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Sample records for modified phosphate fertilizers

  1. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  2. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  3. Radiation doses from phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer coverage of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words, a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  4. Natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, J.; Aurand, K.; Ruehle, H.; Schmier, H.; Wolter, R.

    1974-12-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer covering of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  5. Radiological impact of use of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Chinnaesakki, S.; Sartandel, S.J.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurements of 238 U, 233 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in rock phosphates and various types of phosphate fertilizers and by-products. The increase in soil natural radioactivity has been assessed for major Indian crops. No significant increase in soil natural radioactivity is expected due to the application of phosphate fertilizers for agricultural productions. (author)

  6. Global radiological impact of the phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rudnei Karam; Alves, Rex Nazare

    1996-01-01

    About ninety percent of the products obtained in the phosphate industry are directly used in agriculture as fertilizers. The uranium, thorium and radium content in phosphate fertilizers pollute the soil, water and air, creating risks due to associated natural radiation. This work shows the concentration of radionuclides present in various products of the national and American phosphate fertilizers industry, and compared them with worldwide mean values. The radiological impact of the products on the environment is evaluated and suggestions are presented in order to minimize the risks due to radioactivity. (author)

  7. Measurements of natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, K.G.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Papachristodoulou, C.A.; Tzialla, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The natural radioactivity, mainly due to radium ( 226 Ra), in phosphate fertilizers used in north-western Greece has been measured by γ-spectroscopy. Also radioactivity measurements were performed in soil samples and were compared to samples from undisturbed soils. 226 Ra belongs to the 238 U chain and is the precursor of radon gas ( 222 Rn). The radon concentrations in warehouses, where large quantities of fertilizers are kept, were measured with CR-39 SSNTDs. The radium concentrations in the fertilizers ranged from 0 to 4584 Bq kg -1 and the radon concentrations in warehouses were measured 540-3320 Bq m -3 . The results are discussed from the radiation protection point of view

  8. Phosphate Fertilizer and Growing Environment Change the Phytochemicals, Oil Quality, and Nutritional Composition of Roundup Ready Genetically Modified and Conventional Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scilewski da Costa Zanatta, Tatiane; Manica-Berto, Roberta; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Cardozo, Michele Maciel Crizel; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Zambiazi, Rui Carlos; Dias, Álvaro Renato Guerra

    2017-04-05

    Phosphorus (P) intake, genotype, and growth environment in soybean cultivation can affect the composition of the soybean. This experiment was conducted in two locations (microregions I and II) using a randomized complete block design, including conventional soybean (BRS Sambaíba) and genetically modified (GM) [Msoy 9144 Roundup Ready (RR)] cultivars and varying doses of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60, 120, and 240 kg/ha P 2 O 5 ). Soybeans were evaluated for chemical composition, total phenols, phytic acid content, individual isoflavone content, antioxidant activity, oil quality, fatty acid profile, total carotenoid content, and individual tocopherol contents. Multivariate analysis facilitated reduction in the number of variables with respect to soybean genotype (conventional BRS Sambaíba and GM Msoy 9144 RR), dose of P 2 O 5 fertilizer, and place of cultivation (microregion I and II). BRS Sambaíba had higher concentrations of β-glucosides, malonylglucosides, glycitein, and genistein than Msoy 9144 RR, which showed a higher concentration of daidzein. The highest concentrations of isoflavones and fatty acids were observed in soybeans treated with 120 and 240 kg/ha P 2 O 5 , regardless of the location and cultivar.

  9. Determination of radioactivity in Chinese phosphate rock and fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingjian; Zhu Yongyi; Yang Juncheng

    1993-01-01

    The presented paper reported the radioactivity of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in Chinese phosphate rocks by gamma spectrographic analysis during 1985-1990. The results showed that the decay chain of U-238-Ra-226 was the main source of radionuclides in phosphate rocks. The radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer differed from the forms of phosphate fertilizer. U-238 was the most important radionuclide in phosphoric compound fertilizer. The transfer rate of radionuclides was also estimated. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  10. Radiological Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers used in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemli, Khaoula

    2010-01-01

    The need of control of natural radioactivity in the environment and the radiological impact of the use of chemical fertilizers has led us in this work to measure the natural radioactivity of the phosphate fertilizers in Tunisia. The distribution of various radionuclides during their manufacturing process of fertilizers is also part of this work.

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers in some Venezuelan soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, E.; Salas, A.M.; Toro, M.

    2002-01-01

    In Venezuela, 70% of the soils are acid with low natural fertility where phosphorus is the most limiting element together with nitrogen and potassium for plant growth. The efficiency of phosphate fertilization is low. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of natural and modified rock phosphate using conventional and isotopic techniques. An incubation experiment was done to measure changes in available P on application of different phosphate fertilizers at a constant rate of 100 mg P/kg in ten acid soils of agricultural importance in Venezuela. In the greenhouse, two experiments were conducted to relate P fixation to soil P availability and the response of an index plant (Agrostis sp.). A high variability in P fixing capacity of the soils (r1/Ro = 0.02-0.76) was observed with the same level of available P. This fixation index is defined as the proportion of the added radioactivity ( 32 P) remaining in the soil solution after 1 min of exchange and a low fixing capacity is indicated by the values close to 1. The proportion of the total soil P that can possibly enter the soil solution and therefore is potentially available for plant uptake was measured using the traditional method (Bray I) and the isotopic method (E value). The high variability was also apparent in available P extracted by Bray I showing a range of 10 to 88% of the total P removed by the extracting solution. The incubation studies showed that the effectiveness of the P source for available P in the soil solution was related to their reactivity and the soil P fixing properties. The increase in the fixing capacity of the soils used caused a significant reduction in the E value, independent of the source of P used. A high positive and significant correlation between Bray I extracted P and the E value (r = 0.95) obtained from the different treatments, showed the relationship of the extractant for some forms of available P in soils where rock phosphate was applied. In

  12. Prevention of radioactive contamination in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E.T.

    1995-01-01

    In this work was studied the separation of uranium from the phosphate rock to decrease the level of radioactivity in the phosphate fertilizers, this prevents the redistribution of uranium in the environment. The uranium leaching conditions from phosphate rock were estimated using alkaline solutions. The changes in the natural phosphate rock after leaching were studied. The amenability to separate the uranium from phosphate rock with ammonium carbonate / bicarbonate solution was determined. The uranium extraction was approximately 40%. The leaching conditions showed high selectivity for uranium without changes in the ore structure. The bulk ore was not dissolved. (Author)

  13. Study on the adsorption and desorption of fertilizer phosphates by the soil suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puspodikoro, S.

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of fertilizer phosphate by soil suspensions were studied with the purpose to improve the efficiency of the use of phosphate fertilizer in rice growing countries. Experiments have shown that the applied phosphate fertilizer was quickly adsorbed by the soil and that the bulk of the fertilizer phosphate got bound to the soil complex. These bound fertilizer phosphates could readily be desorbed by flooding of the soil up to a certain amount. (author)

  14. Radiation exposure due to agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; AL-Sewaidan, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K, in some phosphate deposits. Over the last decades, the land reclamation and agriculture activities in Saudi Arabia and other countries have been widely expanded. Therefore, the usage of chemical fertilizers is increased. Selected phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the specific activities of NORM were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a hyper pure germanium detector and alpha spectrometer based on surface barrier detector. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of the different phosphate fertilizer samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for 226 Ra, 210 Po, 232 Th and 40 K, and radium equivalent activity are 75 (3-283), 25 (0.5-110), 23 (2-74), 2818 (9-6501) Bq/kg and 283 (7-589) Bq/kg, respectively. Based on dose calculations, the increment of the public radiation exposure due to the regular agricultural usage of phosphate fertilizers is negligible. Its average value 1 m above the ground is about 0.12 nGy/h where the world average value due to the NORM in soil is 51 nGy/h. Direct radiation exposures of the farmers due to phosphate fertilizers application was not considered in our study

  15. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G

    1987-10-01

    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  16. Phosphate fertilizer influence on {sup 238} U content in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria D, C.; Rodrigues S, J.I. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN) Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200 Cidade Universitaria Recife-PE (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    Uranium is a naturally radioactive element, which is usually found in soils, superficial and ground water, vegetables and animals. After ingestion by human beings, most is excreted in few days by feces and urine, without reaching the bloodstream. However, a small part circulates through the body, being accumulated in the soft tissues, as kidneys. A minor fraction can remain in bones per some years, being able through the radioactive decay to irradiate adjacent tissues. Phosphate fertilizers used in conventional crop management can present variable amounts of uranium. In accordance with origin and use, the fertilizer can raise the content of this element in vegetables, and consequently to increase the human exposure for radiation due the consumption of vegetables. It is estimated that the use of phosphate fertilizer has at least doubled the prolonged exposure of humans from ingestion of food. This work aims to evaluate the contribution of organic and chemical fertilizer on the concentration of {sup 238} U in vegetable samples. An experiment with black beans (a very important vegetable for Brazilian people) was conducted in a field which soil has never been fertilized with any sort of fertilizer, located near to the Rio de Janeiro city. On the organic management, bovine manure was used, while on conventional management urea, potassium chloride and superphosphate were used. Simultaneously, black bean samples from not fertilized management were collected. In addition, lettuce and carrot samples from organic and conventional managements were collected in Nova Friburgo farms (the most important vegetable supplier of Rio de Janeiro city market). The analyses of {sup 238} U have been carried out by conventional fluorimetric method. The geometric mean of {sup 238} U concentrations in the carrot and lettuce samples from conventional management were similar with those from organic management, while for beans the conventional samples had higher values than those ones found in

  17. Phosphate fertilizer influence on 238 U content in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria D, C.; Rodrigues S, J.I.; Ribeiro, F.C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally radioactive element, which is usually found in soils, superficial and ground water, vegetables and animals. After ingestion by human beings, most is excreted in few days by feces and urine, without reaching the bloodstream. However, a small part circulates through the body, being accumulated in the soft tissues, as kidneys. A minor fraction can remain in bones per some years, being able through the radioactive decay to irradiate adjacent tissues. Phosphate fertilizers used in conventional crop management can present variable amounts of uranium. In accordance with origin and use, the fertilizer can raise the content of this element in vegetables, and consequently to increase the human exposure for radiation due the consumption of vegetables. It is estimated that the use of phosphate fertilizer has at least doubled the prolonged exposure of humans from ingestion of food. This work aims to evaluate the contribution of organic and chemical fertilizer on the concentration of 238 U in vegetable samples. An experiment with black beans (a very important vegetable for Brazilian people) was conducted in a field which soil has never been fertilized with any sort of fertilizer, located near to the Rio de Janeiro city. On the organic management, bovine manure was used, while on conventional management urea, potassium chloride and superphosphate were used. Simultaneously, black bean samples from not fertilized management were collected. In addition, lettuce and carrot samples from organic and conventional managements were collected in Nova Friburgo farms (the most important vegetable supplier of Rio de Janeiro city market). The analyses of 238 U have been carried out by conventional fluorimetric method. The geometric mean of 238 U concentrations in the carrot and lettuce samples from conventional management were similar with those from organic management, while for beans the conventional samples had higher values than those ones found in organic management

  18. Phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the integration of treatment systems for black and grey water was investigated to improve resource recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Special focus was set on phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from vacuum collected black water. Currently, the soil

  19. Natural radionuclide distribution in phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisachenko, Eh P; Ponikarova, T M; Lisitsyna, Yu Z

    1987-01-01

    The obtained data on the natural radionuclide distribution by phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production process stages testify to phosphate fertilizer enrichment 2-4 times in relation to initial ore, depending in the raw material used. In this case uranium and thorium series element concentration value (in equilibrium with their decomposition products), proposed as a regulating one in phosphorus-containing fertilizers, is not achieved. However, the fact of lurichment as it is and the enrichment factor, stated in the course of the work, should be taken into account for evaluation of phosphorite new deposit raw material with higher concentrations of natural radionuclides. Natural radionuclide separation in the enrichment process and superphosphate production is not revealed.

  20. Transfer of Some Major and Trace Elements From Phosphate Rock to Super-Phosphate Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Reefya, H.I.; Bin-Jaz, A.A.; Zaied, M.E.; Badran, H.M.; Badran, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the transfer of some major and trace elements from phosphate rock (PR) to single (SSP) and triple (TSP) superphosphate fertilizers. Samples from a fertilizer plant and local market were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. Cluster analysis indicated that the inner-relationship among the concentration of the elements in PR, SSP, and TSP are different. Only one element (Mo) has concentration in SSP higher than phosphate rock. The production process of these two types of superphosphate leads to transfer higher portion of Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Sr, and V present in the phosphate rock to SSP than TSP. The potentially hazardous element Cd is also transmitted more to SSP than TSP, and Cr is equally transferred to both types. The mean elemental concentrations normalized to the percentage of P 2 O 5 demonstrate that for most elements they are the higher concentrations in SSP are linked to the phosphate contents

  1. Environmental considerations on uranium and radium from phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioroianu, T.M.; Bunus, F.; Filip, D.; Filip, Gh.

    2001-01-01

    In the process of fertilizer production from natural phosphates of sedimentary origin, most of the existing radioactivity will be found in the final product. The phosphates exploited for fertilizer production at about 150 mill. tons/year are processed by two chemical methods: sulphuric and nitric acid attack. In the process of sulphuric acid attack of the phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum are produced. The first product is used for fertilizer production, either as triplesuperphosphate (TSP) or diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphogypsum waste is deposited on stacks thus becoming a source of concern. In the case of nitric acid attack, the result is a phosphonitric (PN) solution, which is used to produce a complex fertilizer NPK. Uranium and 226Ra (usually in secular equilibrium) are dissolved and distributed between the intermediary products. Thus the average concentration of 100 mg/kg U in the phosphate rock is dissolved in 90-95 % in phosphoric acid while the 226Ra of initial 1000 / 2000 Bq/kg concentration is completely precipitated together with phosphogypsum. Therefore phosphogypsum waste has 1000-1500 Bq/kg 226Ra. The TSP fertilizer being produced by partial neutralization of phosphoric acid with phosphate rock with 100-150 mg/kg U, while 226Ra is only introduced in the neutralization process i.e. 500-800 Bq/kg. In the case of DAP, the uranium content is 140-170 mg/kg without the present of 226Ra. The complex fertilizer obtained through the process of nitric acid attack will have the whole uranium and radium of the phosphate rock (both are dissolved in nitric acid) with uranium and radium contents of 120-160 mg/kg, 1000-1500 Bq/kg respectively. The radioactivities of fertilizers produced may be a source of concern since both uranium and radium are exceeding the present accepted limits for their disposal in the environment. About 10,000-15,000 tons/yr. of uranium is spread every year on the agricultural lands worldwide by the use of phosphate

  2. Pollution control -- Recovery of uranium from phosphatic fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, R.N.; Pachaiyappan, V.

    1979-01-01

    Various uranium recovery processes, viz. Brazilian process (HCL leaching), selective extraction of U, Japanese process, ORNL process and the Indian methods, recently developed, pertaining to the fertilizer industry are reviewed and their relative merits are discussed. Special attention has been paid to the recovery of uranium from the Indian and imported phosphatic rocks, showing the advantages, both from the pollution control and nuclear energy aspects. (K.B.)

  3. Formulation of single super phosphate fertilizer from rock phosphate of Hazara, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiullah Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus deficiency is wide spread in soils of Pakistan. It is imperative to explore the potential and economics of indigenous Hazara rock phosphate for preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. For the subject study rock phosphate was collected from Hazara area ground at 160 mesh level with 26% total P2O5 content for manual preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. The rock phosphate was treated with various concentrations of sulfuric acid (98.9%, diluted or pure in the field. The treatments comprised of 20 and 35% pure acid and diluted with acid-water ratios of 1:5, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 v/v for acidulation at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 rock phosphate. The amount was prior calculated in the laboratory for complete wetting of rock phosphate. A quantity of 150 kg rock phosphate was taken as treatment. The respective amount of acid was applied with the spray pump of stainless steel or poured with bucket. After proper processing, chemical analysis of the products showed a range of available P2O5 content from 9.56 to 19.24% depending upon the amount of acid and its dilution. The results reveal at that 1:1 dilutions gave the highest P2O5 content (19.24%, lowest free acid (6 % and 32% weight increase. The application of acid beyond or below this combination either pure or diluted gave hygroscopic product and higher free acids. The cost incurred upon the manual processing was almost half the prevailing rates in the market. These results lead to conclude that application of sulfuric acid at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 with the dilution of 50% (v/v can yield better kind of SSP from Hazara rock phosphate at lower prices.

  4. Radiometric analysis of Hazara phosphate rock and fertilizers in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.; Khan, H.M.; Tufail, M.; Khatibeh, A.J.A.H.; Ahmad, N.

    1998-01-01

    Natural radioactivity due to 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th has been measured in phosphate rock samples, collected from various localities of Hazara division of Pakistan, and in locally prepared and imported fertilizer. For data acquisition and analysis, a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a PC-based MCA were used. The 226 Ra content was very high and was found to vary from 307.7 Bq kg -1 to 617.5 Bq kg -1 . This can result in a significant radiation exposure if the rock and fertilizer are handled in places with poor ventilation that could lead to radon accumulation. These data can be used to determine the radioactivity being spread along with fertilizer on agricultural lands. (author)

  5. The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers, in particular rock phosphate, in Venezuela: I. phosphorus uptake, utilization and agronomic effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, E.; Salas, A.M.; Toro, M.

    2002-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of natural and modified rock phosphate using conventional and isotopic techniques in an acid soil from El Pao, Cojedes state, Venezuela, using maize and sorghum with the application of different phosphate fertilizers to measure dry matter production, P accumulated in plant, efficiency parameters using isotopic techniques or yield. Finally, commercial plots were established with the application of soluble P fertilizers and rock phosphate products to validate the results obtained in the field experiments. The results showed highly significant differences between partially acidulated rock phosphate, natural rock phosphate, and the check plot in dry matter production, and P accumulation in plant and grain yield. When the efficiency parameters were evaluated in microplots with 32 P-TSP at 60 days of plant growth, it confirmed results obtained in semi commercial plots where the P in the plant derived from the fertilizer was 46% with partially acidulated rock phosphate (PAR) and 14% with natural Riecito rock phosphate (RR). Utilization coefficients of P by the plants were 34.2 and 8.8% for both treatments, respectively. The Substitution relation parameter showed that just 0.8 kg of P of PAR or 3.1 kg P of RR was required to produce the same yield as 1 kg P of TSP. These results were further validated in 5 ha commercial plots using corn and sorghum. (author)

  6. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bahi, S.M.; Sroor, A.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; El-Gendy, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of "2"3"5U, "2"3"8U, "2"2"6Ra, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765 Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819 Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870 Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897 Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population. - Highlights: • Level of radioactivity of phosphate rocks and by-products samples. • The radiological health hazard parameters. • Radiological risk to the health of the population. • The excess lifetime cancer risk factor.

  7. Natural radionuclides in phosphatic fertilizer and their behaviour of absoption and accumulation in soils and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingjian; Zhu Yongyi; Yang Juncheng; Gu Baming

    1990-06-01

    The systematic data on the radioactivity of U, Th, Ra and 40 K in phosphate rocks, phosphatic fertilizers and soil are given. The radioactive composition and radioactivity in phosphatic fertilizers vary with different kinds of phosphatic fertilizers. The radioactive compositions in the phosphatic fertilizers made from phosphate rock are the same as that in the original phosphate rock, but the radioactivity is only 50∼60% of the original. The natural uranium in the compound fertilizer made from phosphoric acid is several times higher than that in the phosphate rock, and the other radionuclides were separated during the process of forming phosphoric acid. In soil, the radioactivity varies with the soil types. The U content is slightly higher in the south region with red earth and the 40 K is higher in the north region with black earth, but all are in normal level. Usually, the radioactivity of phosphate rock and phosphatic fertilizer is between the natural background of soil and the limitation of radioactive protection, but the radioactivity of 226 Ra in some phosphate rocks and phosphatic fertilizers in Guizhou and Hunan is higher than the permitted limitation set by the government

  8. Phosphate removal from digested sludge supernatant using modified fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Deng, Tong; Liu, Juntan; Peng, Weigong

    2012-05-01

    The removal of phosphate in digested sludge supernatant by modified coal fly ash was investigated in this study. Modification of the fly ash by the addition of sulfuric acid could significantly enhance its immobilization ability. The experimental results also showed that adsorption of phosphate by the modified fly ash was rapid with the removal percentage of phosphate reaching an equilibrium of 98.62% in less than 5 minutes. The optimum pH for phosphate removal was 9 and the removal percentage increased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The effect of temperature on phosphate removal efficiency was not significant from 20 to 40 degrees C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses showed that phosphate formed an amorphous precipitate with water-soluble calcium, aluminum, and iron ions in the modified fly ash.

  9. Assessment of soil phosphorus status and management of phosphatic fertilizers to optimise crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    evaluation was first conceived in 1991 and prompted by developments in promising technologies to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of PRs, which needed to be properly evaluated and tested in a research network. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture convened a Consultants meeting in May 1993 in Vienna to review recent advances on this topic and to define the objectives for a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques for Evaluating the Agronomic Effectiveness of P Fertilizers, in Particular Rock Phosphates, which was implemented from 1993 through 1998. Research focused on technologies to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products applied to crops grown in acid soils. 32P isotopic techniques were utilized to gather quantitative and precise information on phosphate behavior in the soil-plant system, and the efficacy of PR management practices. In this context, the technical support provided by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria and the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache, France, was crucial for the implementation of these activities

  10. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate RemovalThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D. Dionysiou. Phosphate Removal using Modified Bayoxide®E33 Adsorption Media. WATER RESEARCH. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, issue}: 96-107, (2015).

  11. Radiological risk assessment of use of phosphate fertilizers in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Upadhyay, S. B.; Sonkawade, R. G.; Chakarvarti, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    The radiological impact of the use of phosphate fertilizers in soil is due to the internal irradiation of the lung by the alpha particles, short lived radon-thoron progeny and the external irradiation of the body by gamma rays emitted from radionuclides in situ. This paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurements of the concentration of the natural radionuclides namely 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the soil samples collected from the fields where a variety of phosphate fertilizers are being used by the farmers to enhance the crop yield. Materials and Methods: The experimental work utilizes actual measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates measurements using solid state nuclear track (LR-115, Type-ll plastic) detectors to asses a first order exposure risk for the persons working in the fields where lot of fertilizers are being used to enhance crop yield in terms of occupational exposure. Results:The concentration of Radium, Thorium and Potassium in the mixed soil sample from crop fields is 16.2 ±0.22, 68.1±1.44 and 875.0±9.68 Bq/kg, where as in barren soil sample is 9.1±0.13, 59.4±1.45 and 668.4± 8.01 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) in the mixed soil sample from crop fields is 225.9 Bq/kg, where as in barren soil sample is 193.1 Bq/kg. The values of absorbed dose and annual effective dose (indoors and outdoors) are found to vary from 90.87 nGyh -1 to 119.71 nGyh -1 , 0.45 mSv/y to 0.59 mSv/y and 0.11 mSv/y to 0.15 mSv/y respectively in soil sample from crop fields, whereas the value of absorbed dose and annual effective dose (indoors and outdoors) is 92.29 nGyh -1 , 0.45 mSv/y, 0.11 respectively in soil sample collected from barren land. The radon concentration and exhalation rates have also been reported. Conclusion:The activity concentration, exhalation rate and absorbed dose were found to increase substantially with the use of phosphate fertilizers

  12. Levels and behavior of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of phosphate fertilizer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Leon, M.; Martinez-Aguirre, A.; Perianez, R.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Bolivar, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Phosphate rocks are used for phosphoric acid production, which is the basis of agricultural phosphate fertilizers. It is known that phosphate ores contain, due to geological reasons, important amounts of natural radioactivity, mainly U-isotopes and daughters. By studying a specific case in Southwestern Spain, it is shown that the operation of phosphate fertilizer factories clearly enhance the natural radiation levels of its close environment. Levels of U-, Th-isotopes, and other natural radionuclides are given for a wide set of different samples, which support such a conclusion. In addition, the study of isotopic ratios gives information on the environmental behavior of such radionuclides. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. The impact of phosphate fertilizer as a pest management tactic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Key words: Cowpea, grain yield, insect pests, pod evaluation index, phosphate fertilizer. ... We also know that it interacts with other soil nutrients such as nitrogen ... grazing of leftover crop residues by animals (IITA, 1998;.

  14. Biosuper as a phosphate fertilizer in a calcareous soil with low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... Key words: Zea mays, phosphorus uptake, phosphorus fertilization, corn, Thiobacillus, rock phosphate. ... improve plant nutrients availability in calcareous soils and .... lus elicits the reaction of sulphur with water and oxygen, ...

  15. Cadmium and zinc in soil solution extracts following the application of phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Raphaël; Grant, Cynthia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the solubility of cadmium and zinc in soils after the application of phosphate fertilizers containing those two metals. The solubility of cadmium and zinc was assessed by measuring their concentration in soil water extracts. Three monoammonium phosphate fertilizers containing various amounts of metals were applied on cultivated fields for 3 years at three different rates. In order to investigate the effects of long-term applications of fertilizers on the solubility of Cd and Zn, a similar design was used to apply contaminated fertilizers to soils in a laboratory experiment using a single fertilizer addition equivalent to 15 years of application. Phosphate fertilizers increased the concentration of Cd in soil extracts compared to control in 87% and 80% of the treatments in field and laboratory experiments respectively. Both increasing the rate of application and using fertilizer containing more Cd lead to higher Cd concentrations in extracts for the field and the laboratory experiments. The addition of the equivalent of 15 years of fertilizer application in the laboratory results in higher Cd concentration in extracts compared to the field experiment. For Zn, the fertilizer treatments enhanced the metal solution concentration in 83% of field treatments, but no significant correlations could be found between Zn inputs and its concentration in solution. In the laboratory, fertilizer additions increase the Zn concentrations in 53% of the treatments and decrease it in most of the other treatments. The decrease in Zn concentrations in the laboratory trial is attributed to the higher phosphate concentrations in the soil solution; which is presumed to have contributed to the precipitation of Zn-phosphates. For both trials, the metal concentrations in soil extracts cannot be related to the Zn concentration in the fertilizer or the rate of application. The high Zn to Cd ratio is presumably responsible for the Cd increase in the soil extracts due to

  16. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  17. Elemental and radionuclides distribution in the production and use of phosphate fertilizers in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saueia, Catia Heloisa Rosignoli

    2006-01-01

    Fertilizer is considered an essential component for agriculture, because its use increases the natural soil nutrients, which are lost slow waste or erosion. The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid and dihydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-product. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphate rock used as raw material presents in its composition, radionuclides of the U and Th natural series in. During the chemical attack of the phosphate rock, this equilibrium is disrupted and the radionuclides and the elements migrate to intermediate, final products and byproducts, according to their solubility and chemical properties. While the fertilizers are commercialized, the phosphogypsum is disposed in stack piles and can cause an impact in the environment. In order to evaluate the radionuclides and the elements distribution in the industrial process of phosphate fertilizer production, samples of concentrated rock, fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP) and phosphogypsum from three national industries (A, B and C), were analyzed. The characterization of the elements Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Na, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr, and the rare earths La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu, were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained showed that, in general, the rare earth elements are distributed uniformly in the fertilizers and phosphogypsum, except for Lu. The elemental concentration present in the fertilizers SSP and TSP are of the same order of magnitude of the source rock. The same behavior was observed in the fertilizers MAP and DAP, except for the elements Co, Sc and U. The radionuclides of the U series ( 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and of the Th series ( 232 Th, 228 Ra, 228 Th

  18. Evaluation of phosphatic fertilizers on weltland paddy using 32P as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.N.; Chowdhury, B.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Dhua, S.P.

    1974-01-01

    Superphosphate, nitrophosphate and dicalcium phosphate tagged with 32 P were tested on wetland paddy at two levels each in pot culture experiment. All the three fertilizers performed equally in respect of dry matter yield, total phosphorus uptake and fertilizer phosphorus uptake. A higher percent utilization of fertilizer phosphorus was noticed at lower level of fertilizer. Densitometric study of the plant autoradiographs showed maximum accumulation of fertilizer phosphorus in the culm, followed by in leaf sheath and accumulation in leaf blades being the least. (author)

  19. Determination of Radium 226 in mexican phosphate fertilizers and gypsum by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez A, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The 226 Ra isotope was determined in 17, 20 and 46% m/m phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The samples of the fertilizers were dissolved in 10% v/v nitric acid solutions. The barium sulphate method was used for the precipitation of 226 Ra. On the other hand, alkaline fusion method was used to separate the 226 Ra from gypsum. The results indicated that 226 Ra was present in the phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The 226 Ra concentrations present in these materials were between 10 -4 - 10 -5 μg g -1 . (Author)

  20. Determination of the uranium content in phosphate fertilizers by the fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da.

    1983-01-01

    The application of fission track registration technique (SSNTD) to determine the uranium contents in phosphate fertilizers is dealt with. Samples were prepared by the wet method and the detector used was Makrofol Kg 10μm thick. The determination of uranium in phosphate fertilizer industry is of considerable interest in environmental control. The roots of vegetables tend to absorb and accumulate uranium form soil and so the human body could be contaminated. The phosphate fertilizers were originated from the phosphate-rich apatite deposits located in the high naturally radioactive areas of Araxa and Tapira in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results obtained ranged from 11.1 to 100ppm of uranium with a total error from 8.2 to 15.7%. The thorium contributions to the total track counting were discounted, though the actual concentrations of thorium in the samples were not determined. (Author) [pt

  1. Radiological impact of phosphate fertilizers on the agricultural areas in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A.A.; Kashian, S.; Moradi, M.

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to use phosphate fertilizers in the soil to raise crop yield. Natural radionuclides present in fertilizers are sources of external and internal radiation exposure. External radiation exposure is caused by gamma radiation originating from radionuclides in situ. Internal radiation exposure, mainly affecting the respiratory tract, is due to short-lived daughter products of radon which are exhaled from fertilizers. This paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurement of the concentration of the natural radionuclides namely 226 Ra, thorium-232 and potassium-40 in the soil samples from the fields using phosphate fertilizers. The radon concentration and exhalation rate have also been discussed. The values of outdoor annual effective dose are found to vary from 0.07 to 0.09 mSv/year in soil samples containing fertilizers, whereas the outdoor annual effective dose is 0.06 mSv/year in barren soil samples. (author)

  2. Sugarcane bagasse derivative-based superabsorbent containing phosphate rock with water-fertilizer integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kang; Zheng, Xi-Liang; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Jiang, Gang-Biao

    2012-10-01

    To improve the water-fertilizer utilization ratio and mitigate the environmental contamination, an eco-friendly superabsorbent polymer (SPA), modified sugarcane bagasse/poly (acrylic acid) embedding phosphate rock (MSB/PAA/PHR), was prepared. Ammonia, phosphate rock (PHR) and KOH were admixed in the presence of acrylic acid to provide nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, respectively. Impacts on water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent polymer (SAP) were investigated. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water and 0.9 wt.% (weight percent) NaCl solution reached 414 gg(-1) and 55 gg(-1) (water/prepared SAP), respectively. The available NPK contents of the combination system were 15.13 mgg(-1), 6.93 mgg(-1) and 52.05 mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the release behaviors of NPK in the MSB/PAA/PHR were also studied. The results showed that the MSB/PAA/PHR has outstanding sustained-release plant nutrients property. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Resorption Rate Tunable Bioceramic: Si, Zn-Modified Tricalcium Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is organized in an alternate format. Several manuscripts which have already been published or are to be submitted for publication have been included as separate chapters. Chapter 1 is a general introduction which describes the dissertation organization and introduces the human bone and ceramic materials as bone substitute. Chapter 2 is the background and literature review on dissolution behavior of calcium phosphate, and discussion of motivation for this research. Chapter 3 is a manuscript entitled ''Si,Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate: a phase composition and crystal structure study'', which was published in ''Key Engineering Materials'' [1]. Chapter 4 gives more crystal structure details by neutron powder diffraction, which identifies the position for Si and Zn substitution and explains the stabilization mechanism of the structure. A manuscript entitled ''Crystal structure analysis of Si, Zn-modified Tricalcium phosphate by Neutron Powder Diffraction'' will be submitted to Biomaterials [2]. Chapter 5 is a manuscript, entitled ''Dissolution behavior and cytotoxicity test of Si, Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'', which is to be submitted to Biomaterials [3]. This paper discusses the additives effect on the dissolution behavior of TCP, and cytotoxicity test result is also included. Chapter 6 is the study of hydrolysis process of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in the simulated body fluid, and the phase development during drying process is discussed. A manuscript entitled ''Hydrolysis of {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate in simulated body fluid and phase transformation during drying process'' is to be submitted to Biomaterials [4]. Ozan Ugurlu is included as co-authors in these two papers due to his TEM contributions. Appendix A is the general introduction of the materials synthesis, crystal structure and preliminary dissolution result. A manuscript entitled

  4. Infrared-spectroscopy analysis of zinc phosphate and nickel and manganese modified zinc phosphate coatings on electrogalvanized steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Kirlene Salgado; Alvarenga, Evandro de Azevedo; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Hopeite-type phosphate coatings in which zinc is partially replaced by other metals like manganese and nickel are of great interest for the automotive and home appliance industries. Such industries use phosphate conversion coatings on galvanized steels in association with cataphoretic electro painting. Zinc phosphates modified with manganese and nickel are isomorphic with the hopeite, and the phase identification using X-ray diffraction is difficult. In this paper, the phosphate coatings are identified using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  5. Uptake of 15N-labelled urea and 32P-labelled phosphate from acid-based urea phosphate and granular fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in fertilizer products labelled with both 32 P and 15 N was measured in a growth chamber experiment. The uptake of N and P by soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from a solution of acid urea phosphate fertilizer did not differ significantly from that of a mixture of granular urea and monammonium phosphate fertilizer. The fertilizer-P uptake efficiency of both sources was higher in a neutral soil than in acid or calcareous soils. Banding either fertilizer increased the uptake of fertilizer P compared with sources mixed with the soil, but did not significantly affect fertilizer-N uptake. The increase in fertilizer-P efficiency due to banding was significantly greater for the urea-monammonium phosphate than for the acid urea phosphate solution. Banding fertilizer did not increase the uptake of fertilizer P in the calcareous soil, and decreased the uptake of fertilizer N in that soil compared with mixed treatments. It is suggested that soluble Ca formed from the reaction of acid with naturally occurring lime may have reduced the availability of fertilizer P in the band

  6. Cadmium and zinc uptake by vegetable tissues after nine annual applications of phosphate fertilizer to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortvedt, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn applied to soil as contaminants in P fertilizers is of concern because of their possible entry into the human food chain. Concentrations in P fertilizers generally range from 1 to 50 mg kg/sup -1/ of Cd and 50 to 500 mg kg/sup -1/ of Zn, but much higher concentrations have been reported. Such wide ranges are due to variations in heavy metal contents of phosphate rock (PR) used to produce P fertilizers. Samples of vegetable tissues grown in New York on soil fertilized with triple superphosphate (TSP) for nine years of a 10-year experiment were analyzed for Cd and Zn. Results of this study show that plant availability of Cd and Zn contaminants in P fertilizers is rather low, even at high rates of P fertilization

  7. Reliability and limits of soil phosphated fertility diagnostic determined from isotopically dilutable phosphorus and fixing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachon, Louis; Triboi, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    On the soils of about forty experiment fields, are measured the E and L values, the fixing capacity and phosphorus uptake during 100/120 days by ray-grass cultivated in vegetation pots. The fertility indices Isub(E) and Isub(L) joining the fixing capacity to the E or L values respectively provide an excellent appreciation of the potential flux of phosphate ions offered by the soil to the plant. But the soil climate and the root system geometry influence the concrete interception of this flux by the roots and consequently, the responses of crops to phosphate fertilizers. The interpretation norms are suggested and discussed [fr

  8. Determination of phosphate phases in sewage sludge ash-based fertilizers by Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian; McNaughton, Don

    2013-09-01

    The chemical form of phosphate phases in sewage sludge ash (SSA)-based fertilizers was determined by Raman microspectroscopy. Raman mapping with a lateral resolution of 5 × 5 μm(2) easily detected different compounds present in the fertilizers with the help of recorded reference spectra of pure substances. Quartz and aluminosilicates showed Raman bands in the range of 450-520 cm(-1). Phosphates with apatite structure and magnesium triphosphate were determined at around 960 and 980 cm(-1), respectively. Furthermore, calcium/magnesium pyrophosphates were detected in some samples.

  9. Studeis on the immobilization of water soluble phosphatic fertilizer in some soils with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumei; Li Rensheng; Xu Xinyu

    1985-01-01

    Using superphosphate lablled with 32 P, we studied immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer on 12 typies of soil. The experimental result showed that major factors to govern immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer are: quickly availible Fe that showed positive correlation with the immobilization when it was 4.64-65.72 ppm; and pH that showed negative correlation with the immobilization when it was between 5.35 and 8.88. CaCO 3 and organic matter showed a great effect on the immobilization though there wasn't obvious correlation among them

  10. Phosphate utilization by moong and cowpea under differential P fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, S.S.; Hundal, H.S.; Vig, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted with 12 soils to study the effect of applied P on dry matter accumulation, P concentration, fertilizer and soil P uptake and utilization of P by moong and cowpea at two stages of growth. The magnitude of increase in yield due to applied P depended upon the native soil fertility. Low P fertility status soils registered proportionately higher increase in fertilizer P uptake. Dry matter yield of moong and cowpea significantly increased with increase in applied P in both the harvests, however in the first harvest (30 days growth stage) per cent increase with applied P over control was more in moong compared to cowpea. Soil P uptake increased significantly with applied P upto 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha beyond which it decreased in both the harvests. The removal of P from applied and native sources was more in case of cowpea compared to moong. Per cent fertilizer P utilization in different soils varied from 45 to 11.9 in case of moong whereas its range in cowpea was 9.7 to 30.6 per cent. It decreased significantly with increase in applied P. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Evaluation of dissolution of nonconventional phosphate fertilizers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolution of phosphate rock (PR) depends on inherent chemical and physical properties of the rock and on external factors such as soils and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate, with a soil incubation experiment, the relationship between selected soil factors and extractable phosphorus (P) in order to ...

  12. Quantitative Mechanistic Description of Natural Radionuclide and Iron Sorption on phosphate Fertilizer Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The mean activity values of the radionuclide 226 Ra, 238 U and 232 Th decay series, and the radioactive isotopes of 40 K in Bq/kg dry weight of the phosphate ore (Pho-ore), single super phosphate granules, (SSP-G), single super phosphate powder (SSP-P), triple super phosphate (TSP), and phosphogypsum (CaSO 4 ) samples were determined. CaSO 4 sample was found to contain, 300 Bq/kg of radioactive 238 U which is less than the values found in other studied phosphate samples. CaSO 4 sample was found to contain the highest amount of 226 Ra concentration value of 850 Bq/kg. Phosphate fertilizer components are acidic character, therefore, the solid surfaces will in general acquire a surface electric charge when contact with polar solvent such as water. The net electric charge obtained through uptake or release of potential determining ions (e.g, H + or OH - ). Thus the solid surfaces tend to adsorb and/or release of different ions to maintain neutral. The aim of this study is to determine the electric charge and the surface electric potential at the phosphate fertilizer materials

  13. Efficiency of indigenous ground phosphate rocks, organic fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lowest Relative Agronomic Efficiency (RAE) values estimated for the test fertilizer materials in the 1st cropping were 81.5 and 117.5% in soils A and B, respectively. The respective values for 2nd cropping were 78.3 and 62.0%. It was clear that the indigenous GRP, OF and their mixtures have great potentials as ...

  14. Efficiency of indigenous ground phosphate rocks, organic fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) while the untreated ones were the shortest (55.1cm). In the second cropping, differences in height between plants given the various fertilizer treatments were recorded as early as the 3rd week of growth but there was no difference due to soil ...

  15. Phosphate fertilizer and weed control effects on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil acidity and the associated low phosphorus availability and poor crop management practices are among the major factors constraining field pea productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. The effect of phosphate fertilizer and weed control on yield and yield components of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied on ...

  16. Levels of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmal, P.Y.; Sahu, S.K.; Bhangare, R.C.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is aimed at the determination of the activity levels of primordial radionuclides in soil from various locations around a phosphate fertilizer plant and also to figure out the external dose rate due to natural gamma background in the area by mapping the dose rates with the geographical co-ordinates within the plant premises

  17. Synthesis and characterization of ammonium phosphate fertilizers with boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA MAGDA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of boron, an essential micronutrient for plants, presents a narrow range between deficiency and toxicity. In order to provide the boron requirement for plants, and to avoid toxicity problems, boron compounds are mixed with basic fertilizers. Sodium borate pentahydrate was used as a boron source. Ammonium orthophosphates fertilizers with boron were prepared by neutralizing phosphoric acid with ammonia and addition of variable amounts of sodium tetraborate pentahydrate to the reaction mixture at a NH3:H3PO4 molar ratio of 1.5. The fertilizers obtained with boron contents ranging from 0.05 to 1 % (w/w were fully characterized by chemical analysis, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry. The studies showed that up to 500 °C, regardless of the boron content, no significant changes concerning thermal stability and nutritional properties occurred. Above 500 °C, an increase of thermal stability with an increase of the boron content was observed. X-Ray diffraction of a heat-treated sample containing 5 % (w/w boron indicated the appearance of boron orthophosphate, BPO4, as a new crystalline phase, and the disappearance of the previous structures above 500 °C, which explains the increase in thermal stability.

  18. Phosphate and phosphate fertilizer sector: structure and future prospects. [Uranium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenaidi, B

    1981-12-01

    A statement of the past evolution of this sector's structure is given. Various prospective studies which have been made are reviewed and lead to the precision of the phosphate requirement in the year 2000 which is between 200 and 250 Mt. Only a small section p. 696-697 is devoted to recovery of uranium contained in phosphate and prospects in this field are given.

  19. Potency of Agroindustrial Wastewaters to Increase the Dissolution of Phosphate Rock Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainin Niswati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The used of agroindustrial wastewaters are not maximum yet in Lampung Province, althought it can be used as an acid solvent because of its acidic properties. This study was aimed to explore the most potential agroindustrial wastewaters in dissolving phosphate rock through acidulation in the laboratory scale. The experiment was arranged in a factorial. The first factor was origined of phosphate rock (Sukabumi, west Java and Selagailingga, central Lampung and the second factor was solvent types (agroindustrial wastewaters which were pineapple, tapioca, tofu industry, and palm oil as well as conventional acid solvents which were HCl, H2SO4, and CH3COOH. The incubation processes were 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. The results showed that agroindustrial wastewaters that have the highest potency to solubize phosphate rock was industrial tofu wastewaters and followed by industrial wastewaters of tapioca, palm oil, and pineapple. Both the conventional acid and agroindustrial wastewaters solvent had a big potency to solubilize phosphate rock, however, its highest soluble P-value did not match with the ISO criteria for phosphate fertilizers Quality I (SNI because it did not reach the solubility of 80% of its total P2O5, but it has been qualified as a fertilizer both the quality phosphate A, B, and C (SNI.

  20. Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers for the immobilization of Cd in contaminated soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yan

    Full Text Available A laboratory investigation was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of four phosphate fertilizers, including diammonium phosphate (DAP, potassium phosphate monobasic (MPP, calcium superphosphateon (SSP, and calcium phosphate tribasic (TCP, in terms of the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in contaminated soils. The efficiency of immobilization was evaluated on the basis of two criteria: (a the reduction of extractable Cd concentration below the TCLP regulatory level and (b the Cd changes associated with specific operational soil fractions on the basis of sequential extraction data. Results showed that after 50 d immobilization, the extractable concentrations of Cd in DAP, MPP, SSP, and TCP treated soils decreased from 42.64 mg/kg (in the control to 23.86, 21.86, 33.89, and 35.59 mg/kg, respectively, with immobilization efficiency in the order of MPP > DAP > SSP > TCP. Results from the assessment of Cd speciation via the sequential extraction procedure revealed that the soluble exchangeable fraction of Cd in soils treated with phosphate fertilizers, especially TCP, was considerably reduced. In addition, the reduction was correspondingly related to the increase in the more stable forms of Cd, that is, the metal bound to manganese oxides and the metal bound to crystalline iron oxides. Treatment efficiency increased as the phosphate dose (according to the molar ratio of PO4/Cd increased. Immobilization was the most effective under the molar ratio of PO4/Cd at 4:1.

  1. Use of dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers to reduce phosphorus leaching from sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.C.; He, Z.L.; Stoffella, P.J.; Yang, X.E.; Yu, S.; Calvert, D.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing concern over P leaching from sandy soils applied with water-soluble P fertilizers. Laboratory column leaching experiments were conducted to evaluate P leaching from a typical acidic sandy soil in Florida amended with DPR fertilizers developed from dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) and N-Viro soil. Ten leaching events were carried out at an interval of 7 days, with a total leaching volume of 1183 mm equivalent to the mean annual rainfall of this region during the period of 2001-2003. Leachates were collected and analyzed for total P and inorganic P. Phosphorus in the leachate was dominantly reactive, accounting for 67.7-99.9% of total P leached. Phosphorus leaching loss mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, accounting for 62.0-98.8% of the total P leached over the whole period. The percentage of P leached (in the total P added) from the soil amended with water-soluble P fertilizer was higher than those receiving the DPR fertilizers. The former was up to 96.6%, whereas the latter ranged from 0.3% to 3.8%. These results indicate that the use of N-Viro-based DPR fertilizers can reduce P leaching from sandy soils. - Fertilizers developed from dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) reduce phosphorus leaching from sandy soil

  2. Investigation by gamma-ray spectrometry and INAA of radioactivity impact on phosphate fertilizer plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Companis, I.; Georgescu, I. I.; Pincovshi, E.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive polluting effect of a phosphate fertilizer plant on the environment was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis (INAA). The hazards could arise from industrial plants using raw phosphate materials to prepare fertilizers for agricultural purposes due to the phosphate rock which, depending on the type and geographical zone of provenance may contain rather large amounts of uranium. The fertilizer plant under study is situated about 4 km from the town of Turnu Magurele, on the left bank of the Danube River in Romania. The main by-products of the factory are: nitro phosphate type fertilizers (NP, NPK), Ammonia, Nitric acid, Ammonium nitrate, Urea, Sulfuric acid, Phosphoric acid, Sodium fluorosilicate and Aluminum sulfate. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 2 26Ra, 2 35U, 2 38U, 2 32Th, and 4 0K), as well as 1 37Cs man-made radionuclide in surface soils collected from semicircular areas within radii of 0.5 and 15 km of the plant; in addition, different NPK type fertilizers and phosphate rocks were investigated. The samples (mass of about 100-g each) were kept tightly closed for one month to permit 2 26Ra to establish radioactive equilibrium with its decay products. This method makes it possible to assess U, Th, and K contents in samples by measuring 2 38U and 2 32Th (in equilibrium with their radioactive daughters) and 4 0K radioactivity, taken into account that 1 g of U, Th and K yield 1 2358 Bq 2 38U, 569 Bq 2 35U, 4057.2 Bq 2 32Th and 33.11 Bq 4 0K, respectively. The spectrometrical chain was based on a HPGe (EG and G Ortec) detector of 30 % relative efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution at 1332 keV of 6 0Co. INAA technique (neutron irradiation at TRIGA reactor of SCN Pitesti) was used to determine macro, micro and trace elements in samples collected from both technological shops of the factory (air dust and drinking tap water) and its surroundings

  3. Phosphate fertilization on production and quality of cauliflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Due to the scarcity of information related to the effect of fertilizers on production and quality of vegetable seeds, mainly on species which present an increase in the cycle, like cauliflower, more studies are necessary about the influence of nutrients rates which provide high production of high-quality seeds. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of rates of phosphorus (P on the production and quality of cauliflower seeds. Five rates of phosphorus were studied (0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200kg ha-1 of P2O5, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Production and quality (weight of a thousand seeds, germination test, first count of germination test and emergence in substrate of the seeds and soil chemical characteristics were evaluated. The higher the rate of phosphorus, the higher P content in the soil and values of sum of bases, cation exchange capacity and saturation of bases were observed at the end of the cycle. Seed quality was not affected by P fertilization, with the exception of the weight of a thousand seeds which was adjusted to a linear model. For seed production quadratic effect was obtained. The highest weight of seeds per plant was estimated for the rate of 862kg ha-1 of P2O5.

  4. Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers for the stabilization of cadmium in highly contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thawornchaisit, Usarat; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of three phosphate fertilizers including triple superphosphate (TSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), and phosphate rock (PR) as stabilizing agents of cadmium-contaminated soils has been assessed in this study. Two types of assessment criteria, (a) the reduction of leachable cadmium concentration; and (b) the changes in Cd association with specific operational soil fraction based on the sequential extraction data, are used in the evaluation of stabilization performance of each fertilizer. Results of the study showed that after the 60-day stabilization, the leachable concentrations of Cd in PR-, DAP- and TSP- treated soils reduced from 306 mg/kg (the control) to 140, 34, and 12 mg/kg with the stabilization efficiency as TSP>DAP>PR. Results from the assessment of Cd speciation via sequential extraction procedure revealed that the soluble-exchangeable fraction and the surface adsorption fraction of Cd in the soils treated with PO 4 fertilizers, especially with TSP, have been reduced considerably. In addition, it is found that the reduction was correspondingly related with the increase of more stable forms of cadmium: the metal bound to manganese oxides and the metal bound to crystalline iron oxides. Treatment efficiency increased as the phosphate dose (based on the molar ratio of PO 4 /Cd) increased. In addition, it was observed that stabilization was most effective when using the molar ratio of PO 4 /Cd at 2:1 and at least 21-day and 28-day stabilization time for TSP and DAP, respectively.

  5. Radium and uranium in phosphate fertilizers and their impact on the radioactivity of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Miletic, P.

    1992-01-01

    The study of radioactivity in the phosphate fertilizers and water ways of the Kanovci area was performed in order to determine the influence of the application of phosphate fertilizers on the radioactive pollution of these waters. The activity of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 235 U and 238 U was measured in different types of phosphate fertilizers and waters by means of γ-ray spectrometry. Surface water, water from drainage channels, shallow groundwater and deep groundwater samples were collected from the Kanovci agricultural and well field area in Eastern Slavonia, where phosphate fertilizers have been used for the past 15 years. 137 Cs was also measured in water samples. The typical phosphate fertilizer used in the Kanovci area contains 75 Bq kg -1 of 226 Ra, 9 Bq kg -1 of 228 Ra, 52 Bq kg -1 of 235 U and 1120 Bq kg -1 of 238 U. The estimated annual deposition of uranium and radium in soils of the agricultural and well field area in Kanovci is: 4.5 Bq m -2 for 226 Ra, 0.5 Bq m -2 for 228 Ra, 3.1 Bq m -2 for 235 U and 67 Bq m -2 for 238 U. The greatest concentrations of both uranium isotopes are measured in water from drainage channels with a mean value of 120 Bq m -3 for 238 U and 5.5 Bq m -3 for 235 U. The concentrations of both radium isotopes generally increase with depth of water as distinct from uranium, whose concentrations in deep groundwater are much lower. The highest concentrations of 137 Cs were measured in water from drainage channels; it was not detected in deep groundwater. The 238 U/ 226 Ra activity ratio (AR) is the highest in water from drainage channels and the Bosut River, while in deep groundwater the ratio is only 1.6. Results indicate that high uranium concentrations in surface water, shallow groundwater and water from drainage channels are caused by phosphate fertilizer application in agriculture on the Kanovci area. (author)

  6. Availability of metals in samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers used in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourlegat, Fernanda Melo le

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid, and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-product. Part of this phosphogypsum is stored in stacks at open air and part has been used in agriculture, as soil amendment. To assure a safe utilization of phosphogypsum it is important to determine the levels of impurities, particularly of metals, present in phosphogypsum. In this paper, the concentration of metals (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn and rare earth elements) present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and also in single super phosphate (SSP), triple super phosphate (TSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were determined. The metals Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined following the procedure 'EPA 3052'. The same elements, As and Se were also determined following the procedure 'EPA 3050B', recommended by Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento (MAPA). All these metals are controlled by environmental and agriculture regulation institutes in Brazil. The concentrations obtained for the metals analyzed by using the two procedures were different. Ba, Co, Cr and rare earth elements were determined by neutron activation analysis. In order to evaluate the availability of these metals As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn to the environment, the content of the same elements were determined following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes an initial attack of the samples with EDTA-NH 4 0.05M, at pH 7.0. In all these cases, phosphogypsum presented metals concentration lower than the phosphate fertilizers, and the results are below the limits adopted by MAPA and Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB). The results obtained using the methodology with mild attack show that the metals are not available to the environment, giving evidence that the application of

  7. Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides in phosphate rocks and phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K; Yanagisawa, M; Sakurai, J; Sakanoue, M

    1985-10-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides have been studied for 2 phosphate rocks and 7 phosphate fertilizers. Uranium contents were found to be rather high (39-117 ppm) except for phosphate rock from Kola. The uranium series nuclides were found to be in various equilibration states, which can be grouped into following three categories. Almost in the equilibrium state, 238U approximately 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra and 238U greater than 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra. Thorium contents were found to be, in general, low and appreciable disequilibrium of the thorium series nuclides was not observed except one sample. Potassium contents were also very low (less than 0.3% K2O) except for complex fertilizers. Based on the present data, discussions were made for the radiation exposure due to phosphate fertilizers.

  8. Performance of phosphogypsum and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer for nitrogen conservation in pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Luo, Wenhai; Li, Guoxue; Wang, Kun; Gong, Xiaoyan

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the performance of phosphogypsum and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer for nitrogen conservation during pig manure composting with cornstalk as the bulking agent. Results show that phosphogypsum increased nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission, but significantly reduced ammonia (NH 3 ) emission and thus enhanced the mineral and total nitrogen (TN) contents in compost. Although N 2 O emission could be reduced by adding calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, NH 3 emission was considerably increased, resulting in an increase in TN loss during composting. By blending these two additives, both NH 3 and N 2 O emissions could be mitigated, achieving effective nitrogen conservation in composting. More importantly, with the addition of 20% TN of the mixed composting materials, these two additives could synergistically improve the compost maturity and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The control of radioactivity in the working environment in the factories for production of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, B.N.; Gnjatovic, S.S.; Vujovic, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    The results of dosimetric control in factories for the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers in Serbia, and of the measurement of the total beta radioactivity of samples collected in these factories, are presented. An increase in the radiation dose, even up to 1000 times background, has been found at certain places in the plant. These results serve as a basis for conclusions on the existence, variation and collection of the radioactive component in particular phases of the technological process for the production of phosphate fertilizers. An attempt is made on the basis of the results obtained in three plants to evaluate the degree of danger in the working environment and in the area surrounding the factories and to propose protective measures. (Author)

  10. Phosphate fertilization changes the characteristics of 'Maçã' banana starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Camila de Barros; Garcia, Émerson Loli; Bolfarini, Ana Carolina Batista; Leonel, Sarita; Franco, Célia Maria L; Leonel, Magali

    2018-06-01

    The unripe banana has been studied as a potential source of starch for use in various applications. Considering the importance of phosphorus in the biosynthesis of the starch and also the interference of this mineral in starch properties, in this study it was evaluated the effect of rates of phosphate fertilizer applied in the cultivation of 'Maçã' banana on the characteristics of the starch. Starches extracted from fruits from different treatments were analyzed for morphological characteristics, X-ray diffraction pattern, relative crystallinity, granule size, amylose, resistant starch and phosphorus levels, as well as, for pasting and thermal properties. Results showed that the phosphate fertilization has interference on the characteristics of the banana starch led to increase of phosphorus content and size of the granules, reduction of crystallinity and resistant starch content, decrease of viscosity peak, breakdown, final viscosity, setback, transitions temperatures and enthalpy. These changes caused by phosphate fertilizer conditions can be increase the applications of the 'Maçã' banana starch. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Evaluation of phosphatic fertilizers of different solubility for common bean using isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Altunaga, Aurelio; Hernandez Barrueta, German; Nuviola Montoya, Antonio; Mendez Perez, Nancy; Herrero Echevarria, Grisel; Drevon, Jean Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Glass house experiments were carried out in the Experimental Station La Renee located in Habana province in the year 2003. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphorus (P) sources varying in solubility for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nutrition using the isotopic dilution method with 32 P , growing under two soils: Acrisol and Rhodic Ferralsol. The P sources, evaluated in both soils were phosphate rock (PR) Trinidad de Guedes and PR partially solubilized at 50% with H 2 SO 4 , namely FPA 50, whereas single super phosphate (SS) and triple super phosphate (TSP) were used in the Acrisol and Rhodic Ferralsol Soils, respectively. The common bean genotypes were BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390 and Censa, and BAT 58, BAT 477, DOR 364 and CC-25-9(N) in the Acrisol and Rhodic Felrrasol soils, respectively. Dry matter production, P extraction, and the fraction and quantity of P in plants obtained from different P sources were evaluated, and P use efficiency of each P fertilizer were calculated. Single and tripe super phosphate and FPA 50 were effective P fertilizers in both soils whereas RF was not. (author) [es

  12. Prevention of radioactive contamination in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers; Prevencion de contaminacion radiactiva en la fabricacion de fertilizantes fosfatados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero G, E T

    1996-12-31

    In this work was studied the separation of uranium from the phosphate rock to decrease the level of radioactivity in the phosphate fertilizers, this prevents the redistribution of uranium in the environment. The uranium leaching conditions from phosphate rock were estimated using alkaline solutions. The changes in the natural phosphate rock after leaching were studied. The amenability to separate the uranium from phosphate rock with ammonium carbonate / bicarbonate solution was determined. The uranium extraction was approximately 40%. The leaching conditions showed high selectivity for uranium without changes in the ore structure. The bulk ore was not dissolved. (Author).

  13. Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil); Santos, Dario [Federal University of São Paulo, R. Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270, Diadema SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José, E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm{sup −2} (750 μm spot size), 2.0 μs delay time and 5.0 μs integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg{sup −1} Cd, 2 mg kg{sup −1} Cr and 15 mg kg{sup −1} Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers. - Highlights: • First LIBS application for quantitative Cd, Cr and Pb determination in fertilizers. • LIBS method was validated for analysis of phosphate fertilizers pressed pellets. • LIBS sample throughput is remarkably better than already existing methods.

  14. Estimation of the radiological impact in the use of phosphate fertilizer in citric plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, J.T.; Prendes A, M.; Alonso J, M.T.; Perez S, D.

    1996-01-01

    The use of fertilizers in the agriculture is a potential danger of environmental contamination, because the elements contained in them could suffer an important redistribution in the environment. This is the case of radioactive elements of natural origin, like K-40 and nuclides of U and Th series, present in the ores used in the production of industrial fertilizers. Phosphoric rocks used in fertilizers contain, generally, important concentrations of radioactive elements greater than other rocks of the earth core. In Cuba, preliminary determinations of Ra-226 concentrations in phosphoric rocks reveal results in the order of 2.7 Bq/kg. These values are greater than the mean of the rest of soils of the country. Due to this fact, a study on the radiological impact of this practice was developed. The study was carried out in citric plantations of the province of Pinar del Rio, where phosphate fertilizer is widely used. Samples of different parts of the plant were taken and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometric techniques. The paper presents values for Ra-226 that are in the range 27-40 Bq/kg. These results show that the use of fertilizers does not imply a significant radiological impact. Punctual valves of transfer coefficients of Ra-226 in soil -stem-leave-peel and - juice chains were estimated. (authors). 6 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Metals concentration in phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers produced in Brazil using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourlegat, Fernanda M.; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product phosphoric acid and dihydrated calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 .2H 2 O) as by-product. It may contain high quantities of P 2 O 5 , trace metals and radionuclides of U and Th series. Phosphogypsum worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 170 million tons. All the countries that produce phosphate fertilizers by wet process are facing the same problem of finding solutions for the safe application of phosphogypsum, in order to minimize the impact caused by the disposal of large amounts of this by-product. Phosphogypsum can be used in agriculture as a soil amendment; however, for its safe application the concentration of the impurities present and their behaviour in the environment should be better understood. The radiological characterization has been extensively studied in the last decade, but there are few studies about the metals concentration in phosphogypsum. This work intends to determine the concentration of metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Na, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn e Zr) and rare earth elements (REE) present in phosphogypsum produced in Brazil and to compare the results with those found in the phosphate fertilizers commonly commercialized. The technique used for the determination of the metals was instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). (author)

  16. Use of a La(III)-modified bentonite for effective phosphate removal from aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, Vivian; Bosco, Giulianna E. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia, 166, Santo André CEP 09210-170, SP (Brazil); Fadini, Pedro S.; Mozeto, Antonio A. [Laboratório de Biogeoquímica Ambiental, Núcleo de Estudos, Diagnósticos e Intervenções Ambientais, Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Cx. Postal 676, São Carlos CEP 13565-905, SP (Brazil); Cestari, Antonio R. [Department of Chemistry/CCET, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão CEP 49100-000, SE (Brazil); Carvalho, Wagner A., E-mail: wagner.carvalho@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia, 166, Santo André CEP 09210-170, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • A phosphate adsorbent was prepared from unpurified natural bentonite. • Physisorption was found to the main phosphate interaction mechanism. • The retention has reached 95% of the phosphate present in solution at room temperature. • The rate sorption was about 4 times faster than commercial phosphate adsorbents. - Abstract: A bentonite from the Northeast Brazilian region was modified with lanthanum (NT-25La) using an ion exchange process. Lanthanum incorporation in the natural clay, as well as the properties of the clay materials, were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, specific surface area and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). Phosphate adsorption equilibrium and kinetic tests were performed at different temperatures. The adsorption data have shown that NT-25La reaches equilibrium between modified clay and phosphate solution within 60 min of contact. The phosphate retention at room temperature reached 95%, when initial phosphate concentration in solution was 5 mg L{sup −1}. A kinetic-order variable model provided satisfactory fitting of the kinetic data. Adsorption of phosphate was best described by a Langmuir isotherm, with maximum phosphate sorption capacity of 14.0 mg g{sup −1}. Two distinct adsorption mechanisms were observed that may influence the adsorption processes. The investigation pointed out that the phosphate adsorption occurs via physisorption processes and that the use of NT-25La provides a maximum phosphate sorption capacity higher than many commercial adsorbents.

  17. Role of VAM on growth and phosphorus nutrition of maize with low soluble phosphate fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Rakshit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM infection on growth and P nutrition in Maize (Zea mays, cv.DDH hybrid were assessed in Oxisol pot experiment. Maize was grown inoculated with spores of VAM fungi Glomus mosseae or non-inoculated. Low soluble ferrous phosphate (FePO4.4H2O was added to the mycorrhized and non-micrrohized maized. The dry weight of mycorrhized plants with added phosphate (P were higher than in mycorrhized plants without added P or non-mycorrhized plants with added P. The amount of P in the soil samples from pots with mycorrhizal plants fertilized with P was evidently smaller than those in samples also fertilized non-mycorrhizal plants. The percentage of P was higher in tissues of fertilized mycorrhial plants than in those mycorrihzed plants without or nonmycorrhized plants with added low-soluble P. These results indicated that plants in VAM symbiosis mobilize P better from low-soluble P than non-mycorrhized plants.

  18. Role of VAM on growth and phosphorus nutrition of maize with low soluble phosphate fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshit Amitava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM infection on growth and P nutrition in Maize (Zea mays, cv.DDH hybrid were assessed in Oxisol pot experiment. Maize was grown inoculated with spores of VAM fungi Glomus mosseae or non-inoculated. Low soluble ferrous phosphate (FePO4.4H2O was added to the mycorrhized and non-micrrohized maized. The dry weight of mycorrhized plants with added phosphate (P were higher than in mycorrhized plants without added P or non-mycorrhized plants with added P. The amount of P in the soil samples from pots with mycorrhizal plants fertilized with P was evidently smaller than those in samples also fertilized non-mycorrhizal plants. The percentage of P was higher in tissues of fertilized mycorrhial plants than in those mycorrihzed plants without or nonmycorrhized plants with added low-soluble P. These results indicated that plants in VAM symbiosis mobilize P better from low-soluble P than non-mycorrhized plants.

  19. Economical and environmental impact of using of Nuba Mountain Rock Phosphate that contain uranium as a fertilizer without any treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Abdelrahman Khidir

    1994-01-01

    This study investigates the possible use of ground rock phosphate in Nuba Mountain for fertilization of arable land. Geological and chemical component of untreated ground rock phosphate has been compared with other ground rock phosphate from different geographical regions worldwide. The data show that economic exploitation of this rock phosphate as fertilizer is not feasible because of low solubility and low phosphorus content (12% on average). In addition, the high concentration of some elements in the rock phosphate could adversely affect the growth of the plant when it is applied on the soil by changing the chemical composition of the soil.As regards the environmental impact that could be result from the use of the rock phosphate as fertilizer is that it will unnecessarily increase the concentration of uranium which amount to 0.3% in the soil. The study recommends the use of this rock phosphate as a raw material for production of phosphoric acid and extraction of uranium and some elements as a bi-product of phosphate industry.(Author)

  20. Measurement of radium - 226 in rock phosphate used as low cost fertilizer using gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M M.O.; Mohamed, O S [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Box 3001, Khartoum, (Sudan); Eltib, A E; Allasaad, I A.A. [faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, (Sudan)

    1995-10-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of radium - 226 in rock phosphate (used as low cost fertilizer), soil and plant. Two types of rock phosphates were examined, namely, Uro and kurun area in the Nuba mountains located in the western part of the sudan. The work included the determination of {sup 226} Ra levels in soil after applying different concentration of rock phosphate in pot experiments. The plant used was Abu sabien a sorghum which used for the animal feed. {sup 226} Ra in the soil using 20 g/pot (1000 kg/fed). of rock phosphate was found to be 88 and 104 Bq/kg for and 45 and 72 Bq/kg for kurun for season one and three respectively. As for the plant the concentration was found to be 1.2 and 1.4 Bq/kg for Uro and 0.4 and 0.6 Bq/kg for kurun for the first and third seasons respectively. The transfer factor of {sup 226} Ra from soil to plant was estimated to be (0.01). The concentration of {sup 226} Ra in the plant was found to be below the recommended values of contamination. 4 figs.

  1. Measurement of radium - 226 in rock phosphate used as low cost fertilizer using gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.M.O.; Mohamed, O.S.; Eltib, A.E.; Allasaad, I.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of radium - 226 in rock phosphate (used as low cost fertilizer), soil and plant. Two types of rock phosphates were examined, namely, Uro and kurun area in the Nuba mountains located in the western part of the sudan. The work included the determination of 226 Ra levels in soil after applying different concentration of rock phosphate in pot experiments. The plant used was Abu sabien a sorghum which used for the animal feed. 226 Ra in the soil using 20 g/pot (1000 kg/fed). of rock phosphate was found to be 88 and 104 Bq/kg for and 45 and 72 Bq/kg for kurun for season one and three respectively. As for the plant the concentration was found to be 1.2 and 1.4 Bq/kg for Uro and 0.4 and 0.6 Bq/kg for kurun for the first and third seasons respectively. The transfer factor of 226 Ra from soil to plant was estimated to be (0.01). The concentration of 226 Ra in the plant was found to be below the recommended values of contamination. 4 figs

  2. Ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed waters by modified clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Hanxin; Lin, Hai; Dong, Yingbo; Cheng, Huang; Wang, Han; Cao, Lixia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The salt and thermally modified clinoptilolite can effectively sorb NH 3 -N and phosphates. ► The phosphorus and nitrogen removal was consistent with Langmuir isotherm model. ► The modified clinoptilolite possesses rapid adsorption and slow balance characteristics. ► The adsorption is more in line with the Elovich adsorption dynamics equation. ► The entropy effect plays the role of the main driving force in the adsorption. - Abstract: This paper presents the investigation of the ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed wastewater by modified clinoptilolite. The results showed that the modified clinoptilolite has a high sorption efficiency and removal performance. The ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates removal rate of the modified clinoptilolite reached to 98.46% and 99.80%, respectively. The surface of modified clinoptilolite became loose and some pores appeared, which enlarged the specific surface area; the contents of Na and Fe increased, and the contents of Ca and Mg decreased. The modified clinoptilolite possesses rapid sorption and slow balance characteristics and ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption is more consistent with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates follows the Elovich adsorption dynamics equation, which describes the sorption of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates in aqueous solution as mainly a chemical sorption. Results from the thermodynamics experiment involving ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption reveal that the process is a spontaneous and endothermic process, and is mainly driven by entropy effect.

  3. Role of phosphate fertilizers in heavy metal uptake and detoxification of toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Veer, V; Walther, C

    2014-08-01

    As a nonrenewable resource, phosphorus (P) is the second most important macronutrient for plant growth and nutrition. Demand of phosphorus application in the agricultural production is increasing fast throughout the globe. The bioavailability of phosphorus is distinctively low due to its slow diffusion and high fixation in soils which make phosphorus a key limiting factor for crop production. Applications of phosphorus-based fertilizers improve the soil fertility and agriculture yield but at the same time concerns over a number of factors that lead to environmental damage need to be addressed properly. Phosphate rock mining leads to reallocation and exposure of several heavy metals and radionuclides in crop fields and water bodies throughout the world. Proper management of phosphorus along with its fertilizers is required that may help the maximum utilization by plants and minimum run-off and wastage. Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria along with the root rhizosphere of plant integrated with root morphological and physiological adaptive strategies need to be explored further for utilization of this extremely valuable nonrenewable resource judiciously. The main objective of this review is to assess the role of phosphorus in fertilizers, their uptake along with other elements and signaling during P starvation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phosphate dynamics on the application of rice straw compost-biochar and phosphate fertilization in rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ania Citraresmini; Taufiq Bachtiar

    2016-01-01

    Soil productivity is determined by soil characteristics itself, which consist of physical, chemical and biological character. The linkage between these three properties can be represented by a single indicator, namely the carbon content in the soil. One of the effects of soil organic matter fulfillment is the availability of soil nutrients, especially to the nutrient that limits the lowland rice production. In this case, P (phosphorus) nutrient become a limiting factor because their numbers are often in abundance but in a form that can not be used by plants. Experiments were carried out with the aim of studying the impact of straw compost application that integrates with Biochar, to the availability of P in lowland soil. The interaction of straw compost + Biochar with PSB inoculation and P sources, become the treatment that being tested in the experiment. Randomized Block Design with factorial pattern is applied as design experiment. As the first factor is the application dose of straw compost + Biochar, consists of 5 levels of treatment : 0; 1; 2; 3; 4 t ha -1 . Second factor is several sources of P, consist of 5 levels of treatment : without P sources (p 0 ); 100 kg ha -1 SP-36 fertilizer (p1); rock phosphate at the dose of 163 kg ha -1 (p 2 ); PSB inoculation at the inoculation dose of 2 kg ha -1 (p 3 ); and rock phosphate inoculated with PSB (p 4 ). The experiment done in the green house of PAIR-BATAN experimental station, Jakarta, on March-July 2014. Phosphorus dynamic as a result of the tested treatments, determined by using radioisotope 32 P technology at the activity of 30 mCi and described clearly on the plant P uptake data of Sidenuk rice plant variety. The experiment result showed that the treatments applied is causing significantly different response on the soil C-organic, the number of PSB populations, 32 P plant counting and plant P uptake derived from several P sources in the plant. (author)

  5. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and heavy metals content in Sudanese phosphate rocks used as low cost fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhangi, F.A.; Aamhed, M.M.O.; Abdalla, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the level of natural radioactivity and heavy metals content of Sudanese rock phosphate used as low cost fertilizer. Thirty samples collected from two types of local phosphate rocks from the Nuba mountains (Uro and Kurun) were used in this study and the activity concentrations of natural radioactivity determined using gamma spectroscopy were compared to those found in samples of imported phosphorous fertilizers Single Super phosphate (SSP) and Triple Super phosphate (TSP). The results showed that the ' Ra activity concentration was 0.6 - 0.8 Bq/g for Uro and 0.3 - 0.5 Bq/g for Kurun. As for the most commonly used imported fertilizer TSP, the result was found to be greater than that of Uro (around 1.0 Bq/g). The heavy metals content of Uro and Kurun rocks measured using X-ray Fluorescence Technique showed their levels were below the toxic levels reported by Christina (1991). It is evident that the environmental hazard is comparable in the local and imported fertilizers and is acceptable in both cases by international standards. The determine factor therefore in optioning for the use of a local or an imported brand should then be the fertilizing efficiency of the brand used against other economic consideration rather than the fertilizers environmental impact

  6. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Phosphate Removal. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D....

  7. Assessment of agronomic efficacy of phosphatic fertilizers for cotton crop in vertisol using 32P radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, M.; D'Souza, S.F.

    2007-01-01

    A short-term greenhouse pot culture study was carried out to study the agronomy efficacy of P sources for cotton crop in a vertisol. The sources of P were single super phosphate (SSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP) and nitrophosphate tagged with 32 P and applied at three rates (30, 60 and 90 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ). The results indicated that the dry matter yield (DMY) of cotton shoot, P uptake, percent P derived from fertilizer (%Pdff) and Avalue of the soil increased significantly with increasing fertilizer rate, whereas the percent fertilizer P utilization (%FUP) was found to be higher at lower fertilizer rates. Among the fertilizer sources SSP was found to be superior in enhancing DMY of cotton, P uptake and %FUP as compared to other fertilizers. %Pdff was found to be at par in SSP and DAP treatments and was significantly higher in comparison to NP and reverse was true in case of A-value of the soil. Results on equivalent ratio showed that SSP and DAP are equally efficient, whereas, 1 kg P as SSP was equivalent to 7.47 kg P as NP. In general, efficacy of phosphatic fertilizers for cotton crop in vertisol was found to be in order of SSP>DAP>NP. (author)

  8. Phosphorus availability from phosphate rock and sewage sludge as influenced by the addition of water soluble phosphate fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Zaharah, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) inputs are required for sustainable agricultural production in most acid soils of the tropics and subtropics. Phosphate rocks (PR) and organic materials have been suggested as alternative P sources in these soils. Quantitative information on the P availability from sewage sludge (SL) is scanty. Methods to improve the effectiveness of PR such as partial acidulation and compaction with water-soluble P sources have been recommended. The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of Florida PR and sewage sludges (irradiated and non-irradiated) applied alone and in mixture with a water-soluble source (triple superphosphate, TSP) at two rates (50 and 150 mg P kg -1 soil). The 32 P isotope dilution technique was utilised to determine the proportion of P in the plant taken up from the P fertilizer treatments. Wheat was grown on an acid loamy sand Dystric Eutrocrepts and harvested 6 weeks after planting. Results on total P uptake and the RAE of the P fertilizer sources tested indicated that the addition of 50 mg P kg -1 soil as TSP was adequate in supplying P to the 6-week-old wheat plants as compared to PR and sewage sludge. Intermediate values were obtained for the mixtures. Similar responses were observed for the high P rate. For a given P rate, phosphorus uptake from PR and SL in presence of TSP was higher than P uptake from these sources alone, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of these non-readily available sources. With respect to P uptake from PR applied alone, the relative increases in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence were 52 and 67% for the low and high P rates, respectively. The relative increases in P uptake from SL due to TSP when compared to P uptake from SL alone were 102 and 59% for the low and high P rates of application. Application of a water-soluble P fertilizer together with a non-readily available P source shows an enhancement on the P uptake from the non

  9. Phosphorus availability from phosphate rock and sewage sludge as influenced by the addition of water soluble phosphate fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, F. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: F.Zapata@iaea.org; Zaharah, A.R. [Department of Land Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2002-05-15

    Phosphorus (P) inputs are required for sustainable agricultural production in most acid soils of the tropics and subtropics. Phosphate rocks (PR) and organic materials have been suggested as alternative P sources in these soils. Quantitative information on the P availability from sewage sludge (SL) is scanty. Methods to improve the effectiveness of PR such as partial acidulation and compaction with water-soluble P sources have been recommended. The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of Florida PR and sewage sludges (irradiated and non-irradiated) applied alone and in mixture with a water-soluble source (triple superphosphate, TSP) at two rates (50 and 150 mg P kg{sup -1} soil). The {sup 32}P isotope dilution technique was utilised to determine the proportion of P in the plant taken up from the P fertilizer treatments. Wheat was grown on an acid loamy sand Dystric Eutrocrepts and harvested 6 weeks after planting. Results on total P uptake and the RAE of the P fertilizer sources tested indicated that the addition of 50 mg P kg{sup -1} soil as TSP was adequate in supplying P to the 6-week-old wheat plants as compared to PR and sewage sludge. Intermediate values were obtained for the mixtures. Similar responses were observed for the high P rate. For a given P rate, phosphorus uptake from PR and SL in presence of TSP was higher than P uptake from these sources alone, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of these non-readily available sources. With respect to P uptake from PR applied alone, the relative increases in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence were 52 and 67% for the low and high P rates, respectively. The relative increases in P uptake from SL due to TSP when compared to P uptake from SL alone were 102 and 59% for the low and high P rates of application. Application of a water-soluble P fertilizer together with a non-readily available P source shows an enhancement on the P

  10. Phosphorus dynamics in a tropical soil amended with green manures and natural inorganic phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah Abd Rahman; Bah Abd R

    2002-01-01

    Alleviating P deficiency with natural inorganic phosphates and organic residues has significant economic and environmental advantages in the tropics. However, adapting this technology to various agroecosystems requires greater understanding of P dynamics in such systems. This was studied in an amended Bungor soil in laboratory incubation and glasshouse experiments. Treatments were a factorial combination of green manures GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks (PRs) from China and Algeria, in 3 replications. The GMs were labeled with 33 P in the glasshouse trial. Olsen P, mineral N, exchangeable Ca and pH were monitored in the incubation at 0,1,2,4,8,16,32 and 64 weeks after establishment (WAE). Soil P fractions were also determined at 64 WAE. Phosphorus available from the amendments at 4, 8, 15, and 20 WAE, was quantified by 33 P- 32 P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata (Setaria grass) as test crop. Olsen P was unaffected by the sole P fertilizers, and hardly changed within 16 WAE in the legume GM and legume GM+PR treatments as NH 4 + -N accumulated and soil pH increased. Afterwards Olsen P and exchangeable Ca increased as NH 4 + -N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect, but fertilizers was irreversibly retained. GM-P availability was very low (< 4%), but GMs enhanced PR solubility and mobilized soil P irrespective of quality, probably by the action of organic acids. Calcium content had negative effect on available P and should be considered when selecting compatible materials in integrated systems. The results are further evidence of the importance of the soil P mobilization capacity of organic components in integrated P management systems. Even low quality Imperata can augment soil P supply when combined with the reactive APR, probably by conserving soil moisture. (Author)

  11. BIOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF FIELD GROWN SESAME INFLUENCED BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION, ROCK PHOSPHATE FERTILIZATION AND IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Harikumar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and rock phosphate (RP fertilization on biometric parameters and mycorrhizal colonization of field grown sesame under rainfed and irrigated conditions. Inoculation of AMF Funneliformis dimorphicus improved the biometric parameters of the crop such as leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, specific leaf weight (SLW, net assimilation rate (NAR, oil index (OI as well as mycorrhizal colonization (%F in roots. Mycorrhizal inoculation however, did not give any positive response on harvest index (HI. LA, LAI and OI and %F showed a general increment in treatments of no added P (P0, while the other parameters such as SLW and NAR were improved by the application of RP at half the recommended dose (P50. HI did not respond to RP fertilization. Most of the parameters (LA, LAI, NAR, %F showed higher values under rainfed condition than irrigated condition whereas, SLW, HI and OI improved significantly under irrigated condition. Results indicated that the inoculation of AMF to field grown sesame can compensate for 50% of the recommended P fertilizer under a need based irrigation schedule, without affecting the biometric parameters.

  12. Distribution of uranium in soil components of agricultural fields after long-term application of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Kawasaki, A.; Iiyama, I.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term application of phosphate fertilizers causes accumulation of U in the surface soil of agricultural fields. We investigated the soil constituents that contribute to the accumulation of U by using chemical extraction methods. Surface soil samples were obtained from upland fields, pastures, and paddy fields cultivated without any phosphate fertilizer (control site), with NPK fertilizer (NPK site), and with both NPK fertilizer and compost (NPK + compost site) for more than 20 years. In addition to the total U (U t ) concentration in soil, the concentrations of pyrophosphate- and acid oxalate-extractable U were determined as a measure of U associated with soil organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in soil, respectively. The total, pyrophosphate-extractable, and acid oxalate-extractable U concentrations were higher in the soil obtained from the NPK and NPK + compost sites than in that obtained from the control site. The difference in the U concentrations between the NPK or NPK + compost site and the control site corresponded with the increased U concentration observed after the application of the phosphate fertilizer or both the fertilizer and compost. In the upland field and pasture soil, the increase in pyrophosphate-extractable U was 83-94% of that in U t . On the other hand, the increase in acid oxalate-extractable U was 44-58% of that in U t in the upland field and pasture soil, but it was almost equivalent to the increase in U t in the paddy soil with NPK. In conclusion, most of the phosphate fertilizer-derived U was either incorporated into the soil organic matter or poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in the surface soil of agricultural fields. Thus, soil organic matter is an important pool of U in upland field and pasture soil, whereas poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals are important pools of U in paddy soil experiencing alternating changes in redox conditions

  13. Phosphate Removal using Modified Bayoxide®E33 Adsorption Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of phosphate onto modified Bayoxide® E33 (E33) and underlying mechanisms were comparatively investigated by batch kinetics, sorption isotherms, rapid small scale column tests, and material characterization. Synthesis of modified E33 was conducted by the addition of...

  14. Phosphate Remediation and Recovery from Lake Water using Modified Iron Oxide-based Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption behavior of Bayoxide ® E33 (E33) and three E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese and nanoparticles. Characterization was done by X-ray diffract...

  15. The response of soil biota to phosphate fertilization in grassland columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoyi, Israel; Winstanley, Henry; Fowler, Andrew; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2017-04-01

    The United Nations has predicted that food production is expected to rise by 50% in the year 2020 to feed the increasing world population. Grasslands play significant roles in food production and occupy about 70% of the world's agricultural land. However, intensive use of inorganic fertilizers often associated with increased food production can lead to poor soil quality and environmental pollution. For instance, excessive phosphorus (P) application can lead to eutrophication in surface waters. Although P plays vital roles in many metabolic processes in plants, its primary source rock phosphate is finite. Consequently, the development of more P efficient agricultural systems is paramount. P cycling within the microbial biomass is essential to the P cycle within the soil with its key pathways for P mobilization and mineralization from various soil pools into plant available forms. In this study, soil columns were setup in a greenhouse using a P deficient Irish soil (P index 1). The columns were planted with Lolium perenne and fertilized with 0, 5, 10 and 20 kg/ha inorganic P representing control, low, medium and high rates respectively alongside a full complement of other nutrients. Each treatment was replicated six times and managed for 14 weeks. Results after 14 weeks showed that the weekly measurements of phosphate at different soil depths identified only traces of P in soil solution for the duration of 14 weeks, even after P application. There was a significant increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase activities with the high P compared to the control but no significant effect on plant shoot and root biomass, abundances of cultivable calcium phosphate-, phytate- and phosphonate-utilizing bacteria upon P fertilization. L. perenne rhizosphere of the highest P treatment had significantly lower abundance of bacterial phoD genes, mycorrhizal hyphal and arbuscular colonization rates compared to the control. Likewise, the abundance of bacterial- and fungal

  16. Biomimetic synthesis of modified calcium phosphate fine powders and their in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergulova, R., E-mail: rumigg@yahoo.com; Tepavitcharova, S., E-mail: rumigg@yahoo.com; Rabadjieva, D., E-mail: rumigg@yahoo.com; Sezanova, K., E-mail: rumigg@yahoo.com; Ilieva, R., E-mail: rumigg@yahoo.com [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Alexandrova, R.; Andonova-Lilova, B. [Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 25, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-16

    Biomimetic approach and subsequent high-temperature treatment were used to synthesize ion modified calcium phosphate fine powders. Thus, using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) as an ion modifier, a bi-phase mixture of ion modified β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (β-TCP + HA) was prepared. The use of SBF electrolyte solution enriched with Mg{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+} yielded monophase β-tricalcium phosphate additionally modified with Mg{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+} (Mg-β-TCP or Zn-β-TCP). The in vitro behavior of the prepared powders on cell viability and proliferation of murine BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts and of human Lep 3 cells was studied by MTT test assays and Mosmann method after 72 h incubation. The relative cell viability was calculated.

  17. Effect of Combined Application of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Phosphrous Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikmehr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P is considered to be one of the most essential macro elements required for growth and development of plants, but, due to low solubility and fixation in soils, only a small fraction of phosphorus in soil (1 ppm or 0.1% is readily available to plants. chemical fertilizers are widely used in meeting the phosphorous need of crops. However, as the fertilizer production is dependent upon fossil energy sources, continuous use of chemical fertilizers has become a matter of great concern, not only because of the diminishing availability of costly inputs but environmental concerns also. Under this background, it has obviously brought the subject of mineral phosphate solubilization in the forefront. A group of soil microorganisms is recognized to be involved in microbial phosphate solubilization mechanisms through which insoluble forms of inorganic and organic phosphates convert into soluble forms (HPO4-2 or H2PO4-. Acidification of the medium, chelating, exchange reactions and production of various acids has been discussed as the key processes attributed to the conversion. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB are a group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR that convert unavailable forms of phosphorus to available forms and it helps to the growth and yield of plant. The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is considered one of the most important factors increasing sesame yields. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of PGPR and phosphorus fertilizer on some growth parameters and components of yield and also phosphorus and Zinc uptake in sesame. Materials and Methods: In order to investigation of the effect of combined application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and phosphorus fertilizer on growth and yield of Sesame, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications including five levels of

  18. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  19. Phosphorus dynamics in a tropical soil amended with green manures and natural inorganic phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Zaharah Abd; R, Bah Abd [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia). Dept of Land Management

    2002-07-01

    Alleviating P deficiency with natural inorganic phosphates and organic residues has significant economic and environmental advantages in the tropics. However, adapting this technology to various agroecosystems requires greater understanding of P dynamics in such systems. This was studied in an amended Bungor soil in laboratory incubation and glasshouse experiments. Treatments were a factorial combination of green manures GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks (PRs)) from China and Algeria, in 3 replications. The GMs were labeled with {sup 33}P in the glasshouse trial. Olsen P, mineral N, exchangeable Ca and pH were monitored in the incubation at 0,1,2,4,8,16,32 and 64 weeks after establishment (WAE). Soil P fractions were also determined at 64 WAE. Phosphorus available from the amendments at 4, 8, 15, and 20 WAE, was quantified by {sup 33}P-{sup 32}P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata (Setaria grass) as test crop. Olsen P was unaffected by the sole P fertilizers, and hardly changed within 16 WAE in the legume GM and legume GM+PR treatments as NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N accumulated and soil pH increased. Afterwards Olsen P and exchangeable Ca increased as NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect, but fertilizers was irreversibly retained. GM-P availability was very low (< 4%), but GMs enhanced PR solubility and mobilized soil P irrespective of quality, probably by the action of organic acids. Calcium content had negative effect on available P and should be considered when selecting compatible materials in integrated systems. The results are further evidence of the importance of the soil P mobilization capacity of organic components in integrated P management systems. Even low quality Imperata can augment soil P supply when combined with the reactive APR, probably by

  20. Trace elements in rock phosphates and P containing mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers sold in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, Sylvia, E-mail: sylvia.kratz@jki.bund.de; Schick, Judith; Schnug, Ewald

    2016-01-15

    68 rock phosphates and 162 P containing (organo-)mineral fertilizers sold in Germany were evaluated with regard to trace element contents. While Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, and Zn were higher in sedimentary than in igneous rock phosphates, the opposite was true for Co, Cu, Sn, Mn, Ti, Fe, and Sr. Comparing element concentrations to the currently valid legal limit values defined by the German Fertilizer Ordinance, it was found that some PK and many straight P fertilizers (superphosphate, triple superphosphate, partly acidulated rock phosphates) exceeded the limit of 50 mg Cd/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Mean values for As, Ni, Pb, and Tl remained below legal limits in almost all cases. While no legal limit has been defined for U in Germany yet, the limit of 50 mg U/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} for P containing fertilizers proposed by the German Commission for the Protection of Soils was clearly exceeded by mean values for all fertilizer types analyzed. A large share of the samples evaluated in this work contained essential trace elements at high concentrations, with many of them not being declared as such. Furthermore, trace elements supplied with these fertilizers at a fertilization rate leveling P uptake would exceed trace element uptake by crops. This may become most relevant for B and Fe, since many crops are sensitive to an oversupply of B, and Fe loads exceeding plant uptake may immobilize P supplies for the crops by forming Fe phosphate salts. The sample set included two products made from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash. The products displayed very high concentrations of Fe and Mn and exceeded the legal limit for Ni, emphasizing the necessity to continue research on heavy metal removal from recycled raw materials and the development of environmentally friendly and agriculturally efficient fertilizer products. - Highlights: • Mineral fertilizers (MF) sold in Germany often exceed legal limits for Cd • MF sold in Germany contain high

  1. Uranium recovery from phosphate fertilizer in the form of a high purity compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunus, F.; Coroianu, T.; Filip, G.; Filip, D.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium recovery from phosphate fertilizer industry is based on a one cycle extraction-stripping process. The process was experimented on both sulfuric and nitric acid attack of phosphate rock when uranium is dissolved in phosphoric acid (WPA) or phosphonitric (PN) solution respectively. The WPA and PN solution must be clarified. In the first alternative by ageing and settling and in the second by settling in the presence of flocculant. The organic components must be removed on active carbon for WPA only since in the case of nitric attack calcined phosphates are used. In both alternatives uranium is extracted from aqueous acidic solutions in the same time with the rare earths (REE), by di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEPA) as basic extractants, eventually in the presence of octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as synergic agent. The stripping process is carried out in two stages: in the first stage REE are stripped and precipitated by HF or NH 4 F + H 2 S0 4 and in the second stage uranium as U(VI) is stripped by the same reagents but in the presence of Fe(II) as reductant for U(VI) to U(IV) inextractible species. Tetravalent uranium is also precipitated as green cake either UF 4 xH 2 0 or (NH 4 ) 7 U 6 F 31 as dependent on reagents HF or NH 4 F + H 2 S0 4 . Uranium stripping is possible for PN solution only if HNO 3 partially extracted is previously washed out by a urea solution. The green cake washed and filtered is dissolved in nitric acid in presence of Al(OH)3 as complexant for F. The filtered nitric solution is adjusted to 3-5 mol/L HNO 3 and extracted by 20% TBP when uranium is transferred to the organic phase which after scrubbing is stripped in the classic way with acidulated (HN0 3 ) demineralized water. Uranium is precipitated as diuranate of high purity. Rare earths left in the aqueous raffinate are extracted by pure TBP from 8-10 mol/L HNO 3 medium. The stripping process takes place with acidulated water. Rare earths are precipitated as hydroxides. (author)

  2. Effect of humic acid preloading on phosphate adsorption onto zirconium-modified zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhe; Zhan, Yanhui

    2017-05-01

    A zirconium-modified zeolite (ZrMZ) was prepared, and then, humic acid (HA) was immobilized on the ZrMZ surface to prepare HA-loaded ZrMZ (HA-ZrMZ). The obtained ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analyzer, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, pH at the point of zero charge, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were comparatively investigated in batch mode. The adsorption mechanism of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ was investigated by ionic strength effect and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance. The mechanism for phosphate adsorption onto ZrMZ was the formation of inner-sphere phosphate complexes at the solid/solution interface. The preloading of HA on ZrMZ reduced the phosphate adsorption capacity, and the more the HA loading amount, the lower the phosphate adsorption capacity. However, the preloading of HA on ZrMZ did not change the phosphate adsorption mechanism; i.e., the formation of inner-sphere phosphate surface complexes was still responsible for the adsorption of phosphate on HA-ZrMZ. The decreased phosphate adsorption capacity for ZrMZ after HA coating could be attributed to the fact that the coating of HA on ZrMZ reduced the amount of binding active sites available for phosphate adsorption, changed the adsorbent surface charges, and reduced the specific surface areas and pore volumes of ZrMZ.

  3. Nutritional characteristics of two pigeon pea hybrids – Liming and phosphated fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Atauri Cardelli de Lucena

    2012-12-01

    hybrids of pigeon pea with phosphate fertilization and liming showed excellent nutritional characteristics and low fiber content.

  4. Effect of Azolla Based - Organic Fertilizer, Rock Phosphate and Rice Hull Ash on Rice Yield and Chemical Properties of Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemical fertilizer for long time may adverse soil environment. Organic agriculture, for example combination use of azolla based-organic fertilizer, phosphate rock and rice hull ash, was one of ways that able to recover it. Research was conducted in Sukosari, Jumantono, Karanganyar while soi chemical properties analysis was analysed in Soil Chemistry and Fertility Laboratory, Fac. of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University April to November 2013. Research design used was RAKL with 5 treatments, each repeated 5 times. The treatments applied were P0 (control, P1 ( azola inoculum dosage 250 g/m2 + phosphate rock + rice hull ash equal to 150 kg/ha KCl, P2 (azola inoculum dosage 500 g/m2 + phosphate rock equal to 150kg/ha, SP-36 + rice hull ash equal to 100 kg/ha KCl, P3 (manure dosage of 5 ton/ha,P4 (Urea 250 kg/ha + SP-36 150 kg/ha + KCl 100 kg/ha. Data analysed statistically by F test (Fisher test with level of confident 95% followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test if any significant differences. The result showed that the treatment combination of azolla, phosphate rock and rice hull ash increase soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, available-P and exchangeable-K as well as rice yield ( (at harvest-dry grain weight and milled-dry grain weight.

  5. Bioavailability pf radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Ana Carolina; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of phosphate fertilizers industries. The USEPA classified PG as a - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). Its worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 150 million tons. Annually the three main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for 5.5x106 tons of phosphogypsum, which is stored in stacks. The level of radionuclides present in phosphogypsum is well-known and makes its disposal or reutilization an environmental concern. Part of this byproduct can be reused, for example, to improve fertility of agricultural soils. To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source term including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptakes have high importance. This paper intends to evaluate the bioavailability of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb to the environment by following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes a single EDTA-NH 4 0.05M extraction at pH 7.0 prior to the analyses. These results is compared with the total activity concentration of these radionuclides in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP). This procedure intends to represent on a more realistic way the leaching of radionuclides from PG and fertilizers to soil and agricultural products. (author)

  6. Bioavailability pf radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Ana Carolina; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares(IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of phosphate fertilizers industries. The USEPA classified PG as a - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). Its worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 150 million tons. Annually the three main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for 5.5x106 tons of phosphogypsum, which is stored in stacks. The level of radionuclides present in phosphogypsum is well-known and makes its disposal or reutilization an environmental concern. Part of this byproduct can be reused, for example, to improve fertility of agricultural soils. To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source term including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptakes have high importance. This paper intends to evaluate the bioavailability of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb to the environment by following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes a single EDTA-NH{sub 4} 0.05M extraction at pH 7.0 prior to the analyses. These results is compared with the total activity concentration of these radionuclides in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP). This procedure intends to represent on a more realistic way the leaching of radionuclides from PG and fertilizers to soil and agricultural products. (author)

  7. Some aspects of radiological impact in phosphate fertilizer industry. A case study of Itataia, Ceara State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Samir.

    1995-10-01

    The present study presents severalk aspects related to the phosphate industry from the origin of the raw materials to the final products. Emphasis is given in the approach of problems associated with the radiological impact and inherent risks when non monitorated products are used. Considerations are made on geological, geochemical and radiometrical characteristics of the main world deposits of phosphatic rocks. The critical patways of U-238 and Th-232 radionuclides are analysed from its origin to the final products. World-wide statistical data on several industrial phosphate branches are presented, and suggestions are made to draw attention to governmental organizations on the need for establishing specific technological development programs for the extraction of radionuclides from phosphate industrial products. The Itataia's project of industrial mining and milling, located in the state of Ceara, is focused here in great detail considering that is represents one of the biggest world concentrations of uranium associated with phosphatic rocks. Results from field studies performed in Itataia's mine are presented and analytical results from laboratory studies in samples from Itataia's (CE) and Barreiro's (MG) phosphatic rocks and Guaramicim's (PE) phospholite are also discussed. Finally, the study proposes a series of necessary actions to implement a national environmental monitoring plan i order to minimize the risks due to the radioactivity arising from phosphatic rocks and from derived fertilizers industry. (author). 37 refs., 31 figs., 37 tabs

  8. Determination of copper and mercury in phosphate fertilizers employing direct solid sampling analysis and high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Souza, Sidnei; François, Luciane Luiza; Borges, Aline Rocha; Vale, Maria Goreti Rodrigues; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    The present study proposes the determination of copper and mercury in phosphate fertilizers by direct solid sampling analysis (SS) employing high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). For Cu determination, two analytical lines were used: 327.3960 nm and 249.2146 nm. Hg determination was carried out on the line 253.6521 nm and 100 μg KMnO4 was used as chemical modifier. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for Cu determination was 1300 °C. Atomization temperatures for Cu and Hg were 2400 and 1100 °C, respectively. External calibration with aqueous standard solutions was adopted for both elements. The limits of quantification (LoQs) and characteristic mass (m0) obtained for Cu determination were 0.4 μg g- 1 and 1.12 ng, respectively, on line 249.2146 nm, and 64 μg g- 1 and 25 pg on 327.3960 nm. For mercury, LoQ and m0 were 4.8 ng g- 1 and 39 pg, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed methods was confirmed by the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) of Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer (SRM NIST 695). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was better than 8.2% for Hg and 7.7% for the Cu (n = 5), considered satisfactory for microanalysis in solid sample. Four fertilizer samples acquired in commercial establishments in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed. The optimized analytical methods were simple, fast, accurate, precise and free of spectral interferences for the determination of Cu and Hg in phosphate fertilizer samples by SS-HR-CS GF AAS, avoiding the dissolution of the sample, the use of harmful reagents and the generation of residues.

  9. Transitioning from phosphate mining to agriculture: Responses to urea and slow release fertilizers for Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrof, Katinka X; Steel, Emma; Misra, Sunil; McComb, Jen; O'Hara, Graham; Hardy, Giles E St J; Howieson, John

    2018-06-01

    Globally, land-use transition from mining to agriculture is becoming increasingly attractive and necessary for many reasons. However, low levels of necessary plant nutrients, and high levels of heavy metals, can hamper plant growth, affecting yield, and potentially, food safety. In post-phosphate mining substrates, for example, nitrogen (N) is a key limiting nutrient, and, although legumes are planted prior to cereals, N supplementation is still necessary. We undertook two field trials on Christmas Island, Australia, to determine whether Sorghum bicolor could be grown successfully in a post-phosphate mining substrate. The first trial investigated N (urea) demand (amount of N required for adequate crop growth) for S. bicolor, and whether N addition could reduce the naturally occurring cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the crop. The second trial examined whether slow release nitrogen fertilizers (SRF) could replace urea to increase biomass and reduce Cd concentrations. Our first trial demonstrated that S. bicolor has a high N demand, with the highest biomass being recorded in the 160kg/ha urea treatment. However, plants treated with 80, 120 and 160kg/ha were not significantly different from one another. After 7weeks of growth, leaf Cd concentrations were significantly lower for all urea treatments compared with the control plants. However, after 23weeks, seed Cd concentrations did not differ across treatments. Our second trial demonstrated that the application of SRF (Macracote® and Sulsync®) and 160kg/ha urea significantly increased biomass above the control plants. There was, however, no treatment response in terms of Cd or N concentrations in the seed at final harvest. Thus, we have shown that N is currently critical for S. bicolor, even following legume cropping, and that high biomass and a significant reduction in Cd can be attained with appropriate levels of urea. Our work has important implications for cereal growth and food safety in post-mining agriculture

  10. Effect of phosphate fertilization on the bioavailability of iron in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. R.; del Campillo, M. C.; Barrón, V.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Iron (Fe) chlorosis is the most important nutritional problem in sensitive plant species cultivated in calcareous soils, its main symptoms being interveinal yellowing in the younger leaves due to lack of chlorophyll and reduced growth. Fe chlorosis has been related to the content of poorly crystalline Fe oxides in soil. The effect of other nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), is, however, a matter of debate. In this work we examined whether fertilization with P alters the availability of Fe to sensitive plants growing in two different Fe chlorosis-inducing calcareous soils. Phosphate at rates of 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg P kg-1 soil was applied to pots where six-months-old olive trees cv. Arbequina were grown. The experiment lasted three years and took place in a shaded house. Chlorophyll concentration in the young leaves was estimated with the SPAD value (using a Minolta apparatus) three-four times per year. Furthermore, shoot length, dry weight of annual pruning and mineral element concentration were measured at the end of each year. In one of the soils, SPAD and leaf Fe concentration decreased with increasing P dose. However in the other soil, SPAD was not correlated with the rate of applied P. In both soils, potassium and zinc concentrations in plants fertilized with P were lower than those in the control plants. This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Projects: AGL 2005-06691-C02-01 and AGL 2008-05053-C02-02, and the European Regional Development Funds. ARSR acknowledges the finnancial support from the Spanish Ministry of Education as a fellow of the program "Training of University Teachers" (Formación del Profesorado Universitario, AP2008-04716)

  11. A model for phosphate glass topology considering the modifying ion sub-network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian; Mauro, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we establish a temperature dependent constraint model of alkali phosphate glasses considering the structural and topological role of the modifying ion sub-network constituted by alkali ions and their non-bonding oxygen coordination spheres. The model is consistent with availa......In the present paper we establish a temperature dependent constraint model of alkali phosphate glasses considering the structural and topological role of the modifying ion sub-network constituted by alkali ions and their non-bonding oxygen coordination spheres. The model is consistent...... with available structural data by NMR and molecular dynamics simulation and dynamic data such glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid fragility (m). Alkali phosphate glasses are exemplary systems for developing constraint model since the modifying cation network plays an important role besides the primary...... phosphate network. The proposed topological model predicts the changing trend of the Tg and m with increasing alkali oxide content for alkali phosphate glasses, including an anomalous minimum at around 20 mol% alkali oxide content. We find that the minimum in Tg and m is caused by increased connectivity...

  12. Phosphate recovery from wastewater using engineered superparamagnetic particles modified with layered double hydroxide ion exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkova-Tuhtan, Asya; Mandel, Karl; Paulus, Anja; Meyer, Carsten; Hutter, Frank; Gellermann, Carsten; Sextl, Gerhard; Franzreb, Matthias; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2013-10-01

    An innovative nanocomposite material is proposed for phosphate recovery from wastewater using magnetic assistance. Superparamagnetic microparticles modified with layered double hydroxide (LDH) ion exchangers of various compositions act as phosphate adsorbers. Magnetic separation and chemical regeneration of the particles allows their reuse, leading to the successful recovery of phosphate. Based upon the preliminary screening of different LDH ion exchanger modifications for phosphate selectivity and uptake capacity, MgFe-Zr LDH coated magnetic particles were chosen for further characterization and application. The adsorption kinetics of phosphate from municipal wastewater was studied in dependence with particle concentration, contact time and pH. Adsorption isotherms were then determined for the selected particle system. Recovery of phosphate and regeneration of the particles was examined via testing a variety of desorption solutions. Reusability of the particles was demonstrated for 15 adsorption/desorption cycles. Adsorption in the range of 75-97% was achieved in each cycle after 1 h contact time. Phosphate recovery and enrichment was possible through repetitive application of the desorption solution. Finally, a pilot scale experiment was carried out by treating 125 L of wastewater with the particles in five subsequent 25 L batches. Solid-liquid separation on this scale was carried out with a high-gradient magnetic filter (HGMF). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Research on preparation of phosphate-modified animal glue binder for foundry use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Shu; Liu, Wei-Hua; Li, Ying-Min

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, three phosphates were used as modifiers to modify animal glue binder. The structural characteristics and thermal properties of animal glue binder treated with phosphates were studied by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography and derivative thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the modified animal glue binder had better sand tensile strength and lower viscosity than untreated animal glue binder. The best modification process was as follows: the optimal amount of sodium carbonate was 4 wt% to animal glue; the optimal weight ratio of the modifiers was sodium pyrophosphate : sodium tripolyphosphate : sodium hexametaphosphate : animal glue = 3 : 3 : 4 : 100, and the optimal reaction should be performed at 80°C for a reaction time of 120 min. A final tensile strength of approximately 3.20 MPa was achieved and the viscosity value was approximately 880 mPa s.

  14. Concentration of radioactive elements (U, Th and K derived from phosphatic fertilizers in cultivated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Antonio Becegato

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma spectrometric measurements were obtained for the agricultural soils aiming at characterizing the spatial distribution of radionuclide concentrations (K, eU and eTh, as well for the samples of phosphatic fertilizers and agricultural gypsum. In the study areas, three types of soils occured: Eutrophic Red Nitosol (Alfisoil, Eutroferric Red Latosol of clayey texture (Oxisoil and Dystrophic Red Latosol of medium texture (Oxisoil. The results showed that the radionuclide concentrations in more clayey soils were higher than in more sandy soils, mainly as a function of a higher adsorption capacity of the former. For the area where human activity predominated, the average contents of K, eU and eTh were respectively 54.75; 10.22 and 7.27 Bq/Kg, significantly higher than those for the area where no fertilizers were used (34.15 Bq/Kg K; 1.69 Bq/Kg eU, and 5.36 Bq/Kg eTh. Variations in the radionuclide concentrations were also observed in various fertilizer formula used in soybean and wheat crops.Medições gamaespectrométricas foram obtidas em solos agrícolas objetivando caracterizar a distribuição espacial das concentrações de radionuclídeos (K, eU e eTh, bem como em amostras de fertilizantes fosfatados e gesso agrícola. Na área ocorrem três tipos de solos: Nitossolo Vermelho Eutrófico, Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico textura argilosa e Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico textura média. Constatou-se que as concentrações de radionuclídeos nos solos mais argilosos foram maiores do que nos solos mais arenosos, em função, principalmente, da maior adsorção pelos primeiros. Os teores médios em Bq/Kg de K, eU e eTh na área com atividade antrópica foram respectivamente de 54,75; 10,22 e 7,27, significativamente maiores do que em áreas virgens sem aplicação de fertilizantes (34,15 de K; 1,69 de eU e 5,36 de eTh. Foram também observadas variações nas concentrações de radionuclídeos em diferentes formulações de adubos utilizados nas

  15. Interaction of surfactant-modified zeolites and phosphate accumulating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrenovic, J.; Rozic, M.; Sekovanic, L.; Anic-Vucinic, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interaction of surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZ) and orthophosphate (P)-accumulating bacteria in the process of P removal from wastewater. The SMZ were prepared from the natural zeolite (NZ) of size fractions <0.122 mm and 0.25-0.5 mm. The hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) bromide was used to modify the NZ surface from partial monolayer to the bilayer coverage. The surface modification of NZ resulted in the change of zeta potential of particles from negative to positive and great enhancement of the P-adsorption capacity. Only in reactors containing <0.122 mm fraction of partial monolayer coverage of the SMZ, the P was efficiently removed from wastewater by combined adsorption onto the SMZ and bacterial uptake in the biomass. The SMZ with bilayer or patchy bilayer coverage showed the bactericidal effect. To enhance the P removal from wastewater in the aerated biological system, the SMZ can be used, but the special attention should be given to the configuration of sorbed HDTMA molecules and its potential desorption

  16. Soil Chemical Properties and Nutrient Uptake of Cocoa as Affected by Application of Different Organic Matters and Phosphate Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Effort repair of land quality better be done by simultan namely with application of organic matters and inorganic fertilization. The objective of this research is to study the effect of varied organic matters source and phosphate fertilizers on the chemicals soil characteristic and cocoa nutrient uptake. The experiment was laid experimentally in split-plot design and environmentally in randomized complete block design. The main plot was source of P consisted of, control, SP 36 and rock phosphate in dosage of 200 mg P2O5 per kg of air dry soil. Source of organic matter as sub-plot consisted of control (no organic matter, cow dung, cocoa pod husk compost and sugar cane filter cake, each in dosage of 2.5 and 5.0%. Result of this experiment showed application of cow dung, cocoa pod husk compost and sugar cane filter cake increased content of C, N, Ca exchangeable, Fe available, and pH in soil, and SP 36 increased availability of P in soil. Application of sugar cane filter cake increased N, K, Ca, Mg, and SO4 uptake but did not increase Cl uptake, application of cow dung in dosage 5% increased N, K, and Cl uptake and cocoa pod husk compost dosage 5% increased N and K uptake of cocoa. SP 36 increased Mg uptake of cocoa but rock phosphate did not increase it. They were not interaction between organic matters and phosphate fertilizers to nutrient uptake of cocoa. Nutrient soil content as affected by organic matters correlated with nutrient uptake of cocoa.Key words : soil chemical properties, nutrient uptake, cocoa, organic matter, phosphate fertlizers.

  17. Bioavailability of radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb present in the brazilian phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Ana Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Phosphogypsum, also called gypsum, by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, can be used as soil conditioner since it provides improvements in the soil-plant system. However, this by-product concentrates radionuclides of the U and Th series, present in the phosphate rock used as raw material, which can impact the environment. In order to study the bioavailability of radionuclides, samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate) were analyzed. The concentration of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. The samples were leached with a mild EDTA solution and the radionuclides present in the final solution were determined by total alpha and beta counting on a gas flow proportional counter. The percentage of extraction varied from 1.6% to 1.7% for 210 Pb, from 0.5% to 1.4% for 226 Ra and from 0.1% to 1.0% for the 228 Ra in phosphogypsum samples. The low percentage of extraction obtained for the radionuclides can be partly explained by the low solubility of phosphogypsum, which ranged from 7.7% to 16%. For the monoammonium phosphate samples the percentage of extraction were less than 26% for 226 Ra, less than 10% for '2 28 Ra and less than 10% for 210 Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 77% of monoammonium phosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. For the triple superphosphate samples, the percentage of extraction was 2.3% for 226 Ra, 1.2% for 228 Ra and 11.3% for 210 Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 66% of triple superphosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. (author)

  18. Millet seeds mixed with phosphate fertilizers Sementes de milheto misturadas com fertilizantes fosfatados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The small size of millet seeds is the main cause for lack of uniformity at sowing, especially because most farmers do not have appropriate seeders. Mixing seeds and phosphate fertilizers would improve seeding, resulting in a better crop stand. To study the effects of such mixture on the physiological quality of seeds, millet seeds were mixed with single superphosphate or triple superphosphate (1 kg of seeds: 2.5 kg of fertilizer, and stored in plastic bags for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours before sowing, under laboratory conditions. After storage, seeds were separated and their moisture and electrical conductivity were determined. Seeds were then submitted to germination test under laboratory conditions. Seeds mixed with fertilizer and non-mixed seeds, utilized as a control, were sown under greenhouse conditions and the percentage of emergence and seedling emergence speed were determined. Because of acidic residues, the single and triple superphosphates negatively affected the germination and vigor of millet seeds proportionally to the increase in time of contact with the fertilizer.O tamanho reduzido das sementes de milheto dificulta sua semeadura uniforme, principalmente para os produtores que não possuem semeadoras apropriadas. Assim, a mistura das sementes com os fertilizantes fosfatados vem sendo utilizada para facilitar a semeadura. Entretanto, o período de contato pode provocar prejuízos na germinação e no vigor. Avaliou-se a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de milheto submetidas a diferentes períodos de contato (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120h com os fertilizantes superfosfato simples (SFS e superfosfato triplo (SFT, em um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 8x2 (n=4. Os atributos químicos e físicos dos fertilizantes foram previamente determinados. Foi utilizada a proporção de 1 kg de sementes para 2,5 kg de fertilizante. Após manutenção da mistura em saco plástico no laborat

  19. Kinetics Modeling and Isotherms for Adsorption of Phosphate from Aqueous Solution by Modified Clinoptilolit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Phosphorous discharge into the surface water led to excessive growth of algae and eutrophication in lakes and rivers. Therefore the phosphorus removal is important due to negative effect on water resources. The aim of this study was to investigat the modification of clinoptilolite and application of modified clinoptilolite for phosphorous adsorption from aqueous solution and isotherms and kinetics modeling. Hexadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br, Hexadecyl trimethyl Ammonium Chloride (HDTMA-Cl, Sodium Decyl Sulphate (SDS and Cetrimide-C were used for modification of clinoptilolite. Experiments were conducted using jar apparatus and batch system. The effect of pH, adsorbent doses, contact time, phosphate initial concentration and particle size were studied surveyed on phosphate adsorption by modified clinoptilolite. The most common isotherms and the kinetics adsorption equations were used for determination of adsorption rate and dynamic reaction. The results showed that maximum phosphate adsorption was obtained in the pH of 7 and contact time 90min. Also it was found with the increasing of phosphate initial concentration, phosphate removal efficiency decreased significantly. Langmuir No 2 showed a good correlation compared to other isotherms (R2=0.997. Maximum adsorption capacity was obtained in 20g/L adsorbent dose (22.73mg/g. Also Interaparticle diffusion kinetics well fits with experimental data (R2=0.999 with constant rate of 3.84mg/g min0.5. The result showed that modified clinoptilolite can be used successfully as low cost and effective absorbent for phosphate removal.

  20. Phosphates (V) recovery from phosphorus mineral fertilizers industry wastewater by continuous struvite reaction crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutnik, Nina; Kozik, Anna; Mazienczuk, Agata; Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Wierzbowska, Boguslawa; Matynia, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    Continuous DT MSMPR (Draft Tube Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal) crystallizer was provided with typical wastewater from phosphorus mineral fertilizers industry (pH < 4, 0.445 mass % of PO4(3-), inorganic impurities presence), dissolved substrates (magnesium and ammonium chlorides) and solution alkalising the environment of struvite MgNH4PO4·6H2O reaction crystallization process. Research ran in constant temperature 298 K assuming stoichiometric proportions of substrates or 20% excess of magnesium ions. Influence of pH (8.5-10) and mean residence time (900-3600 s) on product size distribution, its chemical composition, crystals shape, size-homogeneity and process kinetics was identified. Crystals of mean size ca. 25-37 μm and homogeneity CV 70-83% were produced. The largest crystals, of acceptable homogeneity, were produced using 20% excess of magnesium ions, pH 9 and mean residence time 3600 s. Under these conditions nucleation rate did not exceed 9 × 10(7) 1/(s m(3)) according to SIG (Size Independent Growth) MSMPR kinetic model. Linear crystal growth rate was 4.27 × 10(-9) m/s. Excess of magnesium ions influenced struvite reaction crystallization process yield advantageously. Concentration of phosphate(V) ions decreased from 0.445 to 9.2 × 10(-4) mass %. This can be regarded as a very good process result. In product crystals, besides main component - struvite, all impurities from wastewater were detected analytically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of 32P labelled phosphate sources with different solubility and their efficient s as fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, Edgar Fernando; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Muraoka, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The study was carried out at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENA/USP), Brazil. With the objective to determine, by the isotopic tracer, the P recovery by rice (Oriza sativa) plants and eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis) seedlings from the P sources with different solubilities, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse, using Quartzpsamment soil samples, which is very poor in P content. Monocalcium, bicalcium, and tricalcium phosphate, Ca(H2 32 PO4).H2O, CaH 32 PO4.2H2O and Ca3(32 PO4)2, respectively were obtained in laboratory. Their solubilities and the X-ray difratometry and differential thermal analysis comproved that the laboratory procedures were adequate for obtaining the desired compounds. These products were applied in the soil as fertilizers. Plants were harvested 60 days after growth period, digested and analysed for total P and 32 P counting through Cerenkov effect. The P recovery from the sources varied from 14.1% [Ca(H2 32 PO4).H2O] to 17.0% [CaH 32 PO4.2H2O] for eucalypt, and from 15.0% [Ca3(32 PO4)2] to 22.2% [CaH 32 PO4.2H2O] for rice. The rice plants showed better ability to absorb P from the laboratory prepared sources, but the eucalypt presented higher P nutritional efficiency index. The difference method, used for determining the P recovery, underestimated the eucalypt and rice plant ability to absorb this nutrient compared to the isotopic method

  2. Phosphate fertilizers with varying water-solubilities applied to Amazonian soils: I. agronomic efficiency of P sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, E.C.; Muraoka, T.; Boaretto, A.E.; Scivittaro, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    The relative agronomic efficiency of four phosphate sources (triple superphosphate, ordinary Yoorin thermophosphate, coarse Yoorin thermophosphate and North Carolina phosphate rock) were evaluated, in a pot experiment carried out under greenhouse conditions, using five soils (medium texture Yellow Latosol, clayey Yellow Latosol, very clayey Yellow Latosol, clayey Red-Yellow Podzolic and very clayey Red-Yellow Podzolic) from Para State, Brazil. The soils received three rates of phosphorus (40, 80 and 120 mg P/kg of soil) plus the control (0P) treatment. A randomized block design with three replicates was used. Two consecutive crops (cowpea and rice) were used as test plants. The results showed that the best dry matter yield and P uptake for cowpea were obtained in soils fertilized with triple superphosphate. The agronomic efficiency index of ordinary Yoorin was superior to the coarse Yoorin and North Carolina phosphate rock for the cowpea grown as first crop. The indices were similar for all phosphate sources for the subsequent rice crop. The best residual effect was obtained with North Carolina phosphate rock and coarse Yoorin. The larger particle size of coarse thermophosphate resulted in a decreased P efficiency. (author)

  3. Hydrous iron oxide modified diatomite as an active filtration medium for phosphate capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lin, Yan; Wu, Deyi; Kong, Hainan

    2016-02-01

    A simple method to functionalize diatomite with hydrous iron oxide was attempted and its performance as a new active filtration material to remove and recover phosphate from water was investigated under varying solution conditions. The Langmuir phosphate adsorption capacity increased from 0.6 mgP/g for raw diatomite to 4.89, 14.71, 25.02 mgP/g for hydrous iron oxide modified diatomite (HIOMD), depending on the amount of iron loaded. Loading of hydrous iron oxide caused the increase in true and bulk density and a decline in filtration rate, but to a lesser extent. It was shown that the HIOMD product with suitable iron content could retain a good filtration performance with a greatly increased adsorption capacity for phosphate. The phosphate adsorption increased by decreasing pH and by increasing ionic strength at high pH levels. The adsorption process was interpreted by ligand exchange. Coexisting oxyanions of sulfate, nitrate, citrate, carbonate, silicate and humic acid showed different effects on phosphate fixation but it was presumed that their influence at their concentrations and pH levels commonly encountered in effluent or natural waters was limited, i.e., HIOMD had a reasonably good selectivity. Results in repeated adsorption, desorption and regeneration experiment showed that the adsorbed phosphate could be recovered and the material could be reused after regeneration. The column test showed that HIOMD could be potentially utilized as an adsorption filtration medium for phosphate removal and recovery from water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomimetic fabrication of calcium phosphate/chitosan nanohybrid composite in modified simulated body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nucleation and growth of bone-like hydroxyapatite (HAp mineral in modified simulated body fluids (m-SBF were induced on chitosan (CS substrates, which were prepared by spin coating of chitosan on Ti substrate. The m-SBF showed a two fold increase in the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions compared to SBF, and the post-NaOH treatment provided stabilization of the coatings. The calcium phosphate/chitosan composite prepared in m-SBF showed homogeneous distribution of approximately 350 nm-sized spherical clusters composed of octacalcium phosphate (OCP; Ca8H2(PO46·5H2O crystalline structure. Chitosan provided a control over the size of calcium phosphate prepared by immersion in m-SBF, and post-NaOH treatment supported the binding of calcium phosphate compound on the Ti surface. Post-NaOH treatment increased hydrophilicity and crystallinity of carbonate apatite, which increased its potential for biomedical application.

  5. Determination of Radium 226 in mexican phosphate fertilizers and gypsum by gamma spectrometry.; Determinacion de Radio 226 en fertilizantes fosfatados y en yeso mediante espectrometria gamma.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinez A, M C

    1996-12-31

    The {sup 226} Ra isotope was determined in 17, 20 and 46% m/m phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The samples of the fertilizers were dissolved in 10% v/v nitric acid solutions. The barium sulphate method was used for the precipitation of {sup 226} Ra. On the other hand, alkaline fusion method was used to separate the {sup 226} Ra from gypsum. The results indicated that {sup 226} Ra was present in the phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The {sup 226} Ra concentrations present in these materials were between 10 {sup -4} - 10 {sup -5} {mu}g g{sup -1}. (Author).

  6. Isotopic assessment of soil phosphorus fertility and evaluation of rock phosphates as phosphorus sources for plants in subtropical China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, L.M.; Zhou, Z.G.; Feng, G.L.; Lu, R.K.; Fardeau, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major factor limiting crop productivity in many tropical and subtropical soils. Due to the acidic nature of these soils, rock phosphate (RP)-based P fertilizers that are cheaper than manufactured water-soluble P fertilizers can be an attractive alternative under certain conditions. Assessment of the efficacy of these alternative P fertilizers and a rational management of local P resources for sustainable agricultural production require an understanding of the dynamics of P in the soil-plant system and the interactions of various P sources in soils and monitoring of soil available P levels. The present work was conducted to test the applicability of the 32 P isotopic kinetic method to assess the soil P fertility status and evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of local rock phosphates in subtropical China. A series of experiments was carried out in the laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions with the following specific objectives: (a) to evaluate the suitability of this isotopic kinetic method in evaluating soil P fertility in 32 soil samples collected across southern China, (b) to test and further develop chemical extraction methods for routine soil P testing, (c) to monitor the dissolution kinetics of local low to medium grade rock phosphate sources and their effect on soil properties and (d) to evaluate their agronomic effectiveness in greenhouse and field experiments. Since most of the studied soils had very low concentrations of soluble P and high P-fixing capacities, the isotopic kinetic method was found unsuitable for evaluating soil P fertility and to predict plant P uptake. In contrast, the proposed chemical extraction method (NaHCO 3 -NH 4 F) predicted very well plant P uptake, suggesting that this extraction method can be routinely used to evaluate soil bioavailable P in similar soils in subtropical China. From the incubation study, it was found that although the local low to medium grade RPs were inferior to the

  7. Piezoelectric sensor for sensitive determination of metal ions based on the phosphate-modified dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. H.; Shen, C. Y.; Lin, Y. M.; Du, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Heavy metal ions arising from human activities are retained strongly in water; therefore public water supplies must be monitored regularly to ensure the timely detection of potential problems. A phosphate-modified dendrimer film was investigated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for sensing metal ions in water at room temperature in this study. The chemical structures and sensing properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and QCM measurement, respectively. This phosphate-modified dendrimer sensor can directly detect metal ions in aqueous solutions. This novel sensor was evaluated for its capacity to sense various metal ions. The sensor exhibited a higher sensitivity level and shorter response time to copper(II) ions than other sensors. The linear detection range of the prepared QCM based on the phosphate-modified dendrimer was 0.0001 ∼ 1 μM Cu(II) ions (R2 = 0.98). The detection properties, including sensitivity, response time, selectivity, reusability, maximum adsorption capacity, and adsorption equilibrium constants, were also investigated.

  8. Multilayer Choline Phosphate Molecule Modified Surface with Enhanced Cell Adhesion but Resistance to Protein Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyu; Yang, Ming; Liu, Botao; Li, Zhiqiang; Tan, Hong; Li, Jianshu

    2017-08-22

    Choline phosphate (CP), which is a new zwitterionic molecule, and has the reverse order of phosphate choline (PC) and could bind to the cell membrane though the unique CP-PC interaction. Here we modified a glass surface with multilayer CP molecules using surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and the ring-opening method. Polymeric brushes of (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) were synthesized by SI-ATRP from the glass surface. Then the grafted PDMAEMA brushes were used to introduce CP groups to fabricate the multilayer CP molecule modified surface. The protein adsorption experiment and cell culture test were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the modified surfaces by using human umbilical veinendothelial cells (HUVECs). The protein adsorption results demonstrated that the multilayer CP molecule decorated surface could prevent the adsorption of fibrinogen and serum protein. The adhesion and proliferation of cells were improved significantly on the multilayer CP molecule modified surface. Therefore, the biocompatibility of the material surface could be improved by the modified multilayer CP molecule, which exhibits great potential for biomedical applications, e.g., scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  9. Adsorption of some heavy metals on sulphate and phosphate modified kaolinite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Unuabonah, I.E.; Olu-Owolabi, B.I.

    2003-12-01

    Kaolinite clay, in bright white lumps collected from from Ubulu-Ukwu, Delta State, Nigeria, was modified with 200μ.ml -1 of phosphate and sulphate anion and thereafter used to adsorb some heavy metals viz. lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) from aqueous solution of the metals. The metal ions showed the greatest affinity for the P-modified (P-mod) sorbents. The order of adsorption of P-mod follows the order: P-mod Pb > P-mod Cu > P-mod Zn > P-mod Cd . Desorption studies showed that the P-modified sorbents exhibited a very strong ability to specifically adsorb lead, copper and zinc and are therefore poorly desorbed. All the metals were easily desorbed from the unmodified sorbent. The potential of the modified sorbents are enumerated. (author)

  10. Determination of radioactive levels in phosphate-containing fertilizers, copper and gold ores by direct gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Constantin, F.; Dusoiu, M.; Pascovici, G.; Macovei, M.

    1993-01-01

    Two particular aspects of the role played by the natural radiation background in Romanian industry: phosphates-containing fertilizer processing, and copper and gold mining, are presented. U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226 values (Bq/Kg) for various imported phosphorites, superphosphates, concentrated Cu and Au Romanian ores, are reported. A simple and efficient radioactivity determination procedure based on a large volume NaI (Tl) detector coupled to a Romanian-designed portable multichannel analyzer is described. Potential radiological impacts on specialized workers are discussed. (Author)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of the aluminium phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum by hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczka Kinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of the aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum were conducted. The influence of process parameters (reactive pressure and molar ratios in the reaction mixture were studied. The contents of the individual components in the products were in the range of: 10.97–17.31 wt% Al, 2.65–13.32 wt% Ca, 0.70–3.11 wt% Mo, 4.36–8.38 wt% NH3, and 35.12–50.54 wt% P2O5. The materials obtained in the experiments were characterized by various physicochemical parameters. The absorption oil number was in the range from 67 to 89 of oil/100 g of product, the surface area was within the range of 4–76 m2/g, whereas the average particle size of products reached 282–370 nm. The Tafel tests revealed comparable anticorrosive properties of aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium, molybdenum in comparison with commercial phosphate.

  12. Simultaneous phosphate and CODcr removals for landfill leachate using modified honeycomb cinders as an adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Xiu; Li Xiaoming; Wang Dongbo; Shen Tingting; Liu Xian; Yang Qi; Zeng Guangming; Liao Dexiang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, honeycomb cinders were employed to remove phosphate and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD cr ) simultaneously for landfill leachate treatment. Operating conditions of honeycomb cinders pretreatment, pH, temperature, honeycomb cinders dosage, reaction time, and settling time, were evaluated and optimized. The results revealed that the removal efficiencies of both phosphate and COD cr could be increased up to 99.9% and 66.7% under the optimal conditions, respectively. Moreover, the structures of raw/modified honeycomb cinders and resulting precipitates were detected by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometers (EDS) analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results suggested that the adsorption method using honeycomb cinders might be an effective strategy as a pretreatment technology for landfill leachate treatment.

  13. Uranium recovery in a pilot plant as by product of the phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, C.C.; Santos, F.S.M. dos; Paula, H.C.B.; Santana, A.O. de

    1984-01-01

    A process was developed and a piloto plant was installed to recovery uranium from chloridric leach liquor of phosphate rocks. The extractor system is a mixture of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in a kerosene diluent. The phosphate rocks are leached for dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO 4 ) production, by the reactions: Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 4 HCl → Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 + CaCl 2 and Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 → CaHPO 4 + 2 H 2 O. The uranium recovery process comprises the following steps:extraction, scrubbing, reextraction, iron removal and uranium precipitation. The uranium is precipited as ADU with 80% of U 3 O 8 .(Author) [pt

  14. Leaching of Uranium from pit-water application to soil columns. Effect of vegetation, phosphate fertilizer and amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, Juan P.

    2006-01-01

    Pit-water accumulated in the San Rafael uranium (U) Mining and Processing Facility (CMFSR) poses a risk of contaminant dispersion and hinders mining labours in the flooded pits. Soil application of the pit-water may be a way of eliminating it through evapotranspiration, but it requires minimization of U migration to the subsurface water courses in order to be considered an adequate disposal practice. The pH > 7 and carbonate content of the soil may induce the formation of uranyl-carbonate complexes, which have high mobility in soils. Furthermore, its physical and chemical characteristics suggest low metal retention capabilities. A 30 cm long soil column experiment was carried out irrigating pit-water on CMFSR soil with the aim of knowing its U retention capacity, as well as the effect of a phosphate fertilizer, an organic amendment and of vegetation cover on such retention. It was concluded that soil alone was able to retain 60 % of the applied U mass in its first 3 centimeters, leaching 0,6 %. Plant presence enhanced U mobility. However, reduced leachate volume caused by higher evapotranspiration rates balanced this mobility, producing a decrease in the mass of leached U. Phosphate fertilizer incorporated to the soil increased U retention in tits upper centimeters. It also increased vegetation growth, and, accordingly, evapotranspiration in the columns. On the contrary, the use of ground plant material as soil amendment increased U migration. (author) [es

  15. Effectiveness of North Carolina phosphate rock and fertilizer tablets in reclaiming disturbed land in Copper Basin, Tennessee, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, F.J.; Soileau, J.M.; Maddox, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Open smelting of copper ore about 100 years ago resulted in approximately 9,300 ha of disturbed land with severely eroded acidic soils at Copper Basin, Tennessee, USA. A field study was initiated in 1992 to compare revegetation from surface application of North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) at 20, 59, and 295 kg P ha -1 , and determine benefits of fertilizer tablets. Measurements included survival and growth of transplanted pine seedlings, ground cover from an aerially seeded grass/legume mixture, and soil acidity. Tree survival was greater than 87% with no difference among treatments. When fertilizer tablets were not used, tree height and diameter increased with increasing soil P rates with growth maximized at 59 kg P ha -1 . After 96 and 240 d, there was no difference between PR and TSP with respect to growth of loblolly pine. After 960 days, PR caused greater tree growth compared to TSP. Weeping love grass provided the most ground cover, and its growth was stimulated with fertilizer tablets and P application. Fescue, lespedeza, and black locust trees responded more to PR than to TSP. Soil pH increased, and 0.01-M SrCl 2 extractable Al decreased, with increasing rate of PR. The molar ratios of Ca:Al in 0.01-M SrCl 2 soil extracts were also greater with PR compared to TSP. Decreased soil acidity, increased growth of loblolly pines, and increased diversity of ground cover vegetation from PR application makes PR a suitable material for reclaiming extremely acidic soils. Fertilizer tablets had an effect of improving loblolly pine growth when no P was surface applied. However, with surface P application of 59 kg ha -1 as PR, fertilizer tablets did not add any additional benefit to loblolly pine growth. Some improvement in tree growth was observed using fertilizer tablets with P applied as TSP at 59 kg ha -1 . Fertilizer tablets did greatly improve ground coverage of weeping love grass. Use of fertilizer tablets in reclamation efforts in

  16. Phosphate fertilizers with varying water-solubility applied to Amazonian soils: II. Soil P extraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Brasil, E.C.; Scivittaro, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (SP, Brazil), to evaluate the phosphorus availability of different phosphate sources in five Amazonian soils. The soils utilized were: medium texture Yellow Latosol, clayey Yellow Latosol, very clayey Yellow Latosol, clayey Red-Yellow Podzolic and very clayey Red-Yellow Podzolic. Four phosphate sources were applied: triple superphosphate, ordinary Yoorin thermophosphate, coarse Yoorin termo-phosphate and North Carolina phosphate rock at P rates of 0, 40, 80 and 120 mg kg -1 soil. The dry matter yield and the amount of P taken up by cowpea and rice were correlated with the extractable P by anionic exchangeable resin, Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3 and Bray-I. The results showed that the extractable P by Mehlich-1 was higher in the soils amended with North Carolina rock phosphate. Irrespective of the phosphorus sources used, the Mehlich-3 extractant showed close correlation with plant response. The Mehlich-3 and Bray-I extractants were more sensitive to soil variations. The Mehlich-3 extractant was more suitable in predicting the P availability to plants in the different soils and phosphorus sources studied. (author)

  17. Comparison of greenhouse and 32P isotopic laboratory methods for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified rock phosphates in some acid soils of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu-Bennoah, E.; Zapata, F.; Fardeau, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency is one of the major constraints for normal plant growth and crop yields in the acid soils of Ghana and therefore addition of P inputs is required for sustainable crop production. This is often difficult, if not impossible for small-scale farmers due to the high cost of mineral P fertilizers and limited access to fertilizer supplies. Direct application of finely ground phosphate rocks (PRs) and their modified forms have been recommended as alternatives for P fertilization. The direct application of the natural and modified PRs to these acid soils implies the need to predict their agronomic effectiveness of the PRs in the simplest and most cost-effective manner. In this study the classical greenhouse pot experiment was compared to the 32 P isotopic kinetics laboratory method for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified Togo PR in six highly weathered Oxisols from southwest Ghana. In the 32 P isotopic kinetics laboratory experiment the six soil samples were each fertilised at the rate of 50 mg P kg -1 soil in the form of triple superphosphate (TSP), Togo PAPR-50%, and Togo PR, respectively. Controls without P amendment were also included. Isotopic exchange kinetics experiments were carried out on two sets of samples, immediately after P fertilizer additions (without incubation) and after 6 weeks of incubation under wet conditions and at a room temperature of 25 deg C. In the greenhouse pot experiment, P fertilizers in the form of Togo PR, Togo PAPR, Mali PR and TSP were each applied to the six soils at rates equivalent to 0, 30, 60, and 120 kg P ha -1 , respectively. The P fertilizers were mixed with the soils and maize (Zea mays L.) variety Obatanpa was grown for 42 days before harvest. The isotopic kinetics data of the control samples indicated that 5 of the studied soils had very low P fertility status as reflected by their low P concentrations in solution (C P -1 ) and low exchangeable P (E 1 min -1 ). The capacity

  18. Novel routes in flame retardancy of bisphenol A polycarbonate/impact modifier/aryl phosphate blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawrzyn, Eliza

    2013-07-01

    The massive use of electronic engineering products accompanied by high demands on fire safety has led to increasing interest in environmentally friendly flame retardancy of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) based materials. In this work, novel routes for enhancing the flame retardancy of PC/Impact Modifier/Aryl phosphate were studied with respect to pyrolysis (TG, TG-FTIR, ATR-FTIR, NMR), flammability (LOI and UL 94) and fire behavior (cone calorimeter at different irradiations). To improve charring of PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+Aryl phosphate, the exchange of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) with novel aryl phosphates was proposed. Two novel flame retardants were synthesized: 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexylbisphenol-bis(diphenyl phosphate) (TMC-BDP) and bisphenol A-bis(diethylphosphate) (BEP). TMC-BDP was more stable than BDP, thus gave a potential to increase the chemical reactions between the components of the PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+Aryl phosphate, whereas more reactive BEP was expected to increase the cross linking activity with the polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the corresponding blends did not enhance the flame retardancy compared to PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+BDP. BEP in PC/ABS{sub PTFE} preferred to cross-link with itself instead of with PC, thus it showed poor fire protection performance. TMC-BDP gave as good results as BDP in PC/ABS PTFE material. The results delivered evidence that BDP possesses a high degree of optimization in PC/ABS{sub PTFE} system. To provide a novel impact modifier improving not only mechanical properties but also the fire retardancy of PC/BDP material, the replacement of highly flammable acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) with silicon acrylate rubber (SiR) with high content of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was studied. In PC/SiR{sub PTFE}/BDP the replacement of ABS is beneficial, but PDMS worsened the BDP gas phase and condensed phase action. PDMS reacted also with PC during combustion. PDMS-PC and PDMS-BDP interactions led to silicon dioxide. In fact, the

  19. Massilia phosphatilytica sp. nov., a phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from a long-term fertilized soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Bang Xiao; Bi, Qing Fang; Hao, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, 12-OD1T, with rock phosphate solubilizing ability was isolated from agricultural soil in Hailun, Heilongjiang, PR China. The isolate was affiliated to the genus Massilia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence alignments, having the highest similari......A Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, 12-OD1T, with rock phosphate solubilizing ability was isolated from agricultural soil in Hailun, Heilongjiang, PR China. The isolate was affiliated to the genus Massilia, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence alignments, having the highest...

  20. Phosphate Adsorption using Modified Iron Oxide-based Sorbents in Lake Water: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Column Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption behavior of Bayoxide ® E33 (E33) and three E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese (E33/Mn) and silver (E33/AgI and E33/AgII) nanoparticles. Adso...

  1. Dissolution of uranium dioxide in supercritical carbon dioxide modified with tri-n-butyl phosphate-hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Direct dissolution of uranium dioxide in supercritical carbon dioxide modified with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) has been attempted. The effects of TBP concentration and pressure on the extraction of uranium have been studied. Addition of hydrogen peroxide in the modifier enhances the dissolution/extraction of uranium. (author)

  2. Application of molybdenum and phosphate modified kaolin in electrochemical treatment of paper mill wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Wang Bo; Wang Ying

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill wastewater is characterized by very high chemical oxygen demand (COD) values that inhibit the activity of microorganisms during biological oxidations. The electrochemical degradation of pulp and paper mill wastewater catalyzed by molybdenum and phosphate (Mo-P) modified kaolin with graphite as anode and cathode was investigated. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS and SEM spectra and the effects of pH, metal ion and introduction of NaCl on the efficiency of the electrochemical degradation process were also studied. It was found out that the modified kaolin loaded with Fe 3+ had higher electrochemical catalytic activity in the electrochemical degradation of paper mill wastewater at pH 4. A 96% COD removal efficiency was obtained in 40 min of electrochemical treatment of the wastewater at current density 30 mA cm -2 . A possible mechanism for degradation of the mill wastewater constituents was also proposed

  3. Evaluation of the nutritive value of phosphate fertilizer using an isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guity, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    A new formulation of the Fried method is proposed in which the availability of the fertilizer phosphorus is directly compared with that of the Larsen phosphorus. A value G is defined representing the equivalent of the amount of P applied with the same availability as that of the Larsen phosphorus in the soil. During a pot experiment, the G values were determined for eight different Iranian soils. The fertilizer used was superphosphate, applied in the ratio of 11.52 mg P per kg of soil; rye-grass was chosen as test plant. The results obtained show that the G values vary between 11.94 and 45.16 mg P/kg. These values are 1.04-3.92 times greater than the quantity applied. The availability of the fertilizer employed is thus 1.04-3.92 times greater than that of the Larsen phosphorus. It can be seen from the L and G values that, in at least four or five soils, the amount applied is not enough to produce a significant increase in the size of the pool of phosphorus available to the plants, whereas in the less fertile soils the G values are equivalent to 61-82% of the quantity of Larsen phosphorus. A statistical calculation shows that there are significant correlations between the G value of a soil and the quantity of phosphorus in the plants which is derived from this soil, between the G value and the quantity of phosphorus in plants derived from the fertilizer applied, and finally between the L+G value of the soil and the total quantity of phosphorus in the plants. It follows from this that the G value can be regarded as a convenient criterion for determining fertilization procedures

  4. Effect of Interactions on the Nutrient Status of a Tropical Soil Treated with Green Manures and Inorganic Phosphate Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. Bah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg−1 soil in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (~1000 mg kg soil−1 and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  5. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of river sediments collected around phosphate fertilizer industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, M.C.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Mundi, M.; Respaldiza, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis has been carried out on sediments collected in an estuarine system formed by two major rivers in southern Spain. The results show clearly that important amounts of natural radioactivity are accumulating on the bed of both rivers. This radioactivity appears to originate from effluent from several phoshate fertilizer factories adjacent to the estuary. (author)

  6. Comparison of Zirconium Phosphonate-Modified Surfaces for Immobilizing Phosphopeptides and Phosphate-Tagged Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forato, Florian; Liu, Hao; Benoit, Roland; Fayon, Franck; Charlier, Cathy; Fateh, Amina; Defontaine, Alain; Tellier, Charles; Talham, Daniel R; Queffélec, Clémence; Bujoli, Bruno

    2016-06-07

    Different routes for preparing zirconium phosphonate-modified surfaces for immobilizing biomolecular probes are compared. Two chemical-modification approaches were explored to form self-assembled monolayers on commercially available primary amine-functionalized slides, and the resulting surfaces were compared to well-characterized zirconium phosphonate monolayer-modified supports prepared using Langmuir-Blodgett methods. When using POCl3 as the amine phosphorylating agent followed by treatment with zirconyl chloride, the result was not a zirconium-phosphonate monolayer, as commonly assumed in the literature, but rather the process gives adsorbed zirconium oxide/hydroxide species and to a lower extent adsorbed zirconium phosphate and/or phosphonate. Reactions giving rise to these products were modeled in homogeneous-phase studies. Nevertheless, each of the three modified surfaces effectively immobilized phosphopeptides and phosphopeptide tags fused to an affinity protein. Unexpectedly, the zirconium oxide/hydroxide modified surface, formed by treating the amine-coated slides with POCl3/Zr(4+), afforded better immobilization of the peptides and proteins and efficient capture of their targets.

  7. Distribution of Some Elements in Biosubstrates of Workers Occupied in the Production of Mineral Nitrogenous Phosphate Fertilizers

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Lyapunov, S M; Okina, O I; Pavlov, S S; Geological Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia

    2005-01-01

    The data on the content of some trace elements typical for the production of nitrogenous phosphate fertilizers (F, Sr, rare-earth elements), as well as heavy and toxic metals in industrial products, occupational air, drinking water and biosubstrates (urine, hair) of the factory workers are presented. The correlations between the content of fluorine in urine and hair of workers and between the content of fluorine, length of service and age, have been shown. The correlation dependence between the content of F in biosubstrates and a number of trace elements typical for the given type of production has been evaluated. The comparison of the morbidity and character of diseases of the factory workers and of the local residents unoccupied in the production has been made.

  8. Distribution of some trace elements in biosubstrates of workers occupied in the production of mineral nitrogenous phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, A.V.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Okina, O.I.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The data on the content of some trace elements typical for the production of nitrogeneous phosphate fertilizers (F, Sr, rare-earth elements), as well as heavy and toxic metals in industrial products, occupational air, drinking water and bio substrates (urine, hair) of the factory workers are presented. The correlations between the content of fluorine in urine and hair of workers and between the content of fluorine, length of service and age, have been shown. The correlation dependence between the content of F in bio substrates and a number of trace elements typical for the given type of production has been evaluated. The comparison of the morbidity and character of diseases of the factory workers and of the local residents unoccupied in the production has been made

  9. Elemental and radionuclides distribution in the production and use of phosphate fertilizers in Brazil; Distribuicao elementar e de radionuclideos na producao e uso de fertilizantes fosfatados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saueia, Catia Heloisa Rosignoli

    2006-07-01

    Fertilizer is considered an essential component for agriculture, because its use increases the natural soil nutrients, which are lost slow waste or erosion. The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid and dihydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-product. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphate rock used as raw material presents in its composition, radionuclides of the U and Th natural series in. During the chemical attack of the phosphate rock, this equilibrium is disrupted and the radionuclides and the elements migrate to intermediate, final products and byproducts, according to their solubility and chemical properties. While the fertilizers are commercialized, the phosphogypsum is disposed in stack piles and can cause an impact in the environment. In order to evaluate the radionuclides and the elements distribution in the industrial process of phosphate fertilizer production, samples of concentrated rock, fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP) and phosphogypsum from three national industries (A, B and C), were analyzed. The characterization of the elements Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Na, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr, and the rare earths La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu, were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained showed that, in general, the rare earth elements are distributed uniformly in the fertilizers and phosphogypsum, except for Lu. The elemental concentration present in the fertilizers SSP and TSP are of the same order of magnitude of the source rock. The same behavior was observed in the fertilizers MAP and DAP, except for the elements Co, Sc and U. The radionuclides of the U series ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb) and of the Th series

  10. Measurement of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radioactivity contents in by-product phosphogypsum from phosphate fertilizer industry using gamma ray spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, H.; Parmaksiz, A.; Vural, M.; Cakir, I.T.; Demircioglu, B.; Yucel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Phosphatic fertilizers are produced from the industrial processing of rock phosphate ores which are known to contain naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U and its daughter products. A high volume by-product known as phosphogypsum (PG) from the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizer causes serious storage and environmental problems in phosphoric acid industries. During the phosphoric acid production process, 226 Ra (t 1/2 =1600 y) ends up in PG which has chemical analogous to calcium element. Since the stockpiles of PG near the phosphatic fertilizer plants are huge amounts, the radioactivity contained in PG has measured in view of environmental radioactivity problem. In this work, the natural radioactivity in eighty PG samples taken from a stock near Samsun phosphoric fertilizer plant was measured by a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. The mean activity of 226 Ra in PG samples has been found to be 546 Bq.kg -1 . However, the activities of 232 Th and 40 K measured in PG samples are negligibly small. In the presented paper, the gamma spectrometric method employed for this work is discussed and the radiological risk impact of radon gas emanation from 226 Ra mainly contained in PG, has been assessed

  11. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. I. Influence of phosphatic fertilizers and repeated harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asit; Purakayastha, T J; Patra, A K; Sanyal, S K

    2012-12-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of diammonium phosphate (DAP), single superphosphate (SSP) and two growing cycles on arsenic removal by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) from an arsenic contaminated Typic Haplustept of the Indian state of West Bengal. After harvest of Pteris vittata the total, Olsen's extractable and other five soil arsenic fractions were determined. The total biomass yield of P. vittata ranged from 10.7 to 16.2 g pot(-1) in first growing cycle and from 7.53 to 11.57 g pot(-1) in second growing cycle. The frond arsenic concentrations ranged from 990 to 1374 mg kg(-1) in first growing cycle and from 875 to 1371 mg kg(-1) in second growing cycle. DAP was most efficient in enhancing biomass yield, frond and root arsenic concentrations and total arsenic removal from soil. After first growing cycle, P. vittata reduced soil arsenic by 10 to 20%, while after two growing cycles Pteris reduced it by 18 to 34%. Among the different arsenic fractions, Fe-bound arsenic dominated over other fractions. Two successive harvests with DAP as the phosphate fertilizer emerged as the promising management strategy for amelioration of arsenic contaminated soil of West Bengal through phyotoextraction by P. vittata.

  12. Investigation the Effects of Different Doses Organic Fertilizers and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterias on Yield and Nutrient Contents in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit SÖNMEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (N2; Bacillus megaterium M-3, TV-6I; Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, TV-34A; Hafnia Alve, TV-69E; Acetobacter pasteurianus and TV-83F; Bacillus cereus and organic fertilizer (0, 10 and 20 ton / ha on the seed yield and nutrient content of chickpea under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study were determined by the separate investigation conducted in chamber room by using ten phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic fertilizer (control, %5,%10. The tiral were laid out with a factorial design in randomized complete block with three replications. In this study, plant height, primary branches, secondary branches and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, grain yield and biological yield and nutrient content of stem and seed were determined. According to the results of the study bacteria applications increased significantly biological and seed yield. Bacteria applications without organic fertilizer increased nutrient contents of seed and steed except cupper content. In case of inoculation with organic fertilizer provided more increases in biological and seed yields. The highest seed yield were obtained from application of 20 ton/ha + N2 (Bacillus megaterium M-3 with 1020 kg/ha and 1793 kg/ha in 2010 and 2011 years, respectively. Bacteria without organic fertilizer application were more active in terms of phosphorus uptake in both years. 

  13. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Lal, Madan; D'Souza, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  14. Development of Analytical methods for the evaluation of the impact of phosphate fertilizer industry on marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, M.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate industries are considered an important potential source of natural radionuclides and heavy metals contamination in the environment. The objective of this work was to assess the marine environmental metallic and radiological pollution and the toxicological impact caused by a large production plant of phosphate fertilizer located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, 40 km north of the capital of Lebanon: Beirut. Since 1957 this industry has been producing a large set of phosphate based fertilizers. Phosphogypsum, by-product resulting in the industrial procedure, is released directly in the marine environment. Natural radionuclides (238U, 235U, 226Ra, 232Th, 210Po, 210Pb, and 40K) and anthropogenic 137Cs were measured by alpha and gamma spectrometry in seawater, sediment, coastal sediment and biota. An alpha spectrometer with a passive ion implanted silicon detector was used for the determination of 238U, 234Uin sea water and 210Poin biota samples. 238U, 235U, 232Th, 226Ra,210Pb,137Cs and 40Kin biota and sediments were analyzed by a gamma spectrometer from Canberra, equipped with an extended range low-level coaxial high purity germanium detector with beryllium window.In addition, the radiation exposure of the population surrounding the industrial plant and the internal exposure and potential risks to human due to 210Poand 210Pbassociated with the consumption of fish have been estimated. The internal exposure due to the consumption of fish is important from the radioecology and radioprotection perspectives, and the data for most species studied, are reported for the first time in Lebanon. A multi-elemental method for simultaneous determination of trace elements in seaweeds based on the use of the new approach of collision reaction interface for the ICP-MS determination was optimized. The performance characteristics including linearity, limits of detection and quantification, repeatability, accuracy and truenesswere evaluated. Investigations on the

  15. Surface Modified Characteristics of the Tetracalcium Phosphate as Light-Cured Composite Resin Fillers

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    Wen-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to characterize the properties of light-cured composite resins that are reinforced with whisker surface-modified particles of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP and to investigate the influence of thermal cycling on the reinforced composites properties. The characteristics of ultimate diametral tensile strength (DTS, moduli, pH values, and fracture surfaces of the samples with different amounts of surface-modified TTCP (30%–60% were determined before and after thermal cycling between 5°C and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. The trends of all groups were ductile prior to thermal cycling and the moduli of all groups increased after thermal cycling. The ductile property of the control group without filler was not significantly affected. Larger amounts of fillers caused the particles to aggregate, subsequently decreasing the resin’s ability to disperse external forces and leading to brittleness after thermal cycling. Therefore, the trend of composite resins with larger amounts of filler would become more brittle and exhibited higher moduli after thermal cycling. This developed composite resin with surface modified-TTCP fillers has the potential to be successful dental restorative materials.

  16. Hyaluronic acid-modified zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for potential lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ranwei; Liu, Tiecheng; Wang, Ke

    2017-02-01

    Novel tumor-targeting zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles modified with hyaluronic acid (HA) were developed (HA-ZP), with the aim of combining the drug-loading property of ZP and the tumor-targeting ability of HA to construct a tumor-targeting paclitaxel (PTX) delivery system for potential lung cancer therapy. The experimental results indicated that PTX loading into the HA-ZP nanoparticles was as high as 20.36%±4.37%, which is favorable for cancer therapy. PTX-loaded HA-ZP nanoparticles increased the accumulation of PTX in A549 lung cancer cells via HA-mediated endocytosis and exhibited superior anticancer activity in vitro. In vivo anticancer efficacy assay revealed that HA-ZP nanoparticles possessed preferable anticancer abilities, which exhibited minimized toxic side effects of PTX and strong tumor-suppression potential in clinical application.

  17. The control of radioactivity in the working environment in the factories for production of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, B.N.; Gnjatovic, S.S.; Vujovic, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of three chemical fertilizer plants to investigate the extent of radioactive contamination due to uranium. The following general conclusions were made: 1) Workers should be classified as professionally exposed to ionizing radiation. 2) Protective masks should be obligatory for personnel working in raw materials warehouses. 3) Waste materials should be classified as radioactive wastes, and special attention should be paid to the problem of waste water. 4) Personal dosimeters should be introduced for workers at particular posts. (U.K.)

  18. Phosphate fertilizer is a main source of arsenic in areas affected with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Fonseka, Saranga; Fernando, Ashvin; Jayalath, Kumudika; Amarasinghe, Mala; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; Paranagama, Priyani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has escalated into an epidemic in North Central Province (NCP) and adjacent farming areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Studies have shown that this special type of CKD is a toxic nephropathy and arsenic may play a causative role along with a number of other heavy metals. We investigated the hypothesis that chemical fertilizers and pesticide could be a source of arsenic. 226 samples of Fertilizers and 273 samples of pesticides were collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic and other heavy metals in two university laboratories. Almost all the agrochemicals available to the farmers in the study area are contaminated with arsenic. The highest amount was in triple super phosphate (TSP) with a mean value of 31 mg/kg. Also TSP is a rich source of other nephrotoxic metals including Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and V. Annually more than 0.1 million tons of TSP is imported to Sri Lanka containing approximately 2100 kg of arsenic. The next highest concentration was seen in the rock phosphate obtained from an open pit mine in NCP (8.56 mg/kg). Organic fertilizer contained very low amounts of arsenic. Arsenic contamination in pesticides varied from 0.18 mg/kg to 2.53 mg/kg although arsenic containing pesticides are banned in Sri Lanka. Glyphosate the most widely used pesticide in Sri Lanka contains average of 1.9 mg/kg arsenic. Findings suggest that agrochemicals especially phosphate fertilizers are a major source of inorganic arsenic in CKDu endemic areas. Organic fertilizer available in Sri Lanka is comparatively very low in arsenic and hence the farmers in CKDu endemic areas in Sri Lanka should be encouraged to minimize the use of imported chemical fertilizer and use organic fertilizers instead.

  19. Fertilizer source effects on phosphate and nitrate leaching through simulated golf greens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In general, more P than N leached from both field and greenhouse lysimeters. - Phosphorus and nitrogen leached from high-porosity golf greens can adversely affect surface water and groundwater quality. Greenhouse and field lysimeter experiments were carried out to determine the effects of eight fertilizer sources on P and N leaching from simulated golf greens. Phosphorus appeared in the leachate later than nitrate-N, and the highest concentrations were for the soluble 20-20-20 and the 16-25-12 starter fertilizers. The other six sources resulted in lower P concentrations. The soluble 20-20-20 and the 16-25-12 sources each resulted in 43% of the added P eluting in the leachate, whereas the others varied from 15 to 25%. For nitrate-N the lowest cumulative mass was for the controlled-release 13-13-13 and sulfur-coated urea. A higher percentage of applied P than applied N leached from both field and greenhouse lysimeters. However, the amounts of P leached for the field lysimeters were lower than for the greenhouse columns

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Bio Fertilizers Containing non Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixing and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria on Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohtadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat crop plays an important role in food security in a country such as Iran. Therefore, serious attention has been paid to ecological farming systems and sustainable management of wheat. For this purpose extensive efforts is done to find proper strategies to improve the quality of soil, agricultural products and started removal pollutants. One of the factors to achieve sustainable agriculture is to use natural agents such as biofertilizers. Several mechanisms are proposed to explain how effective plant growth promoting rhizobacteria is for growth and development of plants. These mechanisms include two groups, direct and indirect in general. Indirect mechanism is to increase absorption and availability of the nutrient elements soluble, producing plant growth regulators, siderophore production of iron chelator, and the phosphate soluble. Through indirect mechanisms such as antagonistic relation, PGPRs moderate the harmful effects of of plant pathogens and thereby lead to increase plant growth. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of biofertilizers containing non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on quantitative and qualitative traits of wheat. Materials and Methods This Experiment was conducted in the research farm of Baykola agricultural research stations affiliated by agriculture and natural resources research center of Mazandaran during 2011-12 cropping season. In order to determine physical and chemical properties of the soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm,. Experimental design was split plots arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. In this experiment chemical fertilizer was assumed as the main plot in 3 levels include: 1- noconsumption (C0, 2- equivalent to 50% of the fertilizer recommendations (C1, 3- equivalent to 100% of the fertilizer recommendations(C2 and two types of biological fertilizers was applied in the sub plot in

  1. Lanthanum-modified bentonite: potential for efficient removal of phosphates from fishpond effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbaum, Eyal; Raizner, Yasmin; Cohen, Oded; Rubinstein, Guy; Bar Shalom, Oded

    2017-06-01

    Adsorption has been suggested as an effective method for removing phosphates from agricultural wastewater effluents that contain relatively high phosphate concentrations. The present study focused on the use of a bentonite-lanthanum clay (Phoslock ® ) for reducing the dissolved phosphate concentration in fishpond effluents. Batch experiments with synthetic phosphate-spiked solutions and with fishpond effluents were performed in order to determine adsorption equilibrium isotherms and kinetics as well as to determine the efficiency of Phoslock ® in removing phosphate from these solutions. In the synthetic phosphate-spiked solution, the mean maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was 92 mg Phoslock ® /mg phosphate removal. A ratio of 50, 100, and 200 mg Phoslock ® /mg phosphate removal was found for complete phosphate removal from the fishpond effluents, where higher doses of Phoslock ® led to a faster removal rate (94% removal within the first 150 min). These results show that bentonite-lanthanum clay can be employed for designing a treatment process for efficient phosphate removal from fishpond effluents.

  2. Assessment of soil phosphorus tests for situations in Australia where reactive phosphate rock and water-soluble fertilizers are used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    A selection of commonly used soil P tests, which included anion and cation exchange resin membranes, were compared in a glasshouse experiment using subterranean clover, and evaluated in the field at 19 sites from the National Reactive Phosphate Rock Project in 1993 and at 6 sites in 1995. The ability of the soil P tests to predict plant response was used to evaluate the tests. In the glasshouse experiment, the resin test was less effective than the Bray and Colwell tests in its ability to assess the level of plant available P from the different fertilizer treatments. Seventy one percent of the variation in total P content of the subterranean clover tops was explained by resin extractable P values, whereas the Colwell procedure accounted for 81% and the Bray 1 procedure accounted for 78%. Water and CaCl 2 extracts were poor predictors of P content. In the field experiments, all tests evaluated performed poorly in describing the relationship between soil test P and the level of P applied and relative yield and soil test P over a wide range of soil types and environments. The best performing test was the Bray 1 test, though the relationship was poor. (author)

  3. Phosphorus fertility recapitalization of nutrient-depleted tropical acid soils with reactive phosphate rock: An assessment using the isotopic exchange technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, J.-C.; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    A 'soil P fertility recapitalization' initiative utilizing large rates of phosphate rocks (PRs) was proposed to improve the soil P status and increase the sustainable food production in acid and P-deficient tropical soils. Two series of experiments were carried out using five tropical acid soils treated with heavy applications of Gafsa phosphate rock (GPR). In the first series, the soils were mixed with GPR at the following application rates: 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg P·kg -1 , and incubated for one month in moist conditions. In another series, 1000 mg P kg -1 applied as GPR was added to three soils and incubated for 1.5 month; thereafter 50 mg P kg -1 as triple superphosphate (TSP) were added. The 32 P isotopic exchange method was utilized to assess the contribution of GPR to the available soil P. Changes in amounts, E, of P transferred with time as phosphate ions from the soil particles to the soil solution as well as changes in pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations in soil suspensions were determined. It was found that: (i) the contribution of P from GPR to recapitalization of soil P fertility was mainly assessed by E pool size, pH, calcium and phosphate concentrations; other variables were not significant at the 0.1 level; (ii) heavy applications of GPR did not saturate all the P sorption sites, P freshly applied as water-soluble P was still sorbed; (iii) recapitalization of soil P fertility using GPR was partly obtained in some acid tropical soils; (iv) Upon dissolution, GPR provided calcium ions to crops and to soils, thus reducing Al toxicity, but its liming effect was limited. To explain these effects with heavy application rates of GPR, it was postulated that a coating of Al and Fe compounds is formed around PR particles with time, thus reducing further dissolution. (author)

  4. Characterization and evaluation of acid-modified starch of Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese yam as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Okunlola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia starch modified by acid hydrolysis was characterized and compared with native starch as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations. The physicochemical and compressional properties (using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita equations of modified Chinese yam starch were determined, and its quantitative effects as a binder on the mechanical and release properties of chloroquine phosphate were analyzed using a 2³ full factorial design. The nature (X1, concentration of starch (X2 and packing fraction (X3 were taken as independent variables and the crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR, disintegration time (DT and dissolution time (t80 as dependent variables. Acid-modified Chinese yam starch showed a marked reduction (p<0.05 in amylose content and viscosity but increased swelling and water-binding properties. The modified starch had a faster onset and greater amount of plastic flow. Changing the binder from native to acid-modified form led to significant increases (p<0.05 in CSFR and DT but a decrease in t80. An increase in binder concentration and packing fraction gave similar results for CSFR and DT only. These results suggest that acid-modified Chinese yam starches may be useful as tablet binders when high bond strength and fast dissolution are required.

  5. Combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus strain MWT 14) improve the performance of bread wheat with low fertilizer input under an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Khalid, Umaira; Ijaz, Muhammad; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Shahid, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid; Ahmad, Naveed; Kareem, Fazal

    2018-04-24

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150-100NPkgha -1 ) and half dose (75-50NPkgha -1 ) of fertilizers. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. The cultivar Punjab-2011 produced the higher chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, and the straw yield at half dose of NP fertilizer; while Galaxy-2013, with the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria under recommended NP fertilizer dose. Combined over both NP fertilizer levels, the combined use of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria enhanced the grain yield of cultivar Galaxy-2013 by 54.3% and that of cultivar Punjab-2011 by 83.3%. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria also increased the population of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, the soil organic matter and phosphorous contents in the soil. In conclusion, the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria offers an eco-friendly option to harvest the better wheat yield with low fertilizer input under arid climate. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of lead as modifier on the properties of lead iron phosphate nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, G.; Mitra, P.; Das, T.

    2011-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses are a promising new waste form for the safe immobilization of both high level defence and high level commercial radioactive waste for long term disposal. Lead iron phosphate glasses have several advantages such as lower aqueous corrosion rate, lower processing temperature etc. (author)

  7. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate fertilization on initial growth of six arboreal species of cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Alves Pereira Lacerda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the benefit of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus clarum, for the initial growth of some native arboreal species of the Cerrado biome, namely gabiroba (Campomanesia cambessedeana, baru (Dipterix alata, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril, ingá (Inga laurina, caroba (Jacaranda cuspidifolia and chichá (Sterculia striata, in unsterilized soil with low (0.02 mg L‑1 and high (0.2 mg L‑1 concentrations of P in the soil solution. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using 1.5 kg vases, for up to 120 days. The experimental design for each arboreal species was completely randomized, with ten replicates in a 2x2 factorial design (inoculated and noninoculated seedlings, and two levels of phosphorus (P in the soil solution. Arboreal plants of the Cerrado biome showed increased mycorrhizal colonization from inoculation with Glomus clarum, except chichá, as this species showed a high indigenous colonization, not differing from the colonization promoted by inoculated fungi. Inoculation promoted increased growth in baru, gabiroba, ingá, caroba and chichá, increasing shoot dry matter (MSPA and root dry matter (MSR. In caroba, this effect was synergistic with application of P to the soil. Baru and jatobá showed increased dry matter with application of P to the soil only. The mycotrophy (mycorrhizal dependence of species and their response to inoculation and to phosphorus are discussed. In order to produce quality seedlings of caroba, gabiroba, chichá and ingá, combining inoculation with Glomus clarum and phosphate fertilization of the soil is recommended, while for jatobá and baru only the application of P to the soil is recommended.

  8. Efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates of varying water-soluble phosphorus content for rice and succeeding maize crop on contrasting soil types. [/sup 32/P-labelled fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhujbal, B M; Mistry, K B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biology and Agriculture Div.; Chapke, V G; Mutatkar, V K [Fertilizer Corp. of India Ltd., Bombay

    1977-09-01

    Efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates (ANP) containing 30 and 50 percent of water-soluble phosphorus (W.S.P.) vis-a-vis that of entirely water-soluble monoammonium orthophosphate (MAP) for rice and succeeding maize crop on phosphate responsive laterite, red sandy loam (Chalka) and calcareous black soils was examined in greenhouse experiments. Data on dry matter yield, uptake of phosphorus, utilization of applied fertilizer, 'Effective Rate of Application' and 'Relative Efficiency percent' at flowering stage of rice indicated no significant differences between ammonium nitrate phosphate (30 percent and 50 percent water-soluble ohosphorus) and monoammonium orthophosphate (MAP) on laterits and natural red sandy loam soils. MAP was significantly superior to the two ANP fertilizers on calcareous black soil; no significant differences were observed between ANP (30 percent W.S.P.) and ANP (50 percent W.S.P.) on this soil. The succeeding maize crop grown up to flowering in the same pots indicated that the residual value of ANP (30 percent W.S.P.) was equal or superior to that of MAP on the laterits as well as calcareous black soil. No significant differences were detected between the residual values of the two water-solubility grades of ANP. Incubation under submerged conditions for periods upto 60 days showed that 0.5 M NaHCO/sub 3/ (pH 8.5) extractable phosphorus (plant-available phosphate) in the ANP (30 percent W.S.P.) treatment was, in general, equal to those in the MAP treatments in the laterite and red sandy loam but was significantly lower in the calcareous black soil. No marked differences were observed between the effects of the two ANP fertilizers.

  9. Investigation of the radiological impact of naturally occurring radionuclides from the usage of phosphate and organic fertilizers on farmlands in the New Juaben Municipality of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenfie, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiological impact of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) from the usage of phosphate and organic fertilizers in the New Juaben Municipality of Ghana was investigated. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in seven (7) widely used phosphate and organic fertilizers using gamma spectroscopy. The activity concentrations were found to be 32.10±2.60 Bq/kg, 12.20±1.60 Bq/kg and 3005.50±68.80 Bq/kg respectively. The radioactivity level index (Iγ ) which gives an estimate of the level of risk associated with natural radionuclides in specific material was found to be higher than the recommended limit of one (1) in some of the fertilizer samples collected from storage. The storage also recorded a relatively high dose rates (ranging from 96-624 μSv/a) compared to the surrounding background (ranging from 109-241 μSv/a) suggesting that the storage of large quantities of these fertilizers can lead to a possible increase in the dose rates. The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in cultivated (fertilized) soils were found to be 12.50±3.30 Bq/kg, 10.60 ± 2.80 Bq/kg and 206.0 ± 30.2 Bq/kg respectively. These values were relatively higher than those found in their respective virgin (unfertilized) soils ( 226 Ra- 9.0±1.7 Bq/kg; 232 Th - 8.10±1.70 Bq/kg; and 40 K-139.0±13.3 Bq/kg). This might be considered as an indication that the use of fertilizers to increase soil fertility enhances the level of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in agricultural soils. The averages of other risk indices such as radium equivalent, the absorbed dose rate in air at 1m above the ground, the mean outdoor annual effective dose and the external hazard index estimated for the cultivated soils were found to be higher than their corresponding virgin soils but generally lower than the world averages. Therefore, the radiological impact associated with NORMs in the cultivated lands as a result of the application of fertilizers is expected to

  10. Investigation of high temperature reactions on graphite with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry: interaction of cadmium, lead and silver with a phosphate modifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloi, C.; Robertson, J.D.; Majidi, V. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The depth-dependent concentration profiles of nitrate salts of Pb, Cd and Ag were observed with and without the addition of (NH[sub 4])H[sub 2]PO[sub 4] chemical modifier using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The RBS results demonstrate that the analytes, in all the systems investigated, readily migrate ([>=]3 [mu]m) into the pyrolytic graphite coated graphite substrate at room temperature. The stabilization of Cd and Pb with the phosphate modifier is proposed to be due to the formation of a phosphate glass. Silver did not extensively interact with the phosphate modifier and was, as a result, not stabilized. (author).

  11. Investigation of high temperature reactions on graphite with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry: interaction of cadmium, lead and silver with a phosphate modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloi, C.; Robertson, J.D.; Majidi, V.

    1993-01-01

    The depth-dependent concentration profiles of nitrate salts of Pb, Cd and Ag were observed with and without the addition of (NH 4 )H 2 PO 4 chemical modifier using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The RBS results demonstrate that the analytes, in all the systems investigated, readily migrate (≥3 μm) into the pyrolytic graphite coated graphite substrate at room temperature. The stabilization of Cd and Pb with the phosphate modifier is proposed to be due to the formation of a phosphate glass. Silver did not extensively interact with the phosphate modifier and was, as a result, not stabilized. (author)

  12. Electrospun gelatin/poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous scaffold modified with calcium phosphate for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajzer, Izabella, E-mail: irajzer@ath.bielsko.pl [University of Bielsko-Biala (ATH), Department of Mechanical Engineering Fundamentals, Division of Materials Engineering, Willowa 2 Street, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała (Poland); Menaszek, Elżbieta [Jagiellonian University (UJ), Collegium Medicum, Department of Cytobiology, Medyczna 9 Street, 30-068 Cracow (Poland); Kwiatkowski, Ryszard [University of Bielsko-Biala (ATH), Faculty of Materials and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Textile Engineering and Polymer Materials, Willowa 2 Street, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała (Poland); Planell, Josep A.; Castano, Oscar [Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies, Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CIBER-BBN The Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    In this study gelatin (Gel) modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (SG5) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were used to prepare a 3D bi-layer scaffold by collecting electrospun PCL and gelatin/SG5 fibers separately in the same collector. The objective of this study was to combine the desired properties of PCL and Gel/SG5 in the same scaffold in order to enhance mineralization, thus improving the ability of the scaffold to bond to the bone tissue. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements confirmed that SG5 nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the fibrous gelatin matrix. The composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold exhibited more enhanced mechanical properties than individual Gel and Gel/SG5 scaffolds. The presence of SG5 nanoparticles accelerated the nucleation and growth of apatite crystals on the surface of the composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold in simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteoblast response in vitro to developed electrospun scaffolds (PCL and Gel/SG5/PCL) was investigated by using normal human primary NHOst cell lines. NHOst cell culture studies showed that higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and better mineralization were obtained in the case of composite materials than in pure PCL scaffolds. The mechanically strong PCL scaffold served as a skeleton, while the Gel/SG5 fibers facilitated cell spreading and mineralization of the scaffold. - Highlights: • Bi-layer scaffolds were produced by electrospinning method. • The addition of nanoparticles enhanced the bioactivity of scaffold. • Bi-layer scaffold enhanced ALP activity and NHOst cell mineralization.

  13. Evaluation of the impact of general phosphate fertilizers factories company on the surrounding environment by determining natural radionuclides and some trace elements in air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Al-Shamali, K.

    2004-01-01

    Natural radionuclides and some trace element levels in air particulates of the areas surrounding the phosphate fertilizers factory in Homs have been determined Mean total air particulates concentration ranged from 31 μg/m3 in Kerba Al-Teen in Autumn period. While trace element concentrations in air particulates were relatively high in air particulates collected from AECS center and other sites situated north east of the factory; about 1.7 ng/m3 in AECS site and 1.7 ng/m3 in Abel for uranium and cadmium, respectively. In addition, radioactivity analysis of air particulates has shown low levels of polonium 210 and lead 210; a value of 2 mBq/m3 in Kerba Al-Teen has not been exceeded. However, air particulate, natural radionuclides and the studied trace elements concentrations in the surrounding areas were within the natural levels. Therefore, air emissions from the factory containing radioactive materials and trace elements are relatively low. This is due to strict control procedures on transport and loading processes of phosphate in addition to the high efficiency of filters used for air emissions from the phosphate fertilizers factory during the study period (2002). (author)

  14. Evaluation of the impact of general phosphate fertilizers factories company on the surrounding environment by determining natural radionuclides and some trace elements in air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Al-Shmali, K.; Abdul Haleem, M.

    2003-12-01

    Natural radionuclides and some trace element levels in air particulates of the areas surrounding the phosphate fertilizers factory in Homs have been determined mean total air particulates concentration ranged from 31μg/m 3 in Kerba Al-Teen in autumn period. While trace element concentrations in air particulates were relatively high in air particulates collected from AECS center and other sites situated north east of the factory: about 1.7 ng/m 3 in AECS site and 1.7 ng/m 3 in Abel for uranium and cadmium, respectively. In addition, radioactivity analysis of air particulates have shown low levels of polonium 210 and lead 210, a value of 2 mBg/m 3 in Kerba Al-Teen has not been exceeded. However, air particulate, natural radionuclides and the studied trace elements concentrations in the surrounding areas were within the natural levels. Therefore, air emissions from the factory containing radioactive materials and trace elements are relatively low. This is due to strict control procedures on transport and loading processes of phosphate in addition to the high efficiency of filters used for air emissions from the phosphate fertilizers factory during the study period (2002).(author)

  15. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  16. Phosphate Remediation and Recovery from Lake Water using Modified Iron Oxide-based Adsorbents - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a limiting nutrient in most aquatic ecosystems, increased phosphate (PO43-) concentrations can accelerate eutrophication resulting in the proliferation of potentially toxic harmful algal blooms. In addition to environmental impacts of PO43- pollution, overall reserves of this ...

  17. Pretreatment of Raw Biochar and Phosphate Removal Performance of Modified Granular Iron/Biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ren; Nan Li; Lin Zhao; Lei Li

    2017-01-01

    Biochar is a potential carrier for nutrients due to its porous nature and abundant functional groups. However, raw biochar has a limited or even negative capacity to adsorb phosphate. To enhance phosphate removal and reduce phos-phate releases, acidic, alkaline, and surfactant pretreatments, followed by granulation and ferric oxide loading, were applied to raw biochar powder (Bp). The alkaline pretreatment proved to be the most effective method and exhibited significant pore expansion and surface oxidation. Bg-OH-FO showed the highest phosphate removal efficiency at 99.2%(initial phos-phate concentration of 20 mg/L) after granulation and ferric oxide loading. Static adsorption results indicated that a pH value of 4 was the most suitable for phosphate adsorption because of the surface properties of Bg-OH-FO and the dis-tribution of P (V) in water. Higher temperatures and a larger initial phosphate concentration led to better adsorption;the adsorption capacity of Bg-OH-FO was 1.91 mg/g at 313 K with an initial phosphate concentration of 50 mg/L. The Bg-OH-FO adsorption process was endothermic in nature. The Freundlich model seemed to be the optimum isotherm model for Bg-OH-FO. Under continuous adsorption, the flow rate and bed depth were changed to optimize the operation con-ditions. The results indicate that a slow flow rate and high bed depth helped increase the removal efficiency (η) of the fixed bed. The breakthrough curves fitted well with the Yoon–Nelson model.

  18. Availability of metals in samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers used in agriculture; Disponibilidade de metais em amostras de fosfogesso e fertilizantes fosfatados utilizados na agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourlegat, Fernanda Melo le

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid, and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-product. Part of this phosphogypsum is stored in stacks at open air and part has been used in agriculture, as soil amendment. To assure a safe utilization of phosphogypsum it is important to determine the levels of impurities, particularly of metals, present in phosphogypsum. In this paper, the concentration of metals (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn and rare earth elements) present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and also in single super phosphate (SSP), triple super phosphate (TSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were determined. The metals Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined following the procedure 'EPA 3052'. The same elements, As and Se were also determined following the procedure 'EPA 3050B', recommended by Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento (MAPA). All these metals are controlled by environmental and agriculture regulation institutes in Brazil. The concentrations obtained for the metals analyzed by using the two procedures were different. Ba, Co, Cr and rare earth elements were determined by neutron activation analysis. In order to evaluate the availability of these metals As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn to the environment, the content of the same elements were determined following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes an initial attack of the samples with EDTA-NH{sub 4} 0.05M, at pH 7.0. In all these cases, phosphogypsum presented metals concentration lower than the phosphate fertilizers, and the results are below the limits adopted by MAPA and Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB). The results obtained using the methodology with mild attack show that the metals are not available to the environment, giving

  19. Fertility, pregnancy and childbirth in patients with multiple sclerosis: impact of disease-modifying drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Maria Pia; Portaccio, Emilio

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, pregnancy-related issues in multiple sclerosis (MS) have received growing interest. MS is more frequent in women than in men and typically starts during child-bearing age. An increasing number of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for the treatment of MS are becoming available. Gathering information on their influences on pregnancy-related issues is of crucial importance for the counselling of MS patients. As for the immunomodulatory drugs (interferons and glatiramer acetate), accumulating evidence points to the relative safety of pregnancy exposure in terms of maternal and foetal outcomes. In case of higher clinical disease activity before pregnancy, these drugs could be continued until conception. As for the 'newer' drugs (fingolimod, natalizumab, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and alemtuzumab), the information is more limited. Whereas fingolimod and teriflunomide are likely associated with an increased risk of foetal malformations, the effects of natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate and alemtuzumab still need to be ascertained. This article provides a review of the available information on the use of DMDs during pregnancy, with a specific focus on fertility, foetal development, delivery and breast-feeding.

  20. Determination of radioactivity levels in phosphate-containing fertilizers, copper and gold ores by direct gamma-ray spectroscopy. U-238, Th-232, K-40, and Ra-226 in fertilizers and ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Constantin, F.; Dusoiu, N.; Pascovoici, G.

    1996-01-01

    Two particular sources from the natural radiation background which may be encountered in Romanian industry are here presented: the phosphate containing fertilizers and the gold and copper ores, respectively. U-238, Th-232, K-40, and Ra-226 activity levels for several imported phosphorites, superphosphates and also for concentrated Cu and Au indigenous ores are reported. A simple and efficient radioactivity determination procedure based on a large volume NaI(Tl) detector, coupled to a Romanian design portable multichannel analyzer is described. Potential radiological impacts for the specialized workers are also discussed. (author) 1 fig., 4 tabs. 6 refs

  1. Growth Response Of Container Grown Japanese Azalea And Euonymus And Concentration Of Nitrates And Phosphates In The Runoff Water Under Different Irrigation And Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matysiak Bożena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study a growth response of two container-grown ornamentals (Euonymus japonicus ‘Ovatus Aureus’ and Rhododendron ‘Geisha Orange’ grown under different irrigation and fertilization rates was examined. The content of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P in the plant leaves and in leachates was measured. Two levels of irrigation – standard irrigation (SI and – high irrigation rate (HI, and three control-release fertilizers (CRFs – Multicote 17-17-17, Osmocote Exact Standard 16-9-12 and Plantacote 15-10-15, applied at the rate of 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 g·l−1, were applied. Fast-acting fertilizers were used as the control. HI adversely affected the growth and quality of Euonymus but stimulated the growth and increased quality of Rhododendron within two years of cultivation in relation to SI. There were no significant interactions between the irrigation and fertilization treatments; irrespective of water regimes, growth responses of both plant species to used fertilizers were similar. Osmocote and Plantacote at the rate of 3 g·l−1 were the most effective for the growth of Euonymus and Rhododendron plants, except of Euonymus in the second year, when 4.5 g·l−1 CRFs resulted in the best growth of plants. HI increased the amount of runoff water as well as N-NO3 and P-PO4 losses from containers during the entire growing period, irrespective of a fertilizer type. The amount of the nitrate and phosphate in leakage was higher when higher rates of CRFs were applied. Maximum nitrate concentration in leakage was the highest 14 days after the application of CRFs.

  2. Calcium phosphate formation from sea urchin - (brissus latecarinatus via modified mechano-chemical (ultrasonic conversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Samur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce apatite structures, such as hydroxyapatite (HA and fluorapatite (FA, from precursor calcium phosphates of biological origin, namely from sea urchin, with mechano-chemical stirring and hot-plating conversion method. The produced materials were heat treated at 800 °C for 4 hours. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies were conducted. Calcium phosphate phases were developed. The SEM images showed the formation of micro to nano-powders. The experimental results suggest that sea urchin, Brissus latecarinatus skeleton could be an alternative source for the production of various mono or biphasic calcium phosphates with simple and economic mechano-chemical (ultrasonic conversion method.

  3. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreased the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria in an alkaline soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Hao, Xiuli; Ding, Kai

    2017-01-01

    to Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Streptomyces. Long-term P fertilization had no significant effect on the abundance of iPSB communities. Rather than P and potassium (K) additions, long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization decreased the iPSB abundance, which was validated by reduced relative abundance...

  4. Modified Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer for Increasing Rice Variety Tolerance toward Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribaldi Gribaldi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted from July to October 2015, using Randomized Block Design with two treatment factors and three replications for each treatment. The first factor was rice varieties (V: V1 = IR 64; V2 = Inpara 5. The second factor was fertilizer (N: N0: without submergence, all N fertilizer was given during planting; N1: all N fertilizer dose was given during planting; and N2: 1/2 dose of N fertilizer was given during planting; the rest was given at 42 days after planting. The submergence was during 7–14 days after planting; N3 = the entire dose of N fertilizer that was given during planting, N4 = 1/2 the dose of N fertilizer that was given during planting, and the rest was given at 42 days after planting. The submergence was during 7–14 and 28–35 days after planting. The results showed that the management of nitrogen fertilizer application had effect on rice growth and production which experienced dirty water submergence stress; the application of 1/2 dose of N fertilizer given during planting had the best effect on rice growth and production; the longer the submergence period for rice variety, the higher the effect on rice growth and production.

  5. Determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) in phosphate fertilizers by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted extraction based on a control acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Helen Cristine; Coelho, Nivia Maria Melo

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure was developed for determination of inorganic arsenic (As) in phosphate fertilizer by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables that affect the hydride generation step were optimized, including the reducer, acid, sample flow rate, and concentrations of the acid and reducer. The determination of As(lll) was performed through the simple control of solution pH with a 0.5 M citric acid-sodium citrate buffer solution at pH 4.5, and total As was determined after a pre-reduction reaction with 1.0% (w/v) thiourea. Ultrasound-assisted acid extraction was performed, and the parameters sonication time and acid and Triton X-114 concentrations were optimized using a 23 factorial design and central composite design. LODs for As(lll) and total As were 0.029 and 0.022 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied in the determination of inorganic As in phosphate fertilizer samples.

  6. Assessment of committed effective dose due to the ingestion of 210Po and 210Pb in consumed Lebanese fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, M.; El Samad, O.; Bou Khozam, R.; Lobinski, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides through seafood intake is a one of the sources contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism. In order to evaluate the internal exposure and potential risks due to 210 Po and 210 Pb associated with fish consumption, these radionuclides were measured in commonly consumed fish species from a clean area and an area subjected to the impact of a Lebanese phosphate fertilizer plant. The highest concentration of 210 Pb was 98.7 Bq/kg fresh weight while 210 Po activity concentrations varied from 3.6 Bq/kg to 140 Bq/kg. A supplementary radiation exposure was detected; the highest committed effective dose due to 210 Po and 210 Pb was found to be 1110 μSv/y and 450 μSv/y, respectively. Moreover, the average mortality and morbidity risks due to the fish consuming were estimated. - Highlights: • Enrichment in 210 Po and 210 Pb in fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant. • Significant human exposure associated with the ingestion of fish. • Estimation of potential risks due to 210 Po and 210 Pb via fish consumption

  7. Dielectric studies on binary mixtures of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and long-chain primary alcohols (modifiers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, S.K.; Swain, B.B.

    1993-01-01

    Dielectric constant (ε) of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), in binary mixtures with five long-chain primary alcohols viz; 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol and 1-octanol has been measured at ν = 455 kHz and at temperature 302 K. The data is used to evaluate mutual correlation factor g ab , excess molar polarization ΔP and excess free energy of mixing ΔF ab by using Winkelmann-Quitzsch eqn. for binary mixtures to assess the suitability of the alcohols as modifiers. The trend of variation of these parameters exhibit marked dependence on chain-length of the alcohols indicating 1-heptanol to be an efficient modifier. (author)

  8. Electrochemical assessing corrosion inhibiting effects of zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) as a modified zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, R.; Attar, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Undesirable anti-corrosion performance of zinc phosphate pigment, the classical chromate replacement, has led researchers to take modification into account. Polyphosphate-based anti-corrosion pigments as a result of modification of zinc orthophosphate have been found to function much more efficiently. This study aimed to evaluate performance of steel samples immersed in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution-containing zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) pigment extract compared to those involving conventional zinc phosphate (ZP) pigment extract and also no pigment (blank) using electrochemical tests such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization (LP) as well as surface analysis. Impedance spectra and polarization curves revealed two different trends, showing the superiority of ZAPP pigment. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), presence of a precipitated layer on the surface was confirmed when steel sample was immersed into the solution-containing ZAPP

  9. Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, I.; Kahiluoto, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2000-01-01

    at the higher P level (77 and 49% of total P uptake, respectively). The AMF in P-fertilized soil transported less P-32 from the root-free compartment to the plant after 23 days than the AMF in unfertilized soil, but this difference disappeared in plants harvested after 27 and 32 days. The production of hyphae...... was largely similar in both fertilization treatments, indicating that the capacity for P uptake and transport by hyphae of the two AMF communities was similar....

  10. Magnesium modifies the association between serum phosphate and the risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Iwatani, Hirotsugu; Hamano, Takayuki; Tomida, Kodo; Kawabata, Hiroaki; Kusunoki, Yasuo; Shimomura, Akihiro; Matsui, Isao; Hayashi, Terumasa; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2015-10-01

    It is known that magnesium antagonizes phosphate-induced apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells and prevents vascular calcification. Here we tested whether magnesium can also counteract other pathological conditions where phosphate toxicity is involved, such as progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We explored how the link between the risk of CKD progression and hyperphosphatemia is modified by magnesium status. A post hoc analysis was run in 311 non-diabetic CKD patients who were divided into four groups according to the median values of serum magnesium and phosphate. During a median follow-up of 44 months, 135 patients developed end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). After adjustment for relevant clinical factors, patients in the lower magnesium-higher phosphate group were at a 2.07-fold (95% CI: 1.23-3.48) risk for incident ESKD and had a significantly faster decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with those in the higher magnesium-higher phosphate group. There were no significant differences in the risk of these renal outcomes among the higher magnesium-higher phosphate group and both lower phosphate groups. Incubation of tubular epithelial cells in high phosphate and low magnesium medium in vitro increased apoptosis and the expression levels of profibrotic and proinflammatory cytokine; these changes were significantly suppressed by increasing magnesium concentration. Thus, magnesium may act protectively against phosphate-induced kidney injury.

  11. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meininger, M.; Wolf-Brandstetter, C.; Zerweck, J.; Wenninger, F.; Gbureck, U.; Groll, J.; Moseke, C.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr 2+ ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr 2+ into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr 2+ ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant–bone interface. - Highlights: • Sr-doped struvite coatings have been deposited on titanium by electrochemically assisted deposition. • Sr content can be adjusted by means of process time, current density and pulse mode. • Sr-doped coatings release therapeutically relevant Sr doses in physiological media for several weeks. • During immersion in physiological media Sr-doped struvite coatings transform into a low crystalline calcium phosphate phase.

  12. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meininger, M. [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Wolf-Brandstetter, C. [Max Bergmann Center for Biomaterials, Technical University of Dresden, Budapester Straße 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Zerweck, J.; Wenninger, F.; Gbureck, U.; Groll, J. [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Moseke, C., E-mail: claus.moseke@fmz.uni-wuerzburg.de [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr{sup 2+} ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr{sup 2+} into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr{sup 2+} ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant–bone interface. - Highlights: • Sr-doped struvite coatings have been deposited on titanium by electrochemically assisted deposition. • Sr content can be adjusted by means of process time, current density and pulse mode. • Sr-doped coatings release therapeutically relevant Sr doses in physiological media for several weeks. • During immersion in physiological media Sr-doped struvite coatings transform into a low crystalline calcium phosphate phase.

  13. Mineralization of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on the growth and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-08-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manure to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P utilization efficiency in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P mineralization potential of two soluble P fertilizers (SPF), i.e., single superphosphate (SSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), and of insoluble rock phosphate (RP) with and without phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P utilization efficiency (PUE) of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried out on a loam (slightly alkaline) soil with 12 treatments: T0 - control; T1 - RP; T2 - SSP; T3 - DAP; T4 - PM; T5 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP; T6 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP; T7 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM; T8 - RP+PSB; T9 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP+PSB; T10 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP+PSB; and T11 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM+PSB. Phosphorus mineralization was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled conditions at 25 °C for periods of 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 60 days. A complementary greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) as a test crop. Growth, yield, P uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P mineralization in soil amended with RP was 6.0-11.5 mg kg-1, while both soluble P fertilizers resulted in 68-73 mg P kg-1 at day 0, which decreased by 79-82 % at the end of incubation. The integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in T11 stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Use of PSB decreased soil pH. In the greenhouse experiment, RP alone or RP+PSB did not have a significant impact on plant growth. However, the combined use of RP, PM and PSB in T11 resulted in similar growth, yield and P uptake of chilli as DAP. The PUE of applied P varied from 4 to 29 % and was higher in the treatments that included PSB. We conclude

  14. The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR and Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganism (PSM on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (cv. N80 under Different Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilizers Levels in Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Bahari saravi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM on yield and yield components of wheat a pot experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during 2009. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design in three replicates. Treatments were included bio-fertilizer in four levels (non-inoculation control, Phosphate Barvare 2 (Pseudomonas fluorescens+Bacillus subtilis, Supernitroplus (Azotobacter brasilense+Azospirillum lipoferum and Nitroxine (Azospirillum + Pseudomona + Bacillus, three levels of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (0, 75 and 150 kg urea/ha and three levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg super phosphate triple/ha. Results showed that the studied treatments (biofertilizer, nitrogen and phosphate inorganic fertilizers had significant effect on grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield and harvest index. Interaction effect between biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers was significant in terms of grain yield. The maximum grain yield was resulted from simultaneously applying of Nitroxine and 75 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer. By contrast, the highest straw yield was obtained when 150 kg nitrogen fertilizer was used. Grain yield had the maximum correlation with biological yield (r=0.85**. Grain yield positively and significantly correlated with grain number per spike (r=0.73**, 1000 grain weight (r=0.68**, straw yield (r=0.56** and harvest index (r=0.69**. In conclusion biofertilizer inoculations could reduce application of nitrogen and phosphorus chemical fertilizers and increase plant performance.

  15. A novel and easy-to-prepare strontium(II) modified calcium phosphate bone cement with enhanced mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, M; Henß, A; Rohnke, M; Gelinsky, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two different approaches to obtaining strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs) without elaborate synthesis of Sr-containing calcium phosphate species as cement precursors that could release biologically effective doses of Sr(2+) and thus could improve the healing of osteoporotic bone defects. Using strontium carbonate as a strontium(II) source, it was introduced into a hydroxyapatite-forming cement either by the addition of SrCO3 to an α-tricalcium phosphate-based cement precursor mixture (A-type) or by substitution of CaCO3 by SrCO3 during precursor composition (S-type). The cements, obtained after setting in a water-saturated atmosphere, contained up to 2.2at.% strontium in different distribution patterns as determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The setting time of CPC and A-type cements was in the range of 6.5-7.5min and increased for substitution-type cements (12.5-13.0min). Set cements had an open porosity between 26 and 42%. Compressive strength was found to increase from 29MPa up to 90% in substituted S-type cements (58MPa). SrCPC samples released between 0.45 and 1.53mgg(-1) Sr(2+) within 21days and showed increased radiopacity. Based on these findings, the SrCPC developed in this study could be beneficial for the treatment of defects of systemically impaired (e.g. osteoporotic) bone. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutualistic functioning of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizae in spring barley and winter wheat after cessation of long-term phosphate fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, T.B.M.; Werff, van der P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of 23 years of phosphorus (P) application at three annual rates of 0, 17.5 and 52.5 kg ha-1 on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization was studied 10 years after the fertilization treatment ended. The annual application of 52.5 kg ha-1 was about twice the annual crop P

  17. Nuclear pool of phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate 5 kinase 1α is modified by polySUMO-2 during apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhargava, Varsha; Bhar, Kaushik; Siddhanta, Anirban, E-mail: asiddhanto@yahoo.com

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Nuclear pool of PIP5K is SUMOylated. •Enhancement of SUMOylated nuclear PIP5K during apoptosis. •Nuclear PIP5K is modified by polySUMO-1 during apoptosis. •Nuclear PIP5K is modified by polySUMO-2 chain during apoptosis. -- Abstract: Phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate 5 kinase 1α (PIP5K) is mainly localized in the cytosol and plasma membrane. Studies have also indicated its prominent association with nuclear speckles. The exact nature of this nuclear pool of PIP5K is not clear. Using biochemical and microscopic techniques, we have demonstrated that the nuclear pool of PIP5K is modified by SUMO-1 in HEK-293 cells stably expressing PIP5K. Moreover, this SUMOylated pool of PIP5K increased during apoptosis. PolySUMO-2 chain conjugated PIP5K was detected by pull-down experiment using affinity-tagged RNF4, a polySUMO-2 binding protein, during late apoptosis.

  18. Identification of the hydrate gel phases present in phosphate-modified calcium aluminate binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Mehul A.; Bernal, Susan A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Apperley, David C. [Solid-State NMR Group, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kinoshita, Hajime [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    The conversion of hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates to cubic phases in hydrated calcium aluminate cements (CAC) can involve undesirable porosity changes and loss of strength. Modification of CAC by phosphate addition avoids conversion, by altering the nature of the reaction products, yielding a stable amorphous gel instead of the usual crystalline hydrate products. Here, details of the environments of aluminium and phosphorus in this gel were elucidated using solid-state NMR and complementary techniques. Aluminium is identified in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination states, and phosphorus is present in hydrous environments with varying, but mostly low, degrees of crosslinking. A {sup 31}P/{sup 27}Al rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiment showed the existence of aluminium–phosphorus interactions, confirming the formation of a hydrated calcium aluminophosphate gel as a key component of the binding phase. This resolves previous disagreements in the literature regarding the nature of the disordered products forming in this system.

  19. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  20. Treatment of lead contaminated water by a PVDF membrane that is modified by zirconium, phosphate and PVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dandan; Yu, Yang; Chen, J Paul

    2016-09-15

    Lead contamination is one of the most serious problems in drinking water facing humans. In this study, a novel zirconium phosphate modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-PVDF membrane was developed for lead removal. The zirconium ions and PVA were firstly coated onto a PVDF membrane through crosslinking reactions with glutaraldehyde, which was then modified by phosphate. The adsorption kinetics study showed that most of ultimate uptake occurred in 5 h. The adsorption increased with an increase in pH; the optimal adsorption was achieved at pH 5.5. The experimental data were better described by Langmuir equation than Freundlich equation; the maximum adsorption capacity was 121.2 mg-Pb/g at pH 5.5, much higher than other reported adsorptive membranes. The membrane exhibited a higher selectivity for lead over zinc with a relative selectivity coefficient (Pb(2+)/Zn(2+)) of 9.92. The filtration study showed that the membrane with an area of 12.56 cm(2) could treat 13.9 L (equivalent to 73,000 bed volumes) of lead containing wastewater with an influent concentration of 224.5 μ g/L to meet the maximum contaminant level of 15 μ g/L. It was demonstrated that the membrane did well in the removal of lead in both simulated wastewater and lead-spiked reservoir water and had a good reusability in its applications. The XPS studies revealed that the lead uptake was mainly due to cation exchange between hydrogen ions and lead ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furko, M.; Jiang, Y.; Wilkins, T.A.; Balázsi, C.

    2016-01-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO_3)_2 and NH_4H_2PO_4 components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag"+ and Zn"2"+ ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn"2"+ is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. - Highlights: • Ag and Zn doped calcium phosphate (CaP) layers were electrochemically deposited. • Layer degradation was studied by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements. • The bioceramic coatings became passive after a period of immersion time. • Ag and Zn modified layer shows higher degradation rate compared to pure CaP coating.

  2. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furko, M., E-mail: monika.furko@bayzoltan.hu [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary); Jiang, Y.; Wilkins, T.A. [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Balázsi, C. [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary)

    2016-05-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn{sup 2+} is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. - Highlights: • Ag and Zn doped calcium phosphate (CaP) layers were electrochemically deposited. • Layer degradation was studied by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements. • The bioceramic coatings became passive after a period of immersion time. • Ag and Zn modified layer shows higher degradation rate compared to pure CaP coating.

  3. Yield and Yield Components of Vetch (Vigna radiata as Affected by the Use of Vermicompost and Phosphate Bio-fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rahimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects different levels of phosphate biofertilizer barvar-2 and vermi compost on yield and yield components of vetch plant (Vigna radiata L.in Yasouj a factorial experiments was performed in completely randomized design in crop year of 2013. Experimental treatments were phosphate biofertilizer barvar-2 at 3 levels (0, 50, 100 gram per hectare and vermicompost at 4 levels (0, 10, 20, 30 ton per hectare. In this study stem height, root length, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index was measured. ANOVA and comparison of means showed that vermicompost significantly increased stem height, economic and biological yields. Results, also, indicated that highest yield and biomass, 4.3 and 18.8 g/plant, observed respectively when 100 g/ha of barvar-2 and 30 t/ha of vermi compost were used. Using both of phosphate biofertilizer barvar-2 and vermicompost was better than their individnal usage. This indicates that combined use of these 2 factors would produce higher yield. It can be concluded that application of 100 g/ha of barvar-2 and 30 t/ha of vermicompost would a proper recommendation.

  4. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  5. [Effects of different amounts of phosphate fertilizers on copper, zinc transfer in red soil under the application of KH2PO4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Zhong-wu; Huang, Bin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    In order to study the effects of different phosphate addition amounts on migration and transformation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn) in soil, an indoor leaching experiment using soil columns was carry out to study the leaching behavior of Cu and Zn. The KH2PO4 was chosen as the fertilizer application at the doses of 5 mg.kg-1, 15 mg.kg-1 and 25 mg.kg-1. The results showed that KH2PO4, could reduce the leachate pH, but different phosphate amounts had little effect on leachate pH, pH in leachate kept rising in the whole leaching process. With the application of KH2PO4, Cu migration was mainly in the surface layer while Zn migrated into deeper soil. Concentrations of Cu, Zn in deep soil leachate were low indicating that it was harmless to the shallow groundwater. After leaching, heavy metals mainly existed in the residual form in soil, the proportion of residual form of Cu was around 60% and the proportion of residual form of Zn was around 40%. High concentration of KH2PO4 helps the transformation of Zn from residual organic combination state to exchange state.

  6. Adsorption of ammonium and phosphate by feather protein based semi-interpenetrating polymer networks hydrogel as a controlled-release fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan; Liu, Jia; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    A new feather protein-grafted poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (FP-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was produced through graft copolymerization with FP as a basic macromolecular skeletal material, acrylic acid as a monomer and PVA as a semi-IPNs polymer. The adsorption of ammonium and phosphate ions from aqueous solution using the new hydrogel as N and P controlled-release fertilizer with water-retention capacity was studied. The effects of pH value, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4+ and PO3-4 removal by FP-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel were investigated using batch adsorption experiments. The results indicated that the hydrogel had high adsorption capacities and fast adsorption rates for NH4+ and PO3-4 in wide pH levels ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. Kinetic analysis presented that both NH4+ and PO3-4 removal were closely fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherms of hydrogel were best represented by the Freundlich model. The adsorption-desorption experimental results showed the sustainable stability of FP-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel for NH4+ and PO3-4 removal. Overall, FP-g-PKA/PVA could be considered as an efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer.

  7. Oxidatively modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Alzheimer's disease: many pathways to neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, D Allan; Hardas, Sarita S; Lange, Miranda L Bader

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the oxidoreductase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), has become a subject of interest as more and more studies reveal a surfeit of diverse GAPDH functions, extending beyond traditional aerobic metabolism of glucose. As a result of multiple isoforms and cellular locales, GAPDH is able to come in contact with a variety of small molecules, proteins, membranes, etc., that play important roles in normal and pathologic cell function. Specifically, GAPDH has been shown to interact with neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins, including the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP). Studies from our laboratory have shown significant inhibition of GAPDH dehydrogenase activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain due to oxidative modification. Although oxidative stress and damage is a common phenomenon in the AD brain, it would seem that inhibition of glycolytic enzyme activity is merely one avenue in which AD pathology affects neuronal cell development and survival, as oxidative modification can also impart a toxic gain-of-function to many proteins, including GAPDH. In this review, we examine the many functions of GAPDH with respect to AD brain; in particular, the apparent role(s) of GAPDH in AD-related apoptotic cell death is emphasized.

  8. Interaction Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Modifies Secondary And Tertiary Protein Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hakeim Hussein K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP have good biocompatibility and bioactivity inside human body. In this study, the interaction between CaPNP and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was analyzed to determine the changes in the protein structure in the presence of CaPNP and the quantity of protein adsorbed on the CaPNP surface. The results showed a significant adsorption of hCG on the CaPNP nanoparticle surface. The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 68.23 µg/mg. The thermodynamic parameters, including ∆H° and ∆G°, of the adsorption process are positive, whereas ∆S° is negative. The circular dichroism results of the adsorption of hCG on CaPNP showed the changes in its secondary structure; such changes include the decomposition of α-helix strand and the increase in β-pleated sheet and random coil percentages. Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein. The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface.

  9. Biphasic calcium sulfate dihydrate/iron-modified alpha-tricalcium phosphate bone cement for spinal applications: in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, M D; Lopez, J; Torres, R; Barraco, M; Fernandez, E; Valle, L J; Poeata, I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the cytocompatibility of new 'iron-modified/alpha-tricalcium phosphate (IM/α-TCP) and calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD)' bone cement (IM/α-TCP/CSD-BC) intended for spinal applications has been approached. The objective was to investigate by direct-contact osteoblast-like cell cultures (from 1 to 14 days) the in vitro cell adhesion, proliferation, morphology and cytoskeleton organization of MG-63 cells seeded onto the new cements. The results were as follows: (a) quantitative MTT-assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that cell adhesion, proliferation and viability were not affected with time by the presence of iron in the cements; (b) double immunofluorescent labeling of F-actin and α-tubulin showed a dynamic interaction between the cell and its porous substrates sustaining the locomotion phenomenon on the cements' surface, which favored the colonization, and confirming the biocompatibility of the experimental cements; (c) SEM-cell morphology and cytoskeleton observations also evidenced that MG-63 cells were able to adhere, to spread and to attain normal morphology on the new IM/α-TCP/CSD-BC which offered favorable substratum properties for osteoblast-like cells proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The results showed that these new iron-modified cement-like biomaterials have cytocompatible features of interest not only as possible spinal cancellous bone replacement biomaterial but also as bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  10. Residual phosphate fertilization and Azospirillum brasilense in the common bean in succession to maize intercropped with Marandu grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Dickmann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the alternatives for achieving sustainable agriculture and a reduction in production costs, especially with phosphate fertilisers, is to inoculate seeds with bacteria of the genus Azospirillum. The aim of this study therefore, was to evaluate residual phosphate fertilisation and Azospirillum brasilense, together with the contribution of straw from maize intercropped with Marandu grass, on leaf nutritional content, yield components and winter bean yield. The experiment was carried out on the Teaching and Research Farm, of the School of Engineering at UNESP, located in Selvíria in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in a typic clayey dystrophic Red Latosol. The experimental design was of randomised blocks with four replications in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of beans sown on straw from maize intercropped with Marandu grass on areas that had received five levels of P2O5 in the form of MAP, applied during an initial cultivation of black oats (0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 kg ha-1, both with and without inoculation of the oat and maize which preceded the beans with Azospirillum brasilense. Leaf nutrient content, leaf chlorophyll index (ICF, yield components and bean productivity were all evaluated. Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense of the black oat and maize seeds improved the nutritional status of the plants, but had a negative effect on grain yield. Fertilisation of the oat crop with phosphorus had a positive residual effect on the beans, with increases in yield components and grain yield.

  11. Molybdenum modified phosphate glasses studied by 31P MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumera, Magdalena

    2015-02-25

    Glasses have been synthesized in the system P2O5-SiO2-K2O-MgO-CaO modified by addition of MoO3. Glasses were prepared by conventional fusion method from 40 g batches. The influence of Mo-cations on the analysed glass structure was investigated by means of Raman and (31)P MAS-NMR techniques. It has been found that molybdate units can form Mo[MoO4/MoO6]-O-P and/or Mo[MoO4/MoO6]-O-Si bonds with non-bridging oxygens atoms of Q2 methaphosphate units, resulting in the transformation of chain methaphosphate structure into pyrophosphate and finally into orthophosphate structure. It has been also found that increasing amount of MoO3 in the structure of investigated glasses causes their gradual depolymerization and molybdenum ions in the analysed glass matrix act as modifying cations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimizing Available Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils Fertilized with Diammonium Phosphate and Phosphoric Acid Using Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aC b/a) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L−1) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L−1, compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation. PMID:24307878

  13. Optimizing Available Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils Fertilized with Diammonium Phosphate and Phosphoric Acid Using Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms ( were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L−1 were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with . Moreover, at all the levels of , P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L−1, compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation.

  14. Distribution of Mercury Concentrations in Tree Rings and Surface Soils Adjacent to a Phosphate Fertilizer Plant in Southern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Raae; Ahn, Young Sang

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine mercury concentrations in tree rings and surface soils at distances of 4, 26 and 40 km from a fertilizer plant located in Yeosu City, Korea. Mercury concentrations in all tree rings were low prior to the establishment of the plant in 1977 and became elevated thereafter. The highest average mercury concentration in the tree rings was 11.96 ng g -1 at the Yeosu site located nearest to the plant, with the lowest average mercury concentration of 4.45 ng g -1 at the Suncheon site furthest away from the plant. In addition, the highest mercury content in the surface soil was 108.51 ng cm -3 at the Yeosu site, whereas the lowest mercury content in the surface soil was 31.47 ng cm -3 at the Suncheon site. The mercury levels decreased gradually with increasing distance from the plant.

  15. Calcium phosphate coatings modified with zinc- or copper- incorporation on Ti-40Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, E. G.; Sedelnikova, M. B.; Sharkeev, Yu P.; Kazakbaeva, A. A.; Glukhov, I. A.; Khimich, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    The influence of the microarc oxidation parameters and electrolyte composition on the structure, properties and composition of CaP coatings modified with Zn- or Cu- incorporation on the Ti-40mas.%Nb (Ti-40Nb) alloy was investigated. The linear growth of thickness, roughness, and size of structural elements with process voltage increasing has been revealed. It was shown that the CaP coatings have the low contact angles with liquids and, consequently, high free surface energy. This indicates a high hydrophilicity of the coatings. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coatings have X-ray amorphous structure. The increase of the process voltage leads to the formation of such crystalline phases as CaHPO4 and β-Ca2P2O7 in the coatings. The maximum Ca/P atomic ratio was equal to 0.4, and Zn or Cu contents was equal to 0.3 or 0.2 at.%, respectively.

  16. Enhancement of Osteoblastic-Like Cell Activity by Glow Discharge Plasma Surface Modified Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisner Salamanca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glow discharge plasma (GDP treatments of biomaterials, such as hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP composites, produce surfaces with fewer contaminants and may facilitate cell attachment and enhance bone regeneration. Thus, in this study we used argon glow discharge plasma (Ar-GDP treatments to modify HA/β-TCP particle surfaces and investigated the physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles (HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP. The HA/β-TCP particles were treated with GDP for 15 min in argon gas at room temperature under the following conditions: power: 80 W; frequency: 13.56 MHz; pressure: 100 mTorr. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations showed similar rough surfaces of HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP HA/β-TCP particles, and energy dispersive spectrometry analyses showed that HA/β-TCP surfaces had more contaminants than HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP surfaces. Ca/P mole ratios in HA/β-TCP and HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP were 1.34 and 1.58, respectively. Both biomaterials presented maximal intensities of X-ray diffraction patterns at 27° with 600 a.u. At 25° and 40°, HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP and HA/β-TCP particles had peaks of 200 a.u., which are similar to XRD intensities of human bone. In subsequent comparisons, MG-63 cell viability and differentiation into osteoblast-like cells were assessed on HA/β-TCP and HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP surfaces, and Ar-GDP treatments led to improved cell growth and alkaline phosphatase activities. The present data indicate that GDP surface treatment modified HA/β-TCP surfaces by eliminating contaminants, and the resulting graft material enhanced bone regeneration.

  17. In vivo distribution and elimination of hemoglobin modified by intramolecular cross-linking with 2-nor-2-formylpyridoxal 5'-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, W.K.; van der Plas, J.; Feitsma, R.I.; Agterberg, J.; Rigter, G.; de Vries-van Rossen, A.; Pauwels, E.K.; Bakker, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Modified hemoglobin solutions have potential application as plasma expanders with oxygen-transporting capacity. In a previous study it was found that modification of hemoglobin by intramolecular cross-linking with 2-nor-2-formylpyridoxal 5'-phosphate (NFPLP) improves the vascular retention time by a factor of three, and it also improves the oxygen-transporting properties. In the present study we investigated in rats how, after exchange transfusion of a clinically relevant dose, the modified hemoglobin (HbNFPLP) was distributed in the body compared with how the unmodified hemoglobin was distributed. By using a new technetium 99m labeling technique, we found in a scintigraphic study that accumulation of hemoglobin in the kidneys was greatly diminished by the intramolecular cross-linking with NFPLP. These findings were confirmed by light-microscopic observations after diaminobenzidine staining. It was concluded that the impairment of kidney function caused by blockade of the tubuli is not to be expected from HbNFPLP. In the liver and spleen, where the free HbNFPLP is possibly eliminated, some accumulation of 99mTc label was observed, but the major part of the extravascular label was diffusely spread throughout the body. This led to the conclusion that important accumulation of undegraded HbNFPLP does not occur in the liver and spleen. Rapid appearance of both hemoglobin and HbNFPLP in the lymph showed that cross-linking with NFPLP does not prevent the distribution of hemoglobin over the interstitial space in the first hours after administration. However, pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that transcapillary transfer contributes only to a limited extent to the disappearance from the circulation. During 24-hour infusions of HbNFPLP, a steady state with a constant plasma concentration was easily reached

  18. Deciphering Phosphate Deficiency-Mediated Temporal Effects on Different Root Traits in Rice Grown in a Modified Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Manisha; Sanagala, Raghavendrarao; Rai, Vandna; Jain, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 days- and 7 days-treatments on two and eight different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 days were also evident on different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences in the responses of primary root growth along with lateral roots on it and the number and length of seminal and adventitious roots. Notably though, there were attenuating effects of Pi deficiency on the lateral roots on seminal and adventitious roots and total root length in both these genotypes. The study thus revealed both differential and comparable effects of Pi deficiency on different root traits in these genotypes. Pi deficiency also triggered reduction in Pi content and induction of several Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes in roots of MI48. Together, the analyses validated the fidelity of this modified hydroponic system for documenting Pi deficiency-mediated effects not only on different traits of RSA but also on physiological and molecular responses. PMID:27200025

  19. Samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalyst for the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hua-Yi; Wang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Xin-Hua; Li, Jian-Hui; Yang, Mei-Hua; Huang, Chuan-Jing; Weng, Wei-Zheng; Wan, Hui-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The addition of a small amount of Sm into VPO catalyst brought about great changes in its physicochemical properties such as surface area, surface morphology, phase composition and redox property, thus leading to a higher catalytic performance in the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride, as compared to the undoped VPO catalyst. - Highlights: • The addition of Sm leads to great changes in the structure of VPO catalyst. • Sm improves performance of VPO for oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. • Catalytic performance is closely related to structure of VPO catalyst. - Abstract: A series of samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalysts were prepared and studied in selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The catalytic evaluation showed that Sm modification significantly increased the overall n-butane conversion and intrinsic activity. N 2 -adsorption, XRD, SEM, Raman, XPS, EPR and H 2 -TPR techniques were used to investigate the intrinsic difference among these catalysts. The results revealed that the addition of Sm to VPO catalyst can increase the surface area of the catalyst, lead to a significant change in catalyst morphology from plate-like structure into rosette-shape clusters, and largely promote the formation of (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 . All of these were related to the different catalytic performance of Sm-doped and undoped VPO catalysts. The roles of the different VOPO 4 phases and the influence of Sm were also described and discussed

  20. A glassy carbon electrode modified with cerium phosphate nanotubes for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Yue, Yuhua; Hao, Yanjun; Feng, Shun; Zhou, Xianli

    2018-03-12

    A nafion film containing cerium phosphate nanotubes was pasted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to obtain a sensor for hydroquinone (HQ). The morphologies and components of the coating were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) showed the specific surface of the electrode to be significantly increased and the electron transfer rate to be accelerated. The modified GCE was applied to the determination of hydroquinone (HQ) via DPV. The oxidation current increases linearly in the 0.23 μM to 16 mM HQ concentration range which is as wide as five orders of magnitude. The limit of detection is 0.12 μM (based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3), and the sensitivity is 1.41 μA·μM -1  cm -2 . The method was further applied to the simultaneous determination of HQ, catechol and resorcinol. The potentials for the three species are well separated (20, 134, and 572 mV vs SCE). Average recoveries from (spiked) real water samples are between 95.2 and 107.0%, with relative standard deviations of 0.9~2.7% (for n = 3) at three spiking levels. The method was validated by independent assays using HPLC. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. In silico peptide prediction for antibody generation to recognize 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, Mariela M; Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Camperi, Silvia A; Leite, José Roberto de Souza Almeida

    2015-03-01

    For the prospective immunorecognition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) as a biomarker protein expressed by transgenic soybean, an extensive in silico evaluation of the referred protein was performed. The main objective of this study was the selection of a set of peptides that could function as potential immunogens for the production of novel antibodies against CP4-EPSPS protein. For this purpose, the protein was in silico cleaved with trypsin/chymotrypsin and the resultant peptides were extensively analyzed for further selection of the best candidates for antibody production. The analysis enabled the successful proposal of four peptides with potential immunogenicity for their future use as screening biomarkers of genetically modified organisms. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to select and define potential linear epitopes for the immunization of animals and, subsequently, to generate adequate antibodies for CP4-EPSPS recognition. The present work will be followed by the synthesis of the candidate peptides to be incubated in animals for antibody generation and potential applicability for the development of an immunosensor for CP4-EPSPS detection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Efficiency of phosphate fertilization to maize crop in high phosphorus content soil, evaluated by 32P tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevizam, Anderson R.; Alvarez Villanueva, Felipe C.; Silva, Maria Ligia de S.; Muraoka, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Application of high dosis of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils is justified by its intense fixation by the soil clays, which reduce availability to crops. The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of maize crops to five rates of triple superphosphate in a soil with high available phosphorus content. Portions of 2 dm 3 of soil (Typic Quartzipisamment) with 75 mg kg -1 of available phosphorus and pH 7.00, collected from the upper 0-20 cm layer, were placed in plastic pots, received solution containing 5.55 MBq (150 μCi) of 32 P and incubated for 7 days. Then 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg P kg -1 as triple superphosphate was added to soil in the respective pots and incubated for 15 days keeping the soil moisture to 60 % of the field capacity. Maize (Zea mays L.) plants, single hybrid P30F80, were grown for 50 days (after germination), collected, oven dried, weighed and ground in a Wiley mill for analysis of total P content and 32 P radioactivity. The maize dry matter increased with triple superphosphate rates. The phosphorus content and accumulation in the maize plants increased with triple superphosphate rate up to 4000 mg kg -1 . The percentage of phosphorus derived from the fertilizer ranged from 79 to 97% and consequently the phosphorus derived from soil decreased with increasing application of triple superphosphate. In spite of soil high P available content, maize plants responded to applied phosphorus rates. (author)

  3. Efficiency of phosphate fertilization to maize crop in high phosphorus content soil, evaluated by {sup 32}P tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevizam, Anderson R.; Alvarez Villanueva, Felipe C.; Silva, Maria Ligia de S.; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do Solo]. E-mails: trevizam@cena.usp.br; falvarez@cena.usp.br; mlsousi@hotmail.com; muraoka@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Application of high dosis of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils is justified by its intense fixation by the soil clays, which reduce availability to crops. The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of maize crops to five rates of triple superphosphate in a soil with high available phosphorus content. Portions of 2 dm{sup 3} of soil (Typic Quartzipisamment) with 75 mg kg{sup -1} of available phosphorus and pH 7.00, collected from the upper 0-20 cm layer, were placed in plastic pots, received solution containing 5.55 MBq (150 {mu}Ci) of {sup 32}P and incubated for 7 days. Then 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg P kg{sup -1} as triple superphosphate was added to soil in the respective pots and incubated for 15 days keeping the soil moisture to 60 % of the field capacity. Maize (Zea mays L.) plants, single hybrid P30F80, were grown for 50 days (after germination), collected, oven dried, weighed and ground in a Wiley mill for analysis of total P content and {sup 32}P radioactivity. The maize dry matter increased with triple superphosphate rates. The phosphorus content and accumulation in the maize plants increased with triple superphosphate rate up to 4000 mg kg{sup -1}. The percentage of phosphorus derived from the fertilizer ranged from 79 to 97% and consequently the phosphorus derived from soil decreased with increasing application of triple superphosphate. In spite of soil high P available content, maize plants responded to applied phosphorus rates. (author)

  4. X-ray absorption and magnetic studies of trivalent lanthanide ions sorbed on pristine and phosphate-modified boehmite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Soh-Joung; Helmke, Philip A.; Amonette, James E.; Bleam, William F.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of immobilizing radionuclides on mineral surfaces was examined in the absence and the presence of phosphate anions, using trivalent lanthanide ions (Eu3+, Gd3+, and Dy3+) as chemical analogues of trivalent actinide radionuclides. The amount of the lanthanide ions (Ln3+) sorbed on boehmite (gamma-AlOOH) surfaces dramatically increased on the presence of phosphate below pH 5. The structure of the sorbed lanthanide was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We proved Dy3+ forms precipitates on boehmite surfaces in the presence of phosphate, and Gd3+ both in the presence and absence of phosphate. In the presence of phosphate, however, these rare-earth cations react to from ultrafine particles of LnPO4 surface precipitates on boehmite surfaces

  5. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  6. Osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells on smooth, roughened, and tricalcium phosphate-modified titanium alloy surfaces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colombo, John S

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of smooth, roughened, and tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-coated roughened titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) surfaces on the osteogenic potential of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs).

  7. EXTRACTION OF SILICON IN SOILS FERTILIZED WITH PHOSPHATE AND SILICATE EXTRAÇÃO DE SILÍCIO EM SOLOS FERTILIZADOS COM FOSFATO E SILICATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykom Ferreira Inocêncio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of silicon (Si extracted by using calcium chloride and acetic acid solutions, in Haplortox soil samples fertilized with phosphate and silicate. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x2 factorial scheme, consisting of five doses of phosphorus (P (0 mg dm-3, 96 mg dm-3, 192 mg dm-3, 288 mg dm-3, and 480 mg dm-3, in the absence and presence of 300 mg dm-3 of Si. The experimental units were submitted to two incubation periods, the first with silicate (half of the portions and the second with limestone (remaining of the portions. After incubation, the soil samples received the P doses and were cultivated with corn plants. The Si level in the soil, measured by using extracting solutions, and the Si and P contents in the dry matter of the aerial part were evaluated. Significant effect was observed for Si, phosphate levels, and for the interaction Si x phosphate doses, in relation to the Si content extracted from the soil. The acetic acid solution extracted more Si than the calcium chloride solution, independently of the slag fertilization.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays L.; slag; phosphorus; extractors.

  8. Characterization of phosphate sequestration by a lanthanum modified bentonite clay: A solid-state NMR, EXAFS and PXRD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Line; Lipton, Andrew S; Reitzel, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) sequestration by a lanthanum (La) exchanged clay mineral (La-Bentonite), which is extensively used in chemical lake restoration, was investigated on the molecular level using a combination of 31P and 139La solid state NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR), extended X-ray absorption spectroscopy...

  9. Fertility desires and fertility outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, M; Santow, G

    1991-05-01

    An Australian 1-in-1000 national probability sample conducted in 1986 yielded 2547 women aged 20-59 who provided detailed life histories on marital unions, childbearing, and contraception. Age specific fertility rates, desired family size, differentials in desired family size, desired fertility and achieved fertility, and sequential family building are examined. The results indicate that the desired family size at 1st marriage has declined only slightly over the past 30 years. 3 children are generally desired, and ver few desire 2. The constance of fertility desires in contrasted with the fertilitydecline to below replacement levels. Several reasons are suggested for the desired family size: the desire is for a family size within the family tradition and modified by the desire to have 1 of each sex, the desire reflects less on intentions but more on normative pressure to become a parent. Marrying is self selecting on the desire for a traditional family of at least 2 children. There is a rising age at marriage as well as a decline in marriages. Desired family size exceeds completed fertility. Period factors and personal circumstances affect fertility intentions. Future inquires should explore the multiple factors relating to fertility, rather than in comparing fertility desires and actual fertility. The data collected on age specific fertility were comparable to official estimates. The fertility decline was evidenced in all groups except teenagers. The decline was nearly 50% for those 20-24 years between the 1050's-80's, 33% for ages 25-29. Marriage patterns explain this decline in part. Between 1971-76, women aged 20-25 were married 37 months out of 60 months in 1971-76 versus 25 out of 60 months in 1981-86. Within the 25 year age group, marital fertility has declined and unmarried fertility, which is low, has risen, Women in a marital union of any kind has remained stable. Fertility within de facto unions, which is lower than within marriage, is higher than

  10. Use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) to identify physisorption and chemisorption of phosphate onto ferrihydrite-modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhui; Peng, Jian; Hu, Yongfeng

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents a novel technique integrating bulk-sensitive and surface-sensitive XANES methods to distinguish between physisorption and chemisorption for phosphate adsorption onto ferrihydrite-modified diatomite (FHMD). XANES P K-edge, L-edge, and Fe M-edge spectra were obtained for reference samples (K(2)HPO(4) and FePO(4)·2H(2)O) and test samples (phosphate adsorbed onto FHMD (FHMD-Ps) and Si-containing ferrihydrite (FHYD-Ps)). A resolvable pre-edge peak in the P K-edge spectra of FHMD-Ps and FHYD-Ps provided direct evidence for the formation of P-O-Fe(III) coordination and the occurrence of chemisorption. The resemblance between the P L-edge spectra of K(2)HPO(4) and FHMD-Ps and the marked difference between the spectra of FHMD-Ps and FePO(4)·2H(2)O indicated the intact existence of the adsorbate and the adsorbent. The similarity between Fe M-edge spectra of FHMD and FHMD-Ps and the difference between the spectra of FHMD-Ps and FePO(4)·2H(2)O confirmed the findings from P L-edge analyses. Therefore, chemisorption and physisorption coexisted during phosphate adsorption onto FHMD. Phosphate chemisorption occurred in the deeper zone of FHMD (from 50 nm to 5 μm); whereas physisorption occurred in the zone of FHMD shallower than 50 nm since the probing depth of XANES P K-edge method is 5 μm and that of P L-edge and Fe M-edge methods is 50 nm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Approach to the effect of phosphatic fertilizer and phosphogypsum upon the radioelement contents of some cultivated lands in the Egyptian nile delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.; Ahmed, H.A.H.

    1997-01-01

    The present work deals-for environmental importance with the estimation of radioelement contents 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in non fertilized soil, fertilized soil (crops), fertilized soil (vegetables) and samples from the bottoms of the local drainage systems collected from four sites (Govern orates) of egyptian delta. This work therefore aims at assessing eventual concentration and build up of the natural-radioactivity in the Egyptian soil treated by the locally produced single superphosphate fertilizer and phosphogypsum. A total number (42) of samples were collected from the following sites (Govern orates); 1) El-Qalyobia (Shebin El-Qanater and Abu-Zaabal); 2) El-Sharqia (Inshas and Minia El-kamh); 3) El-Dakahlia (El-Mansoura); and 4) El-Menoufia (Tala). From each locality two samples of non-fertilized soil, two samples of non-fertilized soil, two samples of fertilized soil (crops), two samples of fertilized soil (vegetables), and sample the drainage system were obtained.

  12. Influence of the time of application of 32P triple Superphosphate on the efficiency of the phosphate fertilization and the productivity of the potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Alvarez, A.L.; Urquiaga, S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was performed on a soil derived from volcanic ash (Andic Humitropept), in Pasto (Narino), Colombia, to investigate the influence of additions of 100 and 200 Kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 , at two application times (planting and 30 days after emergence - DAE), on the fertilizer use efficiency and productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Pardo Pastusa. At planting the phosphorus was applied in a continuous row in the furrow, and at 30 DAE at one side of the plant row, and immediately covered with soil from both sides of the furrow. The fertilizer used was 32 P labelled triple superphosphate (143.59 μ Ci.g -1 p -1 . It was found that: a) the phosphorus fertilization significantly increased (P -1 ) and the accumulation (from 8 to 17.8 kg P ha -1 ) by the tubers, but there was no significant effect of the different rates or times of the fertilizer application; b) the accumulation of P by the plant accompanied the accumulation of plant dry matter; c) at 75 DAE the fraction of fertiliser P in the plant shoot in the treatment fertilized at 30 DAE (52.1%) was significantly higher than that fertilized at planting (21.8%), and this corresponded to a P fertilizer use efficiency of 2.4 and 0.82, respectively

  13. Study on the antibacterial mechanism of copper ion- and neodymium ion-modified α-zirconium phosphate with better antibacterial activity and lower cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiang; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jinglin; Yan, Yinghui; Chen, Xiaoyin; Wu, Zhimin; Liu, Hongxi; Wen, Shuiping; Tan, Shaozao; Wu, Ting

    2015-08-01

    To improve the antibacterial activity of Cu(2+), a series of Cu(2+) and/or Nd(3+)-modified layered α-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was prepared and characterized, and the antibacterial activities of the prepared Cu(2+) and/or Nd(3+)-modified ZrP on Gram-negative Escherichia coli were investigated. The results showed that the basal spacing of ZrP was not obviously affected by the incorporation of Cu(2+), but the basal spacing of the modified ZrP changed into an amorphous state with increasing additions of Nd(3+). An antibacterial mechanism showed that Cu(2+) and Nd(3+) could enter into E. coli cells, leading to changes in ion concentrations and leakage of DNA, RNA and protein. The Cu(2+)- and Nd(3+)-modified ZrP, combining the advantages of Cu(2+) and Nd(3+), displayed excellent additive antibacterial activity and lower cytotoxicity, suggesting the great potential application as an antibacterial powder for microbial control. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel Applications for Oxalate-Phosphate-Amine Metal-Organic-Frameworks (OPA-MOFs): Can an Iron-Based OPA-MOF Be Used as Slow-Release Fertilizer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstoetz, Manuela; Rose, Terry J.; Clark, Malcolm W.; Yee, Lachlan H.; Raymond, Carolyn A.; Vancov, Tony

    2015-01-01

    A porous iron-based oxalate-phosphate-amine metal-organic framework material (OPA-MOF) was investigated as a microbially-induced slow-release nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Seedling growth, grain yields, nutrient uptake of wheat plants, and soil dynamics in incubated soil, were investigated using OPA-MOF vs standard P (triple-superphosphate) and N (urea) fertilizers in an acidic Ferralsol at two application rates (equivalent 120 and 40 kg N ha-1). While urea hydrolysis in the OPA-MOF treatment was rapid, conversion of ammonium to nitrate was significantly inhibited compared to urea treatment. Reduced wheat growth in OPA-MOF treatments was not caused by N-deficiency, but by limited P-bioavailability. Two likely reasons were slow P-mobilisation from the OPA-MOF or rapid P-binding in the acid soil. P-uptake and yield in OPA-MOF treatments were significantly higher than in nil-P controls, but significantly lower than in conventionally-fertilised plants. OPA-MOF showed potential as enhanced efficiency N fertilizer. However, as P-bioavailability was insufficient to meet plant demands, further work should determine if P-availability may be enhanced in alkaline soils, or whether central ions other than Fe, forming the inorganic metal-P framework in the MOF, may act as a more effective P-source in acid soils. PMID:26633174

  15. Investigation of chemical modifiers for the determination of lead in fertilizers and limestone using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction and slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Aline R. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq–INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker, Emilene M.; Dessuy, Morgana B. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R., E-mail: mgrvale@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq–INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq–INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-02-01

    In this work, chemical modifiers in solution (Pd/Mg, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}/Pd) were compared with permanent modifiers (Ir and Ru) for the determination of lead in fertilizer and limestone samples using slurry sampling and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction. The analytical line at 283.3 nm was used due to some spectral interference observed at 217.0 nm. The NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} was abandoned due to severe spectral interference even at the 283.3-nm line. For Pd/Mg and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}/Pd the optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 900 °C and 1900 °C, respectively. For Ru and Ir, the integrated absorbance signal was stable up to pyrolysis temperatures of 700 °C and 900 °C, respectively, and up to atomization temperature of 1700 °C. The limit of detection (LOD) was 17 ng g{sup −1} using Pd/Mg and 29 ng g{sup −1} using NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}/Pd. Among the permanent modifiers investigated, the LOD was 22 ng g{sup −1} Pb for Ir and 10 ng g{sup −1} Pb for Ru. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the certified reference material NIST SRM 695. Although Ru provided lower LOD, which can be attributed to a lower blank signal, only the modifiers in solution showed concordant values of Pb concentration for the NIST SRM 695 and the most of analyzed samples. Moreover, the Pd/Mg modifier provided the highest sensitivity and for this reason it is more suitable for the determination of Pb in fertilizers samples in slurry; besides this it presented a better signal-to-noise ratio than NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}/Pd. - Highlights: • Lead has been determined in fertilizers using slurry sampling GF AAS. • The mixture of palladium and magnesium nitrates was found to be the ideal chemical modifier. • Calibration could be carried out against aqueous standard solutions. • The proposed method is much faster than the EPA method, which includes sample digestion.

  16. Better prospects for phosphate production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The extraction of uranium as a by product of phosphate production is discussed. Techniques being commercially developed are described. The trend towards the wet process, in which sulphuric acid is used to dissolve the phosphate, producing phosphoric acid, is also the preferred method for uranium recovery. Recovery from a wet process phosphoric acid stream, integrated with phosphate fertilizer manufacture, is becoming increasingly commercially viable for the production of yellow-cake.

  17. A Novel Grouping Method for Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries Based on a Fractional Joint Kalman Filter and a New Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel grouping method for lithium iron phosphate batteries. In this method, a simplified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS model is utilized to describe the battery characteristics. Dynamic stress test (DST and fractional joint Kalman filter (FJKF are used to extract battery model parameters. In order to realize equal-number grouping of batteries, a new modified K-means clustering algorithm is proposed. Two rules are designed to equalize the numbers of elements in each group and exchange samples among groups. In this paper, the principles of battery model selection, physical meaning and identification method of model parameters, data preprocessing and equal-number clustering method for battery grouping are comprehensively described. Additionally, experiments for battery grouping and method validation are designed. This method is meaningful to application involving the grouping of fresh batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and screening of aged batteries for recycling.

  18. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of Ogun and Sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum, calcite and lime were associated with both rock phosphates indicating their liming potential in the soil. ORP was more soluble in water, probably because it ... fertilizers and direct application in crop production. Keywords: Phosphorus, apatite, crop production, fertilizer, Ogun rock phosphate, Sokoto rock phosphate ...

  20. Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis ) rhizosphere in Cameroon. ... While the use of soluble mineral phosphate fertilizers is the obvious best means to combat phosphate ... in order to improve agricultural production, using low inputs technology. Isolates ...

  1. The effect of microwave and conventional heating on a modified sol-gel derived biphasic calcium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herradi, S.; Bouhazma, S.; Khaldi, M.; El Hachadi, A.; El Bali, B.; Lachkar, M.

    2018-03-01

    A facile sol-gel method was used to synthesize either hydroxyapatite (HA) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as the major phase. Herein, we report, on the one hand, the effect of a very low maturation temperature on the final powder composition after drying step, and on the other hand, we compare the effect of calcination of this powder by microwave or electric furnace. It was found that microwave heating has led to the formation of hydroxyapatite phase upon 180°C for 20 minutes, however, XRD patterns show that the powder becomes less crystallized upon 220°C and amorphous upon 230°C. In contrast, furnace heating at 600°C and 700°C converts the as-synthesized powder to β-TCP as the major phase together with HA as the minor phase. This work shows the possibility to obtain the as-prepared BCP at much lower maturation temperature; it also gives an insight into the role, of either microwave or conventional heating, in controlling the ratio between HA and β-TCP in the sintered powder.

  2. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solution using iron-zirconium modified activated carbon nanofiber: Performance and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiping; Tong, Jing; Yang, Zhaohui; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Wang, Dongbo; Song, Peipei; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2017-05-01

    Phosphate (P) removal is significant for the prevention of eutrophication in natural waters. In this paper, a novel adsorbent for the removal of P from aqueous solution was synthesized by loading zirconium oxide and iron oxide onto activated carbon nanofiber (ACF-ZrFe) simultaneously. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that P adsorption was highly pH dependent and the optimum pH was found to be 4.0. The isotherm of adsorption could be well described by the Langmuir model and the maximum P adsorption capacity was estimated to be 26.3mgP/g at 25°C. The kinetic data were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation, indicating that chemical sorption was the rate-limiting step. Moreover, co-existing ions including sulfate (SO 4 2- ), chloride (Cl - ), nitrate (NO 3 - ) and fluoride (F - ) exhibited a distinct effect on P adsorption with the order of F - >NO 3 - >Cl - >SO 4 2- . Further investigations by FT-IR spectroscopy and pH variations associated with the adsorption process revealed that ligands exchange and electrostatic interactions were the dominant mechanisms for P adsorption. The findings reported in this work highlight the potential of using ACF-ZrFe as an effective adsorbent for the removal of P in natural waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cobalt phosphate-modified barium-doped tantalum nitride nanorod photoanode with 1.5% solar energy conversion efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanbo

    2013-10-03

    Spurred by the decreased availability of fossil fuels and global warming, the idea of converting solar energy into clean fuels has been widely recognized. Hydrogen produced by photoelectrochemical water splitting using sunlight could provide a carbon dioxide lean fuel as an alternative to fossil fuels. A major challenge in photoelectrochemical water splitting is to develop an efficient photoanode that can stably oxidize water into oxygen. Here we report an efficient and stable photoanode that couples an active barium-doped tantalum nitride nanostructure with a stable cobalt phosphate co-catalyst. The effect of barium doping on the photoelectrochemical activity of the photoanode is investigated. The photoanode yields a maximum solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.5%, which is more than three times higher than that of state-of-the-art single-photon photoanodes. Further, stoichiometric oxygen and hydrogen are stably produced on the photoanode and the counter electrode with Faraday efficiency of almost unity for 100 min. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxi; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Mazzara, Marco; Van den Eede, Guy; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-05-13

    One rice ( Oryza sativa ) gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), has been proven to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) rice detection in a previous study. Herein are the reported results of an international collaborative ring trial for validation of the SPS gene as an endogenous reference gene and its optimized qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems. A total of 12 genetically modified organism (GMO) detection laboratories from seven countries participated in the ring trial and returned their results. The validated results confirmed the species specificity of the method through testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, low heterogeneity, and a stable single-copy number of the rice SPS gene among 7 indica varieties and 5 japonica varieties. The SPS qualitative PCR assay was validated with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%, which corresponded to about 230 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the quantitative PCR system was about 23 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Furthermore, the bias between the test and true values of eight blind samples ranged from 5.22 to 26.53%. Thus, we believe that the SPS gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM rice and its derivates.

  5. Adubos fosfatados na absorção de fósforo pela soja em presença e ausência de calagem Effect of phosphate fertilizers and liming on phosphorus uptake by soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondino Cleante Bataglia

    1984-01-01

    presence of lime, there was no marked effect of phosphates on the productivity and P uptake. In non limed treatments, the less soluble fertilizers (> and hyperphosphate which were applied at higher rates than the soluble phosphates and consequently carrying larger amounts of calcium, showed better residual effects if compared to the more soluble phosphates (thermophosphate and triple superphosphate.

  6. To evaluate the efficacy of zinc sulphate mixed with phosphate and potash fertilizer on the grain yield of wheat (tritium aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Abbas, Z.; Ali, M.A.; Hussain, I.

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate yield response of wheat cv, BK-2002 at various fertilizer levels, at farmer, fields of District Mianwali during consecutive years 2006-07 and 2007-08. Six levels of ZnSo/sub 4/ mixed with NPK were evaluated in farmer's fields in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. All doses of znSo/sub 4/ along with Departmental recommended dose of NPK (114-84- 62 kg ha/sup-l/) revealed a linear increase in, plant height, number of tillers/m/sup 2/, number of spikelets /spike. number of grains/spike, 1000 grains weight (g) and yield (kg ha/sup-1/) of wheat variety BK-2002 were recorded. Maximum yield of wheat was recorded when it was subjected to 22.5 kg ho/sub -1/ 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ Departmental recommended dose of NPK fertilizer. The study indicated the potential role of ZnSo/sub 4/ in enhancing the growth and yield of wheat in arid climate and that 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ (22.5 kg ha/sub -1/) + Departmental recommended dose of NPK, (fertilizer might be the optimum level (T5) for the production of wheat in arid climate. (author)

  7. Soybeans Grown in the Chernobyl Area Produce Fertile Seeds that Have Increased Heavy Metal Resistance and Modified Carbon Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V.; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:23110204

  8. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Klubicová

    Full Text Available Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  9. Evaluation of human sperm chromatin status after selection using a modified Diff-Quik stain indicates embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes following in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, R S; Silva, A F; Lourenço, B; Almeida-Santos, T; Sousa, A P; Ramalho-Santos, J

    2013-11-01

    Sperm chromatin/DNA damage can be measured by a variety of assays. However, it has been reported that these tests may lose prognostic value in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) cycles when assessed in post-prepared samples, possibly due to the normalizing effect promoted by sperm preparation procedures. We have recently implemented a modified version of the Diff-Quik staining assay that allows for the evaluation of human sperm chromatin status in native samples, together with standard sperm morphology assessment. However, the value of this parameter in terms of predicting in vitro fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes after sperm selection is unknown. In this study, data from 138 couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments showed that sperm chromatin integrity was significantly improved after density gradient centrifugation and swim up (p embryo development rates (p > 0.05). However, sperm samples presenting lower percentages of damaged chromatin were associated with better quality (Grade I) embryos in both ART procedures (p selection may occur; but not in ICSI, where sperm selection is operator dependent. This quick and low-cost assay is suggested as an alternative method to detect sperm chromatin status in minimal clinical settings, when no other well-established and robust assays (e.g. Sperm chromatin structure assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling) are available. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. A modified {sup 99} Mo- {sup 99} Tc generator on Zirconium molybdo- phosphate-{sup 99} Mo gel. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kolaly, M T; Talaat, H [Labelled Compounds Department, Cairo (Egypt); Botros, N [Radioistspe and Generator Department, Radioisotope Production and Sealed Source Division, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A modified {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99} Tc gel generator is described. The new generator is based on the use of zirconium molybdophosphate - {sup 99} Mo gel in which {sup 99} Mo chemically combined in the gel structure, where {sup 99m}Tc can be easily eluted with distilled water or saline. The gel was prepared via chemical reaction between zirconyl chloride and molybdophosphate - {sup 99} Mo solution. The PH of the reaction mixture was adjusted with NaOH. Different gels have been prepared by varying the molar ratio of Mo:Zr:p. The PH and time of digeston on complete gel formation was also investigated in order to optimize the condition of gel preparation. Molybdophosphate {sup 32} P solution was used to determine the phosphorous content in the gel and in the {sup 99m}Tc eluate. The temperature and time of drying of the gel and their effect on {sup 99m}Tc elution efficiency were also studied. From the data obtained, the optimum conditions for routine production of {sup 99} Mo - {sup 99m}Tc generator are presented and discussed. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Effect of FYM, rock phosphate and bio-fertilizer on utilization of phosphorus by rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its transformation in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumhar, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2005 using rice var, IR36 as a test crop in low, medium and high P status soils at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, to study the effect of added P through SSP (labeled 32 P) alone and in combination with FYM, RP and bio-fertilizer on mobilization, uptake pattern, Olsen's P, inorganic soil P fractions and dry matter production. The results showed that the amount of Olsen's extractable P decreased with passage of time up to harvest but total dry matter showed an increasing trend and the highest value was recorded in treatment receiving SSP - 32 P + RP + FYM + PSB. Almost similar pattern was observed in P uptake. The highest value 26.54, 24.54 and 22.90; and 37.60, 36.94 and 35.82; and 27.60, 26.16 and 25.90 of the per cent P derived from fertilizer (Pdff%) were registered in SSP + RP + FYM + PSB at tillering, flowering and at harvest under low, medium and high P status soils, respectively. Results indicated that combined use of RP, FYM and bio-fertilizer helped not only in better utilization of fertilizer phosphorus but it also helped in better utilization of soil phosphorus. PSB was effective only in soil where available P status of soil was low to medium. The application of RP applied along with FYM and PSB improved the P utilization by the crop. It was found that maximum amount of applied P was transformed to Ca-P and minimum into saloid-P in all the variable P status soils. Different fractions of P in the soils followed the order Ca-P>Fe-P>Al-P>Occluded-P and Saloid-P. Maximum response to added P was obtained in SSP + RP + FYM + PSB and minimum was noted in SSP at all the growth stages of plant as well as in different treatments. (author)

  12. A facile route to modify ferrous phosphate and its use as an iron-containing resource for LiFePO4 via a polyol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaomin; Liu, Xichuan; Mi, Rui; Liu, Hao; Li, Yinchuan; Lau, Woon-min; Mei, Jun

    2014-06-25

    This study introduces an economical and environmentally friendly way of synthesizing LiFePO4/C to be used as cathode material in lithium ion batteries via two processes: (1) the synthesis of LiFePO4/C cathode material using a low cost divalent precursor ferrous phosphate, Fe3 (PO4)2·8H2O, as iron source in a polyol process and (2) the modification of the morphology of this precursor by varying the reaction time in a coprecipitation process. The study examines the effects of different structures and morphologies of the precursor on the structure and electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized LiFePO4/C. The LiFePO4/C shows an excellent rate capability and cycle performance, with initial discharge capacities of 153, 128, and 106 mA h g(-1) at 1 C, 5 C, and 10 C. The capacity retention is respectively 98.7%, 98.2%, and 98.7%, after 10 cycles at the corresponding rates. The capacity retention remains at 97% even after 300 cycles at the rate of 10 C. The outstanding electrochemical performance can be attributed to the improved rate of Li(+) diffusion and the excellent crystallinity of synthesized LiFePO4/C powders through the modified precursor. Therefore, this is an economical and environmentally friendly way of synthesizing LiFePO4/C to be used as cathode material in lithium ion batteries.

  13. Biological characteristic effects of human dental pulp stem cells on poly-ε-caprolactone-biphasic calcium phosphate fabricated scaffolds using modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsupa, Natkrita; Nuntanaranont, Thongchai; Kamolmattayakul, Suttatip; Thuaksuban, Nuttawut

    2017-02-01

    Craniofacial bone defects such as alveolar cleft affect the esthetics and functions that need bone reconstruction. The advanced techniques of biomaterials combined with stem cells have been a challenging role for maxillofacial surgeons and scientists. PCL-coated biphasic calcium phosphate (PCL-BCP) scaffolds were created with the modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition (mMSMD) technique and merged with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to fulfill the component of tissue engineering for bone substitution. In the present study, the objective was to test the biocompatibility and biofunctionalities that included cell proliferation, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, alizarin red staining for mineralization, and histological analysis. The results showed that mMSMD PCL-BCP scaffolds were suitable for hDPSCs viability since the cells attached and spread onto the scaffold. Furthermore, the constructs of induced hDPSCs and scaffolds performed ALP activity and produced osteocalcin and mineralized nodules. The results indicated that mMSMD PCL-BCP scaffolds with hDPSCs showed promise in bone regeneration for treatment of osseous defects.

  14. Square-wave voltammetric determination of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations using a carbon composite electrode modified with copper (II phosphate immobilized in polyester resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Heloizy Garcia Freitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A carbon composite electrode modified with copper (II phosphate immobilized in a polyester resin (Cu3(PO42-Poly for the determination of rutin in pharmaceutical samples by square-wave voltammetry is described herein. The modified electrode allows the determination of rutin at a potential (0.20 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L-1 KCl lower than that observed at an unmodified electrode. The peak current was found to be linear to the rutin concentration in the range from 9.9 × 10-8 to 2.5 × 10-6 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 1.2×10-8 mol L-1. The response of the electrode was stable, with no variation in baseline levels within several hours of continuous operation. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX system. The results obtained are precise and accurate. In addition, these results are in agreement with those obtained by the chromatographic method at a 95% confidence level.Descreve-se um eletrodo de carbono modificado com fosfato de cobre (II imobilizado em uma resina de poliéster (Cu3(PO42-Poly para a determinação de rutina em amostras farmacêuticas por voltametria de onda quadrada. O eletrodo modificado permite a determinação de rutina em potencial (0.20 V vs Ag / AgCl (3,0 mol L-1 KCl menor que o observado em um eletrodo não modificado. Verificou-se que a corrente de pico foi linear com a concentração de rutina na faixa de 9,9 × 10-8 a 2,5 × 10-6 mol L-1, com um limite de detecção de 1,2 × 10-8 mol L¹. A resposta do eletrodo foi estável, sem variação significativa dentro de várias horas de operação contínua. A morfologia da superfície do eletrodo modificado foi caracterizada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e pelo sistema de energia dispersiva de raios-X (EDX. Os resultados obtidos foram precisos e exatos. Ademais, estes resultados estão de acordo com aqueles obtidos pelo método cromatográfico a um nível de

  15. Aplicação de fosfato natural e reciclagem de fósforo por milheto, braquiária, milho e soja Rock phosphate fertilization and phosphorus recycling by pearl millet, Brachiaria sp., corn and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar, comparativamente, a capacidade extratora de P da soja (Glycine max, milho (Zea mays, braquiária brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, submetidos a diferentes doses do fertilizante fosfatado natural fosforita Alvorada, em condições controladas. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média, corrigido e adubado com N, K e micronutrientes. As espécies foram cultivadas em vasos de 18 dm³ por 50 dias em casa de vegetação, com aplicação de 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 de P2O5. As quantidades de fosfato natural foram calculadas com base na teor total de P2O5. O milho, ao contrário da soja, respondeu positivamente ao aumento da dose de P2O5 via fosforita Alvorada. A Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, apesar da menor produção de matéria seca em relação ao milheto, apresentou alta eficiência na absorção de P, mesmo com o fornecido deste nutriente por meio de fonte pouco solúvel. O milheto apresentou-se como importante espécie de cobertura do solo, graças ao alto potencial para produção de fitomassa e reciclagem de P num intervalo de tempo relativamente curto (50 dias.The objective of this experiment was to compare the ability of soybean (Glycine max, corn (Zea mays, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum for P-uptake, at different levels of the Alvorada natural rock phosphate, under controlled conditions. The soil used was a dystrophic Hapludalf (180 g kg-1 clay, which was limed and fertilized with N, K and micronutrients. The crops were grown in 18 dm³ pots for 50 days in a greenhouse, at different P2O5 rates (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1. The amount of rock phosphate was calculated based on the total P2O5 content. Contrasting to soybean, there was a positive response of maize to higher P2O5 doses. The dry matter production by Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu was lower than that observed for pearl millet, but it still

  16. Fertilización fosfatada e inoculación de soja en vertisoles Phosphate fertilization and inoculation of soybean in vertisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Díaz-Zorita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La simbiosis entre rizobios y soja [Glycine max (L. Merril] provee parte de los requerimientos de N del cultivo en un proceso que depende de la disponibilidad de nutrientes tales como el P. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los aportes de la fertilización con P (0,18 y 36 kg ha-1 y de la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium japonicum sobre la nodulación y los rendimientos de soja en Vertisoles potencialmente deficientes en P. En sitios sin antecedentes de soja, la inoculación incrementó la nodulación, la biomasa aérea y el rendimiento en grano por sobre los cultivos sin inocular. Al aumentar el P disponible (Psuelo + Pfertilización hasta 12,4 mg kg-1 la nodulación y la biomasa aérea aumentaron. En los sitios con antecedentes de soja en rotación, los rendimientos fueron superiores al inocular y sólo con este tratamiento la biomasa aérea y los rendimientos mejoraron al aumentar la oferta de P. En general, los cultivos inoculados y fertilizados mostraron los mayores rendimientos sugiriendo la conveniencia del manejo combinado de la nutrición del cultivo.The symbiosis between rhizobia and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril] provides most of the nitrogen requirements of the crop through a process that also depends on the availability of nutrients, for example phosphorous. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of P fertilization (0, 18 y 36 kg ha-1 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation on the nodulation and grain yield of soybean crops in Vertisols with low soil P availability. In the sites without previous soybean crops, the inoculation promoted a greater nodulation, and shoot dry matter and grain yields above the non-inoculated crops. Nodulation and shoot growth increased with increasing available P (Psoil + Pfertilization levels up to 12.4 mg kg-1. In the sites rotated with soybean, yields were greater in the inoculated crops. Shoot dry matter and grain yields increased with increasing available P levels

  17. Diglycolic acid modified zirconium phosphate and studies on the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from dilute nitric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvan, B. Robert; Suneesh, A.S.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Division; Dasthaiah, K.; Gardas, R.L. [Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-06-01

    Diglycolic acid modified zirconium phosphate (ZrP-DGA) was prepared and studied for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from dilute nitric acid medium. The distribution coefficient (K{sub d}, mL.g{sup -1}) of Am(III) and Eu(III) was measured as a function of time, pH and concentration of Eu(III) ion etc. The K{sub d} of Am(III) and Eu(III) increased with increase of pH, reached a maximum value of distribution coefficient at pH 1.5 - 2, followed by decrease in K{sub d} values. Rapid extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) in ZrP-DGA was observed followed by the establishment of equilibrium occurred in 100 min. Kinetics of extraction was fitted in to pseudo second order rate equation. The amount of Eu(III) loaded in ZrP-DGA increased with increase in the concentration of Eu(III) ion in aqueous phase and the isotherm was fitted in to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The extraction of Am(III) in ZrP-DGA was higher as compared to Eu(III) and the interference of Eu(III) on the extraction of Am(III) was studied. The distribution coefficient of some lanthanides in ZrP-DGA was measured and the K{sub d} of lanthanides increased across the lanthanide series. The extracted trivalent metal ions were recovered in three contacts of loaded ZrP-DGA with 0.5 M nitric acid.

  18. Polycarboxylic acids as network modifiers for water durability improvement of inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate low-melting glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaa, Bouzid; Mizuno, Megumi; Takahashi, Masahide; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the water durability of the inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate glasses Me 2 SiO-SnO-P 2 O 5 (Me designs the organic methyl group) doped with organic acids (salicylic acid (SA), tartaric acid (TA), citric acid (Canada) and butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)) containing one or more of carboxylic groups per molecule. The structure, thermal properties and durability of the final glasses obtained via a non-aqueous acid-base reaction were discussed owing to the nature and the concentration of the acid added. 29 Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and 31 P MAS NMR spectra, respectively, showed clearly a modification of the network in the host glass matrix of the Me 2 SiO-SnO-P 2 O 5 system. The polycondensation enhancement to form -P-O-Si-O-P- linkages (PSP) and the increase of the Q 2 unit (two bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) over the Q 3 unit (three bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) as a function of the acid in the order SA 2 SiO-SnO-P 2 O 5 matrix. In addition, this structural change is accompanied by a decrease of the coefficient of thermal expansion and an increase of the water durability of the glasses with the acids containing a large number of carboxylic groups per molecule. The presence of carboxylic groups of the acid acting as network modifier may retard the movement of water molecules through the glasses due to the steric hindrance strengthening the PSP connections in a chain-like structure

  19. Adubação da cana-de-açúcar. II - Adubação fosfatada quantitativa Quantitative phosphate fertilizing for sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alvarez

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de adubação de cana-de-açúcar, na Usina Tamôio, município de Araraquara, em 1952. Estudaram-se cinco níveis de fósforo, em presença de nitrogênio e potássio, utilizando-se um delineamento em blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os níveis dos fertilizantes empregados, em kg/ha, foram 0, 60, 120, 180 e 240 de P2O5, 30 de nitrogênio e 45 de K(20, sob as formas, respectivamente, de superfosfáto simples, salitre do Chile e cloreto de potássio. O ensaio foi conduzido sob as condições normais de cultivo para a cultura da cana. Adaptou-se às médias de produção uma curva exponencial de Mitscherlich. Esta curva, de expressão y = 66,23 [1 - 10 - 1,032(x + 0,3978] explica com grande precisão a relação entre os níveis de P2O5 aplicados e as produções obtidas. Conhecida a curva em questão, chegou-se à conclusão de que o nível mais aconselhável é o de 120 kg de P2O5 por hectare.This paper presents the results obtained in 1952 in a fertilizing experiment on sugar cane, at the Usina Tamôio, Araraquara. Five levels of phosphorus (in the presence of nitrogen and potash using a randomized blocks design with six replicates were studied. The formula used contained always 45 kg/ha of K(20 and 30 kg/ha of N, the amount of phosphorus being variable as follows: 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg/ha. Phosphorus, nitrogen and potash were applied under the form of simple superphosphate, Chilean nitrate and potash muriate, respectively. An exponential Mitscherlich curve of the form y = 66,23 [1 - 10 - 1,032(x + 0,3978] was the best fit for the results. It is concluded that for the conditions of the experiment 120 kg/ha of P2O5- is the best dose to be recommended.

  20. A Successful Pregnancy by Utilization of Gradually Increasing Low Dose Gonadotrophin Stimulation in a Modified Natural Cycle in Vitro Fertilization Procedure: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kahyaoğlu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modified natural cycle in vitro fertilization (MNC-IVF treatment can be a promising method for poor responder patients especially in young patients with poor ovarian reserve. A 34-year-old primary infertile woman presented with a history of poor ovarian response and cycle cancellation following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during an IVF-ET procedure two months ago. During MNC-IVF treatment with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, gradually increasing doses of hMG for three days (totally 675 IU have been administered accompanied by daily 0,25 mg cetrorelix. Following ovulation triggering, one oocyte was picked up and a good quality (grade 1 embryo was transferred on day 2. A clinical pregnancy was established with ultrasonography on sixth weeks of gestation. Acceptable pregnancy rates per embryo transfer, low medication cost, relatively low risk of complications and higher patient acceptability are the main advantages of MNC-IVF treatment as a feasible treatment option especially for poor responder patients.

  1. Effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers of diffrent water solubilities in relation to soil phophorus adsorption Adsorção de fósforo pelo solo e eficiência de fertilizantes fosfatados com diferente solubilidade em água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ignácio Prochnow

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate fertilizers should match soil attributes to enhance agronomic effectiveness and recovery by plants. The purpose of this study was to test the agronomic effectiveness of P sources varying in water solubility on two soils differing widely in P adsorption capacity (PAC. Soils selected for the study were Oxisols with very low available P and presenting low and high PAC (Ox-LPAC and Ox-HPAC, respectively. Both were limed to pH 5.4 in a greenhouse study conducted utilizing corn as the test crop. Treatments consisted of the two soils interacting with five P sources (monocalcium phosphate - MCP, low-grade single superphosphate - LG-SSP, multimagnesium phosphate - MMP, Arad phosphate rock - PR and a P impurity in triple superphosphate - H14, and four rates of P (12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100.0 mg kg-1. A control with no P was added for each soil. The treatments were arranged as blocks with three replicates. Plants were harvested 45 d after germination. Dry-matter yield and P uptake were measured and the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE compared with MCP as the standard. When applied in low rates of P (12.5 and 25.0 mg kg-1 the RAE of the alternative sources was higher in the soil with high PAC (45, 66, 39 and 65% in the Ox-HPAC for the LG-SSP, MMP, PR and H14, respectively, as opposed to 24, 40, 14 and 47% in the Ox-LPAC. Results suggest that sources of P with low water solubility can be agronomically more effective in soils with high PAC.Fertilizantes fosfatados devem ser aplicados tendo em vista os atributos do solo. Este estudo foi conduzido para testar fontes de P, distintas quanto à solubilidade, na eficiência agronômica em solos com diferença marcante na capacidade de adsorção de P (CAP. Foram selecionados dois Latossolos com teor muito baixo de P e apresentando baixa e elevada CAP (Lat-BCAP e Lat-ECAP, respectivamente. Ambos foram corrigidos para pH 5,4 e utilizados em experimento em casa-de-vegetação com milho. Os tratamentos

  2. Bioavailability of radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb present in the brazilian phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da biodisponibilidade dos radionuclideos {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra e {sup 210}Pb presentes nos fertilizantes fosfatados e no fosfogesso de procedencia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Ana Carolina

    2013-08-01

    Phosphogypsum, also called gypsum, by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, can be used as soil conditioner since it provides improvements in the soil-plant system. However, this by-product concentrates radionuclides of the U and Th series, present in the phosphate rock used as raw material, which can impact the environment. In order to study the bioavailability of radionuclides, samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate) were analyzed. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. The samples were leached with a mild EDTA solution and the radionuclides present in the final solution were determined by total alpha and beta counting on a gas flow proportional counter. The percentage of extraction varied from 1.6% to 1.7% for {sup 210}Pb, from 0.5% to 1.4% for {sup 226}Ra and from 0.1% to 1.0% for the {sup 228}Ra in phosphogypsum samples. The low percentage of extraction obtained for the radionuclides can be partly explained by the low solubility of phosphogypsum, which ranged from 7.7% to 16%. For the monoammonium phosphate samples the percentage of extraction were less than 26% for {sup 226}Ra, less than 10% for '2{sup 28}Ra and less than 10% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 77% of monoammonium phosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. For the triple superphosphate samples, the percentage of extraction was 2.3% for {sup 226}Ra, 1.2% for {sup 228}Ra and 11.3% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 66% of triple superphosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. (author)

  3. Estimation of natural radioactivity in different fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.; Sonkawade, R.G.; Kant, K.

    2011-01-01

    Fertilizers have become essential to the agricultural field all over the world. The natural radionuclides of fertilizers consist mainly of 226 Ra, 232 Th, isotopes with their decay products. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in phosphate fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. Radionuclides present in fertilizers affect the common people and farmers immensely. They are produced and used worldwide in increasing quantities to replenish natural nutrients depleted from soils because of forming and erosion. However, the mining, processing and use of fertilizer materials in massive quantities redistribute radioactive trace elements throughout the environment, principally uranium, radium, radium decay products. The agricultural phosphate fertilizer industries use raw materials that consist of phosphate rocks, phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in different fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K, in some phosphate deposits. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. This paper emphasis on the public risk assessment in an integrated manner assessing doses to members of the public via the atmospheric aquatic and secondary pathways. In the present study radioactivity in different fertilizer samples, which are widely used in Indian fields, was determined. The experimental work includes the measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors to asses a

  4. Novel synthesis of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles modified with organic phosphate and their effect on the flammability of acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, Nour F., E-mail: drnour2005@yahoo.com [Fire Protection Laboratory, Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards, 136, Giza 12211 (Egypt); Goda, Emad S.; Nour, M.A. [Fire Protection Laboratory, Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards, 136, Giza 12211 (Egypt); Sabaa, M.W. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, NahdetMisr Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Hassan, M.A., E-mail: Mohamed_a_hassan@hotmail.com [Fire Protection Laboratory, Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards, 136, Giza 12211 (Egypt)

    2015-11-15

    New and facile method for the synthesis and modification of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles has been developed. The organic phosphate was used to facilitate the synthesis and wrapping of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles with organic phosphate shell. The size of the nanoparticles wrapped with phosphate has an average diameter range from 46 to 125 nm. The preparation method has governed the nanoparticles diameter based on reaction time. Thermal stability and morphological properties of the new nanoparticles coated phosphates were investigated. The developed magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles-organic phosphate achieved a very good compatibility when dispersed in acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene polymer (ABS) produced dispersed nanocomposites. The flammability and thermal properties of the new polymer nanocomposites were studied. The rate of burning of the nanocomposites was reduced to 9.8 mm/min compared to 15, 21.9 and 42.5 mm/min for polymer-conventional magnesium hydroxide composite, polymer-conventional magnesium hydroxide-organic phosphate composite and virgin polymer, respectively. The peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (THR) of the new nanocomposites were recorded as 243.4 kW/m{sup 2} and 19.2 MJ/m{sup 2}, respectively, achieved 71% reduction for PHRR and 55% for THR. The synergism between magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles and organic phosphates shell was also studied. The developed nanoparticles suppressed the emission of toxic gases. The different materials were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy. The flammability properties were evaluated using UL94 horizontal method and cone calorimeter. The dispersion of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles-organic phosphate in ABS was studied using scanning electron microscope. - Highlights: • Novel and facile nanoparticles synthesis and modification have developed. • Magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles size has

  5. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF: Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Wulf Christensen

    Full Text Available Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF. Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following treatment-cycles and a more favorable outcome. The main objective was to explore if treatment cycle number modifies the outcome when investigating the effect of female Body Mass Index (BMI on oocyte quantity in IVF.A historical cohort study was conducted on 5,342 treatment-cycles during the period 1999-2009. Exclusion criteria were missing information on BMI or treatment type. Further, women were excluded if they had ovulated before oocyte retrieval. According to baseline BMI, women were divided into four categories following the World Health Organization standards. Multiple linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman.Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect modification from cycle number or a factor related to cycle number. The median dose of total follicular stimulating hormone given to the four BMI groups could not straight forwardly explain the less optimal oocyte outcome observed in first treatment cycles. No statistically significant differences were observed in oocyte yield for underweight, overweight and obesity compared to normal weight women when analyzing all treatment-cycles. Overweight women had significantly fewer mature (MII oocytes (p = 0.009 than normal weight women, whereas no differences was observed for underweight and obese women.Our study suggests a possible interaction or effect modification related to treatment cycle number. Investigating the effects of BMI on IVF-results in first treatment-cycles alone should be carried out cautiously.

  6. Influence of long-term fertilization on soil physicochemical properties in a brown soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Luo, Peiyu; Han, Xiaori; Yang, Jinfeng

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence on soil physicochemical properties under a 38-y long-term fertilization in a brown soil. Soil samples (0-20 cm)were taken from the six treatments of the long-term fertilization trial in October 2016:no fertilizer (CK), N1(mineral nitrogen fertilizer), N1P (mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer), N1PK (mineral nitrogen, phosphate and potassic fertilizer), pig manure (M2), M2N1P (pig manure, mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer).The results showed thatthe long-term application of chemical fertilizers reduced soil pH value, while the application of organic fertilizers increased pH value. Fertilization significantly increased the content of AHN, TN and SOM. Compared with the CK treatment and chemical fertilizer treatments, organic fertilizer treatments significantly increased the content of AP and TP. The content of AK and TK were no significant difference in different treatment.

  7. Purification and physical characteristics of a hemoglobin solution modified by coupling to 2-nor-2-formylpyridoxal 5‘-phosphate (NFPLP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, J; de Vries-van Rossen, A; Koorevaar, JJ; Buursma, Anneke; Zijlstra, Willem; Bakker, JC

    1988-01-01

    Human stroma-free hemoglobin (Hb) was crosslinked with 2-nor-2- formylpyridoxal 5′-phosphate (NFPLP), purified over crosslinked dextran, and eluted with a linear salt gradient. The oxygen dissociation curve of this crosslinked hemoglobin appeared to be shifted to the right with a standard P50 of 49

  8. Analyses of uranium in some phosphate commercial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.; Sohsah, M.; Mohammad, H.M.; Sadek, M.

    2005-01-01

    The raw materials used in manufacturing of phosphate fertilizer products were derived from rocks. Rocks contain a remarkable of natural radioactivity. Uranium and phosphorous were originally initiated at the same time of the initiated rocks. The purpose of this research is to investigate solubility of uranium phosphate species at the phosphate fertilizer samples, samples including; raw phosphate material, single super phosphates (SSP) granules and powdered, triple super phosphates (TSP) and phosphogypsum samples were obtained from Abu-Zabal factory in Egypt. Solubility of uranium phosphate species was estimated. It was found that, less than half of the uranium phosphate species are soluble in water. The soluble uranium may be enter into the food chains by plant. Therefore, restriction should be done in order to limit contamination of land and the public

  9. Micronutrients as Impurities of Inorganic Fertilizers Marketed in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Modaihsh

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic fertilizers with major nutrients are likely to be contaminated with some micronutrients. Fertilizers, utilized in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed for their total and water-soluble content of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. They represented three categories namely: phosphatic, solid multiple nutrient fertilizers (SMNF and water-soluble multiple nutrient fertilizers (WSMF. Total iron content in examined fertilizers was higher in phosphatic fertilizers and lower in WSMF. Nevertheless, only a very small portion of the total iron content is likely to be available to plants. It was estimated, on the basis of total content, that almost 2 g of iron would be applied to soil for each added kg of phosphatic fertilizer. The highest total content of Zn was recorded for phosphatic fertilizers. The data suggested that less than half kg of Zn would be accumulated in soil if 500 kg of phosphatic fertilizers were applied in one year. This value however, fell dramatically, to one fourth of the value, when only the available forms of Zn were considered. Fertilizer content of manganese and copper were lower than both Fe and Zn. Micronutrient impurities present in inorganic fertilizers might not have an immediate influence on plant nutrition due to their lower solubility.

  10. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. They are involved in cell structure, energy transport and storage, vitamin function, and numerous other processes ... Phosphate-containing foods and beverages include cola, wine, beer, whole grain cereals, nuts, dairy products and some ...

  11. Technology of boron-containing polyphosphate fertilizer 'Phosphobor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabergenov, M.K.; Balakaeva, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A technology is developed for producing 'Phosphobor' fertilizer based on the rock phosphate weal (17-18% P 2 O 5 ) with additions of boron-magnesium compound. Boron is part of polyphosphate fertilizer in the form of polymeric compounds of phosphorus and boron. Phosphorus and boron copolymers -boratophosphates - are easily formed in the process of polyphosphate fertilizers production, since borates undergo a mutual polycondensation reaction with phosphates. 8 refs., 1 fig

  12. Inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e adubação fosfatada em mudas de cajueiro-anão-precoce Inoculation of arbuscular micorrhizal fungi and phosphate fertilization on dwarf cashew seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmar Baller Weber

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA nativos e exóticos e da adubação fosfatada no crescimento e no acúmulo de nutrientes em mudas do cajueiro-anão-precoce CCP 76. O experimento, realizado em casa de vegetação, constou de um arranjo fatorial (4x2, sendo três misturas (duas comunidades de FMA nativos e o produto comercial Mycogold mais o controle sem fungo e duas doses de fósforo (0 e 87 mg/L. Os fungos nativos eram formados pelas espécies Glomus etunicatum, G. glomerulatum, Scutellospora sp. e Acaulospora foveata, da primeira comunidade, e G. etunicatum, Entrophospora sp. e Scutellospora sp., da segunda comunidade. Observou-se resposta das mudas do cajueiro ao fósforo aplicado no solo. A associação simbiótica com os fungos da primeira comunidade e do produto comercial foi vantajosa no desenvolvimento das mudas do cajueiro, aos quatro meses da semeadura.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of the inoculation of native and exotic arbuscular micorrhizal fungi (AMF and of the phosphate fertilization on plant growth and nutrient accumulation in dwarf cashew CCP 76. A greenhouse experiment, using a factorial arrangement (4x2, with three mixtures (two native communities of AMF and the commercial Mycogold product besides a control without fungi and two dosages of phosphorus (0 and 87 mg/L was carried out. Native AMF were represented by the species Glomus etunicatum, G. glomerulatum, Scutellospora sp. and Acaulospora foveata, from the first community, and G. etunicatum, Entrophospora sp. and Scutellospora sp., from the second community. The cashew seedlings presented a low response to the phosphorus treatment. The symbiotic plant association with the native fungi of the first community and exotic fungi of the commercial product allowed a better plant growth four months after cashew nut sown.

  13. Resposta do feijão-caupi as lâminas de irrigação e as doses de fósforo no cerrado de Roraima Response of cowpea to water levels and phosphate fertilizer on the savanna of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do feijão-caupi (Vigna ungüiculata (L. Walp. cv. BRS Novaera sob quatro lâminas de água (273; 257; 241 e 187 mm e doses de fósforo (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5, aplicados na forma de superfosfato triplo, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas lâminas de água e as sub parcelas pelas doses de fósforo, resultando em 16 tratamentos. A irrigação foi realizada por um sistema convencional de aspersão, montado no campo segundo o sistema de "aspersão em linha". As massas seca da parte aérea e de 100 grãos foram influenciadas significativamente pela interação entre lâminas de água e doses de fósforo, enquanto o número de grãos por vagem e o comprimento da vagem foram influenciados somente pelas doses de fósforo. A dose de máxima eficiência econômica foi de 89,45 kg de P2O5, com produtividade de 1.306 kg ha-1.This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irrigation depth and phosphate fertilizer (0; 70; 140; 210 kg ha-1 de P2O5 on yield and production components of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. Novaera at the Savanna of Roraima, Brazil. The experimental design was arranged in a completely randomized block in split-plot and four replications. Irrigation depths were applied through a sprinkler line source system. The principal treatments constituted on the depths of irrigation and the secondary treatments by the phosphate fertilizer. Significant effects (p < 0.05 of the depth of irrigation and phosphate fertilizer interaction with aerial mass production and mass of 100 grains were observed. The number of grains per pods and size of pod were affected by the phosphate fertilizer only. The highest economical yield (1,306 kg ha-1 was obtained by 89.45 kg of P2O5.

  14. The response and recovery of the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome to phosphate starvation

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Jongchan; MacPherson, Cameron Ross; Liu, Jun; Wang, Huan; Kiba, Takatoshi; Hannah, Matthew A; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over application of phosphate fertilizers in modern agriculture contaminates waterways and disrupts natural ecosystems. Nevertheless, this is a common practice among farmers, especially in developing countries as abundant fertilizers

  15. Trace determination of uranium in fertilizer samples by total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uranium is reported to be present in phosphate fertilizers. The recovery of uranium from the fertilizers is important because it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors and also because of environmental concerns. For both these activities suitable method of uranium determinations at trace levels in these fertilizers are required.

  16. Trace determination of uranium in fertilizer samples by total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the fertilizers is important because it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors and also because of en- vironmental concerns. ... The amounts of uranium in four fertilizer samples of Hungarian origin were determined by ... TXRF determination of uranium from phosphate fertilizers of Hungarian origin and the preliminary results ...

  17. Analysis of arab ore phosphate, for macro, micro and toxic elements using INAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghawi, U.M.; Abugassa, I.O.; Alfakhri, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Natural phosphates are used on large scale in the fertilizer industry and large quantities of phosphates are processed each year all over the world from fertilizer production. At present world usage of rock phosphates is approximately 90 million tons per annum. Because natural phosphates are a source of some valuable elements besides phosphorus used in fertilizers production, the objective of this paper is to check the level of radioactive elements of uranium and thorium, and the stable environmental pollutants like As and Cr in natural arab phosphate. In addition, rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements like (Fe, K, Mn, Na and Ti) were determined

  18. Standard characterization of phosphate rock samples from the FAO/IAEA phosphate project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, Truong; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphate rocks (PR) are phosphate-bearing minerals that vary widely in their inherent characteristics and consequently their agronomic potential. In the framework of a FAO/IAEA networked research project, the evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products under a variety of soil climate and crop management conditions was carried out. The characterization of phosphate rocks is the first and essential step in evaluating their suitability for direct application. If several PR sources are utilized, standardized methods should be used for comparison purposes to determine their agronomic potential. This paper describes the standard characterization of phosphate rock products utilized in the project, in particular the mineralogical and crystallographic analyses, physical analyses, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents. A total of 28 phosphate rock samples from 15 countries were collected and analyzed in specialized laboratories. The data on mineralogy, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents are closely interrelated. An arbitrary classification of the reactivity of the PR samples was made based on the solubility indices in conventional reagents. On another hand, the results of the crystallographic parameters, calculated indices of absolute solubility, specific surface and porosity reflect the variability of the physical state and the sample pre-conditioning treatment of the analyzed products. A proper characterization of phosphate rock samples should provide the maximum of basic information that can be obtained in a cost-effective manner in normal chemical laboratories. Based on the results of this characterization, the following determinations are recommended: a description of the sample, major elemental (total P, Ca, Mg) composition, solubility in conventional reagents (neutral ammonium citrate, citric and formic acid) and particle size analysis. The classification of PR samples for direct

  19. Nano Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice DAĞHAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land is decreasing day by day due to erosion, environmental pollution, unconscious irrigation and fertilization. On the other hand, it is necessary to increase agricultural production in order to meet the needs of the developing industry as well as the nutritional needs of the growing population. In the recent years, nano fertilizers have begun to be produced to obtain the highest amount and quality of production from the unit area. Previous research shows that nano fertilizers cause an increase in the use efficiency of plant nutrients, reduce soil toxicity, minimize the potential adverse effects of excessive chemical fertilizer use, and reduce fertilizer application frequency. Nano fertilizers are important in agriculture to increase crop yield and nutrient use efficiency, and to reduce excessive use ofchemical fertilizers. The most important properties of these fertilizers are that they contain one or more of macro and micronutrients, they can be applied frequently in small amounts and are environmentally friendly. However, when applied at high doses, they exhibit decreasing effects on plant growth and crop yields, similar to chemical fertilizers. In this review, the definition, importan ce, and classification of nano fertilizers, their application in plant production, advantages and disadvantages and the results obtained in this field were discussed.

  20. Square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nanomolar levels of bezafibrate using a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes within a dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Jorge Armando; Oliveira, Geiser Gabriel; Medeiros, Roberta Antigo; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-04-07

    A highly sensitive method for bezafibrate determination using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes within a dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate film based on square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV) is proposed. The electrochemical behaviour of bezafibrate has been studied by cyclic voltammetry, showing an irreversible anodic peak at a potential of 1.09 V in 0.1 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution (pH 2.0). A study of the scan rate showed that the oxidation of bezafibrate is an adsorptive-controlled process, involving the transfer of two electrons and two protons per molecule. The analytical curve was linear over a bezafibrate concentration range from 50 to 910 nmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 16 nmol L(-1). This analytical method was successfully applied for benzafibrate determination in pharmaceutical formulations, with results showing good agreement with those obtained using a comparative spectrophotometric method, and has the potential for field application.

  1. Preparation, characterization and investigation of in vitro and in vivo biological properties of strontium-modified calcium phosphate cement for bone defect repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Masaeli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the invitro and invivo performance of a 3 wt% of strontium additive hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate cements (CPC. Materials and Methods: The prepared calcium phosphate cement was characterized with XRD, FTIR, setting time, STA and in vitro and in vivo biological analyses. The MTT assay ALP activities as in vitro study and radiological and histological examinations as in vivo study between the three groups of 3 wt% Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and control were performed and compared. Data were analyzed using T-test and One-way ANOVA. Results: XRD analysis demonstrated that by increasing the ratio of Powder/Liquid (P/L, the crystallinity of the prepared cement increased. The substitution of strontium instead of calcium in CPC could also alter the crystal structure, including some structural disorder. However, in the CPC with no strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA, no significant increase in the crystallinity was observed. SEM observations revealed CPC with increasing P/L ratio, the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals arising from the interaction of solid and liquid phase of cement was decreased. Also, the addition of Sr within Ca site culminated in a dramatic increase in crystallinity of hydroxyapatite. In vitro biological properties ascertained that addition of 3 wt. % Sr-HA into CPC enhanced MTT assay and ALP activity, which could be due to the presence of strontium ions. The histological study showed that greater remodeling was seen at 4 weeks after implantation when the 3 wt% Sr-HA/CPC was used. Conclusion: The obtained results cleared that CPC can be a potential candidate as a carrier with strontium additives for bone remodeling and regeneration.

  2. The 2-(acetoxymethyl)benzoyl (AMB) group as a new base-protecting group, designed for the protection of (phosphate) modified oligonucleotides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, W.H.A.; Huskens, J.; Boeckel, van C.A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 2-(acetoxymethyl)benzoyl (AMB) group is a new base-protecting group that facilitates the synthesis of labile, modified nucleotides, since it can be rapidly cleaved under mild basic conditions. The 2-(acetoxymethyl)benzoyl (AMB) group is a new base-protecting group that facilitates the synthesis

  3. Purification and identification of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides using phosphate-based alkyne CLICK chemistry in combination with titanium dioxide chromatography and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Benjamin L; Gupta, Pankaj; Cordwell, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A selective method for the enrichment of O-GlcNAcylated peptides using a novel CLICK chemistry reagent is described. Peptides modified by O-GlcNAc were enzymatically labeled with N-azidoacetylgalactosamine. The azide was then reacted with a phospho-alkyne using CLICK chemistry and O-GlcNAcGalNAzPO4...

  4. Role of VAM on growth and phosphorus nutrition of maize with low soluble phosphate fertilization Efecto de la infestación con micorrizas vesiculo arbusculares (VAM en plantas de Zea mays fertilizadas con dosis bajas de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Rakshit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM infection on growth and P nutrition in Maize (Zea mays, cv.DDH hybrid were assessed in Oxisol pot experiment. Maize was grown inoculated with spores of VAM fungi Glomus mosseae or non-inoculated. Low soluble ferrous phosphate (FePO4.4H2O was added to the mycorrhized and non-micrrohized maized. The dry weight of mycorrhized plants with added phosphate (P were higher than in mycorrhized plants without added P or non-mycorrhized plants with added P. The amount of P in the soil samples from pots with mycorrhizal plants fertilized with P was evidently smaller than those in samples also fertilized non-mycorrhizal plants. The percentage of P was higher in tissues of fertilized mycorrhial plants than in those mycorrihzed plants without or nonmycorrhized plants with added low-soluble P. These results indicated that plants in VAM symbiosis mobilize P better from low-soluble P than non-mycorrhized plants.En condiciones de casa de malla se evaluó el efecto de la infestación con micorrizas vesículo arbusculares (VAM en la asimilación de P por plantas de maíz (Zea mays, cv.DDH hybrid cultivadas en un Oxisol. Como micorriza se utilizó el hongo Glomus mosseae. En ambos tratamientos (con micorriza y sin ella se aplicó fosfato ferroso (FePO4.4H2O. La producción de MS de maíz fue mayor cuando se aplicaron el hongo + la fuente de P. La cantidad de P en el suelo con este tratamiento fue menor que en el suelo fertilizado pero sin aplicación del hongo. En las hojas de las plantas las mayores concentraciones de P se observaron igualmente en el tratamiento micorriza + aplicación de fertilizante.

  5. In-situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide modified lithium vanadium phosphate for high-rate lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaozhi; Guo, Haifu; Yan, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene-decorated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is synthesized via microwave irradiation. • Both Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and RGO can be simultaneously achieved through this route. • The GO is reduced by microwave irradiation not the carbon. • Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /RGO displays excellent high-rate ability and cyclic stability. - Abstract: We report a simple and rapid method to synthesize graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation. By treating graphene oxide and the precursor of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 in a commercial microwave oven, both reduced graphene oxide and Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 could be simultaneously synthesized within 5 min. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performances of as-synthesized graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 are investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, charge/discharge tests, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The XRD result indicates that single-phase graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 with monoclinic structure can be obtained. Both SEM and TEM images show that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanocrystals are embedded in the reduced graphene oxide sheets which could provide an easy path for the electrons and Li-ions during the cycling process. Compared with the pristine Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 electrode, graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exhibits a better high-rate ability and cyclic stability. These superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the good conductivity of reduced graphene oxide which enhances the electrons and Li-ions transport on the surface of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . Thus, this simple and rapid method could be promising to synthesize graphene-modified electrode materials

  6. Aerogammaspectrometric anomalies (K, eU and eTh) from Araras region (SP) and its relations with pedogenetic processes and phosphate fertilizers; Anomalias aerogamaespectrometricas (K, eU e eTh) da quadricula de Araras (SP) e suas relacoes com processos pedogeneticos e fertilizantes fosfatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jocelyn Lopes de; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: jocelyn_informatica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jocelyn.souza@utp.br, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (LPGA/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada

    2005-07-15

    Radionuclides are present in the raw materials utilized in the manufacturing of some fertilizers and, consequently, the redistribution of uranium, thorium and potassium by agricultural activities may lead to the contamination of intensively fertilized soils. Airborne gamma-ray data on K, eU and Th have shown the coincidence of aerogammaspectrometric anomalies and diabase sills in the Araras region (SP). This area is situated between the coordinates latitude 22 deg 00'/22 deg 30' South and longitude 47 deg 00' and 47 deg 30' West. As the contents of radionuclides in basic rocks are low and aerial gamma-ray surveys reveal gamma radiation from the 30 cm of the soil profile (coinciding with topsoil), interest has been raised to investigate which soils are included in the anomalies reported, as well as what sort of agricultural activity is carried out, in order to attest whether the source of radioactivity originated from the chemical fertilizers applied, thus establishing the main purpose of the present research. Integration by GIS has revealed that (1) eU and eTh anomalies occur on latossolos roxos massively fertilized with phosphates, on the level and elevated parts of the terrain; (2) high levels of uranium are associated with clay particle size in regoliths developed on diabase sills; (3) potassium and thorium anomalies follow Quaternary alluviums which extend along the banks of the Moji river, the occurrence of anomalous K accounting for the presence of feldspars in the included soils, and the occurrence of eTh related to local fertilization and to the transport of clays and iron oxides from the uppermost parts of the terrain, where the Latossolos Roxos under sugarcane are located. Radiochemical analyses of U and Th in fertilizers were in agreement with the literature, and it has been observed the influence of the geological genesis of the source of the raw material utilized in the production of the fertilizer, as well as the increase in

  7. Bi-functional modified-phosphate catalyzed the synthesis of α-α′-(EE)-bis(benzylidene)-cycloalkanones: Microwave versus conventional-heating

    KAUST Repository

    Solhy, Abderrahim

    2011-02-01

    The impregnation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) by NaNO3 leads to a modified-hydroxyapatite which has a bi-functional acid-base property. Sodium-modified-hydroxyapatite (Na-HAP) efficiently catalyzed the cross-aldol condensation of arylaldehydes and cycloketones to afford α-α′- (EE)-bis(benzylidene)-cycloalkanones in good yields under microwave irradiation. Moreover, the methodology described in this paper provides a very easy and efficient synthesis carried out in water as the greenest available solvent under conventional heating. A comparison study between these two different modes of heating was investigated. The catalyst was easily recovered and efficiently re-used. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of alkaline earth modifier on the optical and structural properties of Cu2+ doped phosphate glasses as a bandpass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M.; Samir, A.; El Okr, M.

    2018-02-01

    Glasses of composition [16RO-3Al2O3sbnd 6CuOsbnd 20Na2Osbnd 55P2O5], where R is the alkaline earth (R = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba mol. %), were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The glass samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and spectrophotometer. XRD patterns show no sharp peaks indicating the non-crystalline nature of the prepared glasses. The density and molar volume of the glass systems were determined in order to study their structures. These results revealed that addition of alkaline earth elements leads to the formation of non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) and expands (opens up) the structure. The infrared spectra were analyzed to quantify the present phosphate groups. The optical absorption spectra of Cu2+ ions show the characteristic broadband single of Cu2+ ions in octahedral symmetry. The band gap was estimated following two methodologies. The first method considers the band edge of the transmission, while the second approach relays on the estimated values of the optical constants. A decent agreement for the band gap values using the two methods was obtained.

  9. Assessment of soil phosphorus status and management of phosphatic fertilisers to optimise crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    evaluation was first conceived in 1991 and prompted by developments in promising technologies to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of PRs, which needed to be properly evaluated and tested in a research network. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture convened a Consultants meeting in May 1993 in Vienna to review recent advances on this topic and to define the objectives for a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques for Evaluating the Agronomic Effectiveness of P Fertilizers, in Particular Rock Phosphates, which was implemented from 1993 through 1998. Research focused on technologies to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products applied to crops grown in acid soils. {sup 32}P isotopic techniques were utilized to gather quantitative and precise information on phosphate behavior in the soil-plant system, and the efficacy of PR management practices. In this context, the technical support provided by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria and the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache, France, was crucial for the implementation of these activities.

  10. Assessment of soil phosphorus status and management of phosphatic fertilisers to optimise crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    evaluation was first conceived in 1991 and prompted by developments in promising technologies to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of PRs, which needed to be properly evaluated and tested in a research network. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture convened a Consultants meeting in May 1993 in Vienna to review recent advances on this topic and to define the objectives for a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques for Evaluating the Agronomic Effectiveness of P Fertilizers, in Particular Rock Phosphates, which was implemented from 1993 through 1998. Research focused on technologies to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products applied to crops grown in acid soils. 32 P isotopic techniques were utilized to gather quantitative and precise information on phosphate behavior in the soil-plant system, and the efficacy of PR management practices. In this context, the technical support provided by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria and the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache, France, was crucial for the implementation of these activities

  11. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem. N Saha, S Biswas. Abstract. The present communication deals with the assessment of phosphate solubilizing bacterial community structure across artificially created fertility gradient with regards to N, P and K status of soil in the experimental site.

  12. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF): Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Wulf; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Degn, Birte

    2016-01-01

    linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman. RESULTS: Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect......INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF). Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following...

  13. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landry Losi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro154032bit

    ABSTRACT. Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus. (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different ...

  15. Isolation and characterization of efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different abiotic stress ...

  16. Chronic dietary exposure to a low-dose mixture of genistein and vinclozolin modifies the reproductive axis, testis transcriptome, and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, Florence; Mondon, Françoise; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie Chantal; Lesaffre, Corinne; Fulla, Yvonne; Berges, Raymond; Cravedi, Jean Pierre; Vaiman, Daniel; Auger, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    The reproductive consequences and mechanisms of action of chronic exposure to low-dose endocrine disruptors are poorly understood. We assessed the effects of a continuous, low-dose exposure to a phytoestrogen (genistein) and/or an antiandrogenic food contaminant (vinclozolin) on the male reproductive tract and fertility. Male rats were exposed by gavage to genistein and vinclozolin from conception to adulthood, alone or in combination, at low doses (1 mg/kg/day) or higher doses (10 and 30 mg/kg/day). We studied a number of standard reproductive toxicology end points and also assessed testicular mRNA expression profiles using long-oligonucleotide microarrays. The low-dose mixture and high-dose vinclozolin produced the most significant alterations in adults: decreased sperm counts, reduced sperm motion parameters, decreased litter sizes, and increased post implantation loss. Testicular mRNA expression profiles for these exposure conditions were strongly correlated. Functional clustering indicated that many of the genes induced belong to the "neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions" family encompassing several hormonally related actors (e.g., follicle-stimulating hormone and its receptor). All exposure conditions decreased the levels of mRNAs involved in ribosome function, indicating probable decreased protein production. Our study shows that chronic exposure to a mixture of a dose of a phytoestrogen equivalent to that in the human diet and a low dose-albeit not environmental-of a common anti-androgenic food contaminant may seriously affect the male reproductive tract and fertility.

  17. Fertilizers in cereals crops. Effect of fertilization in grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaj, Mariana

    1997-01-01

    In the last years the yields of the maize cultivation in the Pampeana production region have constantly increased, foreseeing higher increases of yield in the next years. Such increase is due, between other motives, to the use of hybrids of higher potential yield. There is a direct relation between the yield potential of a genotype and the nutrients demand, fact that constitutes one of the geneticists concerns. Maize hybrids reach its maximum expression when the plant is cultivated in good supplied soils with balanced quantities of nutrients that in several cases are reached with the practice of fertilization. The quantitative and qualitative vegetal response to the use of phosphate fertilizers depend of soils, of the environmental conditions, of fertilizer and the way of its application as well as of the maize hybrid that was used. To direct the practice of fertilization towards the reposition of the soil nutrients extracted by genotypes of high yield without producing excesses that increase costs and put in danger the environment, it is necessary to know the real coefficient used by the plants of the phosphorus available in the soils. The isotopic methodology allows to distinguish the phosphorus coming from two nutrient sources: soil and fertilizer, even in the juvenile phase of vegetal development and to evaluate the efficiency of fertilizers in plant nutrition. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the use of phosphorus coming from one of the phosphorus source available (soil, fertilizer), that should allow to increase and make more specific the knowledge's level of the different maize hybrids. This is obtained by determination of the grade of use of nutrient (of the soil) and of the nutrient of fertilizers, evaluating the qualitative and quantitative responses to fertilization

  18. Introducing a sustainable soil fertility system for chickpea ( Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ): Trichoderma harzianum; (B3): Phosphate solubilizing bacteria + T. harzianum; and (B4): without biofertilizers were arranged in sub-sub plots. Results showed that green manure increased pod number and number of fertile pods per plant.

  19. Environmental fate of natural radioactive contaminants in fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalha, Marcia Salamoni; Genuchten, Martinus Theodorus van

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural soils often require the use of fertilizers and soil conditioners for optimal production. Phosphate fertilizers produced from igneous phosphate rock often contain small amounts of natural radionuclides (notably uranium and thorium), while the byproduct phosphogypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is typically enriched in radium and lead. It is important to understand the long-term fate of these radionuclides when routinely applied via fertilizers ( 238 U and 234 U) and phosphogypsum as an amendment ( 226 Ra and 210 Pb) to agricultural lands. This study addresses the results of modeling their transport in a typical Cerrado soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D code was used to compare possible soil and groundwater pollution scenarios following the long term use of fertilizers and phosphogypsum in agricultural operations. Results using the equilibrium transport approach suggest that radionuclide concentrations originating from the use of phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum are relatively modest and will not pose a major risk to polluting underlying groundwater resources. (author)

  20. Environmental fate of natural radioactive contaminants in fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, Marcia Salamoni; Genuchten, Martinus Theodorus van, E-mail: msbatalha@oi.com.b, E-mail: rvangenuchten@yahoo.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (LTTC/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Lab. de Transmissao e Tecnologia do Calor; Bezerra, Camila Rosa, E-mail: camila.rosabz@gmail.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May, E-mail: bettymay@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural soils often require the use of fertilizers and soil conditioners for optimal production. Phosphate fertilizers produced from igneous phosphate rock often contain small amounts of natural radionuclides (notably uranium and thorium), while the byproduct phosphogypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is typically enriched in radium and lead. It is important to understand the long-term fate of these radionuclides when routinely applied via fertilizers ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) and phosphogypsum as an amendment ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) to agricultural lands. This study addresses the results of modeling their transport in a typical Cerrado soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D code was used to compare possible soil and groundwater pollution scenarios following the long term use of fertilizers and phosphogypsum in agricultural operations. Results using the equilibrium transport approach suggest that radionuclide concentrations originating from the use of phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum are relatively modest and will not pose a major risk to polluting underlying groundwater resources. (author)

  1. Electrical properties of phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogus-Milankovic, A; Santic, A; Reis, S T; Day, D E

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

  2. Embryo quality and impact of specific embryo characteristics on ongoing implantation in unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, Marie-Jose; Hoek, Annemieke; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Heineman, Maas Jan; van Echten-Arends, Janny; Arts, Eus G. J. M.

    Objective: To study the implantation potential of unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle IVF according to their morphological characteristics. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Academic department of reproductive medicine. Patient(S): A series of 449 single embryo transfers derived from

  3. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  4. Radioactivity in chemical and organic fertilizer used in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A.G.E.; Yousef, A.M.M.; Abbady, A.; El-Taher, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Egypt Chemical factories (ECF); such as Talkha, Sues, Abo Qeyer, Kafer Elzayat, and Assuit factories, produces and markets a range of phosphate based fertilizers, including Simple Super Phosphate (SSP) fertilizer, Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) fertilizer and Urea. Phosphate fertilizers produced by ECF are derived from phosphate ore. In addition to phosphate minerals, these ores can contain significant amounts of a wide range of impurities, including heavy metals and naturally occurring radionuclides. This study was carried out to determine the content of radionuclides in fertilizer products produced by ECF and some organic fertilizer (animal manure) includes cow, sheep and chicken fertilizer. In both samples (Chemical and organic fertilizers), the activity concentrations of Ra 2 26 are higher than those Th 2 32. The radioactivity of 226 R a in chemical fertilizers ranged from 21.6 ± 3.6 to 111.2 ± 8.9 Bq kg-1, phosphate fertilizers TSP contained high contents of 226 R a. The average radioactivity of 226 R a in TSP was 79.3 ± 7.4 Bq kg-1, in SSP 51.2 ± 5 Bq kg-1, and in Urea 35.1± 3.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of 232 T h in the different fertilizers ranged from 1.3 ± 1.1 to 9.9 ± 3.2 Bq kg-1,the highest activity observed in SSP fertilizer. The activity of 40 K was found to be great in the TSP fertilizer, which contained a mean activity 478.1± 21.3 Bq kg-1. With respect to organic fertilizers the average radioactivity of 226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K are 40 ± 1.6 Bq kg-1, 3.1± 1.2 and 427.1± 20 Bq kg-1. The data are discussed and compared with those given in the literatures. This study could be useful as baseline data for radiation exposure to fertilizers, and their impact on human health

  5. EFFECT OF INTEGRATED SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS ON THE ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF SOIL COLLEMBOLA IN EMBU AND TAITA DISTRICTS, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamleck Muturi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at identifying soil fertility management practices that promote the Collembola population, diversity and survival in the soil. Soil samples were randomly collected from on farm plots amended with: 1-Mavuno ((Ma-is a compound fertilizer containing 26% Potassium, 10% Nitrogen, 10% Calcium, 4% Sulphur, 4% Magnesium and trace elements like Zinc, Copper, Boron, Molybdenum and Manganese, 2-Manure (Mn, 3-Trichoderna (Tr inoculant (is a soil and compost-borne antagonistic fungus used as biological control agent against plant fungal diseases, 4-Farmers practice ((FP where Tripple Super Phosphate (T.S.P. and Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (C.A.N. fertilizers are applied in the soil in mixed form, 5-Tripple Super Phosphate (T.S.P., 6-Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (C.A.N.. These treatments were compared with 7-Control (Co (where soil fertility management interventions where not applied. Soil Collembola were extracted using dynamic behavioural modified Berlese funnel and identified to the genus level. Occurrence of Collembola was significantly affected by soil fertility amendments in both Taita and Embu study sites (P

  6. Evaluation of influence of fertilizers in radium concentration from tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira C.; Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Alleluia, Irene B.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2001-01-01

    The fertilizer contribution to radio uptake by tomato plants was assessed. Tomato and soil samples from four different plantations were analyzed: two using organic fertilizer and two using phosphate fertilizer. The Ra concentrations in eight of the most used tomato fertilizers were determined. The concentration values ranged from 14 to 221 Bq/kg of Ra-226 and from 25 to 176 Bq/kg of Ra-228. Owing to the low Ra concentration and to the used fertilizer quantities, the fertilizers would not increase significantly the Ra soil concentration. However, the highest soil to plant concentration ratios were found in the plantations using phosphate fertilizers. This outcome pointed out the higher Ra availability in the phosphate fertilizer plantations than in the organic fertilizer plantations, showing a possible positive influence of phosphate fertilizers for the tomato Ra uptake. Due to the phosphate fertilizer used, the dose could increase from 0,05 Sv/year to 0,24 Sv/year. However this increase is not significant face the ingestion average worldwide effective dose. (author)

  7. Manejo dos fertilizantes fosfatados e potássicos em arroz irrigado no sistema pré-germinado Phosphate and potassium fertilization management in pre-germinated rice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available No sistema pré-germinado de cultivo de arroz irrigado, em função da drenagem inicial, as perdas de nutrientes podem ser significativas, dependendo do manejo da adubação adotado, podendo afetar o ambiente e a sustentabilidade do sistema. Nas safras agrícolas de 2000/2001 a 2003/2004 foram desenvolvidos experimentos na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, com o objetivo de avaliar métodos de adubação fosfatada e potássica na perda de nutrientes na drenagem inicial e na produtividade do arroz irrigado no sistema pré-germinado de cultivo. Os tratamentos foram compostos por sete manejos da adubação fosfatada e potássica, combinando época de aplicação e incorporação ou não dos fertilizantes. As concentrações de fósforo e nitrogênio medidas na água da drenagem inicial não foram influenciadas pelo momento e modo de aplicação dos fertilizantes, sendo quantificado na média dos quatro anos de estudo, em níveis de 0,07 e 0,81 mg L-1 de fósforo e nitrogênio respectivamente. No entanto, para potássio, observa-se que menor quantidade foi carreada juntamente com a água da drenagem inicial, naqueles tratamentos cuja adubação de base foi realizada aos 10 e 30 dias após a semeadura, bem como no tratamento-testemunha. Os manejos de adubação testados, não influenciaram os parâmetros agronômicos avaliados na cultura do arroz irrigado. A produtividade do arroz irrigado não é influenciada pelo momento e modo de realização da adubação fosfatada e potássica, porém se não for mantida lâmina contínua de água a aplicação de fósforo e potássio deve ser executada após a drenagem inicial, a fim de reduzir as perdas de potássio.In pregerminated rice system, initial water drainage promotes nutrient losses, depending on fertilizer management, leading to environmental problems. During the 2000/01 and 2003/04 growing seasons experiments were conducted at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria aiming to evaluate the effect of

  8. Consortium inoculum of five thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing Actinomycetes for multipurpose biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandimath, Arusha P; Karad, Dilip D; Gupta, Shantikumar G; Kharat, Arun S

    2017-10-01

    Alkaline pH of the soil facilitates the conversion of phosphate present in phosphate fertilizer applied in the field to insoluble phosphate which is not available to plants. Problem of soluble phosphate deficiency arises, primarily due to needless use of phosphate fertilizer. We sought to biofertilizer with the thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes consortium that could convert insoluble phosphate to soluble phosphate at wider temperature range. In the present investigation consortium of five thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes was applied for preparation of inoculum to produce multipurpose bio-fertilizer. Phosphates solubilizing thermo-tolerant 32 actinomycetes strains were processed for identification with the use of PIBWIN software and were screened for phosphate solubilizing activity. Amongst these five actinomycetes were selected on the basis of their ability to produce cellulase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, lipase, amylase and phosphate solubilizing enzymes. Ability to produce these enzymes at 28°C and 50°C were examined. Biofertilizer was prepared by using agricultural waste as a raw material. While preparation of bio-fertilizer the pH decreased from 7.5 to 4.3 and temperature increased up to 74°C maximum at the end of 4 th week and in subsequent week it started to decline gradually till it reached around 50°C, which was found to be stable up to eighth week. This thermo-tolerant actinomycetes consortium released soluble phosphate of up to 46.7 μg ml -1 . As the mesophilic organisms die out at high temperature of composting hence thormo-tolerant actinomycetes would be the better substitute for preparation of phosphate solubilizing bio-fertilizer with added potential to degrade complex macromolecules in composting.

  9. Recovery of uranium from phosphatic rock and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Guzman, E.T.

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of uranium present in the manufacture process of phosphoric acid and fertilizers has been one interesting field of study in chemistry. It is true that the recovery of uranium it is not very attractive from the commercial point of view, however the phosphatic fertilizers have an important amount of uranium which comes from the starting materials (phosphatic rock), therefore there must be many tons of uranium that are dispersed in the environmental together with the fertilizers used in agriculture every year. They are utilized for the enrichment of the nutrients which are exhausted in the soil. In this work, uranium was identified and quantified in the phosphatic rocks and in inorganic fertilizers using Gamma Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, UV/Visible Spectrophotometry, Alpha Spectroscopy. On the other hand, it was done a correlation of the behaviour of uranium with inorganic elements present in the samples such as phosphorus, calcium and iron; which were determined by UV/Visible Spectrophotometry for phosphorus and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for calcium and iron. The quantity of uranium found in the phosphatic rock, phosphoric acid and fertilizers was considerable (70-200 ppm). The adequate conditions for the recovery of 40% of total of uranium from the phosphatic rock with the addition of leaching solutions were stablished. (Author)

  10. Contribution of soil-32P, fertilizer-32P and VA mycorrhizal fungi to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Gu; Yang Maoqiu; Bai Dengsha; Huang Quansheng

    1997-01-01

    32 P labelled fertilizer and five synthetic phosphates (dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate and apatite), which were used to simulate inorganic phosphates such as Ca 2 -P, Ca 8 -P, Fe P , Al-P and Ca 10 -P in calcareous soil, were applied to corn plants inoculating with and without vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous soil. The results showed that VA mycorrhizal fungi and dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate promoted growth and increased phosphorus content of corn plant. The four synthetic phosphates except apatite had higher contributions to corn plant growth than VA mycorrhizal fungi. Contributions of fertilizer-P, soil-P and synthetic phosphates to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant were in order of synthetic phosphates (except apatite) > soil- P > fertilizer-P. Inoculating with VA mycorrhizal fungi increased the contribution of soil-P and decreased the contribution of synthetic phosphates, but did not affect the contribution of fertilizer-P

  11. Fertility and money in an OLG model

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    We extend the two-period-lived-agent overlapping generations model with endogenous fertility and demand for money to understand whether and how the introduction of a money sector modifies what we have so far learned about fertility behaviours. It is shown that the existence of money may tend to exacerbate existing problems of either under-population or over-population.

  12. Field evaluation of partially acidulated phosphate rocks in a Ferralsol from Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Herrera, J. [Ciego de Avila University, Ciego de Avila (Cuba)]. E-mail: herrera@uctr.unica.cu

    2002-05-15

    Phosphorus (P) is needed in large areas of developing countries to improve soil fertility for crop production. The use of phosphate rock (PR) is an alternative to costly soluble P fertilizers, but it is ineffective usually in non-acid soils unless it is modified i.e. partially acidulated (PAPR). A laboratory incubation study using the isotopic exchange kinetic method of {sup 32}P and field experiments were undertaken on a neutral Ferralsol of Cuba to evaluate the effectiveness of PAPRs as fertilizers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.). Sulfuric-acid based PAPR using 40%, 50% and 60% of the acid required to produce single superphosphate were studied. In the laboratory experiment Trinidad de Guedes PAPR was effective in providing P to the soil, through increases in isotopically exchangeable P and the percentage of P derived from fertilizer (% Pdff). In the three field experiments carried out to compare the P sources, yields of common bean were increased by PAPR, though the response was less than with triple superphosphate (TSP). The relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of PAPR was greater than that of unacidulated PR. Taking into account the RAE values and the current cost of the P sources, the choice of Trinidad de Guedes PAPR instead of TSP could be economic, although the RAE value for PAPR was lower than that of TSP. This result indicates that PAPR could be used in the soil understudy to obtain the best economic return. DM yield, P uptake and grain yield of common bean were significantly increased by applying P as 50% PAPR. Low cost improvement of the agronomic value of PR can be achieved by partial acidulation, so this modification of the phosphate rock show promise for utilization of PR reserves indigenous to developing countries. (author)

  13. Field evaluation of partially acidulated phosphate rocks in a Ferralsol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Herrera, J.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is needed in large areas of developing countries to improve soil fertility for crop production. The use of phosphate rock (PR) is an alternative to costly soluble P fertilizers, but it is ineffective usually in non-acid soils unless it is modified i.e. partially acidulated (PAPR). A laboratory incubation study using the isotopic exchange kinetic method of 32 P and field experiments were undertaken on a neutral Ferralsol of Cuba to evaluate the effectiveness of PAPRs as fertilizers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.). Sulfuric-acid based PAPR using 40%, 50% and 60% of the acid required to produce single superphosphate were studied. In the laboratory experiment Trinidad de Guedes PAPR was effective in providing P to the soil, through increases in isotopically exchangeable P and the percentage of P derived from fertilizer (% Pdff). In the three field experiments carried out to compare the P sources, yields of common bean were increased by PAPR, though the response was less than with triple superphosphate (TSP). The relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of PAPR was greater than that of unacidulated PR. Taking into account the RAE values and the current cost of the P sources, the choice of Trinidad de Guedes PAPR instead of TSP could be economic, although the RAE value for PAPR was lower than that of TSP. This result indicates that PAPR could be used in the soil understudy to obtain the best economic return. DM yield, P uptake and grain yield of common bean were significantly increased by applying P as 50% PAPR. Low cost improvement of the agronomic value of PR can be achieved by partial acidulation, so this modification of the phosphate rock show promise for utilization of PR reserves indigenous to developing countries. (author)

  14. Availability of native and added phosphates for the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, W.B.; Boaretto, A.E.; Muraoka, T.

    1995-01-01

    In superficial composite samples of two Red-Yellow Latosols with different physical and chemical properties, analyses were carried out on inorganic form of phosphorus as well as the availability of native and added phosphates. The method applied was soil phosphorus fractionation associated with isotopic dilution technique ( 32 P). The samples were taken from pots containing soils incubated for a month with fluid phosphatic fertilizers (phosphoric acid and 10-30-00 suspension) and solid phosphatic fertilizers (mono ammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate), at the rate of 210 mg P 2 O 5 /kg of soil. A control treatment was included. In both soils the availability of inorganic phosphorus fractions decreased at the following order: H 2 O-P > Al-P > Fe-P > CA-P > occluded-P. The water soluble and aluminium phosphates represented the main source of available P for the newly fertilizer, the iron phosphates were also an important source of available phosphorus. The soil phosphorus fixing capacity influenced the availability of native and added phosphates. (author). 17 refs, 3 tabs

  15. Comparison of In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycle Outcome in Patients with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Modified Poisson Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Vesali, Samira; Ghaheri, Azadeh; Esmailzadeh, Arezoo; Omani-Samani, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent condition in reproductive age women with a prevalence rate of 5-10%. This study intends to determine the relationship between PCOS and the outcome of assisted reproductive treatment (ART) in Tehran, Iran. In this historical cohort study, we included 996 infertile women who referred to Royan Institute (Tehran, Iran) between January 2012 and December 2013. PCOS, as the main variable, and other potential confounder variables were gathered. Modified Poisson Regression was used for data analysis. Stata software, version 13 was used for all statistical analyses. Unadjusted analysis showed a significantly lower risk for failure in PCOS cases compared to cases without PCOS [risk ratio (RR): 0.79, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.66-0.95, P=0.014]. After adjusting for the confounder variables, there was no difference between risk of non-pregnancy in women with and without PCOS (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1.05, P=0.15). Significant predictors of the ART outcome included the treatment protocol type, numbers of embryos transferred (grades A and AB), numbers of injected ampules, and age. The results obtained from this model showed no difference between patients with and without PCOS according to the risk for non-pregnancy. Therefore, other factors might affect conception in PCOS patients. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  16. Competição de adubos fosfatados no algodoeiro, em ensaio de longa duração Phosphate fertilizers competition in a long term experiment with cotton, on a dusky red latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Machado da Silva

    1987-01-01

    consecutive applications of fertilizer mixtures containing P with or without S, in a long term trial conducted with cotton, on an acid and low-fertility Dusky Red Latosol, velvet bean (Stizolobium atterrimum Piper & Tracy was cultivated and limestone enough to attain the soil pH around 6.2, was applied. During the next five years, from 1978 to 1983, IAC 18 cotton cultivar was grown with the same fertilization of the initial phase of study. N and K were supplied in constant dosis, and P and S in variable dosis, through the combination of ammonium sulfate, nitrochalk, ordinary superphosphate, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride. Sulfur deficiency symptoms such as the appearance of yellow leaves at the top of plants ("lemon green" occurred from fifth year on, in the plots which received no S, in accordance with a tendency of increasing yield. However, only after acidity correction, it was possible to maintain high cotton yield and to obtain differences statistically significant between fertilizer mixtures with or without S. In the last five-year period, annual application of 50 and 100 kg/ha of P2O5 increased cotton yield, respectivelly of 37 and 40%, as triple superphosphate and of 55 to 67%, in the case of ordinary superphosphate. With regard to economical aspects, boll weight and fiber length, ordinary superphosphate was also superior. The use of additional doses of S (120 kg/ha however, did not improve the performance of cotton fertilized with 60 kg/ha of S. It was proposed that S should be incorporated in commercial fertilizer mixtures.

  17. TTPIXE analysis of phosphate rocks and phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Ontalba, M.A.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Bolivar, J.P.; Silva, M.F. da

    1999-01-01

    The TTPIXE technique was used for the determination of the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples. All the samples came from a fertilizer industry site in Huelva (SW of Spain). The analyses were done using proton beams from the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the 'Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear' (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal). The aim was to obtain data about the distribution of the different elements in the process of P 2 O 5 production in the factory. The information obtained allowed evaluation of the effectiveness of the chemical treatment employed, and gave a detailed information about the elemental composition of phosphogypsum, the main by-product of phosphate fertilizer production. These data can be useful to define the phosphogypsum management and to evaluate its environmental impact

  18. Determination of phosphorus fertilizer soil reactions by Raman and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian; Sekine, Ryo; Schiller, Tara; Lipiec, Ewelina; McNaughton, Don

    2013-10-01

    The reaction mechanisms of phosphate-bearing mineral phases from sewage sludge ash-based fertilizers in soil were determined by Raman and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy. Different reaction mechanisms in wet soil were found for calcium and magnesium (pyro-) phosphates. Calcium orthophosphates were converted over time to hydroxyapatite. Conversely, different magnesium phosphates were transformed to trimagnesium phosphate. Since the magnesium phosphates are unable to form an apatite structure, the plant-available phosphorus remains in the soil, leading to better growth results observed in agricultural pot experiments. The pyrophosphates also reacted very differently. Calcium pyrophosphate is unreactive in soil. In contrast, magnesium pyrophosphate quickly formed plant-available dimagnesium phosphate.

  19. Estimation of readily-available phosphate in some English Lake District woodland soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, A.F.

    1975-01-01

    Four chemical extraction methods (2.5 percent acetic acid, Olsen, Truog and Egner) and 5 isotope dilution methods involving short exchange periods (1 inverse dilution, 2 carrier-free and 2 using phosphate carrier) were investigatd for reliability in measurement of readily-available phosphate in widely differing soils from some non-fertilized semi-natural Lake District woodlands. Correlation coefficients between values produced and phosphate uptake during a two-month period from 16 soils (pH range 3.85 to 7.85) by Urtica dioica L., a phosphate-sensitive plant, differed markedly. They were negative for all the extraction procedures, varying from r = -0.079 for the Truog method to -0.518 for the Olsen method. The isotope dilution methods, with the exception of one, all gave positive correlation coefficients, varying from r = -0.676 for the carrier-free method of Talibudeen to r = 0.798 for a modified Amer carrier method. When combined by multiple regression analysis, the results of the isotope dilution methods accounted for 86.4 percent of the variation in phosphate-uptake by the nettle plants, whereas the results of the four extraction methods accounted for only 32.2 percent. Multiple regression analysis of the data showed that there were strong and different interactions between all methods investigated and soil properties, particularly soil pH, organic matter content, extractable iron, C/P and C/N. This clearly indicates that methods must be evaluated for each series of soils to be compared. (author)

  20. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin

    2016-02-09

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulphate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulphate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  1. The Australian national reactive phosphate rock project - Aims, experimental approach, and site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Field-based cutting trials were established across Australia in a range of environments to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of 5 phosphate rocks, and 1 partially acidulated phosphate rock, relative to either single super-phosphate or triple superphosphate. The phosphate rocks differed in reactivity, as determined by the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure and solubility of phosphorus present in the fertilizers in 2% formic acid, 2% citric acid and neutral ammonium citrate. Sechura (Bayovar) and North Carolina phosphate rocks were highly reactive (>70% solubility in 2% formic acid), whilst Khouribja (Moroccan) and Hamrawein (Egypt) phosphate rock were moderately reactive. Duchess phosphate rock from Queensland was relatively unreactive ( 2 , from 4.0 to 5.1, and Colwell extractable phosphorus ranged from 3 to 47 μg/g prior to fertilizer application. Two core experiments were established at each site. The first measured the effects of phosphate rock reactivity on agronomic effectiveness, while the second core experiment measured the effects of the degree of water solubility of the phosphorus source on agronomic effectiveness. The National Reactive Phosphate Rock Project trials provided the opportunity to confirm the suitability of accepted procedures to model fertilizer response and to develop new approaches for comparing different fertilizer responses. The Project also provided the framework for subsidiary studies such as the effect of fertilizer source on soil phosphorus extractability; cadmium and fluorine concentrations in herbage; evaluation of soil phosphorus tests; and the influence of particle size on phosphate rock effectiveness. The National Reactive Phosphate Rock Project presents a valuable model for a large, Australia-wide, collaborative team approach to an important agricultural issue. The use of standard and consistent experimental methodologies at every site ensured that maximum benefit was obtained from data

  2. Isotope technology as applied to studies of soil fertility, nutrient availability and fertilizer use on flooded rice soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, S.; Mohanty, S.K.; Dash, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Research is reviewed on soil fertility and nutrient availability in relation to fertilizer efficiency, especially o stimulated the mineralization of soil N. Losses of added N from oxidation, leaching, denitrification and volatilization could be minimized through placement of N fertilizer in the reduced zone or by the addition of rice straw for rapid immobilization of added N. Fe-P and, to some extent, Al-P provided P to the rice plants, particularly in P-deficient soils. Added phosphates were converted to these forms which, under waterlogged soil conditions, released more P into the soil solution through reductive solubilization of Fe-P and hydrolytic dissolution of Al-P. The rice plants generally absorbed fertilizer N during the vegetative growth period and N mineralized from soil organic matter during the reproductive growth period. 15 N studies indicated higher grain yield and utilization of applied N through fractional application of 70-80% during the vegetative growth period, and the remaining 20-30% top-dressed at the panicle initiation stage. Ammonia-containing and -forming (urea) fertilizers were superior to the nitrate form of N. In field tests, however, the crop recovery of applied N was relatively low. Phosphatic fertilizers were best applied at puddling. In general, water-soluble phosphates were superior to citrate-soluble or insoluble phosphates. The latter could be made as efficient as the water-soluble phosphate, at comparable low rates, by applying to the moist aerobic acid soil 2-3 weeks before flooding and transplanting rice. Tracer studies have been used to evaluate the nutrient-supplying capacity of the soil from the 'A' value concept. 'A' values varied with varying conditions of soil, rate, time and form of fertilizer application. Zn nutrition of the rice plant and fertilizer use with 65 Zn have been studied relatively little. Some lines of future work are suggested

  3. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF SUGARCANE-ASSOCIATED DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA CAPABLE OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING

    OpenAIRE

    Lira-Cadete, Luana; Barbosa de Farias, Andreza Raquel; de Souza Ramos, Andresa Priscila; da Costa, Diogo Paes; Freire, Fernando Jose; Kuklinsky-Sobral, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane is a culture of great importance for the Brazilian agriculture. Every year this culture consumes great amounts of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. However, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria can reduce the use of the chemical fertilizers, contributing to the economy and the environment conservation. So, the goal of this study was to select sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacteria able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to evaluate the genetic diversity of these b...

  4. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Elser

    Full Text Available Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum. Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  5. Comparison of digestion methods to determine heavy metals in fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard method to regulate heavy metal determination in Brazilian fertilizers and the subsequent use of several digestion methods have produced variations in the results, hampering interpretation. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three digestion methods for determination of metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in fertilizers. Samples of 45 fertilizers marketed in northeastern Brazil were used. A fertilizer sample with heavy metal contents certified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST was used as control. The following fertilizers were tested: rock phosphate; organo-mineral fertilizer with rock phosphate; single superphosphate; triple superphosphate; mixed N-P-K fertilizer; and fertilizer with micronutrients. The substances were digested according to the method recommended by the Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil (MAPA and by the two methods 3051A and 3052 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. By the USEPA method 3052, higher portions of the less soluble metals such as Ni and Pb were recovered, indicating that the conventional digestion methods for fertilizers underestimate the total amount of these elements. The results of the USEPA method 3051A were very similar to those of the method currently used in Brazil (Brasil, 2006. The latter is preferable, in view of the lower cost requirement for acids, a shorter digestion period and greater reproducibility.

  6. Industrial hygiene survey. IMC, Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.

    1977-10-01

    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at IMC Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida, on June 7-11, 1976, as part of a study of the phosphate industry. Phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. During the study 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid for workers involved in cleaning out phosphoric acid reactor vessels. General area samples were collected for fluorides, radon, and uranium. Several samples were above the NIOSH recommended levels for arsenic and chromium

  7. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  8. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  9. Efficiency and response of conilon coffee clones to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Deleon Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on nutritional efficiency of phosphorus in conilon coffee plants are important tools to unravel the high limitation that natural low levels of this nutrient in soil impose to these species cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the nutritional efficiency and the response to phosphorus of conilon coffee clones. Plants were managed during 150 days in pots containing 10 dm³ of soil, in greenhouse. A factorial scheme 13 x 2 was used, with three replications, being the factors: 13 clones constituting the clonal cultivar "Vitória Incaper 8142" and two levels of phosphate fertilization (0% and 150% of the P2O5 usualy recommended, in a completely randomized design (CRD. The results indicate a differentiated response of dry matter production and of phosphorus content on each level of phosphate fertilization for the conilon coffee clones and that CV-04, CV-05 and CV-08 clones are nutritionally efficient and responsive to the phosphate fertilization.

  10. Measuring P availability in soils fertilized with water-soluble P fertilizers using 32P methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Isotope exchange kinetics was used in conjunction with standard procedures for assessing soil P status in soils fertilized with soluble phosphatic fertilizers. Soil samples were collected before fertilizer application in year 1 (one) from 23 of the 30 sites of the National Reactive Phosphate Rock project. Soil phosphorus test values were plotted against indices of pasture response to applied fertilizer, to assess the effectiveness of the various soil tests to predict site responsiveness to applied fertilizer. Isotopically exchangeable P was only weakly related to other measures of available P, with resin P having the best relationship with E values. In some samples, very large values for isotopically exchangeable P (E values) were determined in relation to P extractable by all reagents. Examination of the data however, revealed that all the samples with large E values in relation to extractable P had very low equilibrium concentrations of solution P and high buffering capacities. The best soil test, Bray 1, could account for only 50% of the variation in plant responsiveness to applied fertilizer, with Olsen and Resin tests slightly worse at 41% and the isotopic procedure at 39%. (author)

  11. Recovery of uranium from the Syrian phosphate by solid-liquid method using alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium concentrations were analyzed in the Syrian phosphate deposits. Mean concentrations were found between 50 and 110 ppm. As a consequence, an average phosphate dressing of 22 kg/ha phosphate would charge the soil with 5-20 g/ha uranium when added as a mineral fertilizer. Fine grinding phosphate produced at the Syrian mines was used for uranium recovery by carbonate leaching. The formation of the soluble uranyl tricarbonate anion UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- permits use of alkali solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts for the nearly selective dissolution of uranium from phosphate. Separation of iron, aluminum, titanium, etc., from the uranium during leaching was carried out. Formation of some small amounts of molybdates, vanadates, phosphates, aluminates, and some complexes metal was investigated. This process could be used before the manufacture of TSP fertilizer, and the final products would contain smaller uranium quantities. (author)

  12. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Lembucherra, Tripura 799 ... vated in soil like red and lateritic or acid, with low soluble phosphate content. ..... activation of genes involved in the adaptation of Arabidopsis to.

  13. Fertilizer Effect of Phosphorus Recycling Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Römer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Between 2004 and 2011 the German Government funded 17 different projects to develop techniques of phosphorus recycling from wastewater, sewage sludges, and sewage sludge ashes. Several procedures had been tested, such as precipitation, adsorption, crystallization, nano-filtration, electro-dialysis, wet oxidation, pyrolysis, ion exchange, or bioleaching. From these techniques, 32 recycling products were tested by five different institutes for their agronomic efficiency, that is, their plant availability, mainly in pot experiments. This manuscript summarizes and compares these results to evaluate the suitability of different technical approaches to recycle P from wastes into applicable fertilizers. In total, 17 products of recycled sewage sludge ashes (SSA, one meat and bone meal ash, one sinter product of meat and bone meal, one cupola furnace slag, nine Ca phosphates from crystallization or from precipitation, Seaborne-Ca-phosphates, Seaborne-Mg-phosphate, and 3 different struvites were tested in comparison to controls with water soluble P, that is, either single super phosphate (SSP or triple super phosphate (TSP. Sandy and loamy soils (pH: 4.7–6.8; CAL-P: 33–49 ppm were used. The dominant test plant was maize. Phosphorus uptake from fertilizer was calculated by the P content of fertilized plants minus P content of unfertilized plants. Calculated uptake from all products was set in relation to uptake from water soluble P fertilizers (SSP or TSP as a reference value (=100%. The following results were found: (1 plants took up less than 25% P in 65% of all SSA (15 products; (2 6 products (26% resulted in P uptake of 25 and 50% relatively to water soluble P. Only one Mg-P product resulted in an uptake of 67%. With cupola furnace slag, 24% P uptake was reached on sandy soil and nearly the same value as TSP on loamy soil. The uptake results of Ca phosphates were between 0 and 50%. Mg-P products from precipitation processes consistently showed a

  14. Characterization of Fe -doped silver phosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... to their several spe- cial properties such as large thermal expansion coefficients, ... increase the conductivity of these glasses is to increase the modifier or dopant ... phosphate glasses were measured by the a.c. impedance spectroscopic .... and Fe2O3-doped Ag2O–P2O5 glasses were determined from. DSC curves and ...

  15. Influence on the long-term fertilizing on radioactivity soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubisic, M.; Stevanovic, D.; Stojanovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Pantelic, G.

    2007-01-01

    Researching in this work need to give the answer in which degree application the mineral fertilizers, especially phosphate, contribute to the contamination of a soil because of long-term continually fertilizing (35 years) and differences of adopting from the corn culture and wheat nursing in monocultures. Like control, it is made measuring activity of radionuclides of a soil on experimental variety where wasn't fertilizing during the making the experiment, separately for both cultures. Based on that it is given accent only on chronic contamination of a soil by radionuclides by application mineral fertilizers at once and transport in the system of soil of different biocenoses. Based on measuring activity 40K, 137Cs, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 232Th, 212Pb it is fortified differences in concentration of the activity of radionuclides of uranium row between the samples of smonica, fertilized and non-fertilized in the longer period. (author) [sr

  16. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-10-21

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, ß-interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs.

  17. Topsoil and fertilizer effects on ground cover growth on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Canopy cover and above ground biomass of herbaceous species was measured in four studies for five years (1989-1993) in southeastern Ohio; on Central Ohio Coal Company's Muskingum Mine, 5 km South of Cumberland. Three studies compared graded cast overburden, standard graded topsoil (30 cm depth), and ripped topsoil. The fourth study lacked the ripped topsoil treatment. In 1987 two studies were seeded with both a standard and a modified mixture of grass and legume species, and two studies used the modified mix only. A nitrogen rate study used 45, 90 or 135 kg/ha of N applied on two occasions, and a phosphorus fertilizer study used rock phosphate amendment at 0, 1120, or 2240 kg/ha and triple superphosphate amendment at 0, 280, or 560 kg/ha. Based on one clipping per year, overall average biomass (Mg/ha dry weight) was slightly greater on standard topsoil (3.34), and ripped topsoil (3.30) than on cast overburden (3.09). Biomass did not differ significantly (p=0.05) on standard topsoil versus cast overburden for 15 of 19 comparisons. Legume biomass (Mg/ha, measured for 3 or 4 years) averaged 0.84 on standard topsoil, 0.75 on ripped topsoil, and 1.16 on cast overburden. In three studies, legume biomass was 50% higher on cast overburden than the topsoils, but differences among the soil surfaces were decreasing by 50% higher on cast overburden than the topsoils, but differences among the soil surfaces were decreasing by 1993. Nitrogen fertilizer increased ground cover only in the year when fertilizer was applied. Phosphorus fertilizer treatments had no significant effects. Ground cover showed no signs of deterioration during the last measurements in 1993. Observations in 1995 indicated dense canopy cover on all soil surfaces with substantial invasion by goldenrods (Solidago spp.) only on topsoils. 16 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Phosphate-induced cadmium adsorption in a tropical savannah soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of phosphate (P) on cadmium (Cd) adsorption was examined in a savanna soil with long history of different fertilizer amendment. The soil was incubated with P at 0, 250 and 500 mg P kg-1 soil and left to equilibrate for 2 weeks. Cd was added to the P-incubated soil at concentrations ranging from 27, 49 and ...

  19. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: a critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, J.D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensable for fertilizer production, while P (phosphorus) is a major pollutant if applied or discharged in excess, causing widespread eutrophication (Carpenter and Bennet, 2011). High-grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form

  20. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources : A critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, J.D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensable for fertilizer production, while P (phosphorus) is a major pollutant if applied or discharged in excess, causing widespread eutrophication (Carpenter and Bennet, 2011). High-grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form

  1. Solubilization of inorganic phosphates by fungi isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most agricultural soils contain large reserves of phosphorus (P), a considerable part of which accumulates as a consequence of regular applications of P fertilizers. However, a greater part of soil phosphorus, approximately 95–99% is present in the form of insoluble phosphates and hence cannot be utilized by the plants.

  2. Modification of the 137Cs, 90Sr, and 60Co transfer to wheat plantlets by NH4+ fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Muñoz-Muñoz, G; Baeza, A; Salas, A; Mocanu, N

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic fertilizers are used as agricultural countermeasures intended to inhibit the soil to plant transfer of radionuclides after a radioactive fallout. Two NH 4 + fertilizers, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and NPK, were applied to soil contaminated with a mixture of radionuclides to analyze whether they modify the transfer of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 60 Co and stable elements (K, Na, Ca, and Mg) to wheat plantlets grown under controlled laboratory conditions. DAP introduced NH 4 + in the soil, which can increase 137 Cs transfer, while NPK also introduced K + , which can decrease it. The application of DAP increased the accumulation of 137 Cs in wheat plantlets with increasing application rate, so did the 137 Cs/K in plantlets. Regarding the NPK application, the 137 Cs increased in all treatments, but at maximum rate, the available K introduced by the fertilizer was probably able to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of the wheat plantlet and the 137 Cs decreased relative to the recommended rate. The 137 Cs/K ratio in plantlet decreased with increasing NPK rates. The transfer of 90 Sr increased with increasing DAP rate and only at the maximum NPK rate. The 60 Co transfer only increased at the maximum application rates for DAP and NPK. These modifications should be considered when using these fertilizers as agricultural countermeasures.

  3. Response of Maize Plant to Phosphorus Fertilization on Typic Distrudepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the acid soil, phosphorus nutrients become critical for agricultural crops growth. At the present, price of fertilizers significantly increase and fertilizers are not available. These conditions can affect on soil productivity and crop production. The objective of these research were to study the response of maize (Zea mays L. to phosphate fertilizers on Inceptisol. The research was conducted in Cicadas Village on Typic Dystrudept. Experiment was conducted in a randomized completely block design, with 8 treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of 6 dosages of P fertilizers, which were P source is SP-36 WIKA Agro 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1. SP-36 and Tunisia rock phosphate (40 kg P ha-1 were used for standard. Pioneer 12 variety of maized was used as an indicator. Plot size was 5 m x 6 m and the maize was planting with distance of 75 cm x 20 cm with one seed per hole. The results showed that organic C and N, P (extracted by Bray 1, K and CEC on the soil were low. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased which was P extracted by HCl 25% from 24 to 67 mg P 100 g-1 soil and which were extracted by Bray 1 increased from 0,87 to 63.31 mg P kg-1 soil. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased plant height from 175.2 cm become to 221.1 cm. Plant height of maize using SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer (210.6 cm was similar to plant heigh using SP-36 fertilizer (213.4 cm but less height from Tunisia rock phosphate. The yield of maize on SP-36 WIKA Agro (4.94 t ha-1 were linely higher than SP-36 (4.69 t ha-1, significantly was higher than that of Tunisia rock phosphate. Maximum dosage of SP-36 fertilizer was 66.67 kg P ha-1, and optimum dosage was 42 kg P ha-1. Value of Relative Agronomic Effectiveness SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer was heigher than SP-36.

  4. Improving Water Use Efficiency of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Using Phosphorous Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhader, Asad M F; Abu Rayyan, Azmi M

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorous (P) fertilizers application to an alkaline calcareous soil on the water use efficiency (WUE) of lettuce cultivar "robinson" of iceberg type. Head fresh and dry weights, total water applied and WUE were affected significantly by the P fertilizer type and rate. P fertilizers addition induced a significant enhancement in the WUE and fresh and dry weights of the crop. A local phosphate rock (PR) applied directly was found to be inferior to the other types of P fertilizers (Mono ammonium phosphate (MAP), Single superphosphate (SSP), and Di ammonium phosphate ((DAP)). MAP fertilizer at 375 and 500 kg P2O5/ha application rates recorded the highest significant values of head fresh weight and WUE, respectively.

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  6. The source of phosphate in the oxidation zone of ore deposits: Evidence from oxygen isotope compositions of pyromorphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmann, Fabian; Keim, Maximilian F.; Oelmann, Yvonne; Teiber, Holger; Marks, Michael A. W.; Markl, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    isotope composition of phosphate has been used as a tool for determining paleotemperatures (e.g., Longinelli, 1984), but recent studies suggested to test its suitability for tracing phosphate sources in aquatic systems (Gruau et al., 2005; Elsbury et al., 2009; Young et al., 2009). Most of these studies deal with short-term ecological cycles and therefore the inorganic exchange of oxygen is negligible. However, this effect has to be considered for processes that happen in geological timescales.Due to the low phosphate concentrations in natural waters (Blake et al., 2005) and the low solubility product of pyromorphite, it is reasonable to assume almost all phosphate to precipitate as pyromorphite without any fractionation. Accordingly, the δ18OP of pyromorphite reflects the oxygen isotope composition of the dissolved phosphate in the water from which it precipitated and records the source, if this phosphate was not modified during fluid transport.Different phosphate reservoirs differ in their oxygen-isotope composition and with more and more data available it is possible to discriminate between different sources. Data for phosphates in aquatic systems are provided by Young et al. (2009): Phosphates of anthropogenic origin (fertilizers and the corresponding processing stages, detergents and toothpaste) show δ18OP values between +13.3‰ and +22.3‰, for phosphates from organic sources (vegetation leachate and animal waste) values between +14.2‰ and +23.1‰ are reported and a range between +8.4‰ and +14.2‰ is covered by phosphates of waste water treatment plants. For terrestrial ecosystems, Tamburini et al. (2012) reported δ18OP values between +4.5‰ and +31.4‰ with most data falling in the range of +12.4‰ to +31.4‰ for phosphate in plants (N = 11). Microbial phosphate in soil covered a range of +11‰ to +19‰. Resin-extractable P in soil as the readily available P fraction in soil from which P-containing minerals would precipitate, showed a range of 14

  7. Phosphate solubilization as a microbial strategy for promoting plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eleonora Beltrán Pineda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the constant application of chemical inputs in Agroecosystem, the cost of crop production and environmental quality of soil and water have been affected. Microorganisms carry out most biogeochemical cycles; therefore, their role is essential for agro ecosystem balance. One such functional group is the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, which are recognized plant growth promoters. These microbial populations perform an important activity, since in many soils there are large reserves of insoluble phosphorus, as a result of fixing much of the phosphorus fertilizer applied, which cannot be assimilated by the plant. The phosphate solubilizing microorganisms use different solubilization mechanisms such as the production of organic acids, which solubilize theses insoluble phosphates in the rhizosphere region. Soluble phosphates are absorbed by the plant, which enhances their growth and productivity. By using these phosphate reserves in soils, application of chemical fertilizers is decreased, on the one hand, can again be fixed by ions Ca, Al or Fe making them insoluble and, by the other hand, increase the costs of crop production. Microbial populations have been widely studied in different types of ecosystems, both natural and Agroecosystem. Thanks to its effectiveness, in laboratory and field studies, the phosphate solubilizing phenotype is of great interest to microbial ecologists who have begun to establish the molecular basis of the traitr.

  8. Radiological impacts of uranium recovery in the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This article characterizes the occupational and public radiological health impacts associated with phosphate mining and milling. These impacts are related to the phosphate industry's uranium production potential and are compared with those associated with conventional uranium mining and milling. The radiological impacts resulting from occupational and nonoccupational exposures are assessed. Occupational exposures in phosphate facilities are compared to background exposures and radiological population dose assessments, which characterize important radionuclides and exposure pathways. The following conclusions were reached: (1) public consequences of phosphate mining will occur whether or not uranium is recovered as a by-product, (2) radiological consequences of phosphate mining may be comparable to those associated with uranium mining and milling per unit uranium production, (3) radiological impacts via surface waterways and crops fertilized with uranium-bearing phosphates are of minor consequence, and (4) major radiological public health problems associated with phosphate mining are related to radon and radon progeny exposures in structures built on reclaimed lands or with phosphate mining residues, although the magnitudes of these impacts are difficult to evaluate with current data

  9. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  10. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  11. Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.

  12. Biosolubilization of poorly soluble rock phosphates by Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.S.; Kumar, S.; Babita, K. [Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala (India). School of Biotechnology; Reddy, M.S. [Auburn University, AL (United States). Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology

    2002-09-01

    Three isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and two isolates of Aspergillus niger isolated from rhizospheric soils were tested on solubilization of different rock phosphates. All the isolates of Aspergillus were capable of solubilizing all the natural rock phosphates. A. tubingensis (AT1) showed maximum percent solubilization in all the rock phosphates tested in this study when compared to other isolates. This isolate also showed highest phosphorus (P) solubilization when grown in the presence of 2% of rock phosphate. A. tubingensis (AT1) seems to be more efficient in solubilization of rock phosphates compared to other isolates reported elsewhere. This is the first report of rock phosphate solubilization by A. tubingensis and might provide an efficient large scale biosolubilization of rock phosphates intended for P fertilizer. (author)

  13. Controlled release fertilizers using superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M.; Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady [Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City (Egypt). National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRTT)

    2017-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels (PVP/CMC) based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) of different copolymer compositions were prepared by gamma radiation. Factors affecting the gel content (%) and the swelling ratio (g/g) of hydrogel such as irradiation dose as well as copolymer composition were investigated. With increasing the CMC content in PVP/CMC hydrogels, increases the swelling and improves the water retention capability. The high swelling ratio was observed at copolymer composition of PVP/CMC (60/40). Fast swelling of the hydrogels was obtained after 20 min. The effect of different fertilizers and buffers of different pH's on equilibrium swelling of hydrogels was investigated. Fertilizers such as urea, monopotassium-phosphate (MPK), and nitrogen-phosphate-potassium (NPK) were loaded onto the hydrogel to supply nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous nutrients. PVP/CMC hydrogels retained 28-36% after 72 h and slow retention was noticed up to 9 days. The swelling of hydrogel in fertilizer solutions is lower than that in water. The hydrogels showed adsorption desorption of fertilizers which governs by slow release property. The release rate of urea is much higher 10 times than that of phosphate. After 3 days, urea released 60%, while phosphate released 10-12%. The applicability of PVP/CMC hydrogels in the agricultural fields shows greater growth effect on zea maize plants. The growth of zea maize plant in soil mixed with PVP/CMC hydrogels loaded fertilizers is greater than untreated soil. The slow release fertilize, the high swelling and the slow water retention behaviors of PVP/CMC hydrogels encourage their use as safer release systems for fertilizers and as soil conditioner in agricultural applications.

  14. Controlled release fertilizers using superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M.; Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady

    2017-01-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels (PVP/CMC) based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) of different copolymer compositions were prepared by gamma radiation. Factors affecting the gel content (%) and the swelling ratio (g/g) of hydrogel such as irradiation dose as well as copolymer composition were investigated. With increasing the CMC content in PVP/CMC hydrogels, increases the swelling and improves the water retention capability. The high swelling ratio was observed at copolymer composition of PVP/CMC (60/40). Fast swelling of the hydrogels was obtained after 20 min. The effect of different fertilizers and buffers of different pH's on equilibrium swelling of hydrogels was investigated. Fertilizers such as urea, monopotassium-phosphate (MPK), and nitrogen-phosphate-potassium (NPK) were loaded onto the hydrogel to supply nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous nutrients. PVP/CMC hydrogels retained 28-36% after 72 h and slow retention was noticed up to 9 days. The swelling of hydrogel in fertilizer solutions is lower than that in water. The hydrogels showed adsorption desorption of fertilizers which governs by slow release property. The release rate of urea is much higher 10 times than that of phosphate. After 3 days, urea released 60%, while phosphate released 10-12%. The applicability of PVP/CMC hydrogels in the agricultural fields shows greater growth effect on zea maize plants. The growth of zea maize plant in soil mixed with PVP/CMC hydrogels loaded fertilizers is greater than untreated soil. The slow release fertilize, the high swelling and the slow water retention behaviors of PVP/CMC hydrogels encourage their use as safer release systems for fertilizers and as soil conditioner in agricultural applications.

  15. The variable charge of andisols as affected by nanoparticles of rock phosphate and phosphate solubilizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, M.; Nurlaeny, N.; Devnita, R.; Fitriatin, B. N.; Sandrawati, A.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Andisols has a great potential as agriculture land, however, it has a high phosphorus retention, variable charge characteristics and high value of zero net charge or pH0. The research is aimed to study the effects of nanoparticles of rock phosphate (NPRP) and biofertilizer (phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB) on soil pH, pHo (zero point of charge, ZPC) and organic-C in one subgroup of Andisols, namely Acrudoxic Durudands, Ciater Region West Java. The research was conducted from October 2016 to February 2017 in Soil Physics Laboratory and Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. This experiment used a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of two factors and three replications. The first factor was nanoparticles of rock phosphate consist of 4 doses 0; 25; 50 and 75 g/1 kg soil and the second factor was biofertilizer dose consist of g/1 kg soil and without biofertilizer. Total treatment combinations were 8 with 3 replications, so there were 24 experimental plots. The results showed that in general NPRR and biofertilizer will decrease the value of soil pH throughout the incubation periods. There is an interaction between nanoparticles of rock phosphate and biofertilizer in decreasing pHo in the first month of incubation, but after 4-month incubation period, NPRP increased. Interaction between 75 g nanoparticles of rock phosphate with 1 g biofertilizer/1 kg soil in fourth months of incubation decreased soil organic-C to 3.35%.

  16. Evaluation of influence of fertilizers in radium concentration from tomato culture; Avaliacao da influencia dos fertilizantes nos teores de radio encontrados na cultura do tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Protecao Radiologica Ambiental; Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Alleluia, Irene B. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Meio Ambiente; Perez, Daniel V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Analises de Solos e Plantas

    2001-07-01

    The fertilizer contribution to radio uptake by tomato plants was assessed. Tomato and soil samples from four different plantations were analyzed: two using organic fertilizer and two using phosphate fertilizer. The Ra concentrations in eight of the most used tomato fertilizers were determined. The concentration values ranged from 14 to 221 Bq/kg of Ra-226 and from 25 to 176 Bq/kg of Ra-228. Owing to the low Ra concentration and to the used fertilizer quantities, the fertilizers would not increase significantly the Ra soil concentration. However, the highest soil to plant concentration ratios were found in the plantations using phosphate fertilizers. This outcome pointed out the higher Ra availability in the phosphate fertilizer plantations than in the organic fertilizer plantations, showing a possible positive influence of phosphate fertilizers for the tomato Ra uptake. Due to the phosphate fertilizer used, the dose could increase from 0,05 Sv/year to 0,24 Sv/year. However this increase is not significant face the ingestion average worldwide effective dose. (author)

  17. Root developmental adaptation to phosphate starvation: better safe than sorry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péret, Benjamin; Clément, Mathilde; Nussaume, Laurent; Desnos, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial component of major organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and membrane phospholipids. It is present in soils in the form of inorganic phosphate (Pi), which has low availability and poor mobility. To cope with Pi limitations, plants have evolved complex adaptive responses that include morphological and physiological modifications. This review describes how the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana adapts its root system architecture to phosphate deficiency through inhibition of primary root growth, increase in lateral root formation and growth and production of root hairs, which all promote topsoil foraging. A better understanding of plant adaptation to low phosphate will open the way to increased phosphorus use efficiency by crops. Such an improvement is needed in order to adjust how we manage limited phosphorus stocks and to reduce the disastrous environmental effects of phosphate fertilizers overuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of mycorrhization and phosphate fertilizer on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dalida

    1Department of Plant Biology, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812 Yaounde, Cameroon. 2Department of Plant Biology, University of Douala, ... consumers, were used: V1 (ivory cream seed coat) and V2 (ivory cream seed coat with grey eyes). ... Regional Laboratory for Biological Control and Applied Microbiology of IRAD.

  19. Food for the soil: Rock phosphate as fertilizer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... During the project, a team of researchers and farmers in three African ... was based on a complex hypothesis involving thermodynamics. ... Fourth Global Health Systems Research Symposium features innovative research on ...

  20. Radiotracer investigation of phosphoric acid and phosphatic fertilizers production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdelouahed, H.; Reguigui, N.

    2011-01-01

    In the phosphoric acid production process, the time a particle spends inside the chemical reactor (residence time) is of paramount importance to process engineers. Residence time distribution (RTD) gives information on the efficiency of the chemical reactor, on the efficiency of the process, and also the availabilities of the reactive volume for the reaction (active volume vs. dead volume). Traditionally, chemical engineers used chemical tracer to determine the RTD. However, first disadvantage is that the chemical tracer could not allow an online diagnosis: the samples containing chemical tracer have to go to a lab for analysis, second disadvantage is that the chemical tracer is less sensitive than radioactive ones because of its adsorption onto strata or its retention in rocks. Consequently, chemical tracer results are not always precise and cannot convincingly explain the multiple flow-path model. Radioactive tracers are the only tracers capable of measuring the active RTD with high degree of precision and give information on the internal recirculation rate. In this work, we will describe the application of radiotracer method for RTD measurement in the phosphoric acid production process and give results and discussion of each case encountered. (author)

  1. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kirby, Jason K.; Beak, Douglas G.; Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ–XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ–XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the

  2. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  3. Effect of Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria on Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Comparison with Chemical and Organic Fertilizers in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fallah Nosrat Abad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of fertilizers in farming systems, soil pollution and degradation of soil are factors that caused to full use of available renewable nutrient sources of plant (organic and biological with optimal application of fertilizers in order to maintain fertility, structure, biological activity, exchange capacity and water-holding capacity of the water in soil. Therefore, in recent years, according to investigators biofertilizers and organic farming as an alternative to chemical fertilizers has been drawn. Through this study, we examined the effects of triple superphosphate, organic matters and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on quantitative and qualitative yield of wheat and nutrient uptake. The experiment was carried out in the factorial based on randomized complete block design. The factors were: 1-phosphate solubilizing bacteria in three levels including control, Pseudomonas Putida and Bacillus Coagulans bacteria, 2- triple superphosphate in five levels of 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% and 3-organic matter in 2 levels of 0 and 15 ton/ha in the soil with high phosphorous accessibility (13 mg/kg soil but lower than sufficient limit for plant 15 mg/kg soil. The results showed that the highest amount of yield has been recorded in Pseudomonas Putida bacteria treatment with organic matter and 25% phosphate fertilizer. As a result, at the conditions of this experiment phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic matter significantly had higher yield than control and their combination with phosphate fertilizer had significant effect on reducing phosphate fertilizer use.

  4. Phosphate Remediation and Recovery using Iron Oxide-based Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese and nanoparticles. Characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-...

  5. Adubo fosfatado revestido com polímero e calagem na produção e parâmetros morfológicos de milho Polymer-coated phosphate fertilizer and liming on the production and morphological parameters of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Célio de Figueiredo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A baixa disponibilidade de fósforo em solos ácidos, como os do Cerrado, exige um manejo eficiente da adubação fosfatada. O uso de tecnologias que aumentem a eficiência de uso do fósforo é uma alternativa que pode ser adotada, desde que se considere a realidade dos solos brasileiros. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de adubo fosfatado revestido com polímero, associada à calagem, na produção e parâmetros morfológicos da cultura do milho. O estudo foi conduzido em campo, em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com três repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de duas fontes de fósforo (MAP convencional e MAP revestido com polímero - Kimcoat® com quatro níveis de saturação por bases (27; 40; 50 e 60%. As fontes de fósforo apresentaram diferenças dependentes dos níveis de saturação por bases. O MAP revestido com polímero promoveu melhor desempenho do milho, quanto à produtividade, produção de matéria seca total e altura de planta, em relação ao MAP convencional. As maiores diferenças foram verificadas nas saturações por bases de 40 e 50%, nas quais o MAP revestido promoveu o incremento na produtividade de grãos de 3,40 e 3,48 t ha-1, respectivamente, em relação ao MAP convencional.The low availability of phosphorus in acid soils, such as those of the Cerrado, requires the efficient management of phosphorus fertilization. The use of technologies that increase the efficiency of phosphorus use is an alternative that can be adopted, provided the reality of Brazilian soils is taken into consideration. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of polymer-coated phosphate fertilizer associated with liming on the production and morphological parameters of corn crops. The study was conducted in the field, in a red-yellow latosol. The experimental design was of randomized

  6. Fertilizer balance in the soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichardt, K.; Libardi, P.L.; Victoria, R.L.; Ruschel, A.P.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Saito, S.M.T.

    A report is presented on a beans culture project developed to study in detail processes on: (1)Nitrogen - fixation, mineralization, denetrification and absorption by the plant (effect of plant variety; selection of the efficient rhizobia; bacteria specificity for the plant; inocculation longevity; persistence and competition with bacteria found naturally in the soil, etc.) (2)Phosphorus and Potassium interactions with nitrogen absorption, residual effects of natural phosphates. The transformations suffered by nitrogen and the ways it follows after its application to the soil were also studied aiming at a rational handling of the fertilizer. The use of fertilizers by the plants was studied through stable and radioactive isotopes, information being sought on absorption efficiency, phosphorus - and potassium interactions with nitrogen absorption, and effects of natural phosphates. Three types of experiments were carried out: I-Nitrogen fixation experiments II-Nitrogen-and Potassium fertility experiments III-Laboratory experiments [pt

  7. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative evaluation of phosphorus fertilizer on lowland rice soils by the 'A' value technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajah, S.; Amarasiri, S.L.; Jauffer, M.M.M.; Wickremasinghe, K.

    1979-01-01

    The direct and residual effects of several phosphorus fertilizers were studied in some rice soils of Sri Lanka in the greenhouse and in the field using the 'A' value method. In the greenhouse experiment rock phosphates did not show a direct effect on any of the soils. Rhenania phosphate was superior to other phosphates in its direct effect in some of the soils. The rock phosphates hardly showed a residual effect while Rhenania phosphate showed a residual effect in three of the soils. In the field experiment there were no differences in 'A' value between the forms of phosphate in their direct effects. Only the higher level of concentrated superphosphate showed a residual effect. 'A' value data also presented some problems in their interpretation and use. Some of the 'A' values were negative, there were conflicts between 'A' value data and previously known field data, and the 'A' value method was sometimes unable to differentiate between phosphates of wide differences in availability. (author)

  9. Isolation of phosphatase-producing phosphate solubilizing bacteria from Loriya hot spring: Investigation of phosphate solubilizing in the presence of different parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Parhamfar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biofertilizers are the microorganisms that can convert useless nutrient to usable compounds. Unlike fertilizer, cost of biofertilizer production is low and doesn’t produce ecosystem pollution. Phosphate fertilizers can be replaced by phosphate biofertilizer to produce improvement. So, it is necessary to screen the climate-compatible phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Materials and methods: In this project samples were picked up from Loriya hot spring, which are located in Jiroft. Samples were incubated in PKV medium for 3 days. Screening of phosphate solubilizing bacteria was performed on the specific media, based on clear area diameter. The best bacterium was identified based on 16s rDNA gene. Phosphate solubilizing activity of this strain was considered in different carbon, nitrogen, phosphate and pH sources. Results: Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results show that B. sp. LOR033 is closely related to Bacillus licheniformis, with 97% homology. In addition, results show that maximum enzyme production was performed after 2 days that incubation pH was decreased simultaneously when the time was increased. Carbon sources investigation show that glucose is the most appropriate in enzyme production and phosphate releasing. Furthermore, results show that the optimum initial pH for phytase production was pH5.0. Different phosphate sources show that tricalcium phosphate has the suitable effect on enzyme activity in three days of incubation. Discussion and conclusion: Phosphatase enzyme production capacity, growth in acidic pH and phosphate solubilizing potential in different salt and phosphate sources show that this strain has considerable importance as biofertilizers.

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23 and Disorders of Phosphate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasuku Saito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Derangements in serum phosphate level result in rickets/osteomalacia or ectopic calcification indicating that healthy people without these abnormalities maintain serum phosphate within certain ranges. These results indicate that there must be a regulatory mechanism of serum phosphate level. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 was identified as the last member of FGF family. FGF23 is produced by bone and reduces serum phosphate level by suppressing phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubules and intestinal phosphate absorption through lowering 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level. It has been shown that excess and deficient actions of FGF23 result in hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia and hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis, respectively. These results indicate that FGF23 works as a hormone, and several disorders of phosphate metabolism can be viewed as endocrine diseases. It may become possible to treat patients with abnormal phosphate metabolism by pharmacologically modifying the activity of FGF23.

  11. Advances in process technology for eco-friendly phosphates by separation of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H; Mukherjee, T K [Uranium and Rare Earths Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Phosphates are used in the industry for fertilizers, industrial chemicals (detergents, water-treatment chemicals) and food-additives. The source of phosphates for the industry is rock-phosphate. Over 90% of phosphate rocks of the world are associated with uranium and its radioactive daughter products. Processing and use of phosphates is accompanied by radiation hazards. The concentration of radionuclides is low, but in view of large number of persons exposed to the hazards, the cumulative societal pollution load is high, and a matter of concern for international organisations. Chemical engineering techniques have been developed for the reduction of societal radiation hazard from the phosphates. In this paper, brief details of the process and developmental efforts in India are described. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Roy, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    This publication deals with the direct application of phosphate rock (PR) sources to agriculture. Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and its deficiency restricts crop yields severely. Tropical and subtropical soils are predominantly acidic, and often extremely P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. Therefore, substantial P inputs are required for optimum plant growth and adequate food and fibre production. Manufactured water-soluble P fertilizers such as superphosphates are commonly recommended to correct P deficiencies, but most developing countries import these fertilizers, which are often in limited supply and represent a major outlay for resource-poor farmers. In addition, intensification of agricultural production in these countries necessitates the addition of P not only to increase crop production but also to improve soil P status in order to avoid further soil degradation. Hence, it is imperative to explore alternative P sources. Under certain soil and climate conditions, the direct application of PR, especially where available locally, has proved to be an agronomically and economically sound alternative to the more expensive superphosphates. PR deposits occur worldwide, but few are mined (for use mainly as raw materials to manufacture water-soluble P fertilizers). The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a Coordinated Research Project called 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilizers, in particular rock phosphates'. This was implemented by institutes of developing and industrialized countries from 1993 to 1998. The results obtained yielded new information on: chemistry of soil P; tests for available soil P; phosphate nutrition of crops; agronomic effectiveness of PR products; and P fertilizer recommendations with particular emphasis on PR use. Within the framework of the integrated plant nutrition systems promoted by

  13. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (dephosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal. Interestingly, expression of an (engineered laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf. Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  14. Influence of fertilizers on the NORM content in agricultural cultivated soils of Villupuram district, Tamilnadu India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punniyakotti, J.; Lakshmi, K.S.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    2017-01-01

    Natural radioactivity content is determined in ten different types of fertilizers and influence of these, if any, in fertilized agricultural cultivated soil samples is investigated and compared with virgin soil samples. Higher amount of "2"3"8U and "4"0K are observed in single super phosphate and potash fertilizers respectively. In all the fertilizers, "2"3"2Th activity was found to be BDL excepting single super phosphate. The average values of radioactivity content of all the three radionuclides are found to be higher in cultivated soils using fertilizers than in the virgin soil samples. However, all the three radionuclides in both virgin and cultivated soil samples are far lesser than the world average value of 33, 45 and 420 Bq.kg"-"1 for "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K respectively. (author)

  15. Phosphorus migration analysis using synchrotron radiation in soil treated with Brazilian granular fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Melo Benites, Vinícius de; César Teixeira, Paulo; Anjos, Marcelino José dos; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phosphorus (P) mobility in a tropical Brazilian soil type red Oxisol treated with three different forms of granular fertilizer. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was applied to determine the concentration of P at different distances from granular fertilizer application point. The results showed that most of the P from fertilizers tends to concentrate in a region of up to 10 mm around the place of the fertilizer deposition. - Highlights: • Phosphorus (P) mobility in a tropical Brazilian soil. • Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was applied to determine the concentration of P. • Fertilizers used monoammonium phosphate and polymer coated monoammonium phosphate.

  16. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  17. Evaluation of available phosphorus and cadmium associated with phosphate rock for direct application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    Three greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate available P and Cd associated with the use of phosphate rock (PR) for direct application. These experiments were: (1) 'Estimation of Phosphorus Availability to Maize and Cowpea From Phosphate Rock as Enhanced by Water-Soluble Phosphorus'; (2) 'Modified Iron Oxide-Impregnated Paper Strip (Pi) Test for Soils Treated With Phosphate Fertilizers'; and (3) 'Effect of Acidulation of High Cadmium Containing Phosphate Rocks on Cadmium Uptake by Upland Rice'. In the first experiment, a medium-reactive Central Florida phosphate rock (PR) was used. The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry-matter yield and P uptake followed the order of TSP≥(PR+TSP)>PR for maize and TSP=(TSP+PR)>PR for cowpea. P uptake from PR in the presence of TSP was higher than P uptake from PR applied alone. With respect to P uptake from PR applied alone, the corresponding relative increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 165% for maize and 72% for cowpea. In the second experiment, a highly reactive North Carolina PR was used. Both Bray I and the Pi test (with CaCl 2 ) underestimated available P from PR with respect to TSP. Available P estimated by the Pi test with KCl was more closely related to P uptake with both PR and TSP. More P was extracted from PR by the Pi test with KCl than with CaCl 2 , whereas no effect was observed for TSP. In the third experiment, a low-reactive Togo PR and a highly reactive North Carolina PR were used. Both PRs were fully acidulated to SSP and Togo PR was also partially acidulated with H 2 SO 4 at 50% level to PAPR. Cd uptake by rice grain followed the order of NC-SSP > NC-PR and Togo-SSP > Togo PAPR > Togo PR. The results also showed that most of the Cd uptake was retained in rice root and straw. Total uptake of Cd, Ca, and P by the rice plant was higher from NC-PR than from Togo-PR. Cd concentration in rice grain showed no significant difference between NC-PR and Togo-PR, whereas Cd

  18. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  19. Phosphate fixation and the response of maize to fertilizer phosphate in Kenyan soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van der D.

    1997-01-01

    In tropical soils, plant growth is often limited by a low P availability. In addition, these soils often have high P-fixation capacities due to high amounts of iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides. Furthermore, small-scale farming systems in which subsistence crops are produced for local markets are

  20. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Khabarov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP. We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  1. Availability of native and fertilizer P in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, W.B.; Muraoka, T.; Boaretto, A.E.; Brasil, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic forms of phosphorus were determined in two Red-Yellow Latosols, which were incubated with P fertilizers for a month, after equilibration with 32 P for 60 hours. The methods used were soil P fractionation combined with the 32 P isotopic dilution technique. The fertilizers applied were: H 3 PO 4 , 10-30-0 suspension, MAP and triple superphosphate, at the rate of 92 mg P kg -1 of soil. In both soils, the isotopically exchangeable inorganic phosphorus fractions decreased in the following order: water soluble P > Al bound P > Fe bound P > calcium bound P > occluded-P. The water- soluble and Al bound P were the main source of available P for the newly fertilized soil. The Fe bound phosphate was also an important source of available P in both soils when fertilizer was not applied. The soil P fixing capacity affected the availability of native and added phosphorus. (author)

  2. Effect of fertilizer type on cadmium and fluorine concentrations in clover herbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated whether changing phosphatic fertilizer type affects the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) in pasture herbage. North Carolina phosphate rock and partially acidulated fertilizers derived from this rock generally have higher Cd and F concentrations compared to single superphosphate currently manufactured in Australia. Clover herbage from sites of the National Reactive Phosphate Rock (RPR) trial was collected and analysed for concentrations of Cd (11 sites) and F (4 sites). A comparison was made between pastures fertilized with 4 rates of single superphosphate, North Carolina phosphate rock, and partially acidulated phosphate rock having Cd concentrations of 283, 481, and 420 mg Cd/kg P respectively, and 170, 271, and 274 g F/kg P respectively. One site used Hemrawein (Egypt) phosphate rock (HRP) having a Cd and F concentration of 78 mg Cd/kg P and 256 g F/kg P respectively. To help identify differences in herbage Cd concentrations between sites, unfertilised soils from each site were analyzed for total and extractable Cd contents. At one site Cd concentrations in bulk herbage (clover, grasses and weeds) were related to infestation of the pasture by capeweed (Arctotheca calendula L. Levyns). There were no significant differences between F in herbage from plots fertilized with single superphosphate, partially acidulated phosphate rock or North Carolina phosphate rock, or between sites. Concentrations of F in herbage were low, generally less than 10 mg F /kg. However, there were large differences in Cd concentrations in herbage between sites, while differences between fertilizer treatments were small in comparison. The site differences were only weakly related to total or extractable (0.01 mol/L CaCl 2 ) Cd concentrations in soil. Significant differences in Cd concentrations in clover due to fertilizer type were found at 5 sites. North Carolina phosphate rock treatments had significantly higher Cd concentrations in clover compared to

  3. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  4. Análise de crescimento de Bixa orellana L. sob efeito da inoculação micorrízica e adubação fosfatada Analyses of Bixa orellana L. growth under the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphate fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J Barbieri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar o desenvolvimento de Bixa orellana L. em condições de viveiro sob efeito da inoculação micorrízica e adubação fosfatada. As plantas foram cultivadas em sacos de polietileno com 0,18 X 0,30 m e capacidade de 1,3 kg de substrato. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e trinta repetições. As dosagens de fósforo utilizadas foram 0, 4.200 e 8.400 g m-3 de substrato. O fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA da espécie Glomus clarum, foi utilizado em metade dos tratamentos (com e sem micorrizas com inoculação de 2 g do fungo. As avaliações ocorreram 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após a emergência das plântulas. Determinou-se a massa seca de folhas, área foliar, massa seca total, razão de área foliar, área foliar específica, taxa assimilatória líquida, taxa de crescimento relativo e taxa de crescimento absoluto. O fungo micorrízico facilita a absorção de fósforo pelo urucum, atendendo a sua exigência em relação ao nutriente. A dose de fósforo de 4.200 g m-3 em associação com FMA Glomus clarum ou 8.400 g m-3, com ou sem essa associação, são indicadas para o crescimento de plantas de urucum em viveiro, por promoverem adequadas respostas dos índices fisiológicos, contribuindo com seu desenvolvimentoThis study aimed to evaluate the development of Bixa orellana L. under nursery conditions and subjected to the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphate fertilization. The plants were grown in polyethylene bags with dimensions of 0.18 x 0.30 m and capacity of 1.3 kg substrate. The adopted experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and thirty replicates. The used phosphorus levels were 0, 4.200 and 8.400 g m-3 substrate. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF of the species Glomus clarum was used in half of the treatments (with and without mycorrhizae with inoculation of 2 g of the fungus. Evaluations occurred at 30, 60, 90 and

  5. Use of organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer in a modern planting system to increase the productivity of vanilla plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Mohd Fajri Osman; Latiffah Noordin; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Hazlina Abdullah; Amirul Azmi Supuan; Misman Sumin; Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Vanilla is a plant belonging to the orchid family and native to Mexico. In Malaysia, research and cultivation of vanilla plants are becoming more popular and intensive because the plant has a high commercial value. Fertilizing of vanilla plants is important to enhance the nutrients needed by the plants for growth and vanilla pod production. In 1999, research in MARDI showed that the use of chemical fertilizer NPK (15:15:15) was suitable for vanilla plants. For plants that have not produced vanilla pods foliar fertilizer must be sprayed and foliar fertilizer application must be reduced at pod production stage. The fertilizer programme is almost similar to those of other vanilla producing countries such as Indonesia and Mexico. In Indonesia, studies on organic farming of vanilla have been conducted. They have produced chemical-free vanilla fertilizer products such as Bio-Fob, Bio-TRIBA and Organo TRIBA Compost. We in Malaysian Nuclear Agency conducted a study on the effects of organic and bio fertilizers on vanilla at the vanilla experimental plot. This plot adopts the modern system of vanilla planting. The study involved the use of organic and bio fertilizer products produced in Nuclear Malaysia such as Organik NF, plant growth promoter and phosphate solubiliser and imported commercial orchid mycorrhizal bio fertilizer from Korea. The application of these fertilizers is by placing the fertilizers on the planting media in poly bags with replications according to the treatments. Observations were made weekly for 15 weeks by measuring of parameters including the bud growth and leaf number. These data are plotted in graphical form for evaluation.(author)

  6. Distribution of natural radioactivity in agriculture through fertilizers, and an estimate of the external gonad dose caused

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moere, H.

    1978-01-01

    The content of the radionucleids 226-Ra, 232-Th, and 40-K has been analyzed in a number of phosphate fertilizers, representative for the market. From these concentrations, a rough estimate is made of the gonad dose rates for different groups of the population. It is concluded that the radiation hazards connected to the use of such fertilizers are small. (L.E.)

  7. Geochemical exploration for phosphate in the State of Acre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L. da; Melo Costa, W.A. de; Santos, A.J.M. dos

    1989-01-01

    The geochemical prospecting conducted for phosphates in Acre which could explain the good fertility of the region was charged to discover this material. The phosphates are strictly built of all the bone structures and coprolites of the several fragments of vertebrate fossils, which are widespread in the region. The phosphatic fossils are bedded in the Solimoes Formation, especially its basal to intermediary conglomeratic bed. The fossils are constituted of low crystallinity apatite, and their matrix sediments include quartz, feldspars, smectite, halloysite and calcite. The P 2 O 5 content reaches up to 5% in the sediments and up to 32% in the fragments. The fossils are enriched in U 3 O 8 and rare earth elements. There is no perspect of classic or mineral deposits but the geological knowlwdge will permit the improvement of the use of the soils in Acre. (author) [pt

  8. Field evaluation of water or citrate soluble phosphorus in modified phosphate rocks for soybean Avaliação agronômica do fósforo solúvel em água ou citrato de fosfatos de rocha acidulados para a soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ignácio Prochnow

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten P fertilizers were collected (commercial fertilizers or synthesized (experimental sources in order to obtain single superphosphates varying in water and citrate solubility. A standard source of P was also produced by crystallization of the water-soluble fraction of a triple superphosphate. Eleven P sources were band applied to a medium textured Xanthic Hapludox, in Bahia, Brazil (low content of resin-extractable P at a rate of 80 kg ha-1 of NAC + H2O (neutral ammonium citrate plus water soluble P2O5, with soybean as the crop which was grown to maturity. A check plot (control was included in the study. Three of the P sources [single superphosphate produced from Araxa phosphate rock (PR, low-grade single superphosphate produced from Lagamar PR and the standard source of P] were also applied at rates to provide 40 and 120 kg ha-1 of NAC + H2O soluble P2O5. Yield of soybean was evaluated by analysis of variance with mean comparison performed utilizing LSD lines, considering the P sources applied at a rate of 80 kg ha-1 of P2O5 + control. Regression procedures were used to study the relation between yield of soybean and rates of P2O5. The fertilizers tested performed equally well as a source of P for soybean. The level of water-soluble P did not influence fertilizer performance.Dez fontes de P foram coletadas em unidades revendedoras de fertilizantes comerciais ou produzidas em laboratório de tal forma a obter superfosfatos simples com variabilidade em água e citrato neutro de amônio + água (CNA + H2O. Utilizou-se como fonte padrão de fósforo a fração solubilizada, filtrada e cristalizada de um superfosfato triplo. As onze fontes de P foram aplicadas nas linhas de semeadura de soja de um Xanthic Hapludox textura média, localizado no Município de Barreiras, Bahia (baixo teor de fósforo resina na dose de 80 kg ha-1 de P2O5 solúvel em CNA + H2O. Três das fontes (superfosfatos simples produzido a partir da rocha fosfática de Araxá e

  9. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society

  10. Recovering uranium from phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, M [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney-Ugine Kuhlmann, 75 - Paris (France)

    1981-06-01

    Processes for the recovery of the uranium contained in phosphates have today become competitive with traditional methods of working uranium sources. These new possibilities will make it possible to meet more rapidly any increases in the demand for uranium: it takes ten years to start working a new uranium deposit, but only two years to build a recovery plant.

  11. Nutrient uptake of NPK and result of some rice varieties in tidal land by using combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, Neni; Rompas, Joni Phillep; Marlina, Musbik

    2017-09-01

    Rice planting in tidal land has two main problems: iron (Fe) which has the potential to poison rice and low nutrient availability. Azospirillum enriched chicken manure and phosphate solvent bacteria (Biological Organic Fertilizer = BOF) is an option to overcome iron toxicity and as a source of nutrition. The objective of the study was to obtain a combination of biological organic fertilizers and balanced inorganic fertilizers in reducing doses of inorganic fertilizers, increasing NPK nutrient uptake and yield of several rice varieties in tidal land. This research used Factorial RAK with 25 treatment combinations that were repeated three times. Factor I is a combination of BOF and anorganic fertilizer with 5 levels of treatment (no inorganic fertilizers, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK, BOF 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 50% NPK and BOF 400 kg / ha with fertilizer Inorganic 75% NPK). Factor II is several rice varieties (IPB 4S, Martapura, Margasari, Inpara 5, Inpara 7). The results showed that organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha can reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer by 75% of NPK fertilizer. The highest NPK nutrient absorption is in the treatment of organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha and inorganic fertilizer 25% of NPK fertilizer. Production of biological organic fertilizer 400 kg / ha with inorganic fertilizer 25% NPK and 4B IPB varieties 727.77% higher when compared with without the provision of organic fertilizer with Inpara 5 varieties.

  12. Enzymatic studies on phosphorus availability from phosphate compounds by microbial activities using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Seer, A.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    the present study aimed to evaluate to evaluate the of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae(VAM) as microbiological mean to convert the sparingly soluble P into available from utilized by plant through excretion of acid and alkaline phosphatase. rock phosphate as natural and a cheap source of P- fertilizer was applied in the present study. To trace the effect of microbial activity and phosphatase enzymes on phosphate availability from its compounds , set of experiments were conducted either in the lab. or green house. The obtained results could be summarized as following:- 1- phosphate solubilizing bacteria(PSB) w isolated from samples of fertile soil, 16 colonies showed positive reaction were chosen .2- bacteria , which exhibited high phosphate clearing zone (PCZ) selected to detect their efficiencies for dissolving rock phospate and select the effective one (most potent) on the basis of highest production of phosphatase and phosphorus solubilization.3- identification of the most potent (pseudomonas aeruginosa) 4- effective environmental and nutritional factors on phosphatase production by pseudomonas aeruginosa were discussed.green-house experiment: inoculation of wheat (triticum aestivum cv.sakha 8) with either PSB and /or VAM with or without rock-P fertilization was under taken. dual inoculation with psb (pseudomonas aeruginosa) and VAM improved the dry matter yield and N and P uptake by wheat as compared to other treatments. application of psb as well as VAM increased the availability of rock phosphate to be utilized by wheat

  13. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your teens and early twenties can affect your fertility for years to come. This prevention guide was written by ... loss of testic- ulor size, see your doctor. Fertility is something that you ... approximately 40 percent of infertile couples, the male partner is ...

  14. Effect of Applying Chemical Fertilizers on Concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn in Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Pourmoghadas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective:  Nowadays uncontrolled uses of chemical fertilizers which have many heavy metals such as Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in addition have economic problems, cause to serious damages in the environment. Therefore uncontrolled application of fertilizers can cause accumulation contaminants in soil, water sources and increasing in plants and human & animals’ food chain. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of chemical fertilizers application to increase heavy metals in agricultural soils at directions to prevent contamination in water sources, agricultural products and the best uses of chemical fertilizers. Methods: In this study, 20 soil samples and 5 useful chemical fertilizer samples were collected and investigated. After fertilizer and soil samples were prepared, digested and filtered, heavy metals were determined with using atomic absorption. Results: The results of this study showed that, Cd in Diammonum phosphate  fertilizer 1.25 times, Super phosphate triple 1.7 times and in Macro granular fertilizer 1.5 times were as much as maximum acceptable concentration in chemical fertilizers. Cadmium concentration in all of the Jarghoye (Isfahan agricultural soil samples 3 to 7 times and in the Mobarake village (Najaf abad agricultural soil samples 10 to 35 times were as much as maximum acceptable concentration in agricultural soils. But Pb and Zn concentration in all of the agricultural soil samples was less than the amount of maximum acceptable concentration. Conclusion: Phosphate chemical fertilizers were positive effects to increase concentration of Pb and Zn in agricultural soils. Therefore, application of the fertilizer must be more attention because of increasing heavy metals in the agriculture soils and probably increasing heavy metals in food chain.  

  15. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  16. Study on utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus from compound fertilizer by rice using isotopes 15N and 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Li Dongyang; Zhang Xizhong; Chen Yizhu

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the application of urea plus ordinary superphospate (OSP) which gave higher grains yield than by application of compound fertilizer UPA (ureaplus compound ammonium phosphates). Isotopes tracer experiment showed that the utilizations of nitrogen fertilizer are: mixed urea and OSP > urea and OSP separately > urea > urea - ammonium phosphates. The utilizations of phosphorus by rice are: urea-ammomium phosphate > mixed urea and OSP > urea and OSP separately > OSP. It is shown that the A N -value of soil was significantly correlated with yield of rice grains

  17. Evaluation of the residual effect of P fertilizer`s on plant P nutrition using isotopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J.C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Physiologie Vegetale et Ecosystemes; Kato, N. [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zapata, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria). Laboratories

    1994-12-31

    The residual effect of P fertilizers previously applied to a soil on plant P nutrition was examined by both the isotopic dilution method (pot experiment) and isotopic exchange method (laboratory test) using {sup 32}p as a tracer. The fraction of P derived from a fertilizer in plant (%Pdff in plant) was compared with the fraction of P derived from fertilizer in soil solution (%Pdff in soil solution) which is a new laboratory index proposed by Morel and Fardeau to predict %Pdff in plant. Four soil samples of a Humic Andosol from long-term experimental plots, which received no fertilizer (A1 soil), a readily soluble fertilizer (A2 soil), the same readily soluble fertilizer (RSF) plus a fused magnesium phosphate (A3 soil), and combination of RSF with Florida phosphate rock (A4 soil), were tested. In the pot experiment, maize (Zea mays) was grown during 38 days and dry shoot weight, P uptake and specific radioactivity were measured. Dry shoot weight, P uptake and L-value were the highest in A3 soil, followed by A4, A2 and A1 soils. %Pdff in plant were 71,9%, 51,9% and 15,4% in A3, A4 and A2 soils respectively. A laboratory study using {sup 32}p isotopic exchange kinetics was carried out to examine three status parameters of soil P, intensity, quantity and capacity factors. Goof agreement was obtained between quantity factor (E{sub 1}-value), and the pot experimental data; i.e. P uptake and L-value. %Pdff in soil solution were similar to those %Pdff in plant except for A4 soil. The enhancement of P uptake by the plant from the phosphate rock obtained in A4 soil could be attributed to specific plant factors and soil moisture conditions. (authors).

  18. The response and recovery of the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome to phosphate starvation

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Jongchan

    2012-05-03

    Background: Over application of phosphate fertilizers in modern agriculture contaminates waterways and disrupts natural ecosystems. Nevertheless, this is a common practice among farmers, especially in developing countries as abundant fertilizers are believed to boost crop yields. The study of plant phosphate metabolism and its underlying genetic pathways is key to discovering methods of efficient fertilizer usage. The work presented here describes a genome-wide resource on the molecular dynamics underpinning the response and recovery in roots and shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana to phosphate-starvation.Results: Genome-wide profiling by micro- and tiling-arrays (accessible from GEO: GSE34004) revealed minimal overlap between root and shoot transcriptomes suggesting two independent phosphate-starvation regulons. Novel gene expression patterns were detected for over 1000 candidates and were classified as either initial, persistent, or latent responders. Comparative analysis to AtGenExpress identified cohorts of genes co-regulated across multiple stimuli. The hormone ABA displayed a dominant role in regulating many phosphate-responsive candidates. Analysis of co-regulation enabled the determination of specific versus generic members of closely related gene families with respect to phosphate-starvation. Thus, among others, we showed that PHR1-regulated members of closely related phosphate-responsive families (PHT1;1, PHT1;7-9, SPX1-3, and PHO1;H1) display greater specificity to phosphate-starvation than their more generic counterparts. Conclusion: Our results uncover much larger, staged responses to phosphate-starvation than previously described. To our knowledge, this work describes the most complete genome-wide data on plant nutrient stress to-date. 2012 Woo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Peatland fertilization. Short-term chemical effects on runoff water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    In peatland forestry, fertilization is often needed to reach a good yield. Phosphorus and potassium are mainly used, but on nutrient poor fens and bogs, nitrogen also has be added. These fertilizers affect the environment and thereby influence the runoff waters. This essay concerns the first three months after fertilization, of which the first two weeks have been paid particular attention. As the mires of the sub-basins were sedge fens, with a pine stand in some areas but mostly treeless, the fertilizers used were ammonium nitrate , rock phosphate and potassium chloride . The fertilization was performed from the air. During the very first hours after fertilization, drastic changes in water chemistry were found. In one area pH dropped 0,3 units while at the other no immidiate change was seen. For the whole three months of the investigation period, the decreases in pH were in the range 0,1-0,5 units. Nitrogen concentration reached a peak of 260 mg/l, phosphorus 5 mg/l and potassium about 60 mg/l. These high values were of short duration but the concentrations were considerable increased during one week. Later, partly due to decreasing discharge, the water chemistry became almost similar to that measured under unfertilized conditions. The main loss of fertilizer occurred during the first two weeks and amounted to 22% of the applied nitrogen, about 1% of the phosphorus and 5-9% of K.

  20. Phosphorus Sorption Capacity of Gray Forest Soil as Dependent on Fertilization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogova, O. B.; Kolobova, N. A.; Ivanov, A. L.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the results of the study of changes in the phosphorus sorption capacity of gray forest soils of Vladimir opolie under the impact of different fertilization systems are discussed. The quantitative parameters of the potential buffer capacity of soils for phosphorus (PBCP) and Langmuir sorption isotherms have been calculated. It is shown that the application of organic fertilizers results in a stronger decrease in PBCP than the application of mineral fertilizers. The portion of phosphorus of mineral compounds considerably increases, and the high content of available phosphates is maintained. In the variants with application of mineral phosphorus in combination with manure, the portions of organic and mineral phosphorus are at the level typical of unfertilized soils. The energy of phosphate bonds with the soil is minimal upon the application of a double rate of mineral phosphorus at the maximum capacity in relation to phosphate ions.

  1. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulfate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulfate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between Balanced Fertilization and Healthy Agricultural Products (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Malakouti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on World Health Organization (WHO report, our society’s health ranks 123 among 192 countries. Unfortunately, this ranking position is very low and its main reason is malnutrition due to imbalanced fertilization. Although more than 85% of Iranian people are not hungry, about 90% of them are suffering from cell hunger, because agricultural authorities and hence producers do not pay attention to food security. According to the latest information, about 86.5% of applied fertilizers in our country appertain to urea and triple super phosphate. In fact, this is an alarming issue in respect to the production of healthy agricultural products and it remains a threat to food security. At present, a total subsidy of more than 7,000 billion rials is paid for nitrogen (N and phosphate (P fertilizers. Whereas, it should be considered that, firstly, the efficiency of these fertilizers, due to different reasons such as mismanagement and existing subsidy level, is low and, secondly, the overuse of these fertilizers causes the accumulation of nitrate (NO3 and cadmium (Cd in agricultural products. Furthermore, according to the law of minimum, the overdosed fertilizers do not have any special positive effect on sustainable production and society’s health. Paying for such high-cost subsidy just for N and P-fertilizers has caused farmers to overuse and waste these fertilizers in the country and moreover not having any tendency to apply biologic, organic and micronutrient fertilizers. Whereas, the application of these fertilizers, beside their adaptability with the environment, has a very positive effect on the human health. Therefore, at this time scientific management of production and application of all kinds of fertilizers is inevitable. In this case, by improving the quality of all types of fertilizers, and following the principle of balanced fertilization, besides achieving the desired yield increase, the quality of agricultural products will be

  3. Fertilizer phosphorus in some Finnish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper it is tried to trace the fate of fertilizer phosphorus in soil by comparing the analyses of soils from treated and untreated plots of field trials. This indirect approach cannot be expected to provide exact values, but it is likely to give an approximate answer. The results reported above do not in any marked degree change our present conception of the forms in which fertilizer phosphorus accumulates in soils. In the acid soils studied (pH 4—6.4 in 0.02 N CaCl2 superphosphate tended to increase the fractions which were extracted by NH4F or NaOH. Hyperphosphate phosphorus was mostly found in the acid-soluble fraction. During a longer period of dressing with phosphate an increase in the organic phosphorus content of a peat soil could be detected. In the incubation experiments the mineralization of organic phosphorus occurred at a higher rate in the samples from the plots treated with superphosphate than in those from the untreated one. It might be supposed that the organic phosphorus mineralized mainly originated from the plant residues. It seems that the fractionation method developed by CHANG and JACKSON (4 for the estimation of discrete forms of soil phosphorus is not quite satisfactory for tracing the fertilizer phosphorus in soils recently dressed with phosphates. In particular, it may be fallacious to conclude that the fraction extracted by NH4F would only represent phosphorus bound to aluminium and its compounds. At least in the absence of soil, a large part of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate dihydrate falls into this fraction, and also a small amount of hyperphosphate phosphorus may be found in it. The test values for »available» phosphorus showed the effect of fertilizers in accordance with previous observations (9, 13. Acetic acid soluble P revealed the treatment with hyperphosphate, but only slightly the application of superphosphate. The test value for the sorbed P of BRAY and KURTZ (2, or phosphorus

  4. Optimization of calcium phosphate fine ceramic powders preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezanova, K.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Gergulova, R.; Ilieva, R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of biomimetic synthesis method, reaction medium and further precursor treatments on the chemical and phase composition, crystal size and morphology of calcium phosphates was examined. Nanosized calcium phosphate precursors were biomimetically precipitated by the method of continuous precipitation in three types of reaction media at pH 8: (i) SBF as an inorganic electrolyte system; (ii) organic (glycerine) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1); (iii) polymer (10 g/l xanthan gum or 10 g/l guar gum) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1). After maturation (24 h) the samples were lyophilized, calcinated at 300°C for 3 hours, and washed with water, followed by new gelation, lyophilization and step-wise (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C, each for 3 hours) sintering. The reaction medium influenced the chemical composition and particle size but not the morphology of the calcium phosphate powders. In all studied cases bi-phase calcium phosphate fine powders with well-shaped spherical grains, consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a Ca/P ratio of 1.3 - 1.6 were obtained. The SBF modifiers decreased the particle size of the product in the sequence guar gum ˜ xanthan gum < glycerin < SBF medium.

  5. Influence of Long-Term Fertilization on Spore Density and Colonization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Brown Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Luo, Peiyu; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore changes of long-term fertilization on spore density and colonization of AMF (Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) under a 38-y long-term fertilization in a brown soil. Soil samples (0-20 cm,20-40cm,40-60cm)were taken from the six treatments of the long-term fertilization trial in October 2016:no fertilizer (CK), N1(mineral nitrogen fertilizer), N1P (mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer), N1PK (mineral nitrogen, phosphate and potassic fertilizer), pig manure (M2), M2N1P (pig manure, mineral nitrogen andphosphate fertilizer).Spores were isolated from soils by wet sieving and sucrose density gradient centrifugation; mycorrhizal colonization levels were determined by the gridline intersect. The spore density was highest in the topsoils (0-20 cm), and was decreased with increasing of soil depth in each treatment. The spores density of M2N1P treatment was significantly higher than that of other treatments in each soil layer. Application of inorganic fertilizer (especially inorganic with organic fertilizer) can greatly improve the level of colonization. Our results suggested that long-term fertilization significantly affects spore density and colonization of AMF, however, spore density is not related to colonization rate.

  6. Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Tien, Yin-Chun; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30 MPa after 24 h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. - Highlights: • Bone cement precursor with nanocrystals is characterized. • DCP-rich CPCs with nanocrystals exhibited biphasic product phases. • Nanocrystals in cement significantly affected the interlocking ability. • Nanocrystals in cement exhibited higher strength and anti-dispersion. • DCP-rich CPCs increase the potential of bioresorption after reaction

  7. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  8. [Effect of different fertilization treatments on yield and secondary metabolites of Codonopsis pilosula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia-Dong; Mao, Ge; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Ma, Cun-de; Liang, Zong-Suo; Xia, Guang-Dong; Dong, Juan-E

    2017-08-01

    The research studies the effect of different fertilization treatments on yield and accumulation of secondary metabolites of Codonopsis pilosula by using single factor randomized block design, in order to ensure reasonable harvesting time and fertilization ratio, and provide the basis for standardized cultivation of C. pilosula. According to the clustering results, the nitrogen fertilizer benefitted for the improvement of root diameter and biomass of C. pilosula. The phosphate fertilizer could promote the content of C. pilosula polysaccharide. The organic fertilizers could increase the content of lobetyolin. With the time going on, C. pilosula's yield, polysaccharide and ehanol-soluble extracts increased while the content of lobetyolin decreased. According to various factors, October is a more reasonable harvest period. Organic fertilizers are more helpful to the yield and accumulation of secondary metabolites of C. pilosula. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Ahmad Nazrul Abdul Wahid; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2012-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N 2 -fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  10. Radiological and chemical assessment of phosphate rocks in some countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevik, U.; Baltas, H.; Tabak, A.; Damla, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the radiological, structural and chemical characterizations of Mardin-Mazidagi phosphate rock, which is an important phosphate fertilizer source in Turkey were investigated and compared to those of several different phosphate rocks of Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Syria using gamma spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement techniques. Elemental analysis results of phosphate samples showed that they were mainly composed of CaO, P 2 O 5 , SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , SO 3 and Fe 2 O 3 . Elemental concentrations of U and Th were calculated using 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations, respectively. As a result of XRD analysis, the main peaks of the samples were found to be Fluorapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F). The radioactivity concentration levels for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in all phosphate samples ranged from 250 to 1029 Bq kg -1 with a mean of 535 Bq kg -1 , from 5 to 50 Bq kg -1 with a mean of 20 Bq kg -1 and from 117 to 186 Bq kg -1 with a mean of 148 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The computed values of annual effective doses ranged from 0.17 to 0.59 mSv, with a mean value of 0.33 mSv, which is lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y -1 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  11. Characterisation of phosphate rocks at kurun mountain, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgader, G. A. M.

    2014-08-01

    This main objective of this study was to characterise some Sudanese phosphate raw materials collected from Jebel Kurun, located in the eastern part of Nuba Mountain, Western Sudan. The study also aimed to investigate the association between uranium and phosphate and to determine the concentration of some essential elements and trace elements in the phosphate rock. A total of 30 samples were collected from Karun's eastran mountains, near Abujibiha City and have been analyzed for the selected elements using x-ray fluorescence. The obtained results showed that the average concentration of elements was Ca (11.3) and Fe (1.7) as a percentage, while it was Cu (1617.7), Ni (258.4), Pb (185.9), Ti (27.62), V (3779.9), U (160.9), Zn (152.8) and Mn (776.3) in ppm. The average total phosphorus content (analyzed as P O5 %) using UV-visible spectrometer was found to be 30.54%. This could be considered is acceptable percentage for phosphate to be 30.54%. This could be considered is acceptable percentage for phosphate to be used in industrial fertilizers and phosphoric acid production. The average total calcium carbonate was 15.7%. For the elements distribution, uranium found to be more concentrated in the summit of Jebel Kurun, and it displayed a correlation with lead. Furthermore, four groups of association have been noticed, based on elements concentrations.(Author)

  12. Quantitative analysis of calcined fertilizers by X-ray diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekinski, E.

    1987-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction pattern method for quantitative analyses of phosphate fertilizers obtained by calcination of a misture of Anitapolis phosphate concentrate and sodium carbonate is described. The method consists in plotting a calibration curve, using spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) as internal standard, of the phases that were formed by calcination, sintetized in laboratory. The tests conducted in order to avail the method accuracy showed good correlation between the obtained data and the real values. (author) [pt

  13. Multifunctional liquid bio fertilizer as an innovative agronomic input for modern agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Liquid bio fertilizer is increasingly available in the market as one of the alternatives to chemical and organic fertilizers as well as solid substrate-based bio fertilizers. One of the benefits from bio fertilizer is the contribution from population of microorganisms available. These microorganisms may enhance the plant growth and create healthy rhizosphere. The advantage of a liquid bio fertilizer is that no solid carrier is needed. These products are also developed for potential application in modern agriculture such as soil less farming systems, viz. fertigation and hydroponics. Traditionally, liquid bio fertilizer is produced from fermentation of effective microorganisms which was recommended to be used within three months. Therefore, the development of low-cost and long shelf-life liquid bio fertilizers was conducted at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). Three bio fertilizer inoculum (phosphate solubilising bacteria and plant growth promoting bacteria) were developed into four formulations of liquid bio fertilizers. The liquid bio fertilizers were kept at low temperatures (9 ± 2 degree Celsius) and room temperatures (28 ± 2 degree Celsius) for shelf-life study. Nutrient broth liquid bio fertilizer kept at low temperatures showed significantly high survival rates after storage for six months as compared to other formulations and treatments. (author)

  14. Liming effect on P availability from Maardu phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidlauskas, G.; Masauskas, S.; Ezerinskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty years ago phosphate rock from the Maardu deposit was intensively used for soil fertilization in Lithuania. However, the application of finely ground product caused an undesirable dusty operation. Afterwards, a super-phosphate production plant was built in Kedainiai and the use of phosphate rock was completely abandoned. Field experiments with fodder beets and barley were carried out to evaluate the P availability of granulated superphosphate and Maardu phosphate rock. The comparison was made at three acidity levels: a) unlimed acid soil with a high content of Al (pH kcl 4.3-4.4, hydrolytic acidity was 41-44 meq/kg soil), b) soil limed with 0.5n rate CaCO 3 powder limestone based on hydrolytic acidity, and c) soil limed with 1.0n rate CaCO 3 . Two field experiments were carried out with fodder beets. In 1997 the yield increased significantly due to liming. However, no significant yield increases were found due to the application of phosphorus fertilizers. Differences between the effect of superphosphate and phosphate rock were also not observed. This might have been caused by a severe drought during the vegetative growth of plants. In the following year, 1998, a soil with similar acidity was chosen, however it contained even lower amounts of available phosphorus in the arable soil (about 50 mg/kg soil A-L method). In the unlimed soil the yield was low, the effect of superphosphate was better than that of phosphate rock. A good fodder beet yield of 32 to 35 t/ha was obtained and the effect of phosphate rock was better than that of superphosphate at 0.5n CaCO 3 rate. When liming with at the high rate (1.0n CaCO 3 rate according to hydrolytic acidity) the action of phosphate rock declined, and a better yield was obtained with superphosphate. Barley was grown after fodder beets in the 1997 experimental field and the residual effect of superphosphate and phosphate rock was investigated. Weather conditions were favorable for barley growth. Therefore a normal yield

  15. Phosphate tuned copper electrodeposition and promoted formic acid selectivity for carbon dioxide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jian; Sun, Libo; Canepa, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication of catalytically active electrodes by electrodeposition is attractive due to its in situ nature, easy controllability, and large-scale operation capability. Most recently, modifying the electrodes with phosphate ligands through electrodepositing electrode materials has shown promising...

  16. Perchlorate in Fertilizers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eldridge, J. E; Tsui, D. T; Mattie, D. R; Crown, J; Scott, R; Blackman, T

    1999-01-01

    ...) methods for perchlorate analysis in lawn and garden fertilizers. Seven government, private, and commercial laboratories participated in the analysis of 34 aqueous suspensions of the test materials, using similar ion chromatography systems...

  17. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  18. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  19. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  20. Queering the fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura

    2013-06-01

    A sociologist examines contemporary engagements of queer bodies and identities with fertility biomedicine. Drawing on social science, media culture, and the author's own empirical research, three questions frame the analysis: 1. In what ways have queers on the gendered margins moved into the center and become implicated or central users of biomedicine's fertility offerings? 2. In what ways is Fertility Inc. transformed by its own incorporation of various gendered and queered bodies and identities? And 3. What are the biosocial and bioethical implications of expanded queer engagements and possibilities with Fertility Inc.? The author argues that "patient" activism through web 2.0 coupled with a largely unregulated free-market of assisted reproduction has included various queer identities as "parents-in-waiting." Such inclusions raise a set of ethical tensions regarding how to be accountable to the many people implicated in this supply and demand industry.

  1. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  2. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  3. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...

  4. Radioactivity Content in Phosphoric Acid Used for Fertilizer Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahiem, N.M.; Hamed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium content in phosphoric acid used fertilizer production was measured by alpha spectrometry, laser fluorimetry high resolution gamma spectrometry. Also, polonium-210 content was determined in phosphoric acid by alpha spectrometry. Uranium-234 and uranium-238 concentrations, measured by alpha spectroscopy, were found to be 601 and 507 Bq I -1 , respectively. Total uranium content obtained by laser fluorimetry was about 545 BqI - (45.4ppm). Gamma spectroscopy analysis gave the concentrations of 40 K, 238 U, 235 U, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 208 TI, as 17,644,19.5, 1.2,1.3 and 9.4 Bq I -1 , respectively. Polonium-210 concentration was found to be about 3.1 Bq I -1 . Uranium-232 and polonium-208 were used as yield tracers, for alpha measurements of uranium and polonium, respectively. Samples of the tri-super phosphate (TSP) and single-super phosphate (SSP) fertilizers and the phosphogypsum produced were also analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Uranium content in both phosphate fertilizers was 3205 and 1440 Bq Kg -1 for 238 U and 83 and 35 Bq Kg -1 for, 235 U respectively

  5. Optical properties of Eu3+ & Tb3+ ions doped alkali oxide (Li2O/ Na2O/ K2O) modified boro phosphate glasses for red, green lasers and display device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulika, G.; Sailaja, S.; Reddy, B. Naveen Kumar; Reddy, V. Sahadeva; Dhoble, S. J.; Reddy, B. Sudhakar

    2018-04-01

    In this article we report on alkali oxide modified borophosphate glasses doped with Eu3+and Tb3+ ions, with the chemical composition of 69.5 B2O3+10P2O5 + 10CaF2 + 5 Li2O+ 5ZnO+ R+ 0.5 Eu2O3 [where R = 5 (LiO2/Na2O/K2O)] have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique, and the spectroscopic properties of the prepared glasses have been studied by XRD, Optical absorption, excitation and emission spectral analysis. XRD spectrum of the glasses have shown the amorphous nature of the glasses. The red emission corresponding to 5D0 → 7F2 (613 nm) transition was observed under the excitation of 394 nm wavelength, corresponding to Eu3+ ions, for all the prepared glasses. For Eu3+ ion doped glasses, emission bands were observed, such as; 5D1→ 7F1 (538 nm), 5D0→ 7F0 (580 nm), 5D0→ 7F1 (592 nm), 5D0→ 7F2 (613 nm), 5D0→ 7F3 (613 nm) and 5D0→ 7F4 (702 nm) are identified. In the case of Tb3+ ion doped glasses, four emission lines were observed, such as 5D4→ (7F6, 7F5, 7F4), which are located at 489 nm, 545 nm and 585 nm, respectively, after the samples were excited with 376 nm ultraviolet source. The green emission corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 (543 nm) transition was observed under excitation wavelength 376 nm of the Tb3+ ions for all the prepared glasses. For all these emission bands, the decay curves were recorded to evaluate the emission life times. The mechanism underlying the observed emission from the glasses was explained in terms of energy levels.

  6. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior ...

  7. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  8. Economic recession and fertility in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates.

  9. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conference considers low fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    At present, at least 51 countries--representing 44% of the world's population--are showing below-replacement fertility rates. In some of these countries, where the number of new births is not adequate to replace aging populations, this trend is problematic. In other countries, most notably China, declining fertility has conferred significant benefits. At an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Population Commission meeting held in New York in 1997, staff from China's State Statistical Bureau reported the country has a current total fertility rate of 1.8. The birth rate remains high, however, because of the large numbers of Chinese women in the 15-49 year reproductive age group (336 million in 1997). Also buffering the impact of a low fertility rate is a large labor surplus (130 million excess workers in rural China). To keep fertility below the replacement level, China plans to improve the quality of its family planning service, enhance poverty alleviation programs, and increase incentives for small families in rural areas. China's low fertility rate has provided an important impetus for economic development.

  11. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  12. Nutrição fosfatada e rendimento do feijoeiro sob influência da calagem e adubação orgânica Phosphated nutrition and yield of the bean plant under the influence of liming and organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira de Souza

    2006-08-01

    availability for the plants absorption. Soil management practices, such as the increase in the level of organic matter and liming are quite effective in the reduction of the phenomenon of adsorption of P in the soil and increase of its availability for plant absorption. Aiming to evaluate the effect of doses of bovine manure and lime on the phosphate nutrition and production of the bean plant, four experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the Soil Science Department of the Federal University of Lavras. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x4 factorial scheme with four replications, in pots containing 3 dm³ of soil samples from an Orthic Quartzarenic Neosol (RQo, a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol, medium texture (LVAd-1, a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol, clayey texture (LVAD-2, and a Dystrophic Red Latosol, very clayey texture (LVd, in which three bean plants were cultivated. The treatments were constituted by the application of five doses of bovine manure (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5, and 10 % of the volume of the soil and four liming levels (0; 0.5; 1, and 2 times the recommended dose to reach V=60%. It were evaluated the production of dry matter of aerial part and grains and the P accumulation in dry matter of total aerial parts of beans plants. The liming and organic fertilization promoted increases in the absorption and accumulation of P, and production of grains of the bean plant, which presented the best responses with the dose of 10 % of bovine manure combined with the level 1 of liming.

  13. Phosphate adsorption on aluminum-impregnated mesoporous silicates : surface structure and behavior of adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; James S. Han; Min Jang; Soo-Hong Min; Jae Kwang Park; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus from excess fertilizers and detergents ends up washing into lakes, creeks, and rivers. This overabundance of phosphorus causes excessive aquatic plant and algae growth and depletes the dissolved oxygen supply in the water. In this study, aluminum-impregnated mesoporous adsorbents were tested for their ability to remove phosphate from water. The surface...

  14. Review of Phosphate in soils: Interaction with micronutrients, radionuclides, and heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate-phosphorus present in the vadose zone of soil as native, added, or residual fertilizer influences the retention, transport, and bioavailability of heavy metals, metalloids, or metallic radionuclides to aboveground vegetation, soil microorganisms, and fauna that browse that vegetation, or d...

  15. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  16. Manure derived biochar can successfully replace phosphate rock amendment in peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Rémy; Hugron, Sandrine; Rochefort, Line; Godbout, Stéphane; Palacios, Joahnn H; Groeneveld, Elisabeth; Jarry, Isabelle

    2015-07-01

    Phosphate rock fertilization is commonly used in peatland restoration to promote the growth of Polytrichum strictum, a nurse plant which aids the establishment of Sphagnum mosses. The present study tested whether 1) phosphorus fertilization facilitates the germination of P. strictum spores and 2) biochar derived from local pig manure can replace imported phosphate rock currently used in peatland restoration. Various doses of biochar were compared to phosphate rock to test its effect directly on P. strictum stem regeneration (in Petri dishes in a growth chamber) and in a simulation of peatland restoration with the moss layer transfer technique (in mesocoms in a greenhouse). Phosphorus fertilization promoted the germination of P. strictum spores as well as vegetative stem development. Biochar can effectively replace phosphate rock in peatland restoration giving a new waste management option for rural regions with phosphorus surpluses. As more available phosphorus was present in biochar, an addition of only 3-9 g m(-2) of pig manure biochar is recommended during the peatland restoration process, which is less than the standard dose of phosphate rock (15 g m(-2)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiometric Analysis Of Different Fertilizers Consumed In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bahi, S.M.; Sroor, A.T.; Mousa, W.M.; Abd El-Halim, E.S.; Shenoda, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The fertilizers are essential in agriculture as they supply nutrients to the farming fields. One of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to extensive use of fertilizers. The concentrations of natural radionuclides, namely 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, in different chemical fertilizers used in agricultural soil were analyzed using gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector in order to assess the implications of the extended use of phosphate fertilizers in recent years. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex) and absorbed dose in air for all samples were calculated. The 226 Ra content was very high for some samples under investigation and was found to vary from 33.41 Bq/kg to 1162.39 Bq/kg. This can result in a significant radiation exposure if the rock and fertilizer are handled in places with poor ventilation that could lead to radon accumulation. The concentrations of eight elements (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the samples under investigation were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The results showed that the fertilizer samples contained less heavy metals than those used in world wide. Accepted May 2014.

  18. Radioactive 32P fertilizing experiment in a vegetative tea nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawijaya, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    To support the Indonesian tea replanting programme, Vegetative Propagation (VP) clonal tea plants of a high-yielding and high-quality variety are prepared. For a quick start of growth in the nursery and eventual good crop, the soils filled into polythene sleeves should have optimum conditions for rooting. The VP nursery manuring recommendation in Indonesia is 135 g N+72 g P 2 O 5 +70 g K 2 O per cubic metre of topsoil. Uptake of phosphorus by young VP tea plants in the nursery was studied by using 32 P-labelled superphosphate. A specific activity of 0.3 mCi/g (11 MBq/g) P 2 O 2 was still detectable 12 weeks after treatment of manuring. The laboratory analytical data proved that the P-fertilizer utilization by young VP tea plant was less than 1%. The best time for P-fertilizer application was the time of planting. It seems that the P uptake in the VP tea nursery starts with the early growth of the tea cutting. To increase the efficiency of P manuring in relation to the slower and lesser phosphate adsorption by the young VP tea plants, the best application is effected at 10 cm depth of soil. Mixing P fertilizers with soil also gives higher uptake of fertilizer P. So tea plants can use phosphate efficiently when placed as close to active roots as possible. (author)

  19. Containment of fertilizers and pesticides at retail operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.

    1990-06-28

    Environmental protection has become as important to the fertilizer retailer as the products and services he offers. Emphasis on environmental protection at the dealer level is largely in response to state regulations designed to protect groundwater. The national Clean Water Act of 1987 gave states the lead in developing groundwater protection strategies. Several states have adopted new or stronger regulations and others are moving to do so. Fertilizer dealers need to keep up with these regulations and promote groundwater protection. This paper describes several containment systems for fertilizers and pesticides to help dealers decide how to modify their plants to protect groundwater.

  20. Spectroscopic quantification of soil phosphorus forms by {sup 31}P-NMR after nine years of organic or mineral fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo, E-mail: gatiboni@cav.udesc.br [Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Lages, SC (Brazil); Brunetto, Gustavo; Rheinheimer, Danilo dos Santos; Kaminski, Joao; Flores, Alex Fabiani Claro; Lima, Maria Angelica Silveira; Girotto, Eduardo; Copetti, Andre Carlos Cruz, E-mail: danilo.rheinheimer@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: joao.kaminski@gmail.com, E-mail: acflores@quimica.ufsm.br, E-mail: masl32003@gmail.com, E-mail: girottosolos@gmail.com, E-mail: andrecopetti@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil); Pandolfo, Carla Maria; Veiga, Milton, E-mail: pandolfo@epagri.sc.gov.br, E-mail: milveiga@epagri.sc.gov.br [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e Extensao Rural de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI), Campos Novos, SC (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    Long-standing applications of mineral fertilizers or types of organic wastes such as manure can cause phosphorus (P) accumulation and changes in the accumulated P forms in the soil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the forms of P accumulated in soils treated with mineral fertilizer or different types of manure in a long-term experiment. Soil was sampled from the 0-5 cm layer of plots fertilized with five different nutrient sources for nine years: 1) control without fertilizer; 2) mineral fertilizer at recommended rates for local conditions; 3) 5 t ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} of moist poultry litter; 4) 60 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} of liquid cattle manure and 5) 40 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} of liquid swine manure. The {sup 31}P-NMR spectra of soil extracts detected the following P compounds: orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, inositol phosphate, glycerophosphate, and DNA. The use of organic or mineral fertilizer over nine years did not change the soil P forms but influenced their concentration. Fertilization with mineral or organic fertilizers stimulated P accumulation in inorganic forms. Highest inositol phosphate levels were observed after fertilization with any kind of manure and highest organic P concentration in glycerophosphate form in after mineral or no fertilization. (author)

  1. Spectroscopic quantification of soil phosphorus forms by 31P-NMR after nine years of organic or mineral fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo; Brunetto, Gustavo; Rheinheimer, Danilo dos Santos; Kaminski, Joao; Flores, Alex Fabiani Claro; Lima, Maria Angelica Silveira; Girotto, Eduardo; Copetti, Andre Carlos Cruz; Pandolfo, Carla Maria; Veiga, Milton

    2013-01-01

    Long-standing applications of mineral fertilizers or types of organic wastes such as manure can cause phosphorus (P) accumulation and changes in the accumulated P forms in the soil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the forms of P accumulated in soils treated with mineral fertilizer or different types of manure in a long-term experiment. Soil was sampled from the 0-5 cm layer of plots fertilized with five different nutrient sources for nine years: 1) control without fertilizer; 2) mineral fertilizer at recommended rates for local conditions; 3) 5 t ha -1 year -1 of moist poultry litter; 4) 60 m 3 ha -1 year -1 of liquid cattle manure and 5) 40 m 3 ha -1 year -1 of liquid swine manure. The 31 P-NMR spectra of soil extracts detected the following P compounds: orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, inositol phosphate, glycerophosphate, and DNA. The use of organic or mineral fertilizer over nine years did not change the soil P forms but influenced their concentration. Fertilization with mineral or organic fertilizers stimulated P accumulation in inorganic forms. Highest inositol phosphate levels were observed after fertilization with any kind of manure and highest organic P concentration in glycerophosphate form in after mineral or no fertilization. (author)

  2. on association of trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovic, D.M.; Maksimovic, Z.B.

    1976-01-01

    The association constants of tri-n-butyl (TBP), tri-n-propyl (TPP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) with chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and benzene were determined by dielectric constant, proton magnetic resonance and vapor pressure measurements. Correlation of the trialkyl phosphate-chloroform association constants, using the Hammett equation, showed their increase with the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic radicals. The change of trialkyl phosphate reactivity with temperature was used to determine the thermodynamic quantities. (author)

  3. Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

  4. Availability of phosphorus from ground phosphate rocks for rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yongyi; Yang Juncheng; Chen Jingjian; Liu Delin; Zhu Zhaomin; Wu Ming

    1996-09-01

    The availability of phosphorus from the ground phosphate rock, which is provided by Kaiyang mining plant, Guizhou Province of China, is investigated in pot experiment with acid red soil for rape (Brassica napus L. No. 13 Xingyou, Chinese Olive Group) by 32 P indirect labelling method. The results show that the yield increased significantly by applying ground phosphate rock (GPR) and the efficiency of GPR is equal to 17.1% of that from calcium superphosphate. It is calculated as that the fertilizer efficiency of 1 kg of calcium superphosphate is the same as that of 8.53 kg ground phosphate rock in Guizhou Province of China. The effect on the grain yield is evaluated by pot and field microplot experiments, and it is found that the main effect is to increase the pod number. The fertilizer efficiency in field experiment is the same as that in pot experiment. (9 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.)

  5. Radioactivity in Chemical Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    The fertilizers are essential in agriculture as they supply nutrients to the farming fields. One of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to extensive use of fertilizers. The concentrations of natural radionuclides, 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U in different chemical fertilizers, which are part of the regular control of imported goods from the border crossing were analyzed using gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, relative efficiency 20 %, in order to assess the implications of the extended use of chemical fertilizers. Measurements were performed at Vinca Institute, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of different samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for gamma activity of those fertilizer samples for 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U are 4857 (23 - 12 324) Bq/kg, 87 (4-393) Bq/kg, 220 (26-1145) Bq/kg and 15 (1.6-53) Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) as well as the external absorbed gamma dose rate (D) for all samples was also calculated.(author)

  6. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  7. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...

  8. Phosphate Recovery from Human Waste via the Formation of Hydroxyapatite during Electrochemical Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Clément A; Jasper, Justin T; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2018-03-05

    Electrolysis of toilet wastewater with TiO 2 -coated semiconductor anodes and stainless steel cathodes is a potentially viable onsite sanitation solution in parts of the world without infrastructure for centralized wastewater treatment. In addition to treating toilet wastewater, pilot-scale and bench-scale experiments demonstrated that electrolysis can remove phosphate by cathodic precipitation as hydroxyapatite at no additional energy cost. Phosphate removal could be predicted based on initial phosphate and calcium concentrations, and up to 80% total phosphate removal was achieved. While calcium was critical for phosphate removal, magnesium and bicarbonate had only minor impacts on phosphate removal rates at concentrations typical of toilet wastewater. Optimal conditions for phosphate removal were 3 to 4 h treatment at about 5 mA cm -2 (∼3.4 V), with greater than 20 m 2 m -3 electrode surface area to reactor volume ratios. Pilot-scale systems are currently operated under similar conditions, suggesting that phosphate removal can be viewed as an ancillary benefit of electrochemical wastewater treatment, adding utility to the process without requiring additional energy inputs. Further value may be provided by designing reactors to recover precipitated hydroxyapatite for use as a low solubility phosphorus-rich fertilizer.

  9. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  10. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R A; Halstead, E H

    1974-07-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  11. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.; Halstead, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  12. Both Phosphorus Fertilizers and Indigenous Bacteria Enhance Arsenic Release into Groundwater in Arsenic-Contaminated Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Chun-Han; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-03-23

    Arsenic (As) is a human carcinogen, and arsenic contamination in groundwater is a worldwide public health concern. Arsenic-affected areas are found in many places but are reported mostly in agricultural farmlands, yet the interaction of fertilizers, microorganisms, and arsenic mobilization in arsenic-contaminated aquifers remains uncharacterized. This study investigates the effects of fertilizers and bacteria on the mobilization of arsenic in two arsenic-contaminated aquifers. We performed microcosm experiments using arsenic-contaminated sediments and amended with inorganic nitrogenous or phosphorus fertilizers for 1 and 4 months under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results show that microcosms amended with 100 mg/L phosphorus fertilizers (dipotassium phosphate), but not nitrogenous fertilizers (ammonium sulfate), significantly increase aqueous As(III) release in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. We also show that concentrations of iron, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are increased in the aqueous phase and that the addition of dipotassium phosphate causes a further increase in aqueous iron, potassium, and sodium, suggesting that multiple metal elements may take part in the arsenic release process. Furthermore, microbial analysis indicates that the dominant microbial phylum is shifted from α-proteobacteria to β- and γ-proteobacteria when the As(III) is increased and phosphate is added in the aquifer. Our results provide evidence that both phosphorus fertilizers and microorganisms can mediate the release of arsenic to groundwater in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. Our study suggests that agricultural activity such as the use of fertilizers and monitoring phosphate concentration in groundwater should be taken into consideration for the management of arsenic in groundwater.

  13. Serum phosphate and cognitive function in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinin, Yelena; Vo, Tien; Taylor, Brent C; Murray, Anne M; Schousboe, John; Langsetmo, Lisa; Ensrud, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    Determine whether serum phosphate is associated with concurrent cognitive impairment and subsequent cognitive decline in older men independent of demographic covariates and atherosclerotic risk factors. In a prospective study of 5529 men enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study, we measured baseline serum phosphate, baseline cognitive function, and change in cognitive function between baseline and follow-up exams an average of 4.6 years later using the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination and Trails B. There was no association between serum phosphate and odds of cognitive impairment as assessed by baseline 3MS score or risk of cognitive decline as assessed by longitudinal change in 3MS score. Higher baseline serum phosphate was associated with higher odds of poor executive function as assessed by Trails B with fully adjusted odds ratios 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.52), 1.31 (0.97-1.77), and 1.45 (1.08-1.94) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.007). However, higher phosphate level was not associated with risk of decline in executive function as assessed by longitudinal change in Trails B score with fully adjusted odds ratios 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.28), 0.96 (0.70-1.32), and 1.21 (0.89-1.66) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.22). Higher serum phosphate in older men was associated with a higher likelihood of poor executive function, but not with impaired global cognitive function or decline in executive or global cognition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  15. U.S. phosphate industry as a source of U3O8 to the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1976-01-01

    U 3 O 8 recovered as a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry may equal 3600-5200 tons by 1985 and represent 7-10 percent of the anticipated annual U.S. demand. If the enormous U.S. phosphate reserves and resources are mined primarily for their uranium content they appear sufficient to fill more than twice the projected cumulative U.S. demand to the year 2000

  16. Availability of rock phosphate with low P content in some Albanian soil: use of 32PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, J.C.; Migadel, F.; Gjermani, A.; Malja, S.

    1983-10-01

    The availability of a calcareous low P content rock phosphate (4,3% P) was measured. This Albanian ore was used, in pot experiments, on various local soils whose the pH is situated between 4,9 to 7,5. This phosphate was labelled with 32 P and 45 Ca in a reactor. The residual effect of this fertilizer was deduced from the results of isotopic dilution kinetic of phosphate ions realized in soil-solution systemes. The main results can be summarized as follow: 1. When the soil-water pH was higher than 6,1, the utilization coefficient of phosphorus was minus than 1%, even with 5,5 mounths. 2. The ratio of P and Ca derived from fertilizer and taken up by the crop is most generally different of those measured in the fertilizer. It depends of the soil constitution. 3. The analysis of isotopic dilution kinetic of phosphate ions shows that in the major part of these soils, whose the fixing capacity is very high, the rock phosphate and also superphosphate at 230 kg P 2 O 5 .ha -1 rate does not increase available soil phosphorus; it is only with rates over 800 kg P 2 O 5 .ha -1 that this objective can be reached. These results explain again that the fixing capacity of soil for phosphorus is a characteristic more useful for fertilization technique than the available phosphorus quantity [fr

  17. Availability of rock phosphate with low P content in some Albanian soil: use of /sup 32/PO/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J C; Migadel, F; Gjermani, A; Malja, S

    1983-10-01

    The availability of a calcareous low P content rock phosphate (4,3% P) was measured. This Albanian ore was used, in pot experiments, on various local soils whose pH is situated between 4,9 to 7,5. This phosphate was labelled with /sup 32/P and /sup 45/Ca in a reactor. The residual effect of this fertilizer was deduced from the results of isotopic dilution kinetics of phosphate ions realized in soil-solution systems. The main results can be summarized as follows: 1. When the soil-water pH was higher than 6,1, the utilization coefficient of phosphorus was minus than 1%, even with 5,5 months. 2. The ratio of P and Ca derived from fertilizer and taken up by the crop is most generally different of those measured in the fertilizer. It depends on the soil constitution. 3. The analysis of isotopic dilution kinetics of phosphate ions shows that in the major part of these soils, whose fixing capacity is very high, the rock phosphate and also superphosphate at 230 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/.ha/sup -1/ rate does not increase available soil phosphorus; it is only with rates over 800 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/.ha/sup -1/ that this objective can be reached. These results explain again that the fixing capacity of soil for phosphorus is a characteristic more useful for fertilization technique than the available phosphorus quantity.

  18. The use of simultaneous chemical precipitation in modified activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of simultaneous chemical precipitation in modified activated sludge systems exhibiting biological excess phosphate removal: Part 6: Modelling of simultaneous chemical-biological P removal - review of existing models.

  19. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  20. Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-09-01

    The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.

  1. Influence of two glomus species on the fertilizer efficiency of sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments consisted of sole inoculations of G. mosseae and G. deserticola and their combinations with phosphate rock (PR), sole application of PR, SSP and a no-inoculation, no-fertilizer control. Results obtained revealed that the percent colonization rate of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) was significantly higher in ...

  2. CHANGES IN NITROGEN FERTILIZERS MARKET IN POLAND IN 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Zalewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the evolution of production, consumption and foreign trade of nitrogen fertilizers in Poland in years 2000-2010. The structure of the use of nitrogen fertilizers, foreign trade and balance of the market of urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate and UAN were analysed. Geographical directions of foreign trade were specified. The results showed that the domestic fertilizer sector is fully self-sufficient in the area of production of various nitrogen fertilizers. The most commonly used nitrogen fertilizers were: ammonium nitrate, urea and calcium ammonium nitrate while the importance of ammonium nitrate was clearly reduced. Ammonium sulphate and UAN produced mainly for export, and ammonium nitrate for the domestic market.

  3. External costs of cadmium emissions to soil: a drawback of phosphorus fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; C.R. Smart, James; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    are exposed to cadmium through their diet causing potential adverse health impacts. Future scenarios for cadmium emissions to soil via agricultural applications of inorganic and organic fertilizers in Denmark were defined. A simplified fate and speciation model allowed the increase in soil cadmium......Abstract: In this study the Impact-Pathway Approach methodology was applied for monetary valuation of health impacts due to cadmium emitted to soil as a micro-pollutant present in phosphorus fertilizers. Due to the high persistency of cadmium in soil, and high soil-to-plant transfer rates, humans...... ammonium phosphate) and mineral fertilizer produced the lowest external health costs, followed by the fertilizer products wastewater sludge and pig manure. The external cost estimates produced in this study could be used to design economic policy instruments to encourage use of cleaner fertilizer products....

  4. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  5. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  6. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  7. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Localized application of small quantities of fertilizer (micro-dosing), combined with improved planting pits for rainwater harvesting, has generated greater profits and food security for women farmers in the Sahel. • Women are 25% more likely to use combined applications, and have expanded areas of food crops (cowpea,.

  8. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on: The underlying cause of the problem The woman's age Her history of previous pregnancies How long she has had infertility issues The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose infertility is due to problems with ovulation. ...

  9. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  10. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  11. Utilisation of phosphate by jute from jute growing soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.; Suiha, A.K.

    1974-01-01

    The uptake and utilisation of phosphate from different jute growing soils of West Bengal viz., Humaipur (24-Parganas), Haripal (Hooghly), Panagarh (Burdwan) and the Jute Agricultural Research Institute, Barrackpore (24-Parganas) were studied in pot under fertilizer combination of NP, PK and NPK. The soils from 24-Parganas district behaved in a similar manner with respect to dry matter yield, fertilizer P uptake and per cent utilisation of added P. The P deficient between the two, Humaipur soil, showed comparatively higher P utilisation. Other two soils, Haripal and Panagarh, though of different origin behaved similarly, highest soil P has been contributed by the P rich soil (J.A.R.I.) to the crop, though it showed minimum P fixation. (author)

  12. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  13. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  14. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  15. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ...

  16. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...

  17. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  18. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  19. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  20. Effects of Vermi-compost and Two Bacterial Bio-fertilizers on some Quality Parameters of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Zarghami MOGHADAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to study the effect of vermi-compost and two bio-fertilizer applications on growth, yield and quality of petunia (Petunia hybrida. The experiment laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications and 9 treatment combinations composing of vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and NPK fertilizer. The treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose recorded the highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes such as number of flowers per plant, number of flowers per plot, flower yield/plant, flower yield/plot. The early flower bud initiation, 50 percent flowering and more flowering duration was achieved in the treatment receiving Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose. Application of Azospirillum sp. + Phosphate solubilizing bacterium + Vermicompost + NPK (25% of recommended dose registered significantly higher quality parameters such as flower diameter.

  1. Soil radioactivity and its possible relationship with fertilizers in Araras region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jocelyn L. de; Ferreira, Francisco J.F.; Mantovani, Luiz E.; Rocha, Helio O. da

    1997-01-01

    Fertilizers are widely used in agriculture, particularly in tropical regions, where weathering of soil nutrients is more intense. Uranium is commonly present in phosphate rocks and, consequently, in fertilizers. The exploitation, processing and persistent use of large amounts of phosphate fertilizers lead the environment to be contaminated by U, Th and other trace element resulting from radioactive decay. In the present study, airbone gamma-ray spectrometry, remote sensing, digital imagery and geographic information systems were used to integrate geophysical, geological, topographical pedological and drainage data in order to interpret radiometric (K, U and Th) anomalies in the region of Araras, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. These anomalies occur in soils developed from basic rocks (diabase sills), which are known to normally contain low concentrations of radionuclides. Owing to their high fertility, these soils have been historically used for important crops such as coffee and sugar cane, but an increasing amount of fertilizers has been used there over the last thirty years. The radiometric anomalies (U, Th) are attributed to impurities in phosphates, whereas the 40 K anomalies result both from the use potash and agricultural residues like those from the sugar cane industry, in which up to 0.7 g/l of K 2 O is present. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs

  2. Jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer in lettuce cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mantovani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In biodiesel production, vegetable press cake is obtained as waste, and a suitable destination for jatropha press cake would be the use in agriculture as organic fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of jatropha press cake on soil fertility attributes and on lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots. The experiment was conducted in pots in a greenhouse, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of doses of jatropha press cake equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 t ha-1. Portions of 5.5 dm3 of soil received limestone, phosphate fertilizer and the doses of jatropha press cake, and remained incubated for 30 days. After incubation, soil samples were collected, each pot received one lettuce seedling and the experiment was carried out for 45 days. The organic fertilization with jatropha press cake increased the contents of nutrients in the soil, especially K+, but caused increment in soil acidity and electrical conductivity. The use of jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer decreased lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots.

  3. Impact of fertilizer plant effluent on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obire, O.; Ogan, A.; Okigbo, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent on the physico chemistry and bacteriology of Okrika creek was investigated during the sampling period from May to December, 1998. The National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent, the Okrika creek water and the lkpukulubie creek (control) water samples were collected. The physico-chemical parameters analyzed for all the samples included temperature, p H, total chloride, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, free ammonia, total phosphate, urea, zinc and iron, while the bacteriological determinations were total culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria count and identification of representative isolates. The Okrika creek recorded higher concentrations for all the physicochemical parameters and bacteria load than the control creek. The higher values of p H, Free NH 3 , urea, TDS and the conductivity of the National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent above the FEPA standards reflect the poor effluent quality generated by National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria. The bacteria species isolated from the samples include Aerococcus viridans, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus. In general, the investigation revealed that there was an extremely adverse impact on the physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality characteristics of the Okrika creek as a result of the discharge of poor quality effluent from National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria operations

  4. Eutrophication decrease: Phosphate adsorption processes in presence of nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeykens, Susana P; Piol, M Natalia; Samudio Legal, Lisa; Saralegui, Andrea B; Vázquez, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Eutrophication causes aquatic environment degradation as well as serious problems for different purposes of water uses. Phosphorus and nitrogen, mainly as phosphate and nitrate respectively, are considered responsible for eutrophication degradation. The focus of this work was the study of adsorption processes for decreasing phosphate and nitrate concentrations in bi-component aqueous systems. Dolomite and hydroxyapatite were selected as low-cost adsorbents. Obtained results showed that both adsorbents have high capacity for phosphate adsorption which the presence of nitrate does not modify. Hydroxyapatite proved to be the most efficient adsorbent, however, it showed a low percentage of desorption and few possibilities of reuse. Dolomite, on the other hand, allows a desorption of the adsorbed material that favours its reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospective Study of Fertility Concerns and Preservation Strategies in Young Women With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Gelber, Shari I.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Schapira, Lidia; Come, Steven E.; Borges, Virginia F.; Meyer, Meghan E.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Most research regarding fertility in young women with breast cancer has focused on long-term survivors. Little is known about how fertility concerns affect treatment decisions or fertility preservation strategies at the time of initial cancer diagnosis. Patients and Methods As part of an ongoing prospective multicenter cohort study, we surveyed women with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer at age ≤ 40 years. The baseline survey included sociodemographic, medical, and treatment data as well as a modified Fertility Issues Survey, including fertility concern and preservation items. Univariable and multivariable modeling were used to investigate predictors of greater fertility concern. Results Among the first 620 eligible respondents included in this analysis, median age was 37 years (range, 17 to 40 years); 425 women (68%) discussed fertility issues with their physicians before starting therapy, and 319 (51%) were concerned about becoming infertile after treatment. Because of concerns about fertility, four women (1%) chose not to receive chemotherapy, 12 (2%) chose one chemotherapy regimen over another, six (1%) considered not receiving endocrine therapy, 19 (3%) decided not to receive endocrine therapy, and 71 (11%) considered receiving endocrine therapy for < 5 years; 65 (10%) used fertility preservation strategies. Greater concern about fertility was associated with younger age, nonwhite race, not having children, and receipt of chemotherapy. Conclusion Many young women with newly diagnosed breast cancer have concerns about fertility, and for some, these substantially affect their treatment decisions. Only a minority of women currently pursue available fertility preservation strategies in this setting. PMID:24567428

  6. Application of different fertilizers on morphological traits of dill (Anethum graveolens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatzadeh-Barandozi, Fatemeh; Gholami-Borujeni, Fathollah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitroxin biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer on the growth, yield, and essential oil composition of dill. The experiment was conducted under field condition in randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors. The first factor was the concentrations of nitroxin biofertilizer (0%, 50%, and 100%) of the recommended amount (1 l of biological fertilizer for 30 kg of seed). The second factor was the following chemical fertilizer treatments: no fertilizer (control) and 50 and 100 kg ha(-1) urea along with 300 kg ha(-1) ammonium phosphate. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of umbel per plant, number of umbellet per umbel, number of grain per umbellet, 1,000 seed weight, grain yield, biological yield, and oil percentage were recorded. According to the results, the highest height, biological yield, and grain yield components (except harvest index) were obtained on biological fertilizer. The results showed the highest essential oil content detected in biological fertilizer and chemical fertilizer. Identification of essential oil composition showed that the content of carvone increased with the application of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers. The results indicated that the application of biofertilizers enhanced yield and other plant criteria in this plant. Generally, it seems that the use of biofertilizers or combinations of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer could improve dill performance in addition to reduction of environmental pollution.

  7. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...

  8. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  9. Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate bone cement with optimised mechanical properties: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Iwan; Nelson, John; Schatton, Wolfgang; Dunne, Nicholas J; Buchanan, Fraser; Clarke, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    This work establishes the in vivo performance of modified calcium phosphate bone cements for vertebroplasty of spinal fractures using a lapine model. A non-modified calcium phosphate bone cement and collagen-calcium phosphate bone cements composites with enhanced mechanical properties, utilising either bovine collagen or collagen from a marine sponge, were compared to a commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Conical cement samples (8 mm height × 4 mm base diameter) were press-fit into distal femoral condyle defects in New Zealand White rabbits and assessed after 5 and 10 weeks. Bone apposition and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity around cements were assessed. All implants were well tolerated, but bone apposition was higher on calcium phosphate bone cements than on poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Incorporation of collagen showed no evidence of inflammatory or immune reactions. Presence of positive tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining within cracks formed in calcium phosphate bone cements suggested active osteoclasts were present within the implants and were actively remodelling within the cements. Bone growth was also observed within these cracks. These findings confirm the biological advantages of calcium phosphate bone cements over poly(methyl methacrylate) and, coupled with previous work on enhancement of mechanical properties through collagen incorporation, suggest collagen-calcium phosphate bone cement composite may offer an alternative to calcium phosphate bone cements in applications where low setting times and higher mechanical stability are important.

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...