on a sol-gel process, carried out in an ultrasonic bath. It allows the formation of the stable colloids, containing surface-modified ZnO QDs with the aid of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as a capping agent. For this purpose, alcoholic solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate and potassium hydroxide were used as the reactants. Effect of KOH concentration, ultrasonic irradiation, and also the presence of capping agent on the characteristics of the final product were investigated. The synthesized samples were characterized by various analytical techniques such as XRD, TEM, FT-IR, UV-vis and PL spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed the direct formation of hexagonal wurtzite nanocrystals with average size of ∼3 nm confirmed by TEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The PL spectroscopy indicated the influence of the capping agent on reducing the defects formation during the growth of the QDs. The present synthesis method was found to be a cost-effective and simple solution route for producing pure semiconductor ZnO QDs, exhibiting the quantum confinement effects, suitable for optical and optoelectronic applications.

  8. Modified Powder-in-Tube Technique Based on the Consolidation Processing of Powder Materials for Fabricating Specialty Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Auguste

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the interest of a consolidation process associated with the powder-in-tube technique in order to fabricate a long length of specialty optical fibers. This so-called Modified Powder-in-Tube (MPIT process is very flexible and paves the way to multimaterial optical fiber fabrications with different core and cladding glassy materials. Another feature of this technique lies in the sintering of the preform under reducing or oxidizing atmosphere. The fabrication of such optical fibers implies different constraints that we have to deal with, namely chemical species diffusion or mechanical stress due to the mismatches between thermal expansion coefficients and working temperatures of the fiber materials. This paper focuses on preliminary results obtained with a lanthano-aluminosilicate glass used as the core material for the fabrication of all-glass fibers or specialty Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs. To complete the panel of original microstructures now available by the MPIT technique, we also present several optical fibers in which metallic particles or microwires are included into a silica-based matrix.

  9. Application of 8YSZ Nanopowder Synthesized by the Modified Solvothermal Process for Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meepho, Malinee; Wattanasiriwech, Suthee; Angkavatana, Pavadee; Wattanasiriwech, Darunee

    2015-03-01

    Thin electrolyte yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) films were coated on the porous solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode substrates for the use at an intermediate temperature range. Nano-8YSZ powder with a particle size of about 5 nm was synthesized using the modified solvothermal process. The electrolyte suspension was prepared by dispersion the synthesized 8YSZ nanopowder in ethanol, with PVB and 1,3-propanediol as a binder and a charging agent respectively. The 8YSZ suspension was subsequently deposited on the pre-sintered NiO-YSZ porous substrates by the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. In order to obtain high quality electrolyte films, preparation process was optimized through two strategic approaches; (i) adjustment of suspension's rheological property and (ii) compatibility of anode-electrolyte sintering shrinkage. Rheological property of the suspension was improved with an addition of 1,3-propanediol. The zeta potential of this suspension was increased and reached the value of +24 mV so the well-dispersed slurry was finally obtained. The second approach was achieved by using a proper composite anode powders. Dense and uniform 8YSZ electrolyte films with a thickness of about 1 thickness successfully be formed on the NiO-YSZ porous substrates after co-sintering at 1400 °C for 2 h.

  10. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

  11. Up-scaling the production of modified a-C:H coatings in the framework of plasma polymerization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, C.; Bialuch, I.; Kleinschmidt, M.; Bewilogua, K.

    2009-10-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films with silicon and oxygen additions, which exhibit mechanical, tribological and wetting properties adequate for protective coating performance, have been synthesized at room temperature in a small- (0.1 m 3) and a large-scale (1 m 3) coaters by low-pressure Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition (PACVD). Hence, a-C:H:Si and a-C:H:Si:O coatings were produced in atmospheres of tetramethylsilane (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), respectively, excited either by radiofrequency (RF - small scale) or by pulsed-DC power (large scale). Argon was employed as a carrier gas to stabilize the glow discharge. Several series of 2-5 μm thick coatings have been prepared at different mass deposition rates, Rm, by varying total gas flow, F, and input power, W. Arrhenius-type plots of Rm/ F vs. ( W/ F) -1 show linear behaviours for both plasma reactors, as expected for plasma polymerization processes at moderated energies. The calculation of apparent activation energy, Ea, in each series permitted us to define the regimes of energy-deficient and monomer-deficient PACVD processes as a function of the key parameter W/ F. Moreover, surface properties of the modified a-C:H coatings, such as contact angle, abrasive wear rate and hardness, appear also correlated to this parameter. This work shows an efficient methodology to scale up PACVD processes from small, lab-scale plasma machines to industrial plants by the unique evaluation of macroscopic parameters of deposition.

  12. Modified detrended fluctuation analysis based on empirical mode decomposition for the characterization of anti-persistent processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2011-11-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a simple but very efficient method for investigating the power-law long-term correlations of non-stationary time series, in which a detrending step is necessary to obtain the local fluctuations at different timescales. We propose to determine the local trends through empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and perform the detrending operation by removing the EMD-based local trends, which gives an EMD-based DFA method. Similarly, we also propose a modified multifractal DFA algorithm, called an EMD-based MFDFA. The performance of the EMD-based DFA and MFDFA methods is assessed with extensive numerical experiments based on fractional Brownian motion and multiplicative cascading process. We find that the EMD-based DFA method performs better than the classic DFA method in the determination of the Hurst index when the time series is strongly anticorrelated and the EMD-based MFDFA method outperforms the traditional MFDFA method when the moment order q of the detrended fluctuations is positive. We apply the EMD-based MFDFA to the 1 min data of Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite index, and the presence of multifractality is confirmed. We also analyze the daily Austrian electricity prices and confirm its anti-persistence.

  13. The high temperature corrosion behaviour of Hf modified chromo-aluminised coatings produced by a single step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, H.L. [Northumbria Univ., Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom). Surface Eng. Res. Group; Kipkemoi, J. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristoteles Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsipas, D.N. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristoteles Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Datta, P.K. [Northumbria Univ., Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom). Surface Eng. Res. Group

    1996-12-01

    In this paper the introduction of Cr, Al and Hf into the surface of the RENE 80, INC718 and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel by pack cementation in a single step process has been described. The coated alloys were subject to cyclic hot corrosion and cyclic oxidation test at 870 and 875 C. The surface treated alloys were also sulphidised at 750 C in an environment of H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2}O yielding P{sub S{sub 2}} = 10{sup -6} atm. and P{sub O{sub 2}} = 10{sup -23} atm. The coated and exposed specimens were characterised by optical microscope, SEM, EPMA, EDX and XRD. Cyclic hot corrosion and cyclic oxidation tests showed that the presence of the Cr-Al-Hf on the surface of the alloys enhanced their corrosion resistance. The rare earth element modified chromium aluminide coatings showed superior protectivity. However the Cr-Al-Hf coating on INC718 delayed the formation of the refractory metal sulphides in sulphidising atmosphere and thereby reduced its sulphidation resistance whilst the coating on 2.25Cr-1Mo steel only slightly increased its resistance to sulphidation attack. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis of CeO2/fly ash cenospheres composites as novel photocatalysts by modified pyrolysis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进; 王冰; 崔皓; 李闯; 翟建平; 李琴

    2014-01-01

    A novel fly ash cenospheres (FACs)-supported CeO2 composite (CeO2/FACs) was successfully synthesized by the modi-fied pyrolysis process. The prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and diffuse reflection spectra (DRS) techniques. XRD results indicated that the CeO2 film coated on cenospheres was a face-centered cubic structure. SEM images confirmed that the CeO2 film was relatively com-pact. XPS results showed that Ce was present as both Ce4+and Ce3+oxidation states in CeO2 film coated on FACs substrate. The bandgap of the composite was narrower compared with the pure CeO2. The as-prepared material exhibited good photocatalytic activ-ity for the decolorization of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, and the first-order reaction rate constant (k) of 0.0028 min–1 for CeO2/FACs composite was higher than 0.0015 min–1 of pure CeO2. The fact that they floated on water meant that CeO2/FACs composites were easily recovered from water by filtration after the reaction. The recycling test revealed that the compos-ites were quite stable during the MB photocatalytic decolorization. The CeO2/FACs catalyst was therefore promising for practical use in the degradation of pollutants or water cleanup.

  15. Streptococcus parauberis associated with modified atmosphere packaged broiler meat products and air samples from a poultry meat processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koort, Joanna; Coenye, Tom; Vandamme, Peter; Björkroth, Johanna

    2006-02-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from marinated or non-marinated, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) broiler leg products and air samples of a large-scale broiler meat processing plant were identified and analyzed for their phenotypic properties. Previously, these strains had been found to be coccal LAB. However, the use of a 16 and 23S rRNA gene RFLP database had not resulted in species identification because none of the typically meat-associated LAB type strains had clustered together with these strains in the numerical analysis of the RFLP patterns. To establish the taxonomic position of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, numerical analysis of ribopatterns, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments were done. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of three isolates possessed the highest similarities (over 99%) with the sequence of S. parauberis type strain. However, in the numerical analysis of HindIII ribopatterns, the type strain did not cluster together with these isolates. Reassociation values between S. parauberis type or reference strain and the strains studied varied from 82 to 97%, confirming that these strains belong to S. parauberis. Unexpectedly, most of the broiler meat-originating strains studied for their phenotypical properties did not utilize lactose at all and the same strains fermented also galactose very weakly, properties considered atypical for S. parauberis. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of lactose negative S. parauberis strains and also the first report associating S. parauberis with broiler slaughter and meat products.

  16. Hysteretic Behavior upon Light Soaking in Perovskite Solar Cells Prepared via Modified Vapor-Assisted Solution Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Fan, Jiandong; Zhang, Xing; Shen, Yanjiao; Yang, Lin; Mai, Yaohua

    2015-05-06

    Recently, the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells exhibit rapidly rising efficiencies, while anomalous hysteresis in perovskite solar cells remains unsolvable. Herein, a high-quality perovskite thin film is prepared by a modified vapor-assisted solution process, which is a simple but well-controllable method proven to be capable of producing a thin film with full surface coverage and grain size up to micrometers. The as-fabricated perovskite solar cell has efficiency as high as 10.2%. The hysteresis effects of both planar and mesoscopic TiO2-based perovskite solar cells have been comprehensively studied upon illumination. The results demonstrate that mesoporous-based perovskite cells combined with remarkable grain size are subject to alleviating the hysteresis effects in comparison to the planar cells. Likewise, mesoscopic TiO2-based perovskite cells perform independently of illumination and bias conditions prior to the measurements, whereas the planar cells display a reversible behavior of illumination and applied bias-dependent I-V curves. The present study would refer strip road for the stability study of the perovskite solar cells.

  17. Polysaccharide production in batch process of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C comparing Frantz, modified Frantz and Cartlin 6 cultivation media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Marcelo Fossa da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide of N. meningitidis serogroup C constitutes the antigen for the vaccine against meningitis. The goal of this work was to compare three cultivation media for production of this polysaccharide: Frantz, modified Frantz medium (with replacement of glucose by glycerol, and Catlin 6 (a synthetic medium with glucose. The comparative criteria were based on the final polysaccharide concentrations and the yield coefficient cell/polysaccharide (Y P/X. The kinetic parameters: pH, substrate consumption and cell growth were also determined. For this purpose, 9 cultivation runs were carried out in a 80 L New Brunswick bioreactor, under the following conditions: 42 L of culture medium, temperature 35ºC, air flow 5 L/min, agitation frequency 120 rpm and vessel pressure 6 psi, without dissolved oxygen or pH controls. The cultivation runs were divided in three groups, with 3 repetitions each. The cultivation using the Frantz medium presented the best results: average of final polysaccharide concentration = 0.134 g/L and Y P/X=0.121, followed by Catlin 6 medium, with results of 0.095 g/L and 0.067 respectively. Considering the principal advantages in the use of the synthetic medium, i.e. facilitation of a cultivation and purification steps of the polysaccharide production process, there is a possibility that in the near future, Catlin 6 will replace the traditional Frantz medium.

  18. Purification of a modified cyclosporine A by co-current centrifugal partition chromatography: process development and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Boudesocque, Leslie; Sayagh, Charlotte; Giraud, Matthieu; McGarrity, John; Butte, Alessandro; Marchal, Luc; Foucault, Alain; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2013-10-11

    Synthetic hydrophobic non-ionizable peptides are not soluble in most common solvents and are thus difficult to purify by preparative reversed-phase HPLC, normally used for industrial production. The challenge exists to develop alternative purification chromatographic processes using suitable solvents and providing good yields, high purity and sufficient productivity. A 11mer hydrophobic synthetic modified cyclosporine, showing an anti-HIV activity, was successfully purified by centrifugal partition chromatography using the biphasic solvent system heptane/ethyl acetate/acetone/methanol/water (1:2:2:1:2, v/v). A 5% co-current elution - made possible by the liquid nature of the two phases - has been used in order to avoid hydrodynamic instabilities mainly due to the physico-chemical properties of the target peptide. This original solution was developed after the study of the effect of the peptide on the hydrodynamic behavior of the two phases during the separation, and the visualization of the flow patterns using the Visual-CPC device. Critical impurities were efficiently eliminated and the peptide was recovered in high yield and high productivity achieving the specifications requirements.

  19. Nursing care process for releasing psychiatric inpatients from long-term seclusion in Japan: modified grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yutaka; Hasegawa, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Based on a modified grounded theory approach, in this study, we sought to elucidate the nursing care process used to guide psychiatric inpatients in long-term seclusion towards release from seclusion. Participant observations and interviews were conducted with a total of 18 nurses from three long-term psychiatric wards at two institutions from September 2011 to November 2012, to collect data on the nursing care they provided for psychiatric patients in long-term seclusion. Consequently, four categories and 15 concepts were extracted. The nurses viewed "a mature therapeutic environment that utilizes flexible apportionment of care" as the foundation (i.e. the core category) in guiding psychiatric inpatients towards release from long-term seclusion. The results revealed a care structure in which nurses in such a treatment environment provided care by flexible apportionment of three types of care: care aimed at avoiding mental and physical exhaustion, standardized care that does not confer a disadvantage to patients, and immediately responding to prevent problematic behaviors.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride using processed Aloe vera mucilage as release modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural gums and mucilage which hydrates and swells on contact with aqueous media are used as additives in the formulation of hydrophilic drug delivery system. Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop a new monolithic matrix system for complete delivery of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (HCl, in a zero-order manner over an extended time period using processed Aloe vera gel mucilage (PAG as a release modifier. Materials and Methods: The matrices were prepared by dry blending of selected ratios of polymer and ingredients using direct compression technique. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of A. vera were studied. Various formulations of pioglitazone HCl and A. vera mucilage were prepared using different drug: Polymer ratios viz., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 for PAG by direct compression technique. Results: The formulated matrix tablets were found to have better uniformity of weight and drug content with low statistical deviation. The swelling behavior and in vitro release rate characteristics were also studied. Conclusion: The study proved that the dried A. vera mucilage can be used as a matrix forming material for controlled release of Pioglitazone HCl matrix tablets.

  1. What are priorities for deprescribing for elderly patients? Capturing the voice of practitioners: a modified delphi process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Farrell

    Full Text Available Polypharmacy and inappropriate medication use among older adults contribute to adverse drug reactions, falls, cognitive impairment, noncompliance, hospitalization and mortality. While deprescribing - tapering, reducing or stopping a medication - is feasible and relatively safe, clinicians find it difficult to carry out. Deprescribing guidelines would facilitate this process. The aim of this paper is to identify and prioritize medication classes where evidence-based deprescribing guidelines would be of benefit to clinicians. A modified Delphi approach included a literature review to identify potentially inappropriate medications for the elderly, an expert panel to develop survey content and three survey rounds to seek consensus on priorities. Panel participants included three pharmacists, two family physicians and one social scientist. Sixty-five Canadian geriatrics experts (36 pharmacists, 19 physicians and 10 nurse practitioners participated in the survey. Twenty-nine drugs/drug classes were included in the first survey with 14 reaching the required (≥ 70% level of consensus, and 2 new drug classes added from qualitative comments. Fifty-three participants completed round two, and 47 participants completed round three. The final five priorities were benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, statins, tricyclic antidepressants, and proton pump inhibitors; nine other drug classes were also identified as being in need of evidence-based deprescribing guidelines. The Delphi consensus process identified five priority drug classes for which expert clinicians felt guidance is needed for deprescribing. The classes of drugs that emerged strongly from the rankings dealt with mental health, cardiovascular, gastroenterological, and neurological conditions. The results suggest that deprescribing and overtreatment occurs through the full spectrum of primary care, and that evidence-based deprescribing guidelines are a priority in the care of the elderly.

  2. Processes involved in sweeping as sample enrichment method in cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography of hydrophobic basic analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohamed; Pyell, Ute

    2014-03-01

    Sweeping is an enrichment method in MEKC, which includes following steps: stacking/destacking of the micelles, sweeping of analyte by the stacked/destacked micelles, destacking/stacking of the swept analyte zone and additional focusing/defocusing due to the retention factor gradient effect (RFGE). In this study, we investigate additional processes, regarding online focusing in cyclodextrin-modified MEKC (CD-MEKC) of hydrophobic basic analytes: dynamic pH junction (sample with pH different from that of BGE) and adsorption of analyte onto the capillary wall within the sample zone. It is demonstrated that the developed method for the assessment of the sweeping efficiency is also applicable to CD-MEKC taking ethylparaben as an example of acidic analytes and desloratadine as an example of basic analytes using different types of β-cyclodextrin. Our previous results regarding RFGE as an additional focusing/defocusing effect in sweeping-MEKC are confirmed for the case that the apparent distribution coefficient differs for the sample and the BGE due to a different content of the complex-forming agent cyclodextrin and due to a pH difference between the sample and the BGE. Despite being significantly more hydrophobic than ethylparaben, desloratadine shows an unexpectedly low enrichment factor. This enrichment factor is nearly unaffected by the addition of CD to the BGE. This unexpected behavior is attributed to wall adsorption of the protonated hydrophobic basic analyte within the sample zone, which significantly counteracts the sweeping process. This assumption is corroborated by an improvement in the enrichment factor achieved via addition of a dynamic coating agent (triethylamine) to the sample solution. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Identification of features of electronic prescribing systems to support quality and safety in primary care using a modified Delphi process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neill Jennifer A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic prescribing is increasingly being used in primary care and in hospitals. Studies on the effects of e-prescribing systems have found evidence for both benefit and harm. The aim of this study was to identify features of e-prescribing software systems that support patient safety and quality of care and that are useful to the clinician and the patient, with a focus on improving the quality use of medicines. Methods Software features were identified by a literature review, key informants and an expert group. A modified Delphi process was used with a 12-member multidisciplinary expert group to reach consensus on the expected impact of the features in four domains: patient safety, quality of care, usefulness to the clinician and usefulness to the patient. The setting was electronic prescribing in general practice in Australia. Results A list of 114 software features was developed. Most of the features relate to the recording and use of patient data, the medication selection process, prescribing decision support, monitoring drug therapy and clinical reports. The expert group rated 78 of the features (68% as likely to have a high positive impact in at least one domain, 36 features (32% as medium impact, and none as low or negative impact. Twenty seven features were rated as high positive impact across 3 or 4 domains including patient safety and quality of care. Ten features were considered "aspirational" because of a lack of agreed standards and/or suitable knowledge bases. Conclusions This study defines features of e-prescribing software systems that are expected to support safety and quality, especially in relation to prescribing and use of medicines in general practice. The features could be used to develop software standards, and could be adapted if necessary for use in other settings and countries.

  4. Distortion of genetically modified organism quantification in processed foods: influence of particle size compositions and heat-induced DNA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreano, Francisco; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2005-12-28

    Milling fractions from conventional and transgenic corn were prepared at laboratory scale and used to study the influence of sample composition and heat-induced DNA degradation on the relative quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food products. Particle size distributions of the obtained fractions (coarse grits, regular grits, meal, and flour) were characterized using a laser diffraction system. The application of two DNA isolation protocols revealed a strong correlation between the degree of comminution of the milling fractions and the DNA yield in the extracts. Mixtures of milling fractions from conventional and transgenic material (1%) were prepared and analyzed via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Accurate quantification of the adjusted GMO content was only possible in mixtures containing conventional and transgenic material in the form of analogous milling fractions, whereas mixtures of fractions exhibiting different particle size distributions delivered significantly over- and underestimated GMO contents depending on their compositions. The process of heat-induced nucleic acid degradation was followed by applying two established quantitative assays showing differences between the lengths of the recombinant and reference target sequences (A, deltal(A) = -25 bp; B, deltal(B) = +16 bp; values related to the amplicon length of the reference gene). Data obtained by the application of method A resulted in underestimated recoveries of GMO contents in the samples of heat-treated products, reflecting the favored degradation of the longer target sequence used for the detection of the transgene. In contrast, data yielded by the application of method B resulted in increasingly overestimated recoveries of GMO contents. The results show how commonly used food technological processes may lead to distortions in the results of quantitative GMO analyses.

  5. Differentially Expressed Genes Distributed Over Chromosomes and Implicated in Certain Biological Processes for Site Insertion Genetically Modified Rice Kemingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu, Yunhe Li, Jie Zhao, Xiuping Chen, Guiliang Jian, Yufa Peng, Fangjun Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of genetically modified (GM plants has sparked off intensive debates worldwide partly because of concerns about potential adverse unintended effects of GM plants to the agro system and the safety of foods. In this study, with the aim of revealing the molecular basis for unintended effects of a single site insertion GM Kemingdao (KMD rice transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene, and bridging unintended effects of KMD rice through clues of differentially expressed genes, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed for GM KMD rice and its parent rice of Xiushui11 (XS11. The results showed that 680 differentially expressed transcripts were identified from 30-day old seedlings of GM KMD rice. The absolute majority of these changed expression transcripts dispersed and located over all rice chromosomes, and existed physical distance on chromosome from the insertion site, while only two transcripts were found to be differentially expressed within the 21 genes located within 100 kb up and down-stream of the insertion site. Pathway and biology function analyses further revealed that differentially expressed transcripts of KMD rice were involved in certain biological processes, and mainly implicated in two types of pathways. One type was pathways implicated in plant stress/defense responses, which were considerably in coordination with the reported unintended effects of KMD rice, which were more susceptible to rice diseases compared to its parent rice XS11; the other type was pathways associated with amino acids metabolism. With this clue, new unintended effects for changes in amino acids synthesis of KMD rice leaves were successfully revealed. Such that an actual case was firstly provided for identification of unintended effects in GM plants by comparative transciptome analysis.

  6. Enhanced biological nutrient removal in modified carbon source division anaerobic anoxic oxic process with return activated sludge pre-concentration☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Lu; Haiyan Wu; Haoyan Li; Dianhai Yang

    2015-01-01

    A pilot-scale modified carbon source division anaerobic anoxic oxic (AAO) process with pre-concentration of returned activated sludge (RAS) was proposed in this study for the enhanced biological nutrient removal (BNR) of municipal wastewater with limited carbon source. The influent carbon source was fed in step while a novel RAS pre-concentration tank was adopted to improve BNR efficiency, and the effects of an influent carbon source distribution ratio and a RAS pre-concentration ratio were investigated. The results show that the removal efficiency of TN is mainly influenced by the carbon source distribution ratio while the TP removal relies on the RAS pre-concentration ratio. The optimum carbon source distribution ratio and RAS pre-concentration ratio are 60%and 50%, respectively, with an inner recycling ratio of 100%under the optimum steady operation of pilot test, reaching an average effluent TN concentration of 9.8 mg·L−1 with a removal efficiency of 63%and an average TP removal efficiency of 94%. The mechanism of nutrient removal is discussed and the kinetics is analyzed. The results reveal that the optimal carbon source distribution ratio provides sufficient denitrifying carbon source to each anoxic phase, reducing nitrate accumulation while the RAS pre-concentration ratio improves the condition of anaerobic zone to ensure the phosphorus release due to less nitrate in the returned sludge. Therefore, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and phosphorus accumulation organisms play an important role under the optimum condition, enhancing the performance of nutrient removal in this test.

  7. Contaminant removal performances on domestic sewage using modified anoxic/anaerobic/oxic process and micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gao, Jingqing; Liu, Yifan; Xiao, Shuai; Zhang, Ruiqin; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from domestic sewage in a sequencing batch reactor with added new materials. A modified anoxic/anaerobic/oxic (MAAO) process, integrating a micro-electrolysis (ME) bed in an anoxic tank, and complex biological media (CBM) in anoxic, anaerobic and oxic tanks to treat domestic sewage, and their performances were investigated. The MAAO system was operated at controlled hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h and mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) at 75%. The results showed that the MAAO system could effectively remove COD, TN and TP with average rates of 93%, 80% and 94%, respectively, in March, and 94%, 76% and 91%, respectively, in August. In this system, TP was primarily removed from the anoxic tank regardless of the operational conditions; removal contribution ratios to TP of the anoxic tank reached 56% both in March and August, indicating that the ME bed can effectively enhance phosphorus removal. TN was primarily removed from the anoxic and anaerobic tanks; removal contribution ratios to TN of anoxic and anaerobic tanks reached 36-38% and 37-38%, respectively. The oxic tank had the highest share of COD removal (56% both in March and August) in the removal of phosphorus. The outflow concentrations of COD, TN and TP were 3-46, 7-14 and 0.3-0.5 mg/L, respectively, in March, and 26-49, 9-15 and 0.04-0.1 mg/L, respectively, in August. COD and TN removal performances indicated that the innovative materials of the ME bed and CBM can effectively enhance COD and TN removal.

  8. 改性水玻璃砂工艺在铸钢生产中的应用%Application of Modified Sodium Silicate Sand Process in Steel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成本

    2014-01-01

    简要回顾了水玻璃砂在铸造生产应用中的发展历程,介绍了改性水玻璃砂的工艺性能及在机车车辆铸件中的应用。%The paper brief review of the silicate sand casting production applications in the development process,introduced the process performance of modified sodium silicate sand and applications in rolling stock casting.

  9. Ferroelectric PLZT thick films grown by poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA)-modified sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhongqiang; Ma, Beihai; Li, Meiya; Koritala, Rachel E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-03-01

    We report the growth of ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) thick films using a poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA)-modified sol–gel process. A per-coating thickness of ≈0.66 μm has been demonstrated using PVP/VA-modified solution, which is more than doubled that of the PLZT films grown by PVP-modified method, and nearly 6 times the per-coating thickness of films prepared by conventional sol–gel process. PLZT thick films grown on LNO/Ni substrates exhibited denser microstructure, higher remanent polarization (11 μC/cm2) and dielectric tunability (45%), lower leakage current density (≈1.2 × 10-8 A/cm2), and higher breakdown strength (≈1.6 MV/cm) than those for the samples grown on PtSi substrates. These results demonstrated great potential of using PVP/VA-modified sol–gel process for high power film capacitor applications.

  10. Shelf-life of minimally processed cabbage treated with neutral electrolysed oxidising water and stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Vicente M; Ragaert, Peter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jeyachchandran, Visvalingam; Debevere, Johan; Devlieghere, Frank

    2007-06-10

    Minimally processed vegetables (MPV) have a short shelf-life. Neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEW) is a novel decontamination method. The objective of this study was to test the potential of NEW to extend the shelf-life of a MPV, namely shredded cabbage. Samples of shredded cabbage were immersed in NEW containing 40 mg/L of free chlorine or tap water (control) up to 5 min, and then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Proliferation of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were studied during the shelf-life. Also pH and sensorial quality of the samples as well as O(2) and CO(2) composition of the headspace of the bags was evaluated. From the microbial groups, only psychrotrophic counts decreased significantly (P<0.05) due to the effect of NEW, but the counts in treated samples and controls were similar after 3 days of storage at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Packaging configurations kept O(2) concentration around 5% and prevented CO(2) accumulation. pH increased from 6.1-6.2 to 6.4 during the shelf-life. No microbial parameter reached unacceptable counts after 14 days at 4 degrees C and 8 days of storage at 7 degrees C. The shelf-life of controls stored at 4 degrees C was limited to 9 days by overall visual quality (OVQ), while samples treated with NEW remained acceptable during the 14 days of the experiment. The shelf-life of controls stored at 7 degrees C was limited to 6 days by OVQ and browning, while that of samples treated with NEW were limited to 9 days by OVQ, browning and dryness. According to these results, a shelf-life extension of at least 5 days and 3 days in samples stored respectively at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C can be achieved by treating shredded cabbage with NEW. NEW seems to be a promising method to prolong the shelf-life of MPV.

  11. Promising start, bleak outlook: the role of Ghana's modified taungya system as a social safeguard in timber legality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Insaidoo, T.F.G.; Acheampong, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Modified Taungya System (MTS) is a strategy employed by the Ghana Government to restore forest cover, address timber deficits and contribute to rural livelihoods. Under the scheme, farmers combine tree planting and maintenance with the cultivation of food crops until tree canopy closure. This

  12. Information processing of genetically modified food messages under different motives: an adaptation of the multiple-motive heuristic-systematic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooyoung; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2009-12-01

    Recent risk management research has noted the importance of understanding how the lay public processes and reacts to risk-related information. Guided by the multiple-motive heuristic-systematic model, this study examines (1) how individuals process messages in the context of genetically modified foods to change their attitudes and (2) how the persuasion process varies across types of motives. In the three treatment conditions of accuracy, defense, and impression motives, the respondents changed their attitudes through either the heuristic or the systematic mode, depending on their motives. The accuracy-motive group appeared to use the systematic processing mode, while the impression-motive group seemed to employ the heuristic processing mode. The empirical findings highlight the importance of incorporating motives to improve our understanding of the process of attitude change in risk management and communication contexts.

  13. Hydrology modifies ecosystem responses to warming through interactions between soil, leaf and canopy processes in a high Arctic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Welker, J. M.; Lett, C.; Czimczik, C. I.; Lupascu, M.; Seibt, U. H.

    2013-12-01

    . Net carbon and water fluxes in the elevated temperature plots were similar to the control plots, as enhanced soil respiration offset the increased photosynthetic uptake. The T2 plants also had the highest leaf N content and specific leaf area (SLA), whereas watering, both in combination with higher temperatures and alone, reduced leaf SLA and leaf N relative to control plots. Warming increases soil N availability, but this is allocated differently depending on the precipitation regime. Where water limitation prevents increased canopy development the plants direct the N towards increasing the photosynthetic capacity of larger, thinner leaves, increasing leaf-level light use efficiency. However, with additional water, the distribution of N over a larger total leaf area results in overall greater productivity gains. Hydrology clearly modifies the response to warming in high Arctic ecosystems, through soil-plant interactions affecting both leaf and canopy scale processes. Our results provide a unique data set with which to parameterize and test models of ecosystem responses in the coming century.

  14. Performance of diatomite/iron oxide modified nonwoven membrane used in membrane bioreactor process for wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yueling; Zhang, Wenqi; Rao, Pinhua; Jin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This study describes an approach for surface modification of a nonwoven membrane by diatomite/iron oxide to examine its filterability. Analysis results showed that nonwoven hydrophilicity is enhanced. Static contact angle decreases dramatically from 122.66° to 39.33°. Scanning electron micrograph images show that diatomite/iron oxide is attached on nonwoven fiber. X-ray diffraction analysis further proves that the compound is mostly magnetite. Fourier transformed infrared spectra results reveal that two new absorption peaks might be attributed to Si-O and Fe-O, respectively. Modified and original membranes were used in double nonwoven membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for synthetic wastewater treatment. High critical flux, long filtration time, slow trans-membrane pressure rise and stable sludge volume index confirmed the advantages of modified nonwoven. Comparing with original nonwoven, similar effluent qualities are achieved, meeting the requirements for wastewater reclamation.

  15. Effect of T6I6 and its modified processes on mechanical properties of novel high strength Al-Li alloy-2A97

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-shan; LU Zheng; XIE You-hua; WU Xiu-liang; DAI Sheng-long; LIU Chang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Based on a novel high strength Al-Cu-Li-X alloy-2A97, the effect of T6I6 and its modified processes on the properties investigated by SEM and tensile test. The results show that when the alloy is heat treated by triple ageing, with secondary low temperature ageing at 80 ℃ after initial ageing at 155 and 150 ℃, and final re-ageing at 135 and 165 ℃, the tensile properties are close to the peak level of aged alloy in T6 temper. The addition of plastic deformation after and prior to secondary ageing favor the T1(Al2CuLi) and δ'(Al3Li) precipitation during final re-ageing at 135 and 165 ℃ corresponding to triple ageing, so the Al-Li alloy displays higher strength for the modified processes of T6I6. The microstructures consist of δ', T1 and θ"/θ' (Al2Cu) phase for single and triple aged alloy, the number density and volume fraction of δ' phase increase for T6I6 and its modified processes correspond to single ageing.

  16. Establishment of Heat Treatment Process for Modified 440A Martensitic Stainless Steel Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermo-Calc Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Sen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide a suitable microstructure and mechanical properties for modified Grade 440A martensitic stainless steel (MSS, which could facilitate the further cold deformation process (e.g., cold rolling, this work used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Thermo-Calc software to determine three soaking temperatures for annealing heat treatment processes (HT1, HT2 and HT3. To verify the feasibility of the proposed annealing heat treatment processes, the as-received samples were initially heated to 1050 °C (similar to the on-line working temperature for 30 min and air quenched to form a martensitic structure. The air-quenched samples were then subjected to three developed annealing heat treatment conditions. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the heat-treated samples were then investigated. Test results showed that considering the effects of the microstructure and the hardness, the HT1, the HT2 or the soaking temperatures between the HT1 and HT2 were the most recommended processes to modified Grade 440A MSS. When using the recommended processes, their carbides were fine and more evenly distributed, and the microhardness was as low as 210 Hv, which can be applied to the actual production process.

  17. Preparation of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox precursor powders by a modified polyethylene glycol based sol-gel process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Andersen, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    A modified sol-gel process based on polyethylene glycol has been developed for preparing (Bi,Pb)(2)Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox precursor powders in view of Ag-sheeted tape manufacture. A careful control of the pH and concentration temperature yields an amorphous gel, which can be converted to a fine and extremely...... reactive powder. The reactions taking place during the process were studied. Various calcination conditions were used in order to obtain precursor powders having different characteristics (grain size distribution. phase assembly). The influence of precursor preparation parameters on the formation...

  18. ALUMINIZING OIL CASING STEEL N80 BY A LOW-TEMPERATURE PACK PROCESSING MODIFIED WITH ZINC ADDITION

    OpenAIRE

    MIN HUANG; YU WANG; XIAO YONG ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Different aluminide coatings were prepared on oil casing steel N80 at a relatively lower temperature of 530°C for 2 h by pack powder modified with different content of zinc (Zn). The cross-sectional microstructure, element distribution and properties of as-aluminized oil casing steel N80 were investigated by SEM, EDS, micro-hardness test and electrochemical corrosion measurement. Results show that aluminide coating with around 50 μm in thickness can be successfully achieved by a low-temperatu...

  19. An investigation of effects of modification processes on physical properties and mechanism of drug release for sustaining drug release from modified rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Vuong Duy; Luu, Thinh Duc; Van Vo, Toi [Pharmaceutical Engineering Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Department, International University, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Tran, Van-Thanh [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Duan, Wei [School of Medicine, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien, E-mail: phuong.tran1@deakin.edu.au [School of Medicine, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh, E-mail: ttdthao@hcmiu.edu.vn [Pharmaceutical Engineering Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Department, International University, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of modification processes on physical properties and explain the mechanism of sustained drug release from modified rice (MR). Various types of Vietnamese rice were introduced in the study as the matrices of sustained release dosage form. Rice was thermally modified in water for a determined temperature at different times with a simple process. Then tablets containing MR and isradipine, the model drug, were prepared to investigate the capability of sustained drug release. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine different morphologies between MR formulations. Flow property of MR was analyzed by Hausner ratio and Carr's indices. The dissolution rate and swelling/erosion behaviors of tablets were evaluated at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 at 37 ± 0.5 °C. The matrix tablet containing MR showed a sustained release as compared to the control. The SEM analyses and swelling/erosion studies indicated that the morphology as well as swelling/erosion rate of MR were modulated by modification time, drying method and incubation. It was found that the modification process was crucial because it could highly affect the granule morphologies and hence, leading to the change of flowability and swelling/erosion capacity for sustained release of drug. - Highlights: • Modification process affected granule morphologies and flowability of modified rice. • Modification process affected swelling/erosion capacity for drug sustained release. • Freeze-drying could decrease the erosion as well as increase the swelling rate.

  20. Simultaneous removal of multiple pesticides from water: effect of organically modified clays as coagulant aid and adsorbent in coagulation-flocculation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabeer, T P Ahammed; Saha, Ajoy; Gajbhiye, V T; Gupta, Suman; Manjaiah, K M; Varghese, Eldho

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water sources with agrochemical residues became a major concern in the twenty-first century. Coagulation-flocculation is the most widely used water-treatment process, but the efficiency to remove pesticides and other organic pollutants are limited compared to adsorption process. Thus, simultaneous action of adsorption on normal bentonite or organo-modified montmorillonite clays [modified with octadecylamine (ODA-M) and octadecylamine + amino-propyltriethoxysilane (ODAAPS-M)] followed by coagulation-flocculation by alum and poly aluminium chloride has been evaluated for removal of 10 different pesticides, namely atrazine, lindane, metribuzin, aldrin, chlorpyriphos, pendimethalin, alpha-endosulphan, beta-endosulphan, p,p'-DDT, cypermethrin and two of its metabolites, endosulphan sulphate and p,p'-DDE, from water. The coagulation without integration of adsorption was less effective (removal % varies from 12 to 49) than the adsorption-coagulation integrated system (removal % varies from 71 to 100). Further, coagulation integrated with adsorption was more effective when organically modified montmorillonite was used as adsorbent compared to normal bentonite. The removal efficiency of organic clay depends upon the concentration of pesticides, doses of clay minerals, and efficiency was more for ODAAPS-M as compared to ODA-M. The combination of ODAAPS-M-clay with coagulants was also used efficiently for the removal of pesticides from natural and fortified natural water collected and the results exhibit the usefulness of this remediation technique for application in water decontamination and in treatment of industrial and agricultural waste waters.

  1. Quasireversible Process of Dopamine on Copper-Nickel Hydroxide Composite/Nitrogen Doped Graphene/Nafion Modified GCE and Its Electrochemical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-yin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Ni(OH2/N-GR/Nafion/GCE has been prepared by electrodeposition and activation with NaOH. The proposed modified GCE was studied by electrochemical methods. It is found that dopamine shows favorable redox cyclic voltammetric response on the proposed modified GCE with peak separation of 25 mV and large current compared with on single-component modified GCE. The kinetic of electrode process has also been investigated with rate constant of 6.618 × 10−3 cm/s, which can be deduced to be a quasireversible or near-reversible process. The proposed method has been used for DA detection with linear range of 1.0 × 10−7 mol/L to 4.6 × 10−5 mol/L, and the detection limit is 3.3 × 10−8 mol/L. The proposed method has favorable stability and reproducibility and has also been used to determine DA in simulated samples and DA injections with favorable recoveries of 98.4% to 102.6%.

  2. Ethical, cultural and spiritual objections to genetically modified organisms: a review of the New Zealand process and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jean S

    2004-06-01

    The New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification was directed to investigate the strategic options available to address the use of genetically modified organisms and products. The Commission spent 14 months hearing submissions in public meetings and formal hearings. Over 10,000 written public submissions were received. Most were against any use of the technology in food, and many were angry at the lack of product labelling and therefore choice. Few were supportive, although there was little objection to the use of genetic technology or modified organisms in containment, especially for medical research. Many New Zealanders had strong spiritual objections to the creation of transgenic animals containing human DNA, which they described as "playing God" or "interfering with Nature". Many expressed lack of trust in scientists and biotechnology companies. Despite these views, the Commission concluded that New Zealand should keep its options open and proceed carefully, minimising and managing risks. The Commission recommended that Government establish a Bioethics Council to act as a transparent advisory body and prepare guidelines on biotechnology, enabling public education and participation in decision-making.

  3. Scalability of the LEU-Modified Cintichem Process: 3-MeV Van de Graaff and 35-MeV Electron Linear Accelerator Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Brossard, Tom [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Roussin, Ethan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Jonah, Charles [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hafenrichter, Lohman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Krebs, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-10-31

    Molybdenum-99, the mother of Tc-99m, can be produced from fission of U-235 in nuclear reactors and purified from fission products by the Cintichem process, later modified for low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The key step in this process is the precipitation of Mo with α-benzoin oxime (ABO). The stability of this complex to radiation has been examined. Molybdenum-ABO was irradiated with 3 MeV electrons produced by a Van de Graaff generator and 35 MeV electrons produced by a 50 MeV/25 kW electron linear accelerator. Dose equivalents of 1.7–31.2 kCi of Mo-99 were administered to freshly prepared Mo-ABO. Irradiated samples of Mo-ABO were processed according to the LEU Modified-Cintichem process. The Van de Graaff data indicated good radiation stability of the Mo-ABO complex up to ~15 kCi dose equivalents of Mo-99 and nearly complete destruction at doses >24 kCi Mo-99. The linear accelerator data indicate that even at 6.2 kCi of Mo-99 equivalence of dose, the sample lost ~20% of Mo-99. The 20% loss of Mo-99 at this low dose may be attributed to thermal decomposition of the product from the heat deposited in the sample during irradiation.

  4. Differential Evolution Algorithm for System Identification and Tuning of a Fuzzy Modified Model Reference Adaptive Controller for a Coupled Tank Level Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Asan Mohideen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the transient performance of the MRAC has been a point of research for a long time. The main objective of the paper is to design an MRAC with improved transient and steady state performance. This paper proposes a Fuzzy modified MRAC (FMRAC to control a coupled tank level process. The FMRAC uses a proportional control based Mamdani-type Fuzzy inference system (MFIS to improve the transient performance of a direct MRAC. In addition, it proposes the application of Differential Evolution (DE algorithm to tune the membership function parameters off-line of the FMRAC to improve its performance further. The proposed controller is called DE based Fuzzy Modified Model Reference Adaptive Controller (DEFMRAC. In this study, an MRAC, an FMRAC and the proposed DEFMRAC are designed for a coupled tank level process and their performances are compared. The coupled tank level process is modeled by using system identification procedure and the accuracy of the resultant model is further improved by parameter tuning using DE. The simulation results show that the FMRAC gives better transient performance than the direct MRAC. The results also show that the proposed DEFMRAC gives better transient performance than the direct MRAC or the FMRAC. It is concluded that the proposed controller can be used to obtain very good transient and steady state performance in the control of nonlinear processes.

  5. Additives affecting properties of β-Li2TiO3 pebbles in a modified indirect wet chemistry process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Long; Liu, Wei; Yang, Long-Tao; Wang, Dao-Yi; Wu, Kang; Zhang, Zeng-Ping; Wang, Xiu-Feng; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

    2016-11-01

    Lithium metatitanate (β-Li2TiO3) pebbles were fabricated via the modified indirect wet chemistry method. Effect of varied additives, as polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol, and agar on the properties evolution was investigated. The highest density is obtained by adding 2 wt% (weight percent) polyvinyl alcohol, 3 wt% glycerol, and 3 wt% agar, respectively. β-Li2TiO3 pebbles with relative sintered density of 92.4%T.D. (Theoretical Density), the ratio of the intensity of diffraction peak (002) to that of (-133) of about 2.93, about 1.58 mm in diameter, a better sphericity of 1.02, the particle size of 5-6 μm, and the well-developed surface layered structure are successfully fabricated with 3 wt% glycerol. Glycerol is beneficial to improving the properties by other fabrication method as well.

  6. Modified Sol-Gel Processing of NiCr2O4 Nanoparticles; Structural Analysis and Optical Band Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhessari, Morteza; Salehabadi, Ali; Khanahmadzadeh, Salah; Arkat, Kamal; Nouri, Jalal

    2017-02-01

    Nickel Chromite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a modified sol-gel method using nickel acetate and ammonium dichromate in melted stearic acid as a complexing agent. The diffractograms of the nanoparticles confirmed a pure formation of NiCr2O4 spinel without any minor phase. The coordination structure of as prepared nanoparticles shows a series of absorption bands below 1,000 cm-1 were evidenced the M-O (Cr-O, Ni-O) bond in the sample. Optical band gap, magnetic properties and color parameters (L*.a*.b*) indicates that the final nanoparticles are optically and magnetically active. The particle size of NiCr2O4 was calculated using Scherrer equation at about 24 nm. Optical band gap obtained at 1.7 eV indicating that NiCr2O4 nanoparticles are semiconductor material and can be used in electrical devices.

  7. An investigation of effects of modification processes on physical properties and mechanism of drug release for sustaining drug release from modified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Vuong Duy; Luu, Thinh Duc; Van Vo, Toi; Tran, Van-Thanh; Duan, Wei; Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of modification processes on physical properties and explain the mechanism of sustained drug release from modified rice (MR). Various types of Vietnamese rice were introduced in the study as the matrices of sustained release dosage form. Rice was thermally modified in water for a determined temperature at different times with a simple process. Then tablets containing MR and isradipine, the model drug, were prepared to investigate the capability of sustained drug release. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine different morphologies between MR formulations. Flow property of MR was analyzed by Hausner ratio and Carr's indices. The dissolution rate and swelling/erosion behaviors of tablets were evaluated at pH 1.2 and pH6.8 at 37±0.5°C. The matrix tablet containing MR showed a sustained release as compared to the control. The SEM analyses and swelling/erosion studies indicated that the morphology as well as swelling/erosion rate of MR were modulated by modification time, drying method and incubation. It was found that the modification process was crucial because it could highly affect the granule morphologies and hence, leading to the change of flowability and swelling/erosion capacity for sustained release of drug.

  8. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  9. Synthesis of LiMn2O4 and LiCr0.2Mn1.8O4 powders by modified Pechini process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Urbano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LiMn2O4 and LiCr0.2Mn1.8O4 powders were synthesized by Pechini process, modified in order to reduce the number of steps and to work at temperatures below or equal to 400oC. Both phases crystallize in the same spinel structure with lattice constants of 8.21 and 8.22 Å respectively. Although the annealing temperature was low, the cristallinity is good and no residual amounts of organic material were detected.

  10. Modified Ishikawa Iteration Process for Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings%渐近非扩张映象的修正的Ishikawa迭代程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾六川

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the strong convergence of the modified Ishikawa iterative process for fixed points of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces. Our results unify, generalize and improve some recent results in the present references.%本文研究一致凸Banach空间中关于渐近非扩张映象不动点的修正的Ishikawa迭代程序的强收敛性.本文结果统一,推广与改进了目前文献中的一些最新结果.

  11. Does the cation really matter? The effect of modifying an ionic liquid cation on an SN2 process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Eden E L; Yau, Hon Man; Hawker, Rebecca R; Croft, Anna K; Harper, Jason B

    2013-09-28

    The rate of reaction of a Menschutkin process in a range of ionic liquids with different cations was investigated, with temperature-dependent kinetic data giving access to activation parameters for the process in each solvent. These data, along with molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrate the importance of accessibility of the charged centre on the cation and that the key interactions are of a generalised electrostatic nature.

  12. Improved consistency in DNPH-mediated pyruvic acid analysis of onion juice by modifying the sample processing order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-01

    Onion pungency is commonly measured on absorbency of the wine pink color that results from adding NaOH to the heated mixture of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and onion juice. However, significant variation exists among several modifications of the original Schwimmer and Weston (SW) method. We observed differences in pyruvic acid concentrations of 20%-30% between our automated method and a batch method with manual absorbency readings. To determine the source of the differences, we examined the heating time and waiting time of the sample-DNPH mixtures and found no differences. The differences were caused by differential color degradation between the pyruvic acid standards and onion juice samples. These differences could be minimized by reading the absorbency within 1 min of NaOH addition. Using this information, we devised the one-by-one method to control the reading time at 30 s. We compared 5 different analysis methods of 40 onion samples representing 4 onion colors. The automated, high-performance liquid chromatography, and SW methods had similar results, with only about a 5% difference. However, the batch method resulted in differences of approximately 24% as compared to the automated method. The one-by-one method produced very comparable results, within 5%, to the automated method. By modifying the procedure to ensure a uniform and fast reading time, we increased the consistency between the pungency analysis methods. Therefore, fast and uniform absorbency reading time is essential for an accurate measurement of pungency in undiluted onion juice.

  13. Magnetic behavior of iron-modified MCM-41 correlated with clustering processes from the wet impregnation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Natalia I.; Elías, Verónica R. [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina); Winkler, Elin [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica – CONICET, Avenue Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Pozo-López, Gabriela; Oliva, Marcos I. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba – IFEG, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Eimer, Griselda A., E-mail: geimer@frc.utn.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina)

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic MCM-41 type mesoporous silica materials were synthetized and modified with different iron loadings by the wet impregnation method. The evolution of iron speciation, depending on the metal loading and associated with a particular magnetic behavior was investigated by M vs. H curves, FC–ZFC curves, EPR spectroscopy and other complementary techniques such as SEM, TEM, and chemisorption of pyridine followed by FT-IR studies. A superparamagnetic contribution was larger for the lower loadings suggesting the high dispersion of very small sized iron nanospecies. However, this contribution decreased with increasing metal loading due to the growth of magnetically blocked nanoparticles (hematite) on the outer surface. Finally, a bimodal size distribution for the superparamagnetic nanospecies could be inferred; then the anisotropy constant for this phase and the corresponding nanospecies sizes were estimated. - Highlights: • All samples showed a main superparamagnetic contribution. • The oxide particles grow at expense of superparamagnetic nanospecies. • Bimodal distribution of nanospecies in superparamagnetic regime was determined. • The anisotropy constant for superparamagnetic nanospecies was calculated.

  14. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  15. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi{sub 5} for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, J.

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB{sub 5} alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi{sub 5} substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 {micro}m) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB{sub 5} alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB{sub 5} alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB{sub 5} alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB{sub 5} alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB{sub 5} production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle applications in the foreseeable

  16. Influence of wood properties and technological parameters of processing on cutting power in milling of thermally modified beechwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of influence of thermal modification on cutting power required for milling wood processing. The experiment was conducted for the different treatment temperatures (170°C, 190°C and 210°C and different technological parameters of processing (feed and cutting depth. Cutting powers during milling were measured on four groups of beech wood samples, dimensions 35×16×400 mm, separately for heartwood and sapwood. The following mechanical and physical properties of the processed samples were tested: bending properties (modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, cross-sectional and tangential hardness, and air-dry density. The measuring device used for measuring, monitoring and displaying cutting power was developed at the Wood Machining Centre at the Faculty of Forestry in Belgrade. The results point out the differences in the powers required for processing heat-treated wood compared to untreated wood. The analysis shows that with the increase in treatment temperature, the required cutting powers decrease.

  17. Characterization of an extensin-modifying metalloprotease: N-terminal processing and substrate cleavage pattern of Pectobacterium carotovorum Prt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Tao; Nyffenegger, Christian; Højrup, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, proteases are less well understood. In this study, the extracellular metalloprotease Prt1 from Pectobacterium carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora) was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized with respect to N-terminal processing...

  18. 3D amorphous carbon and graphene co-modified LiFePO4 composite derived from polyol process as electrode for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Wu; Ran Ran; Bote Zhao; Yujing Sha; Chao Su; Yingke Zhou; Zongping Shao

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous carbon and graphene co-modified LiFePO4 nanocomposite has been synthesized via a facile polyol process in connection with a following thermal treatment. Various characterization techniques, including XRD, M ¨ossbauer spectra, Raman spectra, SEM, TEM, BET, O2-TPO, galvano charge-discharge, CV and EIS were applied to investigate the phase composition, carbon content, morphological structure and electrochemical performance of the synthesized samples. The effect of introducing way of carbon sources on the properties and performance of LiFePO4/C/graphene composite was paid special attention. Under optimized synthetic conditions, highly crystalized olivine-type LiFePO4 was successfully obtained with electron conductive Fe2P and FeP as the main impurity phases. SEM and TEM analyses demonstrated the graphene sheets were randomly distributed inside the sample to create an open structured LiFePO4 with respect to graphene, while the glucose-derived carbon mainly coated over LiFePO4 particles which effectively connected the graphene sheets and LiFePO4 particles to result in a more efficient charge transfer process. As a result, favorable electrochemical performance was achieved. The performance of the amorphous carbon-graphene co-modified LiFePO4 was further progressively improved upon cycling in the first 200 cycles to reach a reversible specific capacity as high as 97 mAh·g-1 at 10 C rate.

  19. Determination of two-liquid mixture composition by assessing its dielectric parameters 2. modified measuring system for monitoring the dehydration process of bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.; Rucins, A.; Zihmane-Ritina, K.; Bremers, G.

    2014-02-01

    In Part 2 of the work we describe a modified measuring system for precise monitoring of the dehydration process of bioethanol production. This is based on the earlier proposed system for measuring the concentration of solutions and two-liquid mixtures using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300pF), which provides a stable measuring resolution of ± 0.005 pF at measuring the capacitance of a sensor. In this part of our work we determine additional requirements that are to be imposed on the measuring system at monitoring the ethanol dehydration process and control of bioethanol production. The most important parameters of the developed measuring system are identified. An exemplary calculation is given for the thermocompensated calibration of measuring devices. The results of tests have shown a good performance of the developed measuring system.

  20. Modifying metal nanoparticle placement on carbon supports using an aerosol-based process, with application to the environmental remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Bhanukiran; Zhan, Jingjing; Kolesnichenko, Igor; Wang, Yingqing; He, Jibao; Holland, Jennifer E; McPherson, Gary L; John, Vijay T

    2011-06-21

    A facile aerosol-based process (ABP) is developed to vary the placement of iron nanoparticles on the external surface of carbon microspheres or within the interior. This is accomplished through the competitive mechanisms of sucrose carbonization and the precipitation of soluble iron salts, in an aerosol droplet passing through a high temperature heating zone. At lower aerosolization temperatures, carbonization occurs first leading to iron salt precipitation on the external surface, while at higher temperatures interior placement occurs through concurrent iron salt precipitation and sucrose carbonization. The resulting composites are highly conducive to the reductive dechlorination of compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) as the carbon support is a strong adsorbent, and zerovalent iron effectively reduces TCE to innocuous gases such as ethane. Since both iron and carbon are widely used catalysts and catalyst supports, the simple process of modifying iron placement has significant potential applications in heterogeneous catalysis. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. A Modified Model for Flexibility Analysis in Chemical Engineering Processes%化工过程中柔性分析的改进模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 何小荣; 徐强

    2004-01-01

    This paper discussed an extended model for flexibility analysis of chemical process. Under uncertainty, probability density function is used to describe uncertain parameters instead of hyper-rectangle, and chanceconstrained programming is a feasible way to deal with the violation of constraints. Because the feasible region of control variables would change along with uncertain parameters, its smallest acceptable size threshold is presented to ensure the controllability condition. By synthesizing the considerations mentioned above, a modified model can describe the flexibility analysis problem more exactly. Then a hybrid algorithm, which integrates stochastic simulation and genetic algorithm, is applied to solve this model and maximize the flexibility region. Both numerical and chemical process examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  2. Determination of two-liquid mixture composition by assessing its dielectric parameters 2. modified measuring system for monitoring the dehydration process of bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilitis O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Part 2 of the work we describe a modified measuring system for precise monitoring of the dehydration process of bioethanol production. This is based on the earlier proposed system for measuring the concentration of solutions and two-liquid mixtures using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300pF, which provides a stable measuring resolution of ± 0.005 pF at measuring the capacitance of a sensor. In this part of our work we determine additional requirements that are to be imposed on the measuring system at monitoring the ethanol dehydration process and control of bioethanol production. The most important parameters of the developed measuring system are identified. An exemplary calculation is given for the thermocompensated calibration of measuring devices. The results of tests have shown a good performance of the developed measuring system.

  3. Revisão: alimentos frescos minimamente processados embalados em atmosfera modificada Review: fresh, minimally processed foods packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Silva Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Os alimentos frescos, minimamente processados e embalados sob atmosfera modificada atraem os consumidores que procuram produtos frescos e saudáveis, e que, ao mesmo tempo, são fáceis de transportar e preparar. A atmosfera no interior das embalagens consiste numa mistura de gases que está otimizada para cada alimento, de modo a preservar as suas qualidades durante mais tempo. A manutenção da temperatura de refrigeração durante o processamento, o armazenamento, a distribuição e a comercialização é essencial, por causa da natureza perecível dos produtos frescos minimamente processados. Este trabalho discute o estado de arte dos alimentos frescos minimamente processados (frutas, vegetais, carnes e pescados embalados em atmosfera modificada, com uma descrição pormenorizada dos últimos desenvolvimentos nesse campo.Fresh, minimally processed foods packaged under modified atmospheres are attractive to consumers searching for fresh healthy products that are also easy to transport and prepare. The atmosphere inside the package is a blend of gases optimized for each type of food, such that the quality characteristics are preserved for longer. However, due to the perishable nature of minimally processed fresh foods, maintenance at refrigeration temperatures is essential during processing, storage, distribution and commercialization. This paper discusses the state of art of minimally processed fresh foods (fruit and vegetables, meat and fish packaged under modified atmosphere, with a detailed description of the latest developments in this field.

  4. Influence of exchange group of modified glycidyl methacrylate polymer on phenol removal: A study by batch and continuous flow processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Thiago Muza; da Silva, Carla Michele Frota; da Rocha, Paulo Cristiano Silva; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of water by phenol is potentially a serious problem due to its high toxicity and its acid character. In this way some treatment process to remove or reduce the phenol concentration before contaminated water disposal on the environment is required. Currently, phenol can be removed by charcoal adsorption, but this process does not allow easy regeneration of the adsorbent. In contrast, polymeric resins are easily regenerated and can be reused in others cycles of adsorption process. In this work, the interaction of phenol with two polymeric resins was investigated, one of them containing a weakly basic anionic exchange group (GD-DEA) and the other, a strongly basic group (GD-QUAT). Both ion exchange resins were obtained through chemical modifications from a base porous resin composed of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinyl benzene (DVB). Evaluation tests with resins were carried out with 30 mg/L of phenol in water solution, at pH 6 and 10, employing two distinct processes: (i) batch, to evaluate the effect of temperature, and (ii) continuous flow, to assess the breakthrough of the resins. Batch tests revealed that the systems did not follow the model proposed by Langmuir due to the negative values obtained for the constant b and for the maximum adsorption capacity, Q0. However, satisfactory results for the constants KF and n allowed assuming that the behavior of systems followed the Freundlich model, leading to the conclusion that resin GD-DEA had the best interaction with the phenol when in a solution having pH 10 (phenoxide ions). The continuous flow tests corroborated this conclusion since the performance of GD-DEA in removing phenol was also best at pH 10, indicating that the greater availability of the electron pair in the resin with the weakly basic donor group contributed to enhance the resin's interaction with the phenoxide ions.

  5. Can nutritional information modify purchase of ultra-processed products? Results from a simulated online shopping experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Arrúa, Alejandra; Giménez, Ana; Curutchet, María Rosa; Martínez, Joseline; Ares, Gastón

    2017-07-18

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of two front-of-pack nutrition information schemes (traffic-light system and Chilean warning system) on consumer purchase of ultra-processed foods in a simulated online grocery store. Following a between-subjects design, participants completed a simulated weekly food purchase in an online grocery store under one of three experimental conditions: (i) a control condition with no nutrition information, (ii) a traffic-light system and (iii) the Chilean warning system. Information about energy (calories), sugar, saturated fats and salt content was included in the nutrition information schemes. Participants were recruited from a consumer database and a Facebook advertisement. People from Montevideo (Uruguay), aged 18-77 years (n 437; 75 % female), participated in the study. All participants were in charge of food purchase in the household, at least occasionally. No significant differences between experimental conditions were found in the mean share of ultra-processed foods purchased by participants, both in terms of number of products and expenditure, or in the mean energy, sugar, saturated fat and salt content of the purchased items. However, the Chilean warning system decreased intended purchase of sweets and desserts. Results from this online simulation provided little evidence to suggest that the traffic-light system or the Chilean warning system in isolation could be effective in reducing purchase of ultra-processed foods or improving the nutritional composition of the purchased products.

  6. Fault diagnosis of nonlinear and large-scale processes using novel modified kernel Fisher discriminant analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaitao; Liu, Jianchang; Wu, Yuhou; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Lixiu; Xue, Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is pretty significant for fault diagnosis timely and accurately to improve the dependability of industrial processes. In this study, fault diagnosis of nonlinear and large-scale processes by variable-weighted kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA) based on improved biogeography-based optimisation (IBBO) is proposed, referred to as IBBO-KFDA, where IBBO is used to determine the parameters of variable-weighted KFDA, and variable-weighted KFDA is used to solve the multi-classification overlapping problem. The main contributions of this work are four-fold to further improve the performance of KFDA for fault diagnosis. First, a nonlinear fault diagnosis approach with variable-weighted KFDA is developed for maximising separation between the overlapping fault samples. Second, kernel parameters and features selection of variable-weighted KFDA are simultaneously optimised using IBBO. Finally, a single fitness function that combines erroneous diagnosis rate with feature cost is created, a novel mixed kernel function is introduced to improve the classification capability in the feature space and diagnosis accuracy of the IBBO-KFDA, and serves as the target function in the optimisation problem. Moreover, an IBBO approach is developed to obtain the better quality of solution and faster convergence speed. On the one hand, the proposed IBBO-KFDA method is first used on Tennessee Eastman process benchmark data sets to validate the feasibility and efficiency. On the other hand, IBBO-KFDA is applied to diagnose faults of automation gauge control system. Simulation results demonstrate that IBBO-KFDA can obtain better kernel parameters and feature vectors with a lower computing cost, higher diagnosis accuracy and a better real-time capacity.

  7. Sintering process influence on microstructure and intergranular impedance of rare-earth modified BaTiO3-ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Sintering process is a complex of different synergetic effects during the ceramics materials consolidation. The microstructural level properties control is very important as a stage in advanced materials prognosis. SEM analysis of Yb/BaTiO3 doped ceramics showed that in samples doped with a low level of dopant and sintered at higher temperatures the grain size ranged from 10-60μm, while with the higher dopant concentration the grain size ranged between 2-15μm. The morphology of sintered...

  8. Transformações bioquímicas de abacaxi minimamente processado armazenado sob atmosfera modificada Biochemical modifications of pineapple minimally processed under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo sobre a influência da atmosfera modificada com diferentes concentrações de gases durante o armazenamento de abacaxi cv. Smooth cayennne minimamente processado, por oito dias, à temperatura de 5ºC e 85% de UR. Foram realizadas análises de açúcares neutros, celulose, hemicelulose e poliuronídeos totais na parede celular. O abacaxi minimamente processado foi acondicionado sob duas Atmosferas Modificadas Ativas, uma com 5% de O2 e 5% de CO2 (AM1,outra com 2% de O2 e 10% de CO2 (AM2,e uma Atmosfera Modificada Passiva (Controle durante 8 dias de armazenamento. O uso de atmosferas modificadas ativas permitiu que o abacaxi minimamente processado sofresse menor degradação da parede celular com menor solubilização das hemiceluloses. Abacaxis minimamente processados e armazenados sob atmosfera modificada obtiveram uma vida de prateleira média de 6 dias, a 5º C.Pineapples minimally processed were, stored eight days (5ºC and 85% RH under passive and active atmosphere (MA. Neutral sugars, cellulose, hemicellulose, and total polyuronide analysis in cell wall were done. Two different active MA were tested: 5% of O2 + 5% of CO2 (MA1 and 2% of O2 + 10% of CO2 (MA2 and one passive MA (Control; during eight days of storage. Pineapples minimally processed stored under active modified atmosphere showed degradation of cell wall and less solubilization of hemicelluloses, besides being more effective in control of ethanol production and formation of off flavours. Pineapples minimally processed stored under modified atmosphere, showed life average of 6 days under refrigeration at 5ºC.

  9. Design and analysis of modified Smith predictors for self-regulating and non-self regulating processes with dead time

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanakumar, G; Nayak, C G

    2007-01-01

    A modification of Smith predictor for controlling the higher order processes with integral action ad long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a Dead Time Compensator(DTC), which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, robust performance of tuning formulae and to obtain a critically damped system which is as fast as possible in its setpoint and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

  10. Exposure to minimally processed pear and melon during shelf life could modify the pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Oliveira, Márcia; Anguera, Marina; Serrano, Jose C E; Abadias, Maribel

    2017-04-01

    Survival and virulence of foodborne pathogens can be influenced by environmental factors such as the intrinsic properties of food as well as the extrinsic properties that contribute to food shelf life (e.g., temperature and gas atmosphere). The direct contribution of food matrix characteristics on the survival of L. monocytogenes during fresh-cut fruit shelf life is not very well understood. In addition, the gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of listeriosis infection and penetration of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is the first step in the infection process. Hence, the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes, measured as the capability for the organism to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract and the proportion of cells able to subsequently adhere to and invade differentiated Caco-2 cells, subjected to fresh-cut pear and melon shelf life, was investigated. Samples were inoculated, stored at 10 °C for 7 days and evaluated after inoculation and again after 2 and 7 days of storage. A decrease in L. monocytogenes' capacity to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract was observed with increasing storage time, regardless of the fruit matrix evaluated. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes placed on fresh-cut pear and melon was subjected to an attachment and invasion assay after crossing the simulated gastrointestinal tract. After inoculation, pathogen on fresh-cut pear showed 5-fold more capacity to adhere to Caco-2 cells than pathogen on fresh-cut melon. After 2 days of storage, L. monocytogenes grown on fresh-cut melon showed similar adhesive capacity (1.11%) than cells grown on pear (1.83%), but cells grown on melon had the higher invasive capacity (0.0093%). We can conclude that minimally processed melon could represent a more important hazard than pear under the studied shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using a Modified Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Scheme (MSPAS) to Simulate the Interaction between Land Surface Processes and Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Semi-Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树华; 乐旭; 胡非; 刘辉志

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a Modified Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Scheme (MSPAS) to study the interaction between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer processes. The scheme is composed of two main parts:atmospheric boundary layer processes and land surface processes. Compared with SiB and BATS, which are famous for their detailed parameterizations of physical variables, this simplified model is more convenient and saves much more computation time. Though simple, the feasibility of the model is well proved in this paper. The numerical simulation results from MSPAS show good agreement with reality. The scheme is used to obtain reasonable simulations for diurnal variations of heat balance, potential temperature of boundary layer, and wind field, and spatial distributions of temperature, specific humidity, vertical velocity,turbulence kinetic energy, and turbulence exchange coefficient over desert and oasis. In addition, MSPAS is used to simulate the interaction between desert and oasis at night, and again it obtains reasonable results.This indicates that MSPAS can be used to study the interaction between land surface processes and the atmospheric boundary layer over various underlying surfaces and can be extended for regional climate and numerical weather prediction study.

  12. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs on a novel Ti/SiC metal matrix nanocomposite modified by friction stir processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenyuan; Lv, Yuting; Qian, Chao; Qian, Haixin; Jiao, Ting; Wang, Liqiang; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to fabricate a novel titanium/silicon carbide (Ti/SiC) metal matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) by friction stir processing (FSP) and to investigate its microstructure and mechanical properties. In addition, the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the nanocomposite surface were investigated. The MMNC microstructure was observed by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterized by nanoindentation and Vickers hardness testing. Integrin β1 immunofluorescence, cell adhesion, and MTT assays were used to evaluate the effects of the nanocomposite on cell adhesion and proliferation. Osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation were evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, PCR and osteocalcin immunofluorescence. The observed microstructures and mechanical properties clearly indicated that FSP is a very effective technique for modifying Ti/SiC MMNC to contain uniformly distributed nanoparticles. In the interiors of recrystallized grains, characteristics including twins, fine recrystallized grains, and dislocations formed concurrently. Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs were all enhanced on the novel Ti/SiC MMNC surface. In conclusion, nanocomposites modified using FSP technology not only have superior mechanical properties under stress-bearing conditions but also provide improved surface and physicochemical properties for cell attachment and osseointegration.

  13. Qualidade da alface crespa minimamente processada acondicionada em atmosfera modificada Quality of minimally processed crisp head lettuce packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mendes Roversi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A alface Crespa (Lactuca sativa L.foi minimamente processada, tendo suas folhas destacadas e higienizadas, embalada em sacos plásticos de polietileno com modificação ativa da atmosfera dentro do pacote. Duas atmosferas foram aplicadas, variando-se o nível de CO2 em 10 e 15%, reduzindo nos dois casos o O2 a 5%. Após o acondicionamento, a alface foi imediatamente refrigerada. Comparou-se a qualidade da alface com e sem atmosfera modificada durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Monitoraram-se a variação da concentração de O2 e CO2 no interior das embalagens e a vida-útil da alface pela análise sensorial e microbiológica e a variação de sólidos solúveis. A influência da atmosfera modificada no crescimento de microrganismos e na variação de sólidos solúveis não foi relevante. Entretanto, essa tecnologia reduziu as taxas de respiração e, conseqüentemente, minimizou as perdas de qualidade sensorial da alface durante todo o armazenamento. A vida-útil da alface em atmosfera modificada foi estendida em até cinco dias além daquela alcançada pela alface acondicionada em atmosfera normal.The crisp head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.was minimally processed, with the leaves being detached and cleaned, packaged in plastic bags made of polyethylene with modified atmosphere inside the bag. Two different atmospheres were applied: 10 and 15% of CO2, with the O2 level being reduced in both cases to 5%. After the packing, the lettuce was immediately refrigerated. The product quality with and without modified atmosphere was compared during the storage time. It was accompanied the changes in O2 and CO2 concentration inside the packaging and the product shelf life, through sensorial and microbiological analysis, and soluble solids variation. The influence of modified atmosphere in microorganisms grown and in soluble solids variation was not relevant. However this technology reduced the lettuce respiration rates and the quality sensorial loss

  14. Enlarging the linear response range of velocity with optimum imaging parameters and modified data processing in laser speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianjun; Li, Pengcheng; Ul'yanov, Sergey S.; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2008-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) technique is considered as a promising method of accessing cerebral blood flow (CBF) of animals for its high spatiotemporal resolution and simplicity. It is important in LSI that optimum imaging parameters and limited noises should be confirmed to promote the imaging precision. We investigated in this paper different factors which may affect the imaging results with a moving white plate model, and then proposed a method of enlarging the linear response range of velocity. Through experiment, we proposed in our LSI system the optimum imaging parameters, including the numerical aperture and magnification of microscopy, the integration time, the gain mode of CCD camera. The average intensity was found optimum at about 800 counts out of 4096 grey level, which permits the highest contrast in our experiment. To eliminate the influence of uneven illumination, a direct current weight of 27 counts was subtracted during data processing. The result indicated that the relationship between measured velocity and the real one remained linear with R2 equaling to 0.99 throughout the scale of 80 mm/s.

  15. Sintering process influence on microstructure and intergranular impedance of rare-earth modified BaTiO3-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitic V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintering process is a complex of different synergetic effects during the ceramics materials consolidation. The microstructural level properties control is very important as a stage in advanced materials prognosis. SEM analysis of Yb/BaTiO3 doped ceramics showed that in samples doped with a low level of dopant and sintered at higher temperatures the grain size ranged from 10-60μm, while with the higher dopant concentration the grain size ranged between 2-15μm. The morphology of sintered BaTiO3-ceramics grains points out the validity of developing new structure analytical methods based on different geometries of grains' model systems. The idea of electrical properties of BaTiO3-ceramics being influenced by intergrain microcontacts can be successfully followed if we start with the two-sphere Coble’s model and also the correction of the Coble’s model. In this paper, the grains contact models based on spherical, ellipsoidal and polyhedral geometries are presented making a new modeling tool for structure research of BaTiO3-ceramics materials. Intergranular impedance analysis of grains clusters was also introduced. Obtained results enabled establishment of interrelation between structural and electrical parameters.

  16. Cintichem modified process - {sup 99}Mo precipitation step: application of statistical analysis tools over the reaction parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoro, Rodrigo; Dias, Carla R.B.R.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Precipitation of {sup 99}Mo by {alpha}-benzoin oxime ({alpha}-Bz) is a standard precipitation method for molybdenum due the high selectivity of this agent. Nowadays, statistical analysis tools have been employed in analytical systems to prove its efficiency and feasibility. IPEN has a project aiming the production of {sup 99}Mo by the fission of {sup 235}U route. The processing uses as the first step the precipitation of {sup 99}Mo with {alpha}-Bz. This precipitation step involves many key reaction parameters. The aim of this work is based on the development of the already known acidic route to produce {sup 99}Mo as well as the optimization of the reactional parameters applying statistical tools. In order to simulate {sup 99}Mo precipitation, the study was conducted in acidic media using HNO{sub 3}, {alpha}Bz as precipitant agent and NaOH /1%H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as dissolver solution. Then, a Mo carrier, KMnO{sub 4} solutions and {sup 99}Mo tracer were added to the reaction flask. The reactional parameters ({alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, Mo carrier, reaction time and temperature, and cooling reaction time before filtration) were evaluated under a fractional factorial design of resolution V. The best values of each reactional parameter were determined by a response surface statistical planning. The precipitation and recovery yields of {sup 99}Mo were measured using HPGe detector. Statistical analysis from experimental data suggested that the reactional parameters {alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, reaction time and temperature have a significant impact on {sup 99}Mo precipitation. Optimization statistical planning showed that higher {alpha}Bz/Mo ratios, room temperature, and lower reaction time lead to higher {sup 99}Mo yields. (author)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of LiMgyMn2–yO4 cathode materials by a modified Pechini process for lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Subramania; N Angayarkanni; A R Sathiya Priya; R Gangadharan; T Vasudevan

    2005-12-01

    Cubic spinels of composition, LiMgyMn2–yO4, with = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2, were synthesized by a modified Pechini process using polyethylene glycol and citric acid. The phase formation and/or crystallization of the precursors were studied by thermal analysis. Products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Coin cells were fabricated with lithium as the anode and LiMgyMn2–yO4 as the cathode in an electrolyte of 1 M LiPF6 in a 1 : 1 (v/v) mixture of EC and DEC. The charge–discharge studies were performed and the results were compared with materials prepared by a solid state thermal method.

  18. Effect of Dy2O3 doping on phase formation and properties of MgB2 wires made by the modified internal magnesium diffusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, B.; Rosová, A.; Kováč, P.; Reissner, M.; Dobročka, E.

    2017-02-01

    A series of single-core MgB2 wires was produced by the modified internal magnesium diffusion process, starting with a Mg tube filled with carbon predoped boron powder, which resulted in an extractable MgB2 core allowing thorough investigation of superconducting properties. Carbon contained in the boron powder enhances critical current density (J c), however, it also reduces the reactivity of boron and thus acts as a MgB2 growth inhibitor. In order to compensate this negative effect, Dy2O3 nanopowder was added into boron powder and the composites were subjected to heat-treatment at increased temperature for a longer time. By this approach, the reactivity of carbon predoped boron was substantially improved, yielding wires with an increased amount of MgB2 of high phase purity with enhanced J c.

  19. Molecular Beacon Enables Combination of Highly Processive and Highly Sensitive Rolling Circle Amplification Readouts for Detection of DNA-Modifying Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Emil Laust; Gonzales, Maria; Stougaard, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    -modifying enzymes like type IB Topoisomerases and subsequently amplified by a rolling circle amplification (RCA) mechanism. The RCA process can be followed in real-time by the addition of a molecular beacon with a fluorophore/quencher pair. Upon hybridization to the amplified product, the fluorophore/quencher pair...... is separated, giving rise to a fluorescent signal, measurable in pseudo real-time using a qPCR machine or in a fluorimeter. The RCA products in complex with the molecular beacon can subsequently be moved to microscopic slides and analyzed in a fluorescence microscope. We describe the proof of the principle...... of this molecular beacon-based method combining the qPCR readout format with the standard Rolling circle Enhanced Enzymatic Assay previously reported. Although the qPCR setup is less sensitive, it allows easy, fast, and high-throughput measurement of enzyme activities. Human Topoisomerase IB (TopIB) is a well...

  20. Use of focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and process video imaging (PVI) in a modified mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) cooling crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougoulos, E.; Jones, A. G.; Jennings, K. H.; Wood-Kaczmar, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The FBRM instrument is a 'powerful' tool developed by Lasentec as an 'in situ' particle monitoring technique for in-line real-time measurement of particle size. This technique was successfully used to monitor steady-state operation in a modified MSMPR crystallizer. The FBRM technique was also used to estimate crystallization kinetics. The FBRM particle size measurements were complimented by an in-line process video imaging (PVI) system developed ' in-house' (Microscopy and Microanalysis, 6 (Suppl. 2) (2000) 996-997), to visualize habit and crystal behaviour within an MSMPR crystallizer. A comparison of the steady-state crystal size distributions measured by low angle light scattering (LALLS) and FBRM was made, showing poor sensitivity of the FBRM technique to particles of less than 1 μm hence the technique was not suitable for the measurement of crystallization kinetics for this organic system.

  1. The modified relaxation time function: A novel analysis technique for relaxation processes. Application to high-temperature molybdenum internal friction peaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteo, C.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Avda. Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lambri, O.A. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ing. Electrica, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario (Argentina)], E-mail: olambri@fceia.unr.edu.ar; Zelada-Lambri, G.I. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Laboratorio de Materiales, Escuela de Ing. Electrica, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, (2000) Rosario (Argentina); Sorichetti, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Avda. Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    The modified relaxation time (MRT) function, which is based on a general linear viscoelastic formalism, has several important mathematical properties that greatly simplify the analysis of relaxation processes. In this work, the MRT is applied to the study of the relaxation damping peaks in deformed molybdenum at high temperatures. The dependence of experimental data from these relaxation processes with temperature are adequately described by a Havriliak-Negami (HN) function, and the MRT makes it possible to find a relation between the parameters of the HN function and the activation energy of the process. The analysis reveals that for the relaxation peak appearing at temperatures below 900 K, the physical mechanism is related to a vacancy-diffusion-controlled movement of dislocations. In contrast, when the peak appears at temperatures higher than 900 K, the damping is controlled by a mechanism of diffusion in the low-temperature tail of the peak, and in the high-temperature tail of the peak the creation plus diffusion of vacancies at the dislocation line occurs.

  2. A facile route to modify ferrous phosphate and its use as an iron-containing resource for LiFePO4 via a polyol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaomin; Liu, Xichuan; Mi, Rui; Liu, Hao; Li, Yinchuan; Lau, Woon-min; Mei, Jun

    2014-06-25

    This study introduces an economical and environmentally friendly way of synthesizing LiFePO4/C to be used as cathode material in lithium ion batteries via two processes: (1) the synthesis of LiFePO4/C cathode material using a low cost divalent precursor ferrous phosphate, Fe3 (PO4)2·8H2O, as iron source in a polyol process and (2) the modification of the morphology of this precursor by varying the reaction time in a coprecipitation process. The study examines the effects of different structures and morphologies of the precursor on the structure and electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized LiFePO4/C. The LiFePO4/C shows an excellent rate capability and cycle performance, with initial discharge capacities of 153, 128, and 106 mA h g(-1) at 1 C, 5 C, and 10 C. The capacity retention is respectively 98.7%, 98.2%, and 98.7%, after 10 cycles at the corresponding rates. The capacity retention remains at 97% even after 300 cycles at the rate of 10 C. The outstanding electrochemical performance can be attributed to the improved rate of Li(+) diffusion and the excellent crystallinity of synthesized LiFePO4/C powders through the modified precursor. Therefore, this is an economical and environmentally friendly way of synthesizing LiFePO4/C to be used as cathode material in lithium ion batteries.

  3. Modeling tumor growth in the presence of a therapy with an effect on rate growth and variability by means of a modified Gompertz diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Román, Patricia; Román-Román, Sergio; Serrano-Pérez, Juan José; Torres-Ruiz, Francisco

    2016-10-21

    In experimental studies on tumor growth, whenever the time evolution of the relative volume of a tumor in an untreated (control) group can be fitted by a Gompertz diffusion process there is a possibility that an antiproliferative therapy, which modifies the growth rate of the process that fits the treated group, may also affect its variability. The present paper proposes several procedures for the estimation of the time function included in the infinitesimal variance of the new process, as well as the time function affecting the growth rate (which is included in the infinitesimal mean). Also, a hypothesis testing is designed to confirm or refute the need for including such a time-dependent function in the infinitesimal variance. In order to validate and compare the proposed procedures a simulation study has been carried out. In addition, a proposal is made for a strategy aimed at finding the optimal combination of procedures for each case. A real data application concerning the effects of cisplatin on a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor model showcases the advantages of this model over others that have been used in the past.

  4. Evaluation of Different Wastewater Treatment Processes and Development of a Modified Attached Growth Bioreactor as a Decentralized Approach for Small Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential future use of three biological processes in order to designate the most desired solution for on-site treatment of wastewater from residential complexes, that is, conventional activated sludge process (CASP, moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR, and packed-bed biofilm reactor (PBBR. Hydraulic retention time (HRT of 6, 3, and 2 h can be achieved in CASP, MBBR, and PBBR, respectively. The PBBR dealt with a particular arrangement to prevent the restriction of oxygen transfer efficiency into the thick biofilms. The laboratory scale result revealed that the overall reduction of 87% COD, 92% BOD5, 82% TSS, 79% NH3-N, 43% PO4-P, 95% MPN, and 97% TVC at a HRT of 2 h was achieved in PBBR. The microflora present in the system was also estimated through the isolation, identification, and immobilization of the microorganisms with an index of COD elimination. The number of bacterial species examined on the nutrient agar medium was 22 and five bacterial species were documented to degrade the organic pollutants by reducing COD by more than 43%. This study illustrated that the present PBBR with a specific modified internal arrangement could be an ideal practice for promoting sustainable decentralization and therefore providing a low wastage sludge biomass concentration.

  5. Evaluation of Different Wastewater Treatment Processes and Development of a Modified Attached Growth Bioreactor as a Decentralized Approach for Small Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipour, Alireza; Sithebe, Thami

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential future use of three biological processes in order to designate the most desired solution for on-site treatment of wastewater from residential complexes, that is, conventional activated sludge process (CASP), moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), and packed-bed biofilm reactor (PBBR). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 3, and 2 h can be achieved in CASP, MBBR, and PBBR, respectively. The PBBR dealt with a particular arrangement to prevent the restriction of oxygen transfer efficiency into the thick biofilms. The laboratory scale result revealed that the overall reduction of 87% COD, 92% BOD5, 82% TSS, 79% NH3-N, 43% PO4-P, 95% MPN, and 97% TVC at a HRT of 2 h was achieved in PBBR. The microflora present in the system was also estimated through the isolation, identification, and immobilization of the microorganisms with an index of COD elimination. The number of bacterial species examined on the nutrient agar medium was 22 and five bacterial species were documented to degrade the organic pollutants by reducing COD by more than 43%. This study illustrated that the present PBBR with a specific modified internal arrangement could be an ideal practice for promoting sustainable decentralization and therefore providing a low wastage sludge biomass concentration. PMID:24327802

  6. Highly (1 1 1)-oriented and pyrochlore-free PMN-PT thin films derived from a modified sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, M. [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Heilongjiang, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, W., E-mail: wangwen@hit.edu.c [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Heilongjiang, Harbin 150001 (China); Ke, H.; Rao, J.C.; Zhou, Y. [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Heilongjiang, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-04-09

    Ferroelectric PMN-PT (68/32) thin films, about 250 nm in thickness, have been successfully grown on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by a modified sol-gel process. Pure perovskite phase with highly (1 1 1)-preferred orientation, determined by X-ray diffraction, was formed in the PMN-PT thin films when annealed at 650 {sup o}C. The pyrochlore phase has been effectively avoided through a variation of the processing parameters such as Mg content, Mg precursor and annealing temperature during thin film deposition. FE-SEM investigation showed that the films have a smooth and crack-free surface with densely packed grains after annealed at 650 {sup o}C. The annealed films exhibited well-defined hysteresis loops, with a respective remanent polarization P{sub r} of 16.1 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and coercive field E{sub c} of 71.2 kV/cm at an applied electric field of 400 kV/cm at room temperature.

  7. Evaluation of different wastewater treatment processes and development of a modified attached growth bioreactor as a decentralized approach for small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shohreh; Valipour, Alireza; Sithebe, Thami

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential future use of three biological processes in order to designate the most desired solution for on-site treatment of wastewater from residential complexes, that is, conventional activated sludge process (CASP), moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), and packed-bed biofilm reactor (PBBR). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 3, and 2 h can be achieved in CASP, MBBR, and PBBR, respectively. The PBBR dealt with a particular arrangement to prevent the restriction of oxygen transfer efficiency into the thick biofilms. The laboratory scale result revealed that the overall reduction of 87% COD, 92% BOD₅, 82% TSS, 79% NH₃-N, 43% PO₄-P, 95% MPN, and 97% TVC at a HRT of 2 h was achieved in PBBR. The microflora present in the system was also estimated through the isolation, identification, and immobilization of the microorganisms with an index of COD elimination. The number of bacterial species examined on the nutrient agar medium was 22 and five bacterial species were documented to degrade the organic pollutants by reducing COD by more than 43%. This study illustrated that the present PBBR with a specific modified internal arrangement could be an ideal practice for promoting sustainable decentralization and therefore providing a low wastage sludge biomass concentration.

  8. Iron modified bentonite: Enhanced adsorption performance for organic pollutant and its regeneration by heterogeneous visible light photo-Fenton process at circumneutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yaowen; Guo, Yongzhao; Zhang, Hui, E-mail: eeng@whu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • The iron modification markedly improved the adsorption performance of FeMB for RhB. • LED lamps emitting white light were employed as visible light source. • FeMB can be regenerated by visible light photo-Fenton process at circumneutral pH. • FeMB can be reused repeatedly after the heterogeneous photo-Fenton regeneration. - Abstract: Iron modified bentonite (FeMB) was prepared and used as an inexpensive adsorbent to rapidly remove organic pollutant (Rhodamine B, RhB) from aqueous solution. The iron modification significantly improved the adsorption performance of FeMB for RhB and permitted an easy separation of FeMB from the treated effluent. The equilibrium adsorption studies indicated that the dye molecules obeyed Langmuir type of adsorption with the calculated maximum adsorption capacity of 168.13 mg g{sup −1} for FeMB. The heterogeneous photo-Fenton process operated at circumneutral pH in the presence of visible light irradiation was found to be effective for the regeneration of the spent FeMB. Furthermore, the regeneration efficiency of as high as 79% was still achieved after 5 consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles. Considering that, the visible light photo-Fenton approach could be applied as an excellent alternative for regenerating clay-based adsorbents by avoiding the use of dissolved iron salts.

  9. POLYCAPROLACTAM MODIFIED BY POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guisheng; LU Fengcai

    1990-01-01

    Three polycaprolactam samples modified by 0.05 - 0.50% polybenzimidazole (PBI) by weight were prepared. Their structure and mechanical properties were characterized by means of FT- IR, SEM, DTA,density tensile,impact and viscoelastic method. PBI delayed the superimposed polymerization-crystallization process of the activated anionic polymerization of caprolactam. The monomer casting (MC) nylons modified by PBI had lower crystallinities,lower Tg and more nearly perfect spherulites than MCnylon itself, and showed a typical toughening effect.

  10. Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was

  11. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) processing by Kupffer cells releases a modified LPS with increased hepatocyte binding and decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulatory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treon, S P; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A

    1993-02-01

    Normal physiological clearance of gut-derived endotoxin lipopolysaccharide [LPS] has been described previously; initially, there is uptake by Kupffer cells (KC), then release of modified LPS, followed by hepatocyte uptake. Previous work in our laboratories indicated that LPS is structurally modified with loss of carbohydrate prior to its release by KC. In this study, we functionally characterize KC modified LPS. KC-modified 125I-LPS was prepared from primary rat KC. Escherichia coli 0127:B8 native 125I-LPS or KC-modified 125I-LPS (40 ng) was incubated for 1 hr with 1 x 10E6 primary hepatocytes. The binding of KC-modified LPS was 4.33-fold higher than native LPS (P = 0.0024). Binding analysis studies were conducted to determine the region of KC-modified LPS responsible for enhanced hepatocyte binding. KC-modified Salmonella minnesota LPS was competed with 100-fold excess native or mutant (Ra, Rc, Rd, or Re) strains of LPS or Lipid A with no decrease to hepatocyte binding. S. minnesota-native 125I-LPS was compared with KC-modified 125I-LPS in a study to assess induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-gamma by rat peritoneal macrophages. Native or KC-modified 125I-LPS (100 ng) was presented to 1 x 10E7 peritoneal macrophages for 6 hr. TNF-alpha was measured in supernatants using the WEHI-164 cytotoxicity assay. Native LPS induced 5.7-fold higher TNF-alpha levels than KC-modified LPS (P < 0.0001). The above data suggest that structural alterations in KC-modified LPS are accompanied by functional alterations resulting in enhanced hepatocyte binding and decreased TNF-alpha release. The latter result implies that an early step in LPS detoxification occurs in the KC in which LPS is modified to prevent elicitation of biologically active cytokines.

  12. Armazenamento de melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada Storage of 'Orange Flesh' mellons minimally processed and packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da demanda por produtos minimamente processados traz um grande desafio para a ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, considerando-se a escassez de informações sobre a manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. O armazenamento desses em condições adequadas é um ponto fundamental para o sucesso dessa tecnologia. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na conservação do melão tipo Orange Flesh minimamente processado. Os frutos, após o processamento, foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada (AM Passiva- Controle, AM Ativa com 5% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e AM Ativa com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2, armazenados em câmara fria (6 ± 1 ºC e UR 85 ± 5% durante 8 dias e as amostras retiradas para análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, açúcares solúveis totais (AST, firmeza, pectina total (PT, pectina solúvel (PS, e as enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG a cada 2 dias de armazenamento. A atmosfera modificada ativa pouco influenciou no comportamento das variáveis pH, acidez total titulável (ATT, firmeza e pectina total com relação á atmosfera modificada passiva. No entanto, menor solubilização de pectinas foi detectada nas amostras armazenadas sob atmosfera com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2. Não foram detectadas atividades das enzimas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase nos tratamentos analisados.The increase of the demand for products minimally processed brings a great challenge for the food science and technology, considering the shortage of information about the maintenance of the quality of those products. The storage of those products in appropriate conditions is a fundamental point for the success of such technology. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the active modified atmosphere on the quality and conservation of the 'Orange Flesh' melons processed minimally. The fruits, after the processing, were wrapped under

  13. A trapped magnetic field of 3 T in homogeneous, bulk MgB2 superconductors fabricated by a modified precursor infiltration and growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagurkar, A. G.; Yamamoto, A.; Anguilano, L.; Dennis, A. R.; Durrell, J. H.; Babu, N. Hari; Cardwell, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    The wetting of boron with liquid magnesium is a critical factor in the synthesis of MgB2 bulk superconductors by the infiltration and growth (IG) process. Poor wetting characteristics can therefore result potentially in non-uniform infiltration, formation of defects in the final sample structure and poor structural homogeneity throughout the bulk material. Here we report the fabrication of near-net-shaped MgB2 bulk superconductors by a modified precursor infiltration and growth (MPIG) technique. A homogeneous bulk microstructure has subsequently been achieved via the uniform infiltration of Mg liquid by enriching pre-reacted MgB2 powder within the green precursor pellet as a wetting enhancer, leading to relatively little variation in superconducting properties across the entire bulk sample. Almost identical values of trapped magnetic field of 2.12 T have been measured at 5 K at both the top and bottom surfaces of a sample fabricated by the MPIG process, confirming the uniformity of the bulk microstructure. A maximum trapped field of 3 T has been measured at 5 K at the centre of a stack of two bulk MgB2 samples fabricated using this technique. A steady rise in trapped field was observed for this material with decreasing temperature down to 5 K without the occurrence of flux avalanches and with a relatively low field decay rate (1.5%/d). These properties are attributed to the presence of a fine distribution of residual Mg within the bulk microstructure generated by the MPIG processing technique.

  14. 芳纶1414纱线碱/酸改性的染色工艺%Dyeing process of aramid 1414 yarns modified with acid/alkali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春梅; 李朝晖; 季涛

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, proper dyes, modification methods and dyeing methods are selected to dye the aramid 1414 yarns. Factors exerting influence on dyeing behaviors are studied, such as modification conditions, types and dosages of dyes, pH value of dye bath, dyeing temperature and time. The optimum dyeing process of alkali-modifying aramid with disperse dyes is determined as follows: the dosage of dyes less than 5 % (omf), pH value 5, dyeing at 130 ℃. For 60 min. The color fastness to washing of the dyeings is up to grade 4 ~5 and the color fastness to sublimation is dependent on dye properties. The optimum dyeing process of acid-modifying aramid with cationic dyes is determined as follows; the dosage of dyes less than 5% (omf), pH value 4 ~5, dyeing at 120 ℃ for 60 min. The color fastness to soaping is up to grade 4-5 and the color fastness to sublimation is up to grade 4.%通过选择合适的染料、纤维改性方法及染色方法,对芳纶1414纱线进行染色,探讨改性条件、染料种类和用量、染浴pH值、染色湿度、染色时间等对染色性能的影响.结果表明,经碱改性的芳纶用分散染料染色的最佳工艺为:染料质量分数不超过5%(omf),染液pH值5,在l30℃染色60 min;碱改性染色芳纶纱线的耐皂洗色牢度4~5级,耐升华色牢度与染料品种有较大关系.经酸改性的芳纶用阳离子染料染色的最佳工艺为:染料质量分数不超过5% (omf),染液pH值4~5,在120℃染色60 min;酸改性染色芳纶纱线的耐皂洗色牢度达到4~5级,耐升华色牢度达到4级.

  15. Performance evaluation of services quality in higher education institutions using modified SERVQUAL approach with grey analytic hierarchy process (G-AHP and multilevel grey evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zareinejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s climate of fierce competition, there is a necessity to pay especial attention on customer demands either in manufacturing or service sector. Managers in service sector are under pressure in terms of environmental factors, they focus on customers’ satisfaction and this has led to the continuous improvement in the performance of service organizations. Meanwhile, customers’ expectations should be properly understood and measured. There have been various efforts to measure the quality of services using the SERVQUAL model. In this study, we try to investigate the concepts and factors influencing the quality of services according to modified SERVQUAL model and then utilize the proposed model of Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (G-AHP and Multilevel Grey Evaluation in order to evaluate the quality of services in the framework of Grey Systems Theory (GST. In order to propose our method, we will conduct a case study of the performance of service quality in higher education institutions of Isfahan-Iran.

  16. A Consensus for Classification and Pathologic Reporting of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Associated Appendiceal Neoplasia: The Results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) Modified Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Norman J; Cecil, Thomas D; Mohamed, Faheez; Sobin, Leslie H; Sugarbaker, Paul H; González-Moreno, Santiago; Taflampas, Panos; Chapman, Sara; Moran, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a complex disease with unique biological behavior that usually arises from appendiceal mucinous neoplasia. The classification of PMP and its primary appendiceal neoplasia is contentious, and an international modified Delphi consensus process was instigated to address terminology and definitions. A classification of mucinous appendiceal neoplasia was developed, and it was agreed that "mucinous adenocarcinoma" should be reserved for lesions with infiltrative invasion. The term "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was supported and it was agreed that "cystadenoma" should no longer be recommended. A new term of "high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was proposed for lesions without infiltrative invasion but with high-grade cytologic atypia. Serrated polyp with or without dysplasia was preferred for tumors with serrated features confined to the mucosa with an intact muscularis mucosae. Consensus was achieved on the pathologic classification of PMP, defined as the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia characterized by the redistribution phenomenon. Three categories of PMP were agreed-low grade, high grade, and high grade with signet ring cells. Acellular mucin should be classified separately. It was agreed that low-grade and high-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei should be considered synonymous with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, respectively. A checklist for the pathologic reporting of PMP and appendiceal mucinous neoplasms was also developed. By adopting the classifications and definitions that were agreed, different centers will be able to use uniform terminology that will allow meaningful comparison of their results.

  17. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A

    2013-08-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long term as a possible adaptation for heat tolerance, without affecting breast meat quality. This study highlights the value of 2 new heritable characters involved in thermoregulation for further broiler selection.

  18. Preparation of Si-modified aluminide coating by CVD process%硅改性铝化物涂层的CVD制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 杨甫; 吴勇

    2016-01-01

    研究了CVD法制备硅改性铝化物涂层工艺。结果表明,采用先渗硅后渗铝的两步法工艺可在Inconel 718表面获得铝-硅涂层。铝-硅涂层分为明显的两层结构,内层富硅,外层富铝。硅的加入阻碍高温条件下Al原子的内扩散,并促进了试样表面Al2 O3膜的生成。铝-硅涂层具有比单一的铝化物涂层更为优秀的耐高温氧化性能。%CVD process was studied to form Silicon modified aluminide coatings. The results show that Al-Si coatings can be formed on the surface of Inconel 718 nickel-based super alloy by two steps method. The first step is siliconizing and second step is aluminizing. The Al-Si coatings is two layers structure in which the inner layer is Si-rich and outer layer is Al-rich. The addition of Si decreases the internal diffusion rate of Al atoms under high temperature, and promote the formation of Al2 O3 film on the surface. The high temperature oxidation resistance of Al-Si coatings is better than that of single aluminide coatings.

  19. Sol–gel processed pyridinium ionic liquid-modified silica as a new sorbent for separation and quantification of iron in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdolmohammad-Zadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 1-Hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate [C6py][PF6] ionic liquid (IL was firstly used for chemical modification of silica utilizing the acid-catalyzed sol–gel processing. The obtained pyridinium IL-modified silica was employed as a solid phase extraction (SPE sorbent for removal of trace levels of Fe(III ions from aqueous samples. The influence of different variables on the separation efficiency, including the concentration of chelating agent, pH, sample flow rate and volume, eluent type, concentration and volume, and interfering ions was investigated by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s, limit of quantification (LOQ and pre-concentration factor were 0.7 μg L−1, 2.5 μg L−1, and 200, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for nine replicate determinations of 25 μg L−1 Fe was 3.2%. The calibration graph using the pre-concentration system was linear in the range of 2.5–50 μg L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material and applied successfully to the separation and determination of iron in several water samples.

  20. Adsorption of dyestuff from aqueous solutions through oxalic acid-modified swede rape straw: adsorption process and disposal methodology of depleted bioadsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanfang; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Wu, Yonghong; Zhou, Hui; Xue, Lihong; He, Shiying; Yang, Linzhang

    2013-06-01

    Swede rape straw (Brassica napus L.) was modified by oxalic acid under mild conditions producing an efficient dye adsorbent (SRSOA). This low-cost and environmental friendly bioadsorbent was characterized by various techniques and then applied to purify dye-contaminated aqueous solutions. Equilibrium study showed that the Langmuir model demonstrated the best fit to the equilibrium data and the methylene blue (MB) adsorption capacity calculated by this model was 432mgg(-1). The adsorption process and mechanism is also discussed. To properly deal with the dye-loaded bioadsorbents, the disposal methodology is discussed and a biochar based on depleted bioadsorbents was for the first time produced and examined. This method both solved the disposal problem of contaminant-loaded bioadsorbents and produced an useful adsorbent thereafter. The study indicates that SRSOA is a promising substitute for ACs in purifying dye-contaminated wastewater and that producing biochars from contaminant-loaded bioadsorbents maybe a feasible disposal method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Iron modified bentonite: Enhanced adsorption performance for organic pollutant and its regeneration by heterogeneous visible light photo-Fenton process at circumneutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaowen; Guo, Yongzhao; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-25

    Iron modified bentonite (FeMB) was prepared and used as an inexpensive adsorbent to rapidly remove organic pollutant (Rhodamine B, RhB) from aqueous solution. The iron modification significantly improved the adsorption performance of FeMB for RhB and permitted an easy separation of FeMB from the treated effluent. The equilibrium adsorption studies indicated that the dye molecules obeyed Langmuir type of adsorption with the calculated maximum adsorption capacity of 168.13 mg g(-1) for FeMB. The heterogeneous photo-Fenton process operated at circumneutral pH in the presence of visible light irradiation was found to be effective for the regeneration of the spent FeMB. Furthermore, the regeneration efficiency of as high as 79% was still achieved after 5 consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles. Considering that, the visible light photo-Fenton approach could be applied as an excellent alternative for regenerating clay-based adsorbents by avoiding the use of dissolved iron salts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Properties of natural rubber latexes modified by different processes%不同改性方法对天然胶乳的性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖小雪; 唐冰; 吴翠; 谭海生

    2011-01-01

    The natural rubber (NR) latex modified by chlorinated paraffin and antimony oxide blending was prepared; the NR latex addition polymerizaion modified by trichlorobromomethane was prepared;the NR latex graft copolymerization modified by tribromopropylene was prepared. A comparison of the colloidal properties, flame-resistance properties and solvent-resistance properties was made between NR latex and the three kinds of modified latex. The results showed that the viscosity of the three kinds of modified latex was higher than the non-modified latex' s, the viscosity of graft copolymerization and halogenation modified latex changed greatly,blend modified latex's viscosity had little change; the flame-resistance properties of the three kinds of modified latex were higher than the nonmodified latex's; solvent-resistance of the films of graft copolymerization modified latex and halogenation modified latex was superior to the films of non-modified latex's, solvent-resistance of the films of blend modified latex was worse than the ones of non-modified latex's.%分别采用氯化石蜡与Sb2O3共混改性天然胶乳、用三氯澳甲烷卤化加成改性天然胶乳、以3-澳丙烯接枝共聚改性天然胶乳,对3种不同工艺所制备的改性天然胶乳与未改性天然胶乳进行了胶体性能、阻燃性及耐溶剂性能的比较.研究结果表明:3种改性胶乳的粘度比未改性天然胶乳的要高,且接枝改性胶乳和卤化改性胶乳变化较大,共混改性胶乳的变化较少;3种改性胶乳的阻燃性能高于未改性天然胶乳的;卤化改性天然胶乳和接枝改性天然胶乳的耐溶剂性较好,而共混改性天然胶的耐溶剂性较差.

  3. Assessing the potential for unintended effects in genetically modified potatoes perturbed in metabolic and developmental processes. Targeted analysis of key nutrients and anti-nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Louise V T; McNicol, James W; Razzo, Ruth; Taylor, Mark A; Davies, Howard V

    2006-08-01

    Targeted compositional analysis was carried out on transgenic potato tubers of either cultivar (cv.) Record or cv. Desirée to assess the potential for unintended effects caused by the genetic modification process. The range of transgenic lines analysed included those modified in primary carbohydrate metabolism, polyamine biosynthesis and glycoprotein processing. Controls included wildtype tubers, tubers produced from plants regenerated through tissue culture (including a callus phase) and tubers derived from transformation with the 'empty vector' i.e. no specific target gene included (with the exception of the kanamycin resistance gene as a selectable marker). Metabolite analysis included soluble carbohydrates, glycoalkaloids, vitamin C, total nitrogen and fatty acids. Trypsin inhibitor activity was also assayed. These cover the major compounds recommended by the OECD in their Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of Potatoes: Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-Nutrients and Toxicants (2002). Data was statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for individual compounds and, where applicable, principal component analysis (PCA). In general, targeted compositional analysis revealed no consistent differences between GM lines and respective controls. No construct specifically induced unintended effects. Statistically significant differences between wildtype controls and specific GM lines did occur but appeared to be random and not associated with any specific construct. Indeed such significant differences were also found between wildtypes and both tissue culture derived tubers and tubers derived from transformation with the empty vector. This raises the possibility that somaclonal variation (known to occur significantly in potato, depending on genotype) may be responsible for an unknown proportion of any differences observed between specific GM lines and the wildtype. The most obvious differences seen in GC-MS profiles were

  4. A modified prebind engagement process reduces biomechanical loading on front row players during scrummaging: a cross-sectional study of 11 elite teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Dario; Preatoni, Ezio; Stokes, Keith A; England, Michael E; Trewartha, Grant

    2015-04-01

    Biomechanical studies of the rugby union scrum have typically been conducted using instrumented scrum machines, but a large-scale biomechanical analysis of live contested scrummaging is lacking. We investigated whether the biomechanical loading experienced by professional front row players during the engagement phase of live contested rugby scrums could be reduced using a modified engagement procedure. Eleven professional teams (22 forward packs) performed repeated scrum trials for each of the three engagement techniques, outdoors, on natural turf. The engagement processes were the 2011/2012 (referee calls crouch-touch-pause-engage), 2012/2013 (referee calls crouch-touch-set) and 2013/2014 (props prebind with the opposition prior to the 'Set' command; PreBind) variants. Forces were estimated by pressure sensors on the shoulders of the front row players of one forward pack. Inertial Measurement Units were placed on an upper spine cervical landmark (C7) of the six front row players to record accelerations. Players' motion was captured by multiple video cameras from three viewing perspectives and analysed in transverse and sagittal planes of motion. The PreBind technique reduced biomechanical loading in comparison with the other engagement techniques, with engagement speed, peak forces and peak accelerations of upper spine landmarks reduced by approximately 20%. There were no significant differences between techniques in terms of body kinematics and average force during the sustained push phase. Using a scrum engagement process which involves binding with the opposition prior to the engagement reduces the stresses acting on players and therefore may represent a possible improvement for players' safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Application of novel Modified Biological Aerated Filter (MBAF) as a promising post-treatment for water reuse: Modification in configuration and backwashing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoonahad, Ali; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Ali Asghar; Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan; Salamehnejad, Sima

    2017-12-01

    Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) reactors due to their plentiful biomass, high shockability, high efficiency, good filtration, availability and lack of need for large land areas, are enjoying from great importance in advanced wastewater treatment. Therefore, in this study, Polystyrene Coated by Sand (PCS) was produced as a novel media and its application in a modified down-flow BAF structure for advanced wastewater treatment was assessed in two steps. In step one, the backwash effluent did not return to the system, while in step two backwash effluent returned to increase the water reuse efficiency. The backwash process was also studied through three methods of Top Backwashing (TB), Bottom Backwashing (BB), as well as Top and Bottom Backwashing Simultaneously (TBBS). The results showed that return of backwash effluent had no significant effect on the BAF effluent quality. In the second step similar to the first one with slight differences, the residual average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and COD at the effluent were about 2.5, 8.2, and 25.5 mg/L, respectively. Additionally, in step two, the mean volume of disposal sludge/volume of treated water (vds/vtw) decreased a large extent to about 0.088%. In other words, the water reuse has increased to more than 99.91%. The backwash time in methods of TB and BB were 65 and 35 min, respectively; however, it decreased in TBBS methods to 25 min. The concentrations of most effluent parameters in this system are in concordance with the 2012 EPA Agriculture Standards, even for irrigation of Non-processed agricultural crops and livestock water consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental evaluation of the effect of a modified port-location mode on the performance of a three-zone simulated moving-bed process for the separation of valine and isoleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Kim, Pung-Ho; Mun, Sungyong

    2014-06-01

    The removal of isoleucine from valine has been a key issue in the stage of valine crystallization, which is the final step in the valine production process in industry. To address this issue, a three-zone simulated moving-bed (SMB) process for the separation of valine and isoleucine has been developed previously. However, the previous process, which was based on a classical port-location mode, had some limitations in throughput and valine product concentration. In this study, a three-zone SMB process based on a modified port-location mode was applied to the separation of valine and isoleucine for the purpose of making a marked improvement in throughput and valine product concentration. Computer simulations and a lab-scale process experiment showed that the modified three-zone SMB for valine separation led to >65% higher throughput and >160% higher valine concentration compared to the previous three-zone SMB for the same separation.

  7. 注射成形填充模拟的修正算法%Modified Algorithm for Simulation of Injection Molding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建军; 成志强; 柳葆生

    2012-01-01

    为提高注射成形过程数值模拟结果的准确性,采用类似迎风法的概念,通过对平流方程作为填充状态控制方程而导致模拟失真原因的分析,提出了相应的数值修正算法.该方法在高效显式数值模拟算法和有限元软件基础上,通过对模型内流体速度场的系统性操作,削弱空气流动速度场对喂料填充的不真实影响,使得填充状态的输送更基于流动前沿面后部的流场作用,并对⊥型和L型模腔进行了数值仿真.结果表明:该方法能有效抑制填充流的失真现象,实现了在流动过程中流向发生大角度变化模腔的正确填充过程.%In order to improve the accuracy of numerical simulation for injection molding process, a notion similar to upwind method was introduced. As the governing equation of the filling state takes the form of an advection equation, distorted simulation result may be induced by the flow of air in the mold cavity. To solve the problem, a numerical correction method was proposed. This method weakens the adverse effect of air flow velocity field on the filling process, by modifying the fluid velocity field through systematic operations based on an efficient explicit algorithm and finite element software. Thus, the advection of filling state mainly depends on the flow field behind the filling front. In addition, a numerical simulation was made in mold cavities of shapes ⊥ and L to verify the effectiveness of the method. The result shows that the proposed method can suppress the distortion phenomenon of filling flow effectively, and ensure a correct filling process in complex channels, in which the flow directions have large-angel changes.

  8. Development of a curriculum for advanced nurse practitioners working with older people with frailty in the acute hospital through a modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sarah Elizabeth; Cooper, Jo; Blundell, Adrian; Gordon, Adam Lee; Masud, Tahir; Moorchilot, Ravisankar

    2016-01-01

    advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs) are experienced nurses who undertake some activities traditionally performed by medical staff. There are four pillars of advanced practice: advanced clinical skills, leadership, education and research. ANPs are starting to specialise in the management of older adults with frailty in the acute hospital. However, the role and competencies required for this have not been well defined. This study aimed to establish an expert consensus on the role description and essential competencies for ANPs working with older people with frailty to develop a curriculum. a literature review and workshops including multi-professional and lay representatives generated a role description and a list of 69 competencies. A modified Delphi process was then conducted with three rounds involving a panel of 31 experts including representatives from the RCN, BGS Education and Training Committee, BGS Senior Nurses and Practitioners Group, Chartered Society of Physiotherapy Older People Network, College of Occupational Therapists Older People Specialist Section and lay representatives. Consensus on the statements was established by 70% panel agreement. the role description reached 100% agreement within three rounds. Twenty-five essential competencies were agreed after Round 1, increasing to 43 after Round 2 and 49 after Round 3. this Delphi study has allowed, for the first time, a national panel of clinical experts and lay representatives to refine and agree a set of competencies for ANPs working with older people with frailty. It is the first step towards ensuring consistency in the training of ANPs in geriatric medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Dielectric relaxation and electrical conductivity in Bi{sub 5}NbO{sub 10} oxygen ion conductors prepared by a modified sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Jungang [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramic and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Vaish, Rahul [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Qu, Yuanfang [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramic and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Krsmanovic, Dalibor; Kumar, R.V. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Varma, K.B.R. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2010-05-01

    Crystalline Bi{sub 5}NbO{sub 10} nanoparticles have been achieved through a modified sol-gel process using a mixture of ethylenediamine and ethanolamine as a solvent. The Bi{sub 5}NbO{sub 10} nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that well-dispersed 5-60 nm Bi{sub 5}NbO{sub 10} nanoparticles were prepared through heat-treating the precursor at 650 C and the high density pellets were obtained at temperatures lower than those commonly employed. The frequency and temperature dependence of the dielectric constant and the electrical conductivity of the Bi{sub 5}NbO{sub 10} solid solutions were investigated in the 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz frequency range. Two distinct relaxation mechanisms were observed in the plots of dielectric loss and the imaginary part of impedance (Z'') versus frequency in the temperature range of 200-350 C. The dielectric constant and the loss in the low frequency regime were electrode dependent. The ionic conductivity of Bi{sub 5}NbO{sub 10} solid solutions at 700 C is 2.86 {omega}{sup -1} m{sup -1} which is in same order of magnitude for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} ceramics at same temperature. These results suggest that Bi{sub 5}NbO{sub 10} is a promising material for an oxygen ion conductor. (author)

  10. Improving care standards for patients with spinal trauma combining a modified e-Delphi process and stakeholder interviews: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Ralph; Middleton, James W; Burns, Brian; Joseph, Anthony; Flower, Oliver; Rigby, Oran; Ball, Jonathon; Dhaliwal, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Around 300 people sustain a new traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in Australia each year; a relatively low incidence injury with extremely high long-term associated costs. Care standards are inconsistent nationally, lacking in consensus across important components of care such as prehospital spinal immobilisation, timing of surgery and timeliness of transfer to specialist services. This study aims to develop ‘expertly defined’ and agreed standards of care across the majority of disciplines involved for these patients. Methods and analysis A modified e-Delphi process will be used to gain consensus for best practice across specific clinical early care areas for the patient with TSCI; invited participants will include clinicians across Australia with relevant and significant expertise. A rapid literature review will identify available evidence, including any current guidelines from 2005 to 2015. Level and strength of evidence identified, including areas of contention, will be used to formulate the first round survey questions and statements. Participants will undertake 2–3 online survey rounds, responding anonymously to questionnaires regarding care practices and indicating their agreement or otherwise with practice standard statements. Relevant key stakeholders, including patients, will also be interviewed face to face. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was obtained by the NSW Population & Health Services Research Ethics Committee on 14 January 2016 (HREC/12/CIPHS/74). Seeking comprehensive understanding of how the variation in early care pathways and treatment can be addressed to achieve optimal patient outcomes and economic costs; the overall aim is the agreement to a consistent approach to the triage, treatment, transport and definitive care of acute TSCI victims. The agreed practice standards of care will inform the development of a Clinical Pathway with practice change strategies for implementation. These standards will

  11. Modified Ureterosigmoidostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To introduce an operation procedure and evaluate the coutinence diversion results of the modified ureterosigmoidostomy after radical cystectomy. Methods Fourteen cases of bladder cancer or prostate carcinoma were operated on with modified Sigma pouch from Feb, 1998 to Dec, 1999. A longitudinal incision about 25 cm on the sigmoid uall was done to form a low pressure pouch. The vertex of the new pouch was fixed to sacrum. Both ends of ureters were anastomosed side to side and to form a big nipple and inserted into the top of pouch for 2 to 3 centimeters. Results It took about sixty five minutes to create a new low pressure pouch after radical cystectomy. Early complication of was found in two cases postoperatively, and cured with temporary colonostomy. Hydronephrosis and hypokalemia in one patient were cured by percutaneous anterograde ureter dilatation with balloon and oral replacement of potassium salt. All patients displayed urinary continence. No symptomatic renal infection or hypercholoraemic acidosis occurred. Conclusion Modified ureterosigmoidostomy is a safe procedure of urinary diversion and provides a big volume, low intravesical pressure pouch. The patients are free from the troublesome urine-bag, intermittert catheterization , and upper urinary tracts are protected effectively. The quality of life is satisfied.

  12. Manufacturing and Shear Response Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber Modified CFRP Using the Out-of-Autoclave-Vacuum-Bag-Only Cure Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. McDonald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testingwas used to study the in-plane shear performance of [±45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination.

  13. Manufacturing and shear response characterization of carbon nanofiber modified CFRP using the out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only cure process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Erin E; Wallace, Landon F; Hickman, Gregory J S; Hsiao, Kuang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF) modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testing was used to study the in-plane shear performance of [± 45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC) surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination.

  14. OPTIMASI PROSES MASERASI VANILI (Vanilla planifolia Andrews HASIL MODIFIKASI PROSES KURING [Maceration Process Optimation of Vanili (Vanilla Planifolia Andrews from Modified Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Mariska3

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Modified cured vanilla was processed to vanilla extract by maceration method. The aim of this research were to optimize the method of maceration, type of vanilla bean with highest vanillin content, extraction solvent composition,and other variables that could optimize the vanillin content and characterize the extract from half dried cured vanilla. The optimation used response surface method with 22 factorial and 23 factorial. One step of maceration could extract vanillin (average 2.3 g/l much more than two steps maceration (average 2.1 g/l. Vanillin content of the half dried cured vanilla (average 0.98 g/l was higher than cured vanilla 1 and cured vanilla 2 (average 0.41 g/l and 0.32 g/l. The suitable ethanol-water composition for half dried cured vanilla was 7:3 (vanillin content 1.78 g/l. The first optimation was conducted with two variables maceration time and sucrose concentrations. The maximum vanillin content of the first optimation was 4.5 g/l at maceration time of15.9 days and sucrose concentration of 7.3 g. The second optimation used two variables: maceration time and glycerol concentrations. The maximum vanillin content of the second optimation was 3.8 g/l at maceration time of 22 days and glycerol concentration 19.9 ml. The third optimation process used three variables:maceration time, sucrose concentrations and glycerol concentrations. The maximum vanillin content of the third optimation was 3.4 g/l at maceration time of 12 days sucrose concentration of 7 g, and glycerol concentration 4.7 ml. The characteristic of vanilla extract resulted from half dried cured vanilla maceration were vanillin content (3.4-4.5 g/l, total acid (380-410 ml 0.1 N NaOH/l, total ash (1.3-3.4 g/l, total soluble ash (0.8-2.9 g/l, alkalinity of total ash (462.6-536.7, alkalinity of soluble ash (139.1-216.5, and lead number (4.5-4.6.

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on lipase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FL)

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Morten; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2014-01-01

    The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA. The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as oils, fats and eggs processing. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Compreh...

  16. Conservação de melão rendilhado minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada ativa Conservation of minimally processed net melon under active modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Melões rendilhados cv. Bônus II foram minimamente processados manualmente na forma de cubos, acondicionados em diversos materiais de embalagem com injeção da mistura gasosa (5% O2 + 20% CO2 + 75% N2 e armazenados a 3ºC durante 12 dias. Os materiais de embalagem foram: BB-200: filme multicamada da Cryovac 65µm; PBC:filme poliolefínico Probag Conservax 64µm; PP: filme de polipropileno 52µm. Como controle, utilizou-se bandeja de polietileno com tampa perfurada. Realizou-se monitoramento da composição gasosa, análises microbiológicas, sensoriais e físico-químicas a cada 3 dias. Foram determinadas as taxas de permeabilidade ao O2 e CO2 de cada filme. A embalagem BB-200 promoveu acúmulo de CO2 até níveis de 24% e redução de O2 até níveis de 0,4%. Na embalagem PBC a concentração de O2 estabilizou-se ao redor de 8% e a de CO2 ao redor de 4%, enquanto na embalagem de PP os níveis de gases estabilizaram-se ao redor de 13% O2 e 6% CO2. De maneira geral, as características físico-químicas e sensoriais foram pouco influenciadas pelos tratamentos. A alteração da composição gasosa foi eficiente no controle de microrganismos. A partir do 9º dia de armazenamento, os melões controle apresentaram níveis de bactérias mesófilas acima de 10(5 NMP/g, com riscos de apresentarem microrganismos patogênicos e/ou deterioradores.Net melons cv. Bonus II were minimally processed as cubes, wrapped in several packaging materials with injection of the gaseous mixture (5% O2 + 20% CO2 + 75% N2 and stored at 3ºC for 12 days. The packaging materials were: BB-200: Cryovac multlayer film 65mm; PBC: Probag Conservax polyolephinic film 64µm; PP: polypropylene film 52µm. Polystyrene trays were used as control with perforated cover. Gaseous composition inside of the packaging, microbiological, sensorial and physical-chemical characteristics were determined each 3 days. The gas permeability was determined for each film. BB-200 packaging promoted CO

  17. Synthesis of chemically-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes by counter-current ammonia gas injection into the induction thermal plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Ali

    Pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are poorly dispersible and insoluble in many solvents and need to be chemically modified prior to their use in many applications. This work is focused on the investigation of the synthesis of chemically modified SWCNTs material through an in situ approach. The main objectives of the presented research are: 1) to explore the in situ chemical process during the synthesis of SWCNT and 2) to closely examine the effect of a reactive environment on SWCNTs. Effects of the catalyst type and content on the SWCNTs final product, synthesized by induction thermal plasma (ITP), were studied to replace toxic cobalt (Co) in the feedstock. In this regard, three different catalyst mixtures (i.e. Ni-Y2O3, Ni-Co-Y2O3, and Ni-Mo-Y2O3) were used. Experimental results showed that the catalyst type affects the quality of the SWCNT final product. Similar quality SWCNTs can be produced when the same amount of Co was replaced by Ni. Moreover, the results observed in this experimental work were further explained by thermodynamic calculation results. Thermogravimetry (TG) was used throughout the work to characterize the SWCNTs product. TG was firstly standardized by studying the effects of three main instrumental parameters (temperature ramp, TR, initial mass of the sample, IM, and gas flow rate, FR) on the Tonset and full-width half maximum (FWHM) obtained from TG and derivative TG graphs of carbon black, respectively. Therefore, a two-level factorial statistical design was performed. The statistical analysis showed that the effect of TR, IM, and to a lower extent, FR, is significant on FWHM and insignificant on Tonset. A methodology was then developed based upon the SWCNTs synthesis using the ITP system, through an in situ chemistry approach. Ammonia (NH3) was selected and counter-currently injected into the ITP reactor at three different flow rates and by four different nozzle designs. Numerical simulation indicated a better mixing of NH3 in

  18. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Teng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  19. Effects of Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang and its modified formula on the modulation of amyloid-β precursor protein processing in Alzheimer's disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sundara Kumar Durairajan

    Full Text Available Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT is a famous traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been widely used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia. Recently, we found that berberine, a major alkaloid compound in HLJDT, reduced amyloid-β (Aβ accumulation in an Alzheimer's disease (AD mouse model. In this study, we compared the effects of HLJDT, four single component herbs of HLJDT (Rhizoma coptidis (RC, Radix scutellariae (RS, Cortex phellodendri (CP and Fructus gardenia (FG and the modified formula of HLJDT (HLJDT-M, which is free of RS on the regulatory processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP in an in vitro model of AD. Here we show that treatment with HLJDT-M and its components RC, CP, and the main compound berberine on N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells stably expressing human APP with the Swedish mutation (N2a-SwedAPP significantly decreased the levels of full-length APP, phosphorylated APP at threonine 668, C-terminal fragments of APP, soluble APP (sAPP-α and sAPPβ-Swedish and reduced the generation of Aβ peptide in the cell lysates of N2a-SwedAPP. HLJDT-M showed more significant APP- and Aβ- reducing effects than berberine, RC or CP treatment alone. In contrast, HLJDT, its component RS and the main active compound of RS, baicalein, strongly increased the levels of all the metabolic products of APP in the cell lysates. The extract from FG, however, did not influence APP modulation. Interestingly, regular treatment of TgCRND8 APP transgenic mice with baicalein exacerbated the amyloid plaque burden, APP metabolism and Aβ production. Taken together, these data provide convincing evidence that HLJDT and baicalein treatment can increase the amyloidogenic metabolism of APP which is at least partly responsible for the baicalein-mediated Aβ plaque increase in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. On the other hand, HLJDT-M significantly decreased all the APP metabolic products including Aβ. Further study of HLJDT-M for therapeutic use in treating AD is

  20. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on an application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    . Further information from applications for placing the single insert lines MON 88017 and MON 810 on the market under EU regulatory procedures was taken into account where appropriate. The scope of application EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33 is for food and feed uses, import and processing of genetically modified maize...... MON 88017 x MON 810 and all derived products, but excluding cultivation in the EU. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed maize MON 88017 x MON 810 with reference to the intended uses and the appropriate principles described in the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms...... or survival of feral maize plants in case of accidental release into the environment of maize MON 88017 x MON 810 viable grains during transportation and processing. The scope of the post-market environmental monitoring plan provided by the applicant is in line with the intended uses of maize MON 88017 x MON...

  1. 酶法改性干酪风味配料的加工技术%Processing Technology of Enzyme Modified Cheese Flavour Ingredient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 刘佳; 赵秀明; 赵征

    2011-01-01

    酶改性干酪(EMC)作为酶法改性干酪风味配料的主要产品,可以赋予风味平淡的产品以特殊的干酪风味特性。本文介绍了EMC生产工艺以及生产过程中所用的酶和发酵剂。%As a main product of enzyme-modified cheese flavour ingredients, enzyme-modified cheese (EMC) can be used to impart a special cheese flavour character to a blander product. This review introduced the technology of EMC, and enzymes as well as starter cultures used in EMC manufacture.

  2. Enzyme-modified cheese processing technology%酶法改性干酪风味配料的加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 刘佳; 赵秀明; 赵征

    2011-01-01

    酶改性干酪(EMC)作为酶法改性干酪风味配料的主要产品,可以赋予风味平淡的产品以特殊的干酪风味特性.本文介绍了EMC生产工艺以及生产过程中所用的酶和发酵剂.%As a main product of enzyme -modified cheese flavour ingredients, enzyme -modified cheese (EMC) can be used to impart a special cheese flavour character to a blander product. This review introduces the technology of EMC, and enzymes as well as starter cultures used in EMC manufacture.

  3. 改性磁种-活性炭工艺处理油污染深井地下水%Treatment of oil polluted ground water by modified magnetic seed-activated carbon process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雨平; 邓阳清; 刘亚凯

    2011-01-01

    Oil polluted groundwater was collected from Hougao 3# deep well, Qilu Petrochemical Corporation,the method of modified magnetic seed-activated carbon process was established and performed on these water samples to investigated the effect of demulsifier (PAC) dosage, modified magnetic seed dosage and activated carbon dosage on the oil removal efficiency. Results showed that the modified magnetic seed-activated carbon process presented perfect performance for oil removal and the optimum dosage for PAC, modified magnetic seed and activated carbon was 50,100, 200 mg/L respectively. After treated under these optimum conditions, mass concentration of oil in polluted ground water could decrease below 1 mg/L, given the average oil removal efficiency of 96.7%, which could meet the requirement of “Urban Sewage Reuse and Utilization, Industrial Water Quality Standard” (GB/T 19923-2005). The modified magnetic seed could be recycled and used again, which could reduce the second pollution and save the treatment cost.%采用改性磁种-活性炭工艺处理油污染深井地下水,考察了破乳剂、改性磁种及活性炭投加量对除油效果的影响,并在最佳除油条件下对原水进行除油效果验证.结果表明,采用改性磁种-活性炭工艺处理油污染深井地下水效果较为明显,出水含油质量浓度在1 mg/L以下,除油率平均达96.7%,出水满足(GB/T 19923-2005)要求;改性磁种可回收再利用,既减少二次污染,又降低成本.

  4. Technical research on phenol wastewater process with acid modified bentonite%酸改性膨润土处理苯酚废水的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎成坤; 李晓生; 李荣江

    2011-01-01

    以辽宁膨润土和硫酸为主要原料制备了改性膨润土,并研究了改性膨润土吸附苯酚废水的工艺条件。结果表明:使用改性膨润土0.3 g处理浓度为20 mg/L的苯酚废水,固液比为6 g/L,常温吸附1.5 h,苯酚浓度去除率达到65%~70%;改性膨润土对高浓度苯酚的浓度去除率较低浓度的更好,浓度去除率达到75%。%Acid modified bentonite has been prepared using Liaoning bentonite and sulfuric acid as main raw materials in this paper,and the adsorption procedure for phenol wastewater studied with modified bentonite.The results showed that the phenol removal rate can reach to 65%~70% under conditions of 1.5 h adsorption at normal temperature with 20 mg/L phenol concentration and 0.3 g modified bentonite,witch solid-liquid ratio in 6 g/L.The removal efficiency of phenol with reaction temperature increased markedly,phenol concentration becomes high,bentonite for the phenol removal effect is better.The phenol removal rate for high concentration phenol was better than low concentration phenol witch reached to 75% by the modified bentonite.

  5. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with ceo2 and ceo2-zro2-modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Rodrigo F.; Edimar DeOliveira; Paulo C. de Sousa Filho; Neri,Cláudio R.; OSVALDO A. SERRA

    2011-01-01

    CeO2 and mixed CeO2-ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out ...

  6. Gel Based Sunscreen Containing Surface Modified TiO2 Obtained by Sol-Gel Process: Proposal for a Transparent UV Inorganic Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Paiva Abuçafy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic UV filters, as titanium dioxide (TiO2, have become attractive because of their role in protecting the skin against the damage caused by the continuous exposure to the sun. However, their high refractive index, responsible for a white residue when applied on the skin, has led to the development of alternative inorganic materials, such as TiO2 nanoparticles. Thus, the aim of this study was the development of transparent and stable gel formulations containing surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles for application in sunscreens. Also, the physical and chemical properties of formulations containing TiO2 nanoparticles were evaluated. The UV absorption spectroscopy analyses indicated that the formulations containing TiO2 nanoparticles had a broad protection spectrum. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy revealed that the use of PTSH surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles improved the transparency of the sunscreen formulations compared to that containing commercial ones. The rheology analyses showed that the amount of nanoparticles incorporated in the formulations influences the gel-like or liquid-like behavior. The results showed that the surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles are a promising innovative UV filter and the formulations containing these nanoparticles are interesting candidates for being used as sunscreen.

  7. Based on Modified Polylactic Acid Processing Methods%聚乳酸改性及成型加工研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯刚; 赵加伟

    2012-01-01

    Several kinds of modified methods was put forward based on shortcomings of polylactic acid, and two commonly used molding methods of polylactic acid were introduced, such as extrusion and injection molding.Finally the application of poly lactic acid was prospected.%针对生物可降解材料聚乳酸的一些缺点,提出了几种改性的方法,并对聚乳酸成型加工常用的两种方法,即挤出成型和注射成型做了介绍,最后对聚乳酸的应用进行了展望.

  8. Bacterial inactivation in water by means of a combined process of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge and silver-modified natural zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; López-Callejas, R.; Olguín, M. T.; Hernández-Arias, A. N.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Alcántara-Díaz, D.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; de la Piedad-Beneitez, A.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a novel combined system of pulsed dielectric barrier discharges (PDBDs) and silver-modified natural zeolite (Ag-zeolite) in liquid in bubbles. The system was tested with the Escherichia coli bacteria immersed in water. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the system in bacterial inactivation a microbiological analysis was carried out; 9.82-ln of bacterial reduction was obtained using the combined system, whereas 0.43-ln of bacterial reduction was obtained using Ag-zeolite alone, and 6.26-ln with PDBD. The elapsed time was 10 minutes for the three treatments.

  9. Termoestabilidade de processos extrativos de Nasturtium officinale R. Br., brassicaceae por sistema Soxhlet modificado Term-stability of extractive processes from Nasturtium officinale R. Br., brassicaceae for soxhlet modified system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz de Souza Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective verified the term-stability of the Soxhlet modified system with analytical and pharmacothecnical application in extractive processes of Nasturtium officinale. It has proven that the process is thermo-stable. The analysis with analytical have determined 3.606 mg g-1 in chlorogenic acid and 11.813 mg g-1 in rutin (extract 1:20 w/v and with pharmacotecnical 3.427 mg g-1 in chlorogenic acid and 11.278 mg g-1 in rutin (extract 1:6 w/v. The income of the pharmacothecnical process was inferior to the analytical, suggesting that the pharmacothecnical process would need of at least the double of time in each extraction system.

  10. Interfacial Behavior of Sulfur and Yttrium in Yttrium Modified Ni3Al-Based Alloy IC6 during High Temperature Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial behavior of sulfur and yttrium in the yttrium-modified Ni3Al-based alloy IC6 during oxidation at 1100 ℃ was analyzed by X-ray line scan of electron probe microstructural analysis(EPMA). The results show that the migration and segregation of sulfur to the interface between oxide scale and the substrate at high temperature is retarded owing to the presence of yttrium. This is attributed to the desulfurization by yttrium in the melt and the trapping of sulfur by yttrium rich phases during oxidation, which leads to improving the coherence between oxide scale and substrate. Another reason of increasing the high temperature oxidation resistance of alloy IC6 by the addition of yttrium is that yttrium migrates to the grain boundaries of oxides during oxidation and hence improve their strength. This results in the transformation of the oxide scale spallation cracks from intergranular cracks for alloy without yttrium to transgranular ones for yttrium-modified alloy.

  11. Theoretical study of different features of the fission process of excited nuclei in the framework of the modified statistical model and four-dimensional dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizadeh, H.

    2017-02-01

    Evaporation residue cross section, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, mass and energy distributions of fission fragments and the pre-scission neutron multiplicity for the excited compound nuclei {}168{{Y}}{{b}}, {}172{{Y}}{{b}}, {}178{{W}} and {}227{{P}}{{a}} produced in fusion reactions have been calculated in the framework of the modified statistical model and multidimensional dynamical model. In the dynamical calculations, the dynamics of fission of excited nuclei has been studied by solving three- and four-dimensional Langevin equations with dissipation generated through the chaos-weighted wall and window friction formula. Three collective shape coordinates plus the projection of total spin of the compound nucleus to the symmetry axis, K, were considered in the four-dimensional dynamical model. A non-constant dissipation coefficient of K, {γ }k, was applied in the four-dimensional dynamical calculations. A comparison of the results of the three- and four-dimensional dynamical models with the experimental data showed that the results of the four-dimensional dynamical model for the evaporation residue cross section, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, mass and energy distributions of fission fragments and the pre-scission neutron multiplicity are in better agreement with the experimental data. It was also shown that the modified statistical model can reproduce the above-mentioned experimental data by choosing appropriate values of the temperature coefficient of the effective potential, λ , and the scaling factor of the fission-barrier height, {r}s.

  12. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelov, Eva; Chan, David; Lawrence, Ben; Pavlakis, Nick; Kennecke, Hagen F; Jackson, Christopher; Law, Calvin; Singh, Simron

    2017-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS) was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander), of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans reflect unmet needs and priorities in the field.

  13. Study of processing conditions on properties of ABS and clay organically modified nanocomposites; Estudo das condicoes de processamento nas propriedades de nanocompositos de ABS e argilas organofilicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, Danieli; Massucato, Felipe; Bartoli, Julio R., E-mail: bartoli@feq.unicamp.br [Fac. de Engenharia Quimica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas - DTP/FEQ/UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); D' Avila, Marcos A. [Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas - DEMA/FEM/UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Elizabeth G. [Tezca P and D Celulas Solares, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clay were prepared by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The independent variables studied were the kind of organoclay (Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B) and the screw torque at levels of 45 and 70%. The effect of these variables on the intercalation/exfoliation were accessed by means of the morphological characteristics using X-ray diffraction and the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile test. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of clay in the polymeric matrix improved the mechanical properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and tensile strength of nanocomposites, being more significant for that containing Cloisite 30B. Torque was also a significant variable for the responses studied. (author)

  14. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with ceo2 and ceo2-zro2-modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2 and mixed CeO2-ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%.

  15. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  16. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on application (EFSAGMO- NL-2007-39) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    This opinion reports on an evaluation of a risk assessment for placing on the market the genetically modified herbicide tolerant and insect resistant maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing. Conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize MON89034...... x MON88017 from inbred lines of the respective parental events. The structural integrity of the inserts in the single events as well as the phenotypes were retained in the hybrid. The expression levels of the Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry3Bb1 and CP4 EPSPS proteins in maize MON89034 x MON88017 were...

  17. A new method for the simultaneous analysis of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica unprocessed and processed seeds using a carbon-paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behpour, Mohsen; Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Khayatkashani, Maryam; Motaghedifard, Mohamadhasan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Loganiaceae), widely used in folk medicine, is grown extensively in southern Asian countries. Its major bioactive constituents are strychnine and brucine, which are frequently used in traditional herbal medicines for treatment of nervous diseases, vomiting and traumatic pain. A new method using a carbon-paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT/CPE) was developed and validated for single or simultaneous determination of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica seeds. Additionally, an environmentally friendly method was successfully applied to reduce the levels of strychnine and brucine in seeds. Cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry and differential pulse voltammetry were used with multi-walled carbon nanotube modified carbon-paste electrodes. The peak currents increase linearly with the strychnine and brucine concentrations in the ranges of 50-1000 and 5-355 µ m, and the detection limits for strychnine and brucine were 0.43 and 0.28 µ m, respectively. Of the processing methods used, the greatest reduction in the strychnine and brucine levels was observed in samples processed using milk and saltwater. A new, sensitive and selective method was developed for the measurement of strychnine and brucine. This method was successfully applied to the determination of strychnine and brucine in unprocessed and processed Strychnos nux-vomica seed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of Processing Temperature on Epoxy Resins Modified by Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Lignin%处理温度对酶解木质素改性环氧树脂性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成军; 刘彤; 赫羴姗; 邸明伟

    2015-01-01

    A corn stalk enzymatic hydrolyzed lignin was blended with epoxy resins under different processing temperatures for a certain time to modify the epoxy resin. The effect of processing temperature on the properties of the modified epoxy resin was studied via characterization of viscosity, curing process, glass transition temperature, insoluble content and mechanical properties after ageing. The results show that the viscosity of the modified epoxy increases with the increase of temperature, while the curing peak temperature of the blends of the modified epoxy resin and polyamine decreases. The glass transition temperature and the insoluble content of the cured epoxy increased with the increase of temperature. The initial mechanical strength increases as the processing temperature increases. The bending strength increases first and then decreases with the increase of ageing time. However, the impact strength decreases with the increase of ageing time.%将玉米秸秆酶解木质素与双酚A环氧树脂混合,在不同温度下预处理一定时间,用以改性环氧树脂。通过改性后树脂黏度、固化反应过程、固化后树脂的玻璃化转变温度、凝胶含量以及老化不同时间后树脂力学性能的测试,研究了处理温度对酶解木质素改性环氧树脂性能的影响。结果表明,改性后环氧树脂的黏度随处理温度的提高而增加,改性树脂/聚酰胺混合体系的固化峰值温度随处理温度的提高而降低;玻璃化转变温度和凝胶含量随处理温度的提高而增大;高温预处理的改性树脂固化物的弯曲强度均有不同程度的提高,老化后,材料的弯曲强度先升高,后降低,冲击强度则随老化时间的延长呈现持续降低的趋势。

  19. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on xylanase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Hallas-Møller, Torben

    The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a xylanase (endo-1,4-β-xylanase; EC 3.2.1.8) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA...... safety concern. Based on the genetic modifications performed, the manufacturing process, the compositional and biochemical data provided and the toxicological studies, this food enzyme does not raise safety concern under the intended conditions of use....

  20. 环氧树脂改性双马来酰亚胺/氰酸酯树脂固化工艺研究%Study on curing process of bismaleimide/cyanate ester resin modified by epoxy resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张教强; 亢新梅; 季铁正; 吴广磊; 晁敏; 杨满红; 寇开昌

    2011-01-01

    采用差示扫描量热(DSC)法和红外光谱(FT-IR)法对缩水甘油胺型环氧树脂(AG-80)与脂环族缩水甘油酯型环氧树脂(TDE-85)共同改性双马来酰亚胺(BMI)/氰酸酯树脂(CE)的固化反应历程进行了研究,并按照Kissinger和Crane法计算出该改性树脂体系固化反应的动力学参数.结果表明:改性树脂体系的固化反应表观活化能为68.11 kJ/mol,固化反应级数为0.860(接近于1级反应);环氧树脂(EP)可促进CE固化,当固化工艺条件为"150℃/3 h→180℃/2 h"时,改性树脂体系可以固化完全.%The curing reaction process of bismaleimide/cyanate ester resin(BMI/CE) modified by AG-80(glycidyl amine type epoxy resin) and TDE-85(alicyclic glycidyl ester type epoxy resin) was investigated by DSC and FT-IR methods, and the kinetics parameters of curing reaction were calculated by Kissinger equation and Crane theory for the modified resin systems. The results showed that the apparent activation energy was 68.11 kJ/mol and reaction order was 0.860(approx 1 level reaction) for curing reaction of modified resin system. The epoxy resin(EP) could promote the curing reaction of CE,and the modified resin system could be completely cured at “150 ℃/3 h→180 ℃/2 h”.

  1. Modified harmony search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  2. Microbial quality of lamb carcasses during processing and the acridine orange direct count technique (a modified DEFT) for rapid enumeration of total viable counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M L; Sheridan, J J; McGuire, L

    1997-04-29

    This study was designed to set up a hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system for sheep slaughtering operations at four different plants in Ireland and to determine the differences between plants in terms of microbial contamination. A single carcass area, the abdomen, was examined by swabbing and a microbiological profile was determined at different stages along the slaughter line. The level of contamination was assessed from the total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria spp. For the total counts, a modified direct epifluorescent filter technique (acridine orange direct count technique (AODC)) was developed and tested. No significant differences were found among plants in the levels of bacterial contamination. This was observed for all groups of organisms. The rapid direct technique (AODC) was found to be very successful. A correlation coefficient of 0.87 was obtained for this method and the standard plate count. Each test could be carried out in about 10-15 min and could be used to predict the standard plate count.

  3. The reaction mechanism for the SCR process on monomer V(5+) sites and the effect of modified Brønsted acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnarson, Logi; Falsig, Hanne; Rasmussen, Søren B; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; Moses, Poul Georg

    2016-06-22

    The energetics, structures and activity of a monomeric VO3H/TiO2(001) catalyst are investigated for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction by the use of density functional theory (DFT). Furthermore we study the influences of a dopant substitute in the TiO2 support and its effects on the known properties of the SCR system such as Brønsted acidity and reducibility of vanadium. We find for the reduction part of the SCR mechanism that it involves two Ti-O-V oxygen sites. One is a hydroxyl possessing Brønsted acidity which contributes to the formation of NH4(+), while the other accepts a proton which charge stabilizes the reduced active site. In the reduction the proton is donated to the latter due to a reaction between NH3 and NO that forms a H2NNO molecule which decomposes into N2(g) and H2O(g). A dopant substitution of 10 different dopants: Si, Ge, Se, Zr, Sn, Te, Hf, V, Mo and W at each of the sites, which participate in the reaction, modifies the energetics and therefore the SCR activity. We find that Brønsted acidity is a descriptor for the SCR activity at low temperatures. Based on this descriptor we find that Zr, Hf and Sn have a positive effect as they decrease the activation energy for the SCR reaction.

  4. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi5 for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB5 alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi5 substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 μm) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB5 alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB5 alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB5 alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB5 alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB5 production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of Vat Green 03 textile dye, using the Ferrihydrite-Modified Diatomite with TiO2 /UV process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rezig

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study of the photodegradation( photocatalytic degradation of a dye of the textile industry . The Vat Green 03 textile dye of a chemical structure is C31H15NO3 as a function of pH, Titanium dioxide concentration and dye concentration in the study with dyestuff were led by lamp UV of trans-illuminator using the titanium dioxide TiO2 ( Degussa P25 like catalyst with a co-adsorbent , which is a rock formed primarily by the accumulation of frustules of diatoms called « diatomite or Kieselguhrs» in the layer of Sig having the advantage of being locally available and less expensive . The diatomite, which will be modified by iron « the deposit of ferrihydrite on raw diatomite by FeCl2.4 H2 O » and NaOH to increase the specific surface area of this material. Comparison of the results from x-ray diffraction ( XRD show that the raw diatomite has an irregular structure at the modification by ferrihydrite to obtain the principal phases of ferric oxide in kind are,in rule of crystallinity, ferrihydrite,maghemite, akaganeite, magnetite,hematite, goethite ,and Schwertmannite increasing . The prepared material of diatomite and ferrihydrite applied for the photodegradation of Vat Green 03 textile dye used a concentration 20 mg/L with different of pH, and different concentrations from materials, added with 0,02 g titanium dioxide ( TiO2 under lamp UV with an agitation.The results of the photocatalytics tests applied from material DMF1 which there was a better colour remove about 97% at pH=4.The objective of this work it is the elimination of the organic pollutants of industrial waste water.

  6. Modelling growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce submitted to commercial process conditions: chlorine washing and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Selma, María V; Gil, María I; Zurera, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 was submitted to chlorine washing (150 mg/mL) and modified atmosphere packaging on laboratory scale. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 were assessed in fresh-cut lettuce stored at 4, 8, 13 and 16 °C using 6-8 replicates in each analysis point in order to capture experimental variability. The pathogen was able to grow at temperatures ≥8 °C, although at low temperatures, growth data presented a high variability between replicates. Indeed, at 8 °C after 15 days, some replicates did not show growth while other replicates did present an increase. A growth primary model was fitted to the raw growth data to estimate lag time and maximum growth rate. The prediction and confidence bands for the fitted growth models were estimated based on Monte-Carlo method. The estimated maximum growth rates (log cfu/day) corresponded to 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06-0.31), 0.55 (95% CI: 0.17-1.20) and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.82-2.15) for 8, 13 and 16 °C, respectively. A square-root secondary model was satisfactorily derived from the estimated growth rates (R(2) > 0.80; Bf = 0.97; Af = 1.46). Predictive models and data obtained in this study are intended to improve quantitative risk assessment studies for E. coli O157:H7 in leafy green products. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on lipase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    . The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as oils, fats and eggs processing. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. The food enzyme did not induce gene mutations in bacteria nor......The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA...... chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. Therefore, there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity. The systemic toxicity was assessed by means of a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rodents. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level was derived, which compared with the dietary exposure results...

  8. 有机硅改性破乳剂破乳脱水工艺研究%Study on the dehydration process of aging oil by demulsifier modified with organic-silicion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婧; 王洪国; 吴桐; 廖克俭; 牛晓龙; 刘涛; 马梦瑶; 许维丽; 于晓爱

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at the difficulty of dehydrating of the three oil recovery .At present most of the demulsi-fiers encounter bottlenecks in dehydration process .Comparised the demulsification performance of the sil-icone modified demulsifier and other four kinds of polyether demulsifier .When the dosage of the silicon modified demulsifier was 50 mg/L,demulsification temperature was 65℃,the breaking time was 30 min, the demulsification performance of the silicone modified demulsifier was better than other four kinds of polyether demulsifier .The dosage of demulsifier , demulsification temperature has significant advantages through the silicon modified .Suitable for the demulsification of three oil production .Compounded demul-sifier 189 and modified demulsifier in dosage of 100 mg/L and 50 mg/L.Three-phase separation was vis-ible with clear interface .Meet the requirements of the demulsification and dehydration production .%针对三次采油脱水困难,目前的大多数破乳剂遇到瓶颈,将有机硅改性破乳剂与其他4种聚醚破乳剂进行破乳性能考察,比较得出经过硅改性破乳剂用量为50 mg/L,破乳温度为65℃,破乳时间为30 min时的破乳效果都优于其他聚醚类破乳剂,经过硅改性的破乳剂在用量、破乳温度等方面有较明显的优点,适合对三次采油进行破乳。通过复配破乳剂189和硅改性破乳剂在加剂量分别为100 mg/L和50 mg/L时,破乳脱水后的三次采油油水界面齐整,脱出的水质清澈,达到生产中破乳脱水效果的要求。

  9. Fatigue crack paths and properties in A356-T6 aluminum alloy microstructurally modified by friction stir processing under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tajiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A356-T6 cast aluminum alloy is a light weight structural material, but fatigue crack initiates and propagates from a casting defect leading to final fracture. Thus it is important to eliminate casting defects. In this study, friction stir processing (FSP was applied to A356-T6, in which rotating tool with probe and shoulder was plunged into the material and travels along the longitudinal direction to induce severe plastic deformation, resulting in the modification of microstructure. Two different processing conditions with low and high tool rotational speeds were tried and subsequently fully reversed fatigue tests were performed to investigate the effect of processing conditions on the crack initiation and propagation behavior. The fatigue strengths were successfully improved by both conditions due to the elimination of casting defects. But the lower tool rotational speed could further improve fatigue strength than the higher speed. EBSD analyses revealed that the higher tool rotational speed resulted in the severer texture having detrimental effects on fatigue crack initiation and propagation resistances.

  10. Preparation of c-Axis Oriented LiNb1-xTaxO3 Films on Si(111) Substrates by a Modified Sol-gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we succeeded in the preparation of LiNb1-xTaxO3 films on Si(111) substrates by means of sol-gel process, and the usual sol-gel process for the preparation of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 films on Si substrates was improved by adding a 33% aqueous solution of CH3CH2OH to the mixed sols of LiNb(OCH2CH3)6 and LiTa(OCH2CH3)6. The crystallization behavior of LiNb1-xTaxO3 films on Si(111) substrates has been studied. Highly c-axis oriented LiNb1-xTaxO3 films have been obtained within the tantalum composition range of 0process that provides the unidirectional heat flow and the preheating temperature are discussed to analyze the crystallization of the c-axis oriented films.

  11. Fabrication of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles by wet method with modified powders synthesized via sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaohe; Yang, Mao [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Tiecheng, E-mail: Lutiecheng@sina.vip.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wei, Nian; Wei, Jianjun; Shi, Yanli; Huang, Zhangyi; Xiang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Qinghua [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Wei [Southwest Institute of Technical Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles have been recognized as attractive tritium breeder materials in the fusion reactor blanket of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). In this work, we present a facile method to prepare Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles of high density and sphericity by using a directive wet method with the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} powders synthesized via sol–gel process. The Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} powders were prepared with two-step calcinating method, followed by a ball-milling process. Thermal and phase analysis, morphologies and sintering behaviors observations of the pebbles were carried out systematically. Experimental results show that the pure phase powders with white color that prepared by using two-step calcinating method is different from the powders prepared by the traditional direct calcinating method. The subsequent ball milling process proves to be effective to improve the relative density of the sintered body. When sintered at the temperature as low as 850 °C for 4 h, the favorable Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles with uniform size (∼1 mm), good sphericity (1.02), and high density (above 90% T.D.) were fabricated by using a directive wet method. The as-fabricated pebbles hold good potential as tritium breeding materials for blankets.

  12. The determination of optimum condition in water hyacinth drying process by mixed adsorption drying method and modified fly ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Putri, Rizky Anggreini

    2017-05-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed that has a very fast growth which makes it becomes a problem to the ecosystem. On the other hand, water hyacinth has a high fiber content (up to 20% by weight) which makes it potential to become raw material for composites and textile industries. As an aquatic plant, water hyacinth has a high initial moisture content that reaches more than 90%. Meanwhile the moisture content of fiber as a raw material for composite and textile industry should not be more than 10% to maintain the good quality of the products. Mixed adsorption drying method is one of the innovative method that can replace conventional drying process. Fluidization method which has been commonly used in agricultural and pharmaceutical products drying, can be enhanced by combining it with the adsorption method as performed in this study. In mixed fluidization-adsorption drying method, fly ash as adsorbent and water hyacinth fiber were put together into the fluidization column where the drying air evaporate the moisture content in water hyacinth fiber. In addition, the adsorbent adsorb the moisture content in the drying air to make the moisture content of the drying air remain low. The drying process is performed in various temperature and composition of water hyacinth and adsorbent in order to obtain the optimum drying condition. In addition, the effect of fly ash pellet and fly ash powder to the drying process was also performed. The result shows that the higher temperature and the more amount of adsorbent results in the faster drying rate. Fly ash pellet shows a better adsorption since it has a smaller pore diameter and wider surface area. The optimum temperature obtained from this study is 60°C and the optimum ratio of water hyacinth and fly ash is 50:50.

  13. Novel TiC/Ti Open Cellular Foams Prepared by a Modified Sponge-coating Method Using High Frequency Induction Heating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Gao; Xingxiang Xu; Zhenming Yang; Junqi Zhang; Chunhai Jiang; Jinsong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A new kind of open cellular foam material with three dimensionally interconnected TiC/Ti struts was prepared by a two-step sponge-coating and high frequency induction heating process.The microstructure,composition and compression strength of the prepared TiC/Ti foam materials were characterized.It was confirmed that the incorporation of Ti into TiC resulted in an inter-bonded Ti-TiC-Ti layered structure in the struts,which enhanced the plasticity of the composite foam materials.

  14. Associação de atmosfera modificada e antioxidantes reduz o escurecimento de batatas 'Ágata' minimamente processadas Association of modified atmospheres and antioxidants reduce browning of minimally processed potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia L.O. Pineli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O escurecimento enzimático da batata minimamente processada reduz o valor comercial do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alterações químicas e físicas em batatas 'Ágata' minimamente processadas embaladas sob atmosfera modificada em associação com antioxidantes. Batatas 'Ágata' foram minimamente processadas como mini batatas e tratadas por imersão em soluções antioxidantes de ácido cítrico a 2%, ácido eritórbico a 3%, combinação de ácido cítrico a 2% e ácido eritórbico a 3%, e combinação de ácido cítrico a 3% e ácido eritórbico a 5% embaladas em filmes de nylon multicamadas. Os três primeiros tratamentos foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada passiva enquanto no último tratamento aplicou-se atmosfera modificada ativa com 10% CO2, 2% O2, 88% N2. Observou-se que o tratamento com aplicação de antioxidantes em associação com atmosfera modificada ativa apresentou índice de escurecimento 24% menor e atividade enzimática da PPO e da POD 92% e 73% menor, respectivamente, que a média dos demais tratamentos no nono dia de observação. Houve elevação nos teores de vitamina C total, observado principalmente em tratamentos que utilizaram ácido eritrórbico. Observou-se uma correlação entre a degradação do amido e o aumento nos teores de açúcares solúveis totais e da vitamina C total em alguns tratamentos. O tratamento com aplicação de antioxidantes em associação com atmosfera modificada ativa foi o mais efetivo na manutenção dos atributos de qualidade de batatas minimamente processadas.Enzymatic browning of minimally processed potatoes reduces the final price of the product. The present work was carried out aiming to evaluate chemical and physical characteristics in fresh-cut 'Ágata' potatoes stored under modified atmospheres and treated with antioxidants. Potatoes 'Ágata' were minimally processed as baby potatoes and treated with antioxidants solutions as follows: citric acid (2

  15. Microstructure and Wear Properties of FeCrC, FeW and Feti Modified Iron Based Alloy Coating Deposited by PTA Process on AISI 430 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teker T.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The plasma transferred arc (PTA process was used for developing wear resistance of AISI 430 steel substrate. Appropriate quantities of FeCrC, FeW and FeTi powders were combined to create conditions that synthesized M7C3 particles into reinforced Fe-based composite surface coating. The phase transformations on new created coated surfaces were comprehensively examined by using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, microanalysis by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, microhardness and abrasive wear tests. The microstructure studies of the superficial layers of the coating revealed presence of a mixture of the dendritic phase structure of austenite (γ and fine eutectic M7C3 carbides. The results show that; the concentrations of the elements (Cr, W, Ti added as ferroalloys, the size of dendrites formed in the coated surface, the change of hardness of the coated surfaces, the carbide volume rate and thickness of the coating changed by the variation of the processing parameters (ratio of reinforcement particulates and heat input.

  16. SUMMARY OF 2009 RHEOLOGY MODIFIER PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.

    2009-12-08

    The overall objective of the EM-31 Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents program is to utilize commercially available rheology modifiers to increase the solids fraction of radioactive sludge based waste streams, resulting in an increase in throughput and decreasing the overall processing time. The program first investigates the impact of rheology modifiers on slurry simulants and then utilizes the most effective rheology modifiers on radioactive slurries. The work presented in this document covers the initial investigation of rheology modifier testing with simulants. This task is supported by both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The SRNL EM-31 task, for this year, was to investigate the use of rheology modifiers on simulant Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feeds. The task is to determine, based on the impact of the rheology modifier, if there are rheology modifiers that could reduce the water content of the slurry going to the DWPF melter, hence increasing the melt rate by decreasing the water loading. The rheology modifier in essence would allow a higher solids content slurry to have the same type of rheology or pumpability of a lower solids slurry. The modifiers selected in this report were determined based on previous modifiers used in high level waste melter feed simulants, on-going testing performed by counterparts at PNNL, and experiences gain through use of modifiers in other Department of Energy (DOE) processes such as grout processing. There were 12 rheology modifiers selected for testing, covering both organic and inorganic types and they were tested at four different concentrations for a given melter feed. Five different DWPF melter feeds were available and there was adequate material in one of the melter feeds to increase the solids concentration, resulting in a total of six simulants for testing. The mass of melter feed available in each simulant was not adequate for

  17. 改性乌桕脂的液-液萃取脱酸工艺研究%Study on the investigation of liquid-liquid extraction process of modified Chinese tallow oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志强; 吴炜亮; 郑建仙

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the solution concentration of extraction solvent isopropyl alcohol,material ratio,extraction time on free fatty acid extraction ratio and the yield of modified lipid were investigated by single factor experiment and the response surface method to obtain the optimum process parameters of liquid-liquid extraction process of modified Chinese tallow oil.The research showed that free fatty acid extraction ratio increased with extraction solution concentration,material ratio,extraction time increasing,while the yield decreased with these three process conditions increasing.The regression models established by the response surface method could observably reflect the relationships of various factors and free fatty acid extraction ratio yield.The sequences of two factors which influenced on free fatty acid extraction ratio and yield of modified lipid were both extraction solution concentrationmaterial ratio.Through overlaying two contour lines of free fatty acid extraction ratio and modified lipid yield,the optimal process was:IPA concentration 75.00%,material ratio 1.50.Under the optimum process parameters,when the extraction times was 5 and extraction temperature was 35℃,the extraction ratio was higher than 97%,and yield more than 95%.%通过单因素实验和响应面法研究了萃取溶剂异丙醇溶液浓度、物料比、萃取级数等因素对脱酸工艺的影响,以改性乌桕脂脱酸率和得率为指标,确定了改性乌桕脂液-液萃取脱酸的最佳工艺参数。研究表明:改性乌桕脂脱酸率与异丙醇溶液浓度、物料比、萃取级数正相关,而得率则随这三个因素条件的增加而减少。由响应曲面法建立的回归模型反映了各因素水平与改性乌桕脂脱酸率和得率之间的关系,对改性脂质脱酸率和得率的影响顺序均为异丙醇溶液浓度〉物料比。通过对改性乌桕脂脱酸率和得率的等高线进行叠加得到异丙醇液-液萃取脱酸的最佳工艺

  18. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed.

  19. Effect of citric acid on formation of oxides of Cu and Zn in modified sol-gel process: A comparative study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAMARAJ MAHENDRAPRABHU; PERUMAL ELUMALAI

    2016-05-01

    We report here the influence of citric acid concentration on the formation of sol-gel products ineach of Cu and Zn systems by using respective metal nitrate as precursor and citric acid as gelling agent. Thesynthesized sol-gel products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and UVVisiblediffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). The influence of citric acid concentration on theformation of metal/metal oxide in each case was primarily investigated by varying the molar ratio of each metalnitrate (N) and citric (C) acid (N:C = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6 and 1:8). It was observed that at low N:C molar ratios(1:1) and (1:2), the Cu system had only CuO and at high N:C molar ratio, lower oxidation state of copper(Cu2O and Cu) has resulted. Distinctly, irrespective of the N:C molar ratio, the sol-gel product of Zn systemwas only single phase of ZnO. The SEM observations confirmed that the grains of these two metal systemswere spherical in nature. In each metal system, at high N:C molar ratio, small grain size has resulted. At highN:C ratio, lower oxidation state of metal ion is resulted where the metal system is susceptible for reduction. Thesusceptibility of metal ions to undergo reduction controlled the formation of end products in the sol-gel process.

  20. Surfactant modified MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanopowders by reverse micelle processing: Effect of water to surfactant ratio (R) on the particle size and magnetic property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandradass, J.; Jadhav, Arvind H. [Energy and Environment Fusion Technology Center, Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, Yongin, Kyonggi-do 449-728 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hern, E-mail: hernkim@mju.ac.kr [Energy and Environment Fusion Technology Center, Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, Yongin, Kyonggi-do 449-728 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Nanoparticles of surfactant modified MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized by reverse micelle processing using tertiary system of heptane/Igepal CO 520/H{sub 2}O. The effect of water to surfactant ratio on the particle size and magnetic property has been studied. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with cubic spinel structure. The average particle size increases with increase in water to surfactant ratio. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms that the surface of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was coated with surfactants. The saturation magnetization ranged from 14.4 to 40.05 emu/g was measured by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Magnetometry (SQUID).

  1. Metallurgical behavior of fine fractions of copper sulfide minerals in a combined process of modified flotation and agitated bio leaching; Respuesta metalurgica de fracciones finas de minerales sulfurados de cobre en un proceso combinado de flotacion modificada y biolixiviacion agitada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, J. P.; Ipinza, J.; Collao, N.; Ahlborn, G.

    2007-07-01

    The metallurgical behaviour of fine fraction of copper sulfide minerals of Compania Minera Quebrada Blanca S. A. was studied by concentration through flotation in aqueous media modified by alcohol followed by bio leaching of the concentrates. By using a 1% v/v of methanol, the metallurgical recovery of copper reaches 88%, while the iron recovery was 43%, the weight recovery was 18%, which indicates a high selectivity. these concentrates were then bio leached with and without nutrient medium, reaching 80% of copper recovery after 10 and 17 days, respectively. then, it is possible to conclude that this concentration-bio leaching metallurgical process is a promising route for copper recovery from the fine fraction of sulfide minerals. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape GT73. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape GT73 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import, processing and feed uses of oilseed rape GT73 in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. The EFSA GMO Panel does not consider the occurrence of occasional feral oilseed rape GT73 plants, pollen dispersal and consequent cross-pollination as environmental harm in itself. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC nor its prolongation, and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of oilseed

  3. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape GT73. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape GT73 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import and processing of oilseed rape GT73 for feed uses in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC nor its prolongation, and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of oilseed rape GT73.

  4. A proposed adaptation of the European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model to physical activity programmes for the elderly - development of a quality self-assessment tool using a modified Delphi process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Ana I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA programmes for elderly people, since evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Complete programme evaluations are a necessary prerequisite to continuous quality improvements. Being able to refine, adapt and create tools that are suited to the realities and contexts of PA programmes for the elderly in order to support its continuous improvement is, therefore, crucial. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a self-assessment tool for PA programmes for the elderly. Methods A 3-round Delphi process was conducted via the Internet with 43 national experts in PA for the elderly, management and delivery of PA programmes for the elderly, sports management, quality management and gerontology, asking experts to identify the propositions that they considered relevant for inclusion in the self-assessment tool. Experts reviewed a list of proposed statements, based on the criteria and sub-criteria from the European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model (EFQM and PA guidelines for older adults and rated each proposition from 1 to 8 (disagree to agree and modified and/or added propositions. Propositions receiving either bottom or top scores of greater than 70% were considered to have achieved consensus to drop or retain, respectively. Results In round 1, of the 196 originally-proposed statements (best practice principles, the experts modified 41, added 1 and achieved consensus on 93. In round 2, a total of 104 propositions were presented, of which experts modified 39 and achieved consensus on 53. In the last round, of 51 proposed statements, the experts achieved consensus on 19. After 3 rounds of rating, experts had not achieved consensus on 32 propositions. The resulting tool consisted of 165 statements that assess nine management areas involved in the development of PA programmes for

  5. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lassen, J.; Kettlitz, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods...... efficaciously into risk analysis processes, specifically with respect to the biosciences and to technology implementation in general....

  6. Effect of the strain-induced melt activation (SIMA) process on the tensile properties of a new developed super high strength aluminum alloy modified by Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghparast, Amin [School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourimotlagh, Masoud [Young Researchers Club, Dareshahr Branch, Islamic Azad university (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alipour, Mohammad, E-mail: Alipourmo@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    In this study, the effect of Al-5Ti-1B grain refiners and modified strain-induced melt activation process on an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied. The optimum level of Ti was found to be 0.1 wt.%. The specimens subjected to deformation ratio of 40% (at 300 Degree-Sign C) and various heat treatment times (10-40 min) and temperature (550-600 Degree-Sign C) regimes were characterized in this study. Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Microstructural examinations were conducted by optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometry. The optimum temperature and time in strain-induced melt activation process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min, respectively. T6 heat treatment including quenching to room temperature and aging at 120 Degree-Sign C for 24 h was employed to reach to the maximum strength. Significant improvements in mechanical properties were obtained with the addition of grain refiner combined with T6 heat treatment. After the T6 heat treatment, the average tensile strength increased from 283 MPa to 587 and 332 MPa to 617 for samples refined with 2 wt.% Al-5Ti-1B before and after strain-induced melt activation process and extrusion process, respectively. Ultimate strength of Ti-refined specimens without SIMA process has a lower value than globular microstructure specimens after SIMA and extrusion process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Al-5Ti-1B on the aluminum alloy produced by SIMA process was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-5Ti-1B is an effective in reducing the grain and reagent fine microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reheating condition to obtain a fine globular microstructure was optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum temperature and time in SIMA process are 575 Degree-Sign C and 20 min respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UTS of globular structure specimens have a more value than Ti-refined specimens.

  7. Performance Analysis of Modified UCT Step-feed Nutrients Removal Process%改良UCT分段进水脱氮除磷工艺的性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛士建; 彭永臻

    2011-01-01

    Combined with the upgrading and reconstruction project of a wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, the mechanisms for organic degradation, enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel modified UCT step-feed nutrients removal process treating real municipal wastewater were studied, and the process characteristics and the main points in design and operation were discussed. The results of the pilot-scale test for about two years show that the average TN, TP and COD in the effluent are 8.51 mg/L, 0.44 mg/L and 44 mg/L respectively, meeting the requirement of the first-A discharge standard in China. Both the conventional nitrification and denitrification process and aerobic simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process contribute to the advanced nitrogen removal, and the anoxic phosphorus uptake, which accounts for approximately 32. 6% to 39. 5% of the total phosphorus uptake, is benefit for the phosphorus removal. Moreover, the system has high utilization efficiency of the influent organics since 55.9% of the influent organics are efficiently utilized in the anaerobic phosphorus release and denitrification process. Compared to A/O and A2/O processes, the modified UCT step-feed nutrients removal process just needs to cancel the internal recycle system and adjust the influent pipelines, and therefore the process is easy to be used in upgrading and reconstruction of existing wastewater treatment plants with a promising application market.%结合北京某污水处理厂升级改造工程,以实际生活污水为处理对象,研究新型改良UCT分段进水深度脱氮除磷工艺降解有机物、深度脱氮和除磷机理,并在此基础上探讨了工艺特点及设计和操作运行要点.长达2年的中试结果表明,出水总氮平均为8.51 mg/L,总磷为0.44mg/L,COD为44 mg/L,达到国家一级A排放标准;系统深度脱氮途径主要包括传统硝化反硝化和好氧同步硝化反硝化两个过程;缺氧吸磷量

  8. Selectivity of the adsorption process of modified zeolite rock with hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide in front to chromates and dichromates; Selectividad del proceso de adsorcion de roca zeolitica modificada con bromuro de hexadeciltrimetilamonio frente a cromatos y dicromatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado G, N.

    2011-07-01

    In the present investigation natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from the Chihuahua state, which was conditioned with sodium chloride solution and subsequently modified with a hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide solution was used to evaluate the removal of Cr (Vi) from chromate or dichromate solutions. The zeolite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface area was also determined. The experiments were performed in a batch system, the influence of ph, contact time between phases were investigated and during the adsorption process was calculated the concentration of chromium ion present in aqueous solution (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-}). The quantification of chromium removed from the aqueous solution by atomic absorption spectrometry technique was done. In order to understand the behaviour of the adsorption kinetics the pseudo first and pseudo second order models were applied, and to determine the adsorption capacity of the zeolite materials for Cr the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models were chosen. It was found that the removal efficiency of chromium ion is influenced by ph and the chemical species present: chromate or dichromate. The chromate and dichromate sorption kinetic data were best fitted to the pseudo-second and pseudo-first order models, respectively; and the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models described adequately the isotherms data considering a mono component system. In a mixture of Cr (Vi) ad CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-}, the surfactant modified zeolite has a greater selectivity for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-} ion than CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In this case the Langmuir-Freundlich model described the adsorption isotherm behavior. (Author)

  9. Modified Invasion Percolation Models for Multiphase Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpyn, Zuleima [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This project extends current understanding and modeling capabilities of pore-scale multiphase flow physics in porous media. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography imaging experiments are used to investigate structural and surface properties of the medium that influence immiscible displacement. Using experimental and computational tools, we investigate the impact of wetting characteristics, as well as radial and axial loading conditions, on the development of percolation pathways, residual phase trapping and fluid-fluid interfacial areas.

  10. 水解酸化/改良Carrousel工艺用于纺织印染废水处理%Combined Process of Hydrolysis Acidification and Modified Carrousel for Treatment of Textile Printing and Dyeing Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦帮森

    2011-01-01

    介绍了某经济开发区污水处理厂工程,根据纺织印染废水污染物浓度高、可生化性差、水质水量多变的特点,结合当地的条件,采用调节/水解酸化/改良Carrousel/混凝沉淀/过滤工艺.工程运行表明,处理效果良好,出水水质达到了(GB18918-2002)的一级A标准.%The wastewater treatment plant in an economic development zone is introduced. Based on the local condition, the combined process of equalization, hydrolysis acidification, modified Carrousel, coagulation sedimentation and filtration is adopted due to the high pollutant concentration, poor biodegradation, variable quality and quantity of textile printing and dyeing wastewater. The operation result shows that the combined process has good treatment effect, and the effluent quality meets the first level A criteria specified in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918 -2002).

  11. Introduction of Double Loop Pentadiene Modified Unsaturated Polyester Resin Production Process%浅谈双环戊二烯改性不饱和聚酯树脂的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许军

    2014-01-01

    采用双环戊二烯改性不饱和聚酯树脂,使得不饱和聚酯树脂具有很多独特的优异性能。主要介绍以双环戊二烯与顺丁烯二酸酐合成双环戊二烯马来酸单酯为基础,经进一步扩链(加入多元醇酯化)之后得到不饱和聚酯树脂的合成过程。剖析了生产设备、生产工艺流程。%Based on dicyclopentadiene modified unsaturated polyester resin, unsaturated polyester resin had many unique excellent performance.The synthesis of dicyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride dicyclopentadiene maleic acid monoester as the foundation was introduced, by further expanding chain ( adding polyolsesterification) after obtaining the unsaturated polyester resin synthetic process.The production equipment and production process were analyzed.

  12. 改性涤纶/锦纶莱卡织物的染色工艺探讨%The investigation of the dyeing process of modified polyester/nylon lycra fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志忠

    2014-01-01

    针对(阳离子)改性涤纶和锦纶莱卡的性能与面料特点,分析了阳离子改性涤纶/锦纶莱卡面料的一浴法和两浴法染色工艺。实践表明:阳离子改性涤纶/锦纶可以解决传统涤/锦氨纶面料的染色问题。介绍阳离子染料可染涤纶(CDP)与锦氨织物的染整工艺和影响产品质量的因素。%The one bath and two bath dyeing process of the cationic modified polyester/nylon lycra fabric were analyzed according to the performances and characteristics. It was found that the cationic modification of polyester/nylon lycra fabric can solve the dyeing problems brought by the conventional polyester/nylon lycra fabric. The dyeing process and factors affected the products quality of cationic dyeable polyester (CDP)/nylon/spandex fabrics were introduced.

  13. Synthesis of Modified Methylaluminoxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Bo-chao; Zhao Xu-tao; Yin Yuan-qi; Wei Shao-yi

    2004-01-01

    Methylaluminoxane (MAO) is one of the most important cocatalysts of metallocene catalysts. The yield and activity of MAO is low when using Al2(SO4)3 nH2O and other inorganic hydrates to synthesize methylaluminoxane. The repeatability of this reaction is not good. The product cost is very high because one of the raw materials (Trimethylaluminium, TMA) to prepare MAO is very expensive. In addition, on standing, MAO toluene solution tends to gel. Gelled MAO can not be used to prepare supported metallocene catalyets.With the development of gas phase and slurry polymerization of olefine by metallocene catalysts,the application of supported metallocene catalysts becomes more and more important.This paper relates to the use of trimethylaluminium (TMA), tri-isobutylaluminium(TIBA) and silica gel containing from about 4 to about 22 percent by weight absorbed water to synthesize modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO). This method, which integrates synthesis and supporting of MMAO, simplify the preparing process of metallocene catalysts. By using this method, the yield and activity of modified methylaluminoxane is higher than using Al2(SO4)3 nH2O and other inorganic hydrates, and what is more, not only the product cost is lowered, but also gelled MAO is avoided. In addition, the repeatability of this reaction is much better because TIBA is stabler than TMA.Synthesis of Modified MAO: A one liter three neck flask equipped with a magnetic stirring bar and a constant pressure funnel was charged with 250ml of dried and degassed toluene. 60g of undehydrated silica gel (Davison 955) which contains 12 weight percent absorbed water was added into the flask. The resulting mixture was stirred at -10℃ for 30 minutes. Thereafter 90ml of trimethylaluminum/toluene solution (2.0M) was dropped slowly into the flask in 60 minutes. The resulting mixture was allowed to react under stirring at -10℃ for 1hours, then at 0℃ for 1 hours,then at ambient temperature for 1 hours and finally at 40

  14. UV-Irradiation Cured Organic-inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposite Initiated by Ethoxysilane-modified Multifunctional Polymeric Photoinitiator through Sol-gel Process%UV-Irradiation Cured Organic-inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposite Initiated by Ethoxysilane-modified Multifunctional Polymeric Photoinitiator through Sol-gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu, Lihua; Shi, Wenfang

    2011-01-01

    The UV-cured organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite (nano-Si-m-PI) was prepared through the photopolymeri- zation of acrylic resin initiated by ethoxysilane-modified multifunctional oligomeric photoinitiator (Si-m-PI). The es- terification reaction of 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone (Irgacure 2959) with thioglycolic acid, and the following addition reactions with dipentaerythritol hexaacrylate and then 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane were carried out for preparing the Si-m-PI. The Si-m-PI exhibits the similar UV absorption and molar extinction coefficient with Irgacure 2959. The photoinitiating activity study by photo-DSC analysis showed that the Si-m-PI possesses high photopolymerization rate at the peak maximum (Rpax) and final unsaturation conversion (Pf) in the cured hybrid films. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, the SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed uniformly in the formed nano-Si-m-PI, whereas the aggregation of nanoparticals occurred in nano-Irg, which was prepared through the photopolymerization of acrylic resin initiated by Irgacure 2959. Moreover, compared with the UV-cured pure polymer and nano-Irg, the nano-Si-m-PI showed remarkably enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties.

  15. Efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na qualidade do melão 'orange flesh' minimamente processado Effect of the active modified atmosphere in the quality of the melon tipo orange flesh processed minimally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Marta Machado Casado de Araújo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da demanda por produtos minimamente processados traz um grande desafio para a ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, considerando-se a escassez de informações sobre a manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. O armazenamento destes em condições adequadas é um ponto fundamental para o sucesso dessa tecnologia. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na qualidade e conservação do melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado. Os frutos, após o processamento, foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada (AM passiva - controle, AM ativa com 5% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e AM ativa com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2 , armazenados em câmara fria (6ºC ± 1ºC e UR 85% ± 5% durante 8 dias e as amostras retiradas para análises físicas, físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais, a cada 2 dias de armazenamento. A atmosfera modificada ativa pouco influenciou no comportamento das variáveis pH, acidez total titulável, firmeza, pectina total e sabor com relação à atmosfera modificada passiva. Menor solubilização de pectinas foi detectada nas amostras armazenadas sob atmosfera com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2. Os atributos de qualidade, sabor e textura não sofreram deteriorações durante os 8 dias de armazenamento, em todos os tratamentos, de acordo com a análise sensorial.The increase of the demand for products processed minimally brings a great challenge for the food science and technology, being considered the shortage of information about the maintenance of the quality of those products. The storage of these products in appropriate conditions is a fundamental point for the success of this technology. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the active modified atmosphere in the quality and conservation of the melon 'Orange Flesh' processed minimally. The fruits, after the processing were wrapped under modified atmosphere (passive AM control; active AM with 5% of CO2 and 5% of O2 and activate AM with 10

  16. Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale, Phase 2. Construction, operation, testing, and environmental impact. Final report, August 1981-December 1982. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A.L.; Zahradnik, R.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Occidential Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) recently completed the demonstration of mining, rubblization, ignition, and simulataneous processing of two commericalized modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the Logas Wash facility near DeBeque, Colorado. Upon completion of Retort 6 in 1978, Occidential began incorporating all of the knowledge previously acquired in an effort to design two more commercial-sized MIS retorts. Any commercial venture of the future would require the ability to operate simultaneously more than one retort. Thus, Retorts 7 and 8 were developed during 1980 and 1981 through joint funding of the DOE and OOSI in Phase II. Rubblization of the retorts produced an average rubble void of 18.5% in the low grade shale (17 gallons per ton) at the Logan Wash site. After rubblization, bulkheads were constructed, inlet and offgas pipes were installed and connected to surface processing facilities and liquid product handling systems were connected to the retorts. Extensive instrumentation was installed in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories for monitoring the complete operation of the retorts. After pre-ignition testing, Retort 8 was ignited in December of 1981 and Retort 7 was ignited in January of 1982. The retorts were operated without interruption from ignition until mid- November of 1982 at which time inlet gas injection was terminated and water quenching was begun. Total product yield from the two retorts was approximately 200,000 barrels of oil, or 70% of the Fischer Assay oil-in-place in the rubblized rock in the two retrots. Water quenching studies were conducted over a period of several months, with the objective of determining the rate of heat extraction from the retorts as well as determining the quantity and quality of offgas and water coming out from the quenching process. Data from these studies are also included in this Summary Report. 62 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. POLYCAPROLACTAM MODIFIED BY POLYPHENYLQUINOXALINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guisheng; LU Fengcai

    1990-01-01

    Three polycaprolactam samples modified by 0.05- 0.50% polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by weight were prepared. Their structure and mechanical properties were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, density, tensile,impact,DTA and visco-elastic method. PPQ induced the formation of "crystal grains" distributed evenly over nylon spherulites in modified samples, which were observed for the first time, and strengthened modified samples. Modified nylons had higher crystallinities, higher Tg ,more nearly perfect spherulites than MC nylon itself, and showed typical reinforcing effect on mechanical properties.

  18. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  19. 改良型CASS工艺在广西某县城污水处理厂的应用%Application of Modified CASS Process in a Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾远

    2011-01-01

    The treatment capacity of the first-phase project with the modified CASS process of a municipal sewage treatment plant in Guangxi is 3 x 104 mVd, and the total treatment capacity is 6 X 104 mVd. The effluent quality meets the first level B criteria specified in the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant ( GB 18918 - 2002 ). The design parameters and features of the main treatment structures are introduced to provide reference for the similar projects.%广西某县城污水处理厂一期工程处理规模为3×104 m3/d(总规模为6×104 m3/d),采用改良型CASS工艺,出水水质达到了《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》(GB 18918-2002)的一级B标准.介绍了该工程主要处理构筑物的设计参数及设计特点,可供采用类似处理工艺的工程参考.

  20. Dielectric properties of (110) oriented PbZrO3 and La-modified PbZrO3 thin films grown by sol-gel process on Pt(111)/Ti /SiO2/Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parui, Jayanta; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2006-08-01

    Highly (110) preferred orientated antiferroelectric PbZrO3 (PZ) and La-modified PZ thin films have been fabricated on Pt /Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using sol-gel process. Dielectric properties, electric field induced ferroelectric polarization, and the temperature dependence of the dielectric response have been explored as a function of composition. The Tc has been observed to decrease by ˜ 17°C per 1mol% of La doping. Double hysteresis loops were seen with zero remnant polarization and with coercive fields in between 176 and 193kV/cm at 80°C for antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation. These slim loops have been explained by the high orientation of the films along the polar direction of the antiparallel dipoles of a tetragonal primitive cell and by the strong electrostatic interaction between La ions and oxygen ions in an ABO3 perovskite unit cell. High quality films exhibited very low loss factor less than 0.015 at room temperature and pure PZ; 1 and 2mol% La doped PZs have shown the room temperature dielectric constant of 135, 219, and 142 at the frequency of 10kHz. The passive layer effects in these films have been explained by Curie constants and Curie temperatures. The ac conductivity and the corresponding Arrhenius plots have been shown and explained in terms of doping effect and electrode resistance.

  1. Enhanced Biological Nutrients Removal in Modified Step-feed Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic Process%改进型分段进水厌氧/缺氧/好氧工艺强化营养物去除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 王淑莹; 彭永臻; 张善锋; 殷芳芳

    2009-01-01

    In order to enhance phosphorus removal in traditional step-feed anoxic/oxic nitrogen removal process, a modified pilot-scale step-feed anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (SFA~2/O) system was developed, which combined a reactor similar to UCT-type configuration and two-stage anoxic/oxic process. The simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal capacities and the potential of denitrifying phosphorus removal, in particular, were investigated with four different feeding patterns using real municipal wastewater. The results showed that the feeding ratios (Q_1) in the first stage determined the nutrient removal performance in the SFA~2/O system. The average phosphorus removal efficiency increased from 19.17% to 96.25% as Q_1 was gradually increased from run 1 to run 4, but the nitrogen removal efficiency exhibited a different tendency, which attained a maximum 73.61% in run 3 and then decreased to 59.62% in run 4. As a compromise between nitrogen and phosphorus removal, run 3 (Q_1 = 0.45Q_(total)) was identified as the optimal and stable case with the maximum anoxic phosphorus uptake rate of 1.58 mg(g MLSS)~(-1)·h~(-1). The results of batch tests showed that ratio of the anoxic phosphate uptake capacity to the aerobic phosphate uptake capacity increased from 11.96% to 36.85% with the optimal influent feeding ratio to the system in run 3, which demonstrated that the denitrifying polyP accumulating organisms could be accumulated and contributed more to the total phosphorus removal by optimizing the inflow ratio distribution. However, the nitrate recirculation to anoxic zone and influent feeding ratios should be carefully controlled for carbon source saving.

  2. Adsorption of hydrocarbons on modified nanoclays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafimasooleh, M [Department of Materials Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazgir, S [Department of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tamizifar, M [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nemati, A, E-mail: m.sharafimasooleh@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this study organically modified nanoclay were prepared by exchanging of the cetyltrimethylammonium (CTAB), with inorganic/metal ions/cations in montmorillonite structure. To investigate the influence of the amount of modifier on basal spacing and subsequent removal efficiency of hydrocarbon, different amount of modifier was used. The modified and unmodified nanoclays characterized by XRD, CHN and FTIR techniques. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the interlayer spacing of CTAB-modified clays increased from 12 to 22A. The effectiveness of the sorbent materials for sorption of a range of products was investigated using crude oil, kerosene, gasoline and toluene. The process parameters such as sorbent dosage and contact time were reported. The results showed that the adsorption capacity was in the range of 2 to 8 gram per gram of adsorbent. Results also showed that adsorption capacity of the organoclay was clearly higher than of the unmodified clay. These results were confirmed by CHN analysis.

  3. The Toolbox for Modified Aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Sergey A; Chudinov, Alexander V; Timofeev, Edward N

    2016-02-01

    Aptamers are nucleic acid-based scaffolds that can bind with high affinity to a variety of biological targets. Aptamers are identified from large DNA or RNA libraries through a process of directed molecular evolution (SELEX). Chemical modification of nucleic acids considerably increases the functional and structural diversity of aptamer libraries and substantially increases the affinity of the aptamers. Additionally, modified aptamers exhibit much greater resistance to biodegradation. The evolutionary selection of modified aptamers is conditioned by the possibility of the enzymatic synthesis and replication of non-natural nucleic acids. Wild-type or mutant polymerases and their non-natural nucleotide substrates that can support SELEX are highlighted in the present review. A focus is made on the efforts to find the most suitable type of nucleotide modifications and the engineering of new polymerases. Post-SELEX modification as a complementary method will be briefly considered as well.

  4. Phosphine modified cobalt hydroformylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensburg, H. van; Tooze, R.P.; Foster, D.F. [Sasol Technology UK, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Janse van Rensburg, W. [Sasol Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    An ongoing challenge in phosphine modified cobalt hydroformylation is the fundamental understanding of the electronic and steric properties of phosphine ligands that influence the selectivity and activity of the catalytic reaction. A series of acyclic and cyclic phosphines have been prepared and tested in phosphine modified cobalt hydroformylation of 1-octene. Molecular modelling on a series of phospholanes showed some interesting theoretical and experimental correlations. We also evaluated the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as an alternative for phosphines in modified cobalt hydroformylation. (orig.)

  5. Modifying toxicokinetics with antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, F J; Borron, S W; Bismuth, C

    1995-12-01

    Five approaches may be described through which antidotes can modify toxicokinetics: (1) Decreased bioavailability of the toxins; (2) Cellular redistribution of the toxin in the organism; (3) Promotion of elimination in an unchanged form; (4) Slowing of metabolic activation pathways; (5) Acceleration of metabolic deactivation pathways. However, the ability to modify toxicokinetics with a new treatment, while demonstrating an understanding of the mechanism of action, must never be construed to be, in and of itself, the goal of therapy. The ultimate evaluation of an antidote modifying toxicokinetics is strictly clinical.

  6. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundie, P. [Envirotech (Scotland) Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[Environmental Resource Industries Disposal Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); McLeod, N. [Envirotreat Ltd., Kingswinford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  7. Landfill Leachates Treatment by /UV, /, Modified Fenton, and Modified Photo-Fenton Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremi Naumczyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs such as H2O2/UV, O3/H2O2, modified Fenton, and modified photo-Fenton processes have been investigated in terms of the treatment of landfill leachate with ratio of BOD5/COD in the range of 0.22 to 0.24. The modification of Fenton and photo-Fenton processes consisted in the inclusion of precipitation and separation of humic substances at pH 3. Due to the precipitation, the value of COD decreased by 39% and BOD5 by 7.1%. The modification of the processes allowed us to improve the efficiency and to decrease the doses of reagents necessary to continue the process. Modified photo-Fenton process proved to be the most effective (92.7% COD removal of all processes investigated. Additionally, modified-Fenton process was much more effective than the other two processes when compared up to 120 min, while after longer times it gave the least satisfactory results. After 30 min of modified-Fenton process BOD5/COD ratio increased to 0.43. The parameter referred to as “efficiency of oxidants” was used to estimate the efficiency of all the processes—its value varied from 178 to 239%. Various substances including phthalates, hydrocarbons, silanes, and siloxanes were identified in raw and treated leachate.

  8. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  9. Drought in a human-modified world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Stahl, Kerstin; Baldassarre, Di Giuliano; Clark, Julian; Rangecroft, Sally; Wanders, Niko; Gleeson, Tom; Dijk, van Albert I.J.M.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Hannaford, Jamie; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Ryan; Hannah, David M.; Sheffield, Justin; Svoboda, Mark; Verbeiren, Boud; Wagener, Thorsten; Lanen, van Henny A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current human-modified world, or Anthropocene, the state of water stores and fluxes has become dependent on human as well as natural processes. Water deficits (or droughts) are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological anomalies, land surface processes, and human inflows,

  10. Drought in a human-modified world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Stahl, Kerstin; Baldassarre, Di Giuliano; Clark, Julian; Rangecroft, Sally; Wanders, Niko; Gleeson, Tom; Dijk, van Albert I.J.M.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Hannaford, Jamie; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Ryan; Hannah, David M.; Sheffield, Justin; Svoboda, Mark; Verbeiren, Boud; Wagener, Thorsten; Lanen, van Henny A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current human-modified world, or Anthropocene, the state of water stores and fluxes has become dependent on human as well as natural processes. Water deficits (or droughts) are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological anomalies, land surface processes, and human inflows,

  11. Modified anterior approach for treatment of ulnar coronoid process fracture%改良肘关节前侧入路治疗尺骨冠状突骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱刃; 周均明; 赵兴; 方向前; 范顺武; 俞文俊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of modified anterior approach to manage fracture of the ulnar coronoid process via the space of brachial artery and vein with median nerve.Methods From June 2012 to January 2013,11 patients with ulnar coronoid fracture were fixed via the modified anterior approach.The operation time,intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications were recorded.Flexion and rotation range of motion about the injured and normal elbow were observed during postoperative follow-up period.Function of elbow joint was evaluated by mayo elbow performance index (MEPI).Results There was approximate 8 cm in length and 5 cm in width between the brachial vessels and median nerve.Operated angle from radial to ulnar side was fifty degrees and from proximal to distal end was sixty degrees.All the patients were available for follow-up.The fracture healed,that is the elbow flexion restored [(130.7 ±5.0) °] was 96.6% of the unaffected elbow,elbow extension restored [(7.6 ± 8.1) °] was 84.0% of the unaffected elbow,pronation restored [(86.9 ± 3.8) °] was 98.2% of the unaffected side,and supination restored [(85.6 ± 6.0) °] was 96.7% of the unaffected side.MEPI of the elbow joint was over 75 points.Conclusion Modified anterior approach is relatively safe and simple in operation and results in satisfactory function recovery of the elbow joint,providing a new surgical approach for treatment of coronoid process fracture.%目的 探讨经肱动静脉和正中神经间隙的改良前侧入路治疗尺骨冠状突骨折的临床效果. 方法 2012年6月-2013年1月应用改良前侧入路治疗尺骨冠状突骨折11例,其中男8例,女3例;年龄19 ~55岁[(42.7±9.8)岁].致伤原因:交通伤7例,摔伤3例,击打伤1例.单纯尺骨冠状突骨折4例,“恐怖三联征”7例.按Regan-Morrey分型:Ⅱ型6例,Ⅲ型5例;按O'Driscoll分型:冠状突尖骨折4例,冠状突前内侧面骨折5例,基底部骨折2例.记录手术时间

  12. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  13. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  14. 改良UCT分段进水工艺处理生活污水性能优化研究%Optimization of a Modified UCT Step Feed Process Treating Municipal Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛士建; 彭永臻; 曹旭; 王淑莹; 杨岸明

    2011-01-01

    A pilot-scale modified UCT step feed process was proposed to treat the municipal wastewater with lower COD/N in a large-scale wastewater treatment plant.Effects of influent distribution ratios and nutrients ratios(COD/N、COD/P and TN/P) on nutrients removal capabilities were importantly investigated.The removal mechanisms of organics and nutrients and sludge characteristics were ultimately discussed.According to the continuous experiments,the stable and high process performance was obtained.The average COD removal efficiencies and effluent concentration of(83.8±3.86)% and(43.7±8.35) mg/L were achieved in the influent COD loading of 0.79-0.93 kg/(m^3·d).The COD removal in anaerobic and anoxic zones accounted for 60.2%-76.2%.With the influent distribution ratio of 40%∶30%∶30%,as much as 88.2% of TN removal efficiency was observed.It should be considered the removal of 32.8% through simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process.The average effluent NH4^+-N and TN were(0.21±0.20) mg/L and(7.90±1.27) mg/L,respectively.It was extremely important that as much as 32.6%-39.5% of the denitrifying phosphorus accumulation organisms contributed to the high phosphorus removal efficiency of 97.2%.A linear positive relationship was observed between nitrogen removal efficiency and COD/N in the range of 4.64 and 7.41(R2=0.96).Phosphorus removal efficiency was found to be a function of the influent COD/P and TN/P,varying from 35.0 to 92.5 and from 6.24 to 12.5,respectively(R^2=0.87 and R^2=0.89).In addition,the great sludge settleability was obtained with the mean SVI of(82.6±4.99) mL/g.%在某大型污水处理厂采用中试规模的改良UCT分段进水脱氮除磷工艺处理低COD/N生活污水,重点研究了流量分配比和原水营养元素比(COD/N、COD/P和TN/P)对工艺脱氮除磷性能的影响,目的是分析探索工艺对有机物和氮磷去除机制和污泥特性.连续运行试验表明,该工艺取

  15. Process stability assessed by selecting Shewhart's psi statistical analysis technique of the influence of matrix modifier and furnace program in the optimization and precision of zinc determinations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tufail, M; Akram, M; Haq, A

    1999-03-01

    The method previously used in the Toxicology Laboratories of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center for determining the zinc concentration in serum by Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer was improved by modifying the matrix modifier and by changing the heated graphite furnace atomization (HGA) program. After trying several methods we failed to achieve the required precision and the accuracy of methods for serum zinc determination. We changed the matrix modifier to a fifty percent mixture (v/v) of 3.90 grams per liter of ammonium phosphate in Type 1 water with 0.2% nitric acid and 1.0 gram per liter of magnesium nitrate in acidic water (0.2% HNO3) with 0.1% triton X-100 was used as matrix modifier. A twenty-five fold dilution of the sample in matrix modifier was injected on the L'vov's platform of the furnace. In order to reduce the high sensitivity of Zn the furnace program was modified. The method is found very robust. The average reproducibility between inter-runs and intra-run is less than 1.59% with a high degree of accuracy. We used two levels of controls i.e. normal or low level and abnormal or high level. The linearity and the detection limit of the assay were 0.9992 and 0.010 micromol/L respectively. Average recovery of the analyte was 98.65%. The X-Bar and R charts were constructed by using Shewhart's statistical analysis technique to assess the test methodology. It was found that the assay is capable and stable for routine clinical and research analysis. The capability index (C(P)) of the assay, an indicator of the precision, was calculated.

  16. Infrared-modified Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Federico

    2012-01-01

    We consider a Hubble expansion law modified in the infra-red by distance-dependent terms, and attempt to enforce homogeneity upon it. As a warm-up, we re-derive the basic kinematics of a Friedman Robertson Walker universe without using standard general relativistic tools: we describe the expansion with a `Hubble velocity field' rather than with a four dimensional metric. Then we extend this analysis to the modified Hubble expansion and impose a transformation for velocities that makes it identical for all comoving observers, and therefore homogeneous. We derive the modified equation for light ray trajectories and other geometrical properties that are incompatible with the general relativistic description. We speculate that this extended framework could help addressing cosmological problems which are normally explained with accelerating expansions.

  17. Tip-modified Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with tip-modified propellers and the methods which, over a period of two decades, have been applied to develop such propellers. The development is driven by the urge to increase the efficiency of propellers and can be seen as analogous to fitting end plates and winglets to aircraft...... wings. The literature on four different designs is reviewed: the end-plate propeller; the two-sided, shifted end-plate propeller; the tip-fin propeller; and the bladelet propeller. The conclusion is that it is indeed possible to design tip-modified propellers that, relative to an optimum conventional...

  18. CONCRETE BASED ON MODIFIED DISPERSE CEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rudenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article considers definition of the bond types occurring in a modified cement concrete matrix, and the evaluation of the quality of these links in a non-uniform material to determine the geometrical and physical relationships between the structure and the cement matrix modifiers. Methodology. To achieve this purpose the studies covered the microstructure of dispersed modified concrete cement matrix, the structure formation mechanism of the modified cement concrete system of natural hardening; as well as identification of the methods of sound concrete strength assessment. Findings. The author proposed a model of the spatial structure of the concrete cement matrix, modified by particulate reinforcement crystal hydrates. The initial object of study is a set of volume elements (cells of the cement matrix and the system of the spatial distribution of reinforcing crystallohydrates in these volume elements. It is found that the most dangerous defects such as cracks in the concrete volume during hardening are formed as a result of internal stresses, mainly in the zone of cement matrix-filler contact or in the area bordering with the largest pores of the concrete. Originality. The result of the study is the defined mechanism of the process of formation of the initial strength and stiffness of the modified cement matrix due to the rapid growth of crystallohydrates in the space among the dispersed reinforcing modifier particles. Since the lack of space prevents from the free growth of crystals, the latter cross-penetrate, forming a dense structure, which contributes to the growth of strength. Practical value. Dispersed modifying cement matrix provides a durable concrete for special purposes with the design performance characteristics. The developed technology of dispersed cement system modification, the defined features of its structure formation mechanism and the use of congruence principle for the complex of technological impacts of physical

  19. Modified differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chartier, Philippe; Hairer, Ernst; Vilmart, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the theory of modified differential equations (backward error analysis) an approach for the construction of high order numerical integrators that preserve geometric properties of the exact flow is developed. This summarises a talk presented in honour of Michel Crouzeix.

  20. Self-healing of polymer modified concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd_Elmoaty M. Abd_Elmoaty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Self healing phenomenon of concrete has been observed in traditional, fibrous, self compacting concrete. This phenomenon occurred mainly due to the presence of unhydrated cement particles in the presence of water. Mechanism of polymer in concrete depends on creating a layer and net of polymer around cement particles which enhances the properties of polymer modified concrete. This mechanism may affect the self healing of this type of concrete. This work aims to study the presence of the self healing phenomenon in polymer modified concrete and the related parameters. An experimental investigation on self healing of polymer modified concrete was undertaken. In this research work, effect of polymer type, polymer dose, cement content, cement type, w/cm ratio and age of damage were studied. The healing process extended up to 60 days. Ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements were used to evaluate the healing process. Results indicated that, the self healing phenomenon existed in polymer modified concrete as in traditional concrete. The increase of polymer dose increases the healing degree at the same healing time. This increase depends on polymer type. Also, the decrease of w/cm ratio reduces the self healing degree while the use of Type V Portland cement improves the self healing process compared with Type I Portland cement. Cement content has an insignificant effect on healing process for both concrete with and without polymer. In addition, the increase of damage age decreases the efficiency of self healing process.

  1. Processing FBG Sensing Signals with Exponent Modified Gaussian Curve Fitting Peak Detection Method%指数修正高斯拟合寻峰算法处理FBG传感信号

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 杨雪; 刘焕淋; 杨凯; 张玉兰

    2016-01-01

    detecting algorithm is the key technology of the system demodu-lation.The current peak detecting algorithms has a precondition for peak detection on FBG reflective spectrum,that the FBG reflective spectrum was a standard Gaussian model.But FBG reflective spectrum is not a standard Gaussian spectrum owing to the practical manufacture process and the individual environment;actually,it is an asymmetrical Gaussian spectrum.The experi-ment would achieve a lower accuracy because of this asymmetric property during peak-seeking.Based on the defect of the exist-ing algorithm,an Exponent Modified Gaussian (EMG)Curve Fitting peak detecting algorithm is proposed in this paper.In the proposed algorithm,the coarse location was first determined by three times j udgments and it can remove the false peak and peak invalid at the same time.Based on this,as the center of the coarse localization point to reconstruct the spectrum,and using the integral to j udge the peak bias;then according to different peak bias,it revised the peak by the prepared exponential modified function.Simulation results show that at normal temperature or under variable temperature conditions,by comparing with direct peak searching algorithm,Gaussian fitting algorithm and the algorithm proposed by literature,the error of EMG peak detection algorithm is the minimum and high peak detecting precision.The algorithm proposed in this paper considers the FBG reflection spectrum characteristic of asymmetric effect.From its spectrum character,the EMG algorithm solves the problem of the limits of traditional peak detecting algorithm,meanwhile also guarantees a high-precision peak search results.

  2. [Seldinger modified technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cuenca, Francisco; Linares Escudero, Joaquín; Romo García, Raquel; Cubo Amaya, Manuel; Climent Villanueva, Magdalena; Santos Sarria, Remedios

    2008-12-01

    The authors describe the procedure to insert central blood vessel catheters through peripheral blood vessel catheters using the Seldinger modified technique since critically ill patients service at the Carlos Haya Regional University Hospital in Malaga cares for a high number of patients who need to have canalized a central blood vessel catheter to maximize the treatment they receive. In many cases it is not possible to insert a DRUM type central blood vessel catheter due to an insufficient blood vessel caliber and then the nursing team at this hospital opts to carry out a procedure to canalize a central blood vessel using the Seldinger modified technique. This report was presented at the III National Social-Sanitary Nursing Congress.

  3. Modified Newton's rings: II

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitanya, T Sai; Krishna, V Sai; Anandh, B Shankar; Umesh, K S

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier work (Shankar kumar Jha, A Vyas, O S K S Sastri, Rajkumar Jain & K S Umesh, 'Determination of wavelength of laser light using Modified Newton's rings setup', Physics Education, vol. 22, no.3, 195-202(2005)) reported by our group, a version of Newton's rings experiment called Modified Newton's rings was proposed. The present work is an extension of this work. Here, a general formula for wavelength has been derived, applicable for a plane of observation at any distance. A relation between the focal length and the radius curvature is also derived for a plano-convex lens which is essentially used as a concave mirror. Tracker, a video analysis software, freely downloadable from the net, is employed to analyze the fringes captured using a CCD camera. Two beams which give rise to interference fringes in conventional Newton's rings and in the present setup are clearly distinguished.

  4. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  5. Modified Faraday cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  6. RNA-modifying enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2003-02-01

    A bewildering number of post-transcriptional modifications are introduced into cellular RNAs by enzymes that are often conserved among archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. The modifications range from those with well-understood functions, such as tRNA aminoacylation, to widespread but more mysterious ones, such as pseudouridylation. Recent structure determinations have included two types of RNA nucleobase modifying enzyme: pseudouridine synthases and tRNA guanine transglycosylases.

  7. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  8. Research of Modified LMS Adaptive Noise Cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming-sheng; LI Yan-peng

    2003-01-01

    Noise cancellation is very important in the field of signal processing. In this paper, the designation of a modified LMS Adaptive Noise Cancellation is demonstrated in detail; the model is simulated. We have compared the performance of the new model with the old model. The result of the experiments shows that this designation improves the noise cancellation′s performance greatly.

  9. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Noordam, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has steadily increased since their introduction to the market in the mid-1990s. Before these crops can be grown and sold they have to obtain regulatory approval in many countries, the process of which includes a pre-market safety assessment. The foo

  10. Dairy processing, Improving quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses raw milk composition, production and quality, and reviews developments in processing from hygiene and HACCP systems to automation, high-pressure processing and modified atmosphere packaging.

  11. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  12. Avaliação de diferentes tipos de atmosferas modificadas na vida útil de carambolas minimamente processadas Evaluation of different types of modified atmosphere in cold storage of star fruits minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2006-12-01

    qualidade durante o AR. Assim, esse tratamento proporcionou adequado controle microbiológico e manutenção das características de qualidade por 18 dias para as carambolas minimamente processadas.This work aimed to evaluate the potential of cold storage of star fruits cv. Golden Star, minimally processed, by using different types of packing, for the analysis of the modified passive atmosphere. The fruits harvested in nature-green stage showed green-yellowish coloration, soluble solids (SS an average of 6,8 ºBrix and an average mass of 185g . Before the treatments were set, the fruits had been selected, cleaned in solution of NaOCl at 10 mg. L-1, cooled for 12 hours at 15 ± 0,5 °C, cut transversally, and cleaned in solution of NaOCl at 10 mg. L-1, for 3 minutes. After, the pieces in form of stars had been displayed in rigid polystyrene trays, with capacity for 250g, and coated with the following materials: T1: perforated film plastic of low density polyethylene (LDPE, with 0,006 mm; T2: polyolephinic plastic film with anti-fog of DuPont® (AGF, with 0,015mm; T3: polyolephinic plastic film of Dupont® (HF, with 0,015 mm; T4: LDPE plastic film, with 0,060 mm; T5: LDPE plastic film, with 0,080 mm; T6: polypropylene plastic film (PP, with 0,022 mm and T7: rigid polyethylene terephtalat tray (PET, with capacity for 500 mL, with cover of the same material. The treatments had been conditioned in refrigerating chamber at 12 ± 0,5 °C and 90 ± 3% of R.U., for 18 days. At the end, it was not observed significant difference in the tested treatments in the analysis of soluble solids (SS and titratable acidity (TA. The biggest microbiological activity and the greater pH had been detected in the fruits packed in LDPE films with 6 µm, AGF and HF with 15µm from Dupont. However, the fruits conditioned in packing PET had shown the biggest contents of ascorbic acid. In the same way, only in PET packing was obtained an efficient atmospheric modification in the point of maintaining the

  13. Drought in a human-modified world

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, van, M.; Stahl, Kerstin; Baldassarre, Di, Giuliano; Clark, Julian; Rangecroft, Sally; Wanders, Niko; Gleeson, Tom; Dijk, van, Nico M.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Hannaford, Jamie; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Ryan; Hannah, David M.; Sheffield, Justin,; Svoboda, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the current human-modified world, or Anthropocene, the state of water stores and fluxes has become dependent on human as well as natural processes. Water deficits (or droughts) are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological anomalies, land surface processes, and human inflows, outflows, and storage changes. Our current inability to adequately analyse and manage drought in many places points to gaps in our understanding and to inadequate data and tools. The Anthropocene requ...

  14. Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Foods

    OpenAIRE

    TAYLOR Steve L.

    2001-01-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in ...

  15. Efeito de EPDM modificado nas propriedades mecânicas e no processamento de composições de EPDM contendo resíduo de EPDMR Effect of modified EPDM on the mechanical properties and processing of EPDM containing EPDM waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielli M. Carmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudado o efeito de três agentes na recuperação de resíduos de borracha, copolímero de etileno-propylene-dieno (EPDMR contendo negro de fumo. Os três agentes preparados foram: EPDM modificado com 1-dodecanotiol (EPDMSDD, EPDM modificado com ácido esteárico (EPDMAE e EPDM modificado com ácido graxo linolênico (EPDMAG. Os resultados de propriedades mecânicas mostraram que o EPDMSDD fornece a melhor combinação de resistência à tração e rasgamento associado à processabilidade. A adição dos agentes EPDMAE e EPDMAG melhorou a processabilidade da mistura por extrusão, mantendo suas propriedades mecânicas. Este resultado indica que o EPDMAE e o EPDMAG atuam como auxiliares de processamento.This work was aimed at examining the effect from three agents in the recycling of waste rubber, namely copolymer ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDMR containing carbon black. Three agents were prepared: EPDM modified by 1-dodecanotiol (EPDMSDD, EPDM modified by stearic acid (EPDMAE and EPDM modified by fatty linolenic acid (EPDMAG. For the mechanical properties, the better tensile and tear strength associated with manufacturing extrusion were obtained using EPDMSDD. EPDMAE and EPDMAG improved the processing by extrusion, while keeping the mechanical properties. These results indicate that EPDMAE and EPDMAG act as auxiliary agents for processability.

  16. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos Chaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similarfashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is doneby replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vectorpotential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vectoranalysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHDequations.

  17. Modified Lattice Landau Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Von Smekal, L; Sternbeck, A; Williams, A G

    2007-01-01

    We propose a modified lattice Landau gauge based on stereographically projecting the link variables on the circle S^1 -> R for compact U(1) or the 3-sphere S^3 -> R^3 for SU(2) before imposing the Landau gauge condition. This can reduce the number of Gribov copies exponentially and solves the Gribov problem in compact U(1) where it is a lattice artifact. Applied to the maximal Abelian subgroup this might be just enough to avoid the perfect cancellation amongst the Gribov copies in a lattice BRST formulation for SU(N), and thus to avoid the Neuberger 0/0 problem. The continuum limit of the Landau gauge remains unchanged.

  18. Modified Slash Lindley Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Reyes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new distribution, called the modified slash Lindley distribution, which can be seen as an extension of the Lindley distribution. We show that this new distribution provides more flexibility in terms of kurtosis and skewness than the Lindley distribution. We derive moments and some basic properties for the new distribution. Moment estimators and maximum likelihood estimators are calculated using numerical procedures. We carry out a simulation study for the maximum likelihood estimators. A fit of the proposed model indicates good performance when compared with other less flexible models.

  19. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EvangelosChaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similar fashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is done by replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vector potential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vector analysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHD equations.

  20. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  1. Modified Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm for Yeast Fed-batch Cultivation Parameter Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelova M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a modified multi-population genetic algorithm is developed for the purpose of parameter identification of fermentation process model. Modified multi-population genetic algorithm is similar to the multi-population one and its development is instigated by modified genetic algorithm, similar to simple one. A comparison of four types of genetic algorithms, namely simple, modified, multipopulation and modified multi-population is presented for parameter identification of a fed-batch cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  2. Degradation of Endogenous and Exogenous Genes of Genetically Modified Foods during Their Processings%GM食品内外源基因在加工过程中的降解变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 王媛; 葛毅强

    2005-01-01

    转基因(genetically modified,GM)食品安全问题受到广泛关注,其内外源基因及其表达产物在深加工过程中变化规律的研究是其热点之一.文中阐述了转基因食品的安全性问题,评述了转基因食品DNA在加工过程中变化规律的研究进展,并提出了转基因食品内外源基因在加工过程中降解变化研究思路.

  3. Modified Ishikawa Iterative Process with Errors in Normed Linear Spaces%赋范线性空间中修改的具误差的Ishikawa迭代程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永红; 陈汝栋; 周海云

    2007-01-01

    Ishikawa iterative sequences with errors different from the iterative sequences introduced by Liu and Xu are given. Moreover, the problem of approximating the fixed points of (ψ)-hemicontractive mapping in normed linear spaces by the modified Ishikawa iterative sequences with errors is investigated. The results presented in this paper improve and extend the results of the others.%本文给出了有别于刘立山以及徐洪坤的意义下的具误差的Ishikawa迭代程序.进一步,还研究了赋范线性空间中(ψ)-半压缩映象不动点的具误差的Ishikawa迭代逼近问题.所得的结果改进和推广了许多相应的结果.

  4. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}- modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rodrigo F.; Oliveira, Edimar de; Sousa Filho, Paulo C. de; Neri, Claudio R.; Serra, Osvaldo A., E-mail: crneri@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DQ/FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    CeO{sub 2} and mixed CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%. (author)

  5. Preparation process of thiourea modified diethylenetriamine for epoxy curing agent%环氧固化剂硫脲改性二乙烯三胺的制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洪胤; 李莉; 谭慧

    2011-01-01

    The diethylenetriamine was modified by thiourea for epoxy curing agent.The effects of raw material ratio,reaction temperature and time on the curing agent performance were investigated by the determination of curing agent contact angle and the completely curing time of epoxy / thiourea modified diethylenetriamine system and the infrared spectroscopy of curing agent.The results showed that the epoxy curing agent with contact angle 35° and full curing time at-12 ℃ 20 h was obtained as the conditions as followed: mass ratio of diethylenetriamine to thiourea 3.13-3.30∶ 1,reaction temperature(80±5)℃and reaction time 1.2-1.4 h.%采用硫脲改性二乙烯三胺用作环氧树脂固化剂,通过对固化剂的接触角以及环氧/硫脲改性二乙烯三胺体系完全固化时间的测定及固化剂的红外光谱分析,研究了原料配比、合成反应温度及时间对固化剂性能的影响。结果表明,当二乙烯三胺与硫脲质量比为3.13~3.30∶1,合成反应温度为(80±5)℃,反应时间为1.2~1.4 h时,可制得-12℃下24 h内完全固化的环氧树脂固化剂。

  6. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-30

    As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)'s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed - a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that

  7. Modified Clipped LMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfizad Mojtaba

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new algorithm is proposed for updating the weights of an adaptive filter. The proposed algorithm is a modification of an existing method, namely, the clipped LMS, and uses a three-level quantization ( scheme that involves the threshold clipping of the input signals in the filter weight update formula. Mathematical analysis shows the convergence of the filter weights to the optimum Wiener filter weights. Also, it can be proved that the proposed modified clipped LMS (MCLMS algorithm has better tracking than the LMS algorithm. In addition, this algorithm has reduced computational complexity relative to the unmodified one. By using a suitable threshold, it is possible to increase the tracking capability of the MCLMS algorithm compared to the LMS algorithm, but this causes slower convergence. Computer simulations confirm the mathematical analysis presented.

  8. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  9. Modified-starch Consolidation of Alumina Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Chenhui; WANG Yanmin; YE Jiandong; HUANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    The alumina ceramics with the homogeneous microstructure and the higher density were fabricated via the modified-starch consolidation process by 1.0 wt%of a modified starch as a consolidator/binder.The swelling behavior of the modified oxidized tapioca starch was analyzed by optical microscope,and two other corn starches(common corn starch and high amylose COrn starch)were also analyzed for comparison.The modified starch used as a binder for the consolidation swelled at about 55℃.began to gelatinize at 65℃ and then was completely gelatinized at 75℃.But the corn starches could not be completely gelatinized even at 80℃for 1 h.The high-strength green bodies(10.6 MPa)with the complex shapes were produced.The green bodies were sintered without any binder burnout procedure at 1700℃and a relative density of 95.3% was obtained for the sintered bodies,which is similar to that of the sintered sample formed by conventional slip casting.In addition,the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the starch/alumina slurry in the process was investigated,and the corresponding mechanism for the starch consolidation was discussed.

  10. POLY(N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE)-MODIFIED SURFACES REPEL PLASMA PROTEIN ADSORPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-li Liu; Zhao-qiang Wu; Dan Li; Hong Chen

    2012-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the interaction between plasma proteins and PVP-modified surfaces under more complex protein conditions.In the competitive adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA),the modified surfaces showed preferential adsorption of HSA.In 100% plasma,the amount of Fg adsorbed onto PVP-modified surfaces was as low as 10 ng/cm2,suggesting the excellent protein resistance properties of the modified surfaces.In addition,immunoblots of proteins eluted from the modified surfaces after plasma contact confirmed that PVP-modified surfaces can repel most plasma proteins,especially proteins that play important roles in the process of blood coagulation.

  11. A Modified Carnot Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y. K.

    1979-01-01

    Shows that upon incorporating an irreversible step into an otherwise reversible Carnot Cyclic process there results a diminution of thermodynamic efficiency and a simultaneous augmentation of the entropy of the universe. (Author/HM)

  12. Analysis and Processing of Electrical Fault Signals With Modified Adaptive Prony Method%采用改进自适应Prony方法的电力故障信号的分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓明; 高孟平; 刘涤尘; 侯兴哲; 袁荣湘

    2010-01-01

    Prony方法(Prony method,PM)不适于处理含非持续性或突变性分量的故障信号.自适应PM(adaptive PM,APM)通过对信号自适应分段改善了PM的性能,但在搜索子段分界点时采用固定步长,效率低、运行时间长.提出改进APM(modified APM,MAPM),通过引入变步长策略大大提高了搜索效率.仿真结果表明,MAPM具有很高的信号拟合及参数估计精度,基于其的信号插值、延拓具有传统方法所没有的自适应性.MAPM对故障信号分析处理的实例再次表明了它的优越性能,为它在电气工程中的推广应用奠定了基础.

  13. Chemical and semisynthesis of modified histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play critical roles in the epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by directly altering the biophysical properties of chromatin or by recruiting effector proteins. The large number of PTMs and the inherent complexity in their population and signaling processes make it highly challenging to understand epigenetics-related processes. To address these challenges, accesses to homogeneously modified histones are obligatory. Over the last decade, synthetic protein chemists have been devising novel synthetic tools and applying state-of-the-art chemoselective ligation strategies to prepare precious materials useful in answering fundamental questions in this area. In this short review, we cover some of the recent breakthroughs in these directions in particular the synthesis and semi-synthesis of modified histones and their use to unravel the mysteries of epigenetics. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Desorption of toluene from modified clays using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro D. G. P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to study the regeneration capacity of modified clays using supercritical fluid. These modified clays are used as organic compound adsorvents. The experimental step was done using a packed column with the clay contaminated by toluene. The results obtained showed the influence of the density of the supercritical CO2 and of the organic modifier in the desorption process. These data were modeled with first- and second-order models. Better results were obtained using the second-order model. This study makes possible the scale-up of the desorption process for regeneration of solid matrices using supercritical fluids.

  15. The modified Atkins diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L

    2008-11-01

    In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50-90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed.

  16. Modifiable risk factors for surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Calin S; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risk factors for orthopaedic surgical site infection have been identified. Some of these factors directly affect the wound-healing process, whereas others can lead to blood-borne sepsis or relative immunosuppression. Modifying a patient's medications; screening for comorbidities, such as HIV or diabetes mellitus; and advising the patient on options to diminish or eliminate adverse behaviors, such as smoking, should lower the risk for surgical site infections.

  17. BEHAVIOR OF POLYPYRROLE MODIFIED GRAPHITE ELECTRODE DURING HYDROGEN EVOLUTION PROCESS%电解析氢过程中聚吡咯修饰电极的行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫笑萍; 王纪孝; 王志; 王世昌

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 INTRODUCTION Hydrogen evolution reaction is an important reaction to produce high purity hydrogen for use in applications such as fertilizers (synthesis of ammonia),food (hydrogenation of fats and oils),petrochemical industry(hydrocracking of petroleum), metallurgical industry (reducing agent in the metallurgical and semiconductors industries) and alkaline production. The main operating cost of the process is the cost of electricity.

  18. MODIFIED LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To furtherly reduce the subxiphoid port site pain,improve the cosmetic result and patient satisfaction,and increase the safety for patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy by advanced laparoscopic knotting skill.Methods:Among our 1500 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy since 1991,120 cases of modified laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) were performed with three 5-mm ports and one 10-mm port(for laparoscope and sepcien withdrawn).There were 25 male and 95 female patients with an average age of 55 years (24~77years).The indications for MLC included polypoid lesions of gallbladder (21),simple cholecystitis(3),cholecystolithiasisi with chronic cholecystitis(84),with acute suppurative cholecystitis(7),with atrophic cholecystitis(5).Results:There were 5 patients underwent combined laparoscopic appendectomy(3),fenestration of hepatic cyst(1),and drainge for liver abscess(1).The average operative time for MLC was 55 minutes(30~150min),blood loss was 10ml(3~50ml),and postoperative stay was 3 days(1~5days).There were no conversion from MLC to either LC or open surgery,without mortality.Complications were limited to two patients(1.7%).One was retained common bile duct stone and another was port site bleeding after operation.They were treated by transduodenal endoscopic stone retrieval and simple suture ligation,respecrtively.Conclusions:The advantages of MLC conducted mainly by advanced laparoscopic knotting techniques were no more laparoscope (either 2-mm or 5-mm)needed,no sacrifice of good illumination and laproscopic image.Most of all,its costeffective and operative safety were all improved furtherly.

  19. On a modified electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, H R

    2012-09-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.

  20. Cutting Power during Milling of Thermally Modified Pine Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krauss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental testing results of cutting power of thermally modified wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. during lengthwise milling. The process of heat treatment was performed in the atmosphere of superheated steam, at temperatures of 130, 160, 190 and 220 °C, maintaining an identical heating time of 4 h for all modification variants. Cutting power was determined during milling of the radial surface of modifi ed and non--modified samples. It was calculated as the difference of power used by a milling machine during wood machining and at idling. Based on the results of measurements, it was found that, in the case of modified wood, cutting power decreases with an increase in modifi cation temperature (the dependence being linear and increases with an increase in the working engagement. At temperatures exceeding 160 °C, the power required for milling of modified wood is lower than cutting power for non-modified wood. The experiment indicated a significant reduction of cutting power with an increase in wood modification temperature. It was also found that an increase in the working engagement results in an increase of cutting power both in thermally modifi ed and non-modified wood.

  1. Modified borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, Ming

    2005-08-29

    In attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as the reversible hydrogen storage materials with the high capacity, the feasibility to reduce dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderate rehydrogenation condition has been explored. The commercial available lithium borohydride has been modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as the additives. The modified lithium borohydrides release 9 wt% hydrogen starting from 473K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorb 7-9 wt% hydrogen at 873K and 7 MPa. The additive modification reduces dehydriding temperature from 673K to 473K and moderates rehydrogenation conditions to 923K and 15 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis discovered the formation of the intermediate compound TiB{sub 2} that may plays the key role in change the reaction path resulting the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide modified lithium borohydrides decreases gradually during hydriding-dehydriding cycling due to the lost of the boron during dehydrogenation. But, it can be prevented by selecting the suitable additive, forming intermediate boron compounds and changing the reaction path. The additives reduce dehydriding temperature and improve the reversibility, it also reduces the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by optimization of the additive loading and introducing new process other than ball milling.

  2. 以人血红蛋白为基础的红细胞代用品修饰工艺的研究%On the Modified Process of Human Hemoglobin Based Blood Substitutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤娟; 张鸿辉; 王劲峰; 杨成民

    2009-01-01

    对热敏法纯化的人胎盘血红蛋白进行理化指标及生物学性质进行检测,结果表明纯化血红蛋白的纯度为99%,高铁Hb含量为2.09%,氧结合量为1.19 ml/g,光谱分析表明纯化后空间构象没有发生改变,即保持了生物活性.对纯化血红蛋白进行PLP修饰、GDA聚合工艺形成终产品.对修饰放于聚合步骤之前及之后两种工艺产品的理化指标及生物学性质进行比较,结果表明两种工艺产品的聚合度、高铁血红蛋白含量、氧结合量、P50 光谱分析图都无显著差异,且后修饰可以大大节省PLP用量,降低研究成本,因此可以考虑在研究及生产中采用后修饰工艺.%Purified hemoglobin was modified with pyridoxal 5-phosphate(PLP) and polymerized with glutaric dialdehyde(GDA) to get the products. By comparison of the physical,chemical and biological properties of different procedures for modification before and after polymerization,there is no significant difference in molecular distribution,methemoglobin(MetHb) concentration,oxygen carrier capacity,P50 and spectra. Furthermore,the procedure of modification after polymerization can save PLP greatly and decrease cost greatly. So the procedure of modification after polymerization is a better way in research and production. The addition of GDA could control the increasing of MetHb. By comparison on the physical,chemical and biological properties of different procedures,there is no significant difference in molecular distribution,MetHb concentration,oxygen carrier capacity and spectra between the procedure of adding GDA before PLP and that after PLP. But the P50 of adding GDA before PLP is much lower than that after PLP. So the procedure of adding GDA after PLP is a better way.

  3. A comprehensive strategy in the development of a cyclodextrin-modified microemulsion electrokinetic chromatographic method for the assay of diclofenac and its impurities: Mixture-process variable experiments and quality by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, S; Pasquini, B; Caprini, C; Del Bubba, M; Squarcialupi, L; Colotta, V; Furlanetto, S

    2016-09-30

    A comprehensive strategy involving the use of mixture-process variable (MPV) approach and Quality by Design principles has been applied in the development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and its five related substances. The selected operative mode consisted in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography with the addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The critical process parameters included both the mixture components (MCs) of the microemulsion and the process variables (PVs). The MPV approach allowed the simultaneous investigation of the effects of MCs and PVs on the critical resolution between diclofenac and its 2-deschloro-2-bromo analogue and on analysis time. MPV experiments were used both in the screening phase and in the Response Surface Methodology, making it possible to draw MCs and PVs contour plots and to find important interactions between MCs and PVs. Robustness testing was carried out by MPV experiments and validation was performed following International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. The method was applied to a real sample of diclofenac gastro-resistant tablets.

  4. Computer Programs to Display and Modify Data in Geographic Coordinates and Methods to Transfer Positions to and from Maps, with Applications to Gravity Data Processing, Global Positioning Systems, and 30-Meter Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouff, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Computer programs were written in the Fortran language to process and display gravity data with locations expressed in geographic coordinates. The programs and associated processes have been tested for gravity data in an area of about 125,000 square kilometers in northwest Nevada, southeast Oregon, and northeast California. This report discusses the geographic aspects of data processing. Utilization of the programs begins with application of a template (printed in PostScript format) to transfer locations obtained with Global Positioning Systems to and from field maps and includes a 5-digit geographic-based map naming convention for field maps. Computer programs, with source codes that can be copied, are used to display data values (printed in PostScript format) and data coverage, insert data into files, extract data from files, shift locations, test for redundancy, and organize data by map quadrangles. It is suggested that 30-meter Digital Elevation Models needed for gravity terrain corrections and other applications should be accessed in a file search by using the USGS 7.5-minute map name as a file name, for example, file '40117_B8.DEM' contains elevation data for the map with a southeast corner at lat 40? 07' 30' N. and lon 117? 52' 30' W.

  5. Are You Morally Modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Terbeck, Sylvia; Cowen, Philip J.; Hewstone, Miles; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A number of concerns have been raised about the possible future use of pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive, affective, and motivational processes, particularly where the aim is to produce morally better decisions or behavior. In this article, we draw attention to what is arguably a more worrying possibility: that pharmaceuticals currently in widespread therapeutic use are already having unintended effects on these processes, and thus on moral decision making and morally significant behavior. We review current evidence on the moral effects of three widely used drugs or drug types: (i) propranolol, (ii) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and (iii) drugs that effect oxytocin physiology. This evidence suggests that the alterations to moral decision making and behavior caused by these agents may have important and difficult-to-evaluate consequences, at least at the population level. We argue that the moral effects of these and other widely used pharmaceuticals warrant further empirical research and ethical analysis. PMID:25892904

  6. Special Relativity via Modified Bessel Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    2000-10-01

    The recursive formulas of modified Bessel functions give the relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Modified Bessel functions are solutions to a continuous time, one-dimensional discrete jump process. The jump process is analyzed from two inertial frames with a relative constant velocity; the average distance of a particle along the chain corresponds to the distance between two observers in the two inertial frames. The recursion relations of modified Bessel functions are compared to the 'k calculus' which uses the radial Doppler effect to derive relativistic kinematics. The Doppler effect predicts that the frequency is a decreasing function of the velocity, and the Planck frequency, which increases with velocity, does not transform like the frequency of a clock. The Lorentz transformation can be interpreted as energy and momentum conservation relations through the addition formula for hyperbolic cosine and sine, respectively. The addition formula for the hyperbolic tangent gives the well-known relativistic formula for the addition of velocities. In the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits the distributions of the particle's position are Gaussian and Poisson, respectively.

  7. Acid-degradable and bioerodible modified polyhydroxylated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frechet, Jean M. J.; Bachelder, Eric M.; Beaudette, Tristan T.; Broaders, Kyle E.

    2017-05-09

    Compositions and methods of making a modified polyhydroxylated polymer comprising a polyhydroxylated polymer having reversibly modified hydroxyl groups, whereby the hydroxyl groups are modified by an acid-catalyzed reaction between a polydroxylated polymer and a reagent such as acetals, aldehydes, vinyl ethers and ketones such that the modified polyhydroxylated polymers become insoluble in water but freely soluble in common organic solvents allowing for the facile preparation of acid-sensitive materials. Materials made from these polymers can be made to degrade in a pH-dependent manner. Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cargoes were successfully loaded into particles made from the present polymers using single and double emulsion techniques, respectively. Due to its ease of preparation, processability, pH-sensitivity, and biocompatibility, of the present modified polyhydroxylated polymers should find use in numerous drug delivery applications.

  8. A modified failure criterion for transversely isotropic rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omid Saeidi; Vamegh Rasouli; Rashid Geranmayeh Vaneghi; Raoof Gholami; Seyed Rahman Torabi

    2014-01-01

    A modified failure criterion is proposed to determine the strength of transversely isotropic rocks. Me-chanical properties of some metamorphic and sedimentary rocks including gneiss, slate, marble, schist, shale, sandstone and limestone, which show transversely isotropic behavior, were taken into consider-ation. Afterward, introduced triaxial rock strength criterion was modified for transversely isotropic rocks. Through modification process an index was obtained that can be considered as a strength reduction parameter due to rock strength anisotropy. Comparison of the parameter with previous anisotropy in-dexes in literature showed reasonable results for the studied rock samples. The modified criterion was compared to modified Hoek-Brown and Ramamurthy criteria for different transversely isotropic rocks. It can be concluded that the modified failure criterion proposed in this study can be used for predicting the strength of transversely isotropic rocks.

  9. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  10. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  11. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  13. Modified Richardson Number in Non-Uniform Saturated Moist Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shuai; GAO Shou-Ting

    2006-01-01

    @@ As a useful index, I.e. The Richardson number Ri, is modified in non-uniform saturated moist flow, based on the fact that liquid water is partially dropped out in parcel air. This is more realistic in real moist atmosphere,especially in the rainfall process. The modified Ri presents adequately the influence of numerator, I.e. Brunt-Vaisala frequency (BVF), on instability. Compared to several former formulae generalized by Durran and Klemp,the modified Ri evidently decreases the stability in rainy regions. In theory, the modified BVF and Ri fix the discontinuity of latent heat release in the transition areas between saturated and unsaturated air by introducing the condensation probability function. Furthermore, the diagnostic analysis of the modilied Ri validates the rationality of its application in the non-uniform saturated moist process.

  14. Systemic factors of errors in the case identification process of the national routine health information system: A case study of Modified Field Health Services Information System in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murai Shinsuke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of data in national health information systems has been questionable in most developing countries. However, the mechanisms of errors in the case identification process are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of errors in the case identification process in the existing routine health information system (RHIS in the Philippines by measuring the risk of committing errors for health program indicators used in the Field Health Services Information System (FHSIS 1996, and characterizing those indicators accordingly. Methods A structured questionnaire on the definitions of 12 selected indicators in the FHSIS was administered to 132 health workers in 14 selected municipalities in the province of Palawan. A proportion of correct answers (difficulty index and a disparity of two proportions of correct answers between higher and lower scored groups (discrimination index were calculated, and the patterns of wrong answers for each of the 12 items were abstracted from 113 valid responses. Results None of 12 items reached a difficulty index of 1.00. The average difficulty index of 12 items was 0.266 and the discrimination index that showed a significant difference was 0.216 and above. Compared with these two cut-offs, six items showed non-discrimination against lower difficulty indices of 0.035 (4/113 to 0.195 (22/113, two items showed a positive discrimination against lower difficulty indices of 0.142 (16/113 and 0.248 (28/113, and four items showed a positive discrimination against higher difficulty indices of 0.469 (53/113 to 0.673 (76/113. Conclusions The results suggest three characteristics of definitions of indicators such as those that are (1 unsupported by the current conditions in the health system, i.e., (a data are required from a facility that cannot directly generate the data and, (b definitions of indicators are not consistent with its corresponding program; (2 incomplete or

  15. Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hia, Fabian; Chionh, Yok Hian; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; DeMott, Michael S; McBee, Megan E; Dedon, Peter C

    2015-03-11

    A major challenge in the study of mycobacterial RNA biology is the lack of a comprehensive RNA isolation method that overcomes the unusual cell wall to faithfully yield the full spectrum of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species. Here, we describe a simple and robust procedure optimized for the isolation of total ncRNA, including 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and tRNA, from mycobacteria, using Mycobacterium bovis BCG to illustrate the method. Based on a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid and solid-phase technologies, the method produces all major species of ncRNA in high yield and with high integrity, enabling direct chemical and sequence analysis of the ncRNA species. The reproducibility of the method with BCG was evident in bioanalyzer electrophoretic analysis of isolated RNA, which revealed quantitatively significant differences in the ncRNA profiles of exponentially growing and non-replicating hypoxic bacilli. The method also overcame an historical inconsistency in 5S rRNA isolation, with direct sequencing revealing a novel post-transcriptional processing of 5S rRNA to its functional form and with chemical analysis revealing seven post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modifications in the 5S rRNA. This optimized RNA isolation procedure thus provides a means to more rigorously explore the biology of ncRNA species in mycobacteria. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Na 2 Ti 3 O 7 Nanoplatelets and Nanosheets Derived from a Modified Exfoliation Process for Use as a High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Negative Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jesse S.; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V. T.; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Muller, Guillaume A.; Serino, Andrew C.; Weiss, Paul S.; Dunn, Bruce S.

    2017-01-18

    The increasing interest in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) can be traced to sodium abundance, its low cost compared to lithium, and its intercalation chemistry being similar to that of lithium. We report that the electrochemical properties of a promising negative electrode material, Na2Ti3O7, are improved by exfoliating its layered structure and forming 2D nanoscale morphologies, nanoplatelets, and nanosheets. Exfoliation of Na2Ti3O7 was carried out by controlling the amount of proton exchange for Na+ and then proceeding with the intercalation of larger cations such as methylammonium and propylammonium. An optimized mixture of nanoplatelets and nanosheets exhibited the best electrochemical performance in terms of high capacities in the range of 100–150 mA h g–1 at high rates with stable cycling over several hundred cycles. These properties far exceed those of the corresponding bulk material, which is characterized by slow charge-storage kinetics and poor long-term stability. The results reported in this study demonstrate that charge-storage processes directed at 2D morphologies of surfaces and few layers of sheets are an exciting direction for improving the energy and power density of electrode materials for NIBs.

  17. 橡胶硫化改性路用沥青紫外老化过程的研究%A Study on the UV Aging Process of Rubber Vulcanization Modified Road Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁欣; 武光明; 尹亮

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, researchers study the change rules of the structure and properties of rubber vulcanization asphalt in the UV aging process. The changes of the properties of rubber vulcanization asphalt are analyzed under the condition of UV aging, with the extension and softening point as the assessing index. It is found that the changes of the extension and the softening point of rubber vulcanization asphalt is slower than the base asphalt and the changes of the sulfoxide absorption of rubber vulcanization asphalt is less than the base asphalt. The results show that the rubber vulcanization asphalt has the performance of anti-aging properties of UV.%研究了橡胶硫化沥青在紫外光老化过程中结构与性能的变化规律.以物理延展度、软化点为评价指标分析了橡胶硫化沥青在紫外线老化条件下性能的变化,发现其延展度、软化点速率慢于基质沥青,亚砜基吸收峰的变化小于基质沥青.研究结果表明,橡胶硫化沥青具有较强的抗紫外线老化的性能.

  18. A Realizable Modified Tent Map for True Random Number Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Nejati, Hamid; Beirami, Ahmad; Massoud, Yehia

    2012-01-01

    Tent map is a discrete-time piecewise-affine I/O characteristic curve, which is used for chaos-based applications, such as true random number generation. However, tent map suffers from the inability to maintain the output state confined to the input range under noise and process variations. In this paper, we propose a modified tent map, which is interchangeable with the tent map for practical applications. In the proposed modified tent map, the confinement problem is solved while maintaining ...

  19. Premiminary tests on modified clays for electrolyte contaminated drilling fluids

    OpenAIRE

    den Hamer, Davina; Di Emidio, Gemmina; Bezuijen, Adam; Verastegui Flores, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The quality of a bentonite suspension declines in aggressive systems like brackish or saline pore water. An engineered clay (HYPER clay) was developed for sealing materials with enhanced resistance to aggressive conditions. The modified clay is produced by treating a sodium activated bentonite with a cellulose polymer following the HYPER clay process method. This study investigates the suitability of the modified clay for electrolyte contaminated drilling fluids. Drilling fluids become contam...

  20. Road network extraction from remote sensing image based on modified marked point process%基于标值点过程改进的遥感道路提取新算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建农; 钟顺虹

    2013-01-01

    The road network extracted by the traditional data model is not accurate enough, so a new data model is defined. The traditional birth-death process of searching is blindness and a new proposal nuclear is proposed based on edge detection, and it is greatly accelerating the convergence speed. For traditional proposal will destroy connectivity of the network, it designs a new proposal nuclear based on birth and death of the neighborhood and a new parameters proposal nuclear. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm greatly improves the convergence rate, and the extracted road networks are more accurate and continuous.%  研究了标值点过程的道路提取算法,针对传统数据模型提取道路不够准确的缺点,改进了数据模型。提出了基于边缘检测的生灭转移核,避免了传统的生灭过程搜索的盲目性,大大加快了算法的收敛速度。针对传统转移核容易破坏线段的连接性的缺点,定义了多种新型的RJMCMC转移核,重新设计了基于邻域的生灭转移核及线段参数转移核。仿真结果表明,改进算法大大提高了收敛速度,并且提取的道路网络更准确,更连续。

  1. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import and processing of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for feed uses in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC nor its prolongation, and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3.

  2. 改进硫脲法浸出含硫铁矿炼锌渣中银的工艺%Leaching process of silver from zinc-smelting slag of sulfur-bearing pyrite by modified thiourea method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉; 苏静; 龙云飞; 吕小艳; 文衍宣

    2013-01-01

    采用硫脲为络合剂、双氧水为氧化剂,研究了在硝酸介质中浸出含硫铁矿炼锌渣中银的工艺.考察了搅拌速率、反应时间、反应温度、硝酸初始浓度、双氧水浓度、硫脲浓度等因素对银浸出率的影响.结果表明,银的浸出率随着搅拌速率的增大和反应时间的延长先增大然后保持不变,随反应温度、硫脲浓度、双氧水浓度和硝酸初始浓度的增加先增大后减小.当搅拌速率为200 r/min、硝酸浓度为4.11 mol/L、双氧水浓度为0.82 mol/L、硫脲浓度为3.25 mol/L、反应温度为50℃、反应时间为lh时,银浸出率可达82.0%.%The leaching process of silver from zinc-smelting slag of sulfur-bearing pyrite with thiourea as chelating agent and H2O2 as oxidant in HNO3 was studied.The effects of stirring speed,reaction time,reaction temperature,HNO3 initial concentration,H2O2 concentration,and thiourea concentration etc.on the leaching efficiency of silver were investigated.Results showed that the leaching ratio of silver first increased and then kept constant with the increase of the stirring speed and the reaction time,while it first increased and then decreased with the increase of reaction temperature,HNO3 initial concentration,H2O2 concentration,and thiourea concentration.The optimal conditions for leaching of silver with thiourea were found as follows:the stirring speed was 200 r/min,HNO3 initial concentration was 4.11 mol/L,H2O2 concentration was 0.82 mol/L,thiourea concentration was 3.25 mol/L,reaction temperature was 50 ℃,and reaction time was 1.0 h.Under these conditions,the leaching ratio of silver was up to 82.0%.

  3. Modified Bully Algorithm using Election Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Muhammad Mahbubur

    2010-01-01

    Electing leader is a vital issue not only in distributed computing but also in communication network [1, 2, 3, 4, 5], centralized mutual exclusion algorithm [6, 7], centralized control IPC, etc. A leader is required to make synchronization between different processes. And different election algorithms are used to elect a coordinator among the available processes in the system such a way that there will be only one coordinator at any time. Bully election algorithm is one of the classical and well-known approaches in coordinator election process. This paper will present a modified version of bully election algorithm using a new concept called election commission. This approach will not only reduce redundant elections but also minimize total number of elections and hence it will minimize message passing, network traffic, and complexity of the existing system.

  4. The mathematical model of dye diffusion and adsorption on modified cellulose with triazine derivatives containing cationic and anionic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, K.; Hou, A.; Chen, Y.

    2008-02-01

    Cellulose fabric is chemically modified with the compounds containing cationic and anionic groups. The molecular chains of modified cellulose have both cationic and anionic groups. Dye diffusion properties on modified cellulose are discussed. The dye adsorption and diffusion on modified cellulose are higher than those on unmodified cellulose. The diffusion properties of dyes at different temperature are discussed. Compared with unmodified cellulose, the diffusion processing of dyes in the modified cotton cellulose shows significant change.

  5. Concept innovation of government process reengineering: a case study of the 2010 Dispute on Genetically Modified Foods%政府流程再造的理念创新研究——以2010年转基因食品之争为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁进

    2011-01-01

    在建设服务型政府这个行政目标的前提下,政府流程再造探讨如何使政府业务流程科学合理并运转顺畅。回顾了关系到中华民族生存和发展的2010年转基因食品之争,认为可以转基因食品之争为契机,进一步规范行政决策程序,实现行政运行机制向规范有序、公开透明的根本转变,推进人民满意政府的建设。%For the administrative goal of building a service-oriented government, government process reengineering refers to how government process can be made more scientific and rational, and run smoothly. This paper reviews the 2010 Dispute on Genetically Modified Foods that is critical for the survival and development of Chinese nation, and argues that this dispute can be taken as a turning point to standardize the administrative decision-making process and realize the fundamental change to a standard and ordered, public and transparent administrative running mechanism, so as to promote the government construction for people's satisfaction.

  6. Modified PIC Method for Sea Ice Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-xue; JI Shun-ying; SHEN Hung-tao; YUE Qian-jin

    2005-01-01

    The sea ice cover displays various dynamical characteristics such as breakup, rafting, and ridging under external forces. To model the ice dynamic process accurately, the effective numerical modeling method should be established. In this paper, a modified particle-in-cell (PIC) method for sea ice dynamics is developed coupling the finite difference (FD) method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). In this method, the ice cover is first discretized into a series of Lagrangian ice particles which have their own sizes, thicknesses, concentrations and velocities. The ice thickness and concentration at Eulerian grid positions are obtained by interpolation with the Gaussian function from their surrounding ice particles. The momentum of ice cover is solved with FD approach to obtain the Eulerian cell velocity, which is used to estimate the ice particle velocity with the Gaussian function also. The thickness and concentration of ice particles are adjusted with particle mass density and smooth length, which are adjusted with the redistribution of ice particles. With the above modified PIC method, numerical simulations for ice motion in an idealized rectangular basin and the ice dynamics in the Bohai Sea are carried out. These simulations show that this modified PIC method is applicable to sea ice dynamics simulation.

  7. A Modified Model Predictive Control Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bing Hu; Wen-Hua Chen

    2005-01-01

    In implementations of MPC (Model Predictive Control) schemes, two issues need to be addressed. One is how to enlarge the stability region as much as possible. The other is how to guarantee stability when a computational time limitation exists. In this paper, a modified MPC scheme for constrained linear systems is described. An offline LMI-based iteration process is introduced to expand the stability region. At the same time, a database of feasible control sequences is generated offline so that stability can still be guaranteed in the case of computational time limitations. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of this new approach.

  8. Implant materials modified by colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zboromirska-Wnukiewicz Beata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in general medicine led to the development of biomaterials. Implant material should be characterized by a high biocompatibility to the tissue and appropriate functionality, i.e. to have high mechanical and electrical strength and be stable in an electrolyte environment – these are the most important properties of bioceramic materials. Considerations of biomaterials design embrace also electrical properties occurring on the implant-body fluid interface and consequently the electrokinetic potential, which can be altered by modifying the surface of the implant. In this work, the surface of the implants was modified to decrease the risk of infection by using metal colloids. Nanocolloids were obtained using different chemical and electrical methods. It was found that the colloids obtained by physical and electrical methods are more stable than colloids obtained by chemical route. In this work the surface of modified corundum implants was investigated. The implant modified by nanosilver, obtained by electrical method was selected. The in vivo research on animals was carried out. Clinical observations showed that the implants with modified surface could be applied to wounds caused by atherosclerotic skeleton, for curing the chronic and bacterial inflammations as well as for skeletal reconstruction surgery.

  9. Sonocatalytic Degradation of Antibiotics Tetracycline by Mn-Modified Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn-modified diatomite was prepared by wet impregnation and subsequent calcinations processes. It was used as catalyst for sonocatalytic degradation of antibiotics tetracycline. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the morphology and crystal structure of the modified diatomite were similar to these of raw diatomite. Despite containing very limited amount of Mn oxides, the Mn-modified diatomite showed much higher sonocatalytic activity than the raw diatomite. The increases in both MnSO4 concentration of the wet impregnation solution and the catalyst dosage could enhance the degradation of antibiotics tetracycline significantly. Kapp values for ultrasonication, catalyst adsorption, and both processes combined (0.10 mol/L MnSO4-modified diatomite were 1.22 × 10−4, 0.00193, and 0.00453 min−1, respectively, while the corresponding values of R2 were 0.956, 0.986, and 0.953, respectively. These results demonstrated the significant synergetic effect by combining ultrasonication and catalyst adsorption processes. The presence of isopropanol, KBr, and NaN3 quenched a series of reactive oxygen species sharply, indicating the dominant role of reactive oxygen species in the sonocatalytic process. In contrast, the addition of Fe(II enhanced the degradation due to the generation of more OH∙ radicals in the concurrent Fenton reaction. All the results indicated that Mn-modified diatomite had the great potential for water treatment by sonocatalytic oxidation.

  10. PVC mixtures’ mechanical properties with the addition of modified calcite as filler

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Dušica R.; Jovanović Vladimir D.; Kolonja Božo M.; Sekulić Živko T.; Mihajlović Slavica R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study mechanical properties of PVC mixtures (PVC, stabilizer, lubricant, filler) such as tensile strength, tensile elongation, breaking strength, and breaking elongation were investigated. Unmodified calcite, as well as calcite modified by stearic acid, were used as fillers in wet and dry processes. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet procedure have better mechanical properties compared to those with the calcite modified by the dry process. Tensile and breaki...

  11. Mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride mixtures with the addition of modified calcite as filler

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlović, Slavica R.; Sekulić, Živko T.; Vučinić, Dušica R.; Jovanović, Vladimir D.; Kolonja, Božo M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, mechanical properties of PVC mixtures (PVC, stabilizer, lubricant and filler) such as tensile strength, tensile elongation, breaking strength and breaking elongation were investigated. Unmodified calcite, as well as calcite modified by stearic acid, were used as fillers in wet and dry processes. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet procedure had better mechanical properties compared to those with the calcite modified by the dry process. Tensile and breaking s...

  12. Effects of Soybean Oil Modified Cellulose Fibril and Organosilane Modified Cellulose Fibril on Crystallization of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Thanomchat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil modified cellulose fibril (Oil-g-CF and organosilane modified cellulose fibril (Silane-g-CF were prepared using maleinized soybean oil and hexadecyltrimethoxysilane, respectively. Thus obtained modified cellulose fibril was added to polypropylene by a simple melt mixing on a hotplate. PP/modified CF composites with 4.0 wt% filler content were prepared. The composites were subject to a polarized optical microscope to investigate particle dispersion, supramolecular morphology, and crystallization behavior. It was found that Silane-g-CF exhibited smaller particle sizes with better particle distribution when compared to Oil-g-CF. In addition, the etched composite samples unveiled an increase in a number of spherulite crystals as well as a decrease in the spherulite size. The nonisothermal crystallization study of composites revealed that both Oil-g-CF and Silane-g-CF were capable of nucleating PP by facilitating faster crystallization process and raising the number of spherulites. The DSC results indicated that Silane-g-CF was able to perform a more effective nucleation than Oil-g-CF, judged by a higher crystallization temperature. Moreover, PP composites containing Oil-g-CF and Silane-g-CF had higher crystallinity by 7% and 10%, for the first and the latter, respectively, when compared to neat PP.

  13. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  14. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  15. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2017-09-12

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  16. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  17. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  18. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    variants and cancer risk in Mendelian cancer syndromes. Curr Opin Genet Dev 20: 299–307. S0959-437X(10)00044-4 [pii];10.1016/j.gde.2010.03.010 [doi]. 3...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0341 TITLE: Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Fergus J. Couch, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...DATE AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 15MAY2010 - 14MAY2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian

  19. A modified submental orotracheal intubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, Keelara Shivalingaiah; Kujur, Abha Rani; Vikram, M. S.; Joseph, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    In patients with concomitant occurrence of maxillofacial and basilar skull fractures, open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment. It requires intermittent intra operative dental occlusion which precludes oral or nasal intubation. In such cases submental intubation (SMI) is a recognized technique in practice. We describe a modified technique for smooth exteriorization of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during SMI. As the SMI technique is unusual for the performer, emphasis is laid on the applied aspects to minimize probable complications during the procedure. With the modified technique we performed SMI uneventfully on five patients PMID:26957708

  20. Two kinds of modified numerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Nouwen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I show that there are two kinds of numeral modifiers: (Class A those that express the comparison of a certain cardinality with the value expressed by the numeral and (Class B those that express a bound on a degree property. The goal is, first of all, to provide empirical evidence for this claim and second to account for these data within a framework that treats modified numerals as degree quantifiers. doi:10.3765/sp.3.3 BibTeX info

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma Cu Surface Modified Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiangyu; TANG Bin; FAN Ailan; MA Yong; TIAN Linhai

    2012-01-01

    Cu modified layer was prepared on the surface of AISI304 stainless steel by plasma surface alloying technique.The effects of processing parameters on the thickness,surface topography,microstructure and chemical composition of Cu modified layer were characterized using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The experimental results show that the surface modified layer is a duplex layer (deposited + diffused layer) with thickness of about 26 μm under the optimum process parameters.The modified layer is mainly composed of a mixture of Cu and expanded austenite phase.The ball-on-disk results show that the modified layer possesses low friction coefficients (0.25) and excellent wear resistance (wear volume 0.005× 109 μm3).The Cu modified layer is very effective in killing the bacteria S.aureus.Meanwhile,no viable S.aureus is found after 3 h (100% killed) by contact with the Cu alloyed surface.

  2. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  3. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  4. Fabrication of Phenanthroline Modified Graphene Nanosheets Decorated with Palladium Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingappan, Niranjanmurthi; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Chan; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2015-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles decorated modified reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite was synthesized by a two-step process using 1,10-Phenanthroline (PHEN) as bridging agent. Firstly, the graphene oxide (GO) was non-covalently modified with the PHEN molecules through π-π interaction between two components. Then, the modified GO was complexed with Pd precursor and subsequently reduced from Pd2+ to Pd0 using NaBH4 to yield Pd dispersed modified RGO sheets. The structure and morphology of the resulting composites were characterized by FTIR, TGA, EDX, FESEM, HRTEM and XRD measurements. XPS results revealed that the reduction of Pd2+ to metal-lic Pd was successfully achieved, while the HRTEM and FESEM micrographs suggested that the Pd nanoparticles were well-dispersed on the functionalized graphene sheets.

  5. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanxiaoLiu; HuaiyuZhan; BeihaiHe; ShuhuiYang; JianhuaLiu; JianluLiu(1); ZhenxingPang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin, polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  6. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanxiao Liu; Huaiyu Zhan; Beihai He; Shuhui Yang; Jianhua Liu; Jianlu Liu; Zhenxing Pang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin,polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4′-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  7. Process Optimization for Synthesis of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Oxidized Sweet Potato Starch by Response Surface Analysis%响应面法优化氧化辛烯基琥珀酸甘薯淀粉酯的制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 邬应龙; 何靖柳

    2011-01-01

    以氧化甘薯淀粉(oxidation sweet potato starch,OSPS)为原料,制备氧化辛烯基琥珀酸甘薯淀粉酯(octenylsuccinate anhydride-oxidation sweet potato starch,OSA-OSPS)。运用响应面分析(response surface method analysis,RSA)辛烯基琥珀酸酐(octenyl succinate anhydride,OSA)添加量、pH值、温度和时间对OSA-OSPS取代度(degreeof substitution,DS)的影响,得出最佳制备工艺:酸酐添加量7%、pH8.40、温度40℃,反应时间10h。采用快速黏度分析仪(rapid viscosity analyzer,RVA)分析表明:氧化甘薯淀粉峰值黏度较低,而经过OSA酯化后,峰值黏度又会有一定程度的提高,且随DS的增加呈上升趋势。%Oxidized sweet potato starch was used as the raw material to prepare octenyl succinic anhydride(OSA) modified oxidized sweet potato starch.The effects of OSA amount,pH,temperature and reaction time on degree of substitution(DS) of OSA-modified oxidized sweet potato starch were studied employing response surface analysis.The optimum process conditions determined were as follows: OSA amount 7%,pH 8.40,temperature 40 ℃,and reaction time 10 h.Rapid viscosity analyzer(RVA) analysis showed that the peak viscosity of sweet potato starch decreased after oxidation,and increased after furthermodification with OSA with a positive correlation with DS.

  8. Modifying Yeast Tolerance to Inhibitory Conditions of Ethanol Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Castillo, Tania; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains having a broad range of substrate utilization, rapid substrate consumption, and conversion to ethanol, as well as good tolerance to inhibitory conditions are ideal for cost-competitive ethanol production from lignocellulose. A major drawback to directly design S. ...

  9. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  10. IMAGE COMPRESSION APPROACH FOR MEDICAL PROCESSING USING MODIFIED NEURO MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    S. ABDUL KHADER JILANI; Dr. S. ABDUL SATTAR

    2010-01-01

    Image compression is applied to many fields such as television broadcasting, remote sensing, image storage etc. Digitized images are compressed by a technique which exploits the redundancy of the images so that the number of bits required to represent the image can be reduced with acceptable degradation of the decoded image. The degradation of the image quality is limited wrt. the application used. There are various application where accuracy is of major concern. To achieve the objective of p...

  11. IMAGE COMPRESSION APPROACH FOR MEDICAL PROCESSING USING MODIFIED NEURO MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ABDUL KHADER JILANI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Image compression is applied to many fields such as television broadcasting, remote sensing, image storage etc. Digitized images are compressed by a technique which exploits the redundancy of the images so that the number of bits required to represent the image can be reduced with acceptable degradation of the decoded image. The degradation of the image quality is limited wrt. the application used. There are various application where accuracy is of major concern. To achieve the objective of performance improvement with respect to decoded picture quality and compression ratios, compared to existing image compression techniques, a image compression technique using hybrid neural networks combining two different learning networks called Autoassociative multi-layer perceptron and self-organizing feature map is proposed.

  12. Does the aging process significantly modify the Mean Heart Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Reis, Francisco Prado; Santos, Thayná Ramos; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto

    2013-11-01

    The Mean Heart Rate (MHR) tends to decrease with age. When adjusted for gender and diseases, the magnitude of this effect is unclear. To analyze the MHR in a stratified sample of active and functionally independent individuals. A total of 1,172 patients aged > 40 years underwent Holter monitoring and were stratified by age group: 1 = 40-49, 2 = 50-59, 3 = 60-69, 4 = 70-79, 5 = > 80 years. The MHR was evaluated according to age and gender, adjusted for Hypertension (SAH), dyslipidemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Several models of ANOVA, correlation and linear regression were employed. A two-tailed p value MHR tended to decrease with the age range: 1 = 77.20 ± 7.10; 2 = 76.66 ± 7.07; 3 = 74.02 ± 7.46; 4 = 72.93 ± 7.35; 5 = 73.41 ± 7.98 (p MHR (p MHR decreased with age. Women had higher values of MHR, regardless of the age group. Correlations between MHR and age or gender, albeit significant, showed the effect magnitude had little statistical relevance. The prevalence of SAH, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus did not influence the results.

  13. A modified OSEM algorithm for PET reconstruction using wavelet processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Yong; Choi, Yong

    2005-12-01

    Ordered subset expectation-maximization (OSEM) method in positron emission tomography (PET) has been very popular recently. It is an iterative algorithm and provides images with superior noise characteristics compared to conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms. Due to the lack of smoothness in images in OSEM iterations, however, some type of inter-smoothing is required. For this purpose, the smoothing based on the convolution with the Gaussian kernel has been used in clinical PET practices. In this paper, we incorporated a robust wavelet de-noising method into OSEM iterations as an inter-smoothing tool. The proposed wavelet method is based on a hybrid use of the standard wavelet shrinkage and the robust wavelet shrinkage to have edge preserving and robust de-noising simultaneously. The performances of the proposed method were compared with those of the smoothing methods based on the convolution with Gaussian kernel using software phantoms, physical phantoms, and human PET studies. The results demonstrated that the proposed wavelet method provided better spatial resolution characteristic than the smoothing methods based on the Gaussian convolution, while having comparable performance in noise removal.

  14. Error Processing Techniques for the Modified Read Facsimile Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    posant des probIbmes d~licate do sz.. ito. 6e2e. ap moant des traitements relatifa A plusiours regions sur chacun de corn Sept centres perniettre do...moyefls do trait. mont nationauai et repionaux. et qui devra roster alimentoe mise A jour en perma- nence, & psi-tir do Ia base do 1’enraiprise, c’est

  15. Modified nonlinear complex diffusion filter (MNCDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Kalpana; Dewal, M L; Rohit, Manojkumar

    2012-06-01

    Speckle noise removal is the most important step in the processing of echocardiographic images. A speckle-free image produces useful information to diagnose heart-related diseases. Images which contain low noise and sharp edges are more easily analyzed by the clinicians. This noise removal stage is also a preprocessing stage in segmentation techniques. A new formulation has been proposed for a well-known nonlinear complex diffusion filter (NCDF). Its diffusion coefficient and the time step size are modified to give fast processing and better results. An investigation has been performed among nine patients suffering from mitral regurgitation. Images have been taken with 2D echo in apical and parasternal views. The peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), universal quality index (Qi), mean absolute error (MAE), mean square error (MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE) have been calculated, and the results show that the proposed method is much better than the previous filters for echocardiographic images. The proposed method, modified nonlinear complex diffusion filter (MNCDF), smooths the homogeneous area and enhances the fine details.

  16. Modifying network connectivity with a subgraph addition

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Dane

    2011-01-01

    The principal eigenvalue $\\lambda$ of a network's adjacency matrix often determines dynamics on the network (e.g., in synchronization and spreading processes) and some of its structural properties (e.g., robustness against failure or attack), and is therefore a good indicator for how "strongly" a network is connected. We study how $\\lambda$ is modified by the addition of a subgraph. This type of modification has broad applications, ranging from those involving a single modification (e.g., introduction of a drug into a biological process) to those involving repeated subnetwork additions (e.g., power-grid and transit development). We describe how to optimally connect the subgraph to the network to either maximize or minimize the shift in $\\lambda$, noting several applications.

  17. Jogging Can Modify Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill I.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging was used to modify disruptive behavior as part of the classroom routine for 12 learning disabled elementary-grade boys. The number of incidents of each of five negative behaviors were reduced by half following the 10-minute jogging routine. (SBH)

  18. Modified gravity without dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert; Papantonopoulos, L

    2007-01-01

    On an empirical level, the most successful alternative to dark matter in bound gravitational systems is the modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND, proposed by Milgrom. Here I discuss the attempts to formulate MOND as a modification of General Relativity. I begin with a summary of the phenomenological

  19. Modified Gravity or Dark Matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, J W

    2011-01-01

    Modified Gravity (MOG) has been used successfully to explain the rotation curves of galaxies, the motion of galaxy clusters, the Bullet Cluster, and cosmological observations without the use of dark matter or Einstein's cosmological constant. We review the main theoretical ideas and applications of the theory to astrophysical and cosmological data.

  20. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA.

  1. The Plasma Assisted Modified Betatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-27

    instability. This is a particular concern because it is now established that two other similar devices, HIPAC 16 and SPAC 1117 were disrupted by the ion... HIPAC or SPAC II. In the modified betatron, even if parameters are right for it, there is still a good chance that it will be stabilized by the

  2. Can health benefits break down Nordic consumers' rejection of genetically modified foods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    In general, Nordic consumers perceive foods that are processed in traditional ways as more healthy than novel foods including genetically modified and functional foods. But because the use of genetic modification in the production of pharmaceuticals is readily accepted, the food industry believes......' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. Before implementing the conjoint task, two thirds of the respondents were asked to taste a cheese, which was supposedly genetically modified. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well...... as across countries. In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health benefits and tasting experience....

  3. Tensile Strength of the Al-9%Si Alloy Modified with Na, F and Cl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the Al-9%Si alloy with the use of a complex modifier containing Na, F and Cl was investigated in the study. The modifier was composed of NaCl, Na3AlF6 and NaF compounds. The modifier and the liquid Al-Si alloy were kept in the crucible for 15 minutes. The modifier's effect relative to the weight of the processed alloy on its tensile strength was presented in graphic form. The results of the study indicate that the complex modifier altered the investigated properties of the eutectic Al-9%Si alloy.

  4. Acceptance of genetically modified foods: the relation between technology and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbült, Petra; De Vries, Nanne K; van Breukelen, Gerard; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates why consumers accept different genetically modified food products to different extents. The study shows that whether food products are genetically modified or not and whether they are processed or not are the two important features that affect the acceptance of food products and their evaluation (in terms of perceived healthiness, naturalness, necessity and tastiness). The extent to which these evaluation attributes and acceptance of a product are affected by genetic modification or processing depends on whether the product is negatively affected by the other technology: Any technological change to a 'natural' product (when nonprocessed products are genetically modified or when non-genetically modified products are processed) affect evaluation and acceptance stronger than a change to an technologically adapted product (when processed products are also genetically modified or vice versa). Furthermore, evaluation attributes appear to mediate the effects of genetic modification and processing on acceptance.

  5. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import, processing and feed uses of oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. The EFSA GMO Panel does not consider the occurrence of occasional feral oilseed rape Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3plants, pollen dispersal and consequent cross-pollination as environmental harm in itself. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001

  6. Application of CX-type modifiers in Al-Si alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of CX-type (CX means the modifiers that have long effective term) modifiers applied in ZL108and ZL104 Al-Si alloys has been studied in detail. The results show that the morphologies of the eutectic silicon and the primary sili-con can be modified and refined simultaneously. The modification effect acts quickly and can maintain a period of 8 h by the CX-type modifiers. The CX-type modifiers increase the mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys and improve the service properties of ma-chine parts made of Al-Si alloys (such as piston and cylinder etc.). In modifying processes, the amount of the addition of CX-typemodifiers is smaller than that of any other modifiers, and the modifying procedures are simple. There are no smoke, no dust, and noirritant smell in modifying processes using CX-type modifiers. Therefore, the CX-type modifiers have advantages in economy andenvironment protection.

  7. Hydrodynamic Study of a Submerged Entry Nozzle with Flow Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Miranda-Tello, Raul; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The fluid flow modifier technology for continuous casting process was evaluated through numerical simulations and physical experiments in this work. In the casting of steel into the mold, the process presents liquid surface instabilities which extend along the primary cooling stage. By the use of trapezoid elements installed on the external walls of the submerged nozzle, it was observed that it is possible to obtain symmetry conditions at the top of the mold and prevent high level fluctuations. The flow modifiers have equidistant holes in the submerged surface to reduce the velocity of the liquid surface by energy and mass transfer between the generated quadrants. A flow modifier drilled with a 25 pct of the submerged surface provides stability in the mold and structural stability of the proposal is guaranteed.

  8. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  9. Energy conditions in modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozzie@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Lobo, Francisco S.N., E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Mimoso, José P., E-mail: jpmimoso@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C8, Campo Grande, P-1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-03-07

    We consider generalized energy conditions in modified theories of gravity by taking into account the further degrees of freedom related to scalar fields and curvature invariants. The latter are usually recast as generalized geometrical fluids that have different meanings with respect to the standard matter fluids generally adopted as sources of the field equations. More specifically, in modified gravity the curvature terms are grouped in a tensor H{sup ab} and a coupling g(Ψ{sup i}) that can be reorganized in effective Einstein field equations, as corrections to the energy–momentum tensor of matter. The formal validity of such inequalities does not assure some basic requirements such as the attractive nature of gravity, so that the energy conditions have to be considered in a wider sense.

  10. Generalized gravity from modified DFT

    CERN Document Server

    Sakatani, Yuho; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T-duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.

  11. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2017-04-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  12. Energy conditions in modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Mimoso, José P

    2014-01-01

    We consider generalized energy conditions in modified theories of gravity by taking into account the further degrees of freedom related to scalar fields and curvature invariants. The latter are usually recast as generalized {\\it geometrical fluids} that have different meanings with respect to the standard matter fluids generally adopted as sources of the field equations. More specifically, in modified gravity the curvature terms are grouped in a tensor $H^{ab}$ and a coupling $g(\\Psi^i)$ that can be reorganized in effective Einstein field equations, as corrections to the energy-momentum tensor of matter. The formal validity of such inequalities does not assure some basic requirements such as the attractive nature of gravity, so that the energy conditions have to be considered in a wider sense.

  13. Complexation thermodynamics of modified cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion complexes between two bile salts and a range of differently methylated β-cyclodextrins were studied in an attempt to rationalize the complexation thermodynamics of modified cyclodextrins. Calorimetric titrations at a range of temperatures provided precise values of the enthalpies (ΔH......°), entropies (ΔS°), and heat capacities (ΔCp) of complexation, while molecular dynamics simulations assisted the interpretation of the obtained thermodynamic parameters. As previously observed for several types of modified cyclodextrins, the substituents at the rims of the cyclodextrin induced large changes......° and then a strong decrease when the degree of substitution exceeded some threshold. Exactly the same trend was observed for ΔCp. The dehydration of nonpolar surface, as quantified by the simulations, can to a large extent explain the variation in the thermodynamic parameters. The methyl substituents form additional...

  14. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2016-12-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  15. Turnaround radius in modified gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    In an accelerating universe in General Relativity there is a maximum radius above which a shell of test particles cannot collapse, but is dispersed by the cosmic expansion. This radius could be used in conjunction with observations of large structures to constrain the equation of state of the universe. We extend the concept of turnaround radius to modified theories of gravity for which the gravitational slip is non-vanishing.

  16. Evaluation of Asphalt Binder Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    or SBS rubber described as an oil-extended polymer produced in pellet form. This type of rubber is available in other solid forms such as crumb or...is done to improve the performance characteristics of future pavements. Many research programs have been conducted on asphalt modifiers. Most of...tests were conducted during the second year of the study and resultant data were used to choose five materials to meet the test objectives of this

  17. Multiplexed DNA-Modified Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Slinker, Jason D.; Muren, Natalie B.; Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with fourfold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with ...

  18. Modifying muscular dystrophy through TGFβ

    OpenAIRE

    Ceco, Ermelinda; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy arises from ongoing muscle degeneration and insufficient regeneration. This imbalance leads to loss of muscle with replacement by scar or fibrosis resulting in muscle weakness and, eventually, loss of muscle function. Human muscular dystrophy is characterized by a wide range of disease severity, even when the same genetic mutation is present. This variability implies that other factors, both genetic and environmental, modify the disease outcome. There has been an ongoing ef...

  19. Political Subculture: A Resilience Modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A RESILIENCE MODIFIER by Gordon S. Hunter September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr. Second Reader...Approved by: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr., DPA Thesis Advisor Lauren S. Fernandez, DSc Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chair...addition, I must acknowledge the continued support, guidance, and encouragement of Dr. Sam Clovis and Dr. Lauren Fernandez who have led me on the path to

  20. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resul...

  1. Cosmological Hints of Modified Gravity ?

    CERN Document Server

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from $\\Lambda$CDM have been found, including a $95 \\%$ c.l. preference for a "modified gravity" structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called $A_{lens}$ anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to $\\sigma_8=0.815_{-0.048}^{+0.032}$, in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of $\\tau=0.059\\pm0.020$ (to be compared with the value of $\\tau= 0.079 \\pm 0.017$ obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneraci...

  2. Anterior EEG Asymmetry and the Modifier Model of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Courtney P.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne Pradella; Zahka, Nicole E.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in the expression of autism complicate research on the nature and treatment of this disorder. In the Modifier Model of Autism (Mundy et al. 2007), we proposed that individual differences in autism may result not only from syndrome specific causal processes, but also from variability in generic, non-syndrome specific…

  3. Specificity and Modifiability of Cognitive Biases in Hypochondriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropalis, Maria; Bleichhardt, Gaby; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthoft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective: According to cognitive-behavioral models of hypochondriasis (HYP), biased attentional and memory processes related to health threat stimuli are crucial for the development and maintenance of severe health anxiety. Little is known about the specificity, temporal stability, and modifiability of these biases via psychotherapy. Method: In…

  4. 渐近拟非扩张型非自映象的修正Ishikawa Reich-Takahashi迭代逼近问题%Iterative approximation problem of modified ishkawa reich-takahashi iterative process for asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive type nonseif-maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟京华; 刘文军

    2011-01-01

    The concept of asymptotically quasi-nonespansive type nonself-maps was introduced. A new modified Ishikawa Re ich-Itakahashi type iterative process for asymptotically quasi-nonespansive type nonself-maps was given. Its strong convergence in uniformly convex Banach space was discussed. Some new results on strong. Convergences of iterative sequence of the fixed point for asymptotically quasi-nonespansive nonself-maps were obtained. These improve and extend some corresponding results in papers [1 -10].%给出渐近拟非扩张型的非自映象定义,并对其引入了一个新的修正的Ishikawa Reich-Takahashi迭代程序.在一致凸Banach空间中讨论了此迭代序列的强收敛性,获得了此迭代序列强收敛到渐近拟非扩张型非自映象的不动点的相关结论.改进和发展了文献[1-10]的相关结果.

  5. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L; Lassen, J; Kettlitz, B; Scholderer, J; Beekman, V; Berdal, K G

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and attitudes, public trust in regulatory institutions, scientists, and industry, and the need to develop communication strategies that explicitly include public concerns rather than exclude them. Increased public participation has been promoted as a way of increasing trust in institutional practices associated with the biosciences, although questions still arise as to how to best utilise the outputs of such exercises in policy development. This issue will become more of a priority as decision-making systems become more transparent and open to public scrutiny. The results are discussed in the context of risk assessment and risk management, and recommendations for future research are made. In particular, it is recommended that new methods are developed in order to integrate public values more efficaciously into risk analysis processes, specifically with respect to the biosciences and to technology implementation in general.

  6. Electroanalysis using modified hierarchical nanoporous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rusbel Coneo; Moncada, Angelica Baena; Acevedo, Diego F; Planes, Gabriel A; Miras, Maria C; Barbero, Cesar A

    2013-01-01

    The role of the electrode nanoporosity in electroanalytical processes is discussed and specific phenomena (slow double layer charging, local pH effects) which can be present in porous electrode are described. Hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials are synthesized using a hard template method. The three dimensional carbon porosity is examined using scanning electron microscopy on flat surfaces cut using a focused ion beam (FIB-SEM). The electrochemical properties of the HPC are measured using cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance, chronoamperometry and Probe Beam Deflection (PBD) techniques. Chronoamperometry measurements of HPC seems to fit a transmission line model. PBD data show evidence of local pH changes inside the pores, during double layer charging. The HPC are modified by in situ (chemical or electrochemical) formation of metal (Pt/Ru) or metal oxide (CoOx, Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Additionally, HPC loaded with Pt decorated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles is produced by galvanic displacement. The modified HPC materials are used for the electroanalysis of different substances (CO, O2, AsO3(-3)). The role of the nanoporous carbon substrate in the electroanalytical data is evaluated.

  7. Behavior of phenol adsorption on thermal modified activated carbon☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengfeng Zhang; Peili Huo; Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption process is acknowledged as an effective option for phenolic wastewater treatment. In this work, the activated carbon (AC) samples after thermal modification were prepared by using muffle furnace. The phenol ad-sorption kinetics and equilibrium measurements were carried out under static conditions at temperature ranging from 25 to 55 °C. The test results show that the thermal modification can enhance phenol adsorption on AC samples. The porous structure and surface chemistry analyses indicate that the decay in pore morphology and decrease of total oxygen-containing functional groups are found for the thermal modified AC samples. Thus, it can be further inferred that the decrease of total oxygen-containing functional groups on the modified AC sam-ples is the main reason for the enhanced phenol adsorption capacity. For both the raw sample and the optimum modified AC sample at 900 °C, the pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir models are found to fit the exper-imental data very well. The maximum phenol adsorption capacity of the optimum modified AC sample can reach 144.93 mg·g−1 which is higher than that of the raw sample, i.e. 119.53 mg·g−1. Adsorption thermodynamics analysis confirms that the phenol adsorption on the optimum modified AC sample is an exothermic process and mainly via physical adsorption.

  8. Scientific Opinion on an application from Pioneer Hi-Bred International and Dow AgroSciences LLC (EFSA-GMO-NL-2005-23 for placing on the market of genetically modified maize 59122 for food and feed uses, import, processing and cultivation under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Scientific Opinion reports on a risk assessment on an application for placing on the market of genetically modified maize 59122 for import and processing for food and feed uses and cultivation. The EFSA GMO Panel considers that maize 59122 is unlikely to have any adverse effect on the environment, except for the possible evolution of resistance to the Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins in coleopteran target pests. The Panel recommends the implementation of appropriate and diversified insect resistance management strategies and case-specific monitoring to delay and monitor the possible evolution of resistance to Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 in coleopteran target pests, respectively. In addition, the Panel recommends revision of the applicants’ insect resistance management plan and the proposed post-market environmental monitoring plan. Although maize 59122 is tolerant to glufosinate-ammonium-based herbicides, the Panel did not assess the potential adverse effects associated with the use of such herbicides on maize 59122, as maize 59122 will not be marketed in the European Union as a herbicide-tolerant crop. This Scientific Opinion updates the previous Panel safety evaluation of the food and feed uses, and import and processing of maize 59122 and derived products. The Panel concludes that the information available for maize 59122 addresses the scientific comments raised by Member States and that maize 59122, as described in this application, is as safe as its conventional counterpart and commercial maize varieties with respect to potential adverse effects on human and animal health. If subjected to appropriate management measures, the cultivation of maize 59122 is unlikely to raise safety concerns for the environment.

  9. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Khattak, Mohammad Jamal; Gallo, August A

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification.

  10. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  11. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  12. Waste-moulding dusts modified with polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article described problems of the influence of advanced oxidizing process, the supersonic tooling of waste - moulding dusts and their modification with polyelectrolytes, on the technological proprieties of the moulding sands prepared with their participation.Physicochemical characterization of the used polyelectrolytes PSS (poli 4-styreno sodium sulfonate and PEI (poli etyleno imine, in theaspect of their modificatory influences on the waste - moulding dust, was described. Defined the influence of adsorption proprieties ofthe polyelectrolyte PEI on the surface of small parts of the waste - dust, on technological proprieties of the sandmix. Ascertained theprofitable influence of this electrolyte on mechanical proprieties of the moulding sands, that is to say the increase in value of thecompression strength (about 10% and tensile strenght (about 13%, comparatively to analogous proprieties of the moulding sandsprepared with the participation of the not modified waste- dust.

  13. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  14. Economic Dispatch Using Modified Bat Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Latif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic dispatch is an important non-linear optimization task in power systems. In this process, the total power demand is distributed amongst the generating units such that each unit satisfies its generation limit constraints and the cost of power production is minimized. This paper presents an over view of three optimization algorithms namely real coded genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and a relatively new optimization technique called bat algorithm. This study will further propose modifications to the original bat. Simulations are carried out for two test cases. First is a six-generator power system with a simplified convex objective function. The second test case is a five-generator system with a non-convex objective function. Finally the results of the modified algorithm are compared with the results of genetic algorithm, particle swarm and the original bat algorithm. The results demonstrate the improvement in the Bat Algorithm.

  15. Waterborne Epoxy Resin Modified by AMPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A stable epoxy emulsion was prepared with epoxy resin (EP) as raw material, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) as modifier and benzoyl peroxide as initiator. By criterion of yield of the copolymer AMPS-EP, water-solubility, change of the acid value and intrinsic viscosity [η] along with reaction time, the copolymerization course was deduced. It is found that during the process, AMPS takes part in both the grafting copolymerization with epoxy principal chain and the ring-opening polyaddition with epoxy group. It is also discovered that the yield of AMPS-EP and water dispersing varies with reaction time. When it reaches 1.5 h,AMPS-EP can obtain good water-solubility; but the water-solubility will go bad gradually ifit exceeds 3.5 h.( )R spectrum analysis indicates that partial epoxy group partially remains and the others create sulfonic ester.

  16. Renegotiating GM crop regulation: Targeted gene-modification technology raises new issues for the oversight of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic modification, which enables scientists to genetically engineer plants more efficiently and precisely, challenges current process-based regulatory frameworks for genetically modified crops.

  17. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  18. Modified Landweber Algorithm for Solving the Inverse Problem in EIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGChao; WANGHuaxiang

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the Landweber iteration method and demonstrates that Landweber method is a modified of the generalized inverse constructed using the iteration solution. The phenomenon is explained that the image reconstructed using Landweber iteration algorithm through a large numbers of iteration steps is similar tothe minimum norm solution of the generalized inverse. A new reconstruction algorithm called the modified Landweber method is proposed, which divides the image reconstruction process into two steps, off-line pre-iteration and on-line one-step reconstruction. The reconstruction speed is markedly improved.

  19. Characterization and thermal behavior of polymer-modified asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Cavalcante Lucena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A styrene-butadiene-styrene modified asphalt cement was characterized by infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and empirical tests such as ring and ball softening point, penetration and elastic recovery. After aging in the rolling thin-film oven, the polymer-modified asphalt presented structural changes relating to oxidation of the material. The infrared spectra showed an increase in hydroxyl groups and the formation of carbonyl compounds and sulphoxides. The percentage of crystallized fraction calculated from differential scanning calorimetry was 0.41%. Thermogravimetric analyses in inert and oxidative atmospheres revealed distinct events during thermal decomposition; the initial activation energies were similar, but changed as the process evolved.

  20. Using host response modifiers in the treatment of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, M John; Donley, Timothy G

    2002-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the result of a complex interaction between microbial plaque, the host's inflammatory response to the plaque, and host modifying factors (e.g., smoking, diabetes, genetics) that may have an impact on the disease process. It is known that plaque initiates periodontal disease but that the host response is responsible for the destruction of periodontal tissues. This article describes why host response modifiers may be used to help control inflammation and tissue destruction as part of the initial phase of periodontal therapy in selected patient groups.