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Sample records for modified potatoes solanum

  1. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  2. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  3. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of microtubers, are ideal for such ...

  4. Greatly reduced phylogenetic structure in the cultivated potato clade of potatoes, Solanum section Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species boundaries of wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, are controversial with most of the taxonomic problems in a clade containing cultivated potatoes. We here provide the first in-depth phylogenetic study of the cultivated potato clade to explore possible causes of these pr...

  5. Resistance to Erwinia spp. in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allefs, S.

    1995-01-01

    Blackleg is a disease of potato, Solanum tuberosum , which is caused by the bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ( Ecc ), E.c. subsp. atroseptica ( Eca ) or

  6. Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria Associated With Irish Potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 15 samples of spoilt Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were collected from five grocery shops in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria and were analysed for aerobic mesophilic bacterial load. The isolated aerobic mesophilic bacteria were phenotypically characterized by biochemical tests and their susceptibility to ...

  7. Morphological characterization of the local potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... agronomical characteristics of the genotypes were described according to the criteria developed for potato .... potato tubers were stored at 4°C and 80% moisture storage con- ...... Starch and Sugar Plant Production, Turkey VII.

  8. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  9. Modifying glycoalkaloid content in transgenic potato – Metabolome impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolite profiling has been used to assess the potential for unintended composition changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers, which have been genetically modified (GM) to reduce glycoalkaloid content via the independent down-regulation of three genes SGT1, SGT2 and SGT3 known t...

  10. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  11. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  12. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BADO, Souleymane

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... In addition to high starch levels, potato tubers contain significant ... 2000; Li et al., 2005) modified histological and texture properties (Nayak et al., ..... transported or shipped over long distances and stored for over 6 months.

  13. Steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum species : consequences for potato breeding and food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van W.M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tuberiferous and nontuberiferous wild Solanum species are increasingly being used in potato breeding as a source of genes for disease and pest resistances and for other valuable characteristics. A disadvantage of Solanum species, from a consumers point

  14. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, R.; Vries, R.S.M.; de Boer, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM

  15. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis of its value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Irish potato, food security, stakeholder analysis, sustainability indicators, Cool Farm Tool-Potato, yield gap, resource use efficiency, LINTUL-POTATO model, Zimbabwe.

    Oniward Svubure (2015). Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum

  17. Molecular characterization of native potato (Solanum spp. Chungui, Ayacucho, using AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gonzales Mamani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of 25 morphotypes of native potatoes Solanum spp. from Chungui (La Mar, Ayacucho were assess. Morphotypes collected were micropropagated in Murashigue Skoog medium (1962. DNA extraction proceeded using the CTAB method modified from 3 weeks leaves crop, good quality and quantity of DNA was able to use the AFLP. Enzymatic digestion of the DNA was performed using EcoRI and MseI. Three combinations of AFLP primers with three selective nucleotides were used, resulting in a total of 85 clearly discernable bands, of which 63 were polymorphic. The combination E37 – M50 showed the most informative polymorphic index content of 0.43. The presence/absence of polymorphic bands was evaluated using the Simple Matching coefficient similarity and clustering analysis using the UPGMA. The dendrogram produced had a cophenetic correlation coefficient r= 0.7. At the level 0.64 of Simple Matching coefficient similarity, the dendrogram grouped the morphotypes of native potatoes in 4 genetic groups, it not found duplicated morphotypes, despite having some morphotypes very similar. Our results would be showing the highly informative power of AFLP markers for the analysis of genetic diversity of native potatoes.

  18. Recent Advances in Solanum Potato Improvement In Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews the major production constraints for extension of potato production and the role of potato ... Viable, commercial seed schemes and appropriate low cost storage methods are ..... national Potato Centre (CIP), Lima, (Peru). In-.

  19. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  20. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  1. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; Oliveira, De Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, R.C.B.; Dijk, Van J.P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative

  2. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  3. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  4. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?

    Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large

  5. Characteristics of the Inhibition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase by an Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor in Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Effect of several parameters on inhibition of potato (Solanum tuberosum) invertase by its endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor was determined using homogeneous preparations of both proteins. The inhibitor and invertase formed an inactive complex with an observed association rate constant at pH 4.70 and 37°C of 8.82 × 102 per molar per second and a dissociation rate constant of 3.3 × 10−3 per minute. The inhibitor appeared to bind to invertase in more than one step. Initial interaction (measured by loss of invertase activity) was rapid, relatively weak, readily reversible (Ki of 2 × 10−6 molar) and noncompetitive with substrate at pH 4.70. Initial interaction was probably followed by isomerization to a tighter (Ki of 6.23 × 10−8 molar) complex, which dissociated slowly with a half-time of 3.5 hour. Interaction between enzyme and inhibitor appeared to be of ionic character and essentially pH independent between pH 3.5 and 7.4. PMID:16667286

  6. The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and mapping of tuber skin colour loci using RFLPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.; Jacobs, J.M.E.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Stiekema, W.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Two existing genetic models for anthocyanin pigmentation are compared: the genetic model as proposed by Lunden (1937, 1960, 1974) for tetraploid potato Solanum tuberosum group Tuberosum and the model by Dodds & Long (1955, 1956) for diploid cultivated Solanum species. By crossing well defined

  7. Influence of ventilation and media on potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Considering the most suitable relationship between ventilation and media in this study, two mixtures of perlite and coir (3:1, light and 1:3, heavy v/v) were applied to determine the growth characteristics var. Sante of potato plantlets. As potato has high potential in minituber production, different levels of.

  8. Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...

  9. Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) : a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.G.H.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Solanumsisymbriifolium ,Globoderapallida ,Globoderarostochiensis ,

  10. Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golas, T.M.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.; Allefs, J.J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a

  11. The impact of aeration on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... 2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. 3Department of ... aeroponic systems in potato minituber production showed ...... seed as an important factor for growth and total yield.

  12. Comparative effects of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on nitrogen uptake in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huiqun; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2009-01-01

    The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) as compared with deficit irrigation (DI) and full irrigation (FI) on nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were investigated. Potato plants were grown in split-root pots and were exposed to FI, PRD, and DI treatments...

  13. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber

  14. The impact of aeration on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeroponic systems are more effective than hydroponics for minituber production, as provided by the optimal system for root oxygenation. The study was conducted to improve conventional hydroponic systems by applying aeration so as to enhance potato minituber production yield via providing adequate oxygen in the root ...

  15. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-05-19

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency.

  16. Radiation hormesis in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) part 1: Laboratory research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.; Wiendl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results of irradiation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers of two varieties. Bintje and Baraka, with gamma radiations of Cobalt-60 at a dose of: 0.0. 2.5. 5.0 and 7.5 Gy, at the dose rate of 150 Gy per hour. Twenty eight potatoes of each variety were irradiated with each dose. Half of these potatoes were planted individually into aluminium cages of about 15 X 10 X 3 cm, using circa 120 ml of vermiculite in each cage, immediately after radiation. After seven days the rest of the potatoes was planted under the same conditions. The whole experiment was conducted into a chamber under dark conditions and temperature between 23 and 27 centigrade. Almost every two or three days each potato received circa 50 ml of plain water. After 143 to 154 days of irradiation the experiment was finished, and the following parameter were determined. Weight of potatoes without sprouts or roots; number of the eyes on which occurred sprouting; length of the longest sprout of its respective eye; humid weight of the sprouts; dry weight of the sprouts; humid weight of the roots; dry weight of the roots. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  18. Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) are chloride-sensitive: Is this dogma valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütsch, Birgit W; Keipp, Katrin; Glaser, Ann-Kathrin; Schubert, Sven

    2018-06-01

    Chloride sensitivity of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Marabel and Désirée was investigated in two pot experiments (soil/sand mixture and hydroponics). It was tested whether there are differential effects of KCl and K 2 SO 4 application on tuber yield and tuber quality, and whether both potato cultivars differ in their chloride sensitivity. Tuber yield, dry matter percentage of the tubers, starch concentration and starch yield were not significantly affected by potassium source (K 2 SO 4 or KCl). After exposure to salt stress in hydroponics (100 mmol L -1 NaCl, 50 mmol L -1 Na 2 SO 4 , 50 mmol L -1 CaCl 2 ) for 5 days, 3-week-old potato plants had significantly reduced shoot dry mass after NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 application. However, CaCl 2 treatment did not significantly affect shoot growth, although the chloride concentration reached 65 to 74 mg Cl - mg -1 dry matter, similar to the NaCl treatment. In contrast, growth reductions were closely related to sodium concentrations, thus plants suffered sodium toxicity and not chloride toxicity. Both potato cultivars are chloride-resistant and can be fertilised with KCl instead of K 2 SO 4 without the risk of depression in tuber yield or tuber quality. The statement that potatoes are chloride-sensitive and that chloride has negative effects on yield performance needs reconsideration. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Comparison between Proteome and Transcriptome Response in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Leaves Following Potato Virus Y (PVY) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stare, Tjaša; Stare, Katja; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Gruden, Kristina

    2017-07-06

    Plant diseases caused by viral infection are affecting all major crops. Being an obligate intracellular organisms, chemical control of these pathogens is so far not applied in the field except to control the insect vectors of the viruses. Understanding of molecular responses of plant immunity is therefore economically important, guiding the enforcement of crop resistance. To disentangle complex regulatory mechanisms of the plant immune responses, understanding system as a whole is a must. However, integrating data from different molecular analysis (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, smallRNA regulation etc.) is not straightforward. We evaluated the response of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) following the infection with potato virus Y (PVY). The response has been analyzed on two molecular levels, with microarray transcriptome analysis and mass spectroscopy-based proteomics. Within this report, we performed detailed analysis of the results on both levels and compared two different approaches for analysis of proteomic data (spectral count versus MaxQuant). To link the data on different molecular levels, each protein was mapped to the corresponding potato transcript according to StNIB paralogue grouping. Only 33% of the proteins mapped to microarray probes in a one-to-one relation and additionally many showed discordance in detected levels of proteins with corresponding transcripts. We discussed functional importance of true biological differences between both levels and showed that the reason for the discordance between transcript and protein abundance lies partly in complexity and structure of biological regulation of proteome and transcriptome and partly in technical issues contributing to it.

  1. Partial root zone drying (PRD) sustains yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) at reduced water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2008-01-01

    Partial root zone drying (PRD) is a new water-saving irrigation strategy being tested in many crop species. Until now it has not been investigated in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). A field experiment on sandy soil in Denmark was conducted under a mobile rainout shelter to study effects of two...... subsurface drip irrigation treatments ((1) Full Irrigation (FI) receiving 100% of evaporative demand; and (2) PRD receiving 70% water of FI) on potato yield, tuber size, leaf water relations and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). The PRD treatment was started just after the end of tuber initiation...... for two months during tuber bulking and maturing stage and was shifted from one side to the other side of the plants every 5-10 days when FI plants had used 20-25 mm. Compared to FI plants, stomatal conductance was generally lower in the PRD-treated plants, whereas leaf water potential tended to be lower...

  2. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world’s most important vegetable crop and central to global food security. Cultivated potato is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Numerous wild potato species serve as a resource for introgress...

  3. Protein profiling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf tissues by differential centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyun; Chisholm, Kenneth; Coffin, Robert H; Peters, Rick D; Al-Mughrabi, Khalil I; Wang-Pruski, Gefu; Pinto, Devanand M

    2012-04-06

    Foliar diseases, such as late blight, result in serious threats to potato production. As such, potato leaf tissue becomes an important substrate to study biological processes, such as plant defense responses to infection. Nonetheless, the potato leaf proteome remains poorly characterized. Here, we report protein profiling of potato leaf tissues using a modified differential centrifugation approach to separate the leaf tissues into cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions. This method helps to increase the number of identified proteins, including targeted putative cell wall proteins. The method allowed for the identification of 1484 nonredundant potato leaf proteins, of which 364 and 447 were reproducibly identified proteins in the cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions, respectively. Reproducibly identified proteins corresponded to over 70% of proteins identified in each replicate. A diverse range of proteins was identified based on their theoretical pI values, molecular masses, functional classification, and biological processes. Such a protein extraction method is effective for the establishment of a highly qualified proteome profile.

  4. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  5. Effects of salt stress on micropropagation of potato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    , Timate and Fabula were assayed in vitro for salinity (NaCl) tolerance. A modified single-node cuttiang bioassay was used in which cultivars were exposed to a range of NaCl levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 Mm), in a Murashige and.

  6. Retrospective view of North American potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding in the 20th and 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Candice N; Hirsch, Cory D; Felcher, Kimberly; Coombs, Joseph; Zarka, Dan; Van Deynze, Allen; De Jong, Walter; Veilleux, Richard E; Jansky, Shelley; Bethke, Paul; Douches, David S; Buell, C Robin

    2013-06-21

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid, has been bred for distinct market classes, including fresh market, pigmented, and processing varieties. Breeding efforts have relied on phenotypic selection of populations developed from intra- and intermarket class crosses and introgressions of wild and cultivated Solanum relatives. To retrospectively explore the effects of potato breeding at the genome level, we used 8303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to genotype a 250-line diversity panel composed of wild species, genetic stocks, and cultivated potato lines with release dates ranging from 1857 to 2011. Population structure analysis revealed four subpopulations within the panel, with cultivated potato lines grouping together and separate from wild species and genetic stocks. With pairwise kinship estimates clear separation between potato market classes was observed. Modern breeding efforts have scarcely changed the percentage of heterozygous loci or the frequency of homozygous, single-dose, and duplex loci on a genome level, despite concerted efforts by breeders. In contrast, clear selection in less than 50 years of breeding was observed for alleles in biosynthetic pathways important for market class-specific traits such as pigmentation and carbohydrate composition. Although improvement and diversification for distinct market classes was observed through whole-genome analysis of historic and current potato lines, an increased rate of gain from selection will be required to meet growing global food demands and challenges due to climate change. Understanding the genetic basis of diversification and trait improvement will allow for more rapid genome-guided improvement of potato in future breeding efforts.

  7. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-François; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H P; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-François; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4 degrees C over 270 d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dimensional electrophoresis. In the experimental conditions of this study, a marked proteolysis of patatin occurred after the PAI reached a value of 0.6. In parallel, several glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated and cellular components influencing protein conformation and the response to stress were altered. The equilibrium between the 20S and 26S forms of the proteasome was modified, the 20S form that recycles oxidized proteins being up-regulated. Two proteins belonging to the cytoskeleton were also differentially expressed during ageing. As most of these changes are also observed in an oxidative stress context, an approach focused on antioxidant compounds and enzymes as well as oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins was conducted. All the changes observed during ageing seemed to allow the potato tubers to maintain their radical scavenging activity until the end of the storage period as no accumulation of oxidative damage was observed. These data are interpreted considering the impact of reactive oxygen species on the development and the behaviour of other plant systems undergoing ageing or senescence processes.

  8. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  9. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  10. Phenetic relationships of nine varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Topik; Barlian, Andri; Kusdianti, R.; Kirana, Rinda

    2017-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) is an important commodity in Indonesia as one of the main crop after rice. Recently some new varieties have been released, but their relationship have not been studied yet. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship among nine varieties of potatoes. Phenetic analysis was conducted using 27 morphological character states, which was derived from stems, leaves, and tubers. The character states observed were scored, and further analyzed based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) method. The results showed a high diversity of morphological character states, of which 20 states were significantly different across the varieties. Phenogram indicated that the nine varieties of potato were classified into three main groups. While the first group was consisted of varieties of Cipanas, Granola, Atlantic, and Repita, the second group was housed of Manohara and GM 05. The third group was composed of Margahayu, Mb 17, and Maglia. This pattern of relationships can be used as one of the basis in the process of crossbreeding to assemble the new varieties. The crossbreeding will be better if it is made between distantly related varieties.

  11. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets to gradient saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Juan eGao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. ‘Longshu No. 3’ plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl with two consequent observations (two and six weeks, respectively. The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1 the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2 cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3 mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4 leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5 leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD increased significantly, and (6 leaf malondialdehyde (MDA content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  12. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  13. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fogliatto Mariot

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3 and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A. According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  14. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  15. Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis Appears Linked with Suberin Production in Potato Tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2015-05-20

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and are formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed, but little is known about their path in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), and CA serves as a substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of the mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in the flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization toward suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2, and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers suggest a major flux toward suberin.

  16. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers...... that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal....... In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy...

  17. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  18. Purification and Partial Characterization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase and Its Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Invertase plays an important role in the hydrolysis of sucrose in higher plants, especially in the storage organs. In potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers, and in some other plant tissues, the enzyme seems to be controlled by interaction with an endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor. An acid invertase from potato tubers (variety russet) was purified 1560-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity by consecutive use of concanvalin A-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography, Sephadex G-150 chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography. The enzyme contained 10.9% carbohydrate, had an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 by gel filtration, and was composed of two identical molecular weight subunits (Mr 30,000). The enzyme had a Km for sucrose of 16 millimolar at pH 4.70 and was most stable and had maximum activity around pH 5. The endogenous inhibitor was purified 610-fold to homogeneity by consecutive treatment at pH 1 to 1.5 at 37°C for 1 hour, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, Sephadex G-100 chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex G-50-120 chromatography, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The inhibitor appears to be a single polypeptide (Mr 17,000) without glyco groups. The purified inhibitor was stable over the pH range of 2 to 7 when incubated at 37°C for 1 hour. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667287

  19. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C K; Ghosh, C K

    2015-07-05

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and characterization of StERF transcription factor genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zemin; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Xiangyan; Fan, Qiang; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2015-04-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) is a major subfamily of the AP2/ERF family and plays significant roles in the regulation of abiotic- and biotic-stress responses. ERF proteins can interact with the GCC-box cis-element and then initiate a transcriptional cascade activating downstream ethylene response and enhancing plant stress tolerance. In this research, we cloned five StERF genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The expressional analysis of StERF genes revealed that they showed tissue- or organ-specific expression patterns and the expression levels in leaf, stem, root, flower, and tuber were different. The assays of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of five StERF genes was regulated by ethephon, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salt and drought stress. The result from the yeast one-hybrid experiment showed that five StERFs had trans-activation activity and could specifically bind to the GCC-box cis-elements. The StERFs responded to abiotic factors and hormones suggested that they possibly had diverse roles in stress and hormone regulation of potato. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Andean potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) as a source of antioxidant and mineral micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Ghislain, Marc; Bertin, Pierre; Oufir, Mouhssin; Herrera, María del Rosario; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Evers, Danièle

    2007-01-24

    Potato tubers were evaluated as a source of antioxidants and minerals for the human diet. A genetically diverse sample of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars native to the Andes of South America was obtained from a collection of nearly 1000 genotypes using microsatellite markers. This size-manageable collection of 74 landraces, representing at best the genetic diversity among potato germplasm, was analyzed for iron, zinc, calcium, total phenolic, total carotenoid, and total vitamin C contents. The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of each genotype was also measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The iron content ranged from 29.87 to 157.96 microg g-1 of dry weight (DW), the zinc content from 12.6 to 28.83 microg g-1 of DW, and the calcium content from 271.09 to 1092.93 microg g-1 of DW. Total phenolic content varied between 1.12 and 12.37 mg of gallic acid equiv g-1 of DW, total carotenoid content between 2.83 and 36.21 microg g-1 of DW, and total vitamin C content between 217.70 and 689.47 microg g-1 of DW. The range of hydrophilic ORAC values was 28.25-250.67 micromol of Trolox equiv g-1 of DW. The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content were highly and positively correlated (r = 0.91). A strong relationship between iron and calcium contents was also found (r = 0.67). Principal component analysis on the studied nutritional contents of the core collection revealed that most potato genotypes were balanced in terms of antioxidant and mineral contents, but some of them could be distinguished by their high level in distinct micronutrients. Correlations between the micronutrient contents observed in the sample and the genetic distances assessed by microsatellites were weakly significant. However, this study demonstrated the wide variability of health-promoting micronutrient levels within the native potato germplasm as well as the significant contribution that distinct potato tubers may impart to the intake in dietary

  2. Alteration of the genomic composition of Solanum nigrum (+) potato backcross derivatives by somatic hybridisation: selection of fusion hybrids by DNA measurements and GISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsman, K.; Gavrilenko, T.; Bergervoet, M.; Huigen, D.J.; Tjin Wong Joe, A.; Jacobsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion experiments were performed with a first (BC1-6738) and a second (BC2-9017) generation backcross hybrid of 6x Solanum nigrum (+) 2x potato somatic hybrids with potato cultivars. Because no progeny was obtained from the BC2 genotypes, alternative approaches were sought to overcome the sexual

  3. Mechanical Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene Modified with Thermoplastic Potato Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knitter, M.; Dobrzyńska-Mizera, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper selected mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) modified with potato starch have been presented. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) used as a modifier in the study was produced from potato starch modified with glycerol. Isotactic polypropylene/thermoplastic potato starch composites (iPP/TPS) that contained 10, 30, 50 wt.% of modified starch were examined using dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis, static tensile, Brinell hardness, and Charpy impact test. The studies indicated a distinct influence of a filler content on the mechanical properties of composites in comparison with non-modified polypropylene.

  4. Evaluation of Oxadiargyl Efficiency on Weed Control of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is one of the most important root crops in the world. Weed is biotic stress that reduces yield and quality of crops through competition. Chemical weed control seems indispensable and has proved efficient in controlling weeds. Metribuzin and Paraquat are registered herbicides for potato production in Iran which are using early in the growing season. Metribuzin and Paraquat are dual purpose herbicides and destruct photosystem sites of action (Metribuzin is photosystem Ⅱ inhibitor and Paraquat is photosystem Ⅰ inhibitor which are not control summer weeds. Oxadiargyl belongs to the oxidiazole chemical group and acts as a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor and primarily has been developed for general weed control in rice and sugar cane. It is commonly used in rice, potato, sunflower, onion, cabbage, chickpea, spanish and lettuce and lavender. Weed control obtained with oxadiargyl at rates above 0.30 kg a.i/ ha was comparable to the standard metribuzin at 1.0 kg a.i/ ha; Oxadiargyl was superior comparing to the standard on Solanum nigrum, a weed of common occurrence in potato plantations, and Panicum subalbidum. The objective of our research was to evaluate the efficacy of Oxadiargyl for weed control and determination of appropriate application time in potato fields. Materials and Methods: Trials were conducted in Ardabil Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station during 2013. The factorial experiment with control (with and without weeding was performed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Potato cultivar was Agria (common cultivar in Ardabil. The first factor was Oxadiargyl dosages with six levels (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Lit a.i/ ha, and the second factor was time of application (at different potato growth stages; potato emergence, stoloning and tuber bulking, as well as two treatments (with and without weeding were considered as control. Tubers were hand

  5. Characteristics of Analog Rice From Potato Flour (Solanum Tuberosom L.) Corn Flour (Zea Mays L.) and Sago Flour (Arenga Microcarpa Beccari)

    OpenAIRE

    Korompis, Olga S; Mamuaja, Christine F; Mandey, Lucia C

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), corn (Zea mays L.) and sago (Arenga microcarpa Beccari) are crops containing high carbohydrate, as source of calory food, and those can be made into rice analog. This study aimed: (1) to determine the formulations by organoleptic test in manufacture analog rice from potato flour, corn flour and sago flour, and (2) to analyze the physical properties, chemical properties of rice analog from potato flour with the addition of corn flour and sago flour. The research ...

  6. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinse Jaarsma

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+ shoot distribution index (SDI for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+ points to a role of stem Na(+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1 gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+ transport to the leaves.

  7. Genetic Linkage Mapping of Economically Important Traits in Cultivated Tetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Coombs, Joseph J; Zarka, Daniel G; Boone, Anne E; Kirk, William W; Hackett, Christine A; Bryan, Glenn J; Douches, David S

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this study was to construct a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map at the cultivated tetraploid level to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to economically important traits in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The 156 F1 progeny and parents of a cross (MSL603) between "Jacqueline Lee" and "MSG227-2" were genotyped using the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. Furthermore, the progeny and parents were evaluated for foliar late blight reaction to isolates of the US-8 genotype of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and vine maturity. Linkage analyses and QTL mapping were performed using a novel approach that incorporates allele dosage information. The resulting genetic maps contained 1972 SNP markers with an average density of 1.36 marker per cM. QTL mapping identified the major source of late blight resistance in "Jacqueline Lee." The best SNP marker mapped ~0.54 Mb from a resistance hotspot on the long arm of chromosome 9. For vine maturity, the major-effect QTL was located on chromosome 5 with allelic effects from both parents. A candidate SNP marker for this trait mapped ~0.25 Mb from the StCDF1 gene, which is a candidate gene for the maturity trait. The identification of markers for P. infestans resistance will enable the introgression of multiple sources of resistance through marker-assisted selection. Moreover, the discovery of a QTL for late blight resistance not linked to the QTL for vine maturity provides the opportunity to use marker-assisted selection for resistance independent of the selection for vine maturity classifications. Copyright © 2015 Massa et al.

  8. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na+ shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na+ points to a role of stem Na+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na+ transport to the leaves. PMID:23533673

  9. Effect of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cropping Systems on Soil and Nutrient Losses Through Runoff in a Humic Nitisol, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Shadrack; Charles, Gachene; Karanja, Nancy; Elmar, Schulte-Geldermann

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion has been identified as one of the major causes of soil productivity decline in the potato growing areas of East African Highlands. Potato establishes a protective soil cover only at about 45-60 days after planting and does not yield sufficient surface mulch upon harvest which leaves the soil bare at the critical times when rainfall intensities are usually high thus exposes soil to erosion. A field study was carried out using runoff plots during the short and long rainy seasons of 2014/15 respectively at the University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Farm, Kenya. The objectives were to assess the effect of soil surface roughness and potato cropping systems on soil loss and runoff, to determine the effect of erosion on nutrient enrichment ratio and to evaluate the soil organic matter fraction most susceptible to soil erosion. The treatments comprised of Bare Soil (T1); Potato + Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) (T2); Potato + Climbing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (T3); Potato + Dolichos (Lablab purpureus) (T4) and Sole Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T5). The amount of soil loss and runoff recorded in each event differed significantly between treatments (ppotato plots (T5), while mean cumulative runoff reduced by 8.5, 17.1 and 28.3 mm from T2, T3 and T4 respectively when compared with the sole potato plots (T5) indicating that T4 plots provided the most effective cover in reducing soil loss and runoff. Regression analyses revealed that both runoff and soil loss related significantly with surface roughness and percent cover (R2=0.83 and 0.73 respectively, ppotato cropping systems so as to minimize soil and nutrient losses due to erosion. Acknowledgement This study was part of the CIP-Sub Saharan Africa managed project-"Improved Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable Intensification in Potato Based Systems in Ethiopia and Kenya"-funded by the BMZ/GIZ International Agricultural Research for Development Fund.

  10. Preferential colonization of Solanum tuberosum L. roots by the fungus Glomus intraradices in arable soil of a potato farming area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; van Tuinen, Diederik; Copetta, Andrea; Chatagnier, Odile; Berta, Graziella; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Lingua, Guido

    2008-09-01

    The symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been shown to affect both the diversity and productivity of agricultural communities. In this study, we characterized the AM fungal communities of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) roots and of the bulk soil in two nearby areas of northern Italy, in order to verify if land use practices had selected any particular AM fungus with specificity to potato plants. The AM fungal large-subunit (LSU) rRNA genes were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred eighty-three LSU rRNA sequences were analyzed, and eight monophyletic ribotypes, belonging to Glomus groups A and B, were identified. AM fungal communities differed between bulk soil and potato roots, as one AM fungal ribotype, corresponding to Glomus intraradices, was much more frequent in potato roots than in soils (accounting for more than 90% of sequences from potato samples and less than 10% of sequences from soil samples). A semiquantitative heminested PCR with specific primers was used to confirm and quantify the AM fungal abundance observed by cloning. Overall results concerning the biodiversity of AM fungal communities in roots and in bulk soils from the two studied areas suggested that potato roots were preferentially colonized by one AM fungal species, G. intraradices.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of extracellular metabolites from antagonistic bacteria isolated from potato (Solanum phureja crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinar David Granada García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms for biological control are capable of producing active compounds that inhibit the development of phytopathogens, constituting a promising tool toob tain active principles that could replace synthetic pesticides. This study evaluatedtheability of severalpotentialbiocontrol microorganismsto produce active extracellular metabolites. In vitro antagonistic capability of 50 bacterial isolates from rhizospheric soils of "criolla" potato (Solanum phureja was tested through dual culture in this plant with different plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Isolates that showed significantly higher antagonistic activity were fermented in liquid media and crude extracts from the supernatants had their biological activities assessed by optical density techniques. Inhibitory effecton tested pathogens was observed for concentrations between 0.5% and 1% of crude extracts. There was a correlation between the antimicrobial activity of extracts and the use of nutrient-rich media in bacteria fermentation. Using a bioguided method, a peptidic compound, active against Fusarium oxysporum, was obtained from the 7ANT04 strain (Pyrobaculum sp.. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography coupled to mass detector evidenced an 11-amino acid compound. Bioinformatic software using raw mass data confirmed the presence of a cyclic peptide conformed by 11 mostly non-standard amino acids.

  12. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. after irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANESA G.M. SOARES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L., including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2 and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  13. The Solanum commersonii Genome Sequence Provides Insights into Adaptation to Stress Conditions and Genome Evolution of Wild Potato Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversano, Riccardo; Contaldi, Felice; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Grosso, Valentina; Iorizzo, Massimo; Tatino, Filippo; Xumerle, Luciano; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Avanzato, Carla; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Sanseverino, Walter; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Gabaldón, Toni; Frusciante, Luigi; Bradeen, James M.; Carputo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Solanum commersonii, which consists of ∼830 megabases with an N50 of 44,303 bp anchored to 12 chromosomes, using the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome sequence as a reference. Compared with potato, S. commersonii shows a striking reduction in heterozygosity (1.5% versus 53 to 59%), and differences in genome sizes were mainly due to variations in intergenic sequence length. Gene annotation by ab initio prediction supported by RNA-seq data produced a catalog of 1703 predicted microRNAs, 18,882 long noncoding RNAs of which 20% are shown to target cold-responsive genes, and 39,290 protein-coding genes with a significant repertoire of nonredundant nucleotide binding site-encoding genes and 126 cold-related genes that are lacking in S. tuberosum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that domesticated potato and S. commersonii lineages diverged ∼2.3 million years ago. Three duplication periods corresponding to genome enrichment for particular gene families related to response to salt stress, water transport, growth, and defense response were discovered. The draft genome sequence of S. commersonii substantially increases our understanding of the domesticated germplasm, facilitating translation of acquired knowledge into advances in crop stability in light of global climate and environmental changes. PMID:25873387

  14. Effect of cadmium on the physiological parameters and the subcellular cadmium localization in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongyu; Chen, Zhifan; Sun, Ke; Yan, Dong; Kang, Mingjie; Zhao, Ye

    2013-11-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious problem worldwide. The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was used to investigate how different concentrations of Cd (1, 5, and 25mgkg(-1)) affected the physiological parameters and the subcellular distribution of Cd in the potato. The analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The results suggest that the leaf is the organ with the highest accumulation of Cd. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and the chlorophyll content decreased in response to high level of Cd. The SEM-EDX microanalysis revealed that Cd was primarily deposited in the spongy and palisade tissues of the leaf. Furthermore, Cd was also detected in the cortex and the adjacent phloem and was observed inside the intercellular space, the interior surface of the plasma membrane, and on the surface of the elliptical starch granules in the tubers of the potato. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to the tuber, the accumulation of Cd in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be seriously evaluated because Cd-containing potatoes might present high health risk to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Transcriptome of the Reference Potato Genome Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja Clone DM1-3 516R44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N.; Childs, Kevin L.; Lin, Haining; Bryan, Glenn J.; Giuliano, Giovanni; Buell, C. Robin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular breeding in potato have been limited by its complex biological system, which includes vegetative propagation, autotetraploidy, and extreme heterozygosity. The availability of the potato genome and accompanying gene complement with corresponding gene structure, location, and functional annotation are powerful resources for understanding this complex plant and advancing molecular breeding efforts. Here, we report a reference for the potato transcriptome using 32 tissues and growth conditions from the doubled monoploid Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44 for which a genome sequence is available. Analysis of greater than 550 million RNA-Seq reads permitted the detection and quantification of expression levels of over 22,000 genes. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses captured the biological variability that accounts for gene expression differences among tissues suggesting tissue-specific gene expression, and genes with tissue or condition restricted expression. Using gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 18 gene modules that represent tissue-specific transcriptional networks of major potato organs and developmental stages. This information provides a powerful resource for potato research as well as studies on other members of the Solanaceae family. PMID:22046362

  16. Natural co-infection of Solanum tuberosum crops by the Potato yellow vein virus and potyvirus in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Villamil-Garzón

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, a Crinivirus with an RNA tripartite genome, is the causal agent of the potato yellow vein disease, reported in Colombian since 1950, with yield reductions of up to 50%. Co-infection of two or more viruses is common in nature and can be associated with differences in virus accumulation and symptom expression. No evidence of mixed infection between PYVV and other viruses has been reported. In this study, eight plants showing yellowing PYVV symptoms: four Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja (P and four Group Andigena (A, were collected in Cundinamarca, Colombia to detect mixed infection in the isolates using next generation sequencing (NGS. The Potato virus Y (PVY complete genome (similar to N strain and the Potato virus V (PVV partial genomes were detected using NGS and re-confirmed by RT-PCR. Preliminary field screening in a large sample showed that PYVV and PVY co-infect potato plants with a prevalence of 21% within the P group and 23% within the A group. This is the first report of co-infection of PYVV and potyvirus in Colombia and with the use of NGS. Considering that potyviruses enhance symptom severity and/or yield reductions in mixed infections, our results may be relevant for disease diagnosis, breeding programs and tuber certification.

  17. Infestation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) alters cellular redox status and is influenced by ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Fenton, Brian; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) is a major pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) but the molecular characterization of this interaction particularly with regard to oxidants and antioxidants remains to be undertaken. Aphid colonies reared on potato leaves containing high ascorbate were twice the size of those grown on leaves with low ascorbate. Infestation-dependent decreases in the abundance of key transcripts such as chloroplastic FeSOD, peroxisomal catalase 2, PR1 and JAZ1 preceded detectable leaf H(2)O(2) or polyphenol accumulation. The leaf glutathione pool was increased 48 h after infestation, but the amount of ascorbate was unchanged. The ascorbate/dehydroacorbate (DHA) ratio was lower at 48 h but the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was unchanged. While DHA reductase and GSSG reductase activities were unaffected by aphid feeding, non-specific peroxidase activities were enhanced 48 h following aphid infestation. Brown ethanol-insoluble deposits were observed close to leaf veins following aphid infestation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that high ascorbate favours aphid colony expansion and that perturbations in the leaf antioxidant system are intrinsic to the potato leaf response to aphids. Moreover, these changes together with the induction of hormone-related transcripts precede the deposition of defence-associated oxidized polyphenols along the stylet track. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  19. Uptake of Plutonium-238 into Solanum tuberosum L. (potato plants) in presence of complexing agent EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawussi, Frank; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Mühr-Ebert, Elena L; Schneider, Stephanie; Bister, Stefan; Walther, Clemens

    2017-11-01

    Bioavailability and plant uptake of radionuclides depend on various factors. Transfer into different plant parts depends on chemical and physical processes, which need to be known for realistic ingestion dose modelling when these plants are used for food. Within the scope of the present work, the plutonium uptake by potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) was investigated in hydroponic solution of low concentration [Pu] = 10 -9  mol L -1 . Particular attention was paid to the speciation of radionuclides in the solution which was modelled by the speciation code PHREEQC. The speciation, the solubility and therefore the plant availability of radionuclides mainly depend on the pH value and the redox potential of the solution. During the contamination period, the redox potential did not change significantly. In contrast, the pH value showed characteristic changes depending on exudates excreted by the plants. Plant roots took up high amounts of plutonium (37%-50% of the added total amount). In addition to the uptake into the roots, the radionuclides can also adsorb to the exterior root surface. The solution-to-plant transfer factor showed values between 0.03 and 0.80 (Bq kg -1 / Bq L -1 ) for the potato tubers. By addition of the complexing agent EDTA (10 -4  mol L-1), the plutonium uptake from solution increased by 58% in tubers and by 155% in shoots/leaves. The results showed that excreted substances by plants affect bioavailability of radionuclides at low concentration, on the one hand. On the other hand, the uptake of plutonium by roots and the accumulation in different plant parts can lead to non-negligible ingestion doses, even at low concentration. We are aware of the limited transferability of data obtained in hydroponic solutions to plants growing in soil. However, the aim of this study is twofold: First we want to investigate the influence of Pu speciation on plant uptake in a rather well defined system which can be modelled using available thermodynamic data

  20. Application time of nitrogen fertilizer 15N by a potato crop (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Urquiaga, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed at the ''San Jorge'' experimental farm of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Bogota, Colombia. The study was performed to investigate the effect of timing of application of nitrogen fertilizer on the productivity of, and the efficiency of utilization of 15 N-labelled fertilizer by, a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.), cv. Tequendama. The crop was fertilized with 100, 200 and 100 Kg/ha -1 of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O respectively. The N fertilizers were either added as 15 N labelled urea (2.955 at.% 15 N excess) or as labelled ammonium sulphate (2.071 at.% 15 N excess). In all treatments with nitrogen, a total of 100 Kg N ha -1 was added, but the nitrogen was added either in two or three split doses (only one dose being labelled with 15 N) at the following times: at planting, 35 days after emergence (DAE) and/or 60 DAE. It was found that: a) Nitrogen fertilization increased tuber production from 24 to 43 t/ha -1 ; b) The tubers constituted approximately 80% of total plant dry matter and 70% of the total nitrogen and fertilizer N accumulated by the plant; c) The fertilizer use efficiency varied between 49 and 68%, and the highest efficiency occurred when the nitrogen was split in three doses; d) The urea and ammonium sulphate gave similar results in all parameters evaluated; e) When the total nitrogen difference method was applied to interpretation of the results the fertilizer use efficiency was overestimated by 15 to 30%

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  2. A set of tetra-nucleotide core motif SSR markers for efficient identification of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishine, Masahiro; Tsutsumi, Katsuji; Kitta, Kazumi

    2017-12-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) is a popular tool for individual fingerprinting. The long-core motif (e.g. tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are preferred because they make it easier to separate and distinguish neighbor alleles. In the present study, a new set of 8 tetra-nucleotide SSRs in potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) is reported. By using these 8 markers, 72 out of 76 cultivars obtained from Japan and the United States were clearly discriminated, while two pairs, both of which arose from natural variation, showed identical profiles. The combined probability of identity between two random cultivars for the set of 8 SSR markers was estimated to be 1.10 × 10 -8 , confirming the usefulness of the proposed SSR markers for fingerprinting analyses of potato.

  3. Inorganic phosphorus along with biofertilizers improves profitability and sustainability in soybean (Glycine max–potato (Solanum tuberosum cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Munda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to assess role of phosphorus (P fertilization on economics, energy efficiency, P use indices and soil P balance in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril]–potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cropping system during 2008–09 and 2009–10. Treatments in soybean as main plots consisted of two sources and two levels of phosphorus with or without biofertilizers [phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, PSB and arbuscular mycorrhizae, AM]. Three levels of P were applied to potato as subplots. System productivity was calculated in terms of soybean equivalent yield and found to be better with biofertilizers treated plots. When applied in combination with biofertilizers, 50% recommended dose of P (RDP as diammonium phosphate (DAP recorded B:C ratio at par with 100% RDP. Direct application of 100% RDP to potato resulted in significantly higher returns, enhancing the net returns. Application of biofertilizers alone increased the energy use efficiency over no biofertilizer application. Irrespective of source (DAP or rock phosphate treatments with biofertilizers had improved P use indices and apparent soil P balance even at 50% RDP. This indicates the role of biofertilizers in P solubilization and making it available to plant. Biofertilizers application can help cutting down the fertilizer P application in soybean–potato cropping system without any considerable reduction in yield and economic returns. Keywords: AM, B:C ratio, P use indices, PSB, Rock phosphate, Agronomic use efficiency

  4. The population structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico suggests genetic differentiation between populations from cultivated potato and wild Solanum spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Grünwald, N.J.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Lozoya-Saldaña, H.; Fry, W.E.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected front cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xedinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and

  5. Sucrose and light effects on in vitro cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) and Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) during low temperature storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Kozai, T.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Atlantic, chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) cv. Garrington and saskatoon berry (Amelancher alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Northline grown in vitro for 3 weeks at 24/22 °C, 16-h photoperiod, 150 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) mixed

  6. Solanum venturii, a suitable model system for virus-induced gene silencing studies in potato reveals StMKK6 as an important player in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobnik, David; Lazar, Ana; Stare, Tjaša; Gruden, Kristina; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Žel, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an optimal tool for functional analysis of genes in plants, as the viral vector spreads throughout the plant and causes reduced expression of selected gene over the whole plant. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most important food crops,

  7. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  8. The Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico Suggests Genetic Differentiation Between Populations from Cultivated Potato and Wild Solanum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, Wilbert G; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Kroon, Laurens P N M; Sturbaum, Anne K; van den Bosch, Trudy B M; Garay-Serrano, Edith; Lozoya-Saldaña, Hector; Fry, William E; Turkensteen, Lod J

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected from cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xendinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) multi-locus fingerprint genotype. Isolate samples were monomorphic for mtDNA haplotype because all isolates tested were of the Ia haplotype. A total of 158 multilocus AFLP genotypes were identified among the 170 P. infestans isolates included in this study. P. infestans populations sampled in the Toluca Valley in 1997 were highly variable and almost every single isolate represented a unique genotype based on the analysis of 165 AFLP marker loci. Populations of P. infestans collected from the commercial potato-growing region in the valley, the subsistence potato production area along the slopes of the Nevado de Toluca, and the native Solanum spp. on the forested slopes of the volcano showed a high degree of genetic diversity. The number of polymorphic loci varied from 20.0 to 62.4% for isolates collected from the field station and wild Solanum spp. On average, 81.8% (135) of the AFLP loci were polymorphic. Hetero-zygosity varied between 7.7 and 19.4%. Significant differentiation was found at the population level between strains originating from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum spp. (P = 0.001 to 0.022). Private alleles were observed in individual isolates collected from all three populations, with numbers of unique dominant alleles varying from 9 to 16 for isolates collected from commercial potato crops and native Solanum spp., respectively. Four AFLP markers were exclusively found present in isolates collected from S. demissum. Indirect estimation of gene flow between populations indicated restricted gene flow between both P. infestans populations from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum hosts. There was no evidence

  9. Biodiversity analyses for risk assessment of genetically modified potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny; Dicke, Marcel; Braak, ter Cajo J.F.; Loon, van Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment for the introduction of genetically modified crops includes assessing the consequences for biodiversity. In this study arthropod biodiversity was measured using pitfall traps in potato agro-ecosystems in Ireland and The Netherlands over two years. We tested the

  10. Expression of a Petunia inflata pectin methyl esterase in Solanum tuberosum L. enhances stem elongation and modifies cation distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, J; Willmitzer, L; Fisahn, J

    2000-02-01

    Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants were constructed with a Petunia inflata-derived cDNA encoding a pectin methyl esterase (PME; EC 3.1.1.11) in sense orientation under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The PME activity was elevated in leaves and tubers of the transgenic lines but slightly reduced in apical segments of stems from mature plants. Stem segments from the base of juvenile PME-overexpressing plants did not differ in PME activity from the control, whereas in apical parts PME was less active than in the wild-type. During the early stages of development stems of these transgenic plants elongated more rapidly than those of the wild-type. Further evidence that overexpression of a plant-derived PME has an impact on plant development is based on modifications of tuber yield, which was reduced in the transgenic lines. Cell walls from transgenic tubers showed significant differences in their cation-binding properties in comparison with the wild-type. In particular, cell walls displayed increased affinity for sodium and calcium, while potassium binding was constant. Furthermore, the total ion content of transgenic potatoes was modified. Indications of PME-mediated differences in the distribution of ions in transgenic plants were also obtained by monitoring relaxations of the membrane potential of roots subsequent to changes in the ionic composition of the bathing solution. However, no effects on the chemical structure of pectin from tuber cell walls could be detected.

  11. Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high-glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Hamilton, John P; Crisovan, Emily; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Marand, Alexandre P; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Jiang, Jiming; Douches, David S; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin

    2018-05-01

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp. Pseudomolecule construction anchored 508 Mb of the genome assembly into 12 chromosomes. Genome annotation yielded 49 124 high-confidence gene models representing 37 740 genes. Comparative analyses of the M6 genome with six other Solanaceae species revealed a core set of 158 367 Solanaceae genes and 1897 genes unique to three potato species. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the M6 genome revealed enhanced residual heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 8 and 9 relative to the other chromosomes. Access to the M6 genome provides a resource for identification of key genes for important agronomic traits and aids in genome-enabled development of inbred diploid potatoes with the potential to accelerate potato breeding. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  14. Tissue Damage, Temperature, and pH Induced by Different Electrode Arrays on Potato Pieces (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraelys Morales González

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems of electrochemical therapy is the design and selection of suitable electrode array for cancer. The aim is to determine how two-dimensional spatial patterns of tissue damage, temperature, and pH induced in pieces of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., var. Mondial depend on electrode array with circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic shape. The results show the similarity between the shapes of spatial patterns of tissue damage and electric field intensity, which, like temperature and pH take the same shape of electrode array. The adequate selection of suitable electrodes array requires an integrated analysis that involves, in a unified way, relevant information about the electrochemical process, which is essential to perform more efficiently way the therapeutic planning and the personalized therapy for patients with a cancerous tumor.

  15. The Transcriptome of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans Revealed by DeepSAGE Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    of the compatible and incompatible interaction were captured by DeepSAGE analysis of 44 biological samples comprising five genotypes, differing only by the presence or absence of the R1 transgene, three infection time points and three biological replicates. 30.859 unique 21 base pair sequence tags were obtained......Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker...... interactions over the infection time course and between compatible and incompatible genotypes. Transcriptional changes were more numerous in compatible than in incompatible interactions. In contrast to incompatible interactions, transcriptional changes in the compatible interaction were observed predominantly...

  16. Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2014-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0

  17. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic

  18. Detection of Glycoalkaloids and Chlorophyll in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to detect and quantify chlorophyll (Chl) and total glycoalkaloid concentrations (TGA) in potatoes. To create a set of tubers with different concentrations of Chl and TGA, potatoes of four varieties were wounded...

  19. Analysis of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the Irish potato sector in Zimbabwe is not well understood. Using value chain analysis, this article evaluated the potato industry using quantitative data gathered from stakeholders using structured questionnaires, field observations, local knowledge and expert consultation.

  20. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  1. Exploratory sensory profiling of three culinary preparations of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-01-15

    A consumer-oriented description of potato quality with regard to culinary preparation could increase potato consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory attributes in 11 potato varieties grown at two locations and used for three culinary preparations. Sensory evaluation of the potatoes served either as boiled, oven-fried or mashed were performed using 15-19 descriptors for appearance, flavour and texture attributes. A principal component analysis revealed that 45% of the variation in the sensory data was related to variety differences, which was ascribed to variation in appearance, dry matter content and texture. Growing location also significantly affected appearance and texture. The sensory panel judged the sensory attributes 'yellowness', 'hardness', 'adhesiveness' and 'moistness' to be important quality descriptors in all three culinary preparations. Internal references showed the high reproducibility of the sensory evaluations. The potatoes grown in a sandy location had higher content of dry matter compared to those grown in a clay location, affecting the quality. This study showed that it was possible to do reliable and reproducible sensory profiles in a potato material with a large span in quality. Sensory information based on few attributes can be used to describe culinary quality of potato varieties. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Antioxidant Contents and Antioxidant Activities of White and Colored Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Seung Hee; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Woo, Shun Hee; Kim, Hong Sig; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant substance content and antioxidant activities of white (Superior) and colored (Hongyoung, Jayoung, Jasim, Seohong, and Jaseo) potatoes. The potatoes were extracted with 80% ethanol and were evaluated for the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and for 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous metal ion chelating effect. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of Hongyoung and Jayoung were higher than white and other colored potatoes. All colored potato extracts, except for Jaseo and Seohong, showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activities than the general white potato extract. Hongyoung and Jayoung had the highest ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Optical density values for the reducing power of Jayoung and Jaseo at concentration of 2 mg/mL were 0.148 and 0.090, respectively. All colored potato extracts had lower ferrous metal ion chelating effect than the white potato. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation was observed between total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content (r=0.919), anthocyanin content (r=0.992), and ABTS radical scavenging activity (r=0.897). Based on these results, this research may be useful in developing the Hongyoung and Jayoung cultivars with high antioxidant activities.

  3. Genetic analysis of somaclonal variants and induced mutants of potato ( solanum tuberosum l.) cv. diamant using RAPD markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrasiab, H.; Iqbal, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to genetically analyze somaclonal variants and gamma induced mutants of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Diamant using RAPD-PCR technique. In the present work, callus was induced from nodes, inter nodes and leaf explants in MS medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg/l) and BAP (0.5 mg/l) and plants were regenerated from 14-20 weeks old calli. For gamma irradiation, ten-week old well proliferating calli were exposed to doses ranging from 5-50 Gy. All the four selected somaclonal variants and five gamma induced mutants were differentiated by banding patterns obtained from 22 primers that generated 140 polymorphic bands. The presence of polymorphic bands in variants and mutants suggest that genetic variation occurred in all the treatments as compared to control. Similarity and clustered analysis were conducted using Jaccard's coefficients and the un-weighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages. The results summarized in a dendrogram, show genetic diversity among the variants and mutants. The study shows that RAPD markers were efficient in discriminating somaclonal variants and induced mutants of potato. (author)

  4. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the ERF transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfeddine, Mariam; Saïdi, Mohamed Najib; Charfeddine, Safa; Hammami, Asma; Gargouri Bouzid, Radhia

    2015-04-01

    The ERF transcription factors belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the largest transcription factor families in plants. They play important roles in plant development processes, as well as in the response to biotic, abiotic, and hormone signaling. In the present study, 155 putative ERF transcription factor genes were identified from the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome database, and compared with those from Arabidopsis thaliana. The StERF proteins are divided into ten phylogenetic groups. Expression analyses of five StERFs were carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and compared with published RNA-seq data. These latter analyses were used to distinguish tissue-specific, biotic, and abiotic stress genes as well as hormone-responsive StERF genes. The results are of interest to better understand the role of the AP2/ERF genes in response to diverse types of stress in potatoes. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of the ERF family genes in S. tuberosum is required to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms.

  5. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26172952

  6. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Szalonek

    Full Text Available Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin than wild type (WT. Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII, as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  8. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic variation for yield, leaf area index, period of maximum soil cover, sensitivity for N-shortage and nitrogen efficiency under low input circumstances was found. However, in these experiments varietie...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  10. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lydia J R; Brockington, Samuel F; Murphy, Alex M; Pate, Adrienne E; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P

    2016-03-16

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7.

  11. Evaluation of Indigenous Potato Challisha (Solanum tuberosum L. Cv. Challisha Somaclonals Tolerance to Salinity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanaullah Biswas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important food crops in the world. It is generally sensitive to salinity and likes to grow in neutral soil. On the other hand, salinity is increasing alarmingly in the ever changing climatic conditions. Thus, the selection of salt tolerant potato cultivars is necessary to keep pace the production of potato. To select salt tolerant cultivars, here we attempt to compare the salinity level between indigenous and modern cultivars. In vitro selection of local and modern potato cultivars were investigated with five levels of NaCl (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM. The indigenous potato Challisha and modern cultivars Diamant and Felsina were used as plant materials. Significant differences were noticed among the cultivars in response to different levels of NaCl. Plant growth and root development were gradually reduced with increased concentration of NaCl. All three cultivars were survived well with exhibiting different growth status up to 60 mM NaCl, but they performed poorly at 120 mM of NaCl. Cultivar Challisha performed better regarding shoot length, root length, the number of nodes per plantlet and the fresh weight per plant up to 90 mM of NaCl. Thus, we can conclude that local indigenous variety Challisha is salt tolerant comparing with the modern cultivated varieties.

  12. A retail market study of organic and conventional potatoes (Solanum tuberosum): mineral content and nutritional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrea M; Cook, David M; Eggett, Dennis L; Christensen, Merrill J

    2012-06-01

    Whether or not all foods marketed to consumers as organic meet specified standards for use of that descriptor, or are nutritionally different from conventional foods, is uncertain. In a retail market study in a Western US metropolitan area, differences in mineral composition between conventional potatoes and those marketed as organic were analysed. Potatoes marketed as organic had more copper and magnesium (p potatoes. Comparison of individual mineral concentrations between foodstuffs sold as organic or conventional is unlikely to establish a chemical fingerprint to objectively distinguish between organic and conventional produce, but more sophisticated chemometric analysis of multi-element fingerprints holds promise of doing so. Although statistically significant, these differences would only minimally affect total dietary intake of these minerals and be unlikely to result in measurable health benefits.

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Zhang, Hongxia; Gan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yuchao; Nie, Fengjie; Shi, Lei; Li, Miao; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhang, Guohui; Song, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT) and re-watering treatment (RWT) at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG) examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT) plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1), auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2), GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6), Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19), abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO) and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gong

    Full Text Available Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L. variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT and re-watering treatment (RWT at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C, Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1, auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2, GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6, Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19, abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  15. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.

  16. Endemic wild potato (Solanum spp.) biodiversity status in Bolivia: Reasons for conservation concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadima Fuentes, X.; Zonneveld, van M.; Scheldeman, X.; Castaneda, N.; Patino, F.; Beltran, M.; Damme, van P.

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives possess important traits, therefore ex situ and in situ conservation efforts are essential to maintain sufficient options for crop improvement. Bolivia is a centre of wild relative diversity for several crops, among them potato, which is an important staple worldwide and the

  17. biotechnological studies on the irradiated potato (solanum tuberosum) with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial wilt or brown rot disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes extensive annual losses of different crops especially potato crop. It is considered as one of the limiting factors for potato production and exportation in Egypt. Therefore, the main purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma rays on two potato cultivars (Diamant and Spunta). And, to obtain new genotypes of potato resistant to bacterial wilt disease. This study was carried out in the field and Biotechnology laboratory of the Plant Res. Dept., Nuclear Res. Center, Inshas, Egypt and Genetics Dept., Faculty of Agricultural., Cairo Univ., during 2008-2011. In the field experiment, dry tubers of potato cultivars were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays (20, 30 and 40 Gy) to study the effect of gamma rays on the vegetative and yield traits. The results showed that there are no significant differences between cultivars for all studied traits except a number of tubers per plant trait. Also, there are only highly significant and significant differences between treatments for weight of tubers per plant and number of tubers per plant traits, respectively. However, there are only significant differences between the interactions of cultivars and treatments for plant height and weight of tubers per plant traits. Six genotypes were selected from M 1 V 2 generation depending on high yield for RAPD analysis to determine their genetic variability from its parents at molecular level using 11 primers. The results of RAPD analysis showed that 11 primers generated 56 distinct bands of which 31 (55.4%) were considered as polymorphic. The similarity indices of six genotypes of potato and its parents ranged from 70 to 91%. The highest genetic similarity 91% was found between D20 genotype and its parent D0 (Diamant control). On the other hand, the lowest genetic similarity 70% was found between S30, S40 genotypes and its parent S0 (Spunta control). In the artificial infection experiment

  18. Does elevated CO2 ameliorate the impact of O3 on chlorophyll content and photosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Craigon, Jim; Black, Colin R.; Colls, Jeremy J.; Landon, Geoff

    2001-04-01

    This study examined the impact of season-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3), individually and in combination, on leaf chlorophyll content and gas exchange characteristics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje). Plants grown in open-top chambers were exposed to three CO2 (ambient, 550 and 680 µmol mol-1) and two O3 treatments (ambient and elevated; 25 and 65 nmol mol-1, 8 h day-1 means, respectively) between crop emergence and maturity; plants were also grown in unchambered field plots. Non-destructive measurements of chlorophyll content and visible foliar injury were made for all treatments at 2-week intervals between 43 and 95 days after emergence. Gas exchange measurements were made for all except the intermediate 550 µmol mol-1 CO2 treatment. Season-long exposure to elevated O3 under ambient CO2 reduced chlorophyll content and induced extensive visible foliar damage, but had little effect on net assimilation rate or stomatal conductance. Elevated CO2 had no significant effect on chlorophyll content, but greatly reduced the damaging impact of O3 on chlorophyll content and visible foliar damage. Light-saturated assimilation rates for leaves grown under elevated CO2 were consistently lower when measured under either elevated or ambient CO2 than in equivalent leaves grown under ambient CO2. Analysis of CO2 response curves revealed that CO2-saturated assimilation rate, maximum rates of carboxylation and electron transport and respiration decreased with time. CO2-saturated assimilation rate was reduced by elevated O3 during the early stages of the season, while respiration was significantly greater under elevated CO2 as the crop approached maturity. The physiological origins of these responses and their implications for the performance of potato in a changing climate are discussed.

  19. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of Glutathione S-transferase gene family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and their expression profiling in various anatomical tissues and perturbation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shiful; Choudhury, Mouraj; Majlish, Al-Nahian Khan; Islam, Tahmina; Ghosh, Ajit

    2018-01-10

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous enzymes which play versatile functions including cellular detoxification and stress tolerance. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide identification of GST gene family was carried out in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The result demonstrated the presence of at least 90 GST genes in potato which is greater than any other reported species. According to the phylogenetic analyses of Arabidopsis, rice and potato GST members, GSTs could be subdivided into ten different classes and each class is found to be highly conserved. The largest class of potato GST family is tau with 66 members, followed by phi and lambda. The chromosomal localization analysis revealed the highly uneven distribution of StGST genes across the potato genome. Transcript profiling of 55 StGST genes showed the tissue-specific expression for most of the members. Moreover, expression of StGST genes were mainly repressed in response to abiotic stresses, while largely induced in response to biotic and hormonal elicitations. Further analysis of StGST gene's promoter identified the presence of various stress responsive cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, one of the highly stress responsive StGST members, StGSTU46, showed strong affinity towards flurazole with lowest binding energy of -7.6kcal/mol that could be used as antidote to protect crop against herbicides. These findings will facilitate the further functional and evolutionary characterization of GST genes in potato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Allelic state of the molecular marker for the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance gene H1 among Ukrainian and world cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelov, A V; Pilipenko, L A; Kozub, N A; Bondus, R A; Borzykh, A U; Sozinov, I A; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was determination of allelic state of the H1 resistance gene against the pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 of golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) among Ukrainian and world potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars. The allelic condition of the TG689 marker was determined by PCR with DNA samples isolated from tubers of potato and primers, one pair of which flanks the allele-specific region and the other one was used for the control of DNA quality. Among analyzed 77 potato cultivars the allele of marker associated with the H1-type resistance was found in 74% of Ukrainian and 90% foreign ones although some of those cultivars proved to be susceptible to the golden potato nematode in field. The obtained data confirm the presence of H1-resistance against golden nematode pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 among the Ukrainian potato cultivars and efficiency of the used marker within the accuracy that has been declared by its authors.

  1. The Effect of Organic Manure and Super Absorbent on Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tubersum, cv Marfona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rashidi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate effect of organic manure and super absorbent on physiological and biochemical traits of potato (Solanum tubersum, cv Marfona, a split plot experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm, Agriculture College, University of Razi in 2010. Main factor included two levels of super absorbent A200 (0 and 70 Kg/ha, and split plot included nine levels (0, chemical fertilizer (according to soil test, granule chicken manure (1000 kg/ ha, common chicken manure (12 ton/ha, soil mix (1000 kg/ha, cow manure (20 ton/ha, vermicompost (20 ton/ha, compost (20 ton/ha and tea compost (soaking tubers and spraying at four times. Investigating physiological traits such as leaf chlorophyll index, chlorophyll florescence and stomata conductance showed that only leaf chlorophyll index was affected by superabsorbent (P < 0.01 and organic manure (P < 0.05, while stomata conductance wad significant under it’s interaction effect at (P < 0.05. Quality and biochemical traits show that phosphorous amount of tuber was significant in superabsorbent treatment in compare to control. Crude oil percentage, protein, fiber, starch, sugar, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium content were not affected by organic manure. The highest amount of oil and fiber were obtained under compost and cow manure respectively. Sugar and nitrogen content were high under cow manure treatment. The highest amount of potassium and phosphorous content were belonging to chicken and Khakparvar manure respectively.

  2. Nutrient uptake of the criolla potato (Solanum phureja var. Galeras for the determination of critical nutritional levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Torres B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the nutrient uptake of the criolla potato (Solanum phureja var. Galeras, the critical nutritional levels were determined on a farm in the Carrizal district of the municipality of Granada (Cundinamarca. Five fertilizing treatments were used: 0 fertilization (control, commercial control (CC, proposed recommendation + 50% (PR + 50%, proposed recommendation (PR, proposed recommendation - 50% (PR - 50%; organized with a random complete block design with three repetitions and repeated measurements over time; in each one, the material and nutrient absorption were evaluated in four phonological stages; in which the harvest, yield and profitability were measured. It was observed that the dry material increased rapidly until 113 days after planting (dap and was higher in treatments CC and PR + 50% with 8,818 and 7,743 kg ha-1 , respectively. The statistical analysis showed that the elements: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu and B did not present significant differences over time after 77 dap in treatments CC and PR + 50%. There were no significant differences in yield for treatments CC and PR + 50% but there were significant differences between these treatments and the others. The economic analysis showed that treatment CC had the highest profitability, confirming this as the critical level for the Galeras variety in Granada (Cundinamarca.

  3. Accumulation of heavy metals in plants and potential phytoremediation of lead by potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C

    2007-05-01

    The use of sewage sludge as a source of nutrients in crop production is increasing in the United States and worldwide. A field study was conducted on a 10% slope at Kentucky State University Research Farm. Eighteen plots of 22x3.7 m each were separated using metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with sewage sludge, six plots were mixed with yard waste compost, and six unamended plots were used for comparison purposes. During a subsequent 3-year study, plots were planted with potato (year 1), pepper (year 2), and broccoli (year 3). The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) characterize chemical properties of soil-incorporated sewage sludge and yard waste compost; (ii) determine the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mo) in sewage sludge and yard waste compost used for land farming; and (iii) monitor heavy metal concentrations in edible portions of plants at harvest. Concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge were below the U.S. EPA limits. Analysis of potato tubers, peppers, and broccoli grown in sludge-amended soil showed that Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were not significantly different from control plants. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mo were significantly greater in tubers and peppers grown in sludge compared to their respective controls. Zn and Mo in broccoli heads were higher than their control plants. The ability of potato to accumulate lead needs additional investigation to optimize the phytoremediation of this pollutant element.

  4. Cultivar variability of patatin biochemical characteristics: table versus processing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárta, Jan; Bártová, Veronika; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Sedo, Ondrej

    2012-05-02

    Biochemical characteristics of patatin proteins purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from tubers of 20 potato cultivars were studied to evaluate their genotype differences with respect to utility groups, table potato cultivars (TPCs) and processing potato cultivars (PPCs). Both groups of cultivars showed similar values of protein content in dry matter (3.98-7.39%) and of patatin relative abundance (5.40-35.40%). Three mass levels (∼40.6, 41.8, and 42.9 kDa) of purified patatins were found by MALDI-TOF MS within all cultivars. Differences among mass levels corresponding with the mass of sugar antenna (∼1.2 kDa) confirmed the previous concept of different glycosylation extentsin patatin proteins. It was showed that the individual types of patatin varying in their masses occur in the patatin family in a ratio specific for each of the cultivars, with the lowest mass type being the major one. Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated wide cultivar variability in number of patatin forms. Especially 2D-PAGE showed 17-23 detected protein spots independently on the utility group. Specific lipid acyl hydrolase (LAH) activity of purified patatins from the individual tested cultivars varied between 0.92 and 5.46 μmol/(min mg). Patatin samples within most of the TPCs exhibited higher values of specific LAH activity than samples of PPCs. It may be supposed that individual patatin forms do not have similar physiological roles.

  5. Changes in anthocyanidin levels during the maturation of color-fleshed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miloslav; Kotíková, Zora; Paznocht, Luboš; Pivec, Vladimír; Hamouz, Karel; Lachman, Jaromír

    2017-12-15

    Certain potato cultivars are capable of producing anthocyanin pigments in the potato skin and flesh and those pigments have been shown, together with other phytochemicals, to promote good health. Six common anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, malvidin and peonidin) were analyzed weekly for 15weeks in red- and purple-fleshed potato cultivars (Red Emma, Königspurpur, Valfi and Blaue de la Mancha) grown in field conditions using a validated LC-(+ESI)MS/MS method. Pelargonidin was the major type detected in red-fleshed cultivars whereas petunidin was the major type detected in the purple ones. Neither cyanidin nor delphinidin were found in any of the cultivars. The anthocyanidin levels observed were as high as 78mg/100g FW during tuber growth; however, fully matured tubers contained only 10-39mg anthocyanidins/100gFW. Anthocyanidin levels were moderately correlated with global solar irradiation (r<0.6252) but not with rainfall or daily temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 5-Azacytidine mediated reactivation of silenced transgenes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) at the whole plant level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyč, Dimitrij; Nocarová, Eva; Sikorová, Lenka; Fischer, Lukáš

    2017-08-01

    Transient 5-azacytidine treatment of leaf explants from potato plants with transcriptionally silenced transgenes allows de novo regeneration of plants with restored transgene expression at the whole plant level. Transgenes introduced into plant genomes frequently become silenced either at the transcriptional or the posttranscriptional level. Transcriptional silencing is usually associated with DNA methylation in the promoter region. Treatments with inhibitors of maintenance DNA methylation were previously shown to allow reactivation of transcriptionally silenced transgenes in single cells or tissues, but not at the whole plant level. Here we analyzed the effect of DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AzaC) on the expression of two silenced reporter genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) in potato plants. Whereas no obvious reactivation was observed in AzaC-treated stem cuttings, transient treatment of leaf segments with 10 μM AzaC and subsequent de novo regeneration of shoots on the selective medium with kanamycin resulted in the production of whole plants with clearly reactivated expression of previously silenced transgenes. Reactivation of nptII expression was accompanied by a decrease in cytosine methylation in the promoter region of the gene. Using the plants with reactivated GFP expression, we found that re-silencing of this transgene can be accidentally triggered by de novo regeneration. Thus, testing the incidence of transgene silencing during de novo regeneration could be a suitable procedure for negative selection of transgenic lines (insertion events) which have an inclination to be silenced. Based on our analysis of non-specific inhibitory effects of AzaC on growth of potato shoots in vitro, we estimated that AzaC half-life in the culture media is approximately 2 days.

  7. Cereal cystatins delay sprouting and nutrient loss in tubers of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Aurélie; Simon, Marie-Aube; Khalf, Moustafa; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-12-21

    Recent studies have reported agronomically useful ectopic effects for recombinant protease inhibitors expressed in leaves of transgenic plants, including improved tolerance to abiotic stress conditions and partial resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we assessed the effects of these proteins on the post-dormancy sprouting of storage organs, using as a model potato tubers expressing cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin protein superfamily. Sprout emergence and distribution, soluble proteins, starch and soluble sugars were monitored in tubers of cereal cystatin-expressing clones stored for several months at 4 °C. Cystatin expression had a strong repressing effect on sprout growth, associated with an apparent loss of apical dominance and an increased number of small buds at the skin surface. Soluble protein content remained high for up to 48 weeks in cystatin-expressing tubers compared to control (untransformed) tubers, likely explained by a significant stabilization of the major storage protein patatin, decreased hydrolysis of the endogenous protease inhibitor multicystatin and low cystatin-sensitive cysteine protease activity in tuber tissue. Starch content decreased after several months in cystatin-expressing tubers but remained higher than in control tubers, unlike sucrose showing a slower accumulation in the transgenics. Plantlet emergence, storage protein processing and height of growing plants showed similar time-course patterns for control and transgenic tubers, except for a systematic delay of 2 or 3 d in the latter group likely due to limited sprout size at sowing. Our data point overall to the onset of metabolic interference effects for cereal cystatins in sprouting potato tubers. They suggest, in practice, the potential of endogenous cysteine proteases as relevant targets for the development of potato varieties with longer storage capabilities.

  8. Preservation by Irradiation of three varieties of Colombian Potatoes (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleta, S.

    1986-01-01

    This is first study performed in the Gamma Facility of the Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares, in Bogota, Colombia, related to the Food Irradiation Programme. The study was made with: Parda Pastusa, ICA Guantiva, and ICA Purace, selected as the most important varieties of colombian potatoes. A complete study prior to the irradiation exposure was made in order to determine the optimum irradiation package. Different dose treatments, chemical and physical changes and organoleptic tests, were studied in this work. The work was performed in the early 1980s

  9. A Medicago truncatula H+-pyrophosphatase gene, MtVP1, improves sucrose accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Wang, H Q; Xiang, W W; Chai, T Y

    2014-05-09

    We recently cloned MtVP1, a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase from Medicago truncatula. In the present study, we investigated the cellular location and the function of this H(+)-PPase in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). An MtVP1::enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion was constructed, which localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing MtVP1 had more robust root systems and redder shoots than wild-type (WT) plants under conditions of cold stress. Furthermore, overexpression of MtVP1 in potato accelerated the formation and growth of vegetative organs. The tuber buds and stem base of transgenic potatoes became redder than those of WT plants, but flowering was delayed by approximately half a month. Interestingly, anthocyanin biosynthesis was promoted in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and potato tuber buds. The sucrose concentration of transgenic potato tubers and tuber buds was enhanced compared with that of WT plants. Furthermore, sucrose concentration in tubers was higher than that in tuber buds. Although there was no direct evidence to support Fuglsang's hypothetical model regarding the effects of H(+)-PPase on sucrose phloem loading, we speculated that sucrose concentration was increased in tuber buds owing to the increased concentration in tubers. Therefore, overexpressed MtVP1 enhanced sucrose accumulation of source organs, which might enhance sucrose transport to sink organs, thus affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  10. Effect of growth regulators in meristem culture of potato (solanum tuberosmum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, A.; Zaidi, S.S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Two growth regulators, viz., Gibberellic acid (GA3) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and a combination of both (GA3 and NAA) were evaluated at three different levels (200, 300 and 400 meul) to check the growth rate of root, shoot, number of leaves and nodes of potato plantlets in two potato varieties, namely cardinal and SH-5, grown by meristem culture. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences between varieties, hormones and their interaction for all the studied traits. Mean values revealed that among two varieties Cardinal produced root length (0.70 cm), shoot length (2.50 cm), number of leaves (6.96) and number of nodes (8) are better than the SH-5 which produced root length (0.54 cm), shoot length (1.38 cm), number of leaves (4.29) and number of nodes (5.3). The variety cardinal and GA3 at 300 meul followed by 200 meul produced most suitable results. By using the concentration of 300 meul maximum root length of (1.40 cm), shoot length of (3.43 cm), number of leaves (10) and no of nodes (11) was obtained. At 200 meul, though root and shoot length obtained was very similar at 300 meul but produced less number of leaves and nodes. (author)

  11. Agronomical indicators for determination of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tolerance to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Morales Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately, water shortage has caused 50% losses in potato yields in several Central American countries. Knowledge and use of more tolerant potato varieties are a critical element to increase production and yields under stressing conditions. The experiments were developed at the Center for Tropical Crops Research (INIVIT, between December 2014, and March 2015. Ten plots were planted, including different varieties. Half of them (5 were not irrigated for 20 days, starting on the 50th day after plantation (drought stress period. Irrigation was resumed on the 70th day. The Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI, Stress Tolerance Index (STI, Tolerance Index (TOL, Mean Productivity (MP, and Yield Stability Index (YSI. The Atlas and Maranca varieties had the lowest values for SSI (0.67 and 0.61, respectively, and the highest values for STI (0.79 and 0.81, respectively. The highest MP (19.92 t/ha was achieved by Atlas. The highest YSI values were observed in Maranca and Atlas (81.07 and 79.29, respectively.

  12. Visualisation of plastid outgrowths in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers by carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, Wojciech; Bederska, Magdalena; Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena

    2015-05-01

    We describe two types of plastid outgrowths visualised in potato tubers after carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining. Probable esterase activity of the outgrowths has been demonstrated for the first time ever. Plastid outgrowths were observed in the phelloderm and storage parenchyma cells of red potato (S. tuberosum L. cv. Rosalinde) tubers after administration of carboxyfluorescein diacetate stain. Endogenous esterases cleaved off acetic groups to release membrane-unpermeable green fluorescing carboxyfluorescein which accumulated differentially in particular cell compartments. The intensive green fluorescence of carboxyfluorescein exhibited highly branched stromules (stroma-filled plastid tubular projections of the plastid envelope) and allowed distinguishing them within cytoplasmic strands of the phelloderm cells. Stromules (1) were directed towards the nucleus or (2) penetrated the whole cells through the cytoplasmic bands of highly vacuolated phelloderm cells. Those directed towards the nucleus were flattened and adhered to the nuclear envelope. Stromule-like interconnections between two parts of the same plastids (isthmuses) were also observed. We also documented the formation of another type of the stroma-filled plastid outgrowths, referred to here as protrusions, which differed from previously defined stromules in both morphology and esterase activity. Unlike stromules, the protrusions were found to be associated with developmental processes leading to starch accumulation in the storage parenchyma cells. These results strongly suggest that stromules and protrusions exhibit esterase activity. This has been demonstrated for the first time. Morphological and biochemical features as well as possible functions of stromules and protrusions are discussed below.

  13. Effect of Different Plastic mulch on Growth and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khosro parvizi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The advantages of plastic mulches have been known in production of agricultural crops. Their capability have been demonstrated to help nutrition uptake, precocity and yield of fruit trees, and decreasing of aphid population as viruses pest vectors. It is also demonstrated some advantages of plastic mulch on some traits in potato such as increasing growth rate, yield and number of medium tuber size. Also, the effects of combined use of straw, chopped and polyethylene as well as different levels of irrigation (60, 80, 100, 120% water requirement on yield and water use efficiency in potato have been investigated. In previous studies, it is concentrated on the effect of the special type of plastic on growing aspect of potato and there is no comparative assessment between different types of the mulches. So that in this research we evaluated the responses between types of plastic mulches. Material and Methods: this research was conducted under field conditions. A factorial experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments consisted of mulch in five levels (clear, white, black, double layer and control (without mulch and two cultivars (Agria and Sante. Each plot was designed in 4 m2. For every plot, ridges were divided into complicated double rows with 50 × 150 centimeters wide. Irrigation tapes were placed between every duplicated row. Water requirement was calculated through corrected evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith equation with considering 90% water use efficiency. During the growing season some characteristics such as requirement time to 80% emergence, tuberization time, plant height in flowering time, number of stems and leaf area have been measured. Harvesting time was recorded along with measurement of tuber weights. Total yield was measured by random selection of one m2 in each plot. Harvested tubers were separated based on three sizes; edible tuber

  14. Estimating yellow potato (Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk.) solar radiation interception in three Colombian localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabezas, M; Corchuelo, G

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were simultaneously carried out in three Colombian localities (Firavitoba, Carmen de Carupa y Bogotá) to measure and compare photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception patterns in Solanum phureja. Three random complete block design planting densities (8,33, 4.17 and 2.67 plants/m 2 ) were evaluated, having four replicates and an experimental unit consisting of five four-metre-long rows or planting lines. Overall PAR, reflected PAR, transmitted PAR and absorbed PAR were determined. The Monsie and Saeky model was used for establishing the PAR k extinction coefficient in canopies. Results revealed statistically significant differences within localities and plant densities, but not for LAI interaction. There was a higher overall incidence of radiation in those localities situated at high altitudes. PAR distribution was similar in high and low stratum in all cases, proving that plant architecture allows a suitable distribution of PAR within the canopy. The k extinction coefficient was mainly affected by leaf development. Values ranged from 0.39 to 0.61. It was revealed that plants may become quickly saturated above 2,800 m a.s.l. due to effects of luminescence, thus inducing stressful conditions interfering with leaf development and therefore distribution of tuber photo- assimilation, so affecting agronomic yield. (author) [es

  15. Biological Control Of The Egyptian Brown Rot In Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Askora, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescence, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillus and streptomyces spp. Were used in control of Ralstonia solanacearum, the casual agent of brown rot in potato. In vitro, antagonistic activities showed that streptomyces spp. was the most antagonistic followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa respectively. Also, in vivo, biological control of R. solanacearum showed that Streptomyces spp. was found to reduce the percentage of brown rot infection to 5% followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa reducing the percentage of infection to 15 , 25 and 40%, respectively. Also, the disease severity when using Streptomyces spp. and P. fluorescence was reduced from 5 to 1 and reduced from 5 to 2 when using Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa.

  16. Variation of Growth and Disease Characters Between Clones of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Bång, H; Kotkas, K

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and magnitude of variation of selected characters in clones derived from meristem tips of four potato cultivars in field trials in three countries was assessed. Recorded were: the number of plants per plot; maturity of plants; skin and flesh colour; tuber deformity; time of emergence......; flowering; number of stems and tubers per plant; tuber size, yield and dry matter percentage; and the occurrence of common scab. Far more significant differences between clones than could be expected by chance were found for the last eight characters. Most of the significant differences for number of stems...... per plant, number of tubers, yield and tuber size distribution were found in six clones of three cultivars and were repeated at different locations and in different years. It is concluded that significant clone differences exist and are repeated at independent locations over the years...

  17. Insight into the role of catalases in salt stress in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'Hamdi M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate a possible link between catalase (CAT activity and salinity tolerance, an in vitro and in vivo study of the behavior of transgenic lines of potato (cv. ‘Désirée’ under salt stress conditions was carried out. Three groups of transgenic lines and non transformed control (DWT were used in this study: lines expressing a bacterial catalase gene and lines repressing catalase activity by either co-suppression or anti-sense strategies. Various concentrations of NaCl were tested: in vitro 0, 25, 50 and 75 mM and in vivo 25, 50 and 75 mM. The results of this work show that the genetic modification of CAT activity affects the multiplication rate of vitroplants, as well as vegetative and physiological growth parameters under salt stress conditions. At 25, 50 and 75 mM of NaCl, over-expression (line KatE16 and repression of CAT increased and reduced respectively the multiplication rate of vitroplants. Differences between the transgenic lines and the wild type were evident in tuber yield and leaf chlorophyll content. These parameters were significantly increased in CAT over-expressing and slightly decreased in SU3 line repressed in CAT under 25 mM of salt stress. A stability of the potential quantum yield (Fv/Fm was observed in the lines over-expressing the CAT at 25, 50 and 75 mM of NaCl. The repression of CAT was associated with a decrease of Fv/Fm value at 50 mM of NaCl. These results show that catalases contribute to salinity tolerance mechanisms in potato.

  18. Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    formation, yield quantity of potato depended decisively on the time of year when they were experienced and the period for which they lasted. Droughts in the winter or summer half-year had much the same effect on yield. Precipitation deficiency in the winter could not be counterbalanced by average rainfall during the vegetation period, and its effect on the yield was similar to that of summer drought. It was also concluded that economic yields could not be achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 0-150 kg ha-1 nitrogen and NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg combinations. Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5). And with the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of N: Y'=380.18-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NP: Y'=387.19-3.04x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96, NK: Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NPK: Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96 and NPKMg: Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96 nutrition systems. The optimum yields ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. Acknowledgement: This study were supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (RISSAC-HAS), Budapest. References Johnston, A. E., 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139, 8. Kádár, I., Márton, L., Horváth, S., 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49, 291-306. Kádár, I., Szemes, I., 1994. A nyírlugosi tartamkísérlet 30 éve. MTA TAKI, Budapest, 248 p. Láng, I., 1973. Műtrágyázási tartamkísérletek homoktalajon. MTA Doktori értekezés. MTA TMB. Budapest

  19. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of the plastidial phosphorylase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals impact on storage starch structure during growth at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawetz, Tom; Malinova, Irina; Orzechowski, Slawomir; Fettke, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), one of the most important crops, are a prominent example for an efficient production of storage starch. Nevertheless, the synthesis of this storage starch is not completely understood. The plastidial phosphorylase (Pho1; EC 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the reversible transfer of glucosyl residues from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of α-glucans with the release of orthophosphate. Thus, the enzyme is in principle able to act during starch synthesis. However, so far under normal growth conditions no alterations in tuber starch metabolism were observed. Based on analyses of other species and also from in vitro experiments with potato tuber slices it was supposed, that Pho1 has a stronger impact on starch metabolism, when plants grow under low temperature conditions. Therefore, we analyzed the starch content, granule size, as well as the internal structure of starch granules isolated from potato plants grown under low temperatures. Besides wild type, transgenic potato plants with a strong reduction in the Pho1 activity were analyzed. No significant alterations in starch content and granule size were detected. In contrast, when plants were cultivated at low temperatures the chain length distributions of the starch granules were altered. Thus, the granules contained more short glucan chains. That was not observed in the transgenic plants, revealing that Pho1 in wild type is involved in the formation of the short glucan chains, at least at low temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the Solanum tuberosum (potato) trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene family: evolution and differential expression during development and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingchun; Wang, Yanjie; Mattson, Neil; Yang, Liu; Jin, Qijiang

    2017-12-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) serves important functions in plant desiccation tolerance and response to environmental stimuli. At present, a comprehensive analysis, i.e. functional classification, molecular evolution, and expression patterns of this gene family are still lacking in Solanum tuberosum (potato). In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the TPS gene family was conducted in potato. A total of eight putative potato TPS genes (StTPSs) were identified by searching the latest potato genome sequence. The amino acid identity among eight StTPSs varied from 59.91 to 89.54%. Analysis of d N /d S ratios suggested that regions in the TPP (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase) domains evolved faster than the TPS domains. Although the sequence of the eight StTPSs showed high similarity (2571-2796 bp), their gene length is highly differentiated (3189-8406 bp). Many of the regulatory elements possibly related to phytohormones, abiotic stress and development were identified in different TPS genes. Based on the phylogenetic tree constructed using TPS genes of potato, and four other Solanaceae plants, TPS genes could be categorized into 6 distinct groups. Analysis revealed that purifying selection most likely played a major role during the evolution of this family. Amino acid changes detected in specific branches of the phylogenetic tree suggests relaxed constraints might have contributed to functional divergence among groups. Moreover, StTPSs were found to exhibit tissue and treatment specific expression patterns upon analysis of transcriptome data, and performing qRT-PCR. This study provides a reference for genome-wide identification of the potato TPS gene family and sets a framework for further functional studies of this important gene family in development and stress response.

  3. An efficient method for the establishment of cell suspension cultures in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, Z.A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures offers an In vitro system that can be used as a tool for various studies involving mutant selection, mass propagation, protoplast isolation, gene transfer and selection of cell-lines which are resistant to various biotic or abiotic stresses. Research work on the development of cell suspension cultures was carried out to establish the most efficient method in Potato (cv. Desiree). Healthy, well-proliferating tissues from different types of callus cultures (compact, friable, embryogenic or non-embryogenic) were inoculated on various media combinations, i.e., MS, MS2 or AA liquid medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D. A fixed quantity (0.5-1.0 g) of callus tissue from 60-day-old callus cultures was transferred to 10-25 ml of liquid medium in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Cultures were placed on an orbital shaker and agitated at different speeds (75, 100 or 125 rpm) under 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C. Medium was changed after every 3 days and fractionated tissue was filtered after every 6 days through sterile mesh (100-800 micro m) to develop a cell-line by transferring resulting suspension to fresh medium under the same conditions. Results indicated that eight-week-old translucent, friable, off-white callus cultures were an excellent starting material for the initiation of homogeneous cell suspension cultures as compared to other tested sources. Of the three tested media (MS, MS2 or AA medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D), MS2 was found to be a better medium for the initiation of cell suspension cultures. Cell suspension cultures, placed in 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C and agitated at 120 rpm using a gyratory shaker showed excellent results. Several other factors influencing quick establishment of cell suspension cultures in this cultivar are also discussed in this communication. (author)

  4. Characterization of chromosome instability in interspecific somatic hybrids obtained by X-ray fusion between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and S. brevidens Phil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehér, A.; Preiszner, J.; Litkey, Z.; Csanádi, G; Dudits, D.

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum L. and S. brevidens Phil. have been obtained via the fusion of protoplasts from potato leaves and from cell suspension culture of S. brevidens. The wild Solanum species served as donor after irradiation of its protoplasts with a lethal X-ray dose (200 Gy). Selection of the putative hybrids was based on the kanamycin-resistance marker gene previously introduced into the genome of Solanum brevidens by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Thirteen out of the 45 selected clones exhibited reduced morphogenic potential. The morphological abnormalities of the regenerated plantlets were gradually eliminated during the extended in vitro culture period. Cytological investigations revealed that the number of chromosomes in the cultured S. brevidens cells used as protoplast source ranged between 28-40 instead of the basic 2n=24 value. There was a high degree of aneuploidy in all of the investigated hybrid clones, and at least 12 extra chromosomes were observed in addition to the potato chromosomes (2n=48). Interand intraclonal variation and segregation during vegetative propagation indicated the genetic instability of the hybrids, which can be ascribed to the pre-existing and X-ray irradiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in the donor S. brevidens cells. The detection of centromeric chromosome fragments and long, poly-constrictional chromosomes in cytological preparations as well as non-parental bands in Southern hybridizations with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed extensive chromosome rearrangements in most of the regenerated clones. On the basis of the limited number of RFLP probes used, preferential loss of S. brevidens specific markers with a non-random elimination pattern could be detected in hybrid regenerants

  5. Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Raymond; Pont, Simon D A; Morris, Jenny A; McKenzie, Gaynor; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Hedley, Pete E; Ramsay, Gavin; Bryan, Glenn J; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide QTL analysis of potato tuber carotenoid content was investigated in populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja that segregate for flesh colour, revealing a novel major QTL on chromosome 9. The carotenoid content of edible plant storage organs is a key nutritional and quality trait. Although the structural genes that encode the biosynthetic enzymes are well characterised, much less is known about the factors that determine overall storage organ content. In this study, genome-wide QTL mapping, in concert with an efficient 'genetical genomics' analysis using bulked samples, has been employed to investigate the genetic architecture of potato tuber carotenoid content. Two diploid populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja were genotyped (AFLP, SSR and DArT markers) and analysed for their tuber carotenoid content over two growing seasons. Common to both populations were QTL that explained relatively small proportions of the variation in constituent carotenoids and a major QTL on chromosome 3 explaining up to 71 % of the variation in carotenoid content. In one of the populations (01H15), a second major carotenoid QTL was identified on chromosome 9, explaining up to 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Whereas the major chromosome 3 QTL was likely to be due to an allele of a gene encoding β-carotene hydroxylase, no known carotenoid biosynthetic genes are located in the vicinity of the chromosome 9 QTL. A unique expression profiling strategy using phenotypically distinct bulks comprised individuals with similar carotenoid content provided further support for the QTL mapping to chromosome 9. This study shows the potential of using the potato genome sequence to link genetic maps to data arising from eQTL approaches to enhance the discovery of candidate genes underlying QTLs.

  6. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  7. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Yuling [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Chen, Dan [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Chen, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Haoli, E-mail: mahaoli@nwsuaf.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  8. Caracterización Citogenética de Cinco Genotipos de Papa Criolla, Solanum phureja (Juz. et Buk. Cytogenetic Characterization of Five "Criolla" Potato Genotypes, Solanum phureja (Juz. et Buk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiani Melissa Gómez Pulgarín

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El cultivo de la papa ocupa el cuarto lugar en el mundo en importancia después del arroz, trigo y maíz. La papa criolla (Solanum phureja posee características valiosas desde el punto de vista culinario y nutricional, por su alto contenido de vitaminas, minerales, fibra y calidad de proteína. Colombia es un centro de diversidad y origen de papas criollas, lo que representa un enorme potencial de recurso genético para el fitomejoramiento. En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia se conserva el banco de germoplasma de papas criollas de Colombia. El estudio de los cariotipos es importante para entender las bases genéticas que apoyan los cruces que se realizan en los programas de mejoramiento. A pesar de la importancia de este recurso, la caracterización de los cariotipos de las accesiones no ha sido realizada completamente. En este estudio se caracterizaron dos materiales de la colección de S. phureja y tres provenientes de la F1 del cruce de un genotipo resistente y otro susceptible a la enfermedad conocida como gota de la papa. El análisis comparativo permitió identificar diferencias en la morfología celular, dos niveles de ploidía (diploide y triploide, con dos variaciones aneugénicas (hipodiploide y trisomía doble y cuatro números cromosómicos (18, 24, 26 y 36 para los cinco genotipos evaluados.Abstract. Potato crop is forth in importance worldwide after rice, wheat, and corn. Diploid potato cv. Criolla (Solanum phureja shows highly desired culinary and nutritional characteristics, such as vitamins, minerals, fiber and protein quality. Colombia is a diversity and origin center of diploid potatoes cv. Criolla, which represents an enormous genetic resource potential for plant breeding. At Universidad Nacional de Colombia the potato "criollas" germplasm bank is mantained. Karyotype analysis is important for understanding genetic basis of plant breeding. Despite the importance of this resource karyotype analysis of this

  9. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Steen L.

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important aphid-transmitted virus affecting potato crops in Denmark. Because of a changed seed potato growing strategy, the seed potato area in Denmark is changing from regions with a low average temperature to regions...... with a higher average temperature. This means that the aphids may infest the potato crops earlier and the population development of the aphids may be faster, and consequently PVY may more easily become epidemic in seed potato crops. With a view to reducing the spread of PVY a 3-year experiment was carried out...... with a combination of mineral oil and insecticides. In 2005 and 2007 when a very high number of aphids were present, nearly all plants were infected with PVY. In 2006 with a lower number of aphids a smaller proportion of the plants were infected, and a tendency to a lower PVY incidence in mineral-oil treated plots...

  10. The effect of modified potato flour substitution on the organoleptics characteristics of toddler biscuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakrawati, Dewi; Rahmawati, Puji

    2016-04-01

    Toddler biscuit is complementary food given to infants to help meet their nutritional needs. This research was undertaken to develop toddler biscuit with subtitution of physically modified potato flour. There were two puposes of the research, first to know the characteristics of physically modification on potato flour; secondly to know biscuit characteristics with modified potato flour substitution. There were two factor analysis in the development of biscuit; first factor was pre heating mehods and substitution rate. The research was conducted with experimental method using split plot design. The functional properties on modified potato flour as swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, solubility and viscocity were analyzed. Organoleptic analysis using quality hedonic test showed no interaction between potato starch modification and concentration of modified potato flour. Quality hedonic test showed all toddler biscuit socred in the range of “slightly like” to “like moderately”. Modifying potato starch by boiling and steaming with flour concentration of 30% producing toddler biscuit with organoleptic characteristics acceptable according to the panelists.

  11. Detection and sequencing of Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV in a volunteer plant of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Diacol-Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Camilo Medina Cárdenas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases are among the most limiting factors in the production of potato in Colombia and the rest of the world. The best strategy to control plant viruses consists on the use of certified seed tubers, control of arthropod vectors and the use of adequate crop management practices that reduce mechanical transmission and the presence of viral reservoirs like weeds and volun-teer plants. However, the successful implementation of these practices relies on the availability of highly sensitive techniques that allow for the asymptomatic detection of viruses. In this work, we tested the performance of Next-generation sequencing (NGS and real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR on a single volunteer potato plant (cv. Diacol-Capiro growing naturally in a seed-tuber storage facility in Yarumal (Antioquia. Our NGS results demonstrate a mixed infection with Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV. RT-qPCR was performed in roots, main stolons, crown (root collar and upper, middle and lower leaves using specific primers for PVY, PLRV, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus V (PVV, Potato virus X (PVX and Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV. Only PVY and PLRV were detected in good agreement with the NGS data. This work demonstrates the use-fulness of both techniques for supporting integrated management of plant viruses in potato, in-cluding virus detection in natural reservoirs such as volunteer plants and weeds.

  12. Purification of a novel chitin-binding lectin with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities from a bangladeshi cultivar of potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kabir, Syed Rashel

    2014-04-01

    A new chitin-binding lectin was purified from a Bangladeshi cultivar 'Deshi' of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) through anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies using a chitin column. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed the molecular mass of the lectin as 20,000 Daltons. This molecular mass was almost half of the molecular masses of chitin-binding lectins derived from other potatoes. The lectin showed both bactericidal and growth-inhibiting activities against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella boydii) pathogenic bacteria. It also showed antifungal activity against Rhizopus spp., Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger. Biofilm produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was dose-dependently reduced by 5-20% in 24 h after administration of the lectin, which was attributed to the glycan-binding property of the lectin having affinity to GlcNAc polymers. It was the first observation that any potato lectin prevented biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa and, therefore, could have possible applications in clinical microbiology and biomedical science.

  13. Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 reduces photosynthetic capacity and tuber production, and promotes ABA-mediated stomatal closure in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuanyuan, Guochao; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Ruofang; Jiang, Jiming

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is one of the most ubiquitous transcription factors (TFs), comprising NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits, and has been identified and reported in various aspects of development for plants and animals. In this work, StNF-YB3.1, a putative potato NF-YB subunit encoding gene, was isolated from Solanum tuberosum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 in potato (cv. Atlantic) resulted in accelerated onset of flowering, and significant increase in leaf chlorophyll content in field trials. However, transgenic potato plants overexpressing StNF-YB3.1 (OEYB3.1) showed significant decreases in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance both at tuber initiation and bulking stages. OEYB3.1 lines were associated with significantly fewer tuber numbers and yield reduction. Guard cell size and stomatal density were not changed in OEYB3.1 plants, whereas ABA-mediated stomatal closure was accelerated compared to that of wild type plants because of the up-regulation of genes for ABA signaling, such as StCPK10-like, StSnRK2.6/OST1-like, StSnRK2.7-like and StSLAC1-like. We speculate that the acceleration of stomatal closure was a possible reason for the significantly decreased stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Data on the sensory evaluation of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan, performed by untrained young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negishi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-12-01

    This data article describes a sensory evaluation of potatoes used in food processing from the Tokachi, Kamikawa, and Abashiri geographic areas of Hokkaido, Japan, performed by untrained young adults. We gathered sensory data on potatoes from the four cultivars 'Toyoshiro,' 'Kitahime,' 'Snowden,' and 'Poroshiri.' The sensory evaluation was performed on steamed potatoes from each cultivar; these potatoes were harvested from each of the three geographic areas. Table 1 provides the data from the evaluation of the five basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami), as well as the evaluation of the egumi taste, which is a Japanese term indicating a taste that is acrid, astringent, and slightly bitter.

  15. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3.

  16. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  17. The combined effect of CO2 and ethylene sprout inhibitor on the fry colour of stored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the darkening of potato processing colour attributable to a trace concentration of ethylene gas is more severe when CO2 is also elevated. In view of the increasing use of ethylene gas for sprout suppression in potato storage facilities, it was considered important to

  18. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines(Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Bong; Lee, Young Il; Song, Hee Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Young Keun; Shin, In Chul; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Woon; Lim, Yong Taek

    1992-08-01

    The radiosensitivity and salt resistance on the single cell and callus of potato, mass production method of plantlet and microtuber of potato by in vitro culture and microtuber formation from the stem irradiated with radiation were investigated to obtain a optimum condition for selection of mutant cell line. (Author)

  19. Comparative analysis of transformed potato microtubers and its non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid progress of transgenic biotechnology has significantly promoted the development and production of genetically modified (GM) crops. The aim of this study was to compare some compositional analysis and genetic variation of transformed potato microtubers (Solanum tuberosum L. Desiree) line (which harbor ...

  20. Rheological, pasting, thermal and retrogradation properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin WON

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the rheological, pasting, and thermal properties of octenyl succinic anhydrate (OSA-modified potato starch. Potato starch was modified using different concentrations of OSA (0, 1, 3, and 5%, v/v. The degree of substitution (DS for the OSA-modified starch ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0055. The amylose leaching values of native and OSA-modified potato starch with different DS levels were in the range of 47.09-87.32%. The gel strength values of the OSA-modified starch were lower than those of native potato starch. Rapid Visco Analyzer data showed that peak, hot pasting, final and setback viscosities of the native starch decreased after OSA modification. Dynamic shear rheological tests, conducted at 4 °C, indicated that OSA-modified potato starch had weak gel-like behavior with the storage moduli (G' higher than the loss moduli (G” over most of the frequency ranges (0.63-63.8 rad·s-1.

  1. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Velvis, H; Zachow, C; Berg, G; Van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  2. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F.; Velvis, H.; Zachow, C.; Berg, G.; Elsas, van J.D.; Sessitsch, A.

    2006-01-01

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  3. Appropriateness of culinary preparations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties and relation to sensory and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Wiking, Lars; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-02-01

    Appropriateness of potatoes for culinary preparations is defined as the optimal use of a given variety for a specific culinary preparation. The aim of this study was to examine the sensory attributes and physicochemical characteristics (dry matter content, starch properties, instrumental texture) of 11 potato varieties in relation to their appropriateness for boiling, oven-frying or mashing. The reproducibility of appropriateness was studied by including the effect of two growing conditions and yearly variation combined with internal references. The potato varieties, tested by 31 evaluators in two years, showed three groupings differing in appropriateness, which could be explained by a few sensory attributes: yellowness, mealiness, creaminess and butter taste. The physicochemical data showed a large variation of 23-25% in dry matter content, amylose content and starch granule size and an extreme variation in texture hardness. High reproducibility was found in the ranking of potatoes across years and culinary preparations. Hence, if a variety was judged well appropriate for boiled potatoes, it was also judged well appropriate as mashed or oven-fried potatoes. This study showed the relevance of using sensory descriptors appropriateness in an objective manner. A few sensory descriptors can be used in consumer-labelling appropriateness of potatoes. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollenberg, Benjamin J; Liu, Jingjing; Yu, Shu; Lin, Hong; Tian, Li

    2018-02-05

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated and functionally characterized in potato. In this work, we cloned StC3'H from potato and showed that it catalyzed the formation of caffeoylshikimate and CGA (caffeoylquinate) from p-coumaroyl shikimate and p-coumaroyl quinate, respectively, but was inactive towards p-coumaric acid in in vitro enzyme assays. When the expression of StC3'H proteins was blocked through antisense (AS) inhibition under the control of a tuber-specific patatin promoter, moderate changes in tuber yield as well as phenolic metabolites in the core tuber tissue were observed for several AS lines. On the other hand, the AS and control potato lines exhibited similar responses to a bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum. These results suggest that StC3'H is implicated in phenolic metabolism in potato. They also suggest that CGA accumulation in the core tissue of potato tubers is an intricately controlled process and that additional C3'H activity may also be involved in CGA biosynthesis in potato. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  6. The effect of in vitro mycorrhization on growth characteristics, changes in endogenous hormones and performance of microplants in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro PARVIZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets were inoculated in vitro with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices and their growth response, performance and endogenous hormonal status evaluated. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design consisting of two potato cultivars (Agria and Sante and four culture media was conducted with four replications. The culture media included non-inoculated Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (control, inoculated MS medium, inoculated half-strength MS medium and inoculated MS medium without vitamins and sugar. To do inoculation, germinated spores of fungus were transferred to the root zone of plantlets. Colonization percentage, total chlorophyll content, internodes and stolon length, shoot diameter, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and the level of three endogenous hormones (total auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins were determined. In addition, mini-tuber production was assayed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results demonstrated that the effect of two factors on all characteristics including mini-tuber production was different significantly. Interaction between cultivar and inoculation systems was significantly associated with endogen auxins as well as all range of mini-tuber production. The inoculated MS medium showed the better results, but it did not have significant difference to half-strength MS in terms of plantlet performance and growing parameters. Responses of both cultivars to inoculation were very conspicuous in the production of endogen hormones. Higher endogen hormone levels were associated with elevated growth parameters, greater biomass production and better plantlet performance.

  7. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  8. Comparative sequence analysis of Solanum and Arabidopsis in a hot spot for pathogen resistance on potato chromosome V reveals a patchwork of conserved and rapidly evolving genome segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruggmann Rémy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative phenotypic variation of agronomic characters in crop plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors (quantitative trait loci = QTL. To understand the molecular basis of such QTL, the identification of the underlying genes is of primary interest and DNA sequence analysis of the genomic regions harboring QTL is a prerequisite for that. QTL mapping in potato (Solanum tuberosum has identified a region on chromosome V tagged by DNA markers GP21 and GP179, which contains a number of important QTL, among others QTL for resistance to late blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans and to root cyst nematodes. Results To obtain genomic sequence for the targeted region on chromosome V, two local BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome contigs were constructed and sequenced, which corresponded to parts of the homologous chromosomes of the diploid, heterozygous genotype P6/210. Two contiguous sequences of 417,445 and 202,781 base pairs were assembled and annotated. Gene-by-gene co-linearity was disrupted by non-allelic insertions of retrotransposon elements, stretches of diverged intergenic sequences, differences in gene content and gene order. The latter was caused by inversion of a 70 kbp genomic fragment. These features were also found in comparison to orthologous sequence contigs from three homeologous chromosomes of Solanum demissum, a wild tuber bearing species. Functional annotation of the sequence identified 48 putative open reading frames (ORF in one contig and 22 in the other, with an average of one ORF every 9 kbp. Ten ORFs were classified as resistance-gene-like, 11 as F-box-containing genes, 13 as transposable elements and three as transcription factors. Comparing potato to Arabidopsis thaliana annotated proteins revealed five micro-syntenic blocks of three to seven ORFs with A. thaliana chromosomes 1, 3 and 5. Conclusion Comparative sequence analysis revealed highly conserved collinear regions

  9. SNPs in genes functional in starch-sugar interconversion associate with natural variation of tuber starch and sugar content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-07-31

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. Copyright © 2014 Schreiber et al.

  10. Tissue printing technique in nitrocelullose membranes: a rapid detection technique for estimating incidence of PVX, PVY, PVS and PLRV viruses infecting potato (Solanum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Guzmán

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The ELISA serological technique has been used since the 1970s as a quantative technique for the detection of many groups of virus which infect plants. The immune-impression (IMI in nitrocelullose membrane qualitative technique has been implemented more recently for the detection of different viral groups. In this work, the IMI technique has been adapted for the detection of PVX, PVY PVS and PLRV viruses which attack different species and varieties of potato crop (Solanum spp., such as Egg yolk, Capiro, Morita, Pastusa, Monserrate, Tuquerreña, ICA Puracé and ICA Nariño, all from the Nariño department. The four viruses mentioned above can cause 30% and 60% losses in production, be they acting alone or synergistically. This means that they can easily reduce the economic benefits of a country like Colombia, characterised as being a great potato producer (i.e. more than 2.8 million tons per year. The IMI technique was compared with the ELISA technique (Enzymne Linked Immunosorbent Assay using the same samples, leading to confirmation of the test's sensitivity for detecting the virus. From a total of 800 samples analyzed by IMI from different areas in the Nariño department, 72% incidence for PVY, 38.7% for PVX, 85.6% for PVS and 91.1% for PLRV was found; these estimates were similar or greater than those obtained using ELISA. These results are new for Colombia in terms of imple-menting the easy and sensitive IMI technique for detecting these four viral groups infecting the potato as well as estimating their incidence in Nariño, one of Colombia's most important potato-producing departments. The opportune and flexible detection of virus leads to an effective response to eradicating contaminated material, both material in the field as well as that from in vitro culture. Results lead to it being suggested that implementing IMI could bringing wide benefits for potato seed certification programmes, as they maintain sensitivity and specificity, they

  11. Isolation and chemoenzymatic treatment of glycoalkaloids from green, sprouting and rotting Solanum tuberosum potatoes for solanidine recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Grokoré Yvonne; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Due, Ahipo Edmond; Combes, Didier

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of glycoalkaloids in the flesh of different types of decayed potatoes was evaluated. The results showed that turned green and also sprouting or rotting potato flesh contain high amounts of toxic solanine and chaconine, exceeding by 2-5-fold the recommended limit, and ranging from 2578±86mg/kg to 5063±230mg/kg of dry weight potato flesh. For safety consideration, these decayed potatoes should be systematically set aside. To avoid a net economic loss and encourage the removal of this hazardous food, a recycling process was investigated to generate added-value compounds from the toxic glycoalkaloids. A simple chemo-enzymatic protocol comprising a partial acidic hydrolysis followed by an enzymatic treatment with the β-glycosidase from Periplaneta americana allowed the efficient conversion of α-chaconine to solanidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of potato (Solanum tuberosum addition on dough properties, sensory qualities and resistant starch content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lidia IANCU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the effects of adding different varieties of boiled potatoes-pasta (PP, Impala (I and Orchestra (O, to wheat flour in bread making. These potato varieties were used to replace wholemeal 1250 type flour (F1 and hard wheat semolina flour (F2 in different concentrations: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. The rheological properties of dough with added potato were assessed by means of the flour-graphic technique. The study also determined the amount of resistant starch (RS, non-resistant starch (n-RS, total starch (TS and moisture content of the potato bread. The results showed that the water absorption (WA in the potato dough containing salt and yeast decreased by 28.8% (F2-I-PP, and by 41.2% (F1-I-PP respectively. The same happened with the dough development time, dough stability and quality number. We found out that the degree of dough softening was increased, as was the moisture content of the bread, which went from 47.7% (O-PP-F2 to 50.3% (I-PP-F1. The level of the ten analyzed sensory properties led to the conclusion that, by adding up to 20% PP, we enhance the bread quality. The RS content increased by 5.1 g/100 g d.m. for F1 bread for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. In F2 bread, the RS content increased by up to 5.11g/100 g d.m. for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. Given the method of analysis, RS may be a mixture of RS2 (natural granule starch and RS3 (retrograde or non crystalline retrograde. Therefore, potato bread is very healthy and recommended for its nutritional benefits.

  13. Influence of low dose {gamma} radiation on the dormancy, growth and physiological activity of seed potato (solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, H. Y.; Baek, M. H.; Yoo, Z. C. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To observe the stimulating effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the dormancy breaking and growth of potato with different storage duration and conditions, potato were irradiated with the dose of 1 {approx} 16 Gy. Though varied with storage duration and conditions, sprouting rate of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was promoted at the 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to 20 .deg. C in the light. The field growth of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was highly increased at the 2, 4, 8 Gy irradiation group. The CAT activity of potato was increased by about 20% at 1,8 and 16 Gy irradiation group. POD activity was also increased by 7 {approx} 16% at 1, 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to the control. Fv/Fm was not changed by the low dose {gamma} radiation. However, the effective quantum yield of PSII was slightly increased by about 12% at 1 and 16 Gy irradiation group. Seedling irradiated with low dose {gamma} radiation showed the lower excitation pressure on PSII (1- {sub q}P), while NPQ was greatly increased by 45% at 4 Gy irradiation group. These results clearly showed the positive effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the seedling growth of potato via increasing photoprotective capacities of photosynthetic apparatus.

  14. Influence of low dose γ radiation on the dormancy, growth and physiological activity of seed potato (solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, H. Y.; Baek, M. H.; Yoo, Z. C.

    2002-01-01

    To observe the stimulating effect of low dose γ radiation on the dormancy breaking and growth of potato with different storage duration and conditions, potato were irradiated with the dose of 1 ∼ 16 Gy. Though varied with storage duration and conditions, sprouting rate of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was promoted at the 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to 20 .deg. C in the light. The field growth of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was highly increased at the 2, 4, 8 Gy irradiation group. The CAT activity of potato was increased by about 20% at 1,8 and 16 Gy irradiation group. POD activity was also increased by 7 ∼ 16% at 1, 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to the control. Fv/Fm was not changed by the low dose γ radiation. However, the effective quantum yield of PSII was slightly increased by about 12% at 1 and 16 Gy irradiation group. Seedling irradiated with low dose γ radiation showed the lower excitation pressure on PSII (1- q P), while NPQ was greatly increased by 45% at 4 Gy irradiation group. These results clearly showed the positive effect of low dose γ radiation on the seedling growth of potato via increasing photoprotective capacities of photosynthetic apparatus

  15. Molecular characterisation of resistance against potato wart races 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid population of potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Jennifer; Song, Yesu; Kellermann, Adolf; Schwarzfischer, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Potato wart is caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Synchytrium endobioticum, which is subject to quarantine regulations due to the production of long persisting spores in the soil and the lack of effective fungicides. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against potato wart races (R) 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid potato population developed by crossing cv. Saturna (resistant to R1) with cv. Panda (resistant to R1, R2, R6, R18). A total of 92 progenies were used for phenotyping and genotyping. Resistance tests were performed for races 1 and 18 in 2 years and for races 2 and 6 in 1 year on 10 to 20 eyepieces per genotype. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, linkage maps were established for the female and male parent, respectively. Single marker analysis followed by a multiple regression analysis revealed initial marker-trait associations. The interval mapping routine of TetraploidMap was applied for QTL analysis. A major QTL for resistance against race 1 explaining between 46 % and 56 % of the phenotypic variation was identified near Sen1, a known resistance locus for potato wart race 1 on chromosome XI. Other resistance QTL were detected on chromosomes I (to R2), II (to R6, 18), VI (to R1, 2, 6, 18), VII (to R2, 6, 18), VIII (to R1, 2, 6, 18), X (to R2, 6, 18), XI (to R2, 6, 18) and on an unknown linkage group (to R18) explaining minor to moderate effects of the phenotypic variation. Resistance QTL against different potato wart races often overlapped, particularly concerning races 2, 6 and 18. Overall, this study gives a valuable insight into the complex inheritance of resistance against potato wart.

  16. The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-07-17

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic

  17. Mapping Loci That Control Tuber and Foliar Symptoms Caused by PVY in Autotetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Washington L; Ingram, Jason; Hackett, Christine A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David; Bryan, Glenn J; De Jong, Walter; Gray, Stewart

    2017-11-06

    Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) is a tuber deformity associated with infection by the tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY NTN ). PTNRD negatively impacts tuber quality and marketability, and poses a serious threat to seed and commercial potato production worldwide. PVY NTN symptoms differ in the cultivars Waneta and Pike: Waneta expresses severe PTNRD and foliar mosaic with vein and leaf necrosis, whereas Pike does not express PTNRD and mosaic is the only foliar symptom. To map loci that influence tuber and foliar symptoms, 236 F 1 progeny of a cross between Waneta and Pike were inoculated with PVY NTN isolate NY090029 and genotyped using 12,808 potato SNPs. Foliar symptom type and severity were monitored for 10 wk, while tubers were evaluated for PTNRD expression at harvest and again after 60 d in storage. Pairwise correlation analyses indicate a strong association between PTNRD and vein necrosis (τ = 0.4195). QTL analyses revealed major-effect QTL on chromosomes 4 and 5 for mosaic, 4 for PTNRD, and 5 for foliar necrosis symptoms. Locating QTL associated with PVY-related symptoms provides a foundation for breeders to develop markers that can be used to eliminate potato clones with undesirable phenotypes, e.g. , those likely to develop PTNRD or to be symptomless carriers of PVY. Copyright © 2017 Silva et al.

  18. Expression of modified 7SL RNA gene in transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Lukáš; Matoušek, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2005), 371-380 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : transgenic plants * Solanum tuberosum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  19. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized.

  20. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized

  1. Antifungal activity of secondary plant metabolites from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.): Glycoalkaloids and phenolic acids show synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Maldonado, A F; Schieber, A; Gänzle, M G

    2016-04-01

    To study the antifungal effects of the potato secondary metabolites α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and caffeic acid, alone or combined. Resistance to glycoalkaloids varied among the fungal species tested, as derived from minimum inhibitory concentrations assays. Synergistic antifungal activity between glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds was found. Changes in the fluidity of fungal membranes caused by potato secondary plant metabolites were determined by calculation of the generalized polarization values. The results partially explained the synergistic effect between caffeic acid and α-chaconine and supported findings on membrane disruption mechanisms from previous studies on artificial membranes. LC/MS analysis was used to determine variability and relative amounts of sterols in the different fungal species. Results suggested that the sterol pattern of fungi is related to their resistance to potato glycoalkaloids and to their taxonomy. Fungal resistance to α-chaconine and possibly other glycoalkaloids is species dependent. α-Chaconine and caffeic acid show synergistic antifungal activity. The taxonomic classification and the sterol pattern play a role in fungal resistance to glycoalkaloids. Results improve the understanding of the antifungal mode of action of potato secondary metabolites, which is essential for their potential utilization as antifungal agents in nonfood systems. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Désirée, Merkur and transgenic Désirée line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons

  3. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Desiree, Merkur and transgenic Desiree line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons

  4. Functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase (C3’H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated or characterized i...

  5. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  6. Molecular and biological characterisation of two novel pomo-like viruses associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum) fields in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Jose Fernando; Adams, Ian; Boonham, Neil; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-06-01

    Potato is the fourth most important crop worldwide that is used as a staple food, after rice, wheat and maize. The crop can be affected by a large number of pathogens, including fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and viruses. Diseases caused by viruses are among the most important factors contributing to reduced quality and yield of the crop. Potato mop-top virus (genus Pomovirus) induces necrotic flecks in the tuber flesh and skin of potato in temperate countries. Spongospora subterranea is the vector of PMTV. Both the virus and its vector cause disease in potato. In Colombia, PMTV has been detected throughout the country together with a novel pomo-like virus in the centre (Cundinamarca and Boyacá) and south west (Nariño) of the country. We studied the molecular and biological characteristics of this novel virus. Its genome resembles those of members of the genus Pomovirus, and it is closely related to PMTV. It induces mild systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana (mosaic, branch curling), but no symptoms in N. tabacum, N. debneyi and Chenopodium amaranticolor. The proposed name for the virus is "Colombian potato soil-borne virus" (CPSbV). Additionally, another pomo-like virus was identified in Nariño. This virus induces severe systemic stem declining and mild mosaic in N. benthamiana. The tentative name "soil-borne virus 2" (SbV2) is proposed for this virus. No vectors have been identified for these viruses despite several attempts. This work focused on the characterisation of CPSbV. The risk posed by these viruses if they are introduced into new territories is discussed.

  7. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2012-06-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P pigeon pea starch respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, breakdown, final and setback viscosities increased with increasing levels of pigeon pea starch while peak time and pasting temperature decreased. The sensory attributes of stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics.

  8. Pectin engineering to modify product quality in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Heather A; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Hancock, Robert D; Verrall, Susan R; Morris, Jenny A; Tucker, Gregory A; Stewart, Derek; Hedley, Pete E; McDougall, Gordon J; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Although processed potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity as a potential factor impacting on textural properties, and the expression of a gene encoding an isoform of PME (PEST1) was associated with cooked tuber textural properties. In this study, a transgenic approach was undertaken to investigate further the impact of the PEST1 gene. Antisense and over-expressing potato lines were generated. In over-expressing lines, tuber PME activity was enhanced by up to 2.3-fold; whereas in antisense lines, PME activity was decreased by up to 62%. PME isoform analysis indicated that the PEST1 gene encoded one isoform of PME. Analysis of cell walls from tubers from the over-expressing lines indicated that the changes in PME activity resulted in a decrease in pectin methylation. Analysis of processed tuber texture demonstrated that the reduced level of pectin methylation in the over-expressing transgenic lines was associated with a firmer processed texture. Thus, there is a clear link between PME activity, pectin methylation and processed tuber textural properties. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Influence of the time of application of 32P triple Superphosphate on the efficiency of the phosphate fertilization and the productivity of the potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Alvarez, A.L.; Urquiaga, S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was performed on a soil derived from volcanic ash (Andic Humitropept), in Pasto (Narino), Colombia, to investigate the influence of additions of 100 and 200 Kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 , at two application times (planting and 30 days after emergence - DAE), on the fertilizer use efficiency and productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Pardo Pastusa. At planting the phosphorus was applied in a continuous row in the furrow, and at 30 DAE at one side of the plant row, and immediately covered with soil from both sides of the furrow. The fertilizer used was 32 P labelled triple superphosphate (143.59 μ Ci.g -1 p -1 . It was found that: a) the phosphorus fertilization significantly increased (P -1 ) and the accumulation (from 8 to 17.8 kg P ha -1 ) by the tubers, but there was no significant effect of the different rates or times of the fertilizer application; b) the accumulation of P by the plant accompanied the accumulation of plant dry matter; c) at 75 DAE the fraction of fertiliser P in the plant shoot in the treatment fertilized at 30 DAE (52.1%) was significantly higher than that fertilized at planting (21.8%), and this corresponded to a P fertilizer use efficiency of 2.4 and 0.82, respectively

  10. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  11. Evaluation of biol`s effect on fourteen accession of native potato (Solanum ssp. at the experimental station kallutaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condori-Mamani Pastor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bolivia the productive potato regions, you characterize for an extensive agriculture in blankets (of traditional form, of car subsistence and not much diversified, the little properties for the cultivation of potato possess the greater part of the productive, and they locate at little plots of land that annually they go rotating. The present research work has the objective to make a comparison and to characterize fourteen accessions of native potato of germoplasma's collection, of Agronomic Ingeniería's race, (UPEA. The study carried completion at Kallutaca's experiment station itself, becoming established on the basis of a Design Bloques Complete at random (DBCA with three repetitions each accession, the second factor is diligent biol's dose, considered himself like a stimulant compound fito, for cultivations, where increments in the capability of photosynthesis and the production allow principal. Whose moral values place between 2.0 2.6% themselves (% in dry material and that they yielded 3.3 %'s concentration of total N to 3.7%. The analysis of microcomputer Hierro's (132 ppm, Manganeso's, Cobre's and Zinc's presence with 12.1 and 6 ppm detected nutrient in the obtained effluent. Accessions Pole, Sacampaya, Sani imilla, Janq'o, collide, Runic Bola, Q'aysalla and Laramq'aysa had bigger development, the same the remainders have bigger performances they did not have the same incidence. This answer is due to a positive effect of the biol on the performance of tubers in accordance with dose of diligent biol the accessions of native potato where 1 with the application of dose of 25 % of Biol obtained to 10 t.h-1 an equivalent yield.

  12. Phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity of the native Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum L. Huagalina variety in La Libertad - Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rojas-Padilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato is grown and consumed throughout the world for their particular calori fi c nutritional value and vitamin C, but it also contai ns phytochemicals (secondary metabolites that have been studied and found to have positive effects in preventing degenerative diseases in human health, such as hypertensive activity , and also atherosclerosis , type 2 diabetes, liver fibrosis, Alzheimer's d isease, macular degeneration and cancer. We aimed to identify and quantify p henolic compounds in potatoes grown on El Zuro (EZ and Huayatan Alto (HA in Santiago de Chuco, La Libertad, Peru. The field trials were carried out in EZ (altitude 3750 m.a.s.l. and HA (altitude 3150 m.a.s.l. employing organic and inorganic fertilization respectively. Ext raction from the peel and flesh was obtained separately , with the following solution: 50% methanol, 50% deionized water and 0.5% acetic acid. The sample was inj ected into the system UPLC - MS / MS, using ESI ionization ( Electrospray Ionization and fifteen external reference standards. Thirteen metabolites were detected in the flesh and potato peel. The highest content of secondary metabolites (mg/100 g DW were: Chlorogenic acid (476.82 ± 63.58, neochlorogenic acid (87.90 ± 19.42 caffeic acid (77.53 ± 14.49 and vanillin (11.52 ± 1.38. The PCA ( Principal Components Analysis scores show that the highest concentration of metabolites was found in the peel of bot h cultivars. We concluded that the native potato Huagalina contains the genes expressed in different biosynthetic pathways of the metabolites found in this study .

  13. In vitro development of buds from tubers of potato (Solanum tuUerosum L.) subjected to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The 'in vitro' development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad is studied. The effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradication is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (author) [es

  14. Evaluation of Trace Elements in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from a Suburban Area of Naples, Italy: The "Triangle of Death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Antonella De; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Picazio, Giuseppe; Caiazzo, Marcello; D'auria, Jacopo Luigi; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminated food is a general health concern worldwide; it is necessary to evaluate food safety with respect to contaminants present in the edible parts of major food crops. This study evaluated the concentrations of 17 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn) from 51 potato plantations in the Campania region, inside the area known as the "Triangle of Death," with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Results confirm that the potatoes collected from the suburban area of Naples contained concentrations of trace elements below the safe limits prescribed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The concentrations of elements were similar to those reported for potatoes grown in other countries. Monitoring the content of toxic and potentially toxic elements is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance. The environmental persistence of metals may result in the accumulation of significant levels of these contaminants in plants. They are absorbed to different extents, depending on their source, soil and climatic factors, plant genotype, and agrotechnical conditions, thereby entering the food chain and representing a risk to human health.

  15. Combined Amendments of Nano-hydroxyapatite Immobilized Cadmium in Contaminated Soil-Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Lei; Yin, Jiang; Qi, Lipan; Feng, Yan

    2018-04-01

    The toxicity of cadmium (Cd) has posed major public health concern in crops grown in the Cd-contaminated soils. The effects of five amendments, nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and it combined with lime, zeolite, bone mill and fly ash on Cd immobilization in soils and uptake in potatoes, were investigated in a contaminated soil by pot experiments. The result showed that the applications of combined amendments significantly decreased the bioavailable Cd concentrations extracted by TCLP, DTPA-TEA and MgCl 2 in the contaminated soils, and changed the soluble and exchangeable and specifically sorbed fractions to oxide-bound and organic-bound fractions. Compared to the control group, the concentrations of Cd in the potato tubers grown in n-HA, n-HA + Fly ash, n-HA + Lime, n-HA + Bone mill and n-HA + Zeolite soil were reduced 17.4%, 20.7%, 15.2%, 32.6% and 39.1%, respectively. Nano-hydroxyapatite combined amendments was more effective in reducing bioavailable Cd concentrations and Cd accumulations in potatoes, especially for n-HA + Z.

  16. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF WEEDS AFTER POTATO CULTIVATION (Solanum tuberosum L. IN THE VENEZUELAN ANDES:AN AGROECOLOGICAL APPROACH

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    Pedro Manuel Villa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Weeds represent one problem for potato cultivation in the Venezuelan Andes; however ecological studies to improve their management are limited. This study has aimed to carry out a phytosociological survey of weed community after potato cultivation in Mérida, Mérida state, Venezuela. The experiment was carried out under a completely randomized design with 20 plots (2x2 m. The weeds surveys were conducted at two month intervals, randomly selecting five plots per session during June 2006 and February 2007, to 60 days after cultivation (DDC, 120, 180, and 240 DDC. The phytosociological survey was performed involving identification and quantification of numbers of individuals the weeds in each plot. After were estimated of phytosociological parameters such as density, frequency, abundance to calculate the importance value index. A multivariate non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS was performed using species abundances; also was used the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA with presence absence data. Seventeen families, 32 genera and 35 species of weeds were identified, with the Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae families showed higher importance within the community. The most important species in the all stages were Pennisetum clandestinum, Paspalum decumbens, Desmodium adscendens, Aldama dentata, Borreria laevis, and Jaegeria hirta. Significant differences in phytosociological parameters were observed among weed species at each stage and among the different stages after potato cultivation.

  17. Application of potato (Solanum tuberosum plant wastes for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dye from aqueous solution

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    Neha Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dye pollutants from the textile, paper, and leather industries are important sources of environmental contamination. In the present study an agricultural waste from potato plant (potato stem powder, PSP and potato leaves powder, PLP was used as an adsorbent for removal of the methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorbent materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of physico-chemical parameters, such as pHpzc, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dyes concentration and temperature. The kinetics of adsorption was studied by applying the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model better represented the adsorption kinetics and the mechanism was controlled by surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in enthalpy (ΔH°, entropy (ΔS° and Gibb’s free energy (ΔG° of adsorption systems were also determined and evaluated.

  18. The effect of mineral fertilization on fungi colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers after harvest and after storage

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    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact experiment conducted in Bałcyny, in which a late potato cultivar, Jasia, was grown. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization: A (N 80 kg × ha-1 P 80 kg × ha-1 K120 kg × ha-1 and B (N 120 kg × ha-1 P 144 kg × ha-1 K156 kg × ha-1, and foliar fertilization (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn and Solubor DF on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungal populations colonizing potato tubers. Fungi were isolated immediately after harvest and after a five-month storage period. After seven days of incubation, fungal colonies were transferred onto agar slants for microscopic identification. Over the entire experimental period, more pathogenic fungi were obtained from potato tubers analyzed after storage (62.9% of the total fungal population after storage than from those analyzed immediately after harvest (39.1%, and the greatest number of fungi was reported in 2004. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated most frequently, followed by Colletotrichum coccodes and Alternaria alternata. Pathogens of the genus Fusarium and the species Helminthosporium solani were not numerous. In the treatment A with soil mineral fertilization with lower NPK rates, larger numbers of pathogenic fungi were noted in 2004 after harvest and after five-month storage, and in 2005 after harvest. At the remaining dates of analysis, pathogens were more frequently isolated from potato tubers in experimental variant B with higher NPK rates. Immediately after harvest, the highest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated in the treatment with foliar application of ADOB Mn and Basfoliar 12-4-6. After five-month storage, pathogens most often colonized potato tubers in experimental variant B with foliar application of Solubor DF, Solubor DF and ADOB Mn, and in experimental variant A with a combination of fertilizers. In the other fertilization variants, including in the control

  19. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  20. Effect of an alternate weed host, hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, on the biology of the two most important potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) vectors, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Aphididae: Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Alvarez, Juan M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Novy, Richard G

    2008-04-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides (Sendtner), is a ubiquitous weed in potato agro-ecosystems and nonagricultural lands of southeastern Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. This weed increases the complexity of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polervirus)-potato pathosystem by serving as aphid and virus reservoir. Previous field studies showed higher densities of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), the two most important vectors of PLRV, on S. sarrachoides compared with potato plants in the same fields. Some of the S. sarrachoides plants sampled in these surveys tested positive for PLRV. Viral infections can alter the physiology of plant hosts and aphid performance on such plants. To understand better the potential effects of S. sarrachoides on the PLRV-potato-aphid pathosystem, the life histories of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae were compared on virus-free and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato. Individual nymphs of each aphid species were held in clip cages on plants from each treatment to monitor their development, survival, and reproductive output. Nymphal survival for both aphids across plant species was higher on S. sarrachoides than on potato, and, within plant species, it was higher on PLRV-infected plants than on noninfected plants. With a few exceptions, similar patterns occurred for fecundity, reproductive periods, adult longevity, and intrinsic rate of increase. The enhanced performance of aphids on S. sarrachoides and on PLRV-infected plants could alter the vector population dynamics and thus the PLRV-disease epidemiology in fields infested with this weed.

  1. The Effect of Climate Change on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Production in Feridonshahr Region of Isfahan I- Growth and Development

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    zohrab adavi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The historical trend of Iran annual average temperature of shows a 0.05 °C.year-1 increase which indicates that future emissions of greenhouse gases will continue to increase temperature and consequently cause to climatic change in the country. This change in environment will have a serious impact on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes like photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photo-assimilates. The negative impacts of climate change on potato production are reported in the literature. The present study was conducted to quantify the potential impacts of climate change on phenology, growth and tuber yield of potato. Materials and Methods The climate projections of Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3, France and Institute of Pierre Simon Laplace (IPCM4, United Kingdom, was used to simulate the future conditions based on A2, B1 and A1B SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios scenario at three time periods including 2015-2045 (2030, 2046-2075 (2060 and 2076-2105 (2090with a baseline of 1988-2012 (2012. For each period, the year shown in the parenthesis was considered as target year. The SUBSTOR-Potato model, one of the sixteen models embedded within the DSSAT (v4.5 program, was used to simulate the baseline and future yield and growth characteristics of potato. The model was calibrated and validated during 2012 and 2013 with two different farm experiments. In these experiments, the effects of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and morphological traits of three potato cultivars were investigated. Six levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg urea. ha-1 and three commonly planted potato cultivars in the region (Arinda, Santeh and Agria as early, medium and late maturity varieties, respectively were studied as a factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications

  2. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Acharya, Vishal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2013-08-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement.

  3. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs

  4. Effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation pf potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) during the storing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation of potato tubers stored during a period of six months is described by evaluating the loss by sprouting, transpiration and infections. The dose of 9 Krad inhibits sprouting with independence of the epoch in wich the treatment is made, on the other hand a dose of 6 Krad inhibits sprouting only if the tubers are irradiated during the resting period. The treatment with IPC gave similar results to those obtained with a dose of 9 Krad. (author) [es

  5. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months have been studied. By immediate effect of gamma radiation, an increase in the oxigen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers has been observed. Such increase persits even four months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated ''in vitro'' the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues.(author) [es

  6. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 150 kg ha-1 potassium combinations (NK, NPK, NPKMg). Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5 and 6). With the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of NK (Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95), NPK (Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96) and NPKMg (Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96) nutrition systems. The optimum yield ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. From 1962 to 1979 the weather was highly variable, with particularly frequent droughts and over rainfall resulting in yield losses of 13 to 32 percentin in this period. Thus it is important to analyse the consequences of possible future climate change on crop in Hungary. REFERENCES A.E. Johnston. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. Kádár, I-Márton, L.-Horváth, S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. László, M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László, M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László, M. 2001b. Year and N- fertilizer effect on winter rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László, M.-Imre, K.-Jose, E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99

  7. Impacts on the metabolome of down-regulating polyphenol oxidase in transgenic potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Estima) genetically modified (GM) to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and enzymatic discolouration were assessed for changes in the metabolome using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Gas Chromatography (GC)-MS. Metabolome changes ...

  8. Stem Cuttings as a Quick In Vitro Screening Method of Sodium Chloride Tolerance in Potato (Solanum) Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, A. Z.; Mix-Wagnar, G.; Elbassam, N.; Horst, W.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to find how far in vitro explants stem cuttings technique could be suitable for quick screening of NaCl tolerance solanum genotypes and to identify some aspects of their NaCl tolerance. Fifteen solanum genotypes were tested on four NaCl concentrations both in vitro and in vivo, two-node stem cuttings of in vitro produced explants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts supplemented with four NaCl concentrations (0,40,80 and 120 mM) for six weeks in vitro. The other part of the in vitro grown explants were transplanted in Kick- Brauck- Manns pots containing sandy loam soil supplemented also with four NaCl concentration (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 NaCl, w/w) and grown further either for eight weeks or till harvest in a green house. Both experiments were in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The main stem length, shoot dry matter and tuber yield as well as mineral element (Na''+, K + , Ca''2''+ and Cl''-) were measured. The growth of all genotypes was affected by increasing of NaCl. There was a close correlation between growth response (length of explant main stem) in vitro and shoot dry matter and tuber yield in vivo (r=0.81** for dry matter and 0.72** for tuber yield. Na''+ and Cl''- concentrations in shoots wee inversely correlated with the vegetative growth (r=-0.73** for both in vitro and r=-0.89** and r=-0.88** in vivo, respectively). The genotypes showed varied ability to reduce the transport of Na''+ and Cl''- to the shoots, where by NaCl tolerant genotypes showed lower content of both elements than the sensitive ones. K''+ and Ca''2''+ concentrations were decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. The responses for mineral element (Na''+ and Cl - ) accumulation or restriction of explants in vitro and intact plants in vivo were also closely correlated (r=0.79** and 0.71**, respectively) especially at the medium NaCl concentrations (80 mM and 0.2% NaCl). The similar response of the explant and the intact plant

  9. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Elke M.; Czapla, Sylvia; Jahnke, Anuschka; Willmitzer, Lothar; Heyer, Arnd G.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography. These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species. Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves. Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers. PMID:10890908

  10. The differential gene expression of key enzyme in the gibberellin pathway in the potato (solanum tuberosum) mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.B.; Ye, G.J.; Yang, Y.Z.; Wang, F.; Zhou, Y; Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the expression patterns of the key genes in the gibberellin synthesis pathway in the potato dwarf mutant M4P-9 were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Using Actin as an internal control, CPS1, KS, KO, GA20ox1, and GA2ox1, genes for key gibberellin synthesis enzymes, were evaluated, along with a gibberellin receptor gene. The standard curves were obtained from dilutions of PCR product; the correlation coefficient for Actin was 0.995, and those for the target genes varied from 0.994 to 1.000. The expression patterns of gibberellin pathway genes in different growth stages and tissues were calculated according to the method of Pfaffl. These genes showed expression patterns that varied based on growth stage and tissue type. The higher expression levels of CPS1 and GA2ox1 in roots, the lower expression levels of GA20ox1 in roots during tuber formation stage; as well as the increased expression of GA20ox1 and GA2ox1 genes in stems during the tuber formation stage, likely play key roles in the plant height phenotype in M4P-9 mutant materials. This article provides a basis for researching the mechanism of gibberellin synthesis in potato. (author)

  11. Chlorogenic acid, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol biosynthesis in flesh and skin of Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; Ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2017-08-15

    Natural variation of Andean potato was used to study the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. Levels of phenolic compounds and corresponding structural gene transcripts were examined in flesh and skin of tubers. Phenolic acids, mainly chlorogenic acid (CGA), represent the major compounds, followed by anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols. High-anthocyanin varieties have high levels of CGA. Both metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh and showed a good correspondence. Two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferases (HCT/HQT) have been involved in CGA production, of which HCT reflects CGA levels. Catechin was found in pigmented tissues whereas epicatechin was restricted to tuber skin. Transcripts of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR), which generates catechin, could not be detected. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) transcripts, the enzyme responsible for epicatechin production, showed similar levels among samples. These data suggest that the biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols in potato tuber would require ANR but not LCR and that an epimerization process is involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling the influence of raindrop size on the wash-off losses of copper-based fungicides sprayed on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Paradelo, Marcos; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Fernández-Calviño, David; López-Periago, José Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the pesticide wash-off by raindrops is important for predicting pesticide losses and the subsequent transport of pesticides to soil and in soil run-off. Three foliar-applied copper-based fungicide formulations, specifically the Bordeaux mixture (BM), copper oxychloride (CO), and a mixture of copper oxychloride and propylene glycol (CO-PG), were tested on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves using a laboratory raindrop simulator. The losses in the wash-off were quantified as both copper in-solution loss and copper as particles detached by the raindrops. The efficiency of the raindrop impact on the wash-off was modeled using a stochastic model based on the pesticide release by raindrops. In addition, the influence of the raindrop size, drop falling height, and fungicide dose was analyzed using a full factorial experimental design. The average losses per dose after 14 mm of dripped water for a crop with a leaf area index equal to 1 were 0.08 kg Cu ha(-1) (BM), 0.3 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO) and 0.47 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO-PG). The stochastic model was able to simulate the time course of the wash-off losses and to estimate the losses of both Cu in solution and as particles by the raindrop impacts. For the Cu-oxychloride fungicides, the majority of the Cu was lost as particles that detached from the potato leaves. The percentage of Cu lost increased with the decreasing raindrop size in the three fungicides for the same amount of dripped water. This result suggested that the impact energy is not a limiting factor in the particle detachment rate of high doses. The dosage of the fungicide was the most influential factor in the losses of Cu for the three formulations studied. The results allowed us to quantify the factors that should be considered when estimating the losses by the wash-off of copper-based fungicides and the inputs of copper to the soil by raindrop wash-off.

  13. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  14. Yield and Nitrogen Assimilation of Potato Varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.) as Affected by Saline Water Irrigation and Organic Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, A.; Gadalla, A.M.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Ismail, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in lysimeter under controlled greenhouse conditions. Saline water was applied in different levels, i.e. fresh water, 3 and 6 dS/m. Organic manure were applied to soil at rates of 0, 2.6 and 5.2 kg/m2. Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labelled urea (10% a.e.) was applied at rate of 200 kg N/ha. 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer efficiency. Comparison held between the two potato varieties indicated that higher reduction in shoot dry weight was recorded with Nicola variety than Spunta one which irrigated with 6 dS/m water salinity level. Addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 organic rate induced an increase in N uptake with fresh water and 3 dS/m salinity then tended to decrease with 6 dS/m level as compared to the untreated control. Concerning the nitrogen fertilization, data of 15 N analysis showed that, water salinity levels combined with organic addition rates were frequently affected the nitrogen derived from fertilizer and consequently the fertilizer use efficiency. Most of nitrogen was derived from the applied nitrogen fertilizer with maximum accumulation in tuber rather than shoots or roots of both potato varieties. Gradual increase of tuber starch with increasing salinity levels was noticed with addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 of organic matter. In general, Spunta variety showed some superiority in tuber starch over those of Nicola variety tuber

  15. Comparative shoot proteome analysis of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes contrasting in nitrogen deficiency responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Philipp; Jozefowicz, Anna Maria; Uptmoor, Ralf; Mock, Hans-Peter; Ordon, Frank; Schum, Annegret

    2017-08-23

    Aiming at a better understanding of the physiological and biochemical background of nitrogen use efficiency, alterations in the shoot proteome under N-deficiency were investigated in two contrasting potato genotypes grown in vitro with 60 and 7.5mM N, respectively. A gel based proteomic approach was applied to identify candidate proteins associated with genotype specific responses to N-deficiency. 21% of the detected proteins differed in abundance between the two genotypes. Between control and N-deficiency conditions 19.5% were differentially accumulated in the sensitive and 15% in the tolerant genotype. 93% of the highly N-deficiency responsive proteins were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The major part was associated with photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, stress response and regulation. Differential accumulation of enzymes involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis suggest activation of alternative carbohydrate pathways. In the tolerant genotype, increased abundance under N-deficiency was also found for enzymes involved in chlorophyll synthesis and stability of enzymes, which increase photosynthetic carbon fixation efficiency. Out of a total of 106 differentially abundant proteins, only eight were detected in both genotypes. Our findings suggest that mutually responsive proteins reflect universal stress responses while adaptation to N-deficiency in metabolic pathways is more genotype specific. Nitrogen losses from arable farm land considerably contribute to environmental pollution. In potato, this is a special problem due cultivation on light soils, irrigation and the shallow root system. Therefore, breeding of cultivars with improved nitrogen use efficiency and stable yields under reduced N fertilization is an important issue. Knowledge of genotype dependent adaptation to N-deficiency at the proteome level can help to understand regulation of N efficiency and development of N-efficient cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Two carbon fluxes to reserve starch in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber cells are closely interconnected but differently modulated by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettke, Joerg; Leifels, Lydia; Brust, Henrike; Herbst, Karoline; Steup, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Parenchyma cells from tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. convert several externally supplied sugars to starch but the rates vary largely. Conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to starch is exceptionally efficient. In this communication, tuber slices were incubated with either of four solutions containing equimolar [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate, [U-¹⁴C]sucrose, [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate plus unlabelled equimolar sucrose or [U-¹⁴C]sucrose plus unlabelled equimolar glucose 1-phosphate. C¹⁴-incorporation into starch was monitored. In slices from freshly harvested tubers each unlabelled compound strongly enhanced ¹⁴C incorporation into starch indicating closely interacting paths of starch biosynthesis. However, enhancement disappeared when the tubers were stored. The two paths (and, consequently, the mutual enhancement effect) differ in temperature dependence. At lower temperatures, the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is functional, reaching maximal activity at approximately 20 °C but the flux of the sucrose-dependent route strongly increases above 20 °C. Results are confirmed by in vitro experiments using [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate or adenosine-[U-¹⁴C]glucose and by quantitative zymograms of starch synthase or phosphorylase activity. In mutants almost completely lacking the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme(s), the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is largely impeded. Irrespective of the size of the granules, glucose 1-phosphate-dependent incorporation per granule surface area is essentially equal. Furthermore, within the granules no preference of distinct glucosyl acceptor sites was detectable. Thus, the path is integrated into the entire granule biosynthesis. In vitro C¹⁴C-incorporation into starch granules mediated by the recombinant plastidial phosphorylase isozyme clearly differed from the in situ results. Taken together, the data clearly demonstrate that two closely but flexibly interacting general paths of starch biosynthesis are functional

  17. Distribución Diferencial de Bacterias con Potencial Biocontrolador de Spongospora subterranea en Plantas de Papa (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro Differential Distrubution of Candidadate Biocontrol Bacteria against Spongospora subterranea in Potato Plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soler Arango

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La búsqueda de microorganismos promisorios para biocontrol de patógenos de plantas en el suelo con frecuencia se ha orientado a la detección de productores de hormonas y enzimas líticas, condiciones asociadas a su capacidad para promover crecimiento vegetal. Sin embargo, el suelo es altamente variable en escalas pequeñas y se conoce poco sobre la distribución espacial de microorganismos que expresan esas funciones. Este estudio determinó la capacidad de producción de indoles totales y quitinasas en bacterias cultivables aisladas del interior de la raíz, la rizósfera, la superficie de los tubérculos o suelo de un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum variedad Diacol Capiro. Las muestras se obtuvieron en un campo comercial en el municipio de la Unión en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, en plantas que presentaban síntomas de infección por Spongospora subterranea. Se encontró una producción diferencial de indoles o quitinasas según el sitio de aislamiento de las bacterias. No se encontró una alta producción de ambas actividades en un sólo aislamiento, la mayor producción de indoles totales y quitinasas se encontró en bacterias aisladas a partir de raíz y rizósfera, comparada con las aisladas de tubérculos y suelo. Estos resultados sugieren que en el suelo no es aleatoria la distribución de funciones deseables en controladores biológicos. Con estos resultados es posible orientar su búsqueda para optimizar el uso de recursos y el desarrollo de nuevos bioproductos.Abstract. Searching for promising microorganisms to biocontrol soil-borne plant pathogens has been often focused on producers of hormone and lytic enzymes, since these traits are linked to plant growth promotion. However, the environment from inner roots to bulk soil is quite variable, and little is known about the spatial distribution of microorganisms expressing these desirable traits. Using potato plants (Solanum tuberosum var. Diacol Capiro from a

  18. Determinación del acido abscisico en papa (Solanum sp. como respuesta a bajas temperaturas Abscisic acid determination in potato (Solanum sp. as a response to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Luz Yineth

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, existen importantes áreas con amplio potencial
    agrícola, las cuales presentan restricciones ambientales para su utilización durante determinadas épocas del año, a causa de las heladas que provocan las bajas temperaturas. Éste es el caso del Altiplano Cundiboyasence, en el cual el fenómeno en mención afecta, drásticamente, los cultivos hasta ocasionar disminución del rendimiento o perdidas totales. El presente trabajo tuvo como finalidad detectar la presencia de Acido Abscísico (ABA en las siguientes variedades de papa de la especie Solanum sp.: 'Capiro', 'Única', 'Chitagá', 'Morita', 'Pastusa', 'ICA-Zipa' y 'Nativa' (silvestre. El análisis se hizo en el estadio de prefloración bajo condiciones de temperatura ambiente (-20°C y expuestas a una simulación de helada (-4°C. Para la extracción de ABA, se recolectaron hojas del tercio superior de la planta y se sometieron a extracción Líquido-Líquido y, para su cuantificación, se utilizó el bioensayo de la inhibición del coleóptilo de trigo (Triticun tensa vulgare L., el cual se realizó por cromatografía de capa fina. Entre las variedades estudiadas, se obtuvieron dos grupos de respuesta: susceptibles y tolerantes, las cuales están asociadas con la posible ausencia o presencia de ABA. En las variedades 'ICA-Zipa' y 'Chitagá' no se detectó la presencia de ABA, como tampoco, se observó tolerancia a las bajas temperaturas. En las variedades 'Capiro', 'Pastusa', 'Nativa', 'Única' y 'Morita', se observó mayor tolerancia a las bajas temperaturas.
    There are many important geographical areas in Colombia with a high agricultural potential. They have environmental
    constrains, however, to be used in certain periods during the
    year because of the low temperature. This happens in the
    Cundiboyasence plateau, in which, this phenomenon affects
    dramatically the growing of potato crops up to the point of
    causing a decrease in production or

  19. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40 mg.kg-1, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 mg.kg-1. The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  20. Assessment of Paclobutrazol’s Time and Concentration of Foliar Application on Production and Germination of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Mini-tube

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    B Saadatian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. seeds are important in the potato seed production technology. Moreover, the basic seed materials must be free of pathogens. Therefore tissue culture techniques are used at this stage in the laboratory to produce disease free seeds. Mini-tubers can be produced after acclimatization from plantlets as tissue culture which are planted at high densities in the greenhouse in beds or containers using different substrate mixtures, or even in hydroponic culture. Foliar application of growth regulators is a way to increase potato mini-tuber production. Growth regulators influence on potato mini-tuber dormancy. Triazoles, a family which Paclobutrazol belongs to them, have both fungitoxic and plant growth regulatory effects. In addition, they can also protect plants against various stresses. Therefore, the triazoles have been characterized as plant multi-protestants. Paclobutrazol changes the relationship between source and sink and by this way, affects plant production. Also, it can inhibit giberellic acid biosynthesis. Some morphological changes observed in paclobutrazol-treated plants include the inhibition of plant growth, decreased inter-nodal elongation and increased root to shoot ratios. Time of paclobutrazol foliar application is an important factor which changes plant characters (Lim et al., 2004. This study implemented to evaluate foliar application of paclobutrazol concentrations at different time on production and mini-tuber dormancy. Materials and Methods The factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at the faculty of agriculture’s research greenhouse, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Plantlets of Agria cv. produced from nodal tissue culture in Murashinge and Skoog (MS medium. After 25 days, plantlets of free disease and uniform exported to plastic pots with 12 cm diameter and 30 cm height. Perlite, cocopite

  1. CCD-Based Skinning Injury Recognition on Potato Tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.): A Comparison between Visible and Biospeckle Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingwang; Geng, Jinfeng; Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin

    2016-10-18

    Skinning injury on potato tubers is a kind of superficial wound that is generally inflicted by mechanical forces during harvest and postharvest handling operations. Though skinning injury is pervasive and obstructive, its detection is very limited. This study attempted to identify injured skin using two CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor-based machine vision technologies, i.e., visible imaging and biospeckle imaging. The identification of skinning injury was realized via exploiting features extracted from varied ROIs (Region of Interests). The features extracted from visible images were pixel-wise color and texture features, while region-wise BA (Biospeckle Activity) was calculated from biospeckle imaging. In addition, the calculation of BA using varied numbers of speckle patterns were compared. Finally, extracted features were implemented into classifiers of LS-SVM (Least Square Support Vector Machine) and BLR (Binary Logistic Regression), respectively. Results showed that color features performed better than texture features in classifying sound skin and injured skin, especially for injured skin stored no less than 1 day, with the average classification accuracy of 90%. Image capturing and processing efficiency can be speeded up in biospeckle imaging, with captured 512 frames reduced to 125 frames. Classification results obtained based on the feature of BA were acceptable for early skinning injury stored within 1 day, with the accuracy of 88.10%. It is concluded that skinning injury can be recognized by visible and biospeckle imaging during different stages. Visible imaging has the aptitude in recognizing stale skinning injury, while fresh injury can be discriminated by biospeckle imaging.

  2. Effect of genetic modification of potato starch on decomposition of leaves and tubers and on fungal decomposer communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannula, S.E.; De Boer, W.; Baldrian, P.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a risk evaluation of growing genetically modified crops, we investigated the effects of a genetic modification of starch quality (increased level of amylopectin) in potato tubers (Solanum Tuberosum L.) on the decomposition of tissues (tubers and leaves) as well as on the associated fungal

  3. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  4. Nematofauna asociada a la rizosfera de papas (Solanum tuberosum cultivadas en la zona productora del Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México Nematode fauna associated with the rhizosphere of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum grown in the region of Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Desgarennes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron y clasificaron en grupos tróficos las especies de nematodos asociados a la rizosfera de Solanum tuberosum en suelos altamente infectados por el nematodo dorado de la papa (Globodera rostochiensis en un ciclo de cultivo, en la zona productora del Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México. Se identificaron 7 géneros (Aphelenchoides, Aphelenchus, Crassolabium, Mesodorylaimus, Plectus y Steinernema y 8 especies (Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus, Ecumenicus monohystera, Acrobeles mariannae, Acrobeles singulus, Acrobeloides nanus, Cruznema tripartitum, Eucephalobus oxyuroides, y Globodera rostochiensis en asociación con la rizosfera de papas cultivadas. Crassolabium sp. y E. monohystera se registran por primera vez para México.Nematode species associated with the rhizosphere of Solanum tuberosum were identified and classified into trophic groups from soils highly infected by the golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis in a single crop cycle in the producing zone on the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. Seven genera (Aphelenchoides, Aphelenchus, Crassolabium, Mesodorylaimus, Plectus and Steinernema and 8 species (Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus, Ecumenicus monohystera, Acrobeles mariannae, Acrobeles singulus, Acrobeloides nanus, Cruznema tripartitum, Eucephalobus oxyuroides, and Globodera rostochiensis were found in association with the rhizosphere of cultivated potatoes. Crassolabium sp. and E. monohystera are recorded for the first time in México.

  5. Influence of Species of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phosphorus Nutrition on Growth, Development, and Mineral Nutrition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, DAJ.; Knowles, N. R.

    1993-07-01

    Growth, development, and mineral physiology of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants in response to infection by three species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and different levels of P nutrition were characterized. P deficiency in no-P and low-P (0.5 mM) nonmycorrhizal plants developed between 28 and 84 d after planting. By 84 d after planting, P deficiency decreased plant relative growth rate such that no-P and low-P plants had, respectively, 65 and 45% less dry mass and 76 and 55% less total P than plants grown with high P (2.5 mM). A severe reduction in leaf area was also evident, because P deficiency induced a restriction of lateral bud growth and leaf expansion and, also, decreased the relative plant allocation of dry matter to leaf growth. Root growth was less influenced by P deficiency than either leaf or stem growth. Moreover, P-deficient plants accumulated a higher proportion of total available P than high-P plants, indicating that P stress had enhanced root efficiency of P acquisition. Plant P deficiency did not alter the shoot concentration of N, K, Mg, or Fe; however, the total accumulation of these mineral nutrients in shoots of P-stressed plants was substantially less than that of high-P plants. P uptake by roots was enhanced by each of the VAM symbionts by 56 d after planting and at all levels of abiotic P supply. Species differed in their ability to colonize roots and similarly to produce a plant growth response. In this regard, Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) enhanced plant growth the most, whereas Glomus dimorphicum (Boyetchko and Tewari) was least effective, and Glomus mosseae ([Nicol. and Gerd.] Gerd. and Trappe) produced an intermediate growth response. The partial alleviation of P deficiency in no-P and low-P plants by VAM fungi stimulated uptake of N, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn. VAM fungi enhanced shoot concentrations of P, N, and Mg by 28 d after planting and, through a general improvement of overall plant mineral nutrition

  6. Comparative Analysis of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production in the Farming Sectors that Emerged from Zimbabwe’s Radical Land Reform of 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 European Association for Potato ResearchIrish potato production in Zimbabwe can be traced back to the early 1900s. Large-scale commercial farmers dominated production until the early 2000s. Potato is the most important horticultural crop and has been declared a strategic national food

  7. Detection of genetically modified organisms in foreign-made processed foods containing corn and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Sagi, Naoki; Satoh, Masaki; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Satoh, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kamata, Kunihiro; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2005-06-01

    Investigations of the validity of labeling regarding genetically modified (GM) products were conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for foreign-made processed foods made from corn and potato purchased in the Tokyo area and in the USA. Several kinds of GM crops were detected in 12 of 32 samples of processed corn samples. More than two GM events for which safety reviews have been completed in Japan were simultaneously detected in 10 samples. GM events MON810 and Bt11 were most frequently detected in the samples by qualitative PCR methods. MON810 was detected in 11 of the 12 samples, and Bt11 was detected in 6 of the 12 samples. In addition, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one of the 12 samples. On the other hand, CBH351, for which the safety assessment was withdrawn in Japan, was not detected in any of the 12 samples. A trial quantitative analysis was performed on six of the GM maize qualitatively positive samples. The estimated amounts of GM maize in these samples ranged from 0.2 to 2.8%, except for one sample, which contained 24.1%. For this sample, the total amount found by event-specific quantitative analysis was 23.8%. Additionally, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one sample of 21 potato-processed foods, although GM potatoes were not detected in any sample.

  8. Comparison of gamma radiation effects on natural corn and potato starches and modified cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bruna S.; Garcia, Rafael H. L.; Takinami, Patricia Y. I.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irradiation treatment on physicochemical properties of three natural polymers, i.e. native potato and corn starches and a typical Brazilian product, cassava starch modified through fermentation -sour cassava- and also to prepare composite hydrocolloid films based on them. Starches were irradiated in a 60Co irradiation chamber in doses up to 15 kGy, dose rate about 1 kGy/h. Differences were found in granule size distribution upon irradiation, mainly for corn and cassava starch but radiation did not cause significant changes in granule morphology. The viscosity of the potato, corn and cassava starches hydrogels decreased as a function of absorbed dose. Comparing non-irradiated and irradiated starches, changes in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra in the 2000-1500 cm-1 region for potato and corn starches were observed but not for the cassava starch. Maximum rupture force of the starch-based films was affected differently for each starch type; color analysis showed that doses of 15 kGy promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L* (lightness) was not significantly affected; X-ray diffraction patterns remained almost unchanged by irradiation.

  9. Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.K.; Abid, H.

    2008-01-01

    White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

  10. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  11. Molecular evolution of the disease resistance gene Rx in Solanum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butterbach, P.B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) is the fourth most important food crop with an annual yield of about 300 million tons over the world. The history of the domestication of potato shows that disease-causing agents followed the tracks of potato cultivation in temperate climates

  12. Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Sheu, Fuu; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-02-24

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been identified as the causal agent of several disease epidemics in most countries of the world. Insect-mediated virus diseases, such as those caused by CMV, caused remarkable loss of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) production in Taiwan. With expression of the CMV coat protein gene (Cmvcp) in a local popular tomato cultivar L4783, transgenic tomato line R8 has showed consistent CMV resistance through T(0) to T(8). In this report, the allergenicity of the CMV coat protein (CMV cp) expressed in transgenic tomato R8 was assessed by investigation of the expression of the transgene source of protein, sequence similarity with known allergens, and resistance to pepsin hydrolysis. There is no known account for either the CMV or its coat protein being an allergen. The result of a bioinformatic search also showed no significant homology between CMV cp and any known allergen. The pepsin-susceptible property of recombinant CMV cp was revealed by a simulated gastric fluid (SGF) assay. Following the most recent FAO/WHO decision tree, all results have indicated that CMV cp was a protein with low possibility to be an allergen and the transgenic tomato R8 should be considered as safe as its host.

  13. Variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L.. I - Comportamento de 12 variedades procedentes da Holanda, Alemanha e Suécia Behavior of twelve potato varieties from European sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatadas experiências com 12 variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., recebidas da Holanda (Prinslander, Irene, Froma e Barima, Alemanha (Merkur, Sabina, Linda e Concordia e Suécia Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran e Jätte-Bintje. Essas experiências, em número de seis, das quais três no chamado período "da sêca" (março-julho e três no "das águas" (setembro-janeiro, foram executadas nas localidades de Campinas, Louveira o Capão Bonito, no Estado de São Paulo. Ficou evidenciado o seguinte: a dado o bom estado de brotação dos tubérculos, as porcentagens de falhas no plantio "da sêca" foram baixas; já no plantio "das águas", as variedades de brotação lenta, como "Voran" e "Sabina", falharam muito; b "Prinslander" e "Konsuragis" resistiram bem à sêca prolongada, e "Barima" o "Linda" mostraram ser muito sensíveis; c "Linda", "Voran" e "Merkur", principalmente a primeira destas, apresentaram boa resistência a Phytophthora infestans, e "Jätte-Bintje" foi muito suscetível; "Voran", "Irene", "Prinslander" e "Barima" não ofereceram resistência a Alternaria solani; d "Merkur" e "Konsuragis" foram as mais produtivas para as duas épocas de plantio, sendo que "nas águas", "Eigenheimer", "Barima", "Concordia" e Jätte-Bintje", também produziram bem. Outros aspectos relacionados com variedades foram estudados.Twelve potato varieties imported from Holland (Prinslander, Irene, Froma, and Barima, Germany (Merkur, Sabina, Linda, and Concordia, and Sweden (Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran, and Jätte-Bintje were compared in six experiments carried out at three different localities in the state of São Paulo (Campinas, Louveira, and Capão Bonito. The experiments were planted twice a year, once during the so-called dry season (March lo July, and another time during the rainy season (September to March. The following results were obtained: a plantings made in the dry season had a good stand, whereas this was

  14. Extra soil fertilization of mother plants increases botanical seed yield but not long-term germination in wild Solanum (potato) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato has about 100 wild species relatives that are multiplied in the form of botanical seed populations by genebanks, and distributed for use in research and breeding, so factors that affect long term seed germination are of interest. In 1987 the US Potato Genebank conducted routine seed multiplic...

  15. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 1. Relationships between dry matter content, sensory-perceived texture and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Fischer, M.; Holm, J.; Beekhuizen, J.G.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Boeriu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of fresh potatoes, including dry matter (DM) content, starch content, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra, were determined and related to the sensory-perceived texture of the steam-cooked samples. To quantify these relationships, three potato cultivars, respectively representing a firm

  16. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  17. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Granstedt, Artur

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  18. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L. Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kjellenberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA, consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  19. Detection of Genetic Modification 'ac2' in Potato Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kralik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic modification 'ac2' is based on the insertion and expression of ac2 gene, originally found in seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus, into the genome of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum. The purpose of the present study is to develop a PCR method for the detection of the mentioned genetically modified potatoes in various foodstuffs. The method was used to test twenty different potato-based products; none of them was positive for the genetic modification 'ac2'. The European Union legislation requires labelling of products made of or containing more than 0.9 % of genetically modified organisms. The genetic modification 'ac2' is not allowed on the European Union market. For that reason it is suitable to have detection methods, not only for the approved genetic modifications, but also for the 'unknown' ones, which could still occur in foodstuffs.

  20. Distribution of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within granules of modified sweet potato starches as determined after chemical peeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin, Z.; Buwalda, P.; Gruppen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within granules of cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starches were investigated. Chemical surface peeling of starch granules was performed after sieving of native and modified starches into large-size (diameter = 20 µm) and

  1. Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found.

  2. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de; Lima, Eduardo; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha -1 of N + K with 27.03% at P -1 , in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  3. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Sect. Petota (Wild and Cultivated Potatoes) are Drastically Altered as a Result of PBI-Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, the latest comprehensive taxonomic monograph of Solanum section Petota Dumort recognized 232 species partitioned into 21 series. PBI-sponsored research has drastically altered knowledge of their species boundaries and interrelationships. The series contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraplo...

  4. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  5. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negichi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate) of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars ('Toyoshiro', 'Kitahime', 'Snowden' and 'Poroshiri') were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.

  6. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae); Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de acucares soluveis sobre populacoes de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) e Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Pinheiral, RJ (Brazil). Pro-Reitoria de Extensao], e-mail: edsonhenrique.azeredo@bol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Centro Integrado de Manejo de Pragas C.R.G.

    2004-03-15

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha{sup -1} of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha{sup -1}, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  7. Effect of Dose and Oxadiargyl Application Time at the Different Growth Stages on Weed Biomass and Tuber Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of dose and application time of oxadiargyl, as a postemergence herbicide, on weed biomass and tuber yield of potato, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications was conducted at Alaroog Research Station at the University of Mohaghegh-Ardabili in 2013. Treatments consisted of oxadiargyl dosages (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 lit a.i /ha, and its time of applications at different potato growth stages (potato emergence, stolon initiation and potato tuber bulking, weed free treatment was considered as control. Statistical analysis showed that 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl reduced biomass of weed by 66.16 percent. Oxadiargyl application at emergence time resulted in highest percent reduction of weed biomass. Results, also, showed that application 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl, after weed free condition, increased number of seed tuber and total tuber yield by 82.16 and 51.59 percent respectively, but it reduced number of non seed tuber by 43.17 percent. Application of oxadiargyl at emergence time, as compared with the other application times, resulted in highest increase in the number of seed tuber and total tuber yield, but it did not affected number of non seed tubers. Interaction effect of dose by time of oxadiargyl application revealed that using 0.8 lit a.i/ha dose at potato emergence time increased number of edible tubers by 100%. It may be conducted that application of this dose at potato emergence time was highly efficient in controlling weeds and increasing potato tuber yield.

  8. Efeito da substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por farinha de casca de batata (Solanum Tuberosum Lineu Effect of the partial replacement of wheat flour for potato skin flour (Solanum Tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento dos subprodutos da agroindústria de alimentos diminui os custos da produção, aumenta o aproveitamento total do alimento e reduz o impacto que esses subprodutos podem causar ao serem descartados no ambiente. Dessa forma, alguns subprodutos da batata são aproveitados e transformados em ingredientes alimentícios, como é o caso da casca. Neste estudo utilizou-se a casca de batata para produção de farinha visando a sua utilização em produtos de panificação, sendo utilizadas as seguintes porcentagens na composição da farinha mista: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50% e 12-38-50% de farinha de casca de batata, farinha de trigo branca e farinha de trigo integral, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas na farinha de casca de batata, análises físicas na farinha de casca, nas farinhas de trigo branca e integral e análises reológicas nas farinhas mistas. A farinha de casca de batata apresentou bons teores de fibras e minerais, e dentro deste último, destacam-se os teores de fósforo, cálcio e magnésio. Quanto à granulometria e à diferença de cor, as farinhas de casca de batata e a farinha de trigo integral apresentaram valores mais próximos uma da outra. À medida que se aumentou a substituição da farinha de trigo branca pela farinha de casca de batata, as análises reológicas indicaram uma queda na qualidade tecnológica das massas.Reusing some agro-industrial food by-products lower the production costs, increase efficient food utilization, and reduce the impact that these sub-products cause if discarded in the environment. Thus, some potato by-products are reused utilized and transformed into food ingredients, such as potato skin. In this study, potato skin was utilized for the production of flour to be used in bakery products. The following percentages were utilized in the composition of the mixed flour: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50%, and 12-38-50% of potato skin flour, white

  9. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (p0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resistance of genetically modified potatoes to Potato virus Y under field conditions Resistência de plantas de batata geneticamente modificadas ao Potato virus Y em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Nepomuceno Dusi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of genetically modified clones of potato to Potato virus Y (PVY under field conditions. Genetically modified plants were compared with nontransformed plants of the same cultivar. The plots were flanked with potato plants infected with both PVYº and PVY N strains (spread lines, in order to provide the experimental area with the source of virus, which was naturally spread by the native aphid population. The experiment was weekly monitored by visual inspections and by DAS-Elisa in the plants produced from the harvested tubers, in order to evaluate the resistance of transgenic plants throughout the plant growth cycle. By the end of the third year, no infection symptoms were observed in the 1P clone; clone 63P showed 1% of infection, in contrast to about 90% of nontransformed plants infected. The stable expression of resistance to PVY provided by the coat protein gene was obtained in genetically modified clones of potato plants cultivar Achat under field conditions, during three consecutive years.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de clones geneticamente modificados de batata ao Potato virus Y (PVY em condições de campo. As plantas geneticamente modificadas foram comparadas com plantas não modificadas da mesma cultivar. As parcelas foram delimitadas com plantas infectadas com as estirpes PVYº e PVY N (linhas disseminadoras, para tornar disponível, na área experimental, a fonte de inóculo de vírus, que foi naturalmente disseminada pela população nativa de afídeos. O experimento foi monitorado semanalmente por inspeção visual e por DAS-Elisa nas plantas produzidas a partir dos tubérculos colhidos, para avaliar a resistência de plantas transgênicas ao longo do ciclo de crescimento. Ao final do terceiro ano, nenhum sintoma de infecção foi observado no clone 1P; o clone 63P apresentou 1% de infecção, em contraste com cerca de 90% de plantas-controle infectadas

  11. SEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURAL GENE FOR GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE OF POTATO (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM L) AND EVIDENCE FOR A SINGLE POINT DELETION IN THE AMF ALLELE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, Feike R.; VISSER, RGF; Ponstein, Anne S.; Jacobsen, Evert; Feenstra, Willem

    The genomic sequence of the potato gene for starch granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS; "waxy protein") has been determined for the wild-type allele of a monoploid genotype from which an amylose-free (amf) mutant was derived, and for the mutant part of the amf allele. Comparison of the wild-type

  12. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp. (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Boer, de W.J.; Veen, van J.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  13. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  14. Complementation of the amylose-free starch mutant of potato (Solanum tuberosum.) by the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, E.R.; Visser, R.G.E.; OOSTERHAVEN, K; VANDERKOP, DAM; Jacobsen, E.; Feenstra, W.

    1991-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated introduction of the wild-type allele of the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) into the amylose-free starch mutant amf of potato leads to restoration of GBSS activity and amylose synthesis, which demonstrates that Amf is the structural gene for GBSS.

  15. Foliar application of chlorocholine chloride improves leaf mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huigun; Xiao, Langtao; Tong, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    activity. Results showed that 1.5 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in potato leaves. These treatments also increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves. A positive linear relationship...

  16. Cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases play crucial roles in controlling cold-induced sweetening and apical dominance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengfei; Fang, Hui; Liu, Jun; Reid, Stephen; Hou, Juan; Zhou, Tingting; Tian, Zhendong; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2017-12-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an important enzyme that functions in producing energy and supplying intermediates for cellular metabolism. Recent researches indicate that GAPDHs have multiple functions beside glycolysis. However, little information is available for functions of GAPDHs in potato. Here, we identified 4 putative cytosolic GAPDH genes in potato genome and demonstrated that the StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3, which are constitutively expressed in potato tissues and cold inducible in tubers, encode active cytosolic GAPDHs. Cosuppression of these 3 GAPC genes resulted in low tuber GAPDH activity, consequently the accumulation of reducing sugars in cold stored tubers by altering the tuber metabolite pool sizes favoring the sucrose pathway. Furthermore, GAPCs-silenced tubers exhibited a loss of apical dominance dependent on cell death of tuber apical bud meristem (TAB-meristem). It was also confirmed that StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3 interacted with the autophagy-related protein 3 (ATG3), implying that the occurrence of cell death in TAB-meristem could be induced by ATG3 associated events. Collectively, the present research evidences first that the GAPC genes play crucial roles in diverse physiological and developmental processes in potato tubers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Three-Way Transcriptomic Interaction Study of a Biocontrol Agent (Clonostachys rosea), a Fungal Pathogen (Helminthosporium solani), and a Potato Host (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysøe, Erik; Dees, Merete W; Brurberg, May Bente

    2017-08-01

    Helminthosporium solani causes silver scurf, which affects the quality of potato. The biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea greatly limited the severity of silver scurf symptoms and amount of H. solani genomic DNA in laboratory experiments. Transcriptomic analysis during interaction showed that H. solani gene expression was highly reduced when coinoculated with the biocontrol agent C. rosea, whereas gene expression of C. rosea was clearly boosted as a response to the pathogen. The most notable upregulated C. rosea genes were those encoding proteins involved in cellular response to oxidative stress, proteases, G-protein signaling, and the methyltransferase LaeA. The most notable potato response to both fungi was downregulation of defense-related genes and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. At a later stage, this shifted, and most potato defense genes were turned on, especially those involved in terpenoid biosynthesis when H. solani was present. Some biocontrol-activated defense-related genes in potato were upregulated during early interaction with C. rosea alone that were not triggered by H. solani alone. Our results indicate that the reductions of silver scurf using C. rosea are probably due to a combination of mechanisms, including mycoparasitism, biocontrol-activated stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, microbial competition for nutrients, space, and antibiosis.

  18. Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II ions (4 mg of cadmium(II acetate per kilogram of the soil. The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05 was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg. We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants.

  19. Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-12-26

    The antioxidant profile of 23 native Andean potato cultivars has been investigated from a human nutrition perspective. The main carotenoid and tocopherol compounds were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a fluorescence detector, respectively, whereas polyphenols (including anthocyanins in colored tubers) were identified by means of both HPLC-mass spectrometry and HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant profiling revealed significant genotypic variations as well as cultivars of particular interest from a nutritional point of view. Concentrations of the health-promoting carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, ranged from 1.12 to 17.69 microg g(-1) of dry weight (DW) and from 0 to 17.7 microg g(-1) of DW, with cultivars 704353 and 702472 showing the highest levels in lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Whereas beta-carotene is rarely reported in potato tubers, remarkable levels of this dietary provitamin A carotenoid were detected in 16 native varieties, ranging from 0.42 to 2.19 microg g(-1) of DW. The amounts of alpha-tocopherol found in Andean potato tubers, extending from 2.73 to 20.80 microg g(-1) of DW, were clearly above the quantities generally reported for commercial varieties. Chlorogenic acid and its isomers dominated the polyphenolic profile of each cultivar. Dark purple-fleshed tubers from the cultivar 704429 contained exceptionally high levels of total anthocyanins (16.33 mg g(-1) of DW). The main anthocyanin was identified as petanin (petunidin-3-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-glucoside). The results suggest that Andean potato cultivars should be exploited in screening and breeding programs for the development of potato varieties with enhanced health and nutritional benefits.

  20. Identification and reproducibility of diagnostic DNA markers for tuber starch and yield optimization in a novel association mapping population of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, E M; Ortega, F; Barandalla, L; Aragones, A; Ruiz de Galarreta, J I; Liao, J-C; Sanetomo, R; Walkemeier, B; Tacke, E; Ritter, E; Gebhardt, C

    2016-04-01

    SNPs in candidate genes Pain - 1, InvCD141 (invertases), SSIV (starch synthase), StCDF1 (transcription factor), LapN (leucine aminopeptidase), and cytoplasm type are associated with potato tuber yield, starch content and/or starch yield. Tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC), and starch yield (TSY) are complex characters of high importance for the potato crop in general and for industrial starch production in particular. DNA markers associated with superior alleles of genes that control the natural variation of TY, TSC, and TSY could increase precision and speed of breeding new cultivars optimized for potato starch production. Diagnostic DNA markers are identified by association mapping in populations of tetraploid potato varieties and advanced breeding clones. A novel association mapping population of 282 genotypes including varieties, breeding clones and Andean landraces was assembled and field evaluated in Northern Spain for TY, TSC, TSY, tuber number (TN) and tuber weight (TW). The landraces had lower mean values of TY, TW, TN, and TSY. The population was genotyped for 183 microsatellite alleles, 221 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fourteen candidate genes and eight known diagnostic markers for TSC and TSY. Association test statistics including kinship and population structure reproduced five known marker-trait associations of candidate genes and discovered new ones, particularly for tuber yield and starch yield. The inclusion of landraces increased the number of detected marker-trait associations. Integration of the present association mapping results with previous QTL linkage mapping studies for TY, TSC, TSY, TW, TN, and tuberization revealed some hot spots of QTL for these traits in the potato genome. The genomic positions of markers linked or associated with QTL for complex tuber traits suggest high multiplicity and genome wide distribution of the underlying genes.

  1. Particle size and cholesterol content of a mayonnaise formulated by OSA-modified potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ghazaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Egg yolk was partially replaced (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA-modified potato starch in a reduced-fat mayonnaise formulation to curtail the problems associated with high cholesterol and induced allergic reactions. The physicochemical properties included parameters such as: pH, fat content, and emulsion stability of the formulations analyzed. The samples with 75% and 100% egg yolk substitute showed the maximum emulsion stability (>95% after two of months storage, and they were selected according to cholesterol content, particle size distributions, dynamic rheological properties, microstructure, and sensory characteristic. A significant reduction (84-97% in the cholesterol content was observed in the selected samples. Particle size analysis showed that by increasing the amount of OSA starch, the oil droplets with the peak size of 70 µm engulfed by this compound became larger. The rheological tests elucidated that in the absence of egg yolk, OSA starch may not result in a final product with consistent texture and that the best ratio of the two emulsifiers (OSA starch/egg yolk to produce stable reduced-fat, low cholesterol mayonnaise is 75/25. The microscopic images confirmed the formation of a stable cohesive layer of starch surrounding the oil droplets emulsified in the samples selected.

  2. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation; Variaciones observadas en la actividad respiratoria de tuberculos de patata (Solanum tuberosum L.) despues de un tratamiento con radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M P; Fernandez Gonzalez, J

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. Influence of altitude and enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on tuber production, seed viability, leaf pigments and morphology in the wild potato species Solanum kurtzianum Bitter & Wittm collected from an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, V N; Berli, F J; Masuelli, R W; Bottini, R A; Marfil, C F

    2017-08-01

    Climate change could lead to an upward shift in plant distribution, exposing populations to higher levels of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. In the framework of an in situ strategy for conserving potato wild relatives, we evaluated the effect of high UV-B levels on natural population of Solanum kurtzianum. The hypothesis is that plants from naturally higher altitudes are more adapted to increased UV-B radiation. Two populations from low and high altitudes were field supplemented using UV-B-lamps (+UV-B) or excluded from it with plastic filters. Additionally, to assess in which extent the plant responses to these artificial experimental conditions are reproducible in natural conditions, three genotypes were cultivated in two mountain experimental gardens (EG) at different elevations. +UV-B treatment induced changes in leaf morphology and increases in phenolic compounds in both populations, indicating plant adaptation, since chlorophylls and reproductive structures were not negatively affected. These results indicate that this environmental factor may not limit the displacement of populations towards sites with higher UV-B levels. Meanwhile, in higher-altitude EG a tubers yield reduction, mainly through a decreased tuber number and a bigger accumulation of phenolic compounds than in +UV-B treatment were observed, suggesting that UV-B is not the only factor involved in plants adaptation to high altitude environments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Prediction of Starch, Soluble Sugars and Amino Acids in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Hyperspectral Imaging, Dielectric and LF-NMR Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Handling and processing of potatoes is performed in increasingly large and more automated facilities, and the industry calls for more automated machinery for quality assessment and sorting by concentration of starch, soluble sugars, protein, amino acids etc. of the potato tubers. The present study...... cultivars were simultaneously sampled for analyses of content and scanned by the five different scanning methods. The resulting multivariate dataset was used to estimate the prediction ability of the individual scanning methods on starch-related parameters, selected simple sugars, selected amino acids......, conductivity of pressed cell sap and cell sizes. Results showed that most types of spectral analyses had relatively high potential for predicting the starch-related parameters and medium potential for predicting the concentration of the reducing sugars fructose and glucose. Most methods showed medium potential...

  5. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  6. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  7. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  8. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  9. Inhibition of Erwinia chrysanthemi growth to different concentrations of folic acid: possible use of folic acid as bacteriostatic agent and fortifying of Solanum tuberosum potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marcelo Correa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The enterobacteria of the Erwinia spp genus produce disease in potatoes, which is a tuber of mass consumption. The regulation of DNA methylation can regulate the proliferation of Erwinia in such a way that the concentrations of folic acid may have an effect on the microorganism pathogenic ability. On the other hand, the folic acid prevents the appearance of neural tube defects in humans. Objective: To evaluate folic acid as a bacteriostatic agent of Erwinia and, at the same time, as part of the fortification of mass consumption food such as the potatoes. Materials and methods: The biochemical characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi was carried out and its growth compared to different concentrations of folic acid was studied. Results: When increasing the concentrations of the vitamin from 0.3 µg/L up to 6.8 µg/L, the bacterial growth of Erwinia chrysanthemi is inhibited. The vitamin inhibits the growth in cultivation of Erwinia chrysanthemi and acts as a bacteriostatic agent. This aspect is of great importance given that, theoretically, if potatoes were fortified with micro-nutrient, this would act against the infectious agent and, at the same time, contribute to the adequate intake of the vitamin in the general population.

  10. Efeito da fertilização fosfatada na culturada batata (solanum tuberosum l. no planalto do huambo (Angola Effects of phosphorus fertilization on potato (solanum tuberosum l. crop production, in huambo country (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaculada da Conceição Henriques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se ensaios realizados, no ano agrícola 2004/5, em blocos completos casualizados, para estudo do efeito na produção de doses de fertilização fosfatada da cultivar de batata-semente importada ‘Romano’ e da cultivar regional ‘Tchigembo’, plantadas em duas datas (Outubro e Fevereiro da época das chuvas e numa terceira data (Junho, na época seca, praticada em regadio. Os ensaios foram repetidos em três locais da Província do Huambo - Bailundo, Chianga e Calenga - distanciados de cerca de 50 km. Avaliaram-se os efeitos, na produção total e comercial de tubérculos (diâmetro > 25 mm, de diferentes doses de fósforo, na forma de superfosfato simples (24% de P2O5, tendo-se aplicado uniformemente ureia (300 kg ha-1 de N, fraccionada em três aplicações. As doses de fósforo ensaiadas foram 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5, comparadas com uma testemunha sem qualquer aplicação de fertilizante, azotado ou fosfatado. As modalidades de fertilização azotada receberam, uniformemente 300 de azoto. A dose que maior benefício económico originou, sem desperdício de químicos para o meio ambiente, foi a de 200 kg ha-1 de P2O5.Several trials were carried out to compare total and commercial potato yield of the imported cultivar ‘Romano’ and the regional cultivar ‘Tchigembo’, planted in two dates on rain season (October and February and in a third date (June, in dry season, with irrigation. The trials were repeated in three locations of the Huambo country - Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga. The effects on total and commercial (tubers diameter > 25 mm potato yields of different amounts of phosphorus, applied with single superphosphate (24% of P2O5 were evaluated. Treatments were: control (any type of soil fertilization null, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5. Phosphorus treatments received also 300 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (urea applied uniformly, in three times. The greatest economic benefice for both potato

  11. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  12. In vitro organogenesis of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic for the genetic transformationOrganogênese in vitro de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic visando transformação genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Kelson Silva Rezende

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of commercial cultivars of potato with resistance to the phytopatogen is a very promising alternative that the genetic engineering can provide, through the introduction of exogenous genes for the genetic transformation. In order to establish an efficient system of transformation, it is crucial first to optimize in vitro organogenesis protocol. This work aimed to establish an efficient protocol for the genetic transformation of potato cv. Atlantic. The efficiency of the in vitro organogenesis is influenced by the explant type and by the kind and concentrations of growth regulators used. Shoot segments of potato cv. Atlantic present better organogenesis capacity than leaf explants. It is recommended to use the woody plant medium (WPM supplied with 1,0 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 5,0 mg L-1 of zeatin riboside (ZEA, to obtain shoots from shoot segments, and the carbenicilin (Cb added to this medium increased this formation. For the process to enlarge shoots, this same antibiotic when added to the WPM medium in growing concentrations (100; 250; 500 mg L-1 promoted a decrease in the height of plants, number of shoots and length of roots. After the co-cultivation of shoots segments with Agrobacterium tumefaciens these concentrations of Cb are not efficient in the elimination of the bacteria, which commits the organogenesis. However, it is possible to establish a protocol of in vitro organogenesis of potato cv. Atlantic starting from shoots segments not co-cultivated. These results will be useful for futures experiments of genetic transformation with this and another commercials cultivars of potato.A obtenção de cultivares comerciais de batata com resistência a fitopatógenos é uma alternativa muito promissora que a engenharia genética pode proporcionar, através da introdução de genes exógenos visando transformação genética. Para tal, torna-se imprescindível estabelecer um sistema eficiente de transformação, e

  13. Oxygen Availability Influences Expression of Dickeya solani Genes Associated With Virulence in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Lisicka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dickeya solani is a Gram-negative necrotrophic, plant pathogenic bacterium able to cause symptoms in a variety of plant species worldwide. As a facultative anaerobe, D. solani is able to infect hosts under a broad range of oxygen concentrations found in plant environments. However, little is known about oxygen-dependent gene expression in Dickeya spp. that might contribute to its success as a pathogen. Using a Tn5 transposon, harboring a promoterless gusA reporter gene, 146 mutants of D. solani IPO2222 were identified that exhibited oxygen-regulated expression of the gene into which the insertion had occurred. Of these mutants 114 exhibited higher expression under normal oxygen conditions than hypoxic conditions while 32 were more highly expressed under hypoxic conditions. The plant host colonization potential and pathogenicity as well as phenotypes likely to contribute to the ecological fitness of D. solani, including growth rate, carbon and nitrogen source utilization, production of pectinolytic enzymes, proteases, cellulases and siderophores, swimming and swarming motility and the ability to form biofilm were assessed for 37 strains exhibiting the greatest oxygen-dependent change in gene expression. Eight mutants expressed decreased ability to cause disease symptoms when inoculated into potato tubers or chicory leaves and three of these also exhibited delayed colonization of potato plants and exhibited tissue specific differences in gene expression in these various host tissues. The genes interrupted in these eight mutants encoded proteins involved in fundamental bacterial metabolism, virulence, bacteriocin and proline transport, while three encoded hypothetical or unknown proteins. The implications of environmental oxygen concentration on the ability of D. solani to cause disease symptoms in potato are discussed.

  14. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper Foged; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins...... manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...

  15. Influence of heat treatment on the sensory and physical characteristics and carbohydrate fractions of french-fried potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Carvalho Montenegro de VASCONCELOS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the impact that heat treatment with salts and freezing processes on the sensory, instrumental, and physico-chemical characteristics of fried potatoes of the Monalisa cultivar. The potatoes were blanched in distilled water (P; sodium chloride solution (B1; calcium chloride solution (B2, and a solution with both of these salts (B3. They were then pre-cooked and frozen for 24 hours and for 30 days. After frying, sensory characteristics were analyzed (color, texture, flavor, oiliness, along with overall preference and instrumental determinations of texture, color, and oil content. Further tests were conducted on the sample with the best results in the sensory analysis (B1, along with sample P as a control, to determine granule microstructure, carbohydrate fractions, glycemic index, and glycemic load. Blanching B3, despite reducing oil absorption and providing less oiliness, obtained lesser overall preference. Freezing for 30 days increased the lightness, except for when sodium chloride was used, which intensified the color yellow. The use of sodium chloride did not interfere with the type of starch granules, nor with the formation of resistant starch; however, longer freezing time reduced the glycemic index and concentrated the dietary fiber content. All samples exhibited low glycemic index and moderate glycemic loads.

  16. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Zhu

    Full Text Available Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  17. Biological and Physicochemical Parameters Related to the Nitrogen Cycle in the Rhizospheric Soil of Native Potato (Solanum phureja Crops of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Flórez-Zapata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N plays an important role in agricultural production. This study was designed to evaluate the presence of cultivable N cycle-associated microorganisms (nitrogen-fixing bacteria—NFB, proteolytic bacteria—PR, ammonifiers—AMO, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria—AOB, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria—NOB, and denitrifiers—DEN, and their relationship with physical-chemical and agronomic soil descriptors, in Solanum phureja rhizospheric soil samples, from traditional and organic crop management farms. A cluster analysis with the physical and chemical properties of soil, allowed to identify the organic matter content as an important factor that determines the outcome of that grouping. Significant differences (<0.05 between farms were found in the abundance of this groups, but correlation analysis showed that proteolytic and nitrogen fixing bacteria were the main nitrogen associated functional groups affected by soils' physical-chemical characteristics. The amount of ammonia available is affected by the agricultural management strategy, which consequently affects the NFB abundance. Finally the results showed that PR, protease activity and soil properties related with organic matter transformation has a positive relationship with productivity, which given the high organic matter content of the Andean soils being studied, we conclude that nitrogen mineralization process has an important role in the nitrogen cycle and its bioavailability in this ecosystem.

  18. Biological and Physicochemical Parameters Related to the Nitrogen Cycle in the Rhizospheric Soil of Native Potato (Solanum phureja) Crops of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, N.F; Velez, D.U

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) plays an important role in agricultural production. This study was designed to evaluate the presence of cultivable N cycle-associated microorganisms (nitrogen-fixing bacteria NFB, proteolytic bacteria PR, ammonifiers AMO, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria AOB, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria NOB, and denitrifiers DEN), and their relationship with physical-chemical and agronomic soil descriptors, in Solanum phureja rhizospheric soil samples, from traditional and organic crop management farms. A cluster analysis with the physical and chemical properties of soil, allowed to identify the organic matter content as an important factor that determines the outcome of that grouping. Significant differences (P<0.05) between farms were found in the abundance of this groups, but correlation analysis showed that proteolytic and nitrogen fixing bacteria were the main nitrogen associated functional groups affected by soils' physical-chemical characteristics. The amount of ammonia available is affected by the agricultural management strategy, which consequently affects the NFB abundance. Finally the results showed that PR, protease activity and soil properties related with organic matter transformation has a positive relationship with productivity, which given the high organic matter content of the Andean soils being studied, we conclude that nitrogen mineralization process has an important role in the nitrogen cycle and its bioavailability in this ecosystem.

  19. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of

  20. Extract of Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) decreases body weight gain and adiposity and improves glucose control in the mouse model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stan; Hobson, Luc; Iskandar, Michèle M; Sabally, Kebba; Donnelly, Danielle J; Agellon, Luis B

    2014-11-01

    Both sexes of mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks without and with polyphenolic-rich potato extracts (PRPE) of cultivars Onaway and Russet Burbank. PRPE attenuated weight gain in male and female mice by as much as 63.2%, which was associated mostly with a reduction in adiposity. Mice receiving PRPE showed enhanced capacity for blood glucose clearance. Sex differences regarding the impact of HFD and PRPE on plasma levels of insulin, ghrelin, leptin, gastric inhibitory peptide, and resistin were noted. PRPE may serve as part of a preventative dietary strategy against the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Studies regarding the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis oil treatments in healthy and potato virus Y (PVY infected plants Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Liliana BĂDĂRĂU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato virus Y cause loss in yield and quality of tubers. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid present in oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants are implicated in signaling against stress. The effects of these chemicals on tuber yield and pigments content were evaluated in plants testing positive after virus mechanical infection. Without chemical treatment, positive plants showed significant reductions in leaf pigments content and tuber weights compared to uninfected controls. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and oil treatments of PVY infected plants significantly reduced the number of minitubers, enhancing their weights, while leaf pigment content also increased. This research demonstrates potential benefits of treatments with oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants and hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid in enhancing the yield and quality of tubers.

  2. Análisis de la interacción genotipo por ambiente en papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. andigena, a través de una metodología no paramétrica Analysis of genotype by environment interaction in potato (Solanum tuberosum spp. andigena by a non-parametric methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortes José M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Mejoramiento en Papa, liderado por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, estableció nueve pruebas regionales durante los años 1998 y 1999, para la evaluación de 20 genotipos promisorios de Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena. Para el análisis e interpretación de la interacción genotipo por ambiente, se utilizó la metodología no paramétrica propuesta por Nassar et al. (1994, en la cual se usa un estadístico que reúne la selección por rendimiento y estabilidad fenotípica. Para la obtención de los índices
    de rendimiento-estabilidad, se implementó una MACRO en el
    programa SAS, la cual permite trabajar con datos desbalanceados, tanto por repeticiones, como por genotipos. Además, se desarrolló una metodología que permitió el análisis multivariado, utilizando, como base el estadístico de rendimiento-estabilidad, lo cual facilita el análisis del rendimiento cuando éste se divida en varias categorías, como el es caso del cultivo de papa. Los resultados, aquí, presentados muestran cómo las ventajas del uso de
    metodologías no paramétricas, no son compensadas cuando la mayor importancia del análisis de la interacción genotipo por ambiente es la selección de genotipos promisorios próximos a ser entregados al agricultor.The Potato Breeding Program, which belongs to the National
    University ofColombia, carried out nine regional trials during 1998 and 1999 for the evaluation of20 promissory genotypes of Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena. The non-pararnetric methodology proposed by Nassar el al. (1994 which it is based on a statistic that link yield and phenotypic stability was used. In order to analyzer the data set, a MACRO program in the SAS System was developed which allowed working with unbalance data for both repetitions and genotypes. It was also developed a multivariate analysis methodology, based on the yield-stability index, which permitted to analyze the yield when it is partitioning in

  3. Evaluation of iodate toxicity (KIO3 on growth, morpho-physiological characteristics and mineral nutrients concentrations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Esfandiari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed to assess the effects of different iodate concentrations on morpho-physiological characteristics of potato. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out during the spring and summer 2013. Five concentrations of KIO3 including control beside 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/Kgsoil were applied through irrigation system. The results showed that all selected agronomical and morphological characteristics of potato except dry weight of stem (SDW and root (RDW were negatively affected by high iodate concentrations. The results showed that applying 80 mg KIO3/Kgsoil compared to control resulted in around 15, 86, 84, 41, 16, 25, 20, and 87% reductions in harvest index (HI, leaf dry weight (LDW, tuber dry weight (TDW, plant dry weight (PDW, stem length (SL, root length (RL, plant height (PH, and number of tuber per plant (NT, respectively. Iodate application (80 mg KIO3/Kgsoil vs. control also affected potato’s physiological characteristics including chlorophyll content (SPAD, relative water content (RWC, water use efficiency (WUE, evapo-transpiration efficiency (ETE, cell membrane stability index (CMSI and tolerance index (TI showing around 27, 12, 87, 39, 40, and 77% reductions for each one, respectively. Increasing iodate concentrations, although, showed no effect of Zn concentration of root and Fe and Mn concentrations of leaf, gradually decreased Zn concentration of leaf and increased Fe and Mn concentrations of root and Cu concentrations of root and leaf. Plants also showed several visible symptoms including stunting, chlorosis, browning of leaf tip and reduction in growth due to iodate toxicity.

  4. Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.E.; Garzo, E.; Verbeek, M.; Vosman, B.; Dicke, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a

  5. Preliminary study on the effect of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the conservation of potato tubers for consumption (Solanum tuberosum l.), during the storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montepeque Roldan, R.

    1984-03-01

    The object of the thesis is the study of the inhibiting effect of the sprouting of potato tubers, variety Loman, after Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation (with doses of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 Krads) as well as after treatment with the chemical inhibitor Isopropyl-N-Phenyl Carbonate (IPC). These treatments were applied to different groups of tubers, after 15 and 45 days from harvesting, stored under two illumination conditions: darkness (closed room), and indirect light (straw hut). The number, length and thickness of the sprouts, as well as the weight, humidity contents and infection of the tubers were recorded twice a month. A random 2x2x7x4 multifactorial design, with 3 repetitions, was used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. Variance and multiple regression analysis, as well as Tukey tests were performed on the IBM/370 computer of the San Carlos University (Guatemala). It was found that both the 4 and 6 Krad doses and the IPC treatments have no effect on the sprouting inhibition. The irradiation with the 8, 10, and 12 Krad doses inhibited the sprouting in an irreversible way, with insignificant loss of weight and moisture, regardless of the irradiation epoch and light condition. However, the tubers stored in darkness, showed ideal characteristics for consumption, and the 8 Krad dose, applied at 15 days after harvesting is concluded to be the best

  6. Cisgenic inhibition of the potato cold induced phosphorylase L gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transgenic line M4), implying that silencing of starch phosphorylase L gene reduced starch breakdown during cold storage conditions. Key words: Cold sweetening, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), RNA interference, starch phosphorylase L. gene, ...

  7. Partitioning of photoassimilates by potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) as influenced by irradiance. II. Partitioning patterns by four clones grown under high and low irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawronska, H.; Dwelle, R.B.; Pavek, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is the second in a three-part series describing the influence of varied irradiance on growth and photoassimilate partitioning by potato plants. Four clones (Russet Burbank, Lemhi Russet, A66107-51, and A6948-4) were grown under two light regimes: a) high light levels (HL) of 500 to 1200 μE m -2 s -1 , varying with changes in natural sunlight and time of day, and b) low light levels (LL) at approximately one quarter of high light (21 to 28%). Three weeks after tuber initiation, the most recently-matured leaf was labelled with 14 CO 2 , and plants were harvested: 1) one day after labelling, and 2) two weeks after labelling. Plants of all clones responded to the low light levels in a similar way by: 1) changing some morphological characteristics, 2) decreasing biomass accumulation and tuber yield, and 3) changing the sink-source relationship by promoting growth of leaves and stems at the expense of tubers. However, there were evident clonal differences in reactions to growth under low light; e.g., Lemhi Russet appeared to be most sensitive to light stress, while clones A66107-51 and A6848-4 were much less sensitive. No matter what the prior light history (HL or LL), clone A6948-4 was able to maintain higher rates of photosynthesis than the other clones at all light levels between 200 and 1200 μE m -2 s -1 . This study showed that the potential exists to breed for cuttivars that can maintain higher rates of photosynthesis and higher tuber yield under low light levels. (author)

  8. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  9. Physical characteristics of chemically modified starch from potatoes, evaluated by X-ray diffraction, SEM and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivolil; Perez, E.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physical characteristics of chemically modified starch by cross-linking and methylation in order to observe the changes occurred in the molecule which could give it a positive and specific application. The physical characteristics were evaluated by morphometric analysis using analytical methods as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance in solid state. The results point for all the evaluated characteristics that the cross-linked starch from potato maintains a granular size and shape similar to native starch, through some granules were affected since they presented cracks and outlet of internal material; the introduction of phosphate groups in the molecule is evident in the NMR spectra: the methylated starch from potato changed in a drastic way the structure of granules since the size increased from 9 to 53 μm of the native starch to 44 to 181 μm for the methylated, the X-ray spectra shows a formation of crystals, banishing the characteristic standard type B, likewise with NMR a modification of starch was observed due to the presence of methyl groups. (Author)

  10. Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming H.; Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by 13C and 31P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced...... by enzyme-assisted catalytic branching with branching enzyme (BE) or combined BE and β-amylase (BB) catalyzed exo-hydrolysis. Carbons of the glycosidic α-1,6 linkages required high hydration rates before adopting uniform chemical shifts indicating solid-state disorder and poor water accessibility...... regions was only observed in NA starch. Moreover phosphorous was observed in a minor pH-insensitive form and as major phosphate in hydrated GEL and BE starches....

  11. Mechanical properties of potato starch modified by moisture content and addition of lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Mateusz; Molenda, Marek; Horabik, Józef; Mueller, Peter; Opaliński, Ireneusz

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to deliver a set of characteristics of structure and mechanical properties of pure starch and starch with an addition of a lubricant - magnesium stearate. Considerable influence of moisture content of potato starch was found in the case of density, parameters of internal friction, coefficients of wall friction and flowability. Elasticity was found to be strongly influenced by water content of the material. Addition of magnesium stearate affected density and parameters of flowability, internal friction and elasticity. Bulk density increased from 604 to 774 kg m-3 with decrease in moisture content of potato starch from 17 to for 6%. Addition of magnesium stearate resulted in approximately 10% decrease in bulk density. Angle of internal friction obtained for 10 kPa of consolidation stress decreased from 33 to 24º with increase in moisture content, and to approximately 22º with addition of the lubricant. With an increase of moisture content from 6 to 18% and with addition of the lubricant, the modulus of elasticity during loading decreased from approximately 1.0 to 0.1 MPa. Modulus of elasticity during unloading was found in the range from 19 to 42 MPa and increased with increase of moisture content and amount of lubricant.

  12. The Potato Aphid Salivary Effector Me47 Is a Glutathione-S-Transferase Involved in Modifying Plant Responses to Aphid Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, Graeme J; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here, we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47) which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs), compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.

  13. The potato aphid salivary effector Me47 is a glutathione-S-transferase involved in modifying plant responses to aphid infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme James Kettles

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47 which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs, compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.

  14. DETERMINACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES NIVELES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN PAPA (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO EN UN SUELO CON PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO IN A SOIL WITH PROPERTIES ANDICAS OF SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Yovani Rios Quinchoa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La fertilización es una labor que cumple con la necesidad de suplementar a la planta, los nutrientes no satisfechos por el suelo en su condición de fertilidad natural. Por muchas décadas se han utilizado dosis deficientes que conducen a bajas producciones, y en ocasiones dosis excesivas de fertilizantes químicos que pueden generar problemas ambientales. La fertilización con nutrientes secundarios (Ca, Mg, S y el micronutriente B, han sido poco estudiadas en el cultivo de papa, razón por la cual se evaluó, en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín, el efecto de diferentes dosis de estos nutrientes en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena de la variedad DIACOL Capiro en un suelo con propiedades ándicas de Santa Rosa de Osos. Se utilizaron dosis bajas, moderadas y altas de NPK, Ca, Mg, B y S, y se encontró una respuesta positiva en rendimiento a las aplicaciones crecientes de NPK (500, 1.500 y 3000 kg ha-1, también se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso de los tubérculos de primera y segunda categoría, mientras que los tubérculos de tercera y cuarta categoría no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las interacciones entre Ca, Mg, B y S no tuvieron efecto apreciable sobre el rendimiento de los tubérculos, ya que en la mayoría de los casos solo se observaron los efectos simples de dichos elementos.The fertilization is a work that fulfills the supplementary to the plant nutritional necessities that are not satisfied by the soil, in its condition of natural fertility. For many decades faulty doses has been used that take to low productions, and in occasions excessive doses of chemical fertilizers that lead to environmental problems. The fertilization with nutritious secondary (Ca, Mg, S and the micronutrient B, has been little studied in potato crop in Colombia; for this reason, we evaluated, in the Centro de Investigacion e Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal

  15. Contrasting water-use efficiency (WUE) responses of a potato mapping population and capability of modified ball-berry model to predict stomatal conductance and WUE measured at different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Kørup, Kirsten; Kristensen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are drought-sensitive and more efficient water use, while maintaining high yields is required. Here, water-use efficiency (WUE) of a mapping population comprising 144 clones from a cross between 90-HAF-01 (Solanum tuberosum1) and 90-HAG-15 (S. tuberosum2 × S....... sparsipilum) was measured on well-watered plants under controlled-environment conditions combining three levels of each of the factors: [CO2], temperature, light, and relative humidity in growth chambers. The clones were grouped according to their photosynthetic WUE (pWUE) and whole-plant WUE (wpWUE) during...... (34 %) and dry matter accumulation (55 %, P water use (16 %). The pWUE correlated negatively to the ratio between leaf-internal and leaf-external [CO2] (R2 = -0.86 in 2010 and R2 = -0.83 in 2011, P

  16. Nanostructural morphology of plasticized wheat gluten and modified potato starch composites: relationship to mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Faraz; Andersson, Mariette; Koch, Kristine; Menzel, Carolin; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Plivelic, Tomás S; Kuktaite, Ramune

    2015-03-09

    In the present study, we were able to produce composites of wheat gluten (WG) protein and a novel genetically modified potato starch (MPS) with attractive mechanical and gas barrier properties using extrusion. Characterization of the MPS revealed an altered chain length distribution of the amylopectin fraction and slightly increased amylose content compared to wild type potato starch. WG and MPS of different ratios plasticized with either glycerol or glycerol and water were extruded at 110 and 130 °C. The nanomorphology of the composites showed the MPS having semicrystalline structure of a characteristic lamellar arrangement with an approximately 100 Å period observed by small-angle X-ray scattering and a B-type crystal structure observed by wide-angle X-ray scattering analysis. WG has a structure resembling the hexagonal macromolecular arrangement as reported previously in WG films. A larger amount of β-sheets was observed in the samples 70/30 and 30/70 WG-MPS processed at 130 °C with 45% glycerol. Highly polymerized WG protein was found in the samples processed at 130 °C versus 110 °C. Also, greater amounts of WG protein in the blend resulted in greater extensibility (110 °C) and a decrease in both E-modulus and maximum stress at 110 and 130 °C, respectively. Under ambient conditions the WG-MPS composite (70/30) with 45% glycerol showed excellent gas barrier properties to be further explored in multilayer film packaging applications.

  17. Transmission of scab resistance to tetraploid potato via unilateral sexual polyploidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to common scab continues to be a high priority trait for potato breeders. We have identified a source of resistance in the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense and have introgressed it into cultivated potato by crossing it to a dihaploid. A clone generated by crossing two full-s...

  18. Dissection of the major late blight resistance cluster on potato linkage group IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokossou, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Potato is consumed worldwide and represents the fourth most important staple food crop after rice and wheat. Potato cultivars display a large variety of color, shape, taste, cooking properties and starch content but are all derived from the same species; Solanum tuberosum. Potato breeding is an

  19. Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...

  20. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas in inbred potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeted mutagenesis using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has been well established in several important crop species, but is in need of improvement in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). For over a century, potatoes have been bred as autotetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), relying on F1 selections and clona...

  1. Capability of the "Ball-Berry" model for predicting stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of potato leaves under different irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias N.; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2009-01-01

    was used for model parameterization, where measurements of midday leaf gas exchange of potted potatoes were done during progressive soil drying for 2 weeks at tuber initiation and earlier bulking stages. The measured photosynthetic rate (An) was used as an input for the model. To account for the effects......The capability of the ‘Ball-Berry' model (BB-model) in predicting stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves under different irrigation regimes was tested using data from two independent pot experiments in 2004 and 2007. Data obtained from 2004...... of soil water deficits on gs, a simple equation modifying the slope (m) based on the mean soil water potential (Ψs) in the soil columns was incorporated into the original BB-model. Compared with the original BB-model, the modified BB-model showed better predictability for both gs and WUE of potato leaves...

  2. SEM studies of the structure of the gels prepared from untreated and radiation modified potato starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Sartowska, Bożena; Królak, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Potato starch was irradiated with a 60 Co gamma rays using doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Gels containing ca. 9.1% of starch were prepared by heating the starch suspensions in the heating chamber stabilized at 100 °C. Four procedures were applied for preparation of the samples in regard to SEM studies and the ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. Differences were observed between the SEM images recorded for the non-irradiated samples prepared using all the methods, and those irradiated. Images of the non-irradiated gels indicate generally a honey-comb structure, while smooth areas but with oriented fractures has appeared after irradiation. Modification of gel structure corresponds to the applied dose. The results were related to the process of gel formation (as observed by means of the hot stage microscope) to decrease in swelling power of the irradiated starch and to decreased viscosity of the resulting gels. It can be concluded that the differences in structural properties of gels shown by SEM result probably due to the better homogenization of the gels formed after radiation induced degradation. - Highlights: • Four procedures of the preservation of starch gels for SEM studies were applied. • The ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. • Dose dependent changes in the gel structure were discovered. • It was related to decrease in the swelling power and decreased viscosity of the gels. • A hot-stage microscope was applied in order to follow the gelatinization process

  3. Biodiversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in genetically modified (Bt) and conventional (non-Bt) potato fields in Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalushkov, P.; Gueorguiev, B.; Spitzer, L.; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2009), s. 1346-1350 ISSN 1310-2818 Grant - others:Bulgarian National Research Fund(BG) B-1508; Bulgarian National Research Fund(BG) B-1105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : ground beetles * Bt potatoes * non-Bt potatoes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.291, year: 2009

  4. Morphological characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saad

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... for this trait to least significant difference test (LSD) and all the varieties were grouped into five homogenous groups, where the means were not significantly different from one another (Tables 1 and 2). SH-19 and Asterix were in group 'A' by producing highest number of seedlings and this was also visible ...

  5. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...

  6. Postharvest changes in glycoalkaloid content of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; McDonald, G M

    1999-01-01

    Potatoes contain antinutritional and potentially toxic compounds including inhibitors of digestive enzymes, hemagglutinins, and glycoalkaloids. Solanum glycoalkaloids are reported to inhibit cholinesterase, disrupt cell membranes, and induce teratogenicity. In this overview, we describe the role of potatoes in the human diet, reported changes in glycoalkaloid content of fresh and processed potatoes during storage, under the influence of light and radiation, following mechanical damage, and as a result of food processing. Also covered are safety aspects and suggested research needs to develop a protocol that can be adopted by the potato producers and processors to minimize post-harvest synthesis of glycoalkaloids in potatoes. Reducing the glycoalkaloid content of potatoes will provide a variety of benefits extending from the farm to processing, shipping, marketing, and consumption of potatoes and potato products. A commercially available ELISA kit is described which permits rapid assay of glycoalkaloid content of parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and peel, as well as processed potato products including french fries, chips, and skins. Understanding the multiple overlapping aspects of glycoalkaloids in the plant and in the diet will permit controlling postharvest glycoalkaloid production for the benefit of the producer and consumer.

  7. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  8. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03).

  9. A major QTL and an SSR marker associated with glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum × S. sparsipilum located at chromosome I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Olsson, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    tubers and identify markers that link tightly to this trait. In this study, tubers of a dihaploid BC1 population, originating from a cross between 90-HAF-01 (S. tuberosum 1) and 90-HAG-15 (S. tuberosum 2 × S. sparsipilum), were evaluated for content of α-solanine and α-chaconine (total glycoalkaloid, TGA...... and the HAF parent. Quantitative trait loci for glycoalkaloid production in foliage of different Solanum species have previously been mapped to this chromosome. In the present research, QTLs for α-solanine and α-chaconine content were mapped to the same location as for TGA content. Similar results were...

  10. Evaluación de la densidad de siembra y el tamaño del tubérculo semilla en la producción de semilla básica de papa criolla, variedad «yema de huevo» (Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk. Effect of plant density and tuber-seed size in basic seed production of creole potato «yema de huevo» cultivars (Solanum phureja luz. el Buk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotes T. Jose M

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La producción de semilla básica es fundamental en la cadena de producción de semillas de alta calidad. En Solanum phureja Juz. el Buk., los factores densidad de siembra y tamaño de tubérculo semilla óptimos para su producción no han sido evaluados hasta el momento. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar estos dos factores en condiciones de la Estación Experimental San Jorge JCA. La investigación se realizó bajo un Diseño en Bloques Completos al Azar con arreglo factorial 4 x 3. Se encontró que las distancias entre plantas evaluadas (15; 20; 25 y 30 cm no afectan la producción de semilla por unidad de área y que la utilización de tubérculos-semilla entre 1,27 y 2,00 cm de diámetro es la más recomendada.The production ofbasic seed is a very important factor, for the seed production chain looking for high quality. The sowing density and the tuber size have not been researched for Solanum phureja Juz. el Buk. The evaluation ofthese factors was conducted at Experimental Center San Jorge - JCA. Randomized Complete Block Design with factorial array (4x3 was used in this assay. It was found that the distance among plants (15; 20; 25 and 30 cm did not modify the seed production per unit of area. The tuber diameter between 1,27 to 2,00 cm., is the best choose in production of basic seed.

  11. Hairy nightshade is an alternative host of spongospora subterranea, the potato powdery scab pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structures, similar to galls developing on potato roots infected by the powdery scab pathogen S. subterranea, were observed on roots of hairy nightshades (Solanum physalifolium, formerly S. sarrachoides) collected from commercial potato fields in Washington State where populations of S. subterranea ...

  12. Identification, characterization and high-resolution mapping of resistance genes to Phytophthora infestans in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, T.H.

    2005-01-01

    Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary) is the causal agent of late blight which is the most devastating disease of the cultivated potato. It causes economic losses of several billion US dollars in crop

  13. Carbon dioxide and ethylene gas in the potato storage atmosphere and their combined effect on processing colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Solanum tuberosum L., carbon dioxide, ethylene, storage, processing, fry colour, chip colour, 1-methylcyclopropene

    The finished colour of processed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) products is a very important quality characteristic which is attributable to the

  14. Cross-species BAC-FISH painting of the tomato and potato chromosome 6 reveals undescribed chromosomal rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, X.; Szinay, D.; Ramanna, M.S.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.; Datema, E.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Boer, de J.M.; Peters, S.A.; Bachem, C.W.B.; Stiekema, W.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jong, de J.H.; Bai, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing genomics projects of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) are providing unique tools for comparative mapping studies in Solanaceae. At the chromosomal level, BACs can be positioned on pachytene comple-ments by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on homoeologous

  15. Levels of potential bioactive compounds including carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, and expression of their cognate biosynthetic genes vary significantly in different varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown under uniform cultural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarcel, Jesus; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; O'Brien, Nora M

    2016-02-01

    In addition to their high carbohydrate content, potatoes are also an important dietary source of vitamin C and bioactive secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which have been suggested to play a role in human health. The expression of genes encoding key enzymes involved in the synthesis of these compounds was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared to the accumulation of the corresponding product in seven potato varieties showing contrasting levels of metabolite accumulation. Strong positive correlations were found between phenolic content in the flesh of tubers and transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. The expression of PAL and CHS was also related to that of AN1, a transcription factor involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, suggesting that these genes are regulated in a coordinated manner. No clear relationship was found between transcript levels of phytoene synthase (PSY) or L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) genes and total carotenoid or vitamin C accumulation, respectively. Data indicate that levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds in potato are controlled primarily by PAL and CHS gene expression. Transcript levels of PSY and GLDH did not control accumulation of carotenoids or vitamin C. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  17. Physical mapping of QTL for tuber yield, starch content and starch yield in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by means of genome wide genotyping by sequencing and the 8.3 K SolCAP SNP array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, Elske Maria; Ding, Jia; Ritter, Enrique; Paulo, Maria João; Cara, Nicolás; Tacke, Ekhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2017-08-22

    Tuber yield and starch content of the cultivated potato are complex traits of decisive importance for breeding improved varieties. Natural variation of tuber yield and starch content depends on the environment and on multiple, mostly unknown genetic factors. Dissection and molecular identification of the genes and their natural allelic variants controlling these complex traits will lead to the development of diagnostic DNA-based markers, by which precision and efficiency of selection can be increased (precision breeding). Three case-control populations were assembled from tetraploid potato cultivars based on maximizing the differences between high and low tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC) and starch yield (TSY, arithmetic product of TY and TSC). The case-control populations were genotyped by restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and the 8.3 k SolCAP SNP genotyping array. The allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared between cases and controls. RADseq identified, depending on data filtering criteria, between 6664 and 450 genes with one or more differential SNPs for one, two or all three traits. Differential SNPs in 275 genes were detected using the SolCAP array. A genome wide association study using the SolCAP array on an independent, unselected population identified SNPs associated with tuber starch content in 117 genes. Physical mapping of the genes containing differential or associated SNPs, and comparisons between the two genome wide genotyping methods and two different populations identified genome segments on all twelve potato chromosomes harboring one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for TY, TSC and TSY. Several hundred genes control tuber yield and starch content in potato. They are unequally distributed on all potato chromosomes, forming clusters between 0.5-4 Mbp width. The largest fraction of these genes had unknown function, followed by genes with putative signalling and regulatory functions. The

  18. Effects of Hydrated Potato Starch on the Quality of Low-fat Ttoekgalbi (Korean Traditional Patty Packaged in Modified Atmosphere Conditions during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kang Muhlisin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hydrated potato starch on the quality of low-fat ttoekgalbi (Korean traditional patty packaged in modified atmosphere conditions during storage. The ttoekgalbi was prepared from 53.2% lean beef, 13.9% lean pork, 9.3% pork fat, and 23.6% other ingredients. Two low-fat ttoekgalbi treatments were prepared by substituting pork fat with hydrated potato starch; either by 50% fat replacement (50% FR or 100% fat replacement (100% FR. Both 50% and 100% FR increased the moisture, crude protein, and decreased fat content, cooking loss, and hardness. For MAP studies, 200 g of ttoekgalbi were placed on the tray and filled with gas composed of 70% O2: 30% CO2 (70% O2-MAP and 30% CO2: 70% N2 (70% N2-MAP, and were stored at 5°C for 12 d. During the storage time, both 50% and 100% FR showed higher protein deterioration, while no differences were found in CIE a*, CIE L*, lipid oxidation, and bacterial counts in comparison to control. The ttoekgalbi with 70% O2-MAP was more red, lighter in color, and showed higher TBARS values compared with 70% N2-MAP. The meat with 70% N2-MAP showed lower aerobic bacterial counts in control than those with 70% O2-MAP. The lower anaerobic bacterial counts were observed only in 50% FR and 100% FR packed with 70% N2-MAP in comparison with 70% O2-MAP. In conclusion, the fat replacement with hydrated potato starch showed no negative effects on the quality of low fat ttoekgalbi during storage and 70% N2-MAP was better than 70% O2-MAP for low-fat ttoekgalbi packaging.

  19. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  20. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Pourazari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field. The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N economy of two genetically modified (GM potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%, N uptake efficiency (+53%, tuber N content (+20%, and N accumulation (+120% compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly

  1. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourazari, Fereshteh; Andersson, Mariette; Weih, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field). The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N) economy of two genetically modified (GM) potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%), N uptake efficiency (+53%), tuber N content (+20%), and N accumulation (+120%) compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly increased

  2. Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology ... (FYM); V2 = 2.5 t/h fresh sesbania green manure (FSB) V3 = 5 t/ha FYM; and V4 = 5 t/ha FYM +2.5 ...

  3. Phosphorus uptake by potato from fertilizers recovered from anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in the Columbia Basin of South Central Washington to assess the yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in response to application of phosphorus enriched materials recovered from anaerobic digestion of manure. The treatments were comprised of four rates (0, 56, 112 and ...

  4. Potassium and calcium nutrition improves potato production in drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Spunta potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to different rates of potassium (60 and 120 kg Fed-1 ) in presence or absence of Ca nutrition was studied. The study was performed in sandy-loam soil under a drip-irrigation system during fall seasons of 1996 and 1997 years. Plants fertilised with high rate of K ...

  5. Effectoromics-based identification of cell surface receptors in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domazakis, Emmanouil; Lin, Xiao; Aguilera-Galvez, Carolina; Wouters, Doret; Bijsterbosch, Gerard; Wolters, Pieter J.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    In modern resistance breeding, effectors have emerged as tools for accelerating and improving the identification of immune receptors. Effector-assisted breeding was pioneered for identifying resistance genes (R genes) against Phytophthora infestans in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here we show that

  6. 78 FR 59628 - Importation of Potatoes From Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Mexico AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We are... importation of fresh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) from Mexico into the United States. As a condition of... plant protection organization (NPPO) of Mexico would have to provide a bilateral workplan to the Animal...

  7. Hairy nightshade as a potential Potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) inoculum source in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Alvarez, J M

    2008-09-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, is a solanaceous weed found abundantly in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems. It serves as a reservoir for one of the important potato viruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus), and its most important vector, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Laboratory research indicated an increased green peach aphid settling and performance on S. sarrachoides than on potato. It also revealed that green peach aphids transmitted PLRV more efficiently from S. sarrachoides to potato than from potato to potato. To test the efficiency of S. sarrachoides as an inoculum source in the field, a two season (2004 and 2005) trial was conducted at Kimberly, Idaho. Two inoculum sources, PLRV-infected potato and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides, were compared in this trial. Green peach aphid density and temporal and spatial PLRV spread were monitored at weekly intervals. Higher densities of green peach aphids were observed on plots with S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources (PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato) than on plots without S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources. PLRV infection in plots with PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides was similar to or slightly higher than in plots with PLRV-infected potato as an inoculum source. Temporal and spatial PLRV spread was similar in plots with either inoculum source. Thus, S. sarrachoides is as efficient as or a better PLRV inoculum source than potato.

  8. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  9. OBSERVAÇÕES SOBRE DEGENERESCÊNCIA E COMPORTAMENTO EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DE PLANTIO DE QUATRO VARIEDADES DE BATATA (Solanum Tuberosum L. COMMENTS ON DEGENERATION AND BEHAVIOR AT DIFFERENT PLANTING DATES OF FOUR POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As variedades de batata DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA foram plantadas em duas gerações, a primeira na seca e a segunda, nas águas de 1971, em Goiânia. Para o primeiro plantio, usaram-se batatas-sementes importadas, para o segundo, as filhas destas. HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA produziram mais na segunda geração do que na primeira, devido às melhores condições da época chuvosa. A produção da DELTA-A praticamente não variou nas duas épocas. HANSA foi significantemente superior às outras, em produção total, nas duas épocas e em produção de tubérculos comerciáveis (acima de 33 mm, na época chuvosa. Neste período, seus tubérculos grandes, (acima de 40 mm apresentaram-se com superdesenvolvimento de lenticelas e manchados internamente, ficando comercialmente desvalorizados. A variedade HYDRA destacou-se das demais pela produção de batatas grandes, principalmente na seca. Mostrou-se, porém, muito suscetível à sarna comum, cujo ataque inutilizou grande parte de seus tubérculos. TONDRA foi a variedade que melhor se adaptou ao período chuvoso. Produziu duas vezes mais tubérculos comerciáveis e quase três vezes mais tubérculos grandes, que na seca.

    The four potato varieties DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA and TONDRA were tested in the dry and in the rainy season of 1971, in Goiânia. Imported certified seed potatoes were used for the first planting and the harvested tubers, for the second. All varieties, except DELTA-A, yielded more in the rainy than in the dry season. This difference was found to be caused by the better water supply during the rainy season. There was no significant influence of the season on the production of DELTA-A. HANSA produced in both seasons significantly more in total weight than the other varieties and more marketable potatoes (over 33 mm in the rainy season. But the large

  10. Activity of the promoter of the Lhca3.St.1 gene, encoding the potato apoprotein 2 of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem I, in transgenic potato and tobacco plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Jan; VANSPANJE, M; Dirkse, W.G.; BAARDA, G; Mlynarova, L; Loonen, A.; GRONDHUIS, P; STIEKEMA, WJ

    We have isolated cDNA and genomic clones for the potato (Solanum tuberosum) apoprotein 2 of the light harvesting complex of Photosystem 1, designated Lhca3.St.l. The protein shows all characteristics of the family of chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins. Potato Lhca3.1 gene expression occurs

  11. Fertilización con azufre en el cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. para la industria en el Sudeste Bonaerense Effect of sulfur fertilization on potato for the processing industry in southeastern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Giletto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los incrementos en los rendimientos de los últimos años aumentaron la demanda de azufre (S en papa y los niveles de materia orgánica en el suelo han bajado. Estos factores podrían favorecer la aparición de deficiencias de S. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la incidencia de la fertilización con S en papa para la industria en el sudeste bonaerense. Se realizaron dos ensayos (Sitio 1 y 2 con tres dosis de S: S0 (testigo; S10 (10 kg S ha-1 y S20 (20 kg S ha-1. La producción de materia seca total y la cantidad de S acumulado en planta no fueron afectadas por la aplicación de S. La relación N:S total disminuyó a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo en ambos sitios y fue inferior al umbral crítico de 15:1 e indicó que el cultivo no presentó deficiencias de S. El rendimiento, la concentración de S y la relación N:S en los tubérculos no fueron afectados por el agregado de S en ningún sitios. La cantidad máxima de S acumulado en los tubérculos a cosecha fue en promedio de 18,8 y 14,2 kg ha-1 en el Sitio 1 y 2; respectivamente, mientras que los aportes de S por la aplicación de funguicida y del agua de riego alcanzaron valores de 14 y 17 kg ha-1, respectivamente. A partir del balance de masa de S se determinó que el S residual fue el principal destino del nutriente en el sistema suelo-planta. Se recomienda conocer los aportes de S en los funguicidas y en el agua de riego al diseñar un plan de fertilización con S en papa.In recent years, sulfur (S requirements in potato crops have been increasing due to increasing yields. Soil organic matter contents have been decreasing in Southeastern Buenos Aires thereby limiting the capacity of the soils in this area to meet the higher requirements. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of S fertilization on potato for the processing industry in southeastern Buenos Aires. Two experiments were carried out (Site 1 and 2 involving three different S rates: S0 (control, S

  12. Reactivation of meristem activity and sprout growth in potato tubers require both cytokinin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Senning, Melanie; Hedden, Peter; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2011-02-01

    Reactivation of dormant meristems is of central importance for plant fitness and survival. Due to their large meristem size, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers serve as a model system to study the underlying molecular processes. The phytohormones cytokinins (CK) and gibberellins (GA) play important roles in releasing potato tuber dormancy and promoting sprouting, but their mode of action in these processes is still obscure. Here, we established an in vitro assay using excised tuber buds to study the dormancy-releasing capacity of GA and CK and show that application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is sufficient to induce sprouting. In contrast, treatment with 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud break but did not support further sprout growth unless GA(3) was administered additionally. Transgenic potato plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GA 20-oxidase or GA 2-oxidase to modify endogenous GA levels showed the expected phenotypical changes as well as slight effects on tuber sprouting. The isopentenyltransferase (IPT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Arabidopsis cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase1 (CKX) were exploited to modify the amounts of CK in transgenic potato plants. IPT expression promoted earlier sprouting in vitro. Strikingly, CKX-expressing tubers exhibited a prolonged dormancy period and did not respond to GA(3). This supports an essential role of CK in terminating tuber dormancy and indicates that GA is not sufficient to break dormancy in the absence of CK. GA(3)-treated wild-type and CKX-expressing tuber buds were subjected to a transcriptome analysis that revealed transcriptional changes in several functional groups, including cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, and auxin and ethylene signaling, denoting events associated with the reactivation of dormant meristems.

  13. Suppression of NGB and NAB/ERabp1 in tomato modifies root responses to potato cyst nematode infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska-Bronk, Joanna; Czarny, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Anita; Fudali, Sylwia; Baranowski, Łukasz; Sobczak, Mirosław; Święcicka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Dobosz, Renata; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Filipecki, Marcin

    2015-05-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to major crops throughout the world. The small number of genes conferring natural plant resistance and the limitations of chemical control require the development of new protective strategies. RNA interference or the inducible over-expression of nematicidal genes provides an environment-friendly approach to this problem. Candidate genes include NGB, which encodes a small GTP-binding protein, and NAB/ERabp1, which encodes an auxin-binding protein, which were identified as being up-regulated in tomato roots in a transcriptome screen of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) feeding sites. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization confirmed the localized up-regulation of these genes in syncytia and surrounding cells following nematode infection. Gene-silencing constructs were introduced into tomato, resulting in a 20%-98% decrease in transcription levels. Nematode infection tests conducted on transgenic plants showed 57%-82% reduction in the number of G. rostochiensis females in vitro and 30%-46% reduction in pot trials. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a deterioration of cytoplasm, and degraded mitochondria and plastids, in syncytia induced in plants with reduced NAB/ERabp1 expression. Cytoplasm in syncytia induced in plants with low NGB expression was strongly electron translucent and contained very few ribosomes; however, mitochondria and plastids remained intact. Functional impairments in syncytial cytoplasm of silenced plants may result from NGB's role in ribosome biogenesis; this was confirmed by localization of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-labelled NGB protein in nucleoli and co-repression of NGB in plants with reduced NAB/ERabp1 expression. These results demonstrate that NGB and NAB/ERabp1 play important roles in the development of nematode-induced syncytia. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Modification of the health-promoting value of potato tubers field grown under drought stress: emphasis on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in five native andean cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Schafleitner, Roland; Guignard, Cédric; Oufir, Mouhssin; Aliaga, Carlos Alberto Alvarado; Nomberto, Giannina; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2009-01-28

    The effects of drought stress on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in potato tubers were investigated using a selection of five native Andean cultivars. Both freshly harvested and 4 month-stored tubers were analyzed. Responses to drought stress were highly cultivar-specific. The antioxidant contents of the yellow tuber-bearing cultivars (Sipancachi and SS-2613) were weakly affected by the drought treatment, whereas the pigmented cultivars demonstrated highly cultivar-dependent variations. A drastic reduction of anthocyanins and other polyphenols was revealed in the red- (Sullu) and purple-fleshed (Guincho Negra) cultivars, whereas an increase was shown in the purple-skinned and yellow-fleshed cultivar (Huata Colorada). The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu and H-oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays) was highly correlated with the polyphenol content and followed, therefore, the same behavior upon drought. Carotenoid contents, including beta-carotene, as well as vitamin E, tended to increase or remain stable following drought exposure, except for the cultivar Sullu, in which the level of these lipophilic antioxidants was decreased. Vitamin C contents were not affected by drought with the exception of Guincho Negra, in which the level was increased. These variations of health-promoting compounds were associated with increased or stable levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. Storage at 10 degrees C for 4 months tended to decrease the concentrations of all dietary antioxidants, except those of vitamin E. This storage also reduced the drought-induced variations observed in freshly harvested tubers. These results were discussed in terms of their implications for human diet and health as well as in plant stress defense mechanisms.

  15. Understanding the mechanism of direct electrochemistry of mitochondria-modified electrodes from yeast, potato and bovine sources at carbon paper electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroud, Fabien; Nicolo, Tera A.; Koepke, Sara J.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2013-01-01

    Although mitochondria have been used for bio-electrochemistry for over 5 years, little is known about their direct electrochemistry mechanism. This paper focuses on developing a better understanding of the electron transfer mechanism of mitochondria from three different organisms at carbon electrodes. Yeast, potato and bovine mitochondria have been successfully isolated and immobilized onto Toray paper electrodes via vapor deposited silica. Organelle-modified electrodes were first characterized using cyclic voltammetry. Similar electrochemical signals were obtained for all organisms. Direct electron transfer was observed when a metabolite of the Krebs cycle was present in the buffer solution. Control experiments based on the immobilization of two electron carriers contained in mitochondria, cytochrome c and a quinone (coenzyme Q 10 ), tend to show the electron transfer mechanism to the carbon material comes from the quinone pool of the organelles. As quinones are known to be pH-dependent, we further investigated the response of the electrochemical signal of the three isolated mitochondria and the two electron carriers separately. The half wave potentials obtained from the organelles appeared to be pH-dependent and their variations are comparable to coenzyme Q 10 rather than cytochrome c. Finally, extraction of both the cytochrome c and the quinone pool from intact mitochondria was performed to validate our hypothesis that direct electrochemistry of mitochondria happens via the quinone pool. Electrochemistry of immobilized quinone-depleted mitochondria validated the hypothesis that the mitochondria are communicating with the electrodes through the quinone pool

  16. RESPUESTA DE DIFERENTES POBLACIONES DE Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea A LA ROTACIÓN ENTRE DOS VARIEDADES DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT POPULATIONS OF Spongospora subterranea f .sp. subterranea TO ROTATION OF TWO POTATO CULTIVARS (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Jaramillo Villegas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En una zona papera del Oriente de Antioquia - Colombia, se realizaron tres experimentos, para conocer el comportamiento de las variedades ICA Puracé, considerada por los agricultores, como resistente a la sarna polvosa de la papa, y la variedad Diacol Capiro susceptible. Se pretendió evaluar si hay un efecto de la rotación, entre las dos variedades con diferentes poblaciones de Spongospora subterranea f sp. subterranea sobre la sarna polvosa. Se utilizaron quistosoros de 23 poblaciones de S. subterranea, extraídos de pústulas presentes en tubérculos o agallas en raíces de diferentes variedades, y procedentes de las regiones más productoras de papa en el país. Se determinó la incidencia y el grado de severidad de dichas poblaciones bajo el proceso de rotación entre ICA Puracé-Diacol Capiro y viceversa, en tres cosechas sucesivas, en condiciones de casa de malla. Se observó que las poblaciones del patógeno, no afectaron el peso, ni causaron síntomas de sarna polvosa en los tubérculos, pero si en las raíces, con diferentes grados de severidad en las dos variedades, con tendencia poco predecible en las distintas cosechas, con niveles bajo (> 0 a 2, medio (> 2 a 6 y alto (>6, siendo mas susceptible la Diacol Capiro, que al parecer favoreció el incremento del inóculo. Diacol Capiro, presentó alta incidencia (23/23 y severidad (algunas poblaciones con grado >6 en el primer ciclo, mientras que la ICA Puracé fue levemente afectada por pocas poblaciones (7/23 de S. subterranea y posiblemente presentó efecto supresivo sobre los quistosoros en el suelo en la rotación (segundo ciclo, puesto que se redujo el grado de severidad (In Antioquia Colombia were realized three experiments with potatoes, to know the behavior of the ICA Puracé cultivar, considered by agricultures as powder scab resistant, and the Diacol Capiro cultivar, which is highly susceptible. It is pretended to evaluate if there is a rotation effect, of the two varieties

  17. Spontaneous and induced loss of chromosomes in slow-growing somatic hybrid calli of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, MJ; Drenth - Diephuis, L.J.; SAAT, TAWM; Jacobsen, E.

    Rate and extent of spontaneous and induced chromosome loss have been determined at the callus level of somatic hybrids of mutants of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. AEC (amino ethyl cystein) resistance in potato and Nitrate-Reductase deficiency in N. plumbaginifolia have been used

  18. Desynapsis and FDR 2N-megaspore formation in diploid potato : potentials and limitations for breeding and for the induction of diplosporic apomixis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid (2n=4x=48) plant species, which after its introduction into Europe in the 16th century has become one of the world's major food crops. The potato has traditionally been grown from

  19. Estimating yellow potato (Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk.) solar radiation interception in three Colombian localities; Estimación de la interceptación de la radiación solar en papa criolla (Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk.) en tres localidades colombianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, M; Corchuelo, G

    2005-07-01

    Three experiments were simultaneously carried out in three Colombian localities (Firavitoba, Carmen de Carupa y Bogotá) to measure and compare photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception patterns in Solanum phureja. Three random complete block design planting densities (8,33, 4.17 and 2.67 plants/m{sup 2}) were evaluated, having four replicates and an experimental unit consisting of five four-metre-long rows or planting lines. Overall PAR, reflected PAR, transmitted PAR and absorbed PAR were determined. The Monsie and Saeky model was used for establishing the PAR k extinction coefficient in canopies. Results revealed statistically significant differences within localities and plant densities, but not for LAI interaction. There was a higher overall incidence of radiation in those localities situated at high altitudes. PAR distribution was similar in high and low stratum in all cases, proving that plant architecture allows a suitable distribution of PAR within the canopy. The k extinction coefficient was mainly affected by leaf development. Values ranged from 0.39 to 0.61. It was revealed that plants may become quickly saturated above 2,800 m a.s.l. due to effects of luminescence, thus inducing stressful conditions interfering with leaf development and therefore distribution of tuber photo- assimilation, so affecting agronomic yield. (author) [Spanish] Para medir y comparar los patrones de in¬terceptación de la radiación fotosintéticamente activa en S. phureja, se establecieron tres experimentos simultáneos en tres localidades colombianas (Firavitoba, Carmen de Carupa y Bogotá). Se evaluaron tres densidades de siembra (8,33; 4,17 y 2,67 plantas/m{sup 2}) bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones y una unidad experimental compuesta por cinco surcos de cuatro m de largo. Se midió la radiación fotosintéti¬camente activa incidente total (RFA), la RFA reflejada, la RFA transmitida y la RFA absorbida. Se estableció el

  20. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  1. Improvement of potato tolerance to salinity using tissue culture techniques and irradiation with in vitro selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M. I. E.

    2006-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to salinity. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Mutants were isolated to get rid of chimeral tissues and subsequently propagated for in vitro and pot selection pressure. Cultivar Sponta produced the highest number of tolerant plants (4) and only one plant was obtained from Diamant. (authors)

  2. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  3. Analysis of weed flora in conventional and organic potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić, Lj.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Composition of weed flora is highly dynamic and depends upon great number of factors, of which cultural practices that are applied by humans in certain crops are the most important. One of the most frequently grown plants in the world and in our country is potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae, due to its high biological and nutritive value. Therefore, in the paper was presented taxonomic analysis of weed flora in potato grown conventionally and according to the principles of organic agricultural production, with the intention to point out to eventual differences between present weeds. Of the total number of identified species, from phylum Equisetophyta and class Equisetopsida, in organic potato crop, was determined only one, Equisetum arvense. Of remaining 38 weeds from phylum Magnoliophyta., classified into two classes, Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. On both of potato growing systems, 39 weed species were found, classified into 16 families and 32 genus. Of the total number, 31 species was identified in conventional potato crop, and only 23 species in potato crop grown according to organic principles, which is for about quarter less. Biological spectrum of weed flora in both potato growing systems is pronouncedly of terrophytic – geophytic type. In the spectrum of area types were recorded differences, i.e. in the conventional potato crop represented are only widely distributed species, while in the organic crop, beside species of wide distribution are also present elements of Pontic group.

  4. Expressão eficiente do gene reporter beta-glucuronidase nos tecidos vasculares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizando de um promotor específico (BRA3 de Agrobacterium rhizogenes Efficient expression of beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in vascular tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing a specific promoter (BRA3 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Torres

    2003-06-01

    -glucuronidase (gus activity drived by BRA3 promoter was observed in transgenic potato plants (cvs Macaca and Baronesa. Entrenodes and leaf explants were infected and cocultivated with A. tumefaciens. The regeneration of putative transformants was in medium with 50 mg.L-1 of kanamycin. High frequency of transformants based upon kanamycin resistance and gus expression was obtained. All gus positive plants showed blue staining in vascular bundle (phloem and xylem. PCR analysis showed the amplification of npt II. No conspicuous phenotipic alteration was observed when comparing transgenic vs non-transgenic plants.

  5. The Influence of Chemically Modified Potato Maltodextrins on Stability and Rheological Properties of Model Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pycia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the maltodextrins prepared from chemically modified starches (crosslinked, stabilized, crosslinked and stabilized on the stability and rheological properties of model oil-in-water (o/w emulsions. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that emulsion stability depended on hydrolysates dextrose equivalent (DE value. Maltodextrin with the lowest degree of depolymerization effectively stabilized the dispersed system, and the effectiveness of this action depended on the maltodextrin type and concentration. Addition of distarch phosphate-based maltodextrin stabilized emulsion at the lowest applied concentration, and the least effective was maltodextrin prepared from acetylated starch. Emulsions stabilized by maltodextrins (DE 6 prepared from distarch phosphate and acetylated distarch adipate showed the predominance of the elastic properties over the viscous ones. Only emulsion stabilized by maltodextrin prepared from distarch phosphate (E1412 revealed the properties of strong gel. Additionally, the decrease in emulsions G′ and G″ moduli values, combined with an increase in the value of DE maltodextrins, was observed.

  6. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  7. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  8. Genetic transformation in two potato cultivars with T-DNA from disarmed Agrobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, G.; Burrell, M.M.; Karp, A.; Bevan, M.; Hille, J.

    1987-01-01

    Derivatives of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv.'s 'Maris Bard' and 'Desiree') transformed with disarmed T-DNA from genetically engineered Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains were isolated. The transformed plants were recovered from shoot-forming tumours induced by infection of wounds with mixed-cultures

  9. An agent-based model on disease management in potato cultivation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, F.C.A.; Hofstede, G.J.; Groot, J.C.J.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this project the host-pathogen system of potato (Solanum tuberosum) - late blight (Phytophthora infestans) was analysed as a model system to study management of crop-disease interactions. Resistant cultivars play an important role in sustainable management of the disease. We used an agent-based

  10. Response of stored potato seed tubers from contrasting cultivars to accumulated day-degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Caldiz, D.O.; Scholte, K.

    2006-01-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), the accumulated day-degrees (temperature sum, calculated by accumulating the daily temperatures) from dormancy break until seed tuber use has been suggested as an indicator of the physiological status of the seed. We tested whether similar temperature sums differing

  11. Deficit irrigation based on drought tolerance and root signalling in potatoes and tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Richardt; Battilano, Adriano; Plauborg, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is a big consumer of fresh water in competition with other sectors of the society. Within the EU-project SAFIR new water-saving irrigation strategies were developed based on pot, semi-field and field experiments with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon escule...

  12. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  13. Survey and molecular detection of phytoplasmas associated with potato in Romania and southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, emerging phytoplasma diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) have increasingly become important in central and eastern Europe. Accurate identification of phytoplasmas and their insect vectors is essential to developing effective management strategies for diseases caused by these p...

  14. Prospects for introgressing tomato chromosomes into the potato genome: An assessment through GISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garriga Calderé, F.; Huigen, D.J.; Jacobsen, E.; Ramanna, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    With a view to assess the possibility of homoeologous pairing and crossing-over between the chromosomes of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), a somatic fusion hybrid and two monosomic alien tomato addition genotypes were investigated through genomic in situ

  15. Identification of alleles of carotenoid pathway genes important for zeaxanthin accumulation in potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, A.M.A.; Uitdewilligen, J.G.A.M.L.; Kloosterman, B.A.; Hutten, R.C.B.; Visser, R.G.F.; Eck, van H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the genetics and molecular biology of orange flesh colour in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). To this end the natural diversity in three genes of the carotenoid pathway was assessed by SNP analyses. Association analysis was performed between SNP haplotypes and flesh colour

  16. R gene stacking by trans- and cisgenesis to achieve durable late blight resistance in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), which is the third food crop in the world after wheat and rice, late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most serious diseases. In the last century, major resistance (R)

  17. Mapping, isolation and characterization of genes responsible for late blight resistance in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Late blight (LB), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most
    devastating diseases on potato. Resistance (R) genes from the wild species Solanum demissum
    have been used by breeders to generate late blight resistant cultivars, but resistance was soon
    overcome

  18. Yield and growth components of potato and wheat under organic nitrogen management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van A.

    2001-01-01

    In order to optimize N management in organic farming systems, knowledge of crop growth processes in relation to N limitation is necessary. The present paper examines the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to N with respect to intercepted photosynthetically

  19. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  20. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed. PMID:27240356

  1. Corn and potato starch as an agar alternative for Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Media with 50, 60 g/l of PS or 60 g/l of CS and 50 g/l of CS + agar at 1 g/l significantly enhanced the ... Skoog (1962) medium supplemented 30 g/l of sucrose and 1 mg/l .... Arregui LM, Veramendi J, Mingo-Castel AM (2003).

  2. Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov., isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Lysøe, Erik; Rossmann, Simeon; Perminow, Juliana; Brurberg, May Bente

    2017-12-01

    The genus Pectobacterium, which belongs to the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, contains numerous species that cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants. The species Pectobacterium carotovorum is highly heterogeneous, indicating a need for re-evaluation and a better classification of the species. PacBio was used for sequencing of two soft-rot-causing bacterial strains (NIBIO1006 T and NIBIO1392), initially identified as P. carotovorumstrains by fatty acid analysis and sequencing of three housekeeping genes (dnaX, icdA and mdh). Their taxonomic relationship to other Pectobacterium species was determined and the distance from any described species within the genus Pectobacterium was less than 94 % average nucleotide identity (ANI). Based on ANI, phylogenetic data and genome-to-genome distance, strains NIBIO1006 T , NIBIO1392 and NCPPB3395 are suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Pectobacterium, for which the name Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIBIO1006 T (=DSM 105255 T =NCPPB 4611 T ).

  3. Efficient bacterial expression of recombinant potato mop-top virus non-structural triple gene block protein 1 modified by progressive deletion of its N-terminus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pečenková, Tamara; Filigarová, Marie; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2005), s. 128-135 ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/04/1329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Protein expression * Potato mop-top virus * Triple gene block Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.553, year: 2005

  4. Genetic and physical mapping of homologues of the virus resistance gene Rx1 and the cyst nematode resistance gene Gpa2 in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, E; Butterbach, P; Rouppe van der Voort, J; van der Vossen, E; van Vliet, J; Bakker, J; Goverse, A

    2003-05-01

    Nine resistance gene homologues (RGHs) were identified in two diploid potato clones (SH and RH), with a specific primer pair based on conserved motifs in the LRR domain of the potato cyst nematode resistance gene Gpa2 and the potato virus X resistance gene Rx1. A modified AFLP method was used to facilitate the genetic mapping of the RGHs in the four haplotypes under investigation. All nine RGHs appeared to be located in the Gpa2/ Rx1 cluster on chromosome XII. Construction of a physical map using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones for both the Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum and the S. tuberosum ssp. andigena haplotype of SH showed that the RGHs are located within a stretch of less than 200 kb. Sequence analysis of the RGHs revealed that they are highly similar (93 to 95%) to Gpa2 and Rx1. The sequence identities among all RGHs range from 85 to 100%. Two pairs of RGHs are identical, or nearly so (100 and 99.9%), with each member located in a different genotype. Southern-blot analysis on genomic DNA revealed no evidence for additional homologues outside the Gpa2/ Rx1 cluster on chromosome XII.

  5. SolRgene: an online database to explore disease resistance genes in tuber-bearing Solanum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vleeshouwers Vivianne GAA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important food crop, but highly susceptible to many pathogens. The major threat to potato production is the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which causes the devastating late blight disease. Potato breeding makes use of germplasm from wild relatives (wild germplasm to introduce resistances into cultivated potato. The Solanum section Petota comprises tuber-bearing species that are potential donors of new disease resistance genes. The aim of this study was to explore Solanum section Petota for resistance genes and generate a widely accessible resource that is useful for studying and implementing disease resistance in potato. Description The SolRgene database contains data on resistance to P. infestans and presence of R genes and R gene homologues in Solanum section Petota. We have explored Solanum section Petota for resistance to late blight in high throughput disease tests under various laboratory conditions and in field trials. From resistant wild germplasm, segregating populations were generated and assessed for the presence of resistance genes. All these data have been entered into the SolRgene database. To facilitate genetic and resistance gene evolution studies, phylogenetic data of the entire SolRgene collection are included, as well as a tool for generating phylogenetic trees of selected groups of germplasm. Data from resistance gene allele-mining studies are incorporated, which enables detection of R gene homologs in related germplasm. Using these resources, various resistance genes have been detected and some of these have been cloned, whereas others are in the cloning pipeline. All this information is stored in the online SolRgene database, which allows users to query resistance data, sequences, passport data of the accessions, and phylogenic classifications. Conclusion Solanum section Petota forms the basis of the SolRgene database, which contains a

  6. M7 germplasm release: A tetraploid clone derived from Solanum infundibuliforme for use in expanding the germplasm base for french fry processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new source of russet germplasm has been identified as a parent for processing and fresh market breeding programs. It was derived via bilateral sexual polyploidization following a cross between a diploid cultivated potato and the diploid wild species Solanum infundibuliforme. This clone, designated...

  7. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...; FV12-948-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2...: This rule modifies the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado and is...

  8. 78 FR 70191 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...-FV-13-0001; FV13-948-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and..., without change, an interim rule that modified the size requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes...

  9. 78 FR 35743 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for.... SUMMARY: This interim rule modifies the size requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado...

  10. The Potato Aphid Salivary Effector Me47 Is a Glutathione-S-Transferase Involved in Modifying Plant Responses to Aphid Infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Kettles, Graeme J.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculate...

  11. Climate change and potato cropping in the Peruvian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, J.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on potatoes cropping in the Peruvian highlands (Altiplano) is assessed using climate projections for 2071-2100, obtained from the HadRM3P regional atmospheric model of the Hadley Centre. The atmospheric model is run under two different special report on emission scenarios: high CO2 concentration (A2) and moderate CO2 concentration (B2) for four locations situated in the surroundings of Lake Titicaca. The two main varieties of potato cultivated in the area are studied: the Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum) and the bitter potato ( Solanum juzepczukii). A simple process-oriented model is used to quantify the climatic impacts on crops cycles and yields by combining the effects of temperature on phenology, of radiation and CO2 on maximum yield and of water balance on yield deficit. In future climates, air temperature systematically increases, precipitation tends to increase at the beginning of the rainy season and slightly decreases during the rest of the season. The direct effects of these climatic changes are earlier planting dates, less planting failures and shorter crop cycles in all the four locations and for both scenarios. Consequently, the harvesting dates occur systematically earlier: roughly in January for the Andean potato instead of March in the current situation and in February for the bitter potato instead of April. Overall, yield deficits will be higher under climate change than in the current climate. There will be a strong negative impact on yields for S. tuberosum (stronger under A2 scenario than under B2); the impact on S. juzepczukii yields, however, appears to be relatively mixed and not so negative.

  12. Physiological Assessment of Water Stress in Potato Using Spectral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angela P; Alarcón, Andrés; Valbuena, Raúl I; Galeano, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Water stress in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) causes considerable losses in yield, and therefore, potato is often considered to be a drought sensitive crop. Identification of water deficit tolerant potato genotypes is an adaptation strategy to mitigate the climatic changes that are occurring in the Cundiboyacense region in Colombia. Previous studies have evaluated potato plants under water stress conditions using physiological analyses. However, these methodologies require considerable amounts of time and plant material to perform these measurements. This study evaluated and compared the physiological and spectral traits between two genotypes, Diacol Capiro and Perla Negra under two drought levels (10 and 15 days without irrigation from flowering). Reflectance information was used to calculate indexes which were associated with the physiological behavior in plants. The results showed that spectral information was correlated (ρ < 0.0001) with physiological variables such as foliar area (FA), total water content (H 2 Ot), relative growth rate of potato tubers (RGTtub), leaf area ratio (LAR), and foliar area index (AFI). In general, there was a higher concentration of chlorophyll under drought treatments. In addition, Perla Negra under water deficit treatments did not show significant differences in its physiological variables. Therefore, it could be considered a drought tolerant genotype because its physiological performance was not affected under water stress conditions. However, yield was affected in both genotypes after being subject to 15 days of drought. The results suggested that reflectance indexes are a useful and affordable approach for potato phenotyping to select parent and segregant populations in breeding programs.

  13. Effects of elevated CO2 and trace ethylene present throughout the storage season on the processing colour of stored potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous short-term trials (9-week duration) have shown that the fry colour of stored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) can be negatively affected by simultaneous exposure to elevated CO2 plus a trace concentration of ethylene gas. In the present study, trials were conducted during each of two storage

  14. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  15. Effects of foliar and tuber sprout suppressants on shelf life of ware potatoes under tropical ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important source of dietary carbohydrate and cash income for farmers in the tropical highlands of Kenya. The feasibility for cold storage at the farm level is limited due to the high costs of maintaining such a facility and there is limited data on the long-term post...

  16. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS) has properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking me...

  17. Expression of a cucumber class III chitinase and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia class I glucanase genes in transgenic potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravcikova, J.; Matusikova, I.; Libantova, J.; Bauer, M.; Mlynarova, L.

    2004-01-01

    The genes encoding for a cucumber class III chitinase and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia class I glucanase were co-introduced into Slovak potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding line 116/86 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. For both transgenes the number of integrated copies and level of RNA expression

  18. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts

  19. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Condori

    Full Text Available Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme. The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the

  20. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  1. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  2. Arthropod Pests and Predators Associated With Bittersweet Nightshade, a Noncrop Host of the Potato Psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Carrillo, C I; Fu, Z; Jensen, A S; Snyder, W E

    2016-08-01

    Bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara L.) is a key noncrop host of the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli Šulc), proposed to be a source of the psyllids that colonize potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields in the northwestern United States. Here, we describe the broader community of arthropod potato pests, and also predatory arthropods, found in bittersweet nightshade patches. Over 2 yr, we sampled arthropods in patches of this weed spanning the potato-growing region of eastern Washington State. The potato psyllid was the most abundant potato pest that we found, with reproduction of these herbivores recorded throughout much of the growing season where this was measured. Aphid, beetle, and thrips pests of potato also were collected on bittersweet nightshade. In addition to these herbivores, we found a diverse community of >40 predatory arthropod taxa. Spiders, primarily in the Families Dictynidae and Philodromidae, made up 70% of all generalist predator individuals collected. Other generalist predators included multiple species of predatory mites, bugs, and beetles. The coccinellid beetle Stethorus punctillum (Weise) was observed eating psyllid eggs, while the parasitoid wasp Tamarixia triozae (Burks) was observed parasitizing potato psyllid nymphs. Overall, our survey verified the role of bittersweet nightshade as a potato psyllid host, while suggesting that other potato pests also use these plants. At the same time, we found that bittersweet nightshade patches were associated with species-rich communities of natural enemies. Additional work is needed to directly demonstrate movement of pests, and perhaps also predators, from bittersweet nightshade to potato fields. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Factors influencing gene silencing of granule-bound starch synthase in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilersig, H.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, antisense RNA technology was used to modify the composition of potato tuber starch. Potato starch comprises amylose and amylopectin, polymers of glucose. Amylose production in potato is completely dependent on the presence of granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI). Inhibition of GBSSI

  4. Effect of low-dose γ-irradiation on the shelf life and quality characteristics of minimally processed potato cubes under modified atmosphere packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Usha Devi, A.; Nayak, Chetan A.; Kudachikar, V.B.; Keshava Prakash, M.N.; Prakash, Maya; Ramana, K.V.R.; Rastogi, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    The processing conditions involving γ-irradiation for minimally processed potato cubes were optimized by response surface methodology. The effect of γ-irradiation dose (0-1.5 kGy), citric acid concentration (0-1.0%), KMS concentration (0-1.0%) and their complex interaction on L, a, b value, hardness and total sugar content were studied using a central composite rotatable design of experiments. The results showed that at the optimum conditions (γ-irradiation dose 1.0 kGy; citric acid concentration 0.33% and KMS concentration 0.55%) the L-value was ≥48.50%, a-value ≤0.95, b-value ≤7.5, hardness ≥100 N, sucrose concentration ≤0.19% and sensory score ≥6.0 at the end of the storage period of 4 weeks

  5. Tracer study on sulphur use efficiency in potato-barley sequence on acid soil of Shimla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sud, K.C.; Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, N.K.

    1999-01-01

    Controlled studies were conducted on acidic soil of Fagu (Shimla) to study the efficiency of labelled ammonium sulphate as effected by farmyard manure (FYM) on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its residual effect on succeeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The direct and residual effects of FYM and sulphur on dry matter yield and S concentration in potato and barley plants were significant. Applied FYM had a positive effect on radioassay values i.e. % Sdff and % S utilization by potato from labelled S carrier, whereas, the residual effect of applied S on barley was more than its direct effect on potato. Results indicate that combined application of S and FYM resulted in 3.4 per cent more S contribution to barley crop and was reflected in % S utilization values. (author)

  6. Potato processing scenario in India: Industrial constraints, future projections, challenges ahead and remedies - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, R S; Pandey, S K; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, S V; Kumar, Parveen

    2010-03-01

    Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) processing industry has emerged fast due to economic liberalization coupled with growing urbanization, expanding market options and development of indegenous processing varieties. India's first potato processing varieties 'Kufri Chipsona-1' and 'Kufri Chipsona-2' were developed in 1998, followed by an improved processing variety 'Kufri Chipsona-3' in 2005 for the Indian plains and first chipping variety 'Kufri Himsona' for the hills. These varieties have >21% tuber dry matter content, contain low reducing sugars (products. The availability of these varieties and standardization of storage techniques for processing potatoes at 10-12°C with sprout suppressant isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate have revolutionized the processing scenario within a short span of 10 years. Currently about 4% of total potato produce is being processed in organized and unorganized sector. Potato processing industry mainly comprises 4 segments: potato chips, French fries, potato flakes/powder and other processed products. However, potato chips still continue to be the most popular processed product. The major challenge facing the industries lies in arranging round the year supply of processing varieties at reasonable price for their uninterrupted operation, besides several others which have been discussed at length and addressed with concrete solutions.

  7. Potato seed dressing with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 enhances yield and reduces black scurf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A rhizospheric strain RZ9 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed for in-vitro growth inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani and effectiveness to control black scurf on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. of the cultivars Spunta and Nicola, in greenhouse and field experiments. The strain RZ9 inhibited R. solani mycelial growth by more than 60% and completely inhibited the germination of sclerotia from infested potato tubers in in-vitro tests. In greenhouse assays, seed potato treatment with RZ9 cell suspension increased stem length, decreased the relative weight of infected potato tubers (by 67%, and increased the potato yield (by 16% compared to pathogen-inoculated plants for both potato cultivars. In field trials conducted on sandy soils during 2012 and 2013, strain RZ9 reduced black scurf incidence and increased potato yield by an average of 5.3 t ha-1 for ′Spunta′ and 5 t ha-1 for ′Nicola′. This study showed that the selected strain of P. aeruginosa is an efficient bacterium for enhancing yield and reducing black scurf of field-grown potatoes.

  8. Freezing and low temperature photoinhibition tolerance in cultivated potato and potato hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. SEPPÄNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Four Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars (Nicola, Pito, Puikula, Timo and somatic hybrids between freezing tolerant S. commersonii and freezing sensitive S. tuberosum were evaluated for their tolerance to freezing and low temperature photoinhibition. Cellular freezing tolerance was studied using ion leakage tests and the sensitivity of the photosynthetic apparatus to freezing and high light intensity stress by measuring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (FV/FM and oxygen evolution. Exposure to high light intensities after freezing stress increased frost injury significantly in all genotypes studied. Compared with S. tuberosum cultivars, the hybrids were more tolerant both of freezing and intense light stresses. In field experiments the mechanism of frost injury varied according to the severity of night frosts. During night frosts in 1999, the temperature inside the potato canopy was significantly higher than at ground level, and did not fall below the lethal temperature for potato cultivars (from -2.5 to -3.0°C. As a result, frost injury developed slowly, indicating that damage occurred to the photosynthetic apparatus. However, as the temperature at ground level and inside the canopy fell below -4°C, cellular freezing occurred and the canopy was rapidly destroyed. This suggests that in the field visual frost damage can follow from freezing or non-freezing temperatures accompanied with high light intensity. Therefore, in an attempt to improve low temperature tolerance in potato, it is important to increase tolerance to both freezing and chilling stresses.

  9. Site-Specific Multilevel Modeling of Potato Response to Nitrogen Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Serge-Étienne Parent; Michaël A. Leblanc; Annie-Claude Parent; Zonlehoua Coulibali; Léon E. Parent

    2017-01-01

    Technologies of precision agriculture, digital soil maps, and meteorological stations provide a minimum data set to guide precision farming operations. However, determining optimal nutrient requirements for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crops at subfield scale remains a challenge given specific climatic, edaphic, and managerial conditions. Multilevel modeling can generalize yield response to fertilizer additions using data easily accessible to growers. Our objective was to elaborate a multile...

  10. Impact of recombination on polymorphism of genes encoding Kunitz-type protease inhibitors in the genus Solanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Santino, Angelo; Oparina, Nina Y; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Guseva, Marina A; Shevelev, Alexei B

    2012-08-01

    The group of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KPI) from potato is encoded by a polymorphic family of multiple allelic and non-allelic genes. The previous explanations of the KPI variability were based on the hypothesis of random mutagenesis as a key factor of KPI polymorphism. KPI-A genes from the genomes of Solanum tuberosum cv. Istrinskii and the wild species Solanum palustre were amplified by PCR with subsequent cloning in plasmids. True KPI sequences were derived from comparison of the cloned copies. "Hot spots" of recombination in KPI genes were independently identified by DnaSP 4.0 and TOPALi v2.5 software. The KPI-A sequence from potato cv. Istrinskii was found to be 100% identical to the gene from Solanum nigrum. This fact illustrates a high degree of similarity of KPI genes in the genus Solanum. Pairwise comparison of KPI A and B genes unambiguously showed a non-uniform extent of polymorphism at different nt positions. Moreover, the occurrence of substitutions was not random along the strand. Taken together, these facts contradict the traditional hypothesis of random mutagenesis as a principal source of KPI gene polymorphism. The experimentally found mosaic structure of KPI genes in both plants studied is consistent with the hypothesis suggesting recombination of ancestral genes. The same mechanism was proposed earlier for other resistance-conferring genes in the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Based on the data obtained, we searched for potential motifs of site-specific binding with plant DNA recombinases. During this work, we analyzed the sequencing data reported by the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC), 2011 and found considerable inconsistence of their data concerning the number, location, and orientation of KPI genes of groups A and B. The key role of recombination rather than random point mutagenesis in KPI polymorphism was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  12. Rooting characteristics of Solanum chacoense and Solanum tuberosum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increases in root biomass and length have been linked to increased plant nitrogen (N) accumulation; however it is difficult to measure these parameters in soil environments. In vitro methods may aid in elucidating potato-rooting characteristics in relation to N use efficiency (NUE) due to a high lev...

  13. Cloning and functional characterization of SAD genes in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Bian, Chun Song; Xu, Jian Fei; Pang, Wan Fu; Liu, Jie; Duan, Shao Guang; Lei, Zun-Guo; Jiwan, Palta; Jin, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD) were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8) against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD) was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato.

  14. Cloning and functional characterization of SAD genes in potato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD, locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8 against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato.

  15. Combined effects of CO2 enrichment, changes in diurnal light level and water stress on foliar metabolites of potato plants grown in naturally sunlit controlled environment chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kennebec) were grown in outdoor, naturally sunlit, soil-plant-atmosphere research (SPAR) chambers. Drought treatments were imposed at post-tuber initiation stage to assess water stress effects on leaf metabolites, and interactions with enriched CO2 concentrati...

  16. Expression of Two Functionally Distinct Plant Endo-ß-1,4-Glucanases Is Essential for the Compatible Interaction Between Potato Cyst Nematode and Its Hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karczmarek, A.; Fudali, S.; Lichocka, M.; Sobczak, M.; Kurek, W.; Janakowski, S.; Roosien, J.; Golinowski, W.; Bakker, J.; Goverse, A.; Helder, J.

    2008-01-01

    For the proliferation of their feeding sites (syncytia), the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is thought to recruit plant endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (EGases, EC. 3.2.1.4). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) indicated that the

  17. Analysis of endophytic bacterial communities of potato by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA based PCR fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbeva, P.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of endophytic bacterial populations of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv Desiree) was assessed using a combination of dilution plating of plant macerates followed by isolation and characterization of isolates, and direct PCR-DGGE on the basis of DNA extracted from plants. The culturable

  18. Screening of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae for resistance to and induction of juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes and their potential for trap cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ninety accessions of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae were screened for (i) resistance to and (ii) stimulatory effect on juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes, and (iii) their growth under temperate climatic conditions. All plant species belonging to the genus Solanum tested induced hatching but this

  19. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  20. Méthodes de mesure de l’âge physiologique des tubercules semences de pomme de terre (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Jardin P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment methods of physiological age of potato seed tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.. The study of potato tuber ageing possesses both fundamental and applied interests. Because of potential economical impacts, numerous attempts have been made to develop reliable biophysical, physiological or biochemical markers of physiological age of seed tubers intended for vegetative multiplication. At the present time, biophysical markers do not meet this objective, the obtained results being contradictory or not very transposable. Some physiological markers seem well-suited but they are not predictive. The biochemical studies often focus on potato tuber developmental process or are undertaken without accurate physiological reference frame. After defining the main concepts, this study synthesizes and critically evaluates the different methods used to assess physiological age. An integrated research strategy based on existing data is finally proposed to study potato tuber ageing.

  1. Efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains for biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven bacterial isolates from faba bean (Vicia faba L. root-nodules were screened for their antagonistic activity against eight Rhizoctonia solani strains isolated from infected potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers. Two bacterial strains (designated as Kl.Fb14 and S8.Fb11 gave 50% in vitro inhibition of R. solani mycelial growth. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain Kl.Fb14 exhibited 99.5% identity with Pseudomonas moraviensis, and that S8.Fb11 exhibited 99.8% identity with Pseudomonas reinekei. Greenhouse trials in soil showed that strain S8.Fb11 reduced the percentage of sclerotia on potato tubers and amounts of tuber infection for the potato cultivars Spunta and Nicola. In a field trial conducted in South Tunisia, infection with R. solani reduced potato yield by approximately 40% for ‘Spunta’ and 17% for ‘Nicola’; about 20% of the total tuber production was severely infected. However, when potato tubers were treated with strain S8.Fb11 prior to sowing, disease incidence was reduced to 6% of total production with low infection levels; potato yield was enhanced by about 6 kg per 10 m row in comparison to R. solani infected plants. The second selected Pseudomonas sp. (strain Kl.Fb14 did not affect either the levels of sclerotia on tubers or potato yield.

  2. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content – A 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore...... for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional...... concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption....

  3. Acción de las poliaminas en la protección de papa criolla (Solanum phureja ev. "Yema de Huevo" contra las heladas Polyamine aetivity in proteeting 'ereole' potato (So/anum phureja ev. "Yema de Huevo" against frost damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Angulo Hernán Mauricio

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1992, se realizó un ensayo para determinar el efecto de las poliaminas (PA, putrescina (Put. espermidina (Spd y espermina (Spm en la reversión del daño causado por una helada (-1ºC por 3 hr en un cultivo de papa criolla (Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk. cv. "Yema de Huevo". Los tratamientos
    con las PA revirtieron efectivamente el daño en las plantas de papa criolla, lográndose, en todos los casos, una mayor producción en biomasa de tubérculos, en comparación con el testigo. El mejor tratamiento fue el de Spm 50 μM con el cual se logró mantener la producción normal con 9,85 ton/ha, contra apenas 5,42 ton/ha del testigo. Al parecer, el efecto de esta hormona se presentó por la inducción de la rebrotación de las yemas y en la protección del follaje.In 1992, an experiment was carried out to establish the action of the polyamines (PA putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm in the reversion of frost damage (3 hr at -1ºC in Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk. ("papa criolla" cv. Yema de Huevo. PA treatments reverted damage and potato plants
    reached a higher yield of tuber biomass, compared with controls. The best treatment was Spm 50

  1. Evaluating the efficacy of pre- and post-emergence herbicides for controlling Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Chenopodium album L. in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alebrahim, M. T.; Majd, R.; Rashed Mohassel, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the control of Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album and tolerance of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria) to ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, rimsulfuron, EPTC and oxadiargyl applied pre-emergence (PRE) and post-emergenc...

  2. Introgression of tomato chromosomes into the potato genome : an analysis through molecular marker and in situ hybridisation techniques = [Introgressie van tomatenchromosomen in het aardappelgenoom : een analyse met behulp van moleculaire merker en in situ hybridisatie technieken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garriga Caldere, F.

    1998-01-01

    Transfer of alien chromosomes and genes across intergeneric boundaries can be useful not only for the introgression of desirable characters but also for fundamental genetic studies. The successful demonstration of hybridisation of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) and tomato

  3. A thermodynamically influenced control for potato storage | Ndiema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained show that the modified control achieved reduced mass loss by about 5% while the fan energy input was reduced by up to 10%. It is therefore possible to achieve improved control of the potato storage condition by modifying the controls to operate on the basis of thermodynamic state diagrams.

  4. Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Jawdat, D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg -1 . Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author)

  5. Invasion of Solanum tuberosum L. by Aspergillus terreus: a microscopic and proteomics insight on pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Chandradev, Sharma K; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-06-10

    Aspergillus terreus is one of the most harmful filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, animals and plants. Recently, researchers have discovered that A. terreus can cause foliar blight disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). We used light and scanning electron microscopy, and performed proteomics analysis in an attempt to dissect the invasion process of A. terreus in this important crop. Microscopic study revealed that invasion of leaf tissue is marked by rapid germination of A. terreus phialidic conidia (PC) by 4 h after inoculation. By 8 h after inoculation, primary germ tubes from PC differentiated into irregular protuberance, often displayed stomata atropism, and failed to penetrate via the epidermal cells. Colonization of leaf tissues was associated with high rate of production of accessory conidia (AC). These analyses showed the occurrence of a unique opposing pattern of AC, tissue-specific and produced on melanized colonizing hyphae during the infection of leaf tissue. A significant proteome change hallmarked by differential expression of class I patatin, lipoxygenase, catalase-peroxidase complex, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor were observed during tuber colonization. These proteins are often involved in signal transduction pathways and crosstalk in pathogenic responses. A. terreus abundantly produced AC and multipolar germinating PC to invade potato leaf tissue. Additionally, A. terreus differentially induced enzymes in potato tuber during colonization which facilitates rapid disease development.

  6. Status of potato husbandry and farmer's socio-economic profile in moisture and heat prone karnataka, india

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, R.K.; Kadian, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Hassan district of Karnataka (India) plays an important role of providing processing grade potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) during September to December months when there is real dearth of such potatoes in the country. However, shallow soils, low soil carbon, inadequate irrigation water (126% cropping intensity in study area) and heat stress have been bothering farmers of this area for a long time. In addition, severe late blight infestations during recent years have played havoc for Potato farmers, dragging average potato productivity in the area to sub seven tonne/ hectare levels. Current study was carried out to analyse socio-economics of potato farmers in Hassan district of Karnataka so that policy makers and development agencies take right decisions towards upliftment of potato farmers of this area. District wise annual compound growth rates (ACGRs) of potato area, production and productivity were estimated for the period during 1999-00 to 2009-10. During this period, potato area in Hassan district expanded at 11.5% ACGR, the corresponding production and productivity figures decelerated by 2 and 12%, respectively. The study of various socio-economic factors revealed that the sampled households were deprived of even the basic household necessities such as food security (33% total and 65% landless labourer respondents), personal water connection (72% respondents) and toilets (68% respondents). Potato contract farming arrangements between potato farmers and the leading contractor, PepsiCo India were also studied. This article recommends enhanced emphasis of Indian government on irrigation development under various rural development schemes and consolidation of land holdings in order to facilitate farm mechanization and improved agricultural profitability. (author)

  7. A recombination point is conserved in the mitochondrial genome of higher plant species and located downstream from the cox2 pseudogene in Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susely F.S. Tada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. mitochondrial cox3/sdh4/pseudo-cox2 gene cluster has previously been identified by heterologous hybridization using a Marchantia polymorpha sdh4 probe. In our present study we used Southern blotting using sdh4 and cox2 probes to show that the sdh4 and cox2 genes are clustered in the mitochondria of potato, soybean and pea. Northern blotting revealed cotranscription of sdh4 and cox2 in potato but not in cauliflower, indicating that these genes are not clustered in cauliflower. A putative recombination point was detected downstream of the cox2 pseudogene (pseudo-cox2 in potato mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. This sequence corresponds to a 32 bp sequence which appears to be well-conserved and is adjacent to the terminals of some mitochondrial genes in Citrullus lanatus, Beta vulgaris and Arabidopsis thaliana and is probably involved in the genic rearrangements. It is possible the potato mtDNA pseudo-cox2 gene was generated by recombination during evolution in the same way as that of several other mitochondrial genes and remains as an inactive partial copy of the functional cox2 which was also detected in potato mtDNA.

  8. Minitubers production of four potato Cuban varieties in greenhouse with zeolite as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Feria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of original seed of national potato varieties (Solanum tuberosum L. is of great importance. The objective of the present work was to obtain minitubers from four national potato varieties in a greenhouse with zeolite as substrate. The plants in vitro propagated of the varieties 'Grettel', 'Yuya', 'Ibis' and 'Marinca' were planted and received cultural and phytosanitary attention according to the protocol existing at IBP. Harvest was performed at 75 days of culture and the total number of minitubers and the number of minitubers with a diameter greater than 15 mm were quantified for each plant. Plants and tubers showed the typical characteristics of each variety under zeolite substrate culture conditions. The highest number of minitubers per plant was achieved in the 'Yuya' and 'Ibis' varieties with 3.84 and 3.52 respectively. For the number of minitubers available as original seed (>15 mm, the 'Yuya' variety was superior with 82.3%. The culture conditions with zeolite substrate allow to obtain minitubers of potatoes of the four varieties from plants in vitro cultured. 'Yuya' and 'Ibis' showed the best results and potentially could be incorporated into the national seed production program in Cuba.   Keywords: agamic seed, ‘Ibis’, ‘Grettel’, ‘Marinca’, Solanum tuberosum, ‘Yuya’

  9. Flight movement and spatial distribution of immunomarked thrips in onion, potato, and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial distribution of thrips in different crops, and the correlation between meterological parameters and the flight movements of this pest, using immunomarking. The experiment was conducted in cultivated areas, with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, and onion (Allium cepa; and non-cultivated areas, with weedy plants. The areas with tomato (100 days, potato (20 days, and weeds were sprayed with casein, albumin, and soy milk, respectively, to mark adult thrips; however, the areas with onion (50 days and tomato (10 days were not sprayed. Thrips were captured with georeferenced blue sticky traps, transferred into tubes, and identified by treatment area with the Elisa test. The dependence between the samples and the capture distance was determined using geostatistics. Meteorlogical parameters were correlated with thrips density in each area. The three protein types used for immunomarking were detected in different proportions in the thrips. There was a correlation between casein-marked thrips and wind speed. The thrips flew a maximum distance of 3.5 km and dispersed from the older (tomato to the younger crops (potato. The immunomarking method is efficient to mark large quantities of thrips.

  10. Virulence assessment of Portuguese isolates of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José M. DA CUNHA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Identification of species and virulence groups of potato cyst nematodes (PCN, Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis, present in field populations is important in the control of these nematodes by means of resistant cultivars. In order to characterize the virulence of Globodera spp. isolates from Portugal, 43 G. rostochiensis and three G. pallida isolates were evaluated by measuring their multiplication rates on a susceptible potato cultivar and five differential potato genotypes in a growth chamber pot experiment. Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed that the reproduction rates were different in terms of both the numbers of eggs and the numbers of cysts produced. Portuguese isolates of PCN were more virulent on genotypes derived from Solanum vernei than on genotypes derived from other Solanum resistance sources, and there was a significant nematode isolate × host genotype interaction. The virulence bioassay clearly distinguished the two PCN species but failed to differentiate isolates into pathotypes. There was a wide and continuous range of virulence to the resistant genotypes, especially in G. rostochiensis isolates.

  11. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Potato starch granules consist primarily of two tightly packed polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which amount for 20-30%, is the principal linear component, but a fraction is in fact slightly branched. Amylopectin is typically the major component and is extensively branched...... chains extending from the clusters. A range of enzymes is involved in the biosynthesis of the cluster structures and linear segments. These are required for sugar activation, chain elongation, branching, and trimming of the final branching pattern. As an interesting feature, potato amylopectin...... is substituted with low amounts of phosphate groups monoesterified to the C-3 and the C-6 carbons of the glucose units. They seem to align well in the granular structure and have tremendous effects on starch degradation in the potato and functionality of the refined starch. A specific dikinase catalyzes...

  12. Rhizosphere bacteria affected by transgenic potatoes with antibacterial activities compared with the effects of soil, wild-type potatoes, vegetation stage and pathogen exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Hodl, [No Value; Poll, C; Kandeler, E; Gerzabek, MH; van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to analyze a potential effect of genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial compounds (attacin/cecropin, T4 lysozyme) and their nearly isogenic, nontransformed parental wild types on rhizosphere bacterial communities. To compare plant

  13. Genetic structure and evidence of putative Darwinian diversifying selection in the Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Chaves-Bedoya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The population structure and genetic variation of Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV were estimated by analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the coat protein of 69 isolates, reported in GenBank, from Solanum tuberosum (ST and Solanum phureja (SP hosts from different regions; predominantly Cundinamarca, Antioquia and Nariño, located in central and southwestern Colombia. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that despite the wide geographic distribution of different hosts and different collecting years, PYVV maintains a genetic similarity between 97.1 to 100.0%, indicating high spatial and temporal genetic stability of the major coat protein. No recombination events were found, but evidence was seen for the first time that this protein could be undergoing Darwinian diversifying selection

  14. Potato carrot agar with manganese as an isolation medium for Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    A semi-selective medium for isolation of Alternaria spp., Epicoccum sp. and Phoma spp. from soil and plant samples was developed. The basal medium was a modified potato carrot agar (PCA), containing 10 g/L of potato and carrot. It is known that the target genera sporulate well on standard PCA when...

  15. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  16. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.

  17. Phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans as substrate for potato starch-branching enzyme I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikso-Nielsen, A.; Blennow, A.; Nielsen, T.H.; Moller, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    The possible involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) starch-branching enzyme I (PSBE-I) in the in vivo synthesis of phosphorylated amylopectin was investigated in in vitro experiments with isolated PSBE-I using 33P-labeled phosphorylated and 3H end-labeled nonphosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans as the substrates. From these radiolabeled substrates PSBE-I was shown to catalyze the formation of dual-labeled (3H/33P) phosphorylated branched polysaccharides with an average degree of polymerization of 80 to 85. The relatively high molecular mass indicated that the product was the result of multiple chain-transfer reactions. The presence of alpha(1 leads to 6) branch points was documented by isoamylase treatment and anion-exchange chromatography. Although the initial steps of the in vivo mechanism responsible for phosphorylation of potato starch remains elusive, the present study demonstrates that the enzyme machinery available in potato has the ability to incorporate phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucans into neutral polysaccharides in an interchain catalytic reaction. Potato mini tubers synthesized phosphorylated starch from exogenously supplied 33PO4(3-) and [U-14C]Glc at rates 4 times higher than those previously obtained using tubers from fully grown potato plants. This system was more reproducible compared with soil-grown tubers and was therefore used for preparation of 33P-labeled phosphorylated alpha(1 leads to 4) glucan chains

  18. MEKANISME KETAHANAN KENTANG (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM TERHADAP NEMATODA SISTA KUNING (GLOBODERA ROSTOCHIENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Fitriyanti, Mulyadi, dan Christanti Sumardiyono .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance mechanism of potato (Solanum tuberosum to golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis.  The research was conducted from June 2005 to May 2006 in Kepuhharjo, Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The aims of the research were to find the resistance status of 20 potato varieties, role of  chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid  in the resistance mechanism and histopathological differences between resistant and susceptible potato varieties to  G. rostochiensis. The results showed that two varieties were resistant to G. rostochiensis, i.e, Hertha and Manohara.  Thirteen varieties were moderately resistant, i.e; No.30, No.44, No. 5, No.19, Batang Hitam, Agria,  Desiree, Berolina, Atlantik, No.095, Cipanas, FLS and Colombus, and five varieties were susceptible, i.e; Kikondo, Granola, Erika, LBR, and Fries. The presence of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Hertha (resistant variety and in Granola (susceptible variety were analized by TLC. In Hertha chlorogenic acid was detected at 4, 5, and 6 days after inoculation (DAI, whereas in Granola it was detected at 1 and 6 DAI. It was assumed that the presence of chlorogenic acid for 3 successively week in Hertha, caused it more resistant than Granola.  Cell lignification inhibited                       G. rostochiensis grow well inside the root tissue of Hertha, whereas in Granola only a few cell was lignified as indicated by less absorption of red colour (safranin in infected areas. Caffeic acid was not detected either in uninoculated or inoculated of both potato varieties.  It indicated that caffeic acid might not be naturally present in Hertha and Granola and nematode infection could not stimulate the production of this compound.

  19. Karakteristik Edible Film dari Pati Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L. dengan Penambahan Gliserol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsiah Sjamsiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible film is a thin layer that serve as the packaging or upholstery as well as food that can be eaten with a product. It is packaged and can be degraded by nature. Potato starch can be used as raw material in manufacturing edible film, in which the addition of glycerol is needed as a plasticizer that function to improve the elasticity of the edible film. The goal of the research is to know the influence of glycerol concentration variation against the characteristics of edible film of starch potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. the parameters examined in this study i.e the physical test that includes a test of strong thickness, tensile test and present enlargement, test the solubility and organoleptic. To help figure out the data obtained in the real effect or not, is done using the SPSS Analysis Variant 1 direction or one-way ANOVA. Characteristics of edible film from potato starch with addition of glycerol with a concentration of 20%, 30% and 40% (v/v to the value of the thickness of consecutive 0,058 mm, 0,062 mm and 0,071mm. The value of the tensile strengh i.e 0,75 N/mm2, 0,69 N/mm2 and 0,35 N/mm2. The value obtained by elongation percent 4,96%, 9,04% and 9,51% where as the value of solubility is obtained that is 19%, 21,4% and 34,6%. Application of edible films from potato starch as the packaging on candy jelly can be acceptedas alternative packaging material for food.

  20. Mechanism and control of Solanum lycocarpum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, L.V.A.; Silva, Da E.A.A.; Davide, A.C.; Mendes de Jesus, V.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Solanaceae seed morphology and physiology have been widely studied but mainly in domesticated crops. The present study aimed to compare the seed morphology and the physiology of germination of Solanum lycocarpum, an important species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, with two species with

  1. Flowerlocation in Solanum dulcamara L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zhuravlyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of inflorescence of Solanum dulcamara is studied. Pseudolateral location of inflorescence relatively to plant body is set, the absence of bracteae and the sympodial type of growing of branches are found out. From W. Troll point of view the inflorescence of nightshade is defined as the polytelica synflorescence – complex dichasium.

  2. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  3. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...

  5. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  6. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  7. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  8. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  9. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Rozo, José; Sánchez Nieves, Jimena; Uribe Vélez, Daniel; Moreno Chacón, Leonardo; Melgarejo Muñoz, Luz Marina

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofuran degradation activity (Furadan®3SC) were obtained from soils cultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosum) in Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia), with different records of pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for their ability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mg L-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/ or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those obtai...

  10. DNA marker-assisted evaluation of potato genotypes for potential resistance to potato cyst nematode pathotypes not yet invading into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tsuda, Shogo; Nishinaka, Mio; Tamiya, Seiji

    2012-06-01

    One of major objectives of crop breeding is conferring resistance to diseases and pests. However, large-scale phenotypic evaluation for many diseases and pests is difficult because strict controls are required to prevent their spread. Detection of disease resistance genes by using DNA markers may be an alternative approach to select potentially resistant accessions. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeders in Japan extensively use resistance gene H1, which confers nearly absolute resistance to potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) pathotype Ro1, the only pathotype found in Japan. However, considering the possibility of accidental introduction of the other pathotypes, breeding of resistant varieties is an important strategy to prevent infestation by non-invading pathotypes in Japan. In this study, to evaluate the prevalence of resistance genes in Japanese genetic resources, we developed a multiplex PCR method that simultaneously detects 3 resistance genes, H1, Gpa2 and Gro1-4. We revealed that many Japanese varieties possess not only H1 but Gpa2, which are potentially resistant to other pathotypes of potato cyst nematode. On the other hand, no genotype was found to have the Gro1-4, indicating importance of introduction of varieties having Gro1-4. Our results demonstrate the applicability of DNA-marker assisted evaluation of resistant potato genotypes without phenotypic evaluation.

  11. Salicylic acid is an indispensable component of the Ny-1 resistance-gene-mediated response against Potato virus Y infection in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baebler, Š; Witek, K; Petek, M; Stare, K; Tušek-Žnidarič, M; Pompe-Novak, M; Renaut, J; Szajko, K; Strzelczyk-Żyta, D; Marczewski, W; Morgiewicz, K; Gruden, K; Hennig, J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of salicylic acid (SA) signalling in Ny-1-mediated hypersensitive resistance (HR) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y (PVY). The responses of the Ny-1 allele in the Rywal potato cultivar and transgenic NahG-Rywal potato plants that do not accumulate SA were characterized at the cytological, biochemical, transcriptome, and proteome levels. Analysis of noninoculated and inoculated leaves revealed that HR lesions started to develop from 3 d post inoculation and completely restricted the virus spread. At the cytological level, features of programmed cell death in combination with reactive oxygen species burst were observed. In response to PVY infection, SA was synthesized de novo. The lack of SA accumulation in the NahG plants led to the disease phenotype due to unrestricted viral spreading. Grafting experiments show that SA has a critical role in the inhibition of PVY spreading in parenchymal tissue, but not in vascular veins. The whole transcriptome analysis confirmed the central role of SA in orchestrating Ny-1-mediated responses and showed that the absence of SA leads to significant changes at the transcriptome level, including a delay in activation of expression of genes known to participate in defence responses. Moreover, perturbations in the expression of hormonal signalling genes were detected, shown as a switch from SA to jasmonic acid/ethylene signalling. Viral multiplication in the NahG plants was accompanied by downregulation of photosynthesis genes and activation of multiple energy-producing pathways.

  12. POSSIBILITIES FOR MONITORING GUATEMALAN POTATO TUBER MOTH TECIA SOLANIVORA (POVOLNY AND POTATO TUBERWORM PHTHORIMAEA OPERCULELLA (ZELLER BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Guatemalan moth (GTPM, Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, was first registered in Guatemala and most recently invaded and became a key pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in Central and South America. Larvae feed exclusively on potato tubers, in the field and in store. Tuber quality is much reduced and heavily infested tubers can no longer be used for human or animal consumption. Stocks can be totally destroyed in less than 3 months. The potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in field and storage and is generally of greatest importance in warmer climates. After pest detection, synthetic sex pheromones are principally used to monitor population levels and trigger applications of chemicals or other control methods. In this article we described our results for using pheromone traps Delta VI of the company of Trécé Inc. USA for monitoring of the both pests in a Carchi province in Zona 1 in Ecuador. We give conclusions and recommendation for using these pheromone traps for detection and monitoring of these very important pests on Solanaceae crops.

  13. Evaluation of primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine primary and secondary metabolites in selected varieties of potatoes. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. are good source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenols as one of the most important components. The chemical composition with reducing sugar, starch, ascorbic acid, total polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed in five potato varieties (Agria, Marabel, Red Anna, Picasso, Princess. Values of dry matter content ranged from 20.34 to 23.64%. In terms of tubers storage, its content above 20% is required. The highest level of starch was detected in variety Princess (16.82%. The lowest reducing sugar content was recorded by variety Marabel (0.08%. Similarly, low values reached varieties Princess (0.12%, Agria (0.14 and Red Anna (0.16%. These would be appropriate to use for food processing and for production of fried potato chips or fries. Variety Red Anna reached the highest amount of vitamin C (73.72 mg.kg-1. The lower levels of this vitamin showed tubers of varieties Picasso (35.02 mg.kg-1 and Princess (36.89 mg.kg-1. The antioxidant activity was measured with radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenic assay. Potato varieties contained high levels of total polyphenols (0.474 – 1.550 mg GAE per dry weight and flavonoids (1.407 – 15.933 μg QE per dry weight. The consumption of potatoes can provide nutritional value along with antioxidant potential that can be helpful for proper functioning of the body physiological systems. Statistical evaluation by the single factor analysis of variance detected high significant impact of variety on the content of all the analytical parameters in evaluated varieties of potato tubers. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Chaparro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS and ionomics (ICP-MS analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds, nutrients (42, lipids (76, and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%, however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation, bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation, medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation, and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation. Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class. Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits.

  15. Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Holm, David G.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Heuberger, Adam L.

    2018-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS) and ionomics (ICP-MS) analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds), nutrients (42), lipids (76), and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%), however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation), bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation), medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation), and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation). Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class). Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits. PMID:29876353

  16. Effects of Intercropping with Potato Onion on the Growth of Tomato and Rhizosphere Alkaline Phosphatase Genes Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Fengzhi; Zhou, Xingang; Fu, Xuepeng; Tao, Yue; Xu, Weihui; Pan, Kai; Liu, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    In China, excessive fertilization has resulted in phosphorus (P) accumulation in most greenhouse soils. Intercropping can improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crop production. In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of intercropping with potato onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings growth and P uptake, the diversity of rhizosphere phosphobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes in phosphorus-rich soil. The experiment included three treatments, namely tomato monoculture (TM), potato onion monoculture (OM), and tomato/potato onion intercropping (TI-tomato intercropping and OI-potato onion intercropping). The growth and P uptake of tomato and potato onion seedlings were evaluated. The dilution plating method was used to determine the population of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (PMB). The genomic DNAs of PSB and PMB in the rhizosphere of tomato and potato onions were extracted and purified, and then, with the primer set of 338f /518r, the PCR amplification of partial bacterial 16S rDNA sequence was performed and sequenced to determine the diversities of PSB and PMB. After extracting the total genomic DNAs from the rhizosphere, the copy numbers and diversities of ALP genes were investigated using real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. Intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato seedlings, but inhibited those of potato onion. After 37 days of transplanting, compared to the rhizosphere of TM, the soil pH increased, while the electrolytic conductivity and Olsen P content decreased (p onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato in phosphorus-rich soil and affected the community structure and function of phosphobacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Intercropping with potato onion also improved soil quality by lowering levels of soil acidification and salinization.

  17. Metabolite profiling and quantification of phytochemicals in potato extracts using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Esther Swee Lan; McGhie, Tony K; Heyes, Julian A; Stowell, Kathryn M

    2013-12-01

    Potatoes contain a diverse range of phytochemicals which have been suggested to have health benefits. Metabolite profiling and quantification were conducted on plant extracts made from a white potato cultivar and 'Urenika', a purple potato cultivar traditionally consumed by New Zealand Maori. There is limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of Solanum tuberosum cultivar 'Urenika'. Using ultra-high- performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS), a total of 31 compounds were identified and quantified in the potato extracts. The majority of the compounds were identified for the first time in 'Urenika'. These compounds include several types of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives, and hydroxycinnamic amides (HCAA). Six classes of compounds, namely organic acids, amino acids, HCA, HCAA, flavonols and glycoalkaloids, were present in both extracts but quantities varied between the two extracts. The unknown plant metabolites in both potato extracts were assigned with molecular formulae and identified with high confidence. Quantification of the metabolites was achieved using a number of appropriate standards. High-resolution mass spectrometry data critical for accurate identification of unknown phytochemicals were achieved and could be added to potato or plant metabolomic database. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Late Archaic–Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins. PMID:27849582

  19. Late Archaic-Early Formative period microbotanical evidence for potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumold, Claudia Ursula; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2016-11-29

    The data presented in this paper provide direct microbotanical evidence concerning the early use of potato (Solanum tuberosum) within its botanical locus of origin in the high south-central Andes. The data derive from Jiskairumoko, an early village site in the western Titicaca Basin dating to the Late Archaic to Early Formative periods (∼3,400 cal y BC to 1,600 cal y BC). Because the site reflects the transition to sedentism and food production, these data may relate to potato domestication and early cultivation. Of 141 starch microremains recovered from 14 groundstone tools from Jiskairumoko, 50 are identified as consistent with cultivated or domesticated potato, based on reference to published materials and a study of wild and cultivated potato starch morphology. Along with macro- and microbotanical evidence for chenopod consumption and grinding tool data reflecting intensive use of this technology throughout site occupation, the microbotanical data reported here suggest the intensive exploitation, if not cultivation, of plant resources at Jiskairumoko. Elucidating the details of the trajectory of potato domestication is necessary for an overall understanding of the development of highland Andean agriculture, as this crop is central to the autochthonous agricultural suite. A paucity of direct botanical evidence, however, has hindered research efforts. The results of the modern and archaeological starch analyses presented here underscore the utility of this method in addressing questions related to the timing, mode, and context of potato origins.

  20. Stock indexing and Potato virus Y elimination from potato plants cultivated in vitro Indexação de matrizes e eliminação do Potato virus Y em plantas de batata cultivadas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cordeiro Nascimento

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. have shown degeneration or run out caused by viruses after several cycles of propagation using seed tubers from commercial fields. This work reports the occurrence of single and mixed infections of four potato viruses in Paraíba-Brazil and presents a method for Potato virus Y (PVY elimination, by using thermo-and chemotherapies. Plants of potato cv. Baraka were tested by direct antigen coating ELISA. Antisera against PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV were used. Materials with positive reaction to PVY were treated for virus elimination. Single node cuttings (1.0 cm length were excised and inoculated in Murashige & Skoog (MS medium, supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 of kinetin, 0.001 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 0.1 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid (GA3. The thermotherapy at approximately 37ºC, during 30 and 40 days, resulted in 20.0 and 37.5% PVY elimination, respectively. Chemotherapy was undertaken with Ribavirin (RBV, 5-Azacytidine (AZA, and 3-Deazauridine (DZD. The RBV showed the highest rate of virus eradication, with 55.5% virus-free plants. Simultaneous thermo and chemotherapy had higher efficiency for the elimination of PVY, reaching rates of healthy plants of 83.3% with RBV, 70.0% with AZA, and 50.0% with DZD.Cultivares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. têm mostrado degenerescência causada por vírus após ciclos sucessivos do uso de tubérculos de campos comerciais como material propagativo. Este trabalho verifica a ocorrência de infecção simples e mista de quatro vírus da batata na Paraíba e apresenta adequação da técnica de cultivo in vitro para obtenção de material livre de Potato virus Y (PVY, incluindo uso de microestacas, termo e quimioterapia. Plantas de batata do cv. Baraka foram submetidas à indexação sorológica pelo teste "direct antigen coating" ELISA. Utilizaram-se antissoros contra o PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus

  1. Yield of Potato as Influenced by Crop Sanitation and Reduced Fungicidal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop sanitation and reduced sprays of "Ridomil plus®" (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide on the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in two field experiments in 1993 in Dschang, Cameroon. In the first experiment, sanitation (five weekly removals of blighted leaves and two fungicidal treatments were initiated from first symptoms. In the second experiment, both fungicidal sprays were made at varying rates. Marketable yields increased by 50 % in sanitation-treated plots, by 94 % in plots sprayed with Ridomil plus (2.24 kg a. i./ha, or by 55 % in those exposed to both control methods. The fungicide equivalence of the sanitation treatment was two sprays of Ridomil plus at 0.76 kg a. i./ha. These results suggest that proper removal of diseased leaves or reduced fungicidal protection may be an effective late blight control method in potato farming.

  2. Water use efficiency in potatoes crop using nuclear techniques in Tumbaco - Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, Marcelo; Ontaneda, Milton; Flor Jorge.

    1986-01-01

    The optimum water layer for potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) was computed by the balance of mass method. This project was carried out in a Typic Ustropepts, Silty-Loam Soil at 'La Tola' Experimental Field. Soil humidity was determined through the neutron probe. Irrigation efficiency for the first application layer, - layer 3- (30 days old crop), was 17%. It was increased to 34% at the age of 100 days. Layer 2 was increased to 25% and layer 1 to 20%. By this time the crop was developed. Crop water consumptive usage at layer 3 was 476.4 mm; 355.7 mm in layer 2; 390.5 mm for layer 1 and 269.3 mm in layer 0. Yield production was of the 29. 24.; 18.4 and 15. Kg/ha respectively. It is concluded that the timely application of water to potato crops is very important

  3. Interspecific somatic hybrid plants between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Sink, K C

    1988-10-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts of eggplant (cv Black Beauty) and of Solanum torvum (both 2n=2x=24) were fused using a modification of the Menczel and Wolfe PEG/DMSO procedure. Protoplasts post-fusion were plated at 1 × 10(5)/ml in modified KM medium, which inhibited division of S. torvum protoplasts. One week prior to shoot regeneration, ten individual calluses had a unique light-green background and were verified as cell hybrids by the presence of the dimer isozyme patterns for phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT). Hybridity was also confirmed at the plant stage by DNA-DNA hybridization to a pea 45S ribosomal RNA gene probe. The ten somatic hybrid plants were established in the greenhouse and exhibited intermediate morphological characteristics such as leaf size and shape, flower size, shape, color and plant stature. Their chromosome number ranged from 46-48 (expected 2n=4x=48) and pollen viability was 5%-70%. In vitro shoots taken from the ten hybrid plants exhibited resistance to a verticillium wilt extract. Total DNA from the ten hybrids was restricted and hybridized with a 5.9 kb Oenothera chloroplast cytochrome f gene probe, a 2.4 kb EcoRI clone encoding mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II from maize and a 22.1 kb Sal I mitochondrial clone from Nicotiana sylvestris. Southern blot hybridization patterns showed that eight of ten somatic hybrids contained the eggplant cpDNA, while two plants contained the cpDNA hybridization patterns of both parents. The mtDNA analysis revealed the presence of novel bands, loss of some specific parental bands and mixture of specific bands from both parents in the restriction hybridization profiles of the hybrids.

  4. Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April

    2010-01-01

    The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...

  5. Origin of Pest Lineages of the Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Victor M; Chen, Yolanda H; Schoville, Sean D; Wang, Cong; Hawthorne, David J

    2018-04-02

    Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]) is a pest of potato throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but little is known about the beetle's origins as a pest. We sampled the beetle from uncultivated Solanum host plants in Mexico, and from pest and non-pest populations in the United States and used mitochondrial DNA and nuclear loci to examine three hypotheses on the origin of the pest lineages: 1) the pest beetles originated from Mexican populations, 2) they descended from hybridization between previously divergent populations, or 3) they descended from populations that are native to the Plains states in the United States. Mitochondrial haplotypes of non-pest populations from Mexico and Arizona differed substantially from beetles collected from the southern plains and potato fields in the United States, indicating that beetles from Mexico and Arizona did not contribute to founding the pest lineages. Similar results were observed for AFLP and microsatellite data . In contrast, non-pest populations from the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Texas were genetically similar to U.S. pest populations, indicating that they contributed to the founding of the pest lineages. Most of the pest populations do not show a significant reduction in genetic diversity compared to the plains populations in the United States. We conclude that genetically heterogeneous beetle populations expanded onto potato from native Solanum hosts. This mode of host range expansion may have contributed to the abundant genetic diversity of contemporary populations, perhaps contributing to the rapid evolution of climate tolerance, host range, and insecticide resistance.

  6. Heterologous expression of two Arabidopsis starch dikinases in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2018-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters influence physiochemical properties of starch granules that are essential both for starch metabolism and industrial use of starches. To modify properties of potato starch and understand the effect of starch phosphorylation on starch metabolism in storage starch, the starch

  7. Inhibition of a ubiquitously expressed pectin methyl esterase in Solanum tuberosum L. affects plant growth, leaf growth polarity, and ion partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, J; Willmitzer, L; Bücking, H; Fisahn, J

    2004-05-01

    Two pectin methyl esterases (PMEs; EC 3.1.1.11) from Solanum tuberosum were isolated and their expression characterised. One partial clone ( pest1) was expressed in leaves and fruit tissue, while pest2 was a functional full-length clone and was expressed ubiquitously, with a preference for aerial organs. Potato plants were transformed with a chimeric antisense construct that was designed to simultaneously inhibit pest1 and pest2 transcript accumulation; however, reduction of mRNA levels was confined to pest2. The decrease in pest2 transcript was accompanied by up to 50% inhibition of total PME activity, which was probably due to the reduction of only one PME isoform. PME inhibition affected plant development as reflected by smaller stem elongation rates of selected transformants when compared with control plants, leading to a reduction in height throughout the entire course of development. Expansion rates of young developing leaves were measured simultaneously by two displacement transducers in the direction of the leaf tip (proximal-distal axis) and in the perpendicular direction (medial-lateral axis). Significant differences in leaf growth patterns were detected between wild-type and transgenic plants. We suggest that these visual phenotypes could be correlated with modifications of ion accumulation and partitioning within the transgenic plants. The ion-binding capacities of cell walls from PME-inhibited plants were specifically modified as they preferentially bound more sodium, but less potassium and calcium. X-ray microanalysis also indicated an increase in the concentration of several ions within the leaf apoplast of transgenic plants. Moreover, quantification of the total content of major cations revealed differences specific for a given element between the leaves of PME-inhibited and wild-type plants. Reduced growth rates might also be due to effects of PME inhibition on pectin metabolism, predominantly illustrated by an accumulation of galacturonic acid

  8. Manure and Paper Mill Sludge Application Effects on Potato Yield, Nitrogen Efficiency and Disease Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Drapeau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate organic amendment management is essential in potato production to increase soil productivity and potato (Solanum tuberosum L. quality. The objectives of this two-year field study (2004–2005 were to evaluate the effects of organic amendment applications with or without mineral N fertilizer addition on potato yield, N uptake, N use efficiency (NUE, and on disease incidence. The experimental design was a split-plot, which included nine treatments with four different organic amendments applied in fall 2003 or in spring 2004 at a rate of 40 Mg ha−1 (wet basis and an unamended control in main plots, and N fertilizer rates (0 and 90 kg N ha−1 in sub-plots. Organic amendments consisted of fresh cattle manure (FCM, composted cattle manure (CCM, paper mill sludge with C/N ratio <15 (PMS1 and paper mill sludge with C/N >15 (PMS2 applied alone (0 kg N ha−1 or supplemented with mineral fertilizer at a rate 90 kg N ha−1. The N fertilizer rate in the unamended control consisted of 0 and 150 kg N ha−1. No organic amendments were applied in 2005 to evaluate residual effects. Fall and spring applications of FCM, CCM and PMS alone significantly increased N uptake and potato marketable yields by 2.5 to 16.4 Mg ha−1, compared to the unfertilized control. Combining organic amendments with N fertilizer at 90 kg N ha−1 increased potato yields, N uptake, and specific gravity, which were comparable to those obtained in mineral N fertilizer treatments (150 kg N ha−1. Residual effects of organic amendments alone had no significant effects on potato yields or on N uptake compared to the unfertilized control. Potato NUE for FCM, CCM and PMS ranged from 6% to 25% in the first year and from 2% to 8% in the residual year. The NUE values were higher for PMS with lower C/N ratio compared to FCM and CCM. This study did not show any difference between organic amendment applied in spring or fall on potato yield and quality. It was also demonstrated that

  9. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  10. Robust regeneration protocol for the Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Solanum tuberosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bilal, M.; Hussain, J.; Shah, M. M.; Hassan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant genetic transformation requires robust regeneration system. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as cytokinins (CKs) play a pivotal role in organogenesis; however, CKs are the most expensive PGRs. In the current study, an efficient yet economical protocol for regeneration of potato plant was developed. Stem inter-nodal and leaf explants were cultured on different regeneration media supplemented with varying concentration of different CKs such as kinetin and zeatin. Murashige- Skoog media added with zeatin (1, 1.5 mg/L) was designated as RZ1, RZ1.5, respectively or kinetin (1.5, 2 mg/L) was designated as RK1.5 and RK2, respectively, however, concentrations of other hormones such as NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and GA3 (Gibberellic acid A3) were kept same. RZ1 and RZ1.5 gave significantly better Results as compared to RK-type media in all aspects studied such as callus initiation, days to first shoot emergence, number of shoots per explants. RZ1 medium was then selected as regeneration media for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato plants with cyanobacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene, which provided multiple putative transformants on selection media. The transformants were further confirmed through PCR. The current protocol is found to be cost effective and efficient for the regeneration of Solanum tuberosum and can be successfully implied for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (author)

  11. Chemical constituents of Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Torres, Maria da conceicao M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the stem EtOH extract of S. buddleifolium resulted in the isolation of terpenoids, amides, lignans and a steroidal alkaloid. Based on HRMS, IR and 1 H and 13 C NMR data analysis, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as: 13-hydroxysolavetivone, betulinic acid, N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyldopamine, N-trans-p-cumaroyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl- 3’-O-methoxydopamine, alangilignoside C, isolariciresinol, polistachiol, (+)-(8R,7’S,8’S)-3α-O-(β-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol, (-)-(8S,7’R,8’R)-3α-O-(β-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol and solamargine. The occurrence of terpenoids and amides is common in Solanum, unlike lignans which are rare. The isolated lignans described in this work are reported for the first time in the genus Solanum. (author)

  12. AFLP analysis reveals a lack of phylogenetic structure within Solanum section Petota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vleeshouwers Vivianne GAA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secondary genepool of our modern cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. consists of a large number of tuber-bearing wild Solanum species under Solanum section Petota. One of the major taxonomic problems in section Petota is that the series classification (as put forward by Hawkes is problematic and the boundaries of some series are unclear. In addition, the classification has received only partial cladistic support in all molecular studies carried out to date. The aim of the present study is to describe the structure present in section Petota. When possible, at least 5 accessions from each available species and 5 individual plants per accession (totally approx. 5000 plants were genotyped using over 200 AFLP markers. This resulted in the largest dataset ever constructed for Solanum section Petota. The data obtained are used to evaluate the 21 series hypothesis put forward by Hawkes and the 4 clade hypothesis of Spooner and co-workers. Results We constructed a NJ tree for 4929 genotypes. For the other analyses, due to practical reasons, a condensed dataset was created consisting of one representative genotype from each available accession. We show a NJ jackknife and a MP jackknife tree. A large part of both trees consists of a polytomy. Some structure is still visible in both trees, supported by jackknife values above 69. We use these branches with >69 jackknife support in the NJ jackknife tree as a basis for informal species groups. The informal species groups recognized are: Mexican diploids, Acaulia, Iopetala, Longipedicellata, polyploid Conicibaccata, diploid Conicibaccata, Circaeifolia, diploid Piurana and tetraploid Piurana. Conclusion Most of the series that Hawkes and his predecessors designated can not be accepted as natural groups, based on our study. Neither do we find proof for the 4 clades proposed by Spooner and co-workers. A few species groups have high support and their inner structure displays also

  13. Tolerance of some Potato Mutants Induced with Gamma Irradiation to Drought in Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Al-Ayyoubi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro selection program was conducted in order to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum,L.) tolerance to drought. Potato mutant plants were obtained through a previously conducted mutation breeding program on three potato cultivars (Draga, Spunta, and Diamant) aimed to improve potato tolerance to salinity and resistance to late blight disease. In order to apply selection pressure, growth media (MS based) were prepared with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3% concentrations of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). As a result, three mutants were selected that were tolerant to water stress (i.e. drought tolerant), two of them were derived from the cultivar Draga and one came from Spunta. Physiological growth parameters (plant length, leaf number, branch number, roots number, leaf area, stomata number, and chlorophyll concentration content) were determined on the growing plantlets. The selected mutants were distinguished based on some characteristics which being associated with in their tolerance to drought. Such as an increases in leaf number, root number, and a decrease in stomata number. However a reduction in chlorophyll content was observed as compared with the control. This is considered a negative parameter which may result in a decrease in number and size of tubers. Thus it is important to continue selection for higher chlorophyll content. Also, these mutant lines will need further selection in the field for plants with larger tubers before they can be considered as certified lines.

  14. Genome Microscale Heterogeneity among Wild Potatoes Revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology Marker Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Traini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuber-bearing potato species possess several genes that can be exploited to improve the genetic background of the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum. Among them, S. bulbocastanum and S. commersonii are well known for their strong resistance to environmental stresses. However, scant information is available for these species in terms of genome organization, gene function, and regulatory networks. Consequently, genomic tools to assist breeding are meager, and efficient exploitation of these species has been limited so far. In this paper, we employed the reference genome sequences from cultivated potato and tomato and a collection of sequences of 1,423 potato Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers that show polymorphic representation across the genomes of S. bulbocastanum and/or S. commersonii genotypes. Our results highlighted microscale genome sequence heterogeneity that may play a significant role in functional and structural divergence between related species. Our analytical approach provides knowledge of genome structural and sequence variability that could not be detected by transcriptome and proteome approaches.

  15. Genome Microscale Heterogeneity among Wild Potatoes Revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology Marker Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Alessandra; Iorizzo, Massimo; Mann, Harpartap; Bradeen, James M; Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Chiusano, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Tuber-bearing potato species possess several genes that can be exploited to improve the genetic background of the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum. Among them, S. bulbocastanum and S. commersonii are well known for their strong resistance to environmental stresses. However, scant information is available for these species in terms of genome organization, gene function, and regulatory networks. Consequently, genomic tools to assist breeding are meager, and efficient exploitation of these species has been limited so far. In this paper, we employed the reference genome sequences from cultivated potato and tomato and a collection of sequences of 1,423 potato Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers that show polymorphic representation across the genomes of S. bulbocastanum and/or S. commersonii genotypes. Our results highlighted microscale genome sequence heterogeneity that may play a significant role in functional and structural divergence between related species. Our analytical approach provides knowledge of genome structural and sequence variability that could not be detected by transcriptome and proteome approaches.

  16. Tolerance of some potato mutants induced with gamma irradiation to drought in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Ayyoubi, Z.

    2006-04-01

    An in vitro selection program was conducted in order to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to drought. Potato mutant plants were obtained through a previously conducted mutation breeding program on three potato cultivars (Draga, Spunta, and Diamant) aimed at improving potato tolerance to salinity and resistance to late blight disease. In order to apply selection pressure, growth media (MS based) were prepared with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3% concentrations of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). As a result, three mutants were selected that were tolerant to water stress (i.e. drought tolerant) two of which came from the cultivar Draga and one from Spunta. Physiological growth parameters (plant length, leaf number, branch number, roots number, leaf area, stomata number, and chlorophyll concentration content) were taken on the growing plantlets. The selected mutants were distinguished with some characteristics which can help in their tolerance to drought. Some of these characteristics were an increase in leaf number, root number, and a decrease in stomata number. However a reduction in chlorophyll content was observed as compared with the control. These mutant lines will need further selection in the field for plants with larger tubers before they can be considered as certified lines. (author)

  17. Using SNP markers to dissect linkage disequilibrium at a major quantitative trait locus for resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida on potato chromosome V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Ute; Paulo, Joao; Ilarionova, Evgenyia; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    The damage caused by the parasitic root cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major yield-limiting factor in potato cultivation . Breeding for resistance is facilitated by the PCR-based marker 'HC', which is diagnostic for an allele conferring high resistance against G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3 that has been introgressed from the wild potato species Solanum vernei into the Solanum tuberosum tetraploid breeding pool. The major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling this nematode resistance maps on potato chromosome V in a hot spot for resistance to various pathogens including nematodes and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. An unstructured sample of 79 tetraploid, highly heterozygous varieties and breeding clones was selected based on presence (41 genotypes) or absence (38 genotypes) of the HC marker. Testing the clones for resistance to G. pallida confirmed the diagnostic power of the HC marker. The 79 individuals were genotyped for 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 10 loci distributed over 38 cM on chromosome V. Forty-five SNPs at six loci spanning 2 cM in the interval between markers GP21-GP179 were associated with resistance to G. pallida. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNP markers, six LD groups comprising between 2 and 18 SNPs were identified. The LD groups indicated the existence of multiple alleles at a single resistance locus or at several, physically linked resistance loci. LD group C comprising 18 SNPs corresponded to the 'HC' marker. LD group E included 16 SNPs and showed an association peak, which positioned one nematode resistance locus physically close to the R1 gene family.

  18. Estimation of Nitrogen Pools in Irrigated Potato Production on Sandy Soil Using the Model SUBSTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J.; Boote, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB) is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations- a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N) loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha-1 N) of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha-1 N). The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha-1N) and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn). The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses. PMID:25635904

  19. Linking the potato genome to the conserved ortholog set (COS) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://solgenomics.net/) and many of these have been placed on the genetic maps of a number of solanaceous species. Results We amplified over 300 COS markers from eight potato accessions involving two diploid landraces of Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group (formerly classified as S. goniocalyx, S. phureja), and a dihaploid clone derived from a modern tetraploid cultivar of S. tuberosum and the wild species S. berthaultii, S. chomatophilum, and S. paucissectum. By BLASTn (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of the NCBI, National Center for Biotechnology Information) algorithm we mapped the DNA sequences of these markers into the potato genome sequence. Additionally, we mapped a subset of these markers genetically in potato and present a comparison between the physical and genetic locations of these markers in potato and in comparison with the genetic location in tomato. We found that most of the COS markers are single-copy in the reference genome of potato and that the genetic location in tomato and physical location in potato sequence are mostly in agreement. However, we did find some COS markers that are present in multiple copies and those that map in unexpected locations. Sequence comparisons between species show that some of these markers may be paralogs. Conclusions The sequence-based physical map becomes helpful in identification of markers for traits of interest thereby reducing the number of markers to be tested for applications like marker assisted selection, diversity, and phylogenetic studies. PMID:23758607

  20. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  1. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  2. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA A D POIATTI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POX were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in

  3. Agro-transformation and evaluation of resistance to Phytophthora infestansin Solanum tuberosumL. variety Désirée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Orbegozo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of the disease known as late blight, is primarily responsible for the decreased in production performance and potato crops worldwide. The integration of the complete Rgenes sequences in the potato genome using Agro-transformation appears an alternative to be considered in the fight against this pathogen. The Rpi-blb2 gene (Rgene from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanumDunal shows a broad resistance to isolates ofP. infestans,making it an important candidate for plant breeding studies. This paper reports the integration of the Rpi-blb2gene into potato var. Désirée genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transformation system, the molecular characterization of 29 events transformed and whole plant infection with isolate POX67 of P. infestansfrom Peru. Désirée events [Rpi-blb2] 4 and Désirée [Rpi-blb2] 30, showed a substantial resistance to P. infestansinfection confirming complete transfer of the Rpi-blb2gene from a wild species to a cultivated species by genetic transformation.

  4. The Inter-genebank Potato Database and the dimensions of available wild potato germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huamán, Z.; Hoekstra, R.; Bamberg, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Association of Potato Inter-genebank Collaborators (APIC) constructed a database of all wild potato holdings of the most important potato genebanks in Europe, the United States, Peru, and Argentina. The Inter-genebank Potato Database (IPD) now contains data of 11,819 wild potato accessions

  5. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...

  6. Species-specific identification from incomplete sampling: applying DNA barcodes to monitoring invasive solanum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application.

  7. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance and purchase intention toward fresh-cut potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montouto-Graña, Mónica; Cabanas-Arias, Sonia; Porto-Fojo, Silvia; Vázquez-Odériz, Ma Lourdes; Romero-Rodríguez, Ma Angeles

    2012-01-01

    For a new product to succeed in the market, it must be accepted by consumers. This study investigates consumer opinions on fresh-cut potatoes packaged under vacuum and under a modified atmosphere using home use tests. The data obtained were related to demographic characteristics and patterns of consumption and to purchase intention toward potatoes and other vegetables. The sensory characteristics evaluated by a panel of assessors trained in the sensory evaluation of potato were also considered. The results indicate that although both products were accepted by the consumer, vacuum-packed potatoes received slightly higher ratings and more consumers intended to purchase this product. The fresh-cut potato packaged under vacuum is a product with all the sensory characteristics that will be accepted by the consumers. The adaptation to the productive process at the industrial level, it can be performed with enough guarantees that the product will definitely be purchased by the consumers. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Regulation, overexpression, and target gene identification of Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) – a class-I KNOX gene in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ameya S.; Kondhare, Kirtikumar R.; Rajabhoj, Mohit P.; Kumar, Amit; Ghate, Tejashree; Ravindran, Nevedha; Habib, Farhat; Siddappa, Sundaresha; Banerjee, Anjan K.

    2016-01-01

    Potato Homeobox 15 (POTH15) is a KNOX-I (Knotted1-like homeobox) family gene in potato that is orthologous to Shoot Meristemless (STM) in Arabidopsis. Despite numerous reports on KNOX genes from different species, studies in potato are limited. Here, we describe photoperiodic regulation of POTH15, its overexpression phenotype, and identification of its potential targets in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena). qRT-PCR analysis showed a higher abundance of POTH15 mRNA in shoot tips and stolons under tuber-inducing short-day conditions. POTH15 promoter activity was detected in apical and axillary meristems, stolon tips, tuber eyes, and meristems of tuber sprouts, indicating its role in meristem maintenance and leaf development. POTH15 overexpression altered multiple morphological traits including leaf and stem development, leaflet number, and number of nodes and branches. In particular, the rachis of the leaf was completely reduced and leaves appeared as a bouquet of leaflets. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of 35S::GUS and two POTH15 overexpression lines identified more than 6000 differentially expressed genes, including 2014 common genes between the two overexpression lines. Functional analysis of these genes revealed their involvement in responses to hormones, biotic/abiotic stresses, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. qRT-PCR of selected candidate target genes validated their differential expression in both overexpression lines. Out of 200 randomly chosen POTH15 targets, 173 were found to have at least one tandem TGAC core motif, characteristic of KNOX interaction, within 3.0kb in the upstream sequence of the transcription start site. Overall, this study provides insights to the role of POTH15 in controlling diverse developmental processes in potato. PMID:27217546

  9. Molecular and genetic characterization of the Ry adg locus on chromosome XI from Andigena potatoes conferring extreme resistance to potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María Del Rosario; Vidalon, Laura Jara; Montenegro, Juan D; Riccio, Cinzia; Guzman, Frank; Bartolini, Ida; Ghislain, Marc

    2018-05-31

    We have elucidated the Andigena origin of the potato Ry adg gene on chromosome XI of CIP breeding lines and developed two marker assays to facilitate its introgression in potato by marker-assisted selection. Potato virus Y (PVY) is causing yield and quality losses forcing farmers to renew periodically their seeds from clean stocks. Two loci for extreme resistance to PVY, one on chromosome XI and the other on XII, have been identified and used in breeding. The latter corresponds to a well-known source of resistance (Solanum stoloniferum), whereas the one on chromosome XI was reported from S. stoloniferum and S. tuberosum group Andigena as well. To elucidate its taxonomic origin in our breeding lines, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of tightly linked markers (M45, M6) and screened 251 landraces of S. tuberosum group Andigena for the presence of this gene. Our results indicate that the PVY resistance allele on chromosome XI in our breeding lines originated from S. tuberosum group Andigena. We have developed two marker assays to accelerate the introgression of Ry adg gene into breeding lines by marker-assisted selection (MAS). First, we have multiplexed RYSC3, M6 and M45 DNA markers flanking the Ry adg gene and validated it on potato varieties with known presence/absence of the Ry adg gene and a progeny of 6,521 individuals. Secondly, we developed an allele-dosage assay particularly useful to identify multiplex Ry adg progenitors. The assay based on high-resolution melting analysis at the M6 marker confirmed Ry adg plex level as nulliplex, simplex and duplex progenitors and few triplex progenies. These marker assays have been validated and can be used to facilitate MAS in potato breeding.

  10. Potatoes in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  11. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...

  12. Genetic diversity of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill. and S. nigrum L. (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Berg, van den R.G.; Feron, R.M.C.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Mariani, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two hexaploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum are present in Africa: Solanum scabrum and S. nigrum. Solanum scabrum is a widely cultivated species and is used as a leafy vegetable, as a source of medicine and as a source of ink dye. In previous studies a wide range of morphological diversity has

  13. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  14. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134

  15. Pólen 2n e mecanismos meióticos de formação em Solanum commersonii ssp 2n pollen and meiotic mechanisms of Formation in Solanum commersonii ssp

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    Lívia Gracielle Oliveira Tomé

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. e Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 - 1EBN não podem ser diretamente cruzadas com a batata cultivada de S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 -4 EBN em razão da barreira da ploidia e do número de equilíbrio do endosperma (EBN. No entanto, a produção de pólen não reduzido por S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 - 1EBN, permite o cruzamento desta com dihaplóides de batata e com as espécies diplóides S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. e S. chacoense Bitt., que possuem 2 EBN. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar o mecanismo meiótico e a freqüência dos grãos de pólen não reduzidos em cinco clones de Solanum commersonii ssp. Foram avaliados três clones de S. commersonii subsp. commersonii (SCC e dois de S. commersonii subsp. malmeanum (SCM. Nas avaliações, duzentos grãos de pólen viáveis foram corados (carmim acético 2% e mensurados, sendo considerados não reduzidos aqueles com o diâmetro igual ou superior a 25 µm. O clone Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC 100 produz 26.1% de polen não reduzido, por fusos fundidos e fusos paralelos, o qual pode ser utilizado em programas de melhoramento.Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. and Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 -1EBN cannot be directly crossed with the cultivated Solanum tuberosum subsp. Tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 - 4EBN species due to ploidy barriers and endosperm balance number (EBN. However, non-reduced pollen production by the wild species S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 -1EBN, allows the crossing of these species with dihaploids of potato and with the diploids species, S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. and S. chacoense Bitt., all with 2EBN. The aim of this work was to determine the meiotic mechanism and frequency of non-reduced pollen production of five clones of S. commersonii ssp. Three different clones of S. commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC and two of S

  16. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  17. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

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    Xuan Xu

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (dephosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal. Interestingly, expression of an (engineered laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf. Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  18. Regulation Effects of Water and Nitrogen on the Source-Sink Relationship in Potato during the Tuber Bulking Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Xiong, Binglin; Wang, Shiwen; Deng, Xiping; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    The source-sink relationship determines crop yield, and it is largely regulated by water and nutrients in agricultural production. This has been widely investigated in cereals, but fewer studies have been conducted in root and tuber crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the source-sink relationship in potato and the regulation of water and nitrogen on the source-sink relationship during the tuber bulking stage. A pot experiment using virus-free plantlets of the Atlantic potato cultivar was conducted, using three water levels (50%, 70% and 90% of field capacity) and three nitrogen levels (0, 0.2, 0.4 g N∙kg−1 soil). The results showed that, under all water and nitrogen levels, plant source capacity were small at the end of the experiment, since photosynthetic activity in leaves were low and non-structural reserves in underground stems were completely remobilized. While at this time, there were very big differences in maximum and minimum tuber number and tuber weight, indicating that the sink tuber still had a large potential capacity to take in assimilates. These results suggest that the source-supplied assimilates were not sufficient enough to meet the demands of sink growth. Thus, we concluded that, unlike cereals, potato yield is more likely to be source-limited than sink-limited during the tuber bulking stage. Water and nitrogen are two key factors in potato production management. Our results showed that water level, nitrogen level and the interaction between water and nitrogen influence potato yield mainly through affecting source capacity via the net photosynthetic rate, total leaf area and leaf life span. Well-watered, sufficient nitrogen and well-watered combined with sufficient nitrogen increased yield mainly by enhancing the source capacity. Therefore, this suggests that increasing source capacity is more crucial to improve potato yield. PMID:26752657

  19. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2014-12-01

    Composite potato plants offer an extremely fast, effective and reliable system for studies on gene functions in roots using antisense or inverted-repeat but not sense constructs for gene inactivation. Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100%) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of β-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the uidA sense or antisense transcripts, or inverted-repeat or hairpin uidA RNA. The three last mentioned constructs caused 2.5-4.0 fold reduction in the uidA mRNA expression. In contrast, over-expression of uidA resulted in over 3-fold increase in the uidA mRNA and GUS expression, indicating that sense-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention.

  20. Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes.

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    Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers

    Full Text Available Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties.