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Sample records for modified maize bt11

  1. Reply to the EFSA (2016) on the relevance of recent publications (Hofmann et al. 2014, 2016) on environmental risk assessment and management of Bt-maize events (MON810, Bt11 and 1507).

    Kruse-Plass, Maren; Hofmann, Frieder; Kuhn, Ulrike; Otto, Mathias; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Schröder, Boris; Vögel, Rudolf; Wosniok, Werner

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, we respond to a report of the EFSA GMO Panel (EFSA EFSA Supp Publ, 1) that criticises the outcomes of two studies published in this journal (Hofmann et al. Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2; Environ Sci Eur 28: 14, 3). Both publications relate to the environmental risk assessment and management of Bt-maize, including maize events MON810, Bt11 and maize 1507. The results of Hofmann et al. (Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2), using standardised pollen mass filter deposition measurements, indicated that the EFSA Panel model had underestimated pollen deposition and, hence, exposure of non-target organisms to Bt-maize pollen. The results implied a need for safety buffer distances in the kilometre range for protected nature reserve areas instead of the 20-30 m range recommended by the EFSA Panel. As a result, the EFSA Panel revised their model (EFSA EFSA J 13: 4127, 4), adopting the slope of the empirical data from Hofmann et al. The intercept, however, was substantially reduced to less than 1% at one point by introducing further assumptions based on the estimates of mainly panel members, citing possible 'uncertainty'. Hofmann et al. (Environ Sci Eur 28: 14, 3) published extensive empirical data regarding pollen deposition on leaves. These results were part of a larger 3-year study involving detailed measurements of pollen release, dispersal and deposition over the maize flowering period. The data collected in situ confirmed the previous predictions of Hofmann et al. (Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2). Mean levels and observed variability of pollen deposition on maize and four lepidopteran host plants exceeded the assumptions and disagreed with the conclusions of the EFSA Panel. The EFSA Panel reacted in a report (EFSA EFSA Supp Publ, 1) criticising the methods and outcomes of the two published studies of Hofmann et al. while reaffirming their original recommendations. We respond here point-by-point, showing that the critique is not justified. Based on our results on

  2. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  3. Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.

  4. Detection of genetically modified maize events in Brazilian maize-derived food products

    Maria Regina Branquinho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has approved many transgenic maize lines for commercialization and has established a threshold of 1% for food labeling, which underscores need for monitoring programs. Thirty four samples including flours and different types of nacho chips were analyzed by conventional and real-time PCR in 2011 and 2012. The events MON810, Bt11, and TC1507 were detected in most of the samples, and NK603 was present only in the samples analyzed in 2012. The authorized lines GA21, T25, and the unauthorized Bt176 were not detected. All positive samples in the qualitative tests collected in 2011 showed a transgenic content higher than 1%, and none of them was correctly labeled. Regarding the samples collected in 2012, all positive samples were quantified higher than the threshold, and 47.0% were not correctly labeled. The overall results indicated that the major genetically modified organisms detected were MON810, TC1507, Bt11, and NK603 events. Some industries that had failed to label their products in 2011 started labeling them in 2012, demonstrating compliance with the current legislation observing the consumer rights. Although these results are encouraging, it has been clearly demonstrated the need for continuous monitoring programs to ensure consumers that food products are labeled properly.

  5. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses.

  6. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  7. First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.

    Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

    2007-02-21

    An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis.

  8. Do European Union Farmers Reject Genetically Modified Maize? Farmer preferences for Genetically Modified Maize in Greece

    Skevas, T.; Kikulwe, E.M.; Papadopoulou, E.; Skevas, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2012-01-01

    The new EU proposal (IP/10/921) states that bans on genetically modified (GM) crops should not be based on environmental and health grounds, and it proposes a set of alternative reasons—including public order and morals—that can be cited by member states. This reveals the increasing importance of stakeholders’ attitudes in GM crops’ release decisions. This article analyzes farmers’ attitudes and perceptions toward GM maize based on a survey of large-area Greek farmers in Northeastern Greece. ...

  9. Detection of genetically modified maize ( Zea mays L.) in seed ...

    Maize is the second major cereal in Nepal; its food biosafety and ecological conservation is an important concern. To address this issue, it is necessary to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and establish a monitoring and regulatory system in Nepal. Currently, Nepal does not have legal regulations or labeling directives ...

  10. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    Kenya has a biosafety law and has tested genetically modified (GM) maize under confinement and containment, but has neither released nor commercialized any GM crop. This study assessed various maize food products from the Kenyan farms and markets for the inadvertent presence of GMOs. It assessed the possibility ...

  11. Bistand til risikovurdering Supplerende oplysninger fra Syngenta Seeds om overvågningsplanen (evt. ændret risikovurdering). Zea mays (Bt11). Supplerende materiale om Bt11

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Damgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    "Mail: Den supplerende information om Bt-11 majsen (C/F/96/05-10) der er modtaget d. 02-03-2005, indeholder en ny udgave af den generelle overvågningsplan med enkelte ændringer (forbedringer) i forhold til forrige udgave (kommenteret 24-02-2005). Vi har ikke fundet nogen nye oplysninger der ændre...

  12. Prospects of genetic modified maize crop in Africa

    sunny t

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... Farmers have rapidly adopted genetically modified organism (GMO) technology including GM maize crops. (Lawson et al., 2009). GMO technology involves the incorporation of genetic engineering to improve crop productivity since over one billion people in the world face starvation and two billion people ...

  13. Iron and manganese oxides modified maize straw to remove tylosin from aqueous solutions.

    Yin, Yongyuan; Guo, Xuetao; Peng, Dan

    2018-08-01

    Maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides was synthesized via a simple and environmentally friendly method. Three maize straw materials, the original maize straw, maize straw modified by manganese oxides and maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides, were detected by SEM, BET, XPS, XRD and FTIR. The results showed that maize straw was successfully modified and maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides has a larger surface area than MS. According to the experimental data, the sorption trend could conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well, and the sorption ability of tylosin on sorbents followed the order of original maize straw oxides iron and manganese oxides. The study indicated that manganese oxides and iron-manganese oxides could significantly enhance the sorption capacity of original maize straw. The sorption isotherm data of tylosin on original maize straw fit a linear model well, while Freundlich models were more suitable for maize straw modified by manganese oxides and maize straw modified by iron and manganese oxides. The pH, ionic strength and temperature can affect the sorption process. The sorption mechanisms of tylosin on iron and manganese oxides modified maize straw were attribute to the surface complexes, electrostatic interactions, H bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SNS ønsker kommentarer om oplysninger fra Syngenta Seeds vedr forurening med Bt10 i Bt11-majsen ændrer konklusionerne i risikovurderingen. Zea mays (Bt11) . Supplerende informationer om Bt11 - evt. konsekvenser for tidligere vurderinger. Modtaget 04-05-2005, deadline 06-06-2005, svar 24-05-2005

    Kjellsson, Gøsta

    2012-01-01

    "Vedr. oplysningerne om iblanding af Bt-10 majsen i Bt-11 viser det tilsendte materiale, at Syngenta har undersøgt og fået bekræftet at undersøgelserne til grundlag for risikovurderingen blev foretaget på Bt-11 majs. DMU ser derfor ingen grund til at ændre konklusionerne i den tidligere risikovur...

  15. [Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].

    Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize.

  16. QUANTIFICATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE MON 810 IN PROCESSED FOODS

    Peter Siekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L. represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C, elevated pressure (0.1 MPa and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa. The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.doi:10.5219/212

  17. Do European Union Farmers Reject Genetically Modified Maize? Farmer preferences for Genetically Modified Maize in Greece

    Skevas, T.; Kikulwe, E.M.; Papadopoulou, E.; Skevas, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2012-01-01

    The new EU proposal (IP/10/921) states that bans on genetically modified (GM) crops should not be based on environmental and health grounds, and it proposes a set of alternative reasons—including public order and morals—that can be cited by member states. This reveals the increasing importance of

  18. Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.

    Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-09-18

    A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods.

  19. Detection of genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) in seed ...

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... establish a monitoring and regulatory system in Nepal. Currently, Nepal does not ... maize lines in 46 maize seed samples from different locations in Nepal. Suspected samples .... seeds supplied by informal channels (Sthapit and San, 2001). ... rence Materials and Measurements (IRRM, Geel, Belgium;.

  20. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weed (Avena fatua L.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatua L.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Detection of DNA of genetically modified maize by a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor

    Pham, Van Binh; Tung Pham, Xuan Thanh; Duong Dang, Ngoc Thuy; Tuyen Le, Thi Thanh; Tran, Phu Duy; Nguyen, Thanh Chien; Nguyen, Van Quoc; Dang, Mau Chien; Tong, Duy Hien; Van Rijn, Cees J M

    2011-01-01

    A silicon nanowire field-effect transistor based sensor (SiNW-FET) has been proved to be the most sensitive and powerful device for bio-detection applications. In this paper, SiNWs were first fabricated by using our recently developed deposition and etching under angle technique (DEA), then used to build up the complete SiNW device based biosensor. The fabricated SiNW biosensor was used to detect DNA of genetically modified maize. As the DNA of the genetically modified maize has particular DNA sequences of 35S promoter, we therefore designed 21 mer DNA oligonucleotides, which are used as a receptor to capture the transferred DNA of maize. In our work, the SiNW biosensor could detect DNA of genetically modified maize with concentrations down to about 200 pM

  2. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    owner

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... The maize imported into Kenya contained Bt genetic elements. Nevertheless, the .... obtained from various open air markets and retail shops located in ... Magic, Bokomo and Temmy) was not successful. Assessment of cry1Ab ...

  3. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Expressing Cry1 Proteins

    Bartsch, Detlef; Devos, Yann; Hails, Rosie

    2010-01-01

    effects observed in the laboratory do not necessarily translate to field conditions. There are more than 10 years experience of cultivating GM maize worldwide and few long-term effects have been reported. For future research studies, modelling and monitoring are appropriate tools to investigate long......-term environmental effects during GMO cultivation....

  4. The Costs of Coexistence Measures for Genetically Modified Maize in Germany

    Venus, Thomas J.; Dillen, Koen; Punt, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements ('coexistence measures') for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than €300 per measure and most are greater...... than the extra revenue the farmers in our survey expect from growing Bt maize or than estimates in the literature. The cost estimates for temporal separation, the highest in our evaluation, imply that the exclusion of this measure in Germany is justified. The costliest measures of the ones...... of Bt maize. Our results imply that strict liability will deter the cultivation of Bt maize in Germany unless liability issues can be addressed through other means, for example, through neighbours agreements....

  5. Isolation and characterisation of nanoparticles from tef and maize starch modified with stearic acid

    Cuthbert, WO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles were isolated from tef and maize starch modified with added stearic acid after pasting at 90 °C for 130 min. This was followed by thermo-stable alpha-amylase hydrolysis of the paste. The resultant residues were then characterized using...

  6. Electron beam technology for modifying the functional properties of maize starch

    Nemtanu, M.R.; Minea, R.; Kahraman, K.; Koksel, H.; Ng, P.K.W.; Popescu, M.I.; Mitru, E.

    2007-01-01

    Maize starch is a versatile biopolymer with a wide field of applications (e.g. foods, pharmaceutical products, adhesives, etc.). Nowadays there is a continuous and intensive search for new methods and techniques to modify its functional properties due to the fact that native form of starch may exhibit some disadvantages in certain applications. Radiation technology is frequently used to change the properties of different polymeric materials. Thus, the goal of the work is to discuss the application of accelerated electron beams on maize starch in the view of changing some of its functional properties. Maize starch has been irradiated with doses up to 52.15 kGy by using electron beam technology and the modifications of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and pasting characteristics, paste clarity, freezing and thawing stability as well as colorimetric characteristics have been investigated. The results of the study revealed that the measured properties can be modified by electron beam treatment and, therefore, this method can be an efficient and ecological alternative to obtain modified maize starch

  7. Safety evaluation of genetically modified DAS-40278-9 maize in a subchronic rodent feeding study.

    Zou, Shiying; Lang, Tianqi; Liu, Xu; Huang, Kunlun; He, Xiaoyun

    2018-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) maize, DAS-40278-9, expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 (AAD-1) protein, which confers tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) herbicides. The aad-1 gene, which expresses the AAD-1 protein, was derived from Gram-negative soil bacterium, Sphingobium herbicidovorans. A 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study was conducted on rats as a component of the safety evaluation of DAS-40278-9 maize. Rats were given formulated diets containing maize grain from DAS-40278-9 or a non-GM near isogenic control comparator at an incorporation rate of 12.5%, 25%, or 50% (w/w), respectively for 90 days. In addition, another group of rats was fed a basic rodent diet. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathological examinations. Under the condition of this study, DAS-40278-9 maize did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats compared with rats fed diets containing non-GM maize. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of detectable allergenicity in genetically modified maize containing "Cry" proteins as compared to native maize based on in silico & in vitro analysis.

    Chandni Mathur

    Full Text Available Genetically modified, (GM crops with potential allergens must be evaluated for safety and endogenous IgE binding pattern compared to native variety, prior to market release.To compare endogenous IgE binding proteins of three GM maize seeds containing Cry 1Ab,1Ac,1C transgenic proteins with non GM maize.An integrated approach of in silico & in vitro methods was employed. Cry proteins were tested for presence of allergen sequence by FASTA in allergen databases. Biochemical assays for maize extracts were performed. Specific IgE (sIgE and Immunoblot using food sensitized patients sera (n = 39 to non GM and GM maize antigens was performed.In silico approaches, confirmed for non sequence similarity of stated transgenic proteins in allergen databases. An insignificant (p> 0.05 variation in protein content between GM and non GM maize was observed. Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF revealed reduced number of stable protein fractions in GM then non GM maize which might be due to shift of constituent protein expression. Specific IgE values from patients showed insignificant difference in non GM and GM maize extracts. Five maize sensitized cases, recognized same 7 protein fractions of 88-28 kD as IgE bindng in both GM and non-GM maize, signifying absence of variation. Four of the reported IgE binding proteins were also found to be stable by SGF.Cry proteins did not indicate any significant similarity of >35% in allergen databases. Immunoassays also did not identify appreciable differences in endogenous IgE binding in GM and non GM maize.

  9. Lack of Detectable Allergenicity in Genetically Modified Maize Containing “Cry” Proteins as Compared to Native Maize Based on In Silico & In Vitro Analysis

    Mathur, Chandni; Kathuria, Pooran C.; Dahiya, Pushpa; Singh, Anand B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetically modified, (GM) crops with potential allergens must be evaluated for safety and endogenous IgE binding pattern compared to native variety, prior to market release. Objective To compare endogenous IgE binding proteins of three GM maize seeds containing Cry 1Ab,1Ac,1C transgenic proteins with non GM maize. Methods An integrated approach of in silico & in vitro methods was employed. Cry proteins were tested for presence of allergen sequence by FASTA in allergen databases. Biochemical assays for maize extracts were performed. Specific IgE (sIgE) and Immunoblot using food sensitized patients sera (n = 39) to non GM and GM maize antigens was performed. Results In silico approaches, confirmed for non sequence similarity of stated transgenic proteins in allergen databases. An insignificant (p> 0.05) variation in protein content between GM and non GM maize was observed. Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) revealed reduced number of stable protein fractions in GM then non GM maize which might be due to shift of constituent protein expression. Specific IgE values from patients showed insignificant difference in non GM and GM maize extracts. Five maize sensitized cases, recognized same 7 protein fractions of 88-28 kD as IgE bindng in both GM and non-GM maize, signifying absence of variation. Four of the reported IgE binding proteins were also found to be stable by SGF. Conclusion Cry proteins did not indicate any significant similarity of >35% in allergen databases. Immunoassays also did not identify appreciable differences in endogenous IgE binding in GM and non GM maize. PMID:25706412

  10. THE ENZYMATIC EFFECT (α-AMYLASE ON VISCOSITY AND CARBOHYDRATE COMPOSITION OF MAIZE FLOUR MODIFIED

    Suarni Suarni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology is required in making new product of maize flour. Enzymatic modification of three varieties of maize flours i.e. MS2, Srikandi and Local product has been conducted using α-amylase from mung bean sprouts has been carried out in Laboratorium Bioproses BB Pascapanen Bogor. A research was performed used the flour without addition of sprouts (as control and with addition of 10, 20, 30 % of sprouts. Parameters observed were the change in viscosity of the maize flour; amylose, glucose and oligosaccharide contents. Results showed that there were changes in polymerization degree, dextrose equivalent, amylase content, viscosity (50 oC, viscosity (50 ºC/20΄, and carbohydrate composition. An enzymatic treatment using 20% of sprout to the three varieties gave results as follows:  amylose content was 20.02 - 24.02%, viscosity (50 ºC was  210 - 230 BU, and viscosity (50 ºC/20΄ was 200 - 220 BU. Functional properties of the flour fulfilled with the soft texture product, such as  food material for children under five years old. Data of the modified flour can be utilized by consuments as an alternative food material.   Keywords: modified maize flour, viscosity and carbohydrate composition

  11. Effects of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) produced by genetically modified maize (Bt maize) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Höss, Sebastian; Menzel, Ralph; Gessler, Frank; Nguyen, Hang T.; Jehle, Johannes A.; Traunspurger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The genetically modified maize MON89034 × MON88017 expresses different crystal (Cry) proteins with pesticidal activity against the European corn borer (Cry1.105; Cry2Ab2) and the Western corn root worm (Cry3Bb1). Non-target organisms, such as soil nematodes, might be exposed to the Cry proteins that enter the soil in course of crop growing. Therefore, the risk of those proteins for nematodes was assessed by testing their toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans. All three insecticidal Cry proteins showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on C. elegans reproduction (EC50: 0.12–0.38 μmol L −1 ), however, at concentrations that were far above the expected soil concentrations. Moreover, a reduced toxicity was observed when Cry proteins were added jointly. A C. elegans mutant strain deficient for receptors for the nematicidal Cry5B was also resistant against Cry1.105 and Cry2Ab2, suggesting that these Cry proteins bound to the same or similar receptors as nematicidal Cry proteins and thereby affect the reproduction of C. elegans. -- Highlights: •Insecticidal Cry proteins dose-dependently inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans. •Mixture toxicity was lower than expected from concentration-additive single effects. •Genes for MAPK-defense-pathway were up-regulated in presence of Cry protein mixture. •Knock-out strains deficient for Cry5B-receptors showed lower susceptibility to insecticidal Cry proteins. •Toxicity of insecticidal Cry-proteins on C. elegans occurred at concentrations far above expected field concentrations. -- Insecticidal Cry proteins expressed by genetically modified maize act on nematodes via a similar mode of action as nematicidal Cry proteins, however, at concentrations far above expected soil levels

  12. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.

    Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

    2013-11-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25.

  13. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Literature review of the dispersal of transgenes from genetically modified maize].

    Ricroch, Agnès; Bergé, Jean Baptiste; Messéan, Antoine

    2009-10-01

    This article aims at reviewing the theoretical and experimental data published in 562 publications referring to genetically modified (GM) maize dispersal. Our choice was limited to this since in the European Union (EU), GM maize is the only GM crop currently grown commercially. The pollen dispersal of transgenic maize is due to two factors: (i) pollen-mediated gene flow; (ii) seed admixture during harvest and post-harvest processes. The pollen dispersal decreases rapidly with the distance from GM plots. Climatic and topographic factors and factors of relative density between GM and non-GM maize plots impact on the pollen dispersal. The combination of both isolation distance and flowering date between source plots and sink plots limits the adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM plots. All publications we reviewed demonstrate that the EU 0.9% threshold is technically manageable if the measures of isolation distances as well as harvesting and post harvesting processes and fully synchronous flowering are implemented.

  15. Arthropods dataset from different genetically modified maize events and associated controls

    Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Szénási, Ágnes; Dorner, Zita; Kiss, József; North, Samuel; Woodward, Guy; Balog, Adalbert

    2018-02-01

    Arthropods from four genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant+herbicide tolerant and coleopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant) and non-GM varieties were sampled during a two-year field assessment. A total number of 363 555 arthropod individuals were collected. This represents the most comprehensive arthropod dataset from GM maize, and together with weed data, is reasonable to determine functional groups of arthropods and interactions between species. Trophic groups identified from both phytophagous and predatory arthropods were previously considered non-target organisms on which possible detrimental effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins may have been directly (phytophagous species) or indirectly (predators) detected. The high number of individuals and species and their dynamics through the maize growing season can predict that interactions are highly correlational, and can thus be considered a useful tool to assess potential deleterious effects of Bt toxins on non-target organisms, serving to develop biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM maize plants.

  16. Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.

    Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

    2009-12-09

    The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed.

  17. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products.

  18. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition.

  19. Detection of the 35S promoter in transgenic maize via various isothermal amplification techniques: a practical approach.

    Zahradnik, Celine; Kolm, Claudia; Martzy, Roland; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    In 2003 the European Commission introduced a 0.9% threshold for food and feed products containing genetically modified organism (GMO)-derived components. For commodities containing GMO contents higher than this threshold, labelling is mandatory. To provide a DNA-based rapid and simple detection method suitable for high-throughput screening of GMOs, several isothermal amplification approaches for the 35S promoter were tested: strand displacement amplification, nicking-enzyme amplification reaction, rolling circle amplification, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and helicase-dependent amplification (HDA). The assays developed were tested for specificity in order to distinguish between samples containing genetically modified (GM) maize and non-GM maize. For those assays capable of this discrimination, tests were performed to determine the lower limit of detection. A false-negative rate was determined to rule out whether GMO-positive samples were incorrectly classified as GMO-negative. A robustness test was performed to show reliable detection independent from the instrument used for amplification. The analysis of three GM maize lines showed that only LAMP and HDA were able to differentiate between the GMOs MON810, NK603, and Bt11 and non-GM maize. Furthermore, with the HDA assay it was possible to realize a detection limit as low as 0.5%. A false-negative rate of only 5% for 1% GM maize for all three maize lines shows that HDA has the potential to be used as an alternative strategy for the detection of transgenic maize. All results obtained with the LAMP and HDA assays were compared with the results obtained with a previously reported real-time PCR assay for the 35S promoter in transgenic maize. This study presents two new screening assays for detection of the 35S promoter in transgenic maize by applying the isothermal amplification approaches HDA and LAMP.

  20. Use of rice straw and radiation-modified maize starch/acrylonitrile in the treatment of wastewater

    Abdel-Aal, S.E.; Gad, Y.H.; Dessouki, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto maize starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator was studied with regard to the various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-maize starch ratio and total dose (kGy). The water absorption of the modified maize starch was measured. The starch modified by acrylonitrile gives low water absorbance. Conversion of the copolymer to the amidoxime form gives high swelling. The gel (%) and the grafting efficiency were measured. An investigation was carried out to study the adsorption of basic violet 7, basic blue 3, direct yellow 50 and acid red 37 from aqueous solutions by the water-insoluble modified starch containing amidoxime groups and rice straw. The effects of initial pH of the solution, pollutant concentration and treatment time on the adsorption were studied and it was found that the maximum adsorption was at 1:2 (starch/acrylonitrile) at irradiation dose 30 kGy

  1. Impactos econômicos da introdução do milho Bt11 no Brasil: uma abordagem de equilíbrio geral inter-regional

    Andressa Rodrigues Pavão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa os impactos econômicos da adoção do milho Bt11 no Brasil, bem como as consequências da proibição deste cultivo apenas no Paraná, caso a lei estadual nº 14.162/03 entrasse em vigor. Para tal, utiliza-se um modelo computável de equilíbrio geral inter-regional, calibrado para 2001, simulando a redução de inseticida, mão de obra, combustível e lubrificantes, bem como o aumento de produtividade observado em lavouras de milho Bt11. Ao analisar a adoção nas regiões brasileiras "tecnificadas", observa-se o deslocamento de estoque de capital e mão de obra de todas as regiões para o Sul do País. Considerando-se que apenas o Paraná não adota milho Bt11, observa-se que tanto a mão de obra quanto o estoque de capital se deslocam do Sul e Sudeste para o Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados mais expressivos ocorrem no próprio estado do Paraná, onde não apenas o setor de milho, como também os setores a jusante perdem competitividade, reduzindo o nível de atividade, emprego e consumo das famílias. De forma geral, os efeitos da adoção do milho Bt11 são transmitidos ao longo da sua cadeia produtiva, gerando aumento do PIB, das exportações e do consumo das famílias, sendo mais expressivos nos setores e regiões diretamente relacionados com a cadeia de comercialização do milho, tais como os de criação animal e carnes, localizados, em sua maioria, no Sul do País.This study aims to analyze the economic impacts of the adoption of Bt11 corn in Brazil, as well as the consequences of the prohibition of the cultivation only in the Paraná state, if the state law number 14.162/03 would start to be active. For this purpose, an inter-regional general equilibrium computable model is used, gauged for 2001, simulating the reduction of insecticide, labor force, fuel and lubricants, as well as the increase in the yield observed in crops which use Bt11 corn. When the adoption of Bt11 corn in "technified" Brazilian

  2. Detection of genetically modified organisms in foreign-made processed foods containing corn and potato.

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Sagi, Naoki; Satoh, Masaki; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Satoh, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kamata, Kunihiro; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2005-06-01

    Investigations of the validity of labeling regarding genetically modified (GM) products were conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for foreign-made processed foods made from corn and potato purchased in the Tokyo area and in the USA. Several kinds of GM crops were detected in 12 of 32 samples of processed corn samples. More than two GM events for which safety reviews have been completed in Japan were simultaneously detected in 10 samples. GM events MON810 and Bt11 were most frequently detected in the samples by qualitative PCR methods. MON810 was detected in 11 of the 12 samples, and Bt11 was detected in 6 of the 12 samples. In addition, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one of the 12 samples. On the other hand, CBH351, for which the safety assessment was withdrawn in Japan, was not detected in any of the 12 samples. A trial quantitative analysis was performed on six of the GM maize qualitatively positive samples. The estimated amounts of GM maize in these samples ranged from 0.2 to 2.8%, except for one sample, which contained 24.1%. For this sample, the total amount found by event-specific quantitative analysis was 23.8%. Additionally, Roundup Ready soy was detected in one sample of 21 potato-processed foods, although GM potatoes were not detected in any sample.

  3. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.

    Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

    2010-07-01

    Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Molecular responses of genetically modified maize to abiotic stresses as determined through proteomic and metabolomic analyses.

    Rafael Fonseca Benevenuto

    Full Text Available Some genetically modified (GM plants have transgenes that confer tolerance to abiotic stressors. Meanwhile, other transgenes may interact with abiotic stressors, causing pleiotropic effects that will affect the plant physiology. Thus, physiological alteration might have an impact on the product safety. However, routine risk assessment (RA analyses do not evaluate the response of GM plants exposed to different environmental conditions. Therefore, we here present a proteome profile of herbicide-tolerant maize, including the levels of phytohormones and related compounds, compared to its near-isogenic non-GM variety under drought and herbicide stresses. Twenty differentially abundant proteins were detected between GM and non-GM hybrids under different water deficiency conditions and herbicide sprays. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of these proteins are assigned to energetic/carbohydrate metabolic processes. Among phytohormones and related compounds, different levels of ABA, CA, JA, MeJA and SA were detected in the maize varieties and stress conditions analysed. In pathway and proteome analyses, environment was found to be the major source of variation followed by the genetic transformation factor. Nonetheless, differences were detected in the levels of JA, MeJA and CA and in the abundance of 11 proteins when comparing the GM plant and its non-GM near-isogenic variety under the same environmental conditions. Thus, these findings do support molecular studies in GM plants Risk Assessment analyses.

  5. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey.

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif

    2016-07-01

    EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Temporal dynamics of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of two genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids in tropical agrosystems

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Marriel, Ivanildo Evodio; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    The use of genetically modified (GM) plants still raises concerns about their environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of GM maize, in comparison to the parental line, on the structure and abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the

  7. Influence of galactooligosaccharides and modified waxy maize starch on some attributes of yogurt.

    Prasad, Laxmi N; Sherkat, Frank; Shah, Nagendra P

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) addition on the growth of starter cultures, and syneresis and firmness of low-fat yogurt during storage for 28 d at 4 °C. The control yogurt (CY) was prepared without any prebiotics. Incorporation of 2.0% (w/v) GOS improved the growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 resulting in a shorter fermentation time. There was a significant (P yogurt made with GOS (GOSY) as measured by absorbance value (0.728). Addition of GOS resulted in higher (P 0.05) difference in the firmness among the 3 types of yogurt. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Nye oplysninger om bl.a. miljømæssig risikovurdering af PAT-protein og glufosinatammonium herbicider. Zea mays (Bt11). Supplerende materiale om Bt11. Modtaget 21-02-2005, deadline 29-03-2005, svar 07-03-2005

    Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2005-01-01

    Mail: Det tilsendte supplerende materiale om Bt-11 majsen (mail pr. 21-02-2005) omhandler bl.a. eventuelle uønskede konsekvenser ved ulovlig anvendelse af glufosinat ammonium herbicider i forbindelse med dyrkningen. Vi har allerede indraget dette aspekt i forbindelse med den økologiske risikovurd...

  9. THE EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE SILAGE ON THE CONTENTS OF FATTY ACIDS IN BODY TISSUES OF LAMBS

    Ewa SIMINSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of fatty acids contents in meat and selected offal in lambs fed a diet containing silage of whole plants of genetically modified maize (Bt MON 810 line. The material consisted of 14 Polish Merino lambs of mean start body weight 24 kg. There were two feeding groups selected of 7 lambs each. In the control group (K the lambs were fed isogenic maize silage, which in the second group (GMO was substituted with the modified maize silage (Bt MON 810 line. After 70 days of feeding (feed portions were standardised according to the DLG system the lambs were slaughtered and dissected. The results were evaluated statistically and the significance of differences was calculated with the two factor variation analysis (nutrition, tissue. Feeding genetically modified maize silage did not change, in a statistically significant way, the contents of any main fatty acids in the pool of all acids nor the contents of the totals and their proportions, while the factor causing clear differences was the tissue. Differences for the majority of the results were statistically significant. Statistically significant interactions noted (nutrition x tissue are probably due to different values of these traits in the analysed tissues.

  10. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize

    Svobodová, Zdeňka; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Boháč, J.; Sehnal, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 4 (2016), s. 432-445 ISSN 0007-4853 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91093 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 038/2014/P; project MOBILITY(CZ) 7AMB14SK096 Program:7A Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : GM crops * Bt maize * Cry3Bb1 Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.758, year: 2016

  11. Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-03

    The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.

  12. Characterization of Rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM and non-GM maizes

    Emmanuel Wihkochombom Bumunang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to examine the rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM maize and its non-GM counterpart. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected at 30 days after sowing (DAS and at post-harvest from two experimental fields in Gauteng, South Africa. Total rhizobacteria (cfu/g in GM and non-GM soil samples was not significantly different across the different media 30 DAS and at post-harvest. Rhizobacterial isolates obtained were biochemically characterized using the analytical profile index. Species of Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella and Bacillus were screened in vitro for plant growth promoting traits such as, ammonia production, catalase activity, indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, hydrogen cyanide production and antifungal activity. All the 32 rhizobacterial strains tested in this study were positive for catalase activity, ammonia production and IAA production; 90.6% were positive for phosphate solubilisation, 34.3% for indicate antifungal activity but none for hydrogen cyanide production. These findings contributed to the quest for potential biofertilizers and biocontrol agents for sustainable agriculture.

  13. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E; Archibald, Rayeann L; Drummond, Bruce J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Williams, Robert W; Lafitte, H Renee; Weers, Ben P

    2015-09-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment.

    Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J; Balog, Adalbert

    2014-06-17

    There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt toxins, conferred glyphosate tolerance or a combination of the two traits. Quantitative food web analysis, based on short-term assessment assigning a total of 243,896 arthropod individuals collected from the treatments to their positions in food webs, revealed that complex and stable food webs persisted in each maize treatment. Moreover, food web structure remained relatively unchanged by the GM-genotype. The results suggest that at least in short-term period these particular GM maize genotypes will not have adverse effects on arthropod biota of agricultural landscapes.

  15. Efficacy of modified atmosphere packaging to control Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain

    Marcelo De Carli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the mortality of Sitophilus spp. in organic maize grain was studied. Maize grains were packed with five different atmospheres consisting of 20% O2, or 20, 40, 60, 80% CO2 with remaining N2. The packages were stored for 30 days at 26°C. CO2 and O2 concentrations were monitored inside the packages during the storage. The moisture content, titratable acidity and pH were analysed on the first and thirtieth day. At 5, 15 and 30 days of storage no significant differences were observed in the percentages of dead insects when CO2 was used. The results of progeny indicated that from the fifth day the number of emerging insects was low at 20, 60 and 80% CO2. Complete inhibition of the insects was achieved with 30 days of exposure in CO2 atmospheres.O efeito da embalagem em atmosferas modificadas sobre os insetos Sitophilus spp. nos grãos de milho orgânico foi estudado. Os grãos de milho foram empacotados em cinco atmosferas iniciais diferentes de 20% de O2, ou 20, 40, 60, 80% de CO2 com balanço de N2. As embalagens foram armazenadas por 30 dias a 26ºC. As concentrações de CO2 e O2 foram monitoradas dentro das embalagens durante o armazenamento. As análises de teor de umidade, acidez e pH foram também realizados no primeiro e trigésimo dia. Os resultados mostraram que no quinto, décimo quinto e trigésimo dia de estocagem não foram encontrados diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de insetos mortos quando CO2 foi usado. Os resultados relativos à progênie indicaram que no quinto dia o número de insetos emergentes foi menor a 20, 60 e 80% CO2. A completa inibição dos insetos foi atingida com 30 dias de exposição em atmosferas de CO2.

  16. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on an application (EFSAGMO-NL-2012-107) for the placing on the market of maize MON 810 pollen under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    In this opinion, the EFSA GMO Panel addresses the safety of maize MON 810 pollen to complete the scope of an application (RX-MON 810) for the marketing of genetically modified maize MON 810 with the use of MON 810 pollen as or in food. Data on molecular characterisation of maize MON 810 did...... apply to the Cry1Ab protein expressed in MON 810 pollen. While the EFSA GMO Panel is not in a position to conclude on the safety of maize pollen in or as food in general, it concludes that the genetic modification in maize MON 810 does not constitute an additional health risk if maize MON 810 pollen...

  17. A Comparison of Soil microbial community structure, protozoa and nematodes in field plots of conventional and genetically modified maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin

    Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.; Thompson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Field trials were established at three European sites (Denmark, Eastern France, South-West France) of genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the CryIAb Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt), the near-isogenic non-Bt cultivar, another conventional maize cultivar and grass. Soil from Denmark......) and phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), and protozoa and nematodes in all samples. Individual differences within a site resulted from: greater nematode numbers under grass than maize on three occasions; different nematode populations under the conventional maize cultivars once; and two occasions when...... there was a reduced protozoan population under Bt maize compared to non-Bt maize. Microbial community structure within the sites only varied with grass compared to maize, with one occurrence of CLPP varying between maize cultivars (Bt versus a conventional cultivar). An overall comparison of Bt versus non-Bt maize...

  18. Epigeic spiders are not affected by the genetically modified maize MON 88017

    Svobodová, Zdeňka; Habuštová, Oxana; Sehnal, František; Holec, M.; Hussein, Hany

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 137, 1-2 (2013), s. 56-67 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91093; GA MZe QI91A229 Grant - others:MOBITAG project(CZ) 7FP-REGPOT-2008-1, GA 229518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bt maize * HT maize * Cry3Bb1 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0418.2012.01727.x/pdf

  19. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Griffiths, Bryan S; Caul, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorur...

  20. The EU adventures of 'Herculex' : Report on the EU authorization of the genetically modified maize 1507

    Weimer, M.; Pisani, G.

    2014-01-01

    The EU authorization process of the insect-resistant maize 1507, branded by its developer company Pioneer-DuPont as ‘Herculex’, is perhaps the most interesting and emblematic example of the current regulatory crisis of GMO regulation in Europe.1 The case is particularly controversial, because it

  1. Communities of beetles and spiders in the stands of normal and genetically modified maize

    Habuštová, Oxana; Turanli, Ferit; Spitzer, L.; Růžička, Vlastimil; Doležal, Petr; Sehnal, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2005), s. 125-131 ISSN 0208-8703 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6007304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : GMO * Bt-maize * agroecosystems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize.

  3. Randomly detected genetically modified (GM maize (Zea mays L. near a transport route revealed a fragile 45S rDNA phenotype.

    Nomar Espinosa Waminal

    Full Text Available Monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a "beads-on-a-string" fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed.

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties

    Jutta Sharbati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810 or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR. For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS.Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling.Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties.

    Sharbati, Jutta; Bohmer, Marc; Bohmer, Nils; Keller, Andreas; Backes, Christina; Franke, Andre; Steinberg, Pablo; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810) or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR). For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS. Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO) analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling. Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant alterations of

  6. Influence of a Modified Plant Extract on Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes and Concentration of Pigments in Gamma-Irradiated Plants of Maize and Wheat

    Azizov Ibrahim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a medicinal plant extract, immobilised by ligands, on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic pigment concentration of wheat and maize was studied. The object of study was seed of drought-resistant firm durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and maize (Zea mays L.. Seeds were subjected to general uniform γ-radiation from a 60Co source on a Rkhund installation at average dose power of MD = 0.306 Gy/sec. Before radiation seeds were treated in modified extract from medicinal plants. The treatment of seeds with 0.1 and 0.01% solution of modified extract from Hypericum, Dandelion, and Calendula caused significant reduction in processes initiated by radiation and in formation of free radicals. On the basis of the obtained results it was concluded that the used modified plant extract collection had a protective effect, reducing the amount of free radicals produced by γ-irradiation.

  7. Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms using differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction: application to 35S in maize.

    Cankar, Katarina; Chauvensy-Ancel, Valérie; Fortabat, Marie-Noelle; Gruden, Kristina; Kobilinsky, André; Zel, Jana; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-05-15

    Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has always presented an analytical challenge because the complete sequence data needed to detect them are generally unavailable although sequence similarity to known GMOs can be expected. A new approach, differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for detection of nonauthorized GMOs is presented here. This method is based on the presence of several common elements (e.g., promoter, genes of interest) in different GMOs. A statistical model was developed to study the difference between the number of molecules of such a common sequence and the number of molecules identifying the approved GMO (as determined by border-fragment-based PCR) and the donor organism of the common sequence. When this difference differs statistically from zero, the presence of a nonauthorized GMO can be inferred. The interest and scope of such an approach were tested on a case study of different proportions of genetically modified maize events, with the P35S promoter as the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus common sequence. The presence of a nonauthorized GMO was successfully detected in the mixtures analyzed and in the presence of (donor organism of P35S promoter). This method could be easily transposed to other common GMO sequences and other species and is applicable to other detection areas such as microbiology.

  8. Development and validation of an event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize MIR162.

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize event, MIR162. We first prepared a standard plasmid for MIR162 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf) required to calculate the genetically modified organism (GMO) amount was empirically determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (ABI7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (ABI7500) for which the determined Cf values were 0.697 and 0.635, respectively. To validate the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined biases were less than 25% and the RSDr values were less than 20% at all evaluated concentrations. These results suggested that the limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and that the developed method would thus be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MIR162.

  9. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize.

  10. Direct extraction of genomic DNA from maize with aqueous ionic liquid buffer systems for applications in genetically modified organisms analysis.

    Gonzalez García, Eric; Ressmann, Anna K; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Bica, Katharina; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    To date, the extraction of genomic DNA is considered a bottleneck in the process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Conventional DNA isolation methods are associated with long extraction times and multiple pipetting and centrifugation steps, which makes the entire procedure not only tedious and complicated but also prone to sample cross-contamination. In recent times, ionic liquids have emerged as innovative solvents for biomass processing, due to their outstanding properties for dissolution of biomass and biopolymers. In this study, a novel, easily applicable, and time-efficient method for the direct extraction of genomic DNA from biomass based on aqueous-ionic liquid solutions was developed. The straightforward protocol relies on extraction of maize in a 10 % solution of ionic liquids in aqueous phosphate buffer for 5 min at room temperature, followed by a denaturation step at 95 °C for 10 min and a simple filtration to remove residual biopolymers. A set of 22 ionic liquids was tested in a buffer system and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, as well as the environmentally benign choline formate, were identified as ideal candidates. With this strategy, the quality of the genomic DNA extracted was significantly improved and the extraction protocol was notably simplified compared with a well-established method.

  11. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize[OPEN

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E.; Archibald, Rayeann L.; Drummond, Bruce J.; Chamberlin, Mark A.; Williams, Robert W.; Lafitte, H. Renee; Weers, Ben P.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions. PMID:26220950

  12. Interlaboratory study of DNA extraction from multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for individual kernel detection system of genetically modified maize.

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Makiyma, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Teshima, Reiko; Nakashima, Akie; Ogawa, Asako; Yamagishi, Toru; Futo, Satoshi; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, the labeling of grains, feed, and foodstuff is mandatory if the genetically modified (GM) organism content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. We previously developed an individual kernel detection system consisting of grinding individual kernels, DNA extraction from the individually ground kernels, GM detection using multiplex real-time PCR, and GM event detection using multiplex qualitative PCR to analyze the precise commingling level and varieties of GM maize in real sample grains. We performed the interlaboratory study of the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR detection, and multiplex qualitative PCR detection to evaluate its applicability, practicality, and ruggedness for the individual kernel detection system of GM maize. DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR were evaluated by five laboratories in Japan, and all results from these laboratories were consistent with the expected results in terms of the commingling level and event analysis. Thus, the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for the individual kernel detection system is applicable and practicable in a laboratory to regulate the commingling level of GM maize grain for GM samples, including stacked GM maize.

  13. Selection of Suitable DNA Extraction Methods for Genetically Modified Maize 3272, and Development and Evaluation of an Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for 3272.

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize, 3272. We first attempted to obtain genome DNA from this maize using a DNeasy Plant Maxi kit and a DNeasy Plant Mini kit, which have been widely utilized in our previous studies, but DNA extraction yields from 3272 were markedly lower than those from non-GM maize seeds. However, lowering of DNA extraction yields was not observed with GM quicker or Genomic-tip 20/G. We chose GM quicker for evaluation of the quantitative method. We prepared a standard plasmid for 3272 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf), which is required to calculate the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (the ABI 7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (the ABI7500). The determined Cf values were 0.60 and 0.59 for the ABI 7900 and the ABI 7500, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, a blind test was conducted as part of an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined values were similar to those in our previous validation studies. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.5% or less, and we concluded that the developed method would be suitable and practical for detection and quantification of 3272.

  14. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on application (EFSAGMO- NL-2007-39) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    This opinion reports on an evaluation of a risk assessment for placing on the market the genetically modified herbicide tolerant and insect resistant maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing. Conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize MON89034...

  15. Bistand til risikovurdering Supplerende oplysninger fra Syngenta Seeds på spørgsmål fra EFSA (evt. ændret risikovurdering. Zea mays (Bt11). Supplerende materiale fra EFSA samt svar fra Syngenta. Modtaget 02-07-2004, deadline 15-08-2004, svar 09-08-2004

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Damgaard, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Vi har gennemgået det nye materiale i markedsføringssagen C/F/96-05.10 (Bt-11 majs) men ikke fundet nogen oplysninger der giver anledning til ændringer i vores risikovurdering.......Vi har gennemgået det nye materiale i markedsføringssagen C/F/96-05.10 (Bt-11 majs) men ikke fundet nogen oplysninger der giver anledning til ændringer i vores risikovurdering....

  16. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on an application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    . Further information from applications for placing the single insert lines MON 88017 and MON 810 on the market under EU regulatory procedures was taken into account where appropriate. The scope of application EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33 is for food and feed uses, import and processing of genetically modified maize...... MON 88017 x MON 810 and all derived products, but excluding cultivation in the EU. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed maize MON 88017 x MON 810 with reference to the intended uses and the appropriate principles described in the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms...... or survival of feral maize plants in case of accidental release into the environment of maize MON 88017 x MON 810 viable grains during transportation and processing. The scope of the post-market environmental monitoring plan provided by the applicant is in line with the intended uses of maize MON 88017 x MON...

  17. The effect of modifying rooting depths and nitrification inhibitors on nutrient uptake from organic biogas residues in maize

    Dietrich, Charlotte C.; Koller, Robert; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Schickling, Anke; Schrey, Silvia D.; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.

    2017-04-01

    Optimizing the application of and nutrient uptake from organic nutrient sources, such as the nutrient-rich residues ("digestates") from the biogas industry, is becoming a viable option in remediating fertility on previously unsuitable soils for agricultural utilization. Proposedly, concurrent changes in root system architecture and functioning could also serve as the basis of future phytomining approaches. Herein, we evaluate the effect of spatial nutrient availability and nitrification on maize root architecture and nutrient uptake. We test these effects by applying maize-based digestate at a rate of 170 kg/ha in layers of varying depths (10, 25 and 40 cm) and through either the presence or absence of nitrification inhibitors. In order to regularly monitor above- and below-ground plant biomass production, we used the noninvasive phenotyping platform, GROWSCREEN-Rhizo at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, using rhizotrons (Nagel et al., 2012). Measured parameters included projected plant height and leaf area, as well as root length and spatial distribution. Additionally, root diameters were quantified after the destructive harvest, 21 days after sowing (DAS). Spatial nutrient availability significantly affected root system architecture, as for example root system size -the area occupied by roots- increased alongside nutrient layer depths. Fertilization also positively affected root length density (RLD). Within fertilized layers, the presence of nitrification inhibitors increased RLD by up to 30% and was most pronounced in the fine root biomass fraction (0.1 to 0.5mm). Generally, nitrification inhibitors promoted early plant growth by up to 45% across treatments. However, their effect varied in dependence of layer depths, leading to a time-delayed response in deeper layers, accounting for plants having to grow significantly longer roots in order to reach fertilized substrate. Nitrification inhibitors also initiated the comparatively early on-set of growth differences in

  18. Transportable data from non-target arthropod field studies for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA.

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Negri, Ignacio; Oliveira, Wladecir; Brown, Christopher; Asiimwe, Peter; Sammons, Bernard; Horak, Michael; Jiang, Changjian; Carson, David

    2016-02-01

    As part of an environmental risk assessment, the potential impact of genetically modified (GM) maize MON 87411 on non-target arthropods (NTAs) was evaluated in the field. MON 87411 confers resistance to corn rootworm (CRW; Diabrotica spp.) by expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transcript and the Cry3Bb1 protein and tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate by producing the CP4 EPSPS protein. Field trials were conducted at 14 sites providing high geographic and environmental diversity within maize production areas from three geographic regions including the U.S., Argentina, and Brazil. MON 87411, the conventional control, and four commercial conventional reference hybrids were evaluated for NTA abundance and damage. Twenty arthropod taxa met minimum abundance criteria for valid statistical analysis. Nine of these taxa occurred in at least two of the three regions and in at least four sites across regions. These nine taxa included: aphid, predatory earwig, lacewing, ladybird beetle, leafhopper, minute pirate bug, parasitic wasp, sap beetle, and spider. In addition to wide regional distribution, these taxa encompass the ecological functions of herbivores, predators and parasitoids in maize agro-ecosystems. Thus, the nine arthropods may serve as representative taxa of maize agro-ecosystems, and thereby support that analysis of relevant data generated in one region can be transportable for the risk assessment of the same or similar GM crop products in another region. Across the 20 taxa analyzed, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 123 of the 128 individual-site comparisons (96.1%). For the nine widely distributed taxa, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 53 out of 56 individual

  19. Low-molecular weight protein profiling of genetically modified maize using fast liquid chromatography electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Koc, Anna; Cañuelo, Ana; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Diaz, Antonio; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2012-06-01

    In this work, the use of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) has been evaluated for the profiling of relatively low-molecular weight protein species in both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM maize. The proposed approach consisted of a straightforward sample fractionation with different water and ethanol-based buffer solutions followed by separation and detection of the protein species using liquid chromatography with a small particle size (1.8 μm) C(18) column and electrospray-time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection in the positive ionization mode. The fractionation of maize reference material containing different content of transgenic material (from 0 to 5% GM) led to five different fractions (albumins, globulins, zeins, zein-like glutelins, and glutelins), all of them containing different protein species (from 2 to 52 different species in each fraction). Some relevant differences in the quantity and types of protein species were observed in the different fractions of the reference material (with different GM contents) tested, thus revealing the potential use of the proposed approach for fast protein profiling and to detect tentative GMO markers in maize. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Development and Interlaboratory Validation of a Simple Screening Method for Genetically Modified Maize Using a ΔΔC(q)-Based Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay.

    Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sakata, Kozue; Sato-Fukuda, Nozomi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Mano, Junichi; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi; Teshima, Reiko; Kondo, Kazunari; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-04-19

    A number of genetically modified (GM) maize events have been developed and approved worldwide for commercial cultivation. A screening method is needed to monitor GM maize approved for commercialization in countries that mandate the labeling of foods containing a specified threshold level of GM crops. In Japan, a screening method has been implemented to monitor approved GM maize since 2001. However, the screening method currently used in Japan is time-consuming and requires generation of a calibration curve and experimental conversion factor (C(f)) value. We developed a simple screening method that avoids the need for a calibration curve and C(f) value. In this method, ΔC(q) values between the target sequences and the endogenous gene are calculated using multiplex real-time PCR, and the ΔΔC(q) value between the analytical and control samples is used as the criterion for determining analytical samples in which the GM organism content is below the threshold level for labeling of GM crops. An interlaboratory study indicated that the method is applicable independently with at least two models of PCR instruments used in this study.

  1. Nye oplysninger om effekter af Bt-majs på sommerfugle. MON810, BT11. Brev fra Greenpeace til Miljøministeren. Modtaget 17-12-2004, deadline 22-12-2004, svar 22-12-2004

    Strandberg, Morten Tune; Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    "De nye oplysninger medfører ingen væsentlige ændringer af DMUs tidligere risikovurdering af Bt-11 majsen (C/F/96.05.10, mail pr. 28-08-2003). Dog har vi en tilføjelse vedrørende behov for specifik overvågning (se nedenfor). Vi har ikke tidligere foretaget nogen konkret risikovurdering af MON810...... arters fortsatte forekomst. Derfor har DMU ved tidligere risikovurdering af Bt-majslinier til dyrkning (majslinie 1507 og Bt-11) foreslået at der indføres en 5 m dyrkningsfri bufferzone til naturhabitater hvor larver af truede/sjældne sommerfugle findes. En andet virkemiddel kunne være at omgive randen...... af Bt-majsmarker med et værnebælte af konventionel majs. På grund af den usikkerhed der findes på området vil det indtil der foreligger et bedre vidensgrundlag være relevant med en specifik overvågning af truede eller sjældne sommerfuglearter hvor der er habitater for disse i nærheden af Bt...

  2. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. A study about the effects of gamma radiation and electron beam irradiation in the detection of genetically modified maize (Zea Mays)

    Crede, Ricardo Gandara

    2005-01-01

    The major technique to detect genetically modified organism - GMO is the polymerase chain reaction - PCR. The PCR is a method that allows the enlargement in vitro of DNA segments, using two starters ('primers') that hybridize with the opposing ribbons, in regions that match the segment to be amplified. For that, the DNA is disnatured (92-96 deg C), the 'primers' are hybridized (30 deg C a 60 deg C ) and, after that, the DNA synthesis is made with a DNA-polymerase and nucleotides (dNTPs) (72 deg C), for some repetitive cycles. The development of the PCR allowed great advances in Molecular Biology, mainly for analysis of genes, diagnosis of illnesses and pathogens, among some other examples. Currently, the PCR has been very much used for the identification of transgenic constituents in foods. In the detection of genetically modified grains, the PCR technique showed to be highly sensitive, because it allows identifying one genetically modified grain amongst a million of normal grains. Nowadays, the analysis through the PCR method is the only capable to discriminate an organism genetically modified from a not transgenic one. The identification of foods that were made of transgenic grains, as soy and maize, through the PCR technique is still controversial. Therefore the result of the test is more trustworthy when it is positive. Or either, the detection absence does not mean that the product does not have, in fact, transgenic ingredients. It happens because to detect a DNA sequence, is necessary to preserve a minimum portion of the DNA. However, what happens many times in the industrialization process is that, in the manipulation of the ingredients, the DNA can be degraded (for example, for heat or radiation) and, consequently, is not detectable any longer. This work has as a main objective the study of the viability on the use of the PCR in the detection of GMO's in radiated foods containing maize. For the irradiation of the material, a source of 60 Co Irradiator Gamma

  4. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Linear Epitope: Illustration by Three Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Proteins of Genetically Modified Cotton, Maize, and Tobacco.

    Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Ning, Xiangxue; Wang, Baomin; Liu, Yunjun; Li, Qing X

    2017-11-22

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac, Cry1Ia1, and Cry1Ie are δ-endotoxin insecticidal proteins widely implemented in genetically modified organisms (GMO), such as cotton, maize, and potato. Western blot assay integrates electrophoresis separation power and antibody high specificity for monitoring specific exogenous proteins expressed in GMO. Procedures for evoking monoclonal antibody (mAb) for Western blot were poorly documented. In the present study, Cry1Ac partially denatured at 100 °C for 5 min was used as an immunogen to develop mAbs selectively recognizing a linear epitope of Cry1Ac for Western blot. mAb 5E9C6 and 3E6E2 selected with sandwich ELISA strongly recognized the heat semidenatured Cry1Ac. Particularly, 3E6E2 recognized both E. coli and cotton seed expressed Cry1Ac in Western blot. Such strategy of using partially denatured proteins as immunogens and using sandwich ELISA for mAb screening was also successfully demonstrated with production of mAbs against Cry1Ie for Western blot assay in maize.

  5. Effects of genetically modified maize events expressing Cry34Ab1, Cry35Ab1, Cry1F, and CP4 EPSPS proteins on arthropod complex food webs.

    Pálinkás, Zoltán; Kiss, József; Zalai, Mihály; Szénási, Ágnes; Dorner, Zita; North, Samuel; Woodward, Guy; Balog, Adalbert

    2017-04-01

    Four genetically modified (GM) maize ( Zea mays L.) hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant, coleopteran and herbicide tolerant) and its non-GM control maize stands were tested to compare the functional diversity of arthropods and to determine whether genetic modifications alter the structure of arthropods food webs. A total number of 399,239 arthropod individuals were used for analyses. The trophic groups' number and the links between them indicated that neither the higher magnitude of Bt toxins (included resistance against insect, and against both insects and glyphosate) nor the extra glyphosate treatment changed the structure of food webs. However, differences in the average trophic links/trophic groups were detected between GM and non-GM food webs for herbivore groups and plants. Also, differences in characteristic path lengths between GM and non-GM food webs for herbivores were observed. Food webs parameterized based on 2-year in-field assessments, and their properties can be considered a useful and simple tool to evaluate the effects of Bt toxins on non-target organisms.

  6. Evaluation of the reliability of maize reference assays for GMO quantification.

    Papazova, Nina; Zhang, David; Gruden, Kristina; Vojvoda, Jana; Yang, Litao; Buh Gasparic, Meti; Blejec, Andrej; Fouilloux, Stephane; De Loose, Marc; Taverniers, Isabel

    2010-03-01

    A reliable PCR reference assay for relative genetically modified organism (GMO) quantification must be specific for the target taxon and amplify uniformly along the commercialised varieties within the considered taxon. Different reference assays for maize (Zea mays L.) are used in official methods for GMO quantification. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of eight existing maize reference assays, four of which are used in combination with an event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay validated and published by the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL). We analysed the nucleotide sequence variation in the target genomic regions in a broad range of transgenic and conventional varieties and lines: MON 810 varieties cultivated in Spain and conventional varieties from various geographical origins and breeding history. In addition, the reliability of the assays was evaluated based on their PCR amplification performance. A single base pair substitution, corresponding to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reported in an earlier study, was observed in the forward primer of one of the studied alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) (70) assays in a large number of varieties. The SNP presence is consistent with a poor PCR performance observed for this assay along the tested varieties. The obtained data show that the Adh1 (70) assay used in the official CRL NK603 assay is unreliable. Based on our results from both the nucleotide stability study and the PCR performance test, we can conclude that the Adh1 (136) reference assay (T25 and Bt11 assays) as well as the tested high mobility group protein gene assay, which also form parts of CRL methods for quantification, are highly reliable. Despite the observed uniformity in the nucleotide sequence of the invertase gene assay, the PCR performance test reveals that this target sequence might occur in more than one copy. Finally, although currently not forming a part of official quantification methods, zein and SSIIb

  7. Development of melting temperature-based SYBR Green I polymerase chain reaction methods for multiplex genetically modified organism detection.

    Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Esteve, Teresa; Prat, Salomé; Pla, Maria

    2003-12-15

    Commercialization of several genetically modified crops has been approved worldwide to date. Uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to identify these different insertion events have been developed, but their use in the analysis of all commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is becoming progressively insufficient. These methods require a large number of assays to detect all possible GMOs present in the sample and thereby the development of multiplex PCR systems using combined probes and primers targeted to sequences specific to various GMOs is needed for detection of this increasing number of GMOs. Here we report on the development of a multiplex real-time PCR suitable for multiple GMO identification, based on the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the analysis of the melting curves of the amplified products. Using this method, different amplification products specific for Maximizer 176, Bt11, MON810, and GA21 maize and for GTS 40-3-2 soybean were obtained and identified by their specific Tm. We have combined amplification of these products in a number of multiplex reactions and show the suitability of the methods for identification of GMOs with a sensitivity of 0.1% in duplex reactions. The described methods offer an economic and simple alternative to real-time PCR systems based on sequence-specific probes (i.e., TaqMan chemistry). These methods can be used as selection tests and further optimized for uniplex GMO quantification.

  8. Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2013-03-01

    Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development, Optimization, and Evaluation of a Duplex Droplet Digital PCR Assay To Quantify the T-nos/hmg Copy Number Ratio in Genetically Modified Maize.

    Félix-Urquídez, Dalmira; Pérez-Urquiza, Melina; Valdez Torres, José-Benigno; León-Félix, Josefina; García-Estrada, Raymundo; Acatzi-Silva, Abraham

    2016-01-05

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to guarantee the reliability of analytical measurements. The CRMs available in the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are characterized using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This technology has limited application, because of its dependence on a calibrant. The objective of this study was to obtain a method with higher metrological quality, to characterize the CRMs for their contents of T-nos/hmg copy number ratio in maize. A duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay was developed and optimized by a central composite design. The developed method achieved an absolute limit of detection (LOD) of 11 cP T-nos, a relative LOD of 0.034%, a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 23 cP (relative LOQ of 0.08%), and a dynamic range of 0.08%-100% T-nos/hmg ratio. The specificity and applicability of the assay were established for the analysis of low T-nos concentrations (0.9%) in several corn varieties. The convenience of DNA digestion to reduce measurement bias in the case of multiple-copy binding was confirmed through an enzymatic restriction assay. Given its overall performance, this method can be used to characterize CRM candidates for their contents of T-nos/hmg ratio.

  10. Development, Optimization, and Evaluation of a Duplex Droplet Digital PCR Assay To Quantify the T-nos/hmg Copy Number Ratio in Genetically Modified Maize

    2015-01-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to guarantee the reliability of analytical measurements. The CRMs available in the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are characterized using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This technology has limited application, because of its dependence on a calibrant. The objective of this study was to obtain a method with higher metrological quality, to characterize the CRMs for their contents of T-nos/hmg copy number ratio in maize. A duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay was developed and optimized by a central composite design. The developed method achieved an absolute limit of detection (LOD) of 11 cP T-nos, a relative LOD of 0.034%, a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 23 cP (relative LOQ of 0.08%), and a dynamic range of 0.08%–100% T-nos/hmg ratio. The specificity and applicability of the assay were established for the analysis of low T-nos concentrations (0.9%) in several corn varieties. The convenience of DNA digestion to reduce measurement bias in the case of multiple-copy binding was confirmed through an enzymatic restriction assay. Given its overall performance, this method can be used to characterize CRM candidates for their contents of T-nos/hmg ratio. PMID:26605751

  11. Development of a peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamping assay for semiquantitative evaluation of genetically modified organism content in food.

    Peano, C; Lesignoli, F; Gulli, M; Corradini, R; Samson, M C; Marchelli, R; Marmiroli, N

    2005-09-15

    In the present study a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clamping method was developed and applied to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO), to test PCR products for band identity and to obtain a semiquantitative evaluation of GMO content. The minimal concentration of PNA necessary to block the PCR was determined by comparing PCRs containing a constant amount of DNA in the presence of increasing concentration of target-specific PNA. The lowest PNA concentration at which specific inhibition took place, by the inhibition of primer extension and/or steric hindrance, was the most efficient condition. Optimization of PCR clamping by PNA was observed by testing five different PNAs with a minimum of 13 bp to a maximum of 15 bp, designed on the target sequence of Roundup Ready soybean. The results obtained on the DNA extracted from Roundup Ready soybean standard flour were verified also on DNA extracted from standard flours of maize GA21, Bt176, Bt11, and MON810. A correlation between the PNA concentration necessary for inducing PCR clamping and the percentage of the GMO target sequence in the sample was found.

  12. Romanian maize

    Sauer, Johannes; Balint, Borbala

    This research aims at shedding empirical light on the relative efficiency of small-scale maize producers in Romania. Farmers in transition countries still face heavily distorted price systems resulting from imperfect market conditions and socioeconomic and institutional constraints. To capture...

  13. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa

  14. Testing public Bt maize events for control of stem borers in the first ...

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays L), developed using modified genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), controls stem borers without observable negative effects to humans, livestock or the environment, and is now sown on 134 million hectares globally. Bt maize could contribute to increasing maize production in ...

  15. Harnessing maize biodiversity

    Maize is a remarkably diverse species, adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and farming practices. The latitudinal range of maize is immense, ranging from 54°N in Alberta, Canada, to 45°S in the province of Chubut, Argentina. In terms of altitude, maize is cultivated from sea level to 4000...

  16. Dismay with GM maize: A science-based solution to public resistance against genetically modified crops that could be compatible with organic farming

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2011-01-01

    New discoveries often raise new problems or meet with public resistance. Rather than giving up on technologies such as genetically modified organisms, we should use science to develop them further and make them safer.

  17. Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize ...

    Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize bran and maize used as animal feed in northern ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  18. Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.

    Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

    2014-02-01

    The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

  19. Soil microbes and fauna under Bt maize or an isogenic control, with and without additional insecticide

    Griffiths, B. S.; Birch, A. N. E.; Caul, S.

    The experiment described is a component of the EU-funded project entitled 'Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops' (ECOGEN, www.ecogen.dk). The overall project has an emphasis on maize genetically modified to express the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt maize...

  20. The iojap gene in maize

    Martienssen, Robert

    2001-12-01

    The classical maize mutant iojap (Iodent japonica) has variegated green and white leaves. Green sectors have cells with normal chloroplasts whereas white sectors have cells where plastids fail to differentiate. These mutant plastids, when transmitted through the female gametophyte, do not recover in the presence of wild type Iojap. We cloned the Ij locus, and we have investigated the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance and phenotypic expression. More recently, a modifier of this type of variegation, ''Inhibitor of striate'', has also been cloned. Both the iojap and inhibitor of striate proteins have homologs in bacteria and are members of ancient conserved families found in multiple species. These tools can be used to address fundamental questions of inheritance and variegation associated with this classical conundrum of maize genetics. Since the work of Rhoades there has been considerable speculation concerning the nature of the Iojap gene product, the origin of leaf variegation and the mechanism behind the material inheritance of defective plastids. This has made Iojap a textbook paradigm for cytoplasmic inheritance and nuclear-organellar interaction for almost 50 years. Cloning of the Iojap gene in maize, and homologs in other plants and bacteria, provides a new means to address the origin of heteroplastidity, variegation and cytoplasmic inheritance in higher plants.

  1. Chemical and nutritional values of maize and maize products ...

    Maize and maize products in selected grain markets within Kaduna, Nigeria, were obtained and investigated for proximate and mineral composition analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and flame photometer. Proximate composition of maize and maize products were in the range of 11.6- 20 .0% ...

  2. Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais

    This study aimed at evaluating commonly used maize varieties, collected from Melkasa and Bako Agricultural Research Centers and Haramaya University, Ethiopia, against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch., one of the most important cosmopolitan stored product pests in maize. A total of 13 improved maize ...

  3. Potential subchronic food safety of the stacked trait transgenic maize GH5112E-117C in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Han, Shiwen; Zou, Shiying; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Mei, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    The food safety of stacked trait genetically modified (GM) maize GH5112E-117C containing insect-resistance gene Cry1Ah and glyphosate-resistant gene G2-aroA was evaluated in comparison to non-GM Hi-II maize fed to Sprague-Dawley rats during a 90-day subchronic feeding study. Three different dietary concentrations (12.5, 25 and 50 %, w/w) of the GM maize were used or its corresponding non-GM maize. No biologically significant differences in the animals' clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were found between the stacked trait GM maize groups, and the non-GM maize groups. The results of the 90-day subchronic feeding study demonstrated that the stacked trait GM maize GH5112E-117C is as safe as the conventional non-GM maize Hi-II.

  4. Radiation preservation of maize

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  5. Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Frame, Bronwyn; Warnberg, Katey; Main, Marcy; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an effective method for introducing genes into maize. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of the maize genotype Hi II. Our starting plant material is immature embryos cocultivated with an Agrobacterium strain carrying a standard binary vector. In addition to step-by-step laboratory transformation procedures, we include extensive details in growing donor plants and caring for transgenic plants in the greenhouse.

  6. Bt maize for small scale farmers: A case study | Keetch | African ...

    In South Africa, genetically modified (GM) white maize was approved for commercial production in 1998. To educate and inform small-scale farmers and to give them the opportunity to evaluate GM white maize for themselves, six demonstration plots were planted at strategic locations. This communications presents the ...

  7. A study about the effects of gamma radiation and electron beam irradiation in the detection of genetically modified maize (Zea Mays); Estudos dos efeitos da radiacao gama e de aceleradores de eletrons na deteccao de graos de milho (Zea mays) geneticamente modificado

    Crede, Ricardo Gandara

    2005-07-01

    The major technique to detect genetically modified organism - GMO is the polymerase chain reaction - PCR. The PCR is a method that allows the enlargement in vitro of DNA segments, using two starters ('primers') that hybridize with the opposing ribbons, in regions that match the segment to be amplified. For that, the DNA is disnatured (92-96 deg C), the 'primers' are hybridized (30 deg C a 60 deg C ) and, after that, the DNA synthesis is made with a DNA-polymerase and nucleotides (dNTPs) (72 deg C), for some repetitive cycles. The development of the PCR allowed great advances in Molecular Biology, mainly for analysis of genes, diagnosis of illnesses and pathogens, among some other examples. Currently, the PCR has been very much used for the identification of transgenic constituents in foods. In the detection of genetically modified grains, the PCR technique showed to be highly sensitive, because it allows identifying one genetically modified grain amongst a million of normal grains. Nowadays, the analysis through the PCR method is the only capable to discriminate an organism genetically modified from a not transgenic one. The identification of foods that were made of transgenic grains, as soy and maize, through the PCR technique is still controversial. Therefore the result of the test is more trustworthy when it is positive. Or either, the detection absence does not mean that the product does not have, in fact, transgenic ingredients. It happens because to detect a DNA sequence, is necessary to preserve a minimum portion of the DNA. However, what happens many times in the industrialization process is that, in the manipulation of the ingredients, the DNA can be degraded (for example, for heat or radiation) and, consequently, is not detectable any longer. This work has as a main objective the study of the viability on the use of the PCR in the detection of GMO's in radiated foods containing maize. For the irradiation of the material, a source

  8. Management of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Maize in Argentina: A Multi-Institutional Approach

    Signorini, Ana M.; Abratti, Gustavo; Grimi, Damián; Machado, Marcos; Bunge, Florencia F.; Parody, Betiana; Ramos, Laura; Cortese, Pablo; Vesprini, Facundo; Whelan, Agustina; Araujo, Mónica P.; Podworny, Mariano; Cadile, Alejandro; Malacarne, María F.

    2018-01-01

    Evolution of resistance to control measures in insect populations is a natural process, and management practices are intended to delay or mitigate resistance when it occurs. During the 2012/13 season the first reports of unexpected damage by Diatraea saccharalis on some Bt maize hybrids occurred in the northeast of San Luis province, Argentina. The affected Bt technologies were Herculex I® (HX-TC1507) and VT3PRO® (MON 89034 × MON 88017*). Event TC1507 expresses Cry1F and event MON 89034 expresses Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2, whichr are all Bt proteins with activity against the lepidopterans D. saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda (MON 88017 expresses the protein Cry3Bb1 for control of coleopteran insects and the enzyme CP4EPSPS for glyphosate tolerance). The affected area is an isolated region surrounded by sierra systems to the northeast and west, with a hot semi-arid climate, long frost-free period, warm winters, hot dry summers, and woody shrubs as native flora. To manage and mitigate the development of resistance, joint actions were taken by the industry, growers and Governmental Agencies. Hybrids expressing Vip3A protein (event MIR162) and/or Cry1Ab protein (events MON 810 and Bt11) as single or stacked events are used in early plantings to control the first generations of D. saccharalis, and in later plantings date's technologies with good control of S. frugiperda. A commitment was made to plant the refuge, and pest damage is monitored. As a result, maize production in the area is sustainable and profitable with yields above the average. PMID:29888224

  9. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  10. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a...

  11. Maize Arabinoxylan Gels as Protein Delivery Matrices

    Ana Luisa Martínez-López

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The laccase induced gelation of maize bran arabinoxylans at 2.5% (w/v in the presence of insulin or β-lactoglobulin at 0.1% (w/v was investigated. Insulin and β-lacto-globulin did not modify either the gel elasticity (9 Pa or the cross-links content (0.03 and 0.015 mg di- and triferulic acids/mg arabinoxylan, respectively. The protein release capability of the gel was also investigated. The rate of protein release from gels was dependent on the protein molecular weight. The apparent diffusion coefficient was 0.99 × 10-7 and 0.79 × 10-7 cm2/s for insulin (5 kDa and β-lactoglobulin (18 kDa, respectively. The results suggest that maize bran arabinoxylan gels can be potential candidates for the controlled release of proteins.

  12. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation systems (trickle and modified furrow irrigation) and five maize (M)-cowpea (C) intercropping patterns (sole M-30, sole M-15, ridge ...

  13. A biannual study on the environmental impact of Bt maize

    Sehnal, František; Habuštová, Oxana; Spitzer, L.; Hussein, Hany; Růžička, Vlastimil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2004), s. 147-160 [Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms. Praha, 26.11.2003-29.11.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Bt maize * GM crops * European corn borer Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  14. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  15. Intercropping Maize With Legumes for Sustainable Highland Maize Production

    Adirek Punyalue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residue burning to prepare soil for maize growing deprives the soil of both protective cover and organic matter, and it exacerbates environmental issues such as Southeast Asia's haze problem. This paper reports on a study that evaluated the effectiveness of maize/legume intercropping as an alternative to maize cultivation with residue burning. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, mung bean (V. radiata, rice bean (V. umbellata, and lablab (Lablab purpureus were sown into a standing maize crop 30 days before harvest, and the results were compared with a maize crop grown using residue burning as the method for land preparation at Pang Da Agricultural Station in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in a replicated trial conducted over 3 growing seasons from 2012 to 2014. Intercropping increased maize grain yield by 31–53% and left 70–170% more residue containing 113–230% more nitrogen than the maize sown after residue burning, depending on the legume, and decreased weed dry weight by two-thirds after 2 seasons. Soil biodiversity was enriched by the intercrops, with a doubling in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root-zone soil and increased abundance, diversity (Shannon index, and richness of the soil macrofauna. The abundance of soil animals increased with crop residue dry weight (r = 0.90, P < 0.05 and nitrogen content (r = 0.98, P < 0.01. The effect of intercropping on maize grain yield and accumulation of residue and nitrogen were then confirmed in a participatory experiment involving farmers in 2 highland villages in the Phrao and Chiang Dao districts of Chiang Mai Province with maize and rice bean in 2015. The effects of maize/legume intercropping—increased nitrogen accumulation and crop residue, enhanced soil biodiversity, suppression of weeds, and protection of the soil surface, which enabled the maize to be sown without land clearing with fire—should all contribute to sustainable highland maize production.

  16. Soil Microbial and Faunal Community Responses to Bt-Maize and Insecticide in Two Soils

    Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.; Thompson, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of maize (Zea mays L.), genetically modified to express the Cry1Ab protein (Bt), and an insecticide on soil microbial and faunal communities were assessed in a glasshouse experiment. Soil for the experiment was taken from field sites where the same maize cultivars were grown to allow...

  17. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect...... was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased......We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design...

  18. Maize kernel evolution:From teosinte to maize

    Maize is the most productive and highest value commodity in the US and around the world: over 1 billion tons were produced each year in 2013 and 2014. Together, maize, rice and wheat comprise over 60% of the world’s caloric intake, with wide regional variability in the importance of each crop. The i...

  19. The proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen uncovers fertility candidate proteins.

    Chao, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Yue-Feng; Li, Zhe; Huang, Xia-He; Wang, Ying-Chun; Mei, Ying-Chang; Zhao, Biligen-Gaowa; Li, Liang; Jiang, Yu-Bo; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Maize is unique since it is both monoecious and diclinous (separate male and female flowers on the same plant). We investigated the proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen containing modified proteins and here we provide a comprehensive pollen proteome and phosphoproteome which contain 100,990 peptides from 6750 proteins and 5292 phosphorylated sites corresponding to 2257 maize phosphoproteins, respectively. Interestingly, among the total 27 overrepresented phosphosite motifs we identified here, 11 were novel motifs, which suggested different modification mechanisms in plants compared to those of animals. Enrichment analysis of pollen phosphoproteins showed that pathways including DNA synthesis/chromatin structure, regulation of RNA transcription, protein modification, cell organization, signal transduction, cell cycle, vesicle transport, transport of ions and metabolisms, which were involved in pollen development, the following germination and pollen tube growth, were regulated by phosphorylation. In this study, we also found 430 kinases and 105 phosphatases in the maize pollen phosphoproteome, among which calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), leucine rich repeat kinase, SNF1 related protein kinases and MAPK family proteins were heavily enriched and further analyzed. From our research, we also uncovered hundreds of male sterility-associated proteins and phosphoproteins that might influence maize productivity and serve as targets for hybrid maize seed production. At last, a putative complex signaling pathway involving CDPKs, MAPKs, ubiquitin ligases and multiple fertility proteins was constructed. Overall, our data provides new insight for further investigation of protein phosphorylation status in mature maize pollen and construction of maize male sterile mutants in the future.

  20. Maize variety and method of production

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  1. Effects of Modified Biochar on Growth,Nutrients Uptake of Maize and Soil Physicochemical Properties%改性生物炭对玉米生长发育、养分吸收和土壤理化性状的影响

    郭大勇; 商东耀; 王旭刚; 常会庆; 林帆

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of biochar and modified biochar on improving soil fertility,a greenhouse pot culture experiment was carried out to study the effects of biochar and modified biochar on growth and nutritional status of maize, soil physicochemical properties under different application levels [ 0 ( CK ) , 0. 5%,1%,2%] in alkaline and low organic matter soil. The results showed that compared to CK,modi-fied biochar increased ground dry weight and root dry weight, meanwhile significantly increased plant height and leaf area,2% level performed the best with increments of ground dry weight,root dry weight, maize height and leaf area by 31. 0%,61. 7%,35. 1% and 48. 2%,respectively. Biochar significantly de-creased maize ground dry weight and height,ground dry weight of 1% biochar and 2% biochar treatments were only 26. 9% and 29. 2% of CK. The 2% modified biochar significantly increased ground N,P,K up-take in maize,while biochar treatments decreased ground and root N,P,K uptake in maize. Both biochar types significantly increased soil organic matter contents,1% biochar and 2% biochar treatments signifi-cantly increased soil pH values by 0 . 25 and 0 . 28 , while 2% modified biochar treatment reached thehighest among modified biochar treatments with the increment of 0 . 10 . This research suggested biochar was better to be acid disposed when applied in alkaline and low organic matter soils to avoid the negative effects of biochar on the growth of crops,and 2% rate was recommended for practice.%为明确生物炭和改性生物炭在碱性低肥力土壤上的改良培肥效果,采用温室盆栽试验的方法研究了不同施用水平[0(CK)、0.5%、1%、2%]生物炭和酸洗处理改性生物炭对玉米生长发育、养分吸收和土壤理化性状的影响.结果表明:相较于CK,改性生物炭促进了玉米的地上部和根系干物质积累,同时显著增加了植株株高和叶面积,其中以2%施用水平表现最佳,其地上部干质量

  2. Advances in Maize Transformation Technologies and Development of Transgenic Maize.

    Yadava, Pranjal; Abhishek, Alok; Singh, Reeva; Singh, Ishwar; Kaul, Tanushri; Pattanayak, Arunava; Agrawal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Maize is the principal grain crop of the world. It is also the crop where genetic engineering has been employed to a great extent to improve its various traits. The ability to transform maize is a crucial step for application of gene technology in maize improvement. There have been constant improvements in the maize transformation technologies over past several years. The choice of genotype and the explant material to initiate transformation and the different types of media to be used in various stages of tissue culture can have significant impact on the outcomes of the transformation efforts. Various methods of gene transfer, like the particle bombardment, protoplast transformation, Agrobacterium -mediated, in planta transformation, etc., have been tried and improved over years. Similarly, various selection systems for retrieval of the transformants have been attempted. The commercial success of maize transformation and transgenic development is unmatched by any other crop so far. Maize transformation with newer gene editing technologies is opening up a fresh dimension in transformation protocols and work-flows. This review captures the various past and recent facets in improvement in maize transformation technologies and attempts to present a comprehensive updated picture of the current state of the art in this area.

  3. MaizeGDB: The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.

    Harper, Lisa; Gardiner, Jack; Andorf, Carson; Lawrence, Carolyn J

    2016-01-01

    MaizeGDB is the community database for biological information about the crop plant Zea mays. Genomic, genetic, sequence, gene product, functional characterization, literature reference, and person/organization contact information are among the datatypes stored at MaizeGDB. At the project's website ( http://www.maizegdb.org ) are custom interfaces enabling researchers to browse data and to seek out specific information matching explicit search criteria. In addition, pre-compiled reports are made available for particular types of data and bulletin boards are provided to facilitate communication and coordination among members of the community of maize geneticists.

  4. Genetic resources in maize breeding

    Anđelković Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.

  5. Swelling Kinetics of Waxy Maize Starch

    Desam, Gnana Prasuna Reddy

    Starch pasting behavior greatly influences the texture of a variety of food products such as canned soup, sauces, baby foods, batter mixes etc. The annual consumption of starch in the U.S. is 3 million metric tons. It is important to characterize the relationship between the structure, composition and architecture of the starch granules with its pasting behavior in order to arrive at a rational methodology to design modified starch of desirable digestion rate and texture. In this research, polymer solution theory was applied to predict the evolution of average granule size of starch at different heating temperatures in terms of its molecular weight, second virial coefficient and extent of cross-link. Evolution of granule size distribution of waxy native maize starch when subjected to heating at constant temperatures of 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 C was characterized using static laser light scattering. As expected, granule swelling was more pronounced at higher temperatures and resulted in a shift of granule size distribution to larger sizes with a corresponding increase in the average size by 100 to 120% from 13 mum to 25-28 mum. Most of the swelling occurred within the first 10 min of heating. Pasting behavior of waxy maize at different temperatures was also characterized from the measurements of G' and G" for different heating times. G' was found to increase with temperature at holding time of 2 min followed by its decrease at larger holding times. This behavior is believed to be due to the predominant effect of swelling at small times. However, G" was insensitive to temperature and holding times. The structure of waxy maize starch was characterized by cryoscanning electron microscopy. Experimental data of average granule size vs time at different temperatures were compared with model predictions. Also the Experimental data of particle size distribution vs particle size at different times and temperatures were compared with model predictions.

  6. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a certain trait, the following specific procedures in evaluation of the trait are necessary: the estimation of a popping volume and flake quality in popping maize; the determination of sugars and harvest maturity in sweet maize; the determination of oil in selected samples of high-oil maize types, and so forth. Breeding programmes for speciality maize, except high-amylose maize, have been implemented at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, Belgrade, for the last 45 years. A great number of high-yielding sweet maize hybrids, popping maize, high-oil and high-lysine, flint and white-seeded maize hybrids were developed during this 45-year period. Auspicious selection and breeding for these traits is facilitated by the abundant genetic variability and technical and technological possibilities necessary for successful selection.

  7. Modeling maize response to climate modification in Hungary

    Angela Anda

    2006-01-01

    Modeling provides a tool for a better understanding of the modified plant behaviour that results from various climatic differences. The present study provides new information about the physiological processes in maize (Zea mays L.) in response to climatic changes. The aim was to help local farmers adapt to climate modifications in Hungary and mitigate the future consequences of these changes. A simulation model was applied to estimate the possible feedback on crop properties and elevated CO2....

  8. Deregulation of Lesotho's maize market

    van Schalkwyk, Herman D.; van Zyl, Johan; Botha, P.W.; Bayley, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the past year, there have been major policy reforms in Lesotho and South Africa with respect to maize pricing and marketing. In Lesotho the impact of deregulation on producers, consumers and government revenues was substantially lower than it should have been, and as a result Lesotho was not able to reap the full benefits of these changes. This is partly because information on the changes to the maize marketing system did not reach the potential beneficiaries of the new system. Free an...

  9. IMAZAPYR-RESISTANT MAIZE TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION FOR ...

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    decisions by protecting maize (Zea mays L.) crop in western Kenya from Striga. Key Words: Adopters, Zea ... Africa, efficient and profitable production of maize is severely constrained by ..... gap by understanding its source. African. Journal of ...

  10. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.

  11. Maize Bioactive Peptides against Cancer

    Díaz-Gómez, Jorge L.; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Preciado-Ortiz, Ricardo E.; García-Lara, Silverio

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is one of the main chronic degenerative diseases worldwide. In recent years, consumption of whole-grain cereals and their derived food products has been associated with reduction risks of various types of cancer. Cereals main biomolecules includes proteins, peptides, and amino acids present in different quantities within the grain. The nutraceutical properties associated with peptides exerts biological functions that promote health and prevent this disease. In this review, we report the current status and advances on maize peptides regarding bioactive properties that have been reported such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumour activities. We also highlighted its biological potential through which maize bioactive peptides exert anti-cancer activity. Finally, we analyse and emphasize the possible areas of application for maize peptides.

  12. Putting the Function in Maize Genomics

    Stephen P. Moose

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The 51st Maize Genetics Conference was held March 12–15, 2009 at Pheasant Run Resort in St. Charles, Illinois. Nearly 500 attendees participated in a scientific program (available at covering a wide range of topics which integrate the rich biology of maize with recent discoveries in our understanding of the highly dynamic maize genome. Among the many research themes highlighted at the conference, the historical emphasis on studying the tremendous phenotypic diversity of maize now serves as the foundation for maize as a leading experimental system to characterize the mechanisms that generate variation in complex plant genomes and associate evolutionary change with phenotypes of interest.

  13. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption.

    Ranum, Peter; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays), also called corn, is believed to have originated in central Mexico 7000 years ago from a wild grass, and Native Americans transformed maize into a better source of food. Maize contains approximately 72% starch, 10% protein, and 4% fat, supplying an energy density of 365 Kcal/100 g and is grown throughout the world, with the United States, China, and Brazil being the top three maize-producing countries in the world, producing approximately 563 of the 717 million metric tons/year. Maize can be processed into a variety of food and industrial products, including starch, sweeteners, oil, beverages, glue, industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol. In the last 10 years, the use of maize for fuel production significantly increased, accounting for approximately 40% of the maize production in the United States. As the ethanol industry absorbs a larger share of the maize crop, higher prices for maize will intensify demand competition and could affect maize prices for animal and human consumption. Low production costs, along with the high consumption of maize flour and cornmeal, especially where micronutrient deficiencies are common public health problems, make this food staple an ideal food vehicle for fortification. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  14. Potential of Using Maize Cobs in Pig Diets — A Review

    A. T. Kanengoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest to broaden the narrow range of feed ingredients available to pig producers has prompted research on the use of low cost, unconventional feedstuffs, which are typically fibrous and abundant. Maize cobs, a by-product of a major cereal grown worldwide, have potential to be used as a pig feed ingredient. Presently, maize cobs are either dumped or burnt for fuel. The major challenge in using maize cobs in pig diets is their lignocellulosic nature (45% to 55% cellulose, 25% to 35% hemicellulose, and 20% to 30% lignin which is resistant to pigs’ digestive enzymes. The high fiber in maize cobs (930 g neutral detergent fiber/kg dry matter [DM]; 573 g acid detergent fiber/kg DM increases rate of passage and sequestration of nutrients in the fiber reducing their digestion. However, grinding, heating and fermentation can modify the structure of the fibrous components in the maize cobs and improve their utilization. Pigs can also extract up to 25% of energy maintenance requirements from fermentation products. In addition, dietary fiber improves pig intestinal health by promoting the growth of lactic acid bacteria, which suppress proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in the intestines. This paper reviews maize cob composition and the effect on digestibility of nutrients, intestinal microflora and growth performance and proposes the use of ensiling using exogenous enzymes to enhance utilization in diets of pigs.

  15. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  16. Practicable group testing method to evaluate weight/weight GMO content in maize grains.

    Mano, Junichi; Yanaka, Yuka; Ikezu, Yoko; Onishi, Mari; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Ninomiya, Kenji; Yotsuyanagi, Yuichi; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Naito, Shigehiro; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-07-13

    Because of the increasing use of maize hybrids with genetically modified (GM) stacked events, the established and commonly used bulk sample methods for PCR quantification of GM maize in non-GM maize are prone to overestimate the GM organism (GMO) content, compared to the actual weight/weight percentage of GM maize in the grain sample. As an alternative method, we designed and assessed a group testing strategy in which the GMO content is statistically evaluated based on qualitative analyses of multiple small pools, consisting of 20 maize kernels each. This approach enables the GMO content evaluation on a weight/weight basis, irrespective of the presence of stacked-event kernels. To enhance the method's user-friendliness in routine application, we devised an easy-to-use PCR-based qualitative analytical method comprising a sample preparation step in which 20 maize kernels are ground in a lysis buffer and a subsequent PCR assay in which the lysate is directly used as a DNA template. This method was validated in a multilaboratory collaborative trial.

  17. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed. PMID:27219066

  18. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*. The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  19. Maize starch biphasic pasting curves

    Nelles, EM

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available (150–500 rev/min). The second pasting peak is attributed to the formation of complexes between amylose and low levels of lipid present in maize starch. When lipid was partially removed by extraction with methanol-chloroform (1: 3 v/v), the second...

  20. Transcription and somatic transposition of the maize En/Spm transposon system in rice

    Greco, R.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.; Taal, A.J.C.; Sallaud, C.; Guiderdoni, E.; Meijer, A.H.; Hoge, J.H.C.; Pereira, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Transposition of the maize En/Spm system in rice was investigated using a two-component construct consisting of an immobilised transposase source driven by the CaMV 35S-promoter, and a modified I/dSpm transposon. Mobilization of I/dSpm in somatic sectors was demonstrated by sequencing of excision

  1. Extraction and characterization of natural cellulose fibers from maize tassel

    Maepa, CE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the extraction and characterization of novel natural cellulose fibers obtained from the maize (tassel) plant. Cellulose was extracted from the agricultural residue (waste biomaterial) of maize tassel. The maize tassel fibers...

  2. Aflatoxin levels in maize and maize products during the 2004 food ...

    Aflatoxin levels in maize and maize products during the 2004 food poisoning ... district were received at the National Public Health Laboratory Services (NPHLS). On analysis, they were found to be highly contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

  3. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage per...

  4. Molecular genetics: Step by step implementation in maize breeding

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency in plant breeding is determined primarily by the ability to screen for genetic polymorphism, productivity and yield stability early in program. Dependent on the knowledge about the biochemical bases of the trait and nature of its genetic control, trait could be modified either through mutagenesis of genes controlling it or through the transfer of already existing mutant genes, controlling desired trait to different plant genotypes by classic crossing. Objective of this report is to present partly results on the investigation of the possibilities to apply ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, γ -rays and chemical mutagens (EI, iPMS, EMS, ENU to get maize and wheat mutants with increased amount and improved protein quality. Besides this approach in mutation breeding, results on the very early investigation of biochemical background of opaque -2 mutation including use of coupled cell - free RNA and protein synthesis containing components from both wild and opaque - 2 maize genotypes (chromatin, RNA polymerase, microsomall fraction, protein bodies will be presented. Partial results on opaque - 2 gene incorporation in different genetic background are reviewed. Part of report is dealing with different classes of molecular markers (proteins, RFLP, AFLP, RAPD, and SSR application in maize genome polymorphism investigation. Besides application of different molecular markers classes in the investigation of heterosis phenomena they are useful in biochemical pathway of important traits control determination as well. .

  5. Screening for genetically modified organisms sequences in food ...

    We used the Allin 2.0 GMO screening system from Biosmart, Switzerland to screen for the presence of genetically modified food sequences in maize meal samples, fresh fruit and vegetables from some retailers around Gaborone, Botswana. The Allin 2.0 is a multiplex PCR system for the detection of genetically modified ...

  6. "Achieving Mexico’s Maize Potential"

    Antonio Turrent Fernández; Timothy A. Wise; Elise Garvey

    2012-01-01

    Rising agricultural prices, combined with growing import dependence, have driven Mexico’s food import bill over $20 billion per year and increased its agricultural trade deficit. Mexico imports one-third of its maize, overwhelmingly from the United States, but three million producers grow most of the country’s white maize, which is used primarily for tortillas and many other pluricultural products for human consumption. Yield gaps are large among the country’s small to medium-scale maize farm...

  7. An image-based automatic recognition method for the flowering stage of maize

    Yu, Zhenghong; Zhou, Huabing; Li, Cuina

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed an image-based approach for automatic recognizing the flowering stage of maize. A modified HOG/SVM detection framework is first adopted to detect the ears of maize. Then, we use low-rank matrix recovery technology to precisely extract the ears at pixel level. At last, a new feature called color gradient histogram, as an indicator, is proposed to determine the flowering stage. Comparing experiment has been carried out to testify the validity of our method and the results indicate that our method can meet the demand for practical observation.

  8. Proteomics of Maize Root Development.

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Marcon, Caroline; Baldauf, Jutta A; Yu, Peng; Frey, Felix P

    2018-01-01

    Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  9. Proteomics of Maize Root Development

    Frank Hochholdinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined. Furthermore, root hairs were surveyed to understand the proteomic changes during the elongation of these single cell type structures. In addition, primary roots have been used to study developmental changes of the proteome but also to investigate the proteomes of distinct tissues such as the meristematic zone, the elongation zone as well as stele and cortex of the differentiation zone. Moreover, subcellular fractions of the primary root including cell walls, plasma membranes and secreted mucilage have been analyzed. Finally, the superior vigor of hybrid seedling roots compared to their parental inbred lines was studied on the proteome level. In summary, these studies provide novel insights into the complex proteomic interactions of the elaborate maize root system during development.

  10. Effect of stacked insecticidal Cry proteins from maize pollen on nurse bees (Apis mellifera carnica and their gut bacteria.

    Harmen P Hendriksma

    Full Text Available Honey bee pollination is a key ecosystem service to nature and agriculture. However, biosafety research on genetically modified crops rarely considers effects on nurse bees from intact colonies, even though they receive and primarily process the largest amount of pollen. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of nurse bees and their gut bacteria to pollen from Bt maize expressing three different insecticidal Cry proteins (Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, and Cry3Bb1. Naturally Cry proteins are produced by bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis. Colonies of Apis mellifera carnica were kept during anthesis in flight cages on field plots with the Bt maize, two different conventionally bred maize varieties, and without cages, 1-km outside of the experimental maize field to allow ad libitum foraging to mixed pollen sources. During their 10-days life span, the consumption of Bt maize pollen had no effect on their survival rate, body weight and rates of pollen digestion compared to the conventional maize varieties. As indicated by ELISA-quantification of Cry1A.105 and Cry3Bb1, more than 98% of the recombinant proteins were degraded. Bacterial population sizes in the gut were not affected by the genetic modification. Bt-maize, conventional varieties and mixed pollen sources selected for significantly different bacterial communities which were, however, composed of the same dominant members, including Proteobacteria in the midgut and Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. in the hindgut. Surprisingly, Cry proteins from natural sources, most likely B. thuringiensis, were detected in bees with no exposure to Bt maize. The natural occurrence of Cry proteins and the lack of detectable effects on nurse bees and their gut bacteria give no indication for harmful effects of this Bt maize on nurse honey bees.

  11. Effect of stacked insecticidal Cry proteins from maize pollen on nurse bees (Apis mellifera carnica) and their gut bacteria.

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Küting, Meike; Härtel, Stephan; Näther, Astrid; Dohrmann, Anja B; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee pollination is a key ecosystem service to nature and agriculture. However, biosafety research on genetically modified crops rarely considers effects on nurse bees from intact colonies, even though they receive and primarily process the largest amount of pollen. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of nurse bees and their gut bacteria to pollen from Bt maize expressing three different insecticidal Cry proteins (Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, and Cry3Bb1). Naturally Cry proteins are produced by bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis). Colonies of Apis mellifera carnica were kept during anthesis in flight cages on field plots with the Bt maize, two different conventionally bred maize varieties, and without cages, 1-km outside of the experimental maize field to allow ad libitum foraging to mixed pollen sources. During their 10-days life span, the consumption of Bt maize pollen had no effect on their survival rate, body weight and rates of pollen digestion compared to the conventional maize varieties. As indicated by ELISA-quantification of Cry1A.105 and Cry3Bb1, more than 98% of the recombinant proteins were degraded. Bacterial population sizes in the gut were not affected by the genetic modification. Bt-maize, conventional varieties and mixed pollen sources selected for significantly different bacterial communities which were, however, composed of the same dominant members, including Proteobacteria in the midgut and Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. in the hindgut. Surprisingly, Cry proteins from natural sources, most likely B. thuringiensis, were detected in bees with no exposure to Bt maize. The natural occurrence of Cry proteins and the lack of detectable effects on nurse bees and their gut bacteria give no indication for harmful effects of this Bt maize on nurse honey bees.

  12. Effect of Stacked Insecticidal Cry Proteins from Maize Pollen on Nurse Bees (Apis mellifera carnica) and Their Gut Bacteria

    Härtel, Stephan; Näther, Astrid; Dohrmann, Anja B.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tebbe, Christoph C.

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee pollination is a key ecosystem service to nature and agriculture. However, biosafety research on genetically modified crops rarely considers effects on nurse bees from intact colonies, even though they receive and primarily process the largest amount of pollen. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of nurse bees and their gut bacteria to pollen from Bt maize expressing three different insecticidal Cry proteins (Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, and Cry3Bb1). Naturally Cry proteins are produced by bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis). Colonies of Apis mellifera carnica were kept during anthesis in flight cages on field plots with the Bt maize, two different conventionally bred maize varieties, and without cages, 1-km outside of the experimental maize field to allow ad libitum foraging to mixed pollen sources. During their 10-days life span, the consumption of Bt maize pollen had no effect on their survival rate, body weight and rates of pollen digestion compared to the conventional maize varieties. As indicated by ELISA-quantification of Cry1A.105 and Cry3Bb1, more than 98% of the recombinant proteins were degraded. Bacterial population sizes in the gut were not affected by the genetic modification. Bt-maize, conventional varieties and mixed pollen sources selected for significantly different bacterial communities which were, however, composed of the same dominant members, including Proteobacteria in the midgut and Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. in the hindgut. Surprisingly, Cry proteins from natural sources, most likely B. thuringiensis, were detected in bees with no exposure to Bt maize. The natural occurrence of Cry proteins and the lack of detectable effects on nurse bees and their gut bacteria give no indication for harmful effects of this Bt maize on nurse honey bees. PMID:23533634

  13. Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs

    Walsh, Maria C.; Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Rea, Mary C.; Gelencsér, Eva; Jánosi, Anna; Epstein, Michelle M.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effect of short-term feeding of genetically modified (GM: Bt MON810) maize on immune responses and growth in weanling pigs and determined the fate of the transgenic DNA and protein in-vivo. Pigs were fed a diet containing 38.9% GM or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days. We observed that IL-12 and IFNγ production from mitogenic stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased (PGM maize exposure. While Cry1Ab-specific IgG and IgA were not detected in the plasma of GM maize-fed pigs, the detection of the cry1Ab gene and protein was limited to the gastrointestinal digesta and was not found in the kidneys, liver, spleen, muscle, heart or blood. Feeding GM maize to weanling pigs had no effect on growth performance or body weight. IL-6 and IL-4 production from isolated splenocytes were increased (PGM maize while the proportion of CD4+ T cells in the spleen decreased. In the ileum, the proportion of B cells and macrophages decreased while the proportion of CD4+ T cells increased in GM maize-fed pigs. IL-8 and IL-4 production from isolated intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes were also increased (PGM maize. In conclusion, there was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or protein translocation to the organs and blood of weaning pigs. The growth of pigs was not affected by feeding GM maize. Alterations in immune responses were detected; however, their biologic relevance is questionable. PMID:22132091

  14. Decomposition and fertilizing effects of maize stover and chromolaena odorata on maize yield

    Tetteh, F.M.; Safo, E.Y.; Quansah, C.

    2008-01-01

    The quality, rates of decomposition and the fertilizing effect of chromolaena odorata, and maize stover were determined in field experiments as surface application or buried in litter bags. Studies on the effect of plant materials of contrasting qualities (maize stover and C. odorata) applied sole (10 Mg ha -1 ) and mixed, on maize grain and biomass yield were also conducted on the Asuansi (Ferric Acrisol) soil series. Total nitrogen content of the residues ranged from 0.85% in maize stover to 3.50% in C. odorata. Organic carbon ranged from 34.90% in C. odorata to 48.50% in maize stover. Phosphorus ranged from 0.10% in maize stover to 0.76% in C. odorata. In the wet season, the decomposition rate constants (k) were 0.0319 day -1 for C. odorata, and 0.0081 for maize stover. In the dry season, the k values were 0.0083 for C. odorata, and 0.0072 day -1 for maize stover. Burying of the plant materials reduced the half-life (t 50 ) periods from 18 to 10 days for C. odorata, and 45 to 20 days for maize stover. Maize grain yield of 2556 kg ha -1 was obtained in sole C. odorata (10 Mg ha -1 ) compared with 2167 kg ha -1 for maize stover. Mixing of maize stover and C. odorata residues improved the nutrient content as well as nutrient release by the mixtures resulting in greater maize grain yields in the mixtures than the sole maize stover treatment. It is recommended that C. odorata be used as green manure, mulching or composting material to improve fertility. (au)

  15. PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) CULTIVARS AS ...

    IBUKUN

    reported to have low remobilisation efficiency and reduced plasticity of seed weight to assimilate availability ... have indicated that the use of organo-mineral fertiliser in maize and melon gave high relative .... The soil physical and chemical characteristics of ..... yield in maize by examining genetic improvement and heterosis.

  16. (SSR) markers for drought tolerance in maize

    Maize is moderately sensitive to drought. Drought affects virtually all aspects of maize growth in varying degrees at all stages, from germination to maturity. Tolerance to drought is genetically and physiologically complicated and inherited quantitatively. Application of molecular-marker aided selection technique for ...

  17. Characterization of Indian and exotic quality protein maize (QPM ...

    Polymorphism analysis and genetic diversity of normal maize and quality protein maize (QPM) inbreds among locally well adapted germplasm is a prerequisite for hybrid maize breeding program. The diversity analyses of 48 maize accessions including Indian and exotic germplasm using 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR) ...

  18. Exploring maize-legume intercropping systems in Southwest Mexico

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Pastor, A.V.; Lantinga, E.A.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Kropff, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Maize yields in continuous maize production systems of smallholders in the Costa Chica, a region in Southwest Mexico, are low despite consistent inputs of fertilizers and herbicides. This study was aimed at investigating the prospects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and maize-roselle (Hibiscus

  19. Selection for drought tolerance in two tropical maize populations ...

    Drought is a major factor limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yield in much of the world. The need to breed maize cultivars with improved drought tolerance is apparent. This study compared two maize populations, ZM601 and ZM607 for drought tolerance during flowering, the most drought-vulnerable period for the maize plant.

  20. Consumer preferences for maize products in urban Kenya.

    De Groote, Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege

    2012-06-01

    New maize varieties have been biofortified with provitamin A, mainly a-carotene, which renders the grain yellow or orange. Unfortunately, many African consumers prefer white maize. The maize consumption patterns in Africa are, however, not known. To determine which maize products African consumers prefer to purchase and which maize preparations they prefer to eat. A survey of 600 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, at three types of maize outlets: posho mills (small hammer mills), kiosks, and supermarkets. Clients of posho mills had lower incomes and less education than those of kiosks and supermarkets. The preferred maize product of the posho-mill clients was artisanal maize meal; the preferred product of the others was industrial maize meal. Maize is the preferred staple for lunch and dinner, eaten as a stiff porridge (ugali), followed by boiled maize and beans (githeri), regardless of socioeconomic background. For breakfast, only half the consumers prefer maize, mostly as a soft porridge (uji). This proportion is higher in low-income groups. Consumers show a strong preference for white maize over yellow, mostly for its organoleptic characteristics, and show less interest in biofortified maize. Maize is the major food staple in Nairobi, mostly eaten in a few distinct preparations. For biofortified yellow maize to be accepted, a strong public awareness campaign to inform consumers is needed, based on a sensory evaluation and the mass media, in particular on radio in the local language.

  1. Risk Adjusted Production Efficiency of Maize Farmers in Ethiopia: Implication for Improved Maize Varieties Adoption

    Sisay Diriba Lemessa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technical efficiency and production risk of 862 maize farmers in major maize producing regions of Ethiopia. It employs the stochastic frontier approach (SFA to estimate the level of technical efficiencies of stallholder farmers. The stochastic frontier approach (SFA uses flexible risk properties to account for production risk. Thus, maize production variability is assessed from two perspectives, the production risk and the technical efficiency. The study also attempts to determine the socio-economic and farm characteristics that influence technical efficiency of maize production in the study area. The findings of the study showed the existence of both production risk and technical inefficiency in maize production process. Input variables (amounts per hectare such as fertilizer and labor positively influence maize output. The findings also show that farms in the study area exhibit decreasing returns to scale. Fertilizer and ox plough days reduce output risk while labor and improved seed increase output risk. The mean technical efficiency for maize farms is 48 percent. This study concludes that production risk and technical inefficiency prevents the maize farmers from realizing their frontier output. The best factors that improve the efficiency of the maize farmers in the study area include: frequency of extension contact, access to credit and use of intercropping. It was also realized that altitude and terracing in maize farms had influence on farmer efficiency.

  2. INTEGRATED WEED CONTROL IN MAIZE.

    Latré, J; Dewitte, K; Derycke, V; De Roo, B; Haesaert, G

    2015-01-01

    Integrated pest management has been implemented as a general practice by EU legislation. As weed control actually is the most important crop protection measure in maize for Western Europe, the new legislation will have its impact. The question is of course which systems can be successfully implemented in practice with respect to labour efficiency and economical parameters. During 3 successive growing seasons (2007, 2008, 2009) weed control in maize was evaluated, the main focus was put on different techniques of integrated weed control and was compared with chemical weed control. Additionally, during 4 successive growing seasons (2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014) two objects based on integrated weed control and two objects based on mechanical weed control were compared to about twenty different objects of conventional chemical weed control. One of the objects based on mechanical weed control consisted of treatment with the flex-tine harrow before and after emergence in combination with chemical weed control at a reduced rate in 3-4 leave stage. The second one consisted of broadcast mechanical treatments before and after emergence followed by a final in-row application of herbicides and an inter-row cultivation at 6-7(8) leave stage. All trials were conducted on the Experimental farm of Bottelare HoGent-UGent on a sandy loam soil. Maize was growing in 1/3 crop rotation. The effect on weed growth as well as the economic impact of the different applications was evaluated. Combining chemical and mechanical weed control is a possible option in conventional farming but the disadvantages must be taken into account. A better planned weed control based on the real present weed-population in combination with a carefully thought-out choice of herbicides should also be considered as an IPM--approach.

  3. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  4. Effects of maize planting patterns on the performance of cassava ...

    sola

    The design was a split-plot arrangement, laid out in a randomized ... significant differences (P<0.05) between the treatments in the growth and yield parameters of maize. The mean effects of companion crops on maize leaf area were 0.61, 0.60, 0.60 and 0.52 m2/plant for sole maize, maize / melon, maize / cassava and.

  5. Does the growing of Bt maize change populations or ecological functions of non-target animals compared to the growing of conventional non-GM maize? A systematic review protocol

    Since 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been grown on an ever increasing area worldwide. Maize producing a Cry protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was among the first GM crops released for commercial production and it is the only GM crop currently cultivated in Europe. A ...

  6. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky) in storage condition

    Ram B Paneru; Resham B Thapa

    2017-01-01

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C). The fin...

  7. DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

    2011-06-15

    The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Zygotic Genome Activation Occurs Shortly after Fertilization in Maize.

    Chen, Junyi; Strieder, Nicholas; Krohn, Nadia G; Cyprys, Philipp; Sprunck, Stefanie; Engelmann, Julia C; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The formation of a zygote via the fusion of an egg and sperm cell and its subsequent asymmetric division herald the start of the plant's life cycle. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is thought to occur gradually, with the initial steps of zygote and embryo development being primarily maternally controlled, and subsequent steps being governed by the zygotic genome. Here, using maize ( Zea mays ) as a model plant system, we determined the timing of zygote development and generated RNA-seq transcriptome profiles of gametes, zygotes, and apical and basal daughter cells. ZGA occurs shortly after fertilization and involves ∼10% of the genome being activated in a highly dynamic pattern. In particular, genes encoding transcriptional regulators of various families are activated shortly after fertilization. Further analyses suggested that chromatin assembly is strongly modified after fertilization, that the egg cell is primed to activate the translational machinery, and that hormones likely play a minor role in the initial steps of early embryo development in maize. Our findings provide important insights into gamete and zygote activity in plants, and our RNA-seq transcriptome profiles represent a comprehensive, unique RNA-seq data set that can be used by the research community. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Maize cob losses and their effects on the poverty status of maize

    This study analysed fresh maize cob losses and its effect on the poverty status of maize farmers in Edo State,. Nigeria. The specific .... is the poverty gap for ... Total cost. 162,367.48. 100.00. Returns. Total expected yield (N). 327,966.63. _.

  10. Identification of resistance to Maize rayado fino virus in maize inbred lines

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is one of the most important virus diseases of maize in America. Severe yield losses, ranging from 10 to 50% in landraces to nearly 100% in contemporary cultivars, have been reported. Resistance has been reported in populations, but few inbred lines have been identifie...

  11. Recent advances in the development of quality protein maize germplasm at the Centro International de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo

    Vasal, S.K.; Villegas, E.; Tang, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The paper reviews past difficulties in the acceptance of quality protein maize (QPM) materials by farmers because of several crucial problems plaguing these materials. The breeding strategy used at the Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) over the past several years is described in detail. The strategy is based on the combined use of two genetic systems involving the opaque-2 gene and genetic modifiers. Inheritance of modifiers, some considerations in the exploitation and their role in circumventing the problems facing QPM materials are discussed. Progress is reported in overcoming the problems of yield, seed appearance, ear rot and the dry-down ability in QPM materials. Using hard endosperm QPM donor stocks, a wide array of QPM germplasm has been developed through the conversion programme and the development of QPM gene pools. To make the best use of available QPM germplasm, the current efforts in the management and handling of the germplasm are outlined. In the back-up stages, eight tropical and six subtropical QPM pools will be handled. In addition, six tropical and four subtropical advanced QPM populations were formed. These will be subjected to a rigorous international progency testing programme for improved yield, general adaptation and the stability of modifiers. Experimental data from international tests are presented, indicating the superior performance of several QPM materials. The objectives of some exploratory projects in QPM research are explained. Renewed interest in QPM research is being shown and the outlook for commercial exploitation of QPM materials in some countries seems very promising. (author)

  12. No adjuvant effect of Bacillus thuringiensis-maize on allergic responses in mice.

    Daniela Reiner

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM foods are evaluated carefully for their ability to induce allergic disease. However, few studies have tested the capacity of a GM food to act as an adjuvant, i.e. influencing allergic responses to other unrelated allergens at acute onset and in individuals with pre-existing allergy. We sought to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-maize (MON810 on the initiation and relapse of allergic asthma in mice. BALB/c mice were provided a diet containing 33% GM or non-GM maize for up to 34 days either before ovalbumin (OVA-induced experimental allergic asthma or disease relapse in mice with pre-existing allergy. We observed that GM-maize feeding did not affect OVA-induced eosinophilic airway and lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion or OVA-specific antibody production at initiation or relapse of allergic asthma. There was no adjuvant effect upon GM-maize consumption on the onset or severity of allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

  13. Mutations in the maize zeta-carotene desaturase gene lead to viviparous kernel.

    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Preharvest sprouting reduces the maize quality and causes a significant yield loss in maize production. vp-wl2 is a Mutator (Mu-induced viviparous mutant in maize, causing white or pale yellow kernels, dramatically reduced carotenoid and ABA content, and a high level of zeta-carotene accumulation. Here, we reported the cloning of the vp-wl2 gene using a modified digestion-ligation-amplification method (DLA. The results showed that an insertion of Mu9 in the first intron of the zeta-carotene desaturase (ZDS gene results in the vp-wl2 mutation. Previous studies have suggested that ZDS is likely the structural gene of the viviparous9 (vp9 locus. Therefore, we performed an allelic test using vp-wl2 and three vp9 mutants. The results showed that vp-wl2 is a novel allele of the vp9 locus. In addition, the sequences of ZDS gene were identified in these three vp9 alleles. The vp-wl2 mutant gene was subsequently introgressed into four maize inbred lines, and a viviparous phenotype was observed with yield losses from 7.69% to 13.33%.

  14. Exploring karyotype diversity of Argentinian Guaraní maize landraces: Relationship among South American maize.

    María Florencia Realini

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two different centers of maize diversity, the Northeastern (NEA and the Northwestern (NWA regions of the country. In NEA, morphological studies identified 15 landraces cultivated by the Guaraní communities in Misiones Province. In the present study we analyzed the karyotype diversity of 20 populations of Guaraní maize landraces through classical and molecular cytogenetic analyses. Our results demonstrate significant intra and inter-populational variation in the percentage, number, size, chromosome position and frequencies of the heterochromatic blocks, which are called knobs. Knob sequence analysis (180-bp and TR-1 did not show significant differences among Guaraní populations. B chromosomes were not detected, and abnormal 10 (AB10 chromosomes were found with low frequency (0.1≥f ≤0.40 in six populations. Our results allowed karyotypic characterization of each analyzed population, defining for the first time the chromosomal constitution of maize germplasm from NEA. The multivariate analysis (PCoA and UPGMA of karyotype parameters allowed the distinction between two populations groups: the Popcorn and the Floury maize populations. These results are in agreement with previously published microsatellite and morphological/phenological studies. Finally, we compared our karyotype results with those previously reported for NWA and Central Region of South America maize. Our data suggest that there are important differences between maize from NEA and NWA at the karyotype level, supporting the hypothesis that there are two pathways of input of South America maize. Our results also confirm the existence of two centers of diversification of Argentinian native maize, NWA and NEA. This work contributes new knowledge about maize diversity, which is relevant for future plans to improve commercial maize, and for conservation of agrobiodiversity.

  15. Evolution of risk assessment strategies for food and feed uses of stacked GM events.

    Kramer, Catherine; Brune, Phil; McDonald, Justin; Nesbitt, Monique; Sauve, Alaina; Storck-Weyhermueller, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Data requirements are not harmonized globally for the regulation of food and feed derived from stacked genetically modified (GM) events, produced by combining individual GM events through conventional breeding. The data required by some regulatory agencies have increased despite the absence of substantiated adverse effects to animals or humans from the consumption of GM crops. Data from studies conducted over a 15-year period for several stacked GM event maize (Zea mays L.) products (Bt11 ×  GA21, Bt11 ×  MIR604, MIR604 ×  GA21, Bt11 ×  MIR604 ×  GA21, Bt11 ×  MIR162 ×  GA21 and Bt11 ×  MIR604 ×  MIR162 ×  GA21), together with their component single events, are presented. These data provide evidence that no substantial changes in composition, protein expression or insert stability have occurred after combining the single events through conventional breeding. An alternative food and feed risk assessment strategy for stacked GM events is suggested based on a problem formulation approach that utilizes (i) the outcome of the single event risk assessments, and (ii) the potential for interactions in the stack, based on an understanding of the mode of action of the transgenes and their products. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with ...

    Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with legumes: factors ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Tom Brown (roasted-maize porridge) is one of the traditional weaning foods in Ghana.

  17. Aflatoxin variations in maize flour and grains collected from various ...

    In Kenya, maize remains an important staple food in every household. ... upper limit is 10ppb, indicating good manufacturing practices (GMP) by the millers. ... In summary, the study found aflatoxin contamination in maize grains especially in ...

  18. the influence of farmers' adoption behaviour on maize production ...

    p2333147

    The main cash crops grown in the country include coffee, sisal, cashew, cotton, tobacco ... Among these food crops, maize is the most important cereal food crop, and ... promoting recommended maize production practices in a package form.

  19. Diversity in global maize germplasm: Characterization and utilization

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... maize farmers as well as to the scientific community are depicted in figure 1, and ..... best practices for maintaining the original genetic diversity of the gene bank ..... maize; in Studies in the neolithic and urban revolution: V.

  20. Importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... An experiment was conducted to determine the importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by the maize ... high yielding plants with no consideration for resistance ..... provided financial support for the study.

  1. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. ... Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. participatory evaluation of drought tolerant maize varieties in the ...

    User

    ). Maize production provides livelihoods for millions of subsistence farmers in WCA, thus, increasing the productivity of maize-based cropping sys- tems could increase and stabilize rural incomes, alleviate poverty and reduce food insecurity in.

  3. Leaf transpiration efficiency of some drought-resistant maize lines

    Field measurements of leaf gas exchange in maize often indicate stomatal conductances higher than required to provide substomatal carbon dioxide concentrations saturating to photosynthesis. Thus maize leaves often operate at lower transpiration efficiency (TE) than potentially achievable for specie...

  4. The use of cobs, a by-product of maize grain, for energy production in anaerobic digestion

    Massimo Blandino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the rising energy demand and the conflict between food, feed and energy crops for agricultural land, there is a growing need for alternative biomasses for energy purposes. New developments in harvesting technology have created the possibility of harvesting cobs as a by-product of maize grain harvesting. The aim of the present work has been to evaluate the potential and limitations of maize cob utilisation in an anaerobic digestion chain, considering the main agronomic, productive and qualitative traits. Maize grain and cob yields as well as the moisture content of samples collected from 1044 (farm fields (located in North West Italy have been determined over the 2012 growing season. Moreover, 27 representative fields were harvested using a modified combine-harvester that is able to collect maize grains and threshed cobs separately. The chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP of the cobs have been analysed. The relative potential yield of maize cobs was established as 18.7% of the grain mass, while the wet cob yield recorded in the field after mechanical harvesting was 1.6 t ha–1. The total solid content was 60%. Fibre fractions represented over 85% of the dry cob matter, lignin content was about 16%, while the protein, ash, lipids and macro-elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium contents were very low compared to the whole-plant maize used for silage. The average BMP of wet threshed cob was 250±20 Nm3 t VS–1. Collected data have underlined that maize cobs could be used as a sustainable feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes.

  5. Transformations of sup(15)N labelled urea applied to a soil with maize strain incorporation under continuous flood

    Colaco, W.

    1991-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment with deep placed sup(15)N-labelled urea was conducted in an Aluvial soil in which maize straw was incorporated. The transformations of total-N, NH sub(4) sup(+) -N, and NO sub(3) sup(-) -N, - were investigated under continuous flooded conditions in soil planted or not to rice. Total -N and inorganic-N levels decreased in both conditions. The rapid inorganic decrease in planted soil would be mainly due to assimilation by the rice plants. However losses occurred in all cases. Such losses increased in the absence of rice plants and seemed to be mainly to nitrification - denitrification mechanisms although NH sub(3) volatilization could also be involved. Dry matter yield and N-uptake by rice increased with increasing rate of N-application. Maize straw was an important source of N for rice. N losses are modified by the incorporation of maize straw. (author)

  6. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  7. Nitrogen effects on maize yield following groundnut in rotation on ...

    Rotating maize (Zea mays L.) with groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has been proposed as a way to maintain soil fertility and prevent maize productivity declines in the smallholder cropping systems of sub-humid Zimbabwe. Field experiments with fertilizer-N on maize in rotation with groundnut were conducted at three ...

  8. Intercropping maize with cassava or cowpea in Ghana | Ennin ...

    Maize/cassava and maize/cowpea intercrops were evaluated in southern Ghana, over a 5-year period to determine the optimum combination of component crop varieties and component plant population densities to optimize productivity of maize-based intercropping systems. Results indicated that some cowpea varieties ...

  9. The economic implication of substituting cocoa pod husk for maize ...

    This saving was found to bridge the deficit between demand and supply as given by supplementation done by importing maize. The study concluded that by utilizing CPH in compounding various livestock feed rations, the high price of maize arising from excessive demand can be reduced. The limiting role of maize in ...

  10. Developing a database for maize variety in Nigeria | Daniel | Moor ...

    Performance data of maize varieties at different locations needs to be accurate and accessible to stimulate the improvement of the Nigerian maize seed system. This paper describes a database model to implement a simple computerized information system for maize varieties and their performance at various locations in ...

  11. Review: Maize research and production in Nigeria | Iken | African ...

    Maize (Zea mays) is a major important cereal being cultivated in the rainforest and the derived Savannah zones of Nigeria. Land races, improved high yielding and pest and diseases resistant varieties of maize have been developed. Key words: Maize, Zea mays, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(6) 2004: 302- ...

  12. quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea

    ACSS

    number row-1 and maize grain yield, respectively. The ridge ... Key Words: Furrow irrigation, water use efficiency, Zea mays. RÉSUMÉ ... important in arid and semi-arid regions, with ... as maize) canopy is not able to intercept all the solar radiation during the growth period. ... Intercropping maize and legumes considerably ...

  13. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Maize rayado fino virus

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) causes one of the most important virus diseases of maize in regions of Mexico, Central and South America, where it causes moderate to severe yield losses. The virus is found from the southern United States. to northern Argentina where its vector, the maize leafhopper D...

  14. Oven-drying reduces ruminal starch degradation in maize kernels

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of starch largely determines the feeding value of maize (Zea mays L.) for dairy cows. Normally, maize kernels are dried and ground before chemical analysis and determining degradation characteristics, whereas cows eat and digest fresh material. Drying the moist maize kernels

  15. Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java

    Hoof, van W.C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java was studied by means of a survey of farming practice and by field experiments. The influence of different sowing times and plant density of maize on the development and yield of groundnuts and maize were the main topics in this thesis. Plant

  16. Maize and the Malnutrition Conundrum in South Africa | BOOYENS ...

    In this paper, the author gives an overview of the factors leading to maize becoming a staple food among black people in South Africa. The purported relationship between maize consumption and malnutrition, proposals as well as experimental and practical efforts to correct the dietary deficiencies of maize are briefly ...

  17. Pollen-mediated gene flow and seed exchange in small-scale Zambian maize farming, implications for biosafety assessment.

    Bøhn, Thomas; Aheto, Denis W; Mwangala, Felix S; Fischer, Klara; Bones, Inger Louise; Simoloka, Christopher; Mbeule, Ireen; Schmidt, Gunther; Breckling, Broder

    2016-10-03

    Gene flow in agricultural crops is important for risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops, particularly in countries with a large informal agricultural sector of subsistence cultivation. We present a pollen flow model for maize (Zea mays), a major staple crop in Africa. We use spatial properties of fields (size, position) in three small-scale maize farming communities in Zambia and estimate rates of cross-fertilisation between fields sown with different maize varieties (e.g. conventional and transgene). As an additional factor contributing to gene flow, we present data on seed saving and sharing among farmers that live in the same communities. Our results show that: i) maize fields were small and located in immediate vicinity of neighboring fields; ii) a majority of farmers saved and shared seed; iii) modeled rates of pollen-mediated gene flow showed extensive mixing of germplasm between fields and farms and iv) as a result, segregation of GM and non-GM varieties is not likely to be an option in these systems. We conclude that the overall genetic composition of maize, in this and similar agricultural contexts, will be strongly influenced both by self-organised ecological factors (pollen flow), and by socially mediated intervention (seed recycling and sharing).

  18. Modified cyanobacteria

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  19. Maize production in mid hills of Nepal: from food to feed security

    Krishna Prasad Timsina; Yuga Nath Ghimire; Jeevan Lamichhane

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in 2016 to analyze the production and utilization of maize in Nepal. Sixty maize growers from Kavre and Lamjung districts were selected using purposive, cluster and simple random sampling techniques. Similarly, six feed industries and five maize experts from Chitwan district were also interviewed. Study shows 56% of the total areas were used for maize production and 50% of the maize areas were covered by hybrid maize. There was no practice of contract maize productio...

  20. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in sub-Saharan Africa

    In sub-Saharan Africa, maize is a staple food and key determinant of food security for smallholder farming communities. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on...

  1. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  2. MaizeGDB: The Maize Model Organism Database for Basic, Translational, and Applied Research

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Harper, Lisa C.; Schaeffer, Mary L.; Sen, Taner Z.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Campbell, Darwin A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001 maize became the number one production crop in the world with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reporting over 614 million tonnes produced. Its success is due to the high productivity per acre in tandem with a wide variety of commercial uses. Not only is maize an excellent source of food, feed, and fuel, but also its by-products are used in the production of various commercial products. Maize's unparalleled success in agriculture stems from basic research, th...

  3. Uso da radiação solar pelo milho sob diferentes preparos do solo, espaçamento e disponibilidade hídrica Interception and use of solar radiation by maize, as modifying soil tillage, row spacing and irrigation water availability

    Jefferson Horn Kunz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de interceptação e de uso da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA pela cultura do milho em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo, arranjos de plantas e disponibilidade hídrica. O milho foi cultivado em plantio direto e preparo convencional, na combinação com duas disponibilidades hídricas (irrigado e sequeiro e espaçamentos de 40 e 80 cm entre fileiras de plantas. Em cada tratamento, foram instalados sensores para medida da RFA transmitida pela cultura, na superfície do solo, ao passo que a RFA incidente foi medida acima da cultura. A redução da distância entre fileiras aumentou a eficiência de interceptação em todos os tratamentos. Sob plantio direto, a cultura apresentou maior eficiência de interceptação em relação ao preparo convencional. O deficit hídrico diminuiu a eficiência de interceptação devido ao enrolamento foliar, e esse efeito foi mais pronunciado em preparo convencional, em ambos espaçamentos estudados. Embora a eficiência de interceptação tenha sido maior no espaçamento de 40 cm, a eficiência de uso não diferiu entre espaçamentos, mas diminuiu em condições de deficit hídrico.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of interception and use of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR by maize crops submitted to different conditions of soil tillage, plant arrangement, and water availability. Maize was cropped in no-tillage and conventional tillage, combined to treatments of soil water availability (irrigated and in rain fed, and plant row spacing (40 and 80 cm among rows. Sensors were installed in each treatment, for measuring the PAR transmitted by the canopy to the soil surface, while the incoming PAR was measured above the crop. Increments of efficiency of interception were obtained by reducing the row spacing in all treatments. Higher values of efficiency of interception were observedin no-tillage than in conventional

  4. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  5. Measuring the Impact of Road Rehabilitation on Spatial Market Efficiency in Maize Markets in Mozambique

    Cirera, Xavier; Arndt, Channing

    2008-01-01

    to the existing literature in three ways. First, a unique data set, where road rehabilitation episodes between market pairs are identified, is developed. Second, special care is devoted to estimation of transaction costs due to the sensitivity of the PBM model to the quality of transaction costs estimates......This article analyzes the impact of road rehabilitation on the spatial market efficiency of maize markets in Mozambique. We estimate a modified version of the Parity Bounds Model (PBM) that allows us to test the impact of road rehabilitation on spatial efficiency. This article seeks to contribute....... Finally, as opposed to most existing literature that focuses on relatively distant markets, the article focuses on spatially closed markets. We find that maize markets tend to be segmented due to high transport costs. Following road rehabilitation, inefficiency and average absolute price differentials...

  6. Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of Maize B104 : A maize transformation resource

    Maize transformation is complicated. Most lines are not readily cultured and transformed, making the germplasm available for genome engineering extremely limited. Developing a better understanding of the genomic regions responsible for differences in culturability and transformability would be a goo...

  7. Developing Inset Resistant Maize Varieties for Food Security in Kenya

    Mugo, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project aims at increasing maize production and food security through development and deployment of stem borer resistant maize germplasm developed using conventional and through biotechnology methods such as Bt maize. Bt maize offers farmers an effective and practical option for controlling stem borers. It was recognized that the development and routine use of Bt maize will require addressing relevant bio-safety, environmental, and community concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns. Suitable Bt gene have been acquired or synthesized and back-crossed into elite maize germplasm at CIMMYT-Mexico, and the effective Cry-proteins against the major maize stem borers in Kenya were identified to better target pests. Stem borer resistant maize germplasm is being developed through conventional breeding, using locally adapted and exotic germplasm. for safe and effective deployment of Bt maize,studies on its impacts on target and non-target arthropods as well as studies on the effects of Bt maize on key non-target arthropods as well as studies on gene flow are underway. Insect resistance management strategies are being developed through quantifying the effectiveness, ???. Socioeconomic impact studies are revealing factors in the society that may influence the adoption of Bt maize in Kenya. Also, baseline data, essential for the monitoring and evaluation of the Bt maize technology in Kenya, has been established. Technology transfer and capacity building, creating awareness and communications have received attention in the project. This paper describes the major research activities as they relate to development of the stem bore resistant maize germplasm

  8. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild maize (teosinte has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON. In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense.

  9. Occurrence of toxigenic fungi in maize and maize-gluten meal from Pakistan

    Muhammad Kashif SALEEMI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to isolate and identify toxigenic mycoflora of maize and maize-gluten meal. A total of 82 samples of maize and 8 samples of maize-gluten meal were collected from Faisalabad district of Pakistan over a period of two years. These samples were inoculated on different culture media. Fungal contamination of maize and maize-gluten was 56% and 75% of samples, respectively. Isolation frequencies of different genera isolated from maize were Aspergillus 33%; Penicillium 28%; Fusarium 10%; and Alternaria 1%. Isolation frequency among species was maximum for P. verrucosum, followed by A. niger aggregates, A. ochraceous, A. flavus, P. chrysogenum, A. parasiticus, A. carbonarius, Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. Relative density of Aspergillus isolates was maximum for A. niger aggregates and A. ochraceous (30% each followed by A. flavus (26%, A. parasiticus (11% and A. carbonarius (3%. Percentage of toxigenic fungi among Aspergillus isolates was 52%. Aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were 43 and 67% and ochratoxigenic isolates of A. carbonarius, A. ochraceous and A. niger aggregates were 100, 63 and 38%, respectively. Aspergillus parasiticus produced higher concentrations of AFB1 (maximum 1374.23 ng g-1 than A. flavus (maximum 635.50 ng g-1. Ochratoxin A production potential of A. ochraceous ranged from 1.81 to 9523.1 ng g-1, while in A. niger aggregates it was 1.30 to 1758.6 ng g-1. Isolation frequencies of fungal genera from maize-gluten meal were Aspergillus (63% and Penicillium (50%. A. flavus was the most frequently isolated species. Percentage of toxigenic fungi among Aspergillus isolates was 40%. Aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus were 33% and ochratoxigenic isolates of A. ochraceous were 100%.

  10. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky in storage condition

    Ram B Paneru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C. The findings showed that the maize genotypes had different response to maize weevil damage ranging from susceptible to tolerance. The genotypes Manakamana-3, Lumle White POP Corn and Ganesh-2 showed their tolerance to S. zeamais as evidenced by lower number of weevil emerged/attracted, lower amount of grain debris release and lower proportion of bored grains, while the genotype ZM-627 was the most susceptible to weevil damage in both tests. The other remaining genotypes were intermediate types. This information is useful to improve grain protection in storage and varietal improvement/release program.

  11. Historical genomics of North American maize

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hufford, M.B.; Ross-Ibarra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density

  12. Hormonal responses during early embryogenesis in maize.

    Chen, Junyi; Lausser, Andreas; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Plant hormones have been shown to regulate key processes during embryogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms that determine the peculiar embryo pattern formation of monocots are largely unknown. Using the auxin and cytokinin response markers DR5 and TCSv2 (two-component system, cytokinin-responsive promoter version #2), as well as the auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1a (PINFORMED1a), we have studied the hormonal response during early embryogenesis (zygote towards transition stage) in the model and crop plant maize. Compared with the hormonal response in Arabidopsis, we found that detectable hormone activities inside the developing maize embryo appeared much later. Our observations indicate further an important role of auxin, PIN1a and cytokinin in endosperm formation shortly after fertilization. Apparent auxin signals within adaxial endosperm cells and cytokinin responses in the basal endosperm transfer layer as well as chalazal endosperm are characteristic for early seed development in maize. Moreover, auxin signalling in endosperm cells is likely to be involved in exogenous embryo patterning as auxin responses in the endosperm located around the embryo proper correlate with adaxial embryo differentiation and outgrowth. Overall, the comparison between Arabidopsis and maize hormone response and flux suggests intriguing mechanisms in monocots that are used to direct their embryo patterning, which is significantly different from that of eudicots.

  13. INSECT AND MYCOFLORA INTERACTIONS IN MAIZE FLOUR ...

    Fusarium moniliforme had the highest occurrence of 36.7%, 28.1% and 33.3% while Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus had a frequency of 3.2%, 3.1% and 3% on primary isolation media of czapek dox agar (CDA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) respectively, in maize flour without T. castaneum.

  14. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  15. Zealactones. Novel natural strigolactones from maize

    Charnikhova, Tatsiana V.; Gaus, Katharina; Lumbroso, Alexandre; Sanders, Mark; Vincken, Jean Paul; Mesmaeker, de Alain; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.; Screpanti, Claudio; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2017-01-01

    In the root exudate and root extracts of maize hybrid cv NK Falkone seven putative strigolactones were detected using UPLC-TQ-MS-MS. All seven compounds displayed MS-MS-fragmentation common for strigolactones and particularly the presence of a fragment of m/z 97 Da, which may indicate the

  16. RESOURCE UTILISATION IN SOYBEAN/MAIZE INTERCROPS ...

    Soybean and maize may be planted as intercrops in alternating single rows in forage production systems to take advantage of available solar radiation and greater dry matter yields. Key Words: Nitrogen, row arrangement, photosynthetic active radiation, productivity. Résumé Des études des champs étaient conduites en ...

  17. Estimation of leaf area in tropical maize

    Elings, A.

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area development of six tropical maize cultivars grown in 1995 and 1996 in several tropical environments in Mexico (both favourable and moisture-and N-limited) was observed and analysed. First, the validity of a bell-shaped curve describing the area of individual leaves as a function of leaf

  18. Natural variation explains most transcriptomic changes among maize plants of MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties subjected to two N-fertilization farming practices

    Coll, A.; Nadal, A.; Collado, R.; Capellades, G.; Kubista, Mikael; Messeguer, J.; Pla, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 3 (2010), s. 349-362 ISSN 0167-4412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) * MON810 * Maize * Transcriptome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.149, year: 2010

  19. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were

  20. Effect of organic fertilizers on maize production in Eastern Georgia

    Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    Maize remains to be the most important cereal crop in Georgia. Total area of arable land under cereal crops production equals to 184 thousands hectares (FAO statistical yearbook, 2014), from which maize takes the biggest share. Leading position of maize among other cereal crops is caused by its dual purpose as food and feed product. In Spite of a relatively high production of maize to other cereals there is still a high demand on it, especially as feed for animal husbandry. The same tendency is seen in organic production, where producers of livestock and poultry products require organically grown maize, the average yield of which is much less than those produced conventionally. Therefore, it is important to increase productivity of maize in organic farms. Current study aimed to improve maize yield using locally produced organic fertilizers and to compare them to the effect of mineral fertilizers. The study was carried out in Eastern Georgia under dry subtropical climate conditions on local hybrid of maize. This is the first attempt to use hybrid maize (developed with organic plant breeding method) in organic field trials in Georgia. The results shown, that grain yield from two different types of organic fertilizers reached 70% of the yields achieved with industrial mineral fertilizers. As on farm level differences between organic and conventional maize production are much severe, the results from the field trials seems to be promising for future improvement of organic cereal crop production.

  1. Studies on the traditional methods of production of maize tuwo (a ...

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... on the quality characteristics of maize tuwo (a Nigerian nonfermented maize dumpling) ... The sequential mixing of flour and water during maize tuwo preparation should also ...

  2. Using the filter paper bridge technique for initiation of vitrocultures at maize

    Cristian Felix BLIDAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Alongside wheat, maize is one of the most important species of cereals used for food and feed as well as in the bioethanol industry. As a result of this fact, maize is today the spotlight of many researchers, constantly trying to increase the productivity of this species, particularly important i from the economic point of view. The main aim of this article is to investigate the efficiency of the Blidar type filter-paper bridges (BFPB in initiating the maize in vitro cultures for liquid culture media, in comparison with the conventional agarized culture media – solid culture media. In these experiments a modified Murashige-Skoog culture media (1962 (free of AIA and amino acids supplemented or not with agar, were used. The inocula consisted in caryopsis of Zea mays L. (hybrid Kiskun 4255 and based on the results of these experiments it can be underlined that growth increases for the cultivated vitroplants on liquid culture media provided with filter-paper bridges compared with those conventianlly cultivated on an agarized culture media, as following 5.34% for dry weight and 356.09% for leafs length.

  3. Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin contamination in Bt and non-Bt maize cultivated in Brazil.

    Barroso, Vinícius M; Rocha, Liliana O; Reis, Tatiana A; Reis, Gabriela M; Duarte, Aildson P; Michelotto, Marcos D; Correa, Benedito

    2017-05-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the main pathogens of maize, causing ear and stalk rots. This fungus is also able to produce high levels of fumonisins, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Previous studies have shown that maize hybrids genetically modified with the cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) presented lower incidence of F. verticillioides and fumonisin levels, presumably through the reduction of insects, which could act as vectors of fungi. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of F. verticillioides and the concentration of fumonisins in Bt and isogenic non-Bt hybrids (2B710Hx, 30F35YG, 2B710, and 30F35, respectively). The samples of 2B710Hx and 30F35YG presented lower F. verticillioides frequency than 2B710 and 30F35 samples. However, there was no statistical difference between fumonisin contamination when Bt and non-Bt samples were compared (P > 0.05). The results suggest that other environmental parameters could possibly trigger fumonisin production during plant development in the field; consequently, other management strategies should be applied to aid controlling fumonisin contamination in maize.

  4. The influence of maize kernel moisture on the sterilizing effect of gamma rays

    Khanymova, T.; Poloni, E.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of 4 levels of maize kernel moisture (16, 20, 25 and 30%) on gamma-ray sterilizing effect was studied and the after-effect of radiation on the microorganisms at short term storage was followed up. Maize kernels of the hybrid Knezha-36 produced in 1975 were used. Gamma-ray treatment of the kernels was effected by GUBEh-4000 irradiator at doses of 0.2 and 0.3 Mrad and after that they were stored for a month at 12 deg and 25 deg C and controlled moisture conditions. Surface and subepidermal infection of the kernels was determined immediately post irradiation and at the end of the experiment. Non-irradiated kernels were used as controls. Results indicated that the initial kernel moisture has a considerable influence on the sterilizing effect of gamma-rays at the rates used in the experiment and affects to a considerable extent the post-irradiation recovery of organisms. The speed of recovery was highest in the treatment with 30% moisture and lowest in the treatment with 16% kernel moisture. Irradiation of the kernels causes pronounced changes on the surface and subepidermal infection. This was due to the unequal radio resistance to the microbial components and to the modifying effect of the moisture holding capacity. The useful effect of maize kernel irradiation was more prolonged at 12 deg C than at 25 deg C

  5. Effects of intercropping on maize stemborers and their natural enemies

    Skovgård, Henrik; Päts, Peeter

    1996-01-01

    The effects of maize-cowpea intercropping on three lepidopteran stemborers (Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) C. orichalcociliellus (Strand) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson) and their natural enemies were studied in Kenya. Oviposition was not affected by intercropping, but significantly fewer larvae...... and wandering spiders, were not augmented by intercropping, but an inverse relationship in abundance was found between these two predator groups. It is concluded that maize intercropped with cowpea has only limited potential as a method of controlling the key pests in maize....

  6. Effect and fate of lindane in maize plant

    Bennaceur, M.; Ghezal, F.; Klaa, K.

    1992-10-01

    The fate and effect of lindane in maize plant, soil and predators were studied following insecticide application under field conditions. Respectively 84,2% and 93,3% of lindane residues were lost after 2 and 4 months in soil after treatment. About 90% of the insecticide was lost after one month in maize plant. Lindane residues were present in maize grains (0,205ppm). Lindane decreases the density of many predators in soils such as species of collembola, coccinellidae, formicidae, coleoptera

  7. Combining Maize Base Germplasm for Cold Tolerance Breeding

    Rodríguez Graña, Víctor Manuel; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Sandoya Miranda, Germán; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Revilla Temiño, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Early planting can contribute to increased grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.), but it requires cold tolerance. A limited number of cold-tolerant maize genotypes have been reported. The objectives of this study were to test a new strategy to improve cold tolerance in maize searching for broad x narrow genetic combinations that may be useful as base populations for breeding programs, to compare genotype performance under cold-controlled and field conditions, and to establish the major genetic e...

  8. Status and prospects of maize research in Nepal

    Govind KC; Tika B. Karki; Jiban Shrestha; Buddhi B. Achhami

    2015-01-01

    Food and nutritional securities are the major threats coupled with declining factor productivity and climate change effects in Nepal. Maize being the principal food crops of the majority of the hill people and source of animal feed for ever growing livestock industries in Terai of Nepal. Despite the many efforts made to increase the maize productivity in the country, the results are not much encouraging. Many of the maize based technologies developed and recommended for the farmers to date ar...

  9. Mixing of maize and wheat genomic DNA by somatic hybridization in regenerated sterile maize plants.

    Szarka, B.; Göntér, I.; Molnár-Láng, M.; Mórocz, S.; Dudits, D.

    2002-07-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybridization was performed between albino maize ( Zea mays L.) protoplasts and mesophyll protoplasts of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) by polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. None of the parental protoplasts were able to produce green plants without fusion. The maize cells regenerated only rudimentary albino plantlets of limited viability, and the wheat mesophyll protoplasts were unable to divide. PEG-mediated fusion treatments resulted in hybrid cells with mixed cytoplasm. Six months after fusion green embryogenic calli were selected as putative hybrids. The first-regenerates were discovered as aborted embryos. Regeneration of intact, green, maize-like plants needed 6 months of further subcultures on hormone-free medium. These plants were sterile, although had both male and female flowers. The cytological analysis of cells from callus tissues and root tips revealed 56 chromosomes, but intact wheat chromosomes were not observed. Using total DNA from hybrid plants, three RAPD primer combinations produced bands resembling the wheat profile. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total wheat DNA as a probe revealed the presence of wheat DNA islands in the maize chromosomal background. The increased viability and the restored green color were the most-significant new traits as compared to the original maize parent. Other intermediate morphological traits of plants with hybrid origin were not found.

  10. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage percentage by stem borer was up to 18.11%. Length of the feeding tunnel in maize stem was significantly higher in January than July. In case of exit holes made by borer counted more than four holes per plant that were planted in the month of January. All in all, except the tunnel length measurement per plant, we observed similar pattern in other borer damage parameters such as exit whole counts and plant damage percentage within the tested varieties. Stem borer damage was not significantly affect on grain yield.

  11. Propanol in maize silage at Danish dairy farms

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence maize silage containing propanol, the seasonal variation in propanol content of maize silage, and correlations between propanol and other fermentation products in maize silage collected from 20 randomly selected Danish dairy farms...... farms, the maize silage had ≥5 g propanol/kg DM. The present study indicates that dairy cows in Denmark are commonly exposed to propanol and that approximately 20% of the dairy cows will have an intake in the range of 75-100 g propanol/d under common feeding conditions....

  12. Aspergillus section Flavi community structure in Zambia influences aflatoxin contamination of maize and groundnut.

    Kachapulula, Paul W; Akello, Juliet; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Cotty, Peter J

    2017-11-16

    Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil. However, relationships between Aspergillus populations on crops and those resident in non-cultivated soils have not been explored. Because characterization of similar fungal populations outside of Zambia have resulted in strategies to prevent aflatoxins, the current study sought to improve understanding of fungal communities in cultivated and non-cultivated soils and in crops. Crops (n=412) and soils from cultivated (n=160) and non-cultivated land (n=60) were assayed for Aspergillus section Flavi from 2012 to 2016. The L-strain morphotype of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were dominant on maize and groundnut (60% and 42% of Aspergillus section Flavi, respectively). Incidences of A. flavus L-morphotype were negatively correlated with aflatoxin in groundnut (log y=2.4990935-0.09966x, R 2 =0.79, P=0.001) but not in maize. Incidences of A. parasiticus partially explained groundnut aflatoxin concentrations in all agroecologies and maize aflatoxin in agroecology III (log y=0.1956034+0.510379x, R 2 =0.57, Pagroecologies across Zambia gives support for modifying fungal community structure to reduce the aflatoxin-producing potential. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Distribution of azotobacter in rhizosphere of maize

    Tahir, M.B.; Baig, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Azotobacter distribution and species composition were studied under maize rhizosphere at four growth stages and in the uncropped soil (control). The study was conducted in the glazed pots with 10 kg soil in each pot. Soil in the pots was enriched with 20 mg N/kg and 15 mg/P/kg in the form of urea and single super phosphate, respectively. Six plants of maize variety Akbar were grown in 32 pots. Four pots were used as control (check). Sampling was done at four growth stages of 20, 40, 60 and 80 days after the germination of the crop. Results indicated that Azotobacter population increased as the plant growth progressed, reached maximum (1320) cells g/sup -1/ of soil at flowering stage and then declined. A chroococcum was found to be the dominant species in the main rhizosphere. (author)

  14. Grain yield stability of early maize genotypes

    Chitra Bahadur Kunwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate grain yield stability of early maize genotypes. Five early maize genotypes namely Pool-17, Arun1EV, Arun-4, Arun-2 and Farmer’s variety were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design along with three replications at four different locations namely Rampur, Rajahar, Pakhribas and Kabre districts of Nepal during summer seasons of three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012 under farmer’s fields. Genotype and genotype × environment (GGE biplot was used to identify superior genotype for grain yield and stability pattern. The genotypes Arun-1 EV and Arun-4 were better adapted for Kabre and Pakhribas where as pool-17 for Rajahar environments. The overall findings showed that Arun-1EV was more stable followed by Arun-2 therefore these two varieties can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in both environments.

  15. RESPONSIVENESS OF SPATIAL PRICE VOLATILITY TO INCREASED GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN MAIZE GRAIN AND MAIZE MEAL MARKETING IN ZAMBIA

    Syampaku, E.M; Mafimisebi, Taiwo Ejiola

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the responsiveness of maize grain and maize meal spatial price volatilities to increased government participation in maize grain marketing in Zambia using descriptive statistics and vector auto-regression (VAR). This was achieved by comparing spatial price volatility means and spatial price means for the period under increased government participation with respective means for periods under limited government participation. Also, spatial price volatilities were regressed ag...

  16. Temperature sensing by primary roots of maize

    Poff, K. L.

    1990-01-01

    Zea mays L. seedlings, grown on agar plates at 26 degrees C, reoriented the original vertical direction of their primary root when exposed to a thermal gradient applied perpendicular to the gravity vector. The magnitude and direction of curvature can not be explained simply by either a temperature or a humidity effect on root elongation. It is concluded that primary roots of maize sense temperature gradients in addition to sensing the gravitational force.

  17. Intraguild Competition of Three Noctuid Maize Pests.

    Bentivenha, J P F; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V; Blankenship, E E

    2016-08-01

    The western bean cutworm Striacosta albicosta (Smith), the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are among the major lepidopteran pests of maize in the United States, belonging to the same guild and injuring the reproductive tissues of this crop. Here, intraguild competition of these lepidopterans on non-Bt maize was evaluated through survival analysis of each species under laboratory and field conditions. Competition scenarios were carried out in arenas containing maize silk or ear tissue, using larvae on different stadium of development. Fitness cost competition studies were conducted to examine the influence of intraguild competition and cannibalism and predation rates on larval development. The survival of S. albicosta competing with the other species was significantly lower than in intraspecific competition, even when the larvae were more developed than the competitor. For S. frugiperda, survival remained high in the different competition scenarios, except when competing in a smaller stadium with H. zea Larvae of H. zea had a high rate of cannibalism, higher survival when competing against S. albicosta than S. frugiperda, and reduced survival when the H. zea larvae were at the same development stadium or smaller than the competitors. Based on fitness cost results, the absence of a competitor for the feeding source may confer an advantage to the larval development of S. frugiperda and H. zea Our data suggest that S. frugiperda has a competitive advantage against the other species, while S. albicosta has the disadvantage in the intraguild competition on non-Bt maize. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  19. Transcriptome Dynamics during Maize Endosperm Development.

    Jianzhou Qu

    Full Text Available The endosperm is a major organ of the seed that plays vital roles in determining seed weight and quality. However, genome-wide transcriptome patterns throughout maize endosperm development have not been comprehensively investigated to date. Accordingly, we performed a high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome at 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after pollination (DAP. We found that more than 11,000 protein-coding genes underwent alternative splicing (AS events during the four developmental stages studied. These genes were mainly involved in intracellular protein transport, signal transmission, cellular carbohydrate metabolism, cellular lipid metabolism, lipid biosynthesis, protein modification, histone modification, cellular amino acid metabolism, and DNA repair. Additionally, 7,633 genes, including 473 transcription factors (TFs, were differentially expressed among the four developmental stages. The differentially expressed TFs were from 50 families, including the bZIP, WRKY, GeBP and ARF families. Further analysis of the stage-specific TFs showed that binding, nucleus and ligand-dependent nuclear receptor activities might be important at 5 DAP, that immune responses, signalling, binding and lumen development are involved at 10 DAP, that protein metabolic processes and the cytoplasm might be important at 15 DAP, and that the responses to various stimuli are different at 20 DAP compared with the other developmental stages. This RNA-seq analysis provides novel, comprehensive insights into the transcriptome dynamics during early endosperm development in maize.

  20. Differential resistance reaction of maize genotypes to maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe at Chitwan, Nepal

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stem borer (MSB, Chilo partellus Swinhoe, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the most important insect pest of maize in Nepal. Host plant resistance is the cost-effective, ecologically sound and stable approach to reduce damage by stem borers. Forty four maize genotypes were screened for resistance to maize stem borer at the research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring seasons (March to June of two consecutive years 2013 and 2014. The maize genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications and data were collected on foliar damage rating, tunnel length and number of exit holes made by the borer. The foliar damage and tunnel length damage were significant for genotypes for both the years. The exit holes were not significant in 2013 but significant in 2014 ranging from 2-6 scale. The foliar rating ranged from 2 to 5.5 in 2013 and 1.1 to 4.5 in 2014 on a 1-9 rating scale. The highly resistant genotypes (10 cm scale. The least susceptible genotypes (<5 cm were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18. The genotypes having least exit holes (2.0 in 2014 were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02, RampurS10F18. Thus less damage parameters were observed in R-POP-2, RML-5/RML-8, RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18 and therefore they can be used as parents or as sources of resistance in breeding program.

  1. The response of maize production in Kenya to economic incentives

    Onono, P.A.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development policy in Kenya has emphasised the use of incentives towards increased production and therefore self-sufficiency in maize which is a basic staple for most households. The channels used to provide incentives to maize farmers over the years include setting higher producer prices; subsidisation of inputs; provision of agricultural credit, research and extension services; construction and maintenance of roads, development of irrigation and water systems; legislative, institutional and macroeconomic reforms. Despite these efforts outputof maize has remained below domestic requirements in most years and the country continues to rely on imports to meet the deficits. Studies have assessed the responsiveness of maize to output price and reported inelastic responses and have recommended policies targeting non-price incentives to complement prices for the required increased production of maize. The studies, however, did not analyse the influence of the non-price incentives on the production of the crop. The findings of those studies are therefore deficient in explaining the relative importance of different non-price incentives and how they complement prices in influencing maize production in Kenya. This study investigated the response of maize production to both price and non-price incentives. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relative importance of non-price factors in influencing production of the crops as well as complementarity between price and non-price incentives. The findings show that maize production responds positively to its output price, development expenditures in agriculture, maize sales to marketing boards, growth in per capita GDP, liberalisation and governance reforms. However, maize production responds negatively to fertiliser price and unfavourable weather conditions. The response of maize output to its price is lower with rising inflation and grain market liberalisation.

  2. Modified SEAGULL

    Salas, M. D.; Kuehn, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Original version of program incorporated into program SRGULL (LEW-15093) for use on National Aero-Space Plane project, its duty being to model forebody, inlet, and nozzle portions of vehicle. However, real-gas chemistry effects in hypersonic flow fields limited accuracy of that version, because it assumed perfect-gas properties. As a result, SEAGULL modified according to real-gas equilibrium-chemistry methodology. This program analyzes two-dimensional, hypersonic flows of real gases. Modified version of SEAGULL maintains as much of original program as possible, and retains ability to execute original perfect-gas version.

  3. The influence of farmers\\' adoption behaviour on maize production ...

    This study was therefore designed to determine the contribution of farmers\\' adoption of recommended maize production practices, namely maize varieties, seed spacing, fertilization and weeding on production efficiency in order to assess the soundness of the advice given to farmers. The research was conducted in the ...

  4. Effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients ...

    A field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, in early 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients and performance of maize. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design, with four levels of crop ...

  5. Regeneration of tropical maize lines ( Zea mays l .) from mature ...

    The use of immature zygotic embryos as an explant for maize regeneration has been hampered by the strictly limited suitable duration of immature embryos for culture. In contrast, mature zygotic embryos harvested from dry seeds are ubiquitous. However, generally mature embryos and especially tropical maize genotypes ...

  6. Aflatoxin Levels in Locally Grown Maize from Makueni District, Kenya

    Objectives: Investigations were carried out to determine aflatoxin levels in household maize in Makueni District and to correlate aflatoxin levels to maize drying and storage practices. Also, aflatoxin exposure in villages that reported aflatoxicosis cases in 2005 was compared with that in villages that did not report cases to ...

  7. Combining ability for maize grain yield and other agronomic ...

    Field experiments were conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons with the objective to evaluate the combining ability for maize grain yield and other agronomic characters in 10 open pollinated maize varieties, which have been selected for high yield and stress ...

  8. Evaluating Terra MODIS Satellite Sensor Data Products for Maize ...

    Evaluating Terra MODIS Satellite Sensor Data Products for Maize Yield Estimation in South Africa. C Frost, N Thiebaut, T Newby. Abstract. The Free State Province of the Republic of South Africa contains some of the most important maize-producing areas in South Africa. For this reason this province has also been selected ...

  9. Replacement Value of Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on Carcass ...

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.

  10. Maize gene banks helps farmers adapt to new challenges | IDRC ...

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... English · Français ... The farmers use a multitude of maize (corn) varieties – landraces – that are “very well adapted to harsh environments and poor soils, and ... These varieties were then “frozen in time” in maize gene banks.

  11. A Technique for Identification of Intrinsic Resistance of Maize ...

    ... the insect fat body to determine the levels of fat body vitellogenin (FVg) in the vitellogenic S. zeamais females which were reared on different maize varieties. Results on levels of FVg varied and ranged from 83.33% to 43.33% in insects raised in different varieties ANOVA of FVg, maize weight loss and F1 numbers showed ...

  12. Sporophytic control of pollen tube growth and guidance in maize

    Lausser, Andreas; Kliwer, Irina; Srilunchang, Kanok-orn; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tube germination, growth, and guidance (progamic phase) culminating in sperm discharge is a multi-stage process including complex interactions between the male gametophyte as well as sporophytic tissues and the female gametophyte (embryo sac), respectively. Inter- and intra-specific crossing barriers in maize and Tripsacum have been studied and a precise description of progamic pollen tube development in maize is reported here. It was found that pollen germination and initial tube growth are rather unspecific, but an early, first crossing barrier was detected before arrival at the transmitting tract. Pollination of maize silks with Tripsacum pollen and incompatible pollination of Ga1s/Ga1s-maize silks with ga1-maize pollen revealed another two incompatibility barriers, namely transmitting tract mistargeting and insufficient growth support. Attraction and growth support by the transmitting tract seem to play key roles for progamic pollen tube growth. After leaving transmitting tracts, pollen tubes have to navigate across the ovule in the ovular cavity. Pollination of an embryo sac-less maize RNAi-line allowed the role of the female gametophyte for pollen tube guidance to be determined in maize. It was found that female gametophyte controlled guidance is restricted to a small region around the micropyle, approximately 50–100 μm in diameter. This area is comparable to the area of influence of previously described ZmEA1-based short-range female gametophyte signalling. In conclusion, the progamic phase is almost completely under sporophytic control in maize. PMID:19926683

  13. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. OO Alabi, AAA Coker, ME Idegbesor. Abstract. This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the ...

  14. Sources of Technical Efficiency Among Smallholders Maize Farmers ...

    The results show that the mean technical efficiency score for famers in the study area is 62.3%. This implies that there is a significant room for increasing maize yield in the study area if farmers use the resources at their disposal efficiently. Moreover, the results show that the efficiency of maize farmers in the study area is ...

  15. Determinants of technical inefficiency among maize-based farming ...

    Examining the level of farm-specific technical inefficiency of maize-based farming households in Niger state of Nigeria, this study fitted cross-sectional data into a Cobb- Douglass production frontier. Data used for this study were obtained using structured questionnaire administered to 108 randomly selected maize-based ...

  16. design, construction and performance analysis of a maize thresher

    ES Obe

    and evaluate a low cost maize sheller for rural farmers in Nigeria. ... between the human performance index for shelling and the machine .... maize in a mechanized system is the size of the ... factors are the design of the power transmis- .... and reliability in line with [11]). .... PGD thesis, Department of Mechanical En-.

  17. Contributions of Zea mays subspecies mexicana haplotypes to modern maize.

    Yang, Ning; Xu, Xi-Wen; Wang, Rui-Ru; Peng, Wen-Lei; Cai, Lichun; Song, Jia-Ming; Li, Wenqiang; Luo, Xin; Niu, Luyao; Wang, Yuebin; Jin, Min; Chen, Lu; Luo, Jingyun; Deng, Min; Wang, Long; Pan, Qingchun; Liu, Feng; Jackson, David; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-11-30

    Maize was domesticated from lowland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), but the contribution of highland teosinte (Zea mays ssp. mexicana, hereafter mexicana) to modern maize is not clear. Here, two genomes for Mo17 (a modern maize inbred) and mexicana are assembled using a meta-assembly strategy after sequencing of 10 lines derived from a maize-teosinte cross. Comparative analyses reveal a high level of diversity between Mo17, B73, and mexicana, including three Mb-size structural rearrangements. The maize spontaneous mutation rate is estimated to be 2.17 × 10 -8 ~3.87 × 10 -8 per site per generation with a nonrandom distribution across the genome. A higher deleterious mutation rate is observed in the pericentromeric regions, and might be caused by differences in recombination frequency. Over 10% of the maize genome shows evidence of introgression from the mexicana genome, suggesting that mexicana contributed to maize adaptation and improvement. Our data offer a rich resource for constructing the pan-genome of Zea mays and genetic improvement of modern maize varieties.

  18. Analysis of the Supply Response of Maize Producers in Nigeria ...

    The research work analyzed the supply response of maize producers in Nigeria and its implication for agricultural trade. The period covered was 1987-2007 (20 years) and data were collected on import quantity and value, export quantity and value, price of maize, price of its substitute, output and hectarage within the time ...

  19. Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management ...

    Several production constraints have led to low yields (< 2.5 t ha-1) in maize (Zea mays L.) inUganda, among which are weeds. This study investigated the most cost-effective integrated weedmanagement (IWM) approach in maize in eastern Uganda. An experiment was conducted atIkulwe station, Mayuge in 2011 and 2012 ...

  20. Interaction of maize chromatin-associated HMG proteins with mononucleosomes

    Lichota, J.; Grasser, Klaus D.

    2003-01-01

    maize HMGA and five different HMGB proteins with mononucleosomes (containing approx. 165 bp of DNA) purified from micrococcal nuclease-digested maize chromatin. The HMGB proteins interacted with the nucleosomes independent of the presence of the linker histone H1, while the binding of HMGA...

  1. Genomic variation in recently collected maize landraces from Mexico

    María Clara Arteaga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present dataset comprises 36,931 SNPs genotyped in 46 maize landraces native to Mexico as well as the teosinte subspecies Zea maiz ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana. These landraces were collected directly from farmers mostly between 2006 and 2010. We accompany these data with a short description of the variation within each landrace, as well as maps, principal component analyses and neighbor joining trees showing the distribution of the genetic diversity relative to landrace, geographical features and maize biogeography. High levels of genetic variation were detected for the maize landraces (HE = 0.234 to 0.318 (mean 0.311, while slightly lower levels were detected in Zea m. mexicana and Zea m. parviglumis (HE = 0.262 and 0.234, respectively. The distribution of genetic variation was better explained by environmental variables given by the interaction of altitude and latitude than by landrace identity. This dataset is a follow up product of the Global Native Maize Project, an initiative to update the data on Mexican maize landraces and their wild relatives, and to generate information that is necessary for implementing the Mexican Biosafety Law. Keywords: Maize, Teosinte, Maize SNP50K BeadChip, Mexican landraces, Proyecto Global de Maíces Nativos

  2. Occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in maize kernels and ...

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen. 660 pre- and post- harvest maize samples were collected from major maize growing areas in Tamil Nadu, India. Aflatoxin contamination was observed in ...

  3. Ion beam biotechnology and its application to maize breeding

    Yu Lixia; Li Wenjian; Dong Xicun; Zhou Libin; Ma Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid of 1980's, ion beam had been widely used in mutagenic breeding of various crops. Ion beam biotechnology had provided a new way for improving corn variety and creating new germplasm resources, and had promoted the development of maize breeding. The ion beam characteristics, the mutagenic mechanism and its application in maize breeding were described. (authors)

  4. Detection of optimum maturity of maize using image processing and ...

    A CCD camera for image acquisition of the different green colorations of the maize leaves at maturity was used. Different color features were extracted from the image processing system (MATLAB) and used as inputs to the artificial neural network that classify different levels of maturity. Keywords: Maize, Maturity, CCD ...

  5. Diversity in global maize germplasm: Characterization and utilization

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is not only of worldwide importance as a food, feed and as a source of diverse industrially important products, but is also a model genetic organism with immense genetic diversity. Although it was first domesticated in Mexico, maize landraces are widely found across the continents. Several studies in ...

  6. Genetic diversity of Pakistani maize genotypes using chromosome ...

    For improvement of maize crop presence of genetic diversity in the germplasm is very important. This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity among 17 Pakistani maize genotypes using 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer sets. All the amplification products were in the range of <250-750 bp. To estimate the ...

  7. Significance and transmission of maize streak virus disease in Africa ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... soil nutrients, altitude and temperature on the biology of maize streak virus (MSV) / vector populations is discussed. ... status of maize host plants and its effects on population dynamics of Cicadulina mbila Naudé. (Homoptera: ..... time necessary for the leafhopper to reach the mesophyll of the leaf and ingest ...

  8. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  9. Status and prospects of maize research in Nepal

    Govind KC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and nutritional securities are the major threats coupled with declining factor productivity and climate change effects in Nepal. Maize being the principal food crops of the majority of the hill people and source of animal feed for ever growing livestock industries in Terai of Nepal. Despite the many efforts made to increase the maize productivity in the country, the results are not much encouraging. Many of the maize based technologies developed and recommended for the farmers to date are not fully adopted. Therefore, problem is either on technology development or on dissemination or on both. Considering the above facts, some of the innovative and modern approaches of plant breeding and crop management technologies to increase the maize yield need to be developed and disseminated. There is a need for location-specific maize production technologies, especially for lowland winter maize, marginal upland maize production system, and resource poor farmers. Research efforts can be targeted to address both yield potential and on-farm yields by reducing the impacts of abiotic and biotic constraints. Therefore, in order to streamline the future direction of maize research in Nepal, an attempt has been made in this article to highlight the present status and future prospects with few key pathways.

  10. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Keywords: Sudanese maize genotypes, embryogenic callus, regeneration, and tissue culture. INTRODUCTION. Maize is an important food and forage crop in the North- ern and Southern regions of ... Skoog, 1965) containing 60 g l-1 sucrose and lacking 2,4-D (referred to as maturation or RI medium) and ...

  11. Intraplant communication in maize contributes to defense against insects

    The vasculature of plants act as a channel for transport of signal(s) that facilitate long-distance intraplant communication. In maize, Maize insect resistance1-Cysteine Protease (Mir1-CP), which has homology to papain-like proteases, provides defense to different feeding guilds of insect pests. Fur...

  12. Studies on biochemical changes in maize wastes fermented with ...

    In an attempt to transform the agricultural waste products of maize cobs and shafts into useful products such as animal feeds and reduce the pollution effects of these wastes during maize seasons, they were fermented using Aspergillus niger for 72 hours. The fermented residues were analyzed with regard to proximate ...

  13. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. A comparison between hominy chop and defatted maize germ meal ...

    Defatted maize germ meal (DMG) is arbitrarily rated at a lower economic value than maize meal or hominy chop (HC). Five treatments with 15 steers each were fed different inclusion levels of DMG (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), replacing hominy chop during the fattening period. Slaughter data were collected for carcass ...

  15. Performance and Energy Metabolism by Broiler Chickens Fed Maize ...

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize grain with different dietary levels of maize and millet offals on performance and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Proximate composition and metabolizable energy (ME) values were determined. Feeding trial was also conducted to comparemaize and ...

  16. Climate Change and Maize Production: Empirical Evidence from ...

    Michael Madukwe

    Time series data on aggregate maize production, fertilizer use, .... The maize response model (eqn 3) was estimated using the time series data for ... The R. 2 value obtained from the equation is 0.534. This further indicates that aggregate total.

  17. Sub-Saharan African maize-based foods

    Ekpa, Onu; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Kruseman, Gideon; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2018-01-01

    The demand for maize in Sub-Saharan Africa will triple by 2050 due to rapid population growth, while challenges from climate change will threaten agricultural productivity. Most maize breeding programmes have focused on improving agronomic properties and have paid relatively little attention to

  18. Evaluating Terra MODIS Satellite Sensor Data Products for Maize ...

    Celeste

    Maize plants mature on average from 120 to 165 days after planting. ... is a maize yield estimation timing model, developed using data from the ... The objective yields were surveyed and randomly selected from results of the stratified point ... are used in formulae (Frost, 2006) to derive plant population and a predicted ...

  19. Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in ...

    Two staple foods (maize and mung beans) which were cultivated in Minjingu village, where there is phosphate deposit in Tanzania, were collected directly from the farms. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th and 40K were determined in the maize and mung beans samples using γ ray spectrometry employing HPGe ...

  20. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  1. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    Marianne Iversen

    Full Text Available Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008. Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed. Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013% and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%. Three of the 20 seed samples (15% included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603 intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10% included genes for insect resistance (from MON810. In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system.

  2. Estimating plant distance in maize using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Zhang, Jinshui; Basso, Bruno; Price, Richard F; Putman, Gregory; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2018-01-01

    Distance between rows and plants are essential parameters that affect the final grain yield in row crops. This paper presents the results of research intended to develop a novel method to quantify the distance between maize plants at field scale using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Using this method, we can recognize maize plants as objects and calculate the distance between plants. We initially developed our method by training an algorithm in an indoor facility with plastic corn plants. Then, the method was scaled up and tested in a farmer's field with maize plant spacing that exhibited natural variation. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to precisely quantify the distance between maize plants. We found that accuracy of the measurement of the distance between maize plants depended on the height above ground level at which UAV imagery was taken. This study provides an innovative approach to quantify plant-to-plant variability and, thereby final crop yield estimates.

  3. Fungal Diversity of Maize (Zea Mays L. Grains

    Gulbis Kaspars

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is becoming more and more important crop for dairy farming as forage and as substrate for biogas production. The mycotoxin producing fungi can spoil feed, reduce cattle productivity and cause health problems. The aim of this research was to study the mycoflora of maize grains in order to clarify the fungal composition and verify the presence of potential mycotoxin producing fungi. The grain samples were collected from different maize hybrid performance trial in Research and Study farm “Vecauce” of Latvia University of Agriculture in 2014. The fungi from 14 genera were isolated from surface sterilized grains. The most abundant were Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium spp. Mycotoxin producing fungi are present in maize grain mycoflora, and there is a risk that maize production can contain mycotoxins.

  4. Level of zinc in maize seeds and maize growing soils of central ...

    Ethiopia is one of the world countries with reported zinc deficiency or high probability of zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency is an important soil constraint to crop production, food quality and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the zinc concentration of different cultivars of maize seeds and soil samples in central ...

  5. Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread ...

    Properties examined included amylose content, bulk density, dispersibility, swelling power, water absorption capacity and viscoelastic properties. The effect of the different flour/meal samples on the properties of sour maize bread were evaluated by baking bread samples with the different flours/meals using a mixed starter ...

  6. Responses by earthworms to reduced tillage in herbicide tolerant maize and Bt maize cropping systems

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B.; Demsar, D.

    2007-01-01

    -toxin producing transgenic maize line MON810 was studied for 1 year. At a Danish study site, Foulum (Jutland), one year of Bt corn was followed by 2 years of herbicide tolerant corn. At the French study site the most prominent effects observed were due to the tillage method where RT significantly reduced...

  7. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize (corn) lethal necrosis in Kenya

    In September 2011, high incidence of a new maize (Zea mays L.) disease was reported at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central division, spreading into the neighboring Chepalungu and Narok South...

  8. A comparative study on infestation of three varieties of maize ( Zea ...

    A study was carried out to study the infestation of three maize varieties (Maize suwan I–Y, Maize T2 USR – White single cross and Maize suwan 123) by Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Infestation was assessed by counting the numbers of alive and dead adults and the number of infested and uninfested seeds. It was found out ...

  9. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  10. The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and ...

    The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and Reaction to Grey ... East African Journal of Sciences ... (GLS) to maize production, the national maize research program of Ethiopia ... The information from this study will be useful for the development of high-yielding and GLS disease-resistant maize varieties.

  11. MaizeGDB: enabling access to basic, translational, and applied research information

    MaizeGDB is the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (available online at http://www.maizegdb.org). The MaizeGDB project is not simply an online database and website but rather an information service to maize researchers that supports customized data access and analysis needs to individual research...

  12. Seed treatments enhance photosynthesis in maize seedlings by reducing infection with Fusarium spp. and consequent disease development in maize

    The effects of a seed treatment on early season growth, seedling disease development, incidence Fusarium spp. infection, and photosynthetic performance of maize were evaluated at two locations in Iowa in 2007. Maize seed was either treated with Cruiser 2Extreme 250 ® (fludioxonil + azoxystrobin + me...

  13. Genomic-based-breeding tools for tropical maize improvement.

    Chakradhar, Thammineni; Hindu, Vemuri; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar

    2017-12-01

    Maize has traditionally been the main staple diet in the Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and widely grown by millions of resource poor small scale farmers. Approximately, 35.4 million hectares are sown to tropical maize, constituting around 59% of the developing worlds. Tropical maize encounters tremendous challenges besides poor agro-climatic situations with average yields recorded <3 tones/hectare that is far less than the average of developed countries. On the contrary to poor yields, the demand for maize as food, feed, and fuel is continuously increasing in these regions. Heterosis breeding introduced in early 90 s improved maize yields significantly, but genetic gains is still a mirage, particularly for crop growing under marginal environments. Application of molecular markers has accelerated the pace of maize breeding to some extent. The availability of array of sequencing and genotyping technologies offers unrivalled service to improve precision in maize-breeding programs through modern approaches such as genomic selection, genome-wide association studies, bulk segregant analysis-based sequencing approaches, etc. Superior alleles underlying complex traits can easily be identified and introgressed efficiently using these sequence-based approaches. Integration of genomic tools and techniques with advanced genetic resources such as nested association mapping and backcross nested association mapping could certainly address the genetic issues in maize improvement programs in developing countries. Huge diversity in tropical maize and its inherent capacity for doubled haploid technology offers advantage to apply the next generation genomic tools for accelerating production in marginal environments of tropical and subtropical world. Precision in phenotyping is the key for success of any molecular-breeding approach. This article reviews genomic technologies and their application to improve agronomic traits in tropical maize breeding has been reviewed in

  14. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  15. Forages and Pastures Symposium: development of and field experience with drought-tolerant maize.

    Soderlund, S; Owens, F N; Fagan, C

    2014-07-01

    Drought-tolerant maize hybrids currently are being marketed by several seed suppliers. Such hybrids were developed by phenotypic and marker-assisted selection or through genetic modification and tested by exposing these hybrids to various degrees of water restriction. As drought intensifies, crop yields and survival progressively decline. Water need differs among plants due to differences in root structure, evaporative loss, capacity to store water or enter temporary dormancy, and plant genetics. Availability of water differs widely not only with rainfall and irrigation but also with numerous soil and agronomic factors (e.g., soil type, slope, seeding rates, tillage practices). Reduced weed competition, enhanced pollen shed and silk production, and deep, robust root growth help to reduce the negative impacts of drought. Selected drought-tolerant maize hybrids have consistently yielded more grain even when drought conditions are not apparent either due to reduced use of soil water reserves before water restriction or due to greater tolerance of intermittent water shortages. In DuPont Pioneer trials, whole plant NDF digestibility of maize increased with water restriction, perhaps due to an increased leaf to stem ratio. Efficiency of water use, measured as dry matter or potential milk yield from silage per unit of available water, responded quadratically to water restriction, first increasing slightly but then decreasing as water restriction increased. For grain production, water restriction has its greatest negative impact during or after silking through reducing the number of kernels and reducing kernel filling. For silage production, water restriction during the vegetative growth stage negatively impacts plant height and biomass yield. Earlier planting and shorter season maize hybrids help to avoid midsummer heat stress during pollination and can reduce the number of irrigation events needed. Although drought tolerance of maize hybrids has been improved due to

  16. Towards Better Simulation of US Maize Yield Responses to Climate in the Community Earth System Model

    Peng, B.; Guan, K.; Chen, M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Jin, Z.; Bernacchi, C.; Ainsworth, E. A.; DeLucia, E. H.; Lombardozzi, D. L.; Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Global food security is undergoing continuing pressure from increased population and climate change despites the potential advancement in breeding and management technologies. Earth system models (ESMs) are essential tools to study the impacts of historical and future climate on regional and global food production, as well as to assess the effectiveness of possible adaptations and their potential feedback to climate. Here we developed an improved maize representation within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) by combining the strengths of both the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) models. Specifically, we modified the maize planting scheme, incorporated the phenology scheme adopted from the APSIM model, added a new carbon allocation scheme into CLM4.5, and improved the estimation of canopy structure parameters including leaf area index (LAI) and canopy height. Unique features of the new model (CLM-APSIM) include more detailed phenology stages, an explicit implementation of the impacts of various abiotic environmental stresses (including nitrogen, water, temperature and heat stresses) on maize phenology and carbon allocation, as well as an explicit simulation of grain number and grain size. We conducted a regional simulation of this new model over the US Corn Belt during 1990 to 2010. The simulated maize yield as well as its responses to climate (growing season mean temperature and precipitation) are benchmarked with data from UADA NASS statistics. Our results show that the CLM-APSIM model outperforms the CLM4.5 in simulating county-level maize yield production and reproduces more realistic yield responses to climate variations than CLM4.5. However, some critical processes (such as crop failure due to frost and inundation and suboptimal growth condition due to biotic stresses) are still missing in both CLM-APSIM and CLM4.5, making the simulated yield responses to climate slightly deviate from the

  17. Genetic Factors Involved in Fumonisin Accumulation in Maize Kernels and Their Implications in Maize Agronomic Management and Breeding.

    Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2015-08-20

    Contamination of maize with fumonisins depends on the environmental conditions; the maize resistance to contamination and the interaction between both factors. Although the effect of environmental factors is a determinant for establishing the risk of kernel contamination in a region, there is sufficient genetic variability among maize to develop resistance to fumonisin contamination and to breed varieties with contamination at safe levels. In addition, ascertaining which environmental factors are the most important in a region will allow the implementation of risk monitoring programs and suitable cultural practices to reduce the impact of such environmental variables. The current paper reviews all works done to address the influence of environmental variables on fumonisin accumulation, the genetics of maize resistance to fumonisin accumulation, and the search for the biochemical and/or structural mechanisms of the maize plant that could be involved in resistance to fumonisin contamination. We also explore the outcomes of breeding programs and risk monitoring of undertaken projects.

  18. Climatic and non-climatic drivers of spatiotemporal maize-area dynamics across the northern limit for maize production

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that the ongoing anthropogenic climate change will drive changes in agricultural production and its geographic distribution. Here, we assess the extent to which climate change is already driving spatiotemporal dynamics in maize production in Denmark. We use advanced spatial...... regression modeling with multi-model averaging to assess the extent to which the recent spatiotemporal dynamics of the maize area in Denmark are driven by climate (temperature as represented by maize heating units [MHU] and growing-season precipitation), climate change and non-climatic factors (cattle...... cultivation and cattle farming, probably reflecting a change to a more favorable climate for maize cultivation: in the beginning of the study period, northern areas were mostly too cold for maize cultivation, irrespective of cattle density, but this limitation has been diminishing as climate has warmed...

  19. New inoculants on maize silage fermentation

    Fábia Giovana do Val de Assis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculants at two inoculation rates on chemical and biological characteristics of maize silage. The treatments consisted of two inoculating rates (5 and 6 log cfu g-1 of forage for each strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB identified as Lactobacillus buchneri, L. hilgardii, or L. plantarum. The maize was ensiled in experimental PVC silos. Samples were taken for the determination of the contents of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, organic acids and alcohols, for the evaluation of the populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and for the determination of pH values during ensilage and after 30 or 90 days of fermentation. The doses of inoculants did not promote significant differences on the evaluated characteristics. There was effect of inoculants on acetic acid, 1.2-propanediol, LAB population, filamentous fungi, and pH value. No significant influence of the treatments with inoculants was observed in the variables DM, WSC, CP, lactic acid concentrations, or ethanol. The maximum temperature, i.e., the time to achieve the maximum temperature (TMT and aerobic stability (AS, was not influencied by treatments. However, a decrease in maximum temperature, an increase in TMT, and improvement in the AS were observed after 90 days of fermentation. These results proved the advantage of microbial inoculation. The treatments influenced LAB populations and filamentous fungi, but no effect was observed on the yeast population. The best inoculation dose is 6 cfu g-1 of forage because it provides higher reduction of filamentous fungi in maize silage, thereby decreasing the aerobic deterioration by these microorganisms.

  20. Selected parameters of maize straw briquettes combustion

    Kraszkiewicz Artur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the process of burning briquettes made of maize straw was performed. A number of traits have been evaluated, including physical characteristics of the fuel through parameters describing combustion kinetics as well as products and combustion efficiency. The study was conducted in a grate boiler, during which the differentiating factor was the air velocity flowing to the boiler. It was observed that the obtained values of the considered parameters were different, particularly temperature of the flue gas and the amount of CO and SO2 in the flue gas.

  1. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  2. Production of a Highly Protease-Resistant Fungal α-Galactosidase in Transgenic Maize Seeds for Simplified Feed Processing.

    Yang, Wenxia; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiaolu; Chen, Rumei; Meng, Qingchang; Yuan, Jianhua; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Raffinose-family oligosaccharide (RFO) in soybeans is one of the major anti-nutritional factors for poultry and livestocks. α-Galactosidase is commonly supplemented into the animal feed to hydrolyze α-1,6-galactosidic bonds on the RFOs. To simplify the feed processing, a protease-resistant α-galactosidase encoding gene from Gibberella sp. strain F75, aga-F75, was modified by codon optimization and heterologously expressed in the embryos of transgentic maize driven by the embryo-specific promoter ZM-leg1A. The progenies were produced by backcrossing with the commercial inbred variety Zheng58. PCR, southern blot and western blot analysis confirmed the stable integration and tissue specific expression of the modified gene, aga-F75m, in seeds over four generations. The expression level of Aga-F75M reached up to 10,000 units per kilogram of maize seeds. In comparison with its counterpart produced in Pichia pastoris strain GS115, maize seed-derived Aga-F75M showed a lower temperature optimum (50 °C) and lower stability over alkaline pH range, but better thermal stability at 60 °C to 70 °C and resistance to feed pelleting inactivation (80 °C). This is the first report of producing α-galactosidase in transgenic plant. The study offers an effective and economic approach for direct utilization of α-galactosidase-producing maize without any purification or supplementation procedures in the feed processing.

  3. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, Chris; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  4. Growing sensitivity of maize to water scarcity under climate change.

    Meng, Qingfeng; Chen, Xinping; Lobell, David B; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Haishun; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-01-25

    Climate change can reduce crop yields and thereby threaten food security. The current measures used to adapt to climate change involve avoiding crops yield decrease, however, the limitations of such measures due to water and other resources scarcity have not been well understood. Here, we quantify how the sensitivity of maize to water availability has increased because of the shift toward longer-maturing varieties during last three decades in the Chinese Maize Belt (CMB). We report that modern, longer-maturing varieties have extended the growing period by an average of 8 days and have significantly offset the negative impacts of climate change on yield. However, the sensitivity of maize production to water has increased: maize yield across the CMB was 5% lower with rainfed than with irrigated maize in the 1980s and was 10% lower (and even >20% lower in some areas) in the 2000s because of both warming and the increased requirement for water by the longer-maturing varieties. Of the maize area in China, 40% now fails to receive the precipitation required to attain the full yield potential. Opportunities for water saving in maize systems exist, but water scarcity in China remains a serious problem.

  5. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  6. Estimation of the in situ degradation of the washout fraction of starch by using a modified in situ protocol and in vitro measurements

    Jonge, de L.H.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    The in situ degradation of the washout fraction of starch in six feed ingredients (i.e. barley, faba beans, maize, oats, peas and wheat) was studied by using a modified in situ protocol and in vitro measurements. In comparison with the washing machine method, the modified protocol comprises a milder

  7. From many, one: genetic control of prolificacy during maize domestication.

    David M Wills

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant, we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1 was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb "causative region" upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1 gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize.

  8. Multicollinearity in canonical correlation analysis in maize.

    Alves, B M; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Burin, C

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of multicollinearity under two methods of canonical correlation analysis (with and without elimination of variables) in maize (Zea mays L.) crop. Seventy-six maize genotypes were evaluated in three experiments, conducted in a randomized block design with three replications, during the 2009/2010 crop season. Eleven agronomic variables (number of days from sowing until female flowering, number of days from sowing until male flowering, plant height, ear insertion height, ear placement, number of plants, number of ears, ear index, ear weight, grain yield, and one thousand grain weight), 12 protein-nutritional variables (crude protein, lysine, methionine, cysteine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine, and arginine), and 6 energetic-nutritional variables (apparent metabolizable energy, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen, ether extract, crude fiber, starch, and amylose) were measured. A phenotypic correlation matrix was first generated among the 29 variables for each of the experiments. A multicollinearity diagnosis was later performed within each group of variables using methodologies such as variance inflation factor and condition number. Canonical correlation analysis was then performed, with and without the elimination of variables, among groups of agronomic and protein-nutritional, and agronomic and energetic-nutritional variables. The canonical correlation analysis in the presence of multicollinearity (without elimination of variables) overestimates the variability of canonical coefficients. The elimination of variables is an efficient method to circumvent multicollinearity in canonical correlation analysis.

  9. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  10. Temperature affects radiation use efficiency in maize

    Andrade, F.H.; Uhart, S.A.; Cirilo, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study, under field conditions, the effect of temperature on radiation use efficiency (RUE) of maize. Field evidence of the negative effect of low temperature on this variable is lacking. Experiments with different sowing dates and five years of experimentation with October plantings provided a range of average temperatures during the vegetative period from 15.8 to 20.9°C. Delaying the sowing time from September to November produced a highly significant increase in RUE. There was a positive association between RUE and mean temperature from emergence to flowering. Efficiencies varied from 2.27 to 3.17 g of dry matter per MJ of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation for October plantings of five different years. With these data, a positive and significant association between RUE and mean temperature during the November–December vegetative period was found. Across years and planting dates, RUE and mean temperature during the vegetative period were closely correlated (r = 0.87). The regression equation was RUE = −1.8 + 0.07 T. Based on this evidence, it was concluded that low temperatures reduce RUE in maize. (author)

  11. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock.

  12. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

    Jiban Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10521 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  13. Effects of maize maturity at harvest and dietary proportion of maize silage on intake and performance of growing/finishing bulls

    Zaralis, K.; Nørgaard, P.; Helander, C.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-crop maize silage as forage in diets of finishing cattle can promote high intakes and thus, enhances animal performance. In the present study we evaluated the effect of whole-crop maize maturity at harvest and the proportion of maize-silage in diets of finishing bulls, on feed intake...... of treatments, involving two maturity stages of maize at harvest (i.e. dough stage or dent stage) and two maize silage proportions (i.e. 100% maize silage or 50% maize and 50% grass silage). The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations (TMRs) with inclusion of concentrates (i.e. rolled barley; dried...... distillers’ grain plus soluble; cold-pressed rapeseed cake) in a 40% proportion on DM basis. All animals were slaughtered at a target body weight of 630 kg. Bulls fed on diets containing maize silage as sole forage achieved higher live-weight gain (P

  14. Interfacial Modifiers

    Martin, Ina; French, Roger H.

    2018-03-19

    Our project objective in the first and only Budget Period was to demonstrate the potential of nm-scale organofunctional silane coatings as a method of extending the lifetime of PV materials and devices. Specifically, the target was to double the lifetime performance of a laminated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) cell under real-world and accelerated aging exposure conditions. Key findings are that modification of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films (materials used as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) top contacts) resulted in decreased degradation of optical and electrical properties under damp heat (DH) exposure compared to un-modified AZO. The most significant finding is that modification of the AZO top contact of full CIGS devices resulted in significantly improved properties under DH exposure compared to un-modified devices, by a factor of 4 after 1000 h. Results of this one-year project have demonstrated that surface functionalization is a viable pathway for extending the lifetime of state-of-the-art CIGS devices.

  15. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  16. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    and maize crop responses to temperature in different, but consistent, phenological phases and development stages. A literature review and data compilation of around 140 scientific articles have determined the key temperature thresholds and response to extreme temperature effects for rice and maize...... defined in all three crops. Anthesis and ripening are the most sensitive temperature stages in rice as well as in wheat and maize. We call for further experimental studies of the effects of transgressing threshold temperatures so such responses can be included into crop impact and adaptation models....

  17. Screening of different insecticides against maize shoot fly atherigona soccata (Rond.) and maize borer. chilo partellus (swinh.)

    Shahid, M.A.; Rana, Z.A.; Haq, I.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)

  18. Communities of endophytic microorganisms in different developmental stages from a local variety as well as transgenic and conventional isogenic hybrids of maize.

    da Silva, Kelly Justin; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Soares, Cláudio Roberto F S; Ogliari, Juliana Bernardi

    2016-11-01

    The diversity of endophytic microorganisms may change due to the genotype of the host plant and its phenological stage. In this study we evaluated the effect of phenological stage, transgenes and genetic composition of maize on endophytic bacterial and fungal communities. The maize populations were composed of a local variety named Rosado (RS) and three isogenic hybrids. One isogenic hybrid was not genetically modified (NGM). Another hybrid (Hx) contained the transgenes cry1F and pat (T1507 event), which provide resistance to insects of the order Lepidoptera and tolerance to the glufosinate-ammonium herbicide, respectively. The third hybrid (Hxrr) contained the transgene cp4 epsps (NK603 event) combined with the transgenes cry1F and pat (T1507 event), which allow tolerance to the Roundup Ready herbicide, besides the characteristics of Hx. Evaluation of the foliar tissue was done through PCR-DGGE analysis, with specific primers for bacteria and fungi within four phenological stages of maize. The endophytic bacteria were only clustered by phenological stages; the structure of the fungal community was clustered by maize genotypes in each phenological stage. The fungal community from the local variety RS was different from the three hybrids (NGM, Hx and Hxrr) within the four evaluated stages. In the reproductive stage, the fungal community from the two transgenic hybrids (Hx and Hxrr) were separated, and the Hxrr was different from NGM, in the two field experiments. This research study showed that the genetic composition of the maize populations, especially the presence of transgenes, is the determining factor for the changes detected in the endophytic fungal community of maize leaves.

  19. Mycoflora Of Maize Zea Maize At Different Locations In Hail Area-Saudi Arabia

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Zea maize is one of the main cereals produced in Hail area Saudi Arabia. The risk of mycotoxin contamination is related to mycoflora associated with corn kernel. This paper reports on isolation and identification of external and internal mycoflora of maize harvested in Hail area in 2006 2008. A mycological survey was carried out on 200 samples from two agricultural companies . Comparison between frequency and relative density of the prevalent genera and species was carried out. Genus Fusarium was the most prevalent component of the internal seed - borne mycoflora in the two companies Aspergillus spp. was the most prevalent genus as external seed borne mycoflora. The predominant species of the different genera were Fusarium moniliforrme Aspergillus flavus A. niger and Alternaria alternate.

  20. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops

    Krogh, P. H

    2007-01-01

    ECOGEN is a project funded by the EU under the 6th Framework Programme. Based on results obtained from soil biodiversity studies and economic evaluations, ECOGEN assessed the impact on soil organisms of different agricultural management practices, including those involving genetically modified (GM...... Policy were then evaluated. These two major factors - ecological and economic - were then integrated into decision support models for predicting the overall consequences of introducing GM crops into an agricultural system. Bt-maize line MON 810, resistant to a widespread insect pest called the European...... and economic results were integrated into a decision support model to facilitate the assessment of the impact of various cropping systems on soil quality and economics. In conclusion, the ECOGEN results indicate no difference of biological relevance in the impact on soil organisms between Bt-maize line MON 810...

  1. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Barbara Manachini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  2. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Anna Corsini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  3. RNA interference can rebalance the nitrogen sink of maize seeds without losing hard endosperm.

    Yongrui Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the goals of plant breeding is to create crops to provide better nutrition for humans and livestock. Insufficient intake of protein is one of the most severe factors affecting the growth and development of children in developing countries. More than a century ago, in 1896, Hopkins initiated the well-known Illinois long-term selection for maize seed protein concentration, yielding four protein strains. By continuously accumulating QTLs, Illinois High Protein (IHP reached a protein level 2.5-fold higher than normal maize, with the most increased fraction being the zein protein, which was shown to contain no lysine soon after the long-term selection program initiated. Therefore, IHP is of little value for feeding humans and monogastric animals. Although high-lysine lines of non-vitreous mutants were based on reduced zeins, the kernel soft texture precluded their practical use. Kernel hardness in opaque 2 (o2 could be restored in quality protein maize (QPM with quantitative trait loci called o2 modifiers (Mo2s, but those did not increase total protein levels. METHODS: The most predominant zeins are the 22- and 19-kDa α-zeins. To achieve a combination of desired traits, we used RNA interference (RNAi against both α-zeins in IHP and evaluated the silencing effect by SDS-PAGE. Total protein, amino acid composition and kernel texture were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The α-zeins were dramatically reduced, but the high total seed protein level remained unchanged by complementary increase of non-zein proteins. Moreover, the residual zein levels still allowed for a vitreous hard seed. Such dramatic rebalancing of the nitrogen sink could have a major impact in world food supply.

  4. Associative bacteria influence maize (Zea mays L.) growth, physiology and root anatomy under different nitrogen levels.

    Calzavara, Anderson Kikuchi; Paiva, Pedro Henrique Godoy; Gabriel, Lorrant Cavanha; de Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez; Milani, Karina; Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; Bianchini, Edmilson; Pimenta, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Dias-Pereira, Jaqueline; Stolf-Moreira, Renata

    2018-05-15

    Despite the great diversity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with potential to partially replace the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture, few PGPB are explored for the production of commercial inoculants, reinforcing the importance of identifying positive plant-bacteria interactions. Aiming to better understand the influence of PGPB inoculation in plant development, two PGPB species with distant phylogenetic relationship were inoculated in maize. Maize seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. or Azospirillum brasilense. After germinating, the plants were subjected to two nitrogen treatments: full (N+) and limiting (N-) nitrogen supply. Then, anatomical, biometric and physiological analyses were performed. Both PGPB species modified the anatomical pattern of roots, as verified by the higher metaxylem vessel elements (MVE) number. Bacillus sp. also increased the MVE area in maize roots. Under N+ condition, both PGPB decreased the leaf protein content and led to the development of shorter roots; however, Bacillus sp. increased root and shoot dry weight, whereas A. brasilense increased photosynthesis rate and leaf nitrate content. In plants subjected to N limitation (N-), photosynthesis rate and photosystem II efficiency increased in those inoculated with Bacillus sp., whilst A. brasilense led to higher ammonium, amino acids and total soluble sugars contents in the leaves, compared to control. Plant developmental and metabolical patterns were switched by the inoculation, regardless the inoculant bacteria used, producing similar as well as distinct modifications on the parameters studied. These results indicatie that even non-diazotrophic inoculant strains can improve the plant N-status as result of the morpho-anatomical and physiological modifications produced by the PGPB. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot study of nitrogen utilisation in maize

    Futo, I.; Palcsu, L.; Vodila, G.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the cooperation between KITE Ltd., Nadudvar, Hungary and the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, the aim was to determine the ideal locations of fertilising, the ideal distance of rows for the ideal production yield. To track the nitrogen utilisation of maize (Zea mays) 15 N enriched NH 4 NO 3 fertiliser was introduced among the usual fertilisers in the maize field of KITE Ltd. Nadudvar, Hungary on 30 th March 2012, before sowing. Four maize samples were taken from different areas of different fertiliser treatment (non-fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and labelled between the rows and fertilised and labelled within the rows) and from different development stages of the plant on 22 nd May, 8 th June, 6 th July and 7 th September being sampling periods 1-4, respectively. The plant samples were subsampled based on organs: root, stem and leaf. Samples were dried to constant mass and pulverised. The 15 N measurements were made by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled with an elemental analyser. In case of non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, all the three organs were getting 15 N depleted with time, most intensively the stem and the less intensively the root (Figure 1). For the leaves and stems of the fertilised and non-labelled plants, the tendency in time is very similar to the ones of the non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, however, the roots of the fertilised and non-labelled plants got significantly enriched in the sample of September. In case of the fertilised and labelled between-the-rows samples, labelling is slightly seen as the delta values are positive. These values are significantly lower than the ones for the fertilised and labelled-within-the-rows plants. It is seen that fertiliser got to the vegetation in the largest extent in this layout. Labelling showed its maximum intensity in the second sampling (8 th June) showing that

  6. (Allium sativum L.) Liliaceae as protectants against the maize weevil ...

    REV. FR. ANTHONY

    2014-03-05

    , was evaluated as a possible grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Each experiment was set out in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications and a control treatment. Adult.

  7. Molecular analysis of quality protein (QPM) and normal maize ...

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... genetic variation among QPM and normal maize varieties is important for an efficient selection and .... olymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications of RAPD and ISSR ..... Genetic characterization of Malawian cowpea.

  8. Maize production in the central Kenya highlands using cattle ...

    Mo

    effective in the production of maize, compared to singular application of manures (5 t ha-1) and mineral fertilizer alone applied at rates below ...... A Handbook of Methods, 2nd. Edition. ... Manure management in the Kenya highlands: Practices.

  9. DYNAMICS OF Cercospora zeina POPULATIONS IN MAIZE-BASED ...

    ACSS

    DYNAMICS OFCercospora zeina POPULATIONS IN MAIZE-BASED AGRO- ..... Population differentiation of Cercospora zeina in three districts of Uganda based on analysis of molecular variance ..... interactions: The example of the Erysiphe.

  10. combustion properties of briquettes produced from maize cob

    joke

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... were densified into briquettes using starch as binder. Combustion related ... Keywords: Briquette, maize cob, combustion properties, mesh sizes, binding agent ... smaller space requirement for storage (Yaman et al., 2000 and ...

  11. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    conservation tillage techniques and evaluate the impacts of the system on ... biological soil manipulation to optimize conditions for seed germination, emergence and ..... planting and weeding operations as total expense and sales from maize ...

  12. In vitro cytotoxicity of fungi spoiling maize silage

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium paneum, Monascus ruber, Alternaria tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium avenaceum, Byssochlamys nivea and Aspergillus fumigatus have previously been identified as major fungal contaminants of Danish maize silage. In the present study their metabolite....... roqueforti metabolites roquefortine C (48μg/mL), andrastin A (>50μg/mL), mycophenolic acid (>100μg/mL) and 1-hydroxyeremophil-7(11),9(10)-dien-8-one (>280μg/mL) were high. Fractionating of agar extracts identified PR-toxin as an important cytotoxic P. roqueforti metabolite, also detectable in maize silage....... The strongly cytotoxic B. nivea and P. paneum agar extracts contained patulin above the IC50 of 0.6μg/mL, however inoculated onto maize silage B. nivea and P. paneum did not produce patulin (>371μg/kg). Still B. nivea infected maize silage containing mycophenolic acid (∼50mg/kg), byssochlamic acid and other...

  13. (CultiAF) Reducing maize-based aflatoxin contamination

    In Zimbabwe, testing of harvested maize has revealed high levels of contamination by aflatoxins, ... and other private sector partners will increase the availability of improved grain storage containers. Researchers will work with the Ministry of ...

  14. Differential protein expression in maize (Zea mays) in response to ...

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... Accepted 25 May, 2011. Maize (Zea mays) is a major food stable in sub-Saharan Africa. .... has investigated differential expression at the proteome level, comparing this ..... GK, Jwa NS (2001). Characterization of rice (Oryza.

  15. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 14. No. 4, pp. ... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga-South, P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi, Kenya .... streak disease has been identified in various maize recycling and development of pure-lines at.

  16. Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition

    Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ...

  17. Orange maize in Zambia: crop development and delivery experience

    Orange maize in Zambia: crop development and delivery experience. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ...

  18. (MSV) resistant maize varieties for adaptation to a southern guinea

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (19), pp. ... the development of superior maize varieties for the southern guinea savanna ecology. Key words: Zea ... tional agricultural research systems have succeeded in converting ...

  19. Screening of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria from Maize ...

    Screening of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria from Maize ( Zea Mays ) and Wheat ( Triticum Aestivum ) ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  20. Genotypic variation for maize weevil resistance in eastern and ...

    ACSS

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences by National Agricultural Research Organisation ... damage, median development period, Dobie's index of susceptibility, and ... resistance and grain yield, suggesting that breeding for maize weevil ...

  1. Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in ...

    Agronomic potentials of quality protein maize hybrids developed in Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) were evaluated on research stations and in farmers\\' fields in Ghana from 1995 to 1996.

  2. Studies on biochemical changes in maize wastes fermented with ...

    JTEkanem

    In an attempt to transform the agricultural waste products of maize cobs and shafts into useful products such as ... with transforming organic matter in the nature .... cerevisae Solid Media Fermentation. Food. Chemistry 82 (4) 599-602. 6.AOAC ...

  3. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  4. Farmers' preferences for maize attributes in eastern and western

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed ... Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important staple food crop in Uganda and is emerging as a cash crop for smallholder .... colour, grain size, pest and disease resistance.

  5. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers

    DR ADESOPE

    SOURCES AND USE OF EXTENSION INFORMATION AMONG MAIZE ... play one role or the other toward ensuring that research-based technologies ..... alternative means of controlling weeds (e.g. hoeing), high cost of herbicides and the risk.

  6. Drought tolerant tropical maize (Zea mays L.) developed through ...

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-26

    Oct 26, 2016 ... Seeds of the tropical maize inbred line CML216 were obtained from the International ... Infection, co-cultivation, resting, selection and maturation media ...... abscisic acid concentration does not induce kernel abortion in field-.

  7. Metabolic and biofungicidal properties of maize rhizobacteria for ...

    BALOGOUN

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... Fusarium verticillioides, that is an important maize pathogenic. ... range of substances as carbon or nitrogen sources. (Karuppiah and Rajaram, 2011). ..... isolated PGPR Bacillus spp. on Fusarium oxysporum. Int. J. Appl. Sci.

  8. Is there a strategy I iron uptake mechanism in maize?

    Li, Suzhen; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Jingtang; Chen, Rumei

    2018-04-03

    Iron is a metal micronutrient that is essential for plant growth and development. Graminaceous and nongraminaceous plants have evolved different mechanisms to mediate Fe uptake. Generally, strategy I is used by nongraminaceous plants like Arabidopsis, while graminaceous plants, such as rice, barley, and maize, are considered to use strategy II Fe uptake. Upon the functional characterization of OsIRT1 and OsIRT2 in rice, it was suggested that rice, as an exceptional graminaceous plant, utilizes both strategy I and strategy II Fe uptake systems. Similarly, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were identified as functional zinc and iron transporters in the maize genome, along with the determination of several genes encoding Zn and Fe transporters, raising the possibility that strategy I Fe uptake also occurs in maize. This mini-review integrates previous reports and recent evidence to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of Fe uptake in maize.

  9. Selenium concentration of maize grain in South Africa and possible ...

    Casey W

    reviewed paper: Proc. ... maize grain is a staple food for humans and a major ingredient in the diets of intensively fed livestock. Therefore, Se in ..... Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and carotenoids. National Research.

  10. Researchers urge climate-resilience support for South African maize ...

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... Researchers urge climate-resilience support for South African maize farmers ... They found that climate change is likely to hurt livelihoods and food security ... In Burkina Faso, local cultivation and livestock practices are losing ...

  11. Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria. ... on marketing income in Anambra State, this study utilized descriptive statistic, Sherpherd-futrel model of determining marketing efficiency ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  12. a study of technical inefficiencies of maize farmers within and ...

    p2333147

    frontier production functions were estimated for a sample of maize farmers within and outside the .... the normal distributions with the same variance, σ2, such that the mean,. µit, associated with the technical inefficiency effect, uit, is defined by.

  13. Impact of selection on maize root traits and rhizosphere interactions

    Schmidt, J. E.; Gaudin, A. C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Effects of domestication and breeding on maize have been well-characterized aboveground, but impacts on root traits and rhizosphere processes remain unclear. Breeding in high-inorganic-input environments may have negatively affected the ability of modern maize to acquire nutrients through foraging and microbial interactions in marginal and/or organically managed soils. Twelve maize genotypes representing a selection gradient (teosintes, landraces, open-pollinated parents of modern elite germplasm, and modern hybrids released 1934-2015) were grown in three soils varying in intensity of long-term management (unfertilized, organic, conventional) in the greenhouse. Recruitment of rhizosphere microbial communities, nutrient acquisition, and plant productivity were affected by genotype-by-soil interactions. Maize genotypes exhibit significant variation in their ability to obtain nutrients from soils of different management history, indicating the potential for re-integration of beneficial root and rhizosphere traits to increase adaptation to low-input agroecosystems.

  14. Genetic diversity of maize genotypes on the basis of morpho ...

    Genetic diversity of maize genotypes on the basis of morpho-physiological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Ashish Kumar, Arunita Rakshit, Naresh K Mangilipelli, Y Varalaxmi, T Vijayalakshmi, Jainender M Vanaja, SK Yadav, B Venkateswarlu, M Maheswari ...

  15. Assessment of Climate Suitability of Maize in South Korea

    Hyun, S.; Choi, D.; Seo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing suitable areas for crops would be useful to design alternate cropping systems as an adaptation option to climate change adaptation. Although suitable areas could be identified by using a crop growth model, it would require a number of input parameters including cultivar and soil. Instead, a simple climate suitability model, e.g., EcoCrop model, could be used for an assessment of climate suitability for a major grain crop. The objective of this study was to assess of climate suitability for maize using the EcoCrop model under climate change conditions in Korea. A long term climate data from 2000 - 2100 were compiled from weather data source. The EcoCrop model implemented in R was used to determine climate suitability index at each grid cell. Overall, the EcoCrop model tended to identify suitable areas for maize production near the coastal areas whereas the actual major production areas located in inland areas. It is likely that the discrepancy between assessed and actual crop production areas would result from the socioeconomic aspects of maize production. Because the price of maize is considerably low, maize has been grown in an area where moisture and temperature conditions would be less than optimum. In part, a simple algorithm to predict climate suitability for maize would caused a relatively large error in climate suitability assessment under the present climate conditions. In 2050s, the climate suitability for maize increased in a large areas in southern and western part of Korea. In particular, the plain areas near the coastal region had considerably greater suitability index in the future compared with mountainous areas. The expansion of suitable areas for maize would help crop production policy making such as the allocation of rice production area for other crops due to considerably less demand for the rice in Korea.

  16. A Comprehensive Analysis of Alternative Splicing in Paleopolyploid Maize

    Wenbin Mei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and characterizing alternative splicing (AS enables our understanding of the biological role of transcript isoform diversity. This study describes the use of publicly available RNA-Seq data to identify and characterize the global diversity of AS isoforms in maize using the inbred lines B73 and Mo17, and a related species, sorghum. Identification and characterization of AS within maize tissues revealed that genes expressed in seed exhibit the largest differential AS relative to other tissues examined. Additionally, differences in AS between the two genotypes B73 and Mo17 are greatest within genes expressed in seed. We demonstrate that changes in the level of alternatively spliced transcripts (intron retention and exon skipping do not solely reflect differences in total transcript abundance, and we present evidence that intron retention may act to fine-tune gene expression across seed development stages. Furthermore, we have identified temperature sensitive AS in maize and demonstrate that drought-induced changes in AS involve distinct sets of genes in reproductive and vegetative tissues. Examining our identified AS isoforms within B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred lines (RILs identified splicing QTL (sQTL. The 43.3% of cis-sQTL regulated junctions are actually identified as alternatively spliced junctions in our analysis, while 10 Mb windows on each side of 48.2% of trans-sQTLs overlap with splicing related genes. Using sorghum as an out-group enabled direct examination of loss or conservation of AS between homeologous genes representing the two subgenomes of maize. We identify several instances where AS isoforms that are conserved between one maize homeolog and its sorghum ortholog are absent from the second maize homeolog, suggesting that these AS isoforms may have been lost after the maize whole genome duplication event. This comprehensive analysis provides new insights into the complexity of AS in maize.

  17. Classification of maize kernels using NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Williams, Paul; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    NIR hyperspectral imaging was evaluated to classify maize kernels of three hardness categories: hard, medium and soft. Two approaches, pixel-wise and object-wise, were investigated to group kernels according to hardness. The pixel-wise classification assigned a class to every pixel from individual...... and specificity of 0.95 and 0.93). Both feature extraction methods can be recommended for classification of maize kernels on production scale....

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to replace maize (10.1 CP) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% making diets (D1-D5). The diets were fed to the fish (5.59±0.37g) to apparent ...

  19. Maize Endophytic Bacterial Diversity as Affected by Soil Cultivation History.

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Arone, Gregorio J

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity). The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from fallow soils. A mean of 30 genera were found in the fallow soil libraries and 47 were in those from the maize-cultivated soils. Both alpha and beta diversity indexes showed clear differences between bacterial endophytic populations from plants with different soil cultivation history and that the soils cultivated for long time requires a higher diversity of endophytes. The number of sequences corresponding to main genera Sphingomonas, Herbaspirillum, Bradyrhizobium and Methylophilus in the maize-cultivated libraries were statistically more abundant than those from the fallow soils. Sequences of genera Dyella and Sreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the libraries from the fallow soils. Relative abundance of genera Burkholderia, candidatus Glomeribacter, Staphylococcus, Variovorax, Bacillus and Chitinophaga were similar among libraries. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relative abundance of the main genera showed that the four libraries distributed in two clearly separated groups. Our results suggest that cultivation history is an important driver of endophytic colonization of maize and that after a long time of cultivation of the soil the maize plants need to increase the richness of the bacterial endophytes communities.

  20. Euplectrus furnius parasitizing Spodoptera frugiperda in maize in Brazil

    Vinícius Soares Sturza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the world's biggest maize producers and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is the main insect pest on this crop in the country. Despite the importance of its natural enemies, there still is a lack of information about parasitoids species that attack this insect-pest, such as larval parasitoids. This research reports Euplectrus furnius Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae parasitizing S. fugiperda larvae on maize crop in Brazil.

  1. Genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation in maize and soybean

    Yatou, Osamu; Amano, Etsuo; Takahashi, Tan.

    1992-01-01

    Somatic mutation on leaves of maize and soybean were observed to investigate genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation. Maize seeds were irradiated with N, Fe and U ions and soybean seeds were irradiated with N ions. This is a preliminary report of the experiment, 1) to examine the mutagenic effects of the heavy ion irradiation, and 2) to evaluate the genetic effects of cosmic ray exposure in a space ship outside the earth. (author)

  2. Intercropping soybean and maize in a derived savanna ecology ...

    Compared to sole soybean, intercropping soybean and maize on flat and ridge reduced yields by 1.0 –29.1% and 29.4 - 40.2% respectively. In maize, intercropping on flat and ridge reduced yields by 13.2 - 25.2% and 24.8 - 43.5% respectively. Planting sole soybean on ridge enhanced mean yield by 18.6% as compared to ...

  3. Comparison of Milk and Maize Based Diets in Kwashiorkor ...

    Permeability ratios (95% confidence interval) on the milk diet improved by a mean of 6.4 (1.7 to 11.1) compared with - 6.8 (-16.8 to 5.0) in the maize group. The improved permeability on milk occurred despite more diarrhoea, which constituted 34.8% of hospital days compared to 24.3% in the maize group. Case fatality rates ...

  4. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Ocaya, CP.; Adipala, E.; Osiru, DSO.

    2001-01-01

    Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as...

  5. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Maize is the most important C4 crop worldwide. It is also the second most important crop worldwide (C3 and C4 mixed), and is a dominant crop in some world regions. Therefore, it can potentially influence local climate and air quality through its exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Among others, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are known to influence the atmospheric composition and thereby modify greenhouse gases lifetime and pollutant formation in the atmosphere. However, so far, only two studies have dealt with BVOC exchanges from maize. Moreover, these studies were conducted on a limited range of meteorological and phenological conditions, so that the knowledge of BVOC exchanges by this crop remains poor. Here, we present the first BVOC measurement campaign performed at ecosystem-scale on a maize field during a whole growing season. It was carried out in the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO), an ICOS site. BVOC fluxes were measured by the disjunct by mass-scanning eddy covariance technique with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for BVOC mixing ratios measurements. Outstanding results are (i) BVOC exchanges from soil were as important as BVOC exchanges from maize itself; (ii) BVOC exchanges observed on our site were much lower than exchanges observed by other maize studies, even under normalized temperature and light conditions, (iii) they were also lower than those observed on other crops grown in Europe. Lastly (iv), BVOC exchanges observed on our site under standard environmental conditions, i.e., standard emission factors SEF, were much lower than those currently considered by BVOC exchange up-scaling models. From those observations, we deduced that (i) soil BVOC exchanges should be better understood and should be incorporated in terrestrial BVOC exchanges models, and that (ii) SEF for the C4 crop plant functional type cannot be evaluated at global scale but should be determined for each important agronomic and pedo-climatic region

  6. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.

  7. Dynamic epigenetic states of maize centromeres

    Yalin eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The centromere is a specialized chromosomal region identified as the major constriction, upon which the kinetochore complex is formed, ensuring accurate chromosome orientation and segregation during cell division. The rapid evolution of centromere DNA sequence and the conserved centromere function are two contradictory aspects of centromere biology. Indeed, the sole presence of genetic sequence is not sufficient for centromere formation. Various dicentric chromosomes with one inactive centromere have been recognized. It has also been found that de novo centromere formation is common on fragments in which centromeric DNA sequences are lost. Epigenetic factors play important roles in centromeric chromatin assembly and maintenance. Nondisjunction of the supernumerary B chromosome early prophase of meiosis I requires an active centromere. This review discusses recent studies in maize about genetic and epigenetic elements regulating formation and maintenance of centromere chromatin, as well as centromere behavior in meiosis.

  8. Cluster Analysis of Maize Inbred Lines

    Jiban Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of diversity among inbred lines is important for heterosis breeding. Sixty maize inbred lines were evaluated for their eight agro morphological traits during winter season of 2011 to analyze their genetic diversity. Clustering was done by average linkage method. The inbred lines were grouped into six clusters. Inbred lines grouped into Clusters II had taller plants with maximum number of leaves. The cluster III was characterized with shorter plants with minimum number of leaves. The inbred lines categorized into cluster V had early flowering whereas the group into cluster VI had late flowering time. The inbred lines grouped into the cluster III were characterized by higher value of anthesis silking interval (ASI and those of cluster VI had lower value of ASI. These results showed that the inbred lines having widely divergent clusters can be utilized in hybrid breeding programme.

  9. Uptake, translocation, and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maize

    Moming Zhao; Shuzhen Zhang; Sen Wang; Honglin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Uptake,translocation and debromination of three polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs),BDE-28,-47 and-99,in maize were studied in a hydroponic experiment.Roots took up most of the PBDEs in the culture solutions and more highly brominated PBDEs had a stronger uptake capability.PBDEs were detected in the stems and leaves of maize after exposure but rarely detected in the blank control plants.Furthermore,PBDE concentrations decreased from roots to stems and then to leaves,and a very clear decreasing gradient was found in segments upwards along the stem.These altogether provide substantiating evidence for the acropetal translocation of PBDEs in maize.More highly brominated PBDEs were translocated with more difficulty.Radial translocation of PBDEs from nodes to sheath inside maize was also observed.Both acropetal and radial translocations were enhanced at higher transpiration rates,suggesting that PBDE transport was probably driven by the transpiration stream.Debromination of PBDEs occurred in all parts of the maize,and debromination patterns of different parent PBDEs and in different parts of a plant were similar but with some differences.This study for the first time provides direct evidence for the acropetal translocation of PBDEs within plants,elucidates the process of PBDE transport and clarifies the debromination products of PBDEs in maize.

  10. Multiple Pesticides Detoxification Function of Maize (Zea mays) GST34.

    Li, Dongzhi; Xu, Li; Pang, Sen; Liu, Zhiqian; Zhao, Weisong; Wang, Chengju

    2017-03-08

    ZmGST34 is a maize Tau class GST gene and was found to be differently expressed between two maize cultivars differing in tolerance to herbicide metolachlor. To explore the possible role of ZmGST34 in maize development, the expression pattern and substrate specificity of ZmGST34 were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR and heterologous expression system, respectively. The results indicated that the expression level of ZmGST34 was increased ∼2-5-fold per day during the second-leaf stage of maize seedling. Chloroacetanilide herbicides or phytohormone treatments had no influence on the expression level of ZmGST34, suggesting that ZmGST34 is a constitutively expressed gene in maize seedling. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and in Arabidopsis thaliana proved that ZmGST34 can metabolize most chloroacetanilide herbicides and increase tolerance to these herbicides in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The constitutive expression pattern and broad substrate activity of ZmGST34 suggested that this gene may play an important role in maize development in addition to the detoxification of pesticides.

  11. Water transfer in an alfalfa/maize association

    Corak, S.J.; Blevins, D.G.; Pallardy, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the possibility of interspecific water transfer in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) association. An alfalfa plant was grown through two vertically stacked plastic tubes. A 5 centimeter air gap between tubes was bridged by alfalfa roots. Five-week old maize plants with roots confined to the top tube were not watered, while associated alfalfa roots had free access to water in the bottom tube (the -/+ treatment). Additional treatments included: top and bottom tubes watered (+/+), top and bottom tubes droughted (-/-), and top tube droughted after removal of alfalfa root bridges and routine removal of alfalfa tillers (-*). Predawn leaf water potential of maize in the -/+ treatment fell to -1.5 megapascals 13 days after the start of drought; thereafter, predawn and midday potentials were maintained near -1.9 megapascals. Leaf water potentials of maize in the -/- and -* treatments declined steadily; all plants in these treatments were completely desiccated before day 50. High levels of tritium activity were detected in water extracted from both alfalfa and maize leaves after 3 H 2 O was injected into the bottom -/+ tube at day 70 or later. Maize in the -/+ treatment was able to survive an otherwise lethal period of drought by utilizing water lost by alfalfa roots

  12. Genomic variation in recently collected maize landraces from Mexico

    Arteaga, María Clara; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Breña-Ochoa, Alejandra; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Piñero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present dataset comprises 36,931 SNPs genotyped in 46 maize landraces native to Mexico as well as the teosinte subspecies Zea maiz ssp. parviglumis and ssp. mexicana. These landraces were collected directly from farmers mostly between 2006 and 2010. We accompany these data with a short description of the variation within each landrace, as well as maps, principal component analyses and neighbor joining trees showing the distribution of the genetic diversity relative to landrace, geographical features and maize biogeography. High levels of genetic variation were detected for the maize landraces (HE = 0.234 to 0.318 (mean 0.311), while slightly lower levels were detected in Zea m. mexicana and Zea m. parviglumis (HE = 0.262 and 0.234, respectively). The distribution of genetic variation was better explained by environmental variables given by the interaction of altitude and latitude than by landrace identity. This dataset is a follow up product of the Global Native Maize Project, an initiative to update the data on Mexican maize landraces and their wild relatives, and to generate information that is necessary for implementing the Mexican Biosafety Law. PMID:26981357

  13. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  14. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  15. Zealactones. Novel natural strigolactones from maize.

    Charnikhova, Tatsiana V; Gaus, Katharina; Lumbroso, Alexandre; Sanders, Mark; Vincken, Jean-Paul; De Mesmaeker, Alain; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P; Screpanti, Claudio; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2017-05-01

    In the root exudate and root extracts of maize hybrid cv NK Falkone seven putative strigolactones were detected using UPLC-TQ-MS-MS. All seven compounds displayed MS-MS-fragmentation common for strigolactones and particularly the presence of a fragment of m/z 97 Da, which may indicate the presence of the so-called D-ring, suggests they are strigolactones. The levels of all these putative strigolactones increased upon phosphate starvation and decreased upon fluridone (carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor) treatment, both of which are a common response for strigolactones. All seven compounds were subsequently isolated with prep-HPLC-MS. They all exhibited Striga hermonthica seed germination inducing activity just as the synthetic strigolactone analog GR24. The structure of two of the seven compounds was elucidated by NMR spectroscopy as: methyl (2E,3E)-4-(3,3-dimethyl-5-oxo-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-2-(((4-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)oxy)methylene)but-3-enoate (two diastereomers 1a and 1b). Strigolactones (1a/b) are closely related to the methyl ester of carlactonoic acid (MeCLA) and heliolactone. However, they contain a unique 4,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran-2-one motif as the "A-ring" instead of the classical (di)methylcyclohexene. Because these compounds were isolated from maize (Zea mays) we called them "zealactone 1a and 1b". The implications of this discovery for our view on strigolactones and their biosynthesis are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-Resistance between Cry1 Proteins in Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) May Affect the Durability of Current Pyramided Bt Maize Hybrids in Brazil.

    Bernardi, Daniel; Salmeron, Eloisa; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Bernardi, Oderlei; Dourado, Patrick Marques; Carvalho, Renato Assis; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P; Omoto, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) offer valuable options for managing insect pests with considerable environmental and economic benefits. Despite the benefits provided by Bt crops, the continuous expression of these insecticidal proteins imposes strong selection for resistance in target pest populations. Bt maize (Zea mays) hybrids have been successful in controlling fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), the main maize pest in Brazil since 2008; however, field-evolved resistance to the protein Cry1F has recently been reported. Therefore it is important to assess the possibility of cross-resistance between Cry1F and other Cry proteins expressed in Bt maize hybrids. In this study, an F2 screen followed by subsequent selection on MON 89034 maize was used to select an S. frugiperda strain (RR) able to survive on the Bt maize event MON 89034, which expresses the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins. Field-collected insects from maize expressing the Cry1F protein (event TC1507) represented most of the positive (resistance allele-containing) (iso)families found. The RR strain showed high levels of resistance to Cry1F, which apparently also conferred high levels of cross resistance to Cry1A.105 and Cry1Ab, but had only low-level (10-fold) resistance to Cry2Ab2. Life history studies to investigate fitness costs associated with the resistance in RR strain revealed only small reductions in reproductive rate when compared to susceptible and heterozygous strains, but the RR strain produced 32.2% and 28.4% fewer females from each female relative to the SS and RS (pooled) strains, respectively. Consistent with the lack of significant resistance to Cry2Ab2, MON 89034 maize in combination with appropriate management practices continues to provide effective control of S. frugiperda in Brazil. Nevertheless, the occurrence of Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda across Brazil, and the cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1A.105

  17. Molecular characterization and in vitro digestibility of normal maize starch hydrolyzed by maltotriohydrolase.

    Wu, Chunsen; Zhou, Xing; Wei, Benxi; Li, Hongyan; Tian, Yaoqi; Ali, Barkat; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2015-03-01

    Normal maize starch was hydrolyzed by the glucan 1,4-alpha-maltotriohydrolase (AMTS), and the changes in molecular characteristics and digestibility of starch were evaluated. Upon hydrolysis, maltotriose purity could be modified via controlled AMTS action. The transglycosylation of AMTS possibly happened during the extensive hydrolysis of starch. No single linear association between the z-average radius of gyration (Rz), conformation exponent (ν), apparent molecular density (ρ) and weight average molar mass (Mw) of the starch molecules could be established in the entire process of AMTS hydrolysis. Under mild hydrolysis (≤240 min), Rz and ρ displayed linear relationships with Mw. However, transitions of ν, Rz and ρ appeared after extensive hydrolysis (>240 min), due to the increase in the amount of short chains [degree of polymerization (DP)≤5]. The spherical starch molecule tends toward less compact and a structure between sphere and random coil after extensive hydrolysis. And the increase in the amount of DP≤12 chains and reduction of molecular dimension after AMTS hydrolysis restrict the digestibility of starch. The results of this study suggest that normal maize starch can be modulated by AMTS to produce the desired maltotriose syrup, starch molecular characteristics, and starch digestibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mortality of insects and quality of maize grains in hermetic and non-hermetic storage

    Priscila C. Viebrantz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Due to the need to improve the quality and safety of foods, chemical methods used to control grain pests have been replaced by alternative methods. For example, modified atmosphere within the storage units has been used. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate maize grain quality and mortality of insects of the species Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum in hermetic and non-hermetic environments for 50 days of storage. The hermetic units consisted of polyethylene "bags" with capacity for 60 kg. A cage with 20 adults of each species and 200 g of maize was placed inside each unit. The oxygen level was quantified every five days. Evaluations of insect mortality and survival occurred at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days of storage. At 0, 30 and 50 days, density, moisture and fungal incidence analyses were conducted. The airtight system is efficient in the control of insects, with satisfactory mortality values for both species. Insects favor the development of fungi during the storage, regardless of the storage system.

  19. The mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut in peanut/maize intercropping system by 14C tracer technique

    Zuo Yuanmei; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2004-01-01

    The related mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize was investigated by 14 C tracer technique. Neighboring roots between maize and peanut were separated by a 30 μm nylon net, the iron nutrition of peanut was also improved just like normal intercropping of maize and peanut. The results proved that root exudates of maize played an important role in improvement iron nutrition of peanut. The photosynthesis carbohydrate of maize could exuded into the rhizosphere of peanut and transfer into shoot and root of peanut in intercropping system. Root exudates of maize could increased efficiency of iron in soil and improved iron utilization of peanut

  20. Effect of Bambara nut and cowpea intercropped with maize at different times on nutritive quality of maize for ruminant feeding

    Olanite, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Bambara nut and cowpea planted with maize at different times on nutritive quality of maize forage were investigated. The study was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design and the treatments were combination of crop types (Bambara nut-maize (MB and Cowpea-maize (MC and planting times of legumes (2 wks before planting maize, 2WBPM and 2 wks after planting maize, 2WAPM, and sole maize (as control. An experimental field measuring 19 m � 11 m was divided into 3 replicates; each replicate was sub-divided into 5 plots of dimension 3 m2 each, with 1 m and 2 m inter-plots and inter-blocks spacing respectively. Maize forage samples were harvested on each plot at 10 wks after planting, oven-dried, milled and analyzed to evaluate the chemical composition, mineral composition, in vitro gas production and post-incubation characteristics. Results revealed significant differences (P<0.05 among treatments with the highest (95.00% and least DM (92.12% values were recorded for MB 2WBPM and MC 2WAPM, respectively. CP values ranged from 10.36% in MB 2WBPM to 15.67% in MC 2WBPM but not significantly different from 14.19 % recorded for sole maize. Ash ranged from 7.00% in MB 2WAPM to 10.00% in sole maize. MC 2WBPM and sole maize had the highest (50.63% and least (38.40% in ADF content (P<0.05. ADL value (7.25% observed in MB 2WBPM was the highest, compared to the least (5.00% in sole maize. Sole maize recorded the least (40.40% and highest (25.91% cellulose and hemicellulose contents, respectively while MC 2WAPM had the highest (50.88% and lowest (15.80% values for cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively. Ca content (4.55g/kg of MB 2WAPM was lower than the other treatments. P content ranged from 3.54 g/kg in MB 2WAPM to 12.02 g/kg in MC 2WAPM. Gas production rates only varied (P<0.05 at the 3rd, 6th, 24th and 48th hours of incubation. MB 2WBPM yielded highest values of short chain fatty acids (0.09 �mol and metabolizable energy (3.08 MJ/kg while MB

  1. Comparative histological and transcriptional analysis of maize kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides infect maize kernels and contaminate them with the mycotoxins aflatoxin and fumonisin, respectively. Combined histological examination of fungal colonization and transcriptional changes in maize kernels at 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours post inoculation (...

  2. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... development ... Biotechnology Center, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 58711-00200, Nairobi, ... Maize streak virus disease is an important disease of maize in Kenya.

  3. Effect of Some Agronomic Practices to Increase Maize Yield in Ghana

    Effect of Some Agronomic Practices to Increase Maize Yield in Ghana. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... With the increasing population and consumption of maize in the country, research must be directed to solve this problem ...

  4. Maize-common bean/lupine intercrop productivity and profitability in ...

    Phaseolus vulgaris L.), narrow-leaf lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), and white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) with maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted under two intercrop planting arrangements (IPA), single row of legume in between maize rows and ...

  5. Maize-Pathogen Interactions: An Ongoing Combat from a Proteomics Perspective

    Olga Pechanova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is a host to numerous pathogenic species that impose serious diseases to its ear and foliage, negatively affecting the yield and the quality of the maize crop. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to elucidate mechanisms of maize-pathogen interactions with a major goal to identify defense-associated proteins. In this review, we summarize interactions of maize with its agriculturally important pathogens that were assessed at the proteome level. Employing differential analyses, such as the comparison of pathogen-resistant and susceptible maize varieties, as well as changes in maize proteomes after pathogen challenge, numerous proteins were identified as possible candidates in maize resistance. We describe findings of various research groups that used mainly mass spectrometry-based, high through-put proteomic tools to investigate maize interactions with fungal pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., and Curvularia lunata, and viral agents Rice Black-streaked Dwarf Virus and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus.

  6. Maize-Pathogen Interactions: An Ongoing Combat from a Proteomics Perspective.

    Pechanova, Olga; Pechan, Tibor

    2015-11-30

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a host to numerous pathogenic species that impose serious diseases to its ear and foliage, negatively affecting the yield and the quality of the maize crop. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to elucidate mechanisms of maize-pathogen interactions with a major goal to identify defense-associated proteins. In this review, we summarize interactions of maize with its agriculturally important pathogens that were assessed at the proteome level. Employing differential analyses, such as the comparison of pathogen-resistant and susceptible maize varieties, as well as changes in maize proteomes after pathogen challenge, numerous proteins were identified as possible candidates in maize resistance. We describe findings of various research groups that used mainly mass spectrometry-based, high through-put proteomic tools to investigate maize interactions with fungal pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., and Curvularia lunata, and viral agents Rice Black-streaked Dwarf Virus and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus.

  7. Narrowing Maize Yield Gaps Under Rain-fed conditions in Tanzania ...

    Abstract. The wide gap between potential and actual yields of maize in Tanzania, due low productivity is the major constraint to ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research ... for determining maize grain yield followed by water.

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM IN CONTINUOUS MAIZE

    Marija Ivezić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is considered to be one of the most important and potentially most severe pest of maize worldwide. The pest was detected in Croatia for the first time in 1995. Since then it has been spread over all areas with maize production in Croatia. The economically most efficient and preventive control measure is crop rotation and growing maize hybrids that show tolerance to WCR. The trials were settled in the area near Dubosevica where in 2002 and 2003 the economic damages caused by WCR were up to 80%. The aim of this investigation is to determine damages on maize root caused by WCR and loss in grain yield on commercial maize hybrids in continuous farming. Pheromone traps, type Csal♀m♂N®, were used in order to monitor WCR population dynamics. In the period of two months, 366 WCR adult beetles in total were captured. Root damage was evaluated according to Iowa Node Injury Scale and grain yield was measured and corrected to 14% moisture. Furthermore, the plant lodging, as a consequence of larval feeding, was assessed. The results have shown that root damage for hybrid Bc 5982 was 1.15, and 0.73 damage was on Pr 35p 12 roots. The grain yield obtained from hybrid Bc 5982 was 11.7 t/ha, and Pr 35p 12 had 12.3 t/ha. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant differences in root damage and losses in grain yield between the two investigated hybrids. Results of this investigation indicate that growing maize for 2 to 3 years in continuous farming, in the same field, would not cause economically significant loss in maize gain yield.

  9. Biofuel, land and water: maize, switchgrass or Miscanthus?

    Zhuang Qianlai; Qin Zhangcai; Chen Min

    2013-01-01

    The productive cellulosic crops switchgrass and Miscanthus are considered as viable biofuel sources. To meet the 2022 national biofuel target mandate, actions must be taken, e.g., maize cultivation must be intensified and expanded, and other biofuel crops (switchgrass and Miscanthus) must be cultivated. This raises questions on the use efficiencies of land and water; to date, the demand on these resources to meet the national biofuel target has rarely been analyzed. Here, we present a data-model assimilation analysis, assuming that maize, switchgrass and Miscanthus will be grown on currently available croplands in the US. Model simulations suggest that maize can produce 3.0–5.4 kiloliters (kl) of ethanol for every hectare of land, depending on the feedstock to ethanol conversion efficiency; Miscanthus has more than twice the biofuel production capacity relative to maize, and switchgrass is the least productive of the three potential sources of ethanol. To meet the biofuel target, about 26.5 million hectares of land and over 90 km 3 of water (of evapotranspiration) are needed if maize grain alone is used. If Miscanthus was substituted for maize, the process would save half of the land and one third of the water. With more advanced biofuel conversion technology for Miscanthus, only nine million hectares of land and 45 km 3 of water would probably meet the national target. Miscanthus could be a good alternative biofuel crop to maize due to its significantly lower demand for land and water on a per unit of ethanol basis. (letter)

  10. Coordination of the maize transcriptome by a conserved circadian clock

    Harmon Frank G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plant circadian clock orchestrates 24-hour rhythms in internal physiological processes to coordinate these activities with daily and seasonal changes in the environment. The circadian clock has a profound impact on many aspects of plant growth and development, including biomass accumulation and flowering time. Despite recent advances in understanding the circadian system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the contribution of the circadian oscillator to important agronomic traits in Zea mays and other cereals remains poorly defined. To address this deficit, this study investigated the transcriptional landscape of the maize circadian system. Results Since transcriptional regulation is a fundamental aspect of circadian systems, genes exhibiting circadian expression were identified in the sequenced maize inbred B73. Of the over 13,000 transcripts examined, approximately 10 percent displayed circadian expression patterns. The majority of cycling genes had peak expression at subjective dawn and dusk, similar to other plant circadian systems. The maize circadian clock organized co-regulation of genes participating in fundamental physiological processes, including photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and phytohormone biosynthesis pathways. Conclusions Circadian regulation of the maize genome was widespread and key genes in several major metabolic pathways had circadian expression waveforms. The maize circadian clock coordinated transcription to be coincident with oncoming day or night, which was consistent with the circadian oscillator acting to prepare the plant for these major recurring environmental changes. These findings highlighted the multiple processes in maize plants under circadian regulation and, as a result, provided insight into the important contribution this regulatory system makes to agronomic traits in maize and potentially other C4 plant species.

  11. Predicting weed problems in maize cropping by species distribution modelling

    Bürger, Jana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing maize cultivation and changed cropping practices promote the selection of typical maize weeds that may also profit strongly from climate change. Predicting potential weed problems is of high interest for plant production. Within the project KLIFF, experiments were combined with species distribution modelling for this task in the region of Lower Saxony, Germany. For our study, we modelled ecological and damage niches of nine weed species that are significant and wide spread in maize cropping in a number of European countries. Species distribution models describe the ecological niche of a species, these are the environmental conditions under which a species can maintain a vital population. It is also possible to estimate a damage niche, i.e. the conditions under which a species causes damage in agricultural crops. For this, we combined occurrence data of European national data bases with high resolution climate, soil and land use data. Models were also projected to simulated climate conditions for the time horizon 2070 - 2100 in order to estimate climate change effects. Modelling results indicate favourable conditions for typical maize weed occurrence virtually all over the study region, but only a few species are important in maize cropping. This is in good accordance with the findings of an earlier maize weed monitoring. Reaction to changing climate conditions is species-specific, for some species neutral (E. crus-galli, other species may gain (Polygonum persicaria or loose (Viola arvensis large areas of suitable habitats. All species with damage potential under present conditions will remain important in maize cropping, some more species will gain regional importance (Calystegia sepium, Setara viridis.

  12. Combined role of heat and water stresses on wheat, maize and rice inter-annual variability and trend from 1980 to 2010.

    Zampieri, M.; Ceglar, A., , Dr; Dentener, F., , Dr; van den Berg, M., , Dr; Toreti, A., , Dr

    2017-12-01

    Heat waves and drought are often considered the most damaging climatic stressors for wheat and maize. In this study, based on data derived from observations, we characterize and attribute the effects of these climate extremes on wheat and maize yield anomalies (at global and national scales) with respect to the mean trend from 1980 to 2010. Using a combination of up-to-date heat wave and drought indexes (i.e. the Heat Magnitude Day, HMD, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI), we have developed a composite indicator (i.e. the Combined Stress Index, CSI) that is able to capture the spatio-temporal characteristics of the underlying physical processes in the different agro-climatic regions of the world. At the global level, our diagnostic explains the 42% and the 50% of the inter-annual wheat and maize production variabilities, respectively. The relative importance of heat stress and drought in determining the yield anomalies depends on the region. Compared to maize, and in contrast to common perception, water excess affects wheat production more than drought in several countries. The index definition can be modified in order to quantify the role of combined heat and water stress events occurrence in determining the recorded yield trends as well. Climate change is increasingly limiting maize yields in several countries, especially in Europe and China. A comparable opposite signal, albeit less statistically significant, is found for the USA, which is the main world producer. As for rice, we provide a statistical evidence pointing out to the importance of considering the interactions with the horizontal surface waters fluxes carried out by the rivers. In fact, compared to wheat and maize, the CSI statistical skills in explaining rice production variability are quite reduced. This issue is particularly relevant in paddy fields and flooded lowlands where rice is mainly grown. Therefore, we have modified the procedure including a proxy for the

  13. Rapid genetically modified organism (GMO screening of various food products and animal feeds using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Lisha, V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available modified crops which brought up a controversy on the safety usage of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. It has been implemented globally that all GMO products and its derived ingredients should have regulations on the usage and labelling. Thus, it is necessary to develop methods that allow rapid screening of GMO products to comply with the regulations. This study employed a reliable and flexible multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for the rapid detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified soy and maize along with the soybean LECTIN gene and maize ZEIN gene respectively. The selected four common transgenic elements were 35S promoter (35S; Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (NOS; 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps gene; and Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene. Optimization of the multiplex PCR methods were carried out by using 1% Roundup ReadyTM Soybean (RRS as the certified reference material for soybean that produced fourplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene and soybean LECTIN gene and by using 1% MON810 as the certified reference material for maize that produced triplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, cry1Ab gene and maize ZEIN gene prior to screening of the GMO traits in various food products and animal feeds. 1/9 (11.1% of the animal feed contained maize and 1/15 (6.7% of the soybean food products showed positive results for the detection of GMO transgenic gene. None of the maize food products showed positive results for GMO transgenic gene. In total, approximately 4% of the food products and animal feed were positive as GMO. This indicated GMOs have not widely entered the food chain. However, it is necessary to have an appropriate screening method due to GMOs’ unknown potential risk to humans and to animals. This rapid screening method will provide leverage in terms of being economically wise, time saving and reliable.

  14. Growth and metabolic activity of the extramatrical mycelium of endomycorrhizal maize plants

    J. A. Cardoso Filho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to quantify the extramatrical mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus Glomus etunicatum (Becker & Gerdemann grown on maize (Zea mays L. var. Piranão provided with various levels of phosphate fertilizer and harvested at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting (DAP. Total extramatrical mycelium (TEM was extracted from soil using a modified membrane filtration method, followed by quantification using a grid intersection technique. Active extramatrical mycelium (AEM proportion was determined using an enzymatic method which measured dehydrogenase activity by following iodonitrotetrazolium reduction. At low levels of added P, there was relatively less TEM than at high levels of added P, but the AEM proportion at low soil P availability was significantly greater than at high soil P.

  15. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  16. Determination of the Heterotic groups of Maize inbred lines and the ...

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...

  17. Adapting maize production to drought in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most prominent crop in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR), and drought has been the largest limitation for maize production in this area during recent decades. The question of how to adapt maize production to drought has received great attention from policy...

  18. The W22 genome: a foundation for maize functional genomics and transposon biology

    The maize W22 inbred has served as a platform for maize genetics since the mid twentieth century. To streamline maize genome analyses, we have sequenced and de novo assembled a W22 reference genome using small-read sequencing technologies. We show that significant structural heterogeneity exists in ...

  19. Econometric analysis of improved maize varieties and sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) in Eastern Zambia

    Manda, J.

    2016-01-01

    Maize is the principle food staple in Zambia, providing both food and income for most of the rural populace. It is estimated that over 50% of the daily caloric intake is derived from maize; with an average consumption of over 85kg per year. Because of the importance of maize, a number of improved

  20. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing...

  1. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

    Renata Calixto Campos

    Full Text Available Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h, a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  2. Use of Maize (Zea mays L.) for phytomanagement of Cd-contaminated soils: a critical review.

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Ok, Yong Sik; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Hannan, Fakhir

    2017-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) has been widely adopted for phytomanagement of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils due to its high biomass production and Cd accumulation capacity. This paper reviewed the toxic effects of Cd and its management by maize plants. Maize could tolerate a certain level of Cd in soil while higher Cd stress can decrease seed germination, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis and growth/yields. Toxicity response of maize to Cd varies with cultivar/varieties, growth medium and stress duration/extent. Exogenous application of organic and inorganic amendments has been used for enhancing Cd tolerance of maize. The selection of Cd-tolerant maize cultivar, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes is a representative agronomic practice to enhance Cd tolerance in maize. Proper selection of cultivar and agronomic practices combined with amendments might be successful for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils with maize. However, there might be the risk of food chain contamination by maize grains obtained from the Cd-contaminated soils. Thus, maize cultivation could be an option for the management of low- and medium-grade Cd-contaminated soils if grain yield is required. On the other hand, maize can be grown on Cd-polluted soils only if biomass is required for energy production purposes. Long-term field trials are required, including risks and benefit analysis for various management strategies aiming Cd phytomanagement with maize.

  3. African maize porridge: a food with slow in vitro starch digestibility

    Van der Merwe, B

    2001-02-15

    Full Text Available maize porridge to bread. An in vitro method was used to determine the starch digestibility of African maize porridge compared to other cereal foods. Maize porridge had a much lower in vitro starch digestibility than white bread (P<0.001). There was a...

  4. Production of high-amylose maize lines using RNA interference in ...

    amylose maize lines with a low T-DNA copy number, demonstrating that RNAi is an efficient method for the production of high-amylose maize lines. Key words: Maize, high-amylose, RNA interference, starch branching enzyme gene sbe2a.

  5. Effects of N application on agronomic and environmental parameters in silage maize production on sandy soils

    Schröder, J.J.; Neeteson, J.J.; Withagen, J.C.M.; Noy, I.G.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The current nitrogen (N) use in silage maize production can lead to considerable N losses to the environment. Maize growers fear that a reduction of N inputs needed to minimize N losses might depress yields. The objective of this study was therefore to quantify: (1) the response of silage maize dry

  6. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  7. Physiological and molecular analysis of selected Kenyan maize lines for aluminum tolerance

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important limitation to maize production in many tropical and sub-tropical acid soil areas. The aim of this study was to survey the variation in Al tolerance in a panel of maize lines adapted for Kenya and look for novel sources of Al tolerance. 112 Kenyan maize accessio...

  8. Partial Placement of Maize with Cocoa Husks Meals in Layers Mash ...

    The partial replacement value of cocoa husk meals for maize in laying hen diets were assessed under an on-farm condition, Urea-treated and untreated cocoa husk meals were each incorporated into the farmer's layer mash (FLM) to replace 25% of the maize portion. FLM contained 40% maize. Six groups of 15 laying hens ...

  9. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize

    Marilyn L. Warburton; Juliet D. Tang; Gary L. Windham; Leigh K. Hawkins; Seth C. Murray; Wenwei Xu; Debbie Boykin; Andy Perkins; W. Paul Williams

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with significantly...

  10. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

    Campos, Renata Calixto; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h), a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional) associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  11. A(maize)ing attraction: gravid Anopheles arabiensis are attracted and oviposit in response to maize pollen odours.

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Hill, Sharon R; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-01-23

    Maize cultivation contributes to the prevalence of malaria mosquitoes and exacerbates malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. The pollen from maize serves as an important larval food source for Anopheles mosquitoes, and females that are able to detect breeding sites where maize pollen is abundant may provide their offspring with selective advantages. Anopheles mosquitoes are hypothesized to locate, discriminate among, and select such sites using olfactory cues, and that synthetic volatile blends can mimic these olfactory-guided behaviours. Two-port olfactometer and two-choice oviposition assays were used to assess the attraction and oviposition preference of gravid Anopheles arabiensis to the headspace of the pollen from two maize cultivars (BH-660 and ZM-521). Bioactive compounds were identified using combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection from the headspace of the cultivar found to be most attractive (BH-660). Synthetic blends of the volatile compounds were then assessed for attraction and oviposition preference of gravid An. arabiensis, as above. Here the collected headspace volatiles from the pollen of two maize cultivars was shown to differentially attract and stimulate oviposition in gravid An. arabiensis. Furthermore, a five-component synthetic maize pollen odour blend was identified, which elicited the full oviposition behavioural repertoire of the gravid mosquitoes. The cues identified from maize pollen provide important substrates for the development of novel control measures that modulate gravid female behaviour. Such measures are irrespective of indoor or outdoor feeding and resting patterns, thus providing a much-needed addition to the arsenal of tools that currently target indoor biting mosquitoes.

  12. Maize transformation technology development for commercial event generation

    Que, Qiudeng; Elumalai, Sivamani; Li, Xianggan; Zhong, Heng; Nalapalli, Samson; Schweiner, Michael; Fei, Xiaoyin; Nuccio, Michael; Kelliher, Timothy; Gu, Weining; Chen, Zhongying; Chilton, Mary-Dell M.

    2014-01-01

    Maize is an important food and feed crop in many countries. It is also one of the most important target crops for the application of biotechnology. Currently, there are more biotech traits available on the market in maize than in any other crop. Generation of transgenic events is a crucial step in the development of biotech traits. For commercial applications, a high throughput transformation system producing a large number of high quality events in an elite genetic background is highly desirable. There has been tremendous progress in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation since the publication of the Ishida et al. (1996) paper and the technology has been widely adopted for transgenic event production by many labs around the world. We will review general efforts in establishing efficient maize transformation technologies useful for transgenic event production in trait research and development. The review will also discuss transformation systems used for generating commercial maize trait events currently on the market. As the number of traits is increasing steadily and two or more modes of action are used to control key pests, new tools are needed to efficiently transform vectors containing multiple trait genes. We will review general guidelines for assembling binary vectors for commercial transformation. Approaches to increase transformation efficiency and gene expression of large gene stack vectors will be discussed. Finally, recent studies of targeted genome modification and transgene insertion using different site-directed nuclease technologies will be reviewed. PMID:25140170

  13. Preceramic maize from Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru.

    Grobman, Alexander; Bonavia, Duccio; Dillehay, Tom D; Piperno, Dolores R; Iriarte, José; Holst, Irene

    2012-01-31

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is among the world's most important and ancient domesticated crops. Although the chronology of its domestication and initial dispersals out of Mexico into Central and South America has become more clear due to molecular and multiproxy archaeobotanical research, important problems remain. Among them is the paucity of information on maize's early morphological evolution and racial diversification brought about in part by the poor preservation of macrofossils dating to the pre-5000 calibrated years before the present period from obligate dispersal routes located in the tropical forest. We report newly discovered macrobotanical and microbotanical remains of maize that shed significant light on the chronology, land race evolution, and cultural contexts associated with the crop's early movements into South America and adaptation to new environments. The evidence comes from the coastal Peruvian sites of Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru; dates from the middle and late preceramic and early ceramic periods (between ca. 6700 and 3000 calibrated years before the present); and constitutes some of the earliest known cobs, husks, stalks, and tassels. The macrobotanical record indicates that a diversity of racial complexes characteristic of the Andean region emerged during the preceramic era. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon determinations carried out directly on different structures of preserved maize plants strongly suggest that assays on burned cobs are more reliable than those on unburned cobs. Our findings contribute to knowledge of the early diffusion of maize and agriculture and have broader implications for understanding the development of early preindustrial human societies.

  14. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infection on maize seeds

    Dayana Portes Ramos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The previous knowledge of the infection process and pathogens behavior, for evaluating the physiological potential of maize seeds, is essential for decision making on the final destination of lots that can endanger sowing. This research was carried out in order to study the minimum period required for maize seeds contamination by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe and Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg, as well as these pathogens influence on seed germination and vigor, by using the cold test. Three maize seeds hybrids, kept in contact with the pathogens for different periods, were evaluated with and without surface disinfection. After determining the most suitable period, new samples were contaminated by F. graminearum and F. verticillioides, under different infection levels, and subjected to germination tests in sand. The cold test was conducted with healthy and contaminated seeds, at different periods, in a cold chamber. The contact of maize seeds with F. graminearum and F. verticillioides for 16 hours was enough to cause infection. F. graminearum and F. verticillioides did not affect the maize seeds germination, however, F. graminearum reduced the vigor of seeds lots.

  15. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  16. Maize transformation technology development for commercial event generation.

    Que, Qiudeng; Elumalai, Sivamani; Li, Xianggan; Zhong, Heng; Nalapalli, Samson; Schweiner, Michael; Fei, Xiaoyin; Nuccio, Michael; Kelliher, Timothy; Gu, Weining; Chen, Zhongying; Chilton, Mary-Dell M

    2014-01-01

    Maize is an important food and feed crop in many countries. It is also one of the most important target crops for the application of biotechnology. Currently, there are more biotech traits available on the market in maize than in any other crop. Generation of transgenic events is a crucial step in the development of biotech traits. For commercial applications, a high throughput transformation system producing a large number of high quality events in an elite genetic background is highly desirable. There has been tremendous progress in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation since the publication of the Ishida et al. (1996) paper and the technology has been widely adopted for transgenic event production by many labs around the world. We will review general efforts in establishing efficient maize transformation technologies useful for transgenic event production in trait research and development. The review will also discuss transformation systems used for generating commercial maize trait events currently on the market. As the number of traits is increasing steadily and two or more modes of action are used to control key pests, new tools are needed to efficiently transform vectors containing multiple trait genes. We will review general guidelines for assembling binary vectors for commercial transformation. Approaches to increase transformation efficiency and gene expression of large gene stack vectors will be discussed. Finally, recent studies of targeted genome modification and transgene insertion using different site-directed nuclease technologies will be reviewed.

  17. Mapping the Diversity of Maize Races in Mexico

    Perales, Hugo; Golicher, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional landraces of maize are cultivated throughout more than one-half of Mexico's cropland. Efforts to organize in situ conservation of this important genetic resource have been limited by the lack of knowledge of regional diversity patterns. We used recent and historic collections of maize classified for race type to determine biogeographic regions and centers of landrace diversity. We also analyzed how diversity has changed over the last sixty years. Based on racial composition of maize we found that Mexico can be divided into 11 biogeographic regions. Six of these biogeographic regions are in the center and west of the country and contain more than 90% of the reported samples for 38 of the 47 races studied; these six regions are also the most diverse. We found no evidence of rapid overall decline in landrace diversity for this period. However, several races are now less frequently reported and two regions seem to support lower diversity than in previous collection periods. Our results are consistent with a previous hypothesis for diversification centers and for migration routes of original maize populations merging in western central Mexico. We provide maps of regional diversity patterns and landrace based biogeographic regions that may guide efforts to conserve maize genetic resources. PMID:25486121

  18. Sugar transport by maize endosperm suspension cultures

    Felker, F.C.; Goodwin, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of sugar uptake by suspension cultures derived from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm, incorporation of radioactivity from 14 C-sugars by the tissue in the mid-log phase of growth was examined. Among the sugars tested was l'-deoxy-l'-fluorosucrose (FS), a derivative not hydrolyzed by invertase but recognized by sucrose carriers in other systems. At 40 mM, uptake of label from FS was 23% of that from sucrose, while uptake of label from L-glucose (used as a control for medium carry-over and adsorption) was 16% of that from sucrose. Uptake of label from sucrose did not increase at concentrations above 50 mM, possibly due to a rate-limiting requirement for extracellular hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed both saturable and linear components of uptake for glucose and fructose. The rate of fructose uptake exceeded that of glucose at all concentrations. Fructose uptake at 20 mM was inhibited by NaN 3 , HgCl 2 , dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. Results suggest that sucrose is hydrolyzed prior to uptake, and that fructose is transported preferentially by a carrier sensitive to an external sulfhydryl group inhibitor. Metabolic activity is required for sugar uptake. The specificity of the hexose transporter is currently being investigated

  19. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-05-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage.

  20. Exploring the Bacterial Microbiota of Colombian Fermented Maize Dough "Masa Agria" (Maiz Añejo).

    Chaves-Lopez, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Delgado-Ospina, Johannes; Rossi, Chiara; Grande-Tovar, Carlos D; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Masa Agria is a naturally fermented maize dough produced in Colombia, very common in the traditional gastronomy. In this study we used culture-dependent and RNA-based pyrosequencing to investigate the bacterial community structure of Masa Agria samples produced in the south west of Colombia. The mean value of cell density was 7.6 log CFU/g of presumptive lactic acid bacteria, 5.4 log cfu/g for presumptive acetic bacteria and 5.6 og CFU/g for yeasts. The abundance of these microorganisms is also responsible for the low pH (3.1-3.7) registered. Although the 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that the analyzed samples were different in bacteria richness and diversity, the genera Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Acetobacter were predominant. In particular, the most common species were Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter fabarum, followed by L. fermentum, L. vaccinostercus, and Pediococcus argentinicus. Several microorganisms of environmental origin, such as Dechloromonas and most of all Sphingobium spp., revealed in each sample, were detected, and also bacteria related to maize, such as Phytoplasma. In conclusion, our results elucidated for the first time the structures of the bacterial communities of Masa Agria samples obtained from different producers, identifying the specific dominant species and revealing a complete picture of the bacterial consortium in this specific niche. The selective pressure of tropical environments may favor microbial biodiversity characterized by a useful technological potential.

  1. Technical feasibility for electron beam application on maize seeds disinfection for maize cultivation in Brazil

    Zago, Claudia [Proenco Brasil Ltda. (Brazil)]. E-mail: clauzago@uol.com.br; Rela, Paulo Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Among the man made activities agriculture plays a fundamental rule on the interference with environment; new alternatives for clean technologies are being searched in order to reduce the impact and degradation of the environment. This work presents a feasibility study to implement in Brazil a technology using electron beam treatment to disinfect maize seeds avoiding the spoilage from pathogens microorganisms. This technology was developed in Germany by Fraunhofer Institut FEP (Dresden) and the private company Schmidt-Seeger AG. It was patented as 'e-ventus'. Concerning to the technical feasibility it shows to be quite useful due to the results of the experiments performed in other countries with maize seeds and properly for the large amount to be treated in the country. Under the environmental management it is quite advantageous when compared with the traditional technology that uses chemical seed dressing agents. Nevertheless for a large scale commercial application it is necessary a cost analyse comparison study between the traditional technology and the alternative using electron beam. (author)

  2. Technical feasibility for electron beam application on maize seeds disinfection for maize cultivation in Brazil

    Zago, Claudia; Rela, Paulo Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Among the man made activities agriculture plays a fundamental rule on the interference with environment; new alternatives for clean technologies are being searched in order to reduce the impact and degradation of the environment. This work presents a feasibility study to implement in Brazil a technology using electron beam treatment to disinfect maize seeds avoiding the spoilage from pathogens microorganisms. This technology was developed in Germany by Fraunhofer Institut FEP (Dresden) and the private company Schmidt-Seeger AG. It was patented as 'e-ventus'. Concerning to the technical feasibility it shows to be quite useful due to the results of the experiments performed in other countries with maize seeds and properly for the large amount to be treated in the country. Under the environmental management it is quite advantageous when compared with the traditional technology that uses chemical seed dressing agents. Nevertheless for a large scale commercial application it is necessary a cost analyse comparison study between the traditional technology and the alternative using electron beam. (author)

  3. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) as a model for investigating the safety of GM feed ingredients (soya and maize); performance, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA sequences.

    Sissener, Nini H; Johannessen, Lene E; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Berdal, Knut G; Nordgreen, Andreas; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    A 20-d zebrafish (Danio rerio) feeding trial, in which a near doubling of fish weight was achieved, was conducted with GM feed ingredients to evaluate feed intake, growth, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA. A partial aim of the study was to assess zebrafish as a model organism in GM safety assessments. Roundup Ready soya (RRS), YieldGard Bt maize (MON810) and their non-modified, maternal, near-isogenic lines were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Soya variety and maize variety were the main factors, both with two levels; non-GM and GM. Compared with fish fed non-GM maize, those fed GM maize exhibited significantly better growth, had lower mRNA transcription levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and a tendency (non-significant) towards lower transcription of heat shock protein 70 in liver. Sex of the fish and soya variety had significant interaction effects on total RNA yield from the whole liver and transcription of SOD-1, suggesting that some diet component affecting males and females differently was present in different levels in the GM and the non-GM soya used in the present study. Dietary DNA sequences were detected in all of the organs analysed, but not all of the samples. Soya and maize rubisco (non-transgenic, multicopy genes) were most frequently detected, while MON810 transgenic DNA fragments were detected in some samples and RRS fragments were not detected. In conclusion, zebrafish shows promise as a model for this application.

  4. Analysis of recombination QTLs, segregation distortion, and epistasis for fitness in maize multiple populations using ultra-high-density markers

    Understanding the maize genomic features would be useful for the study of genetic diversity and evolution and for maize breeding. Here, we used two maize nested association mapping (NAM) populations separately derived in China (CN-NAM) and the US (US-NAM) to explore the maize genomic features. The t...

  5. Woody legume fallow productivity, biological N2-fixation and residual benefits to two successive maize crops in Zimbabwe

    Chikowo, R.; Mapfumo, P.; Nyamugafata, P.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Three woody legumes were planted as two-year 'improved fallows' to evaluate their residual nitrogen (N) effects on two subsequent maize crops under minimum and conventional tillage management. Maize monoculture and cowpea-maize-maize sequence treatments were included as controls. N-2-fixation was

  6. Performance of laying hens fed diets containing DAS-59122-7 maize grain compared with diets containing nontransgenic maize grain.

    Jacobs, C M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hinds, M; Liebergesell, M; Sauber, T

    2008-03-01

    An experiment using 216 Hy-Line W-36 pullets was conducted to evaluate transgenic maize grain containing the cry34Ab1 and cry35Ab1 genes from a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strain and the phosphinothricin ace-tyltransferase (pat) gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Expression of the cry34Ab1 and cry35Ab1 genes confers resistance to corn rootworms, and the pat gene confers tolerance to herbicides containing glufosinate-ammonium. Pullets (20 wk of age) were placed in cage lots (3 hens/cage, 2 cages/lot) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (12 lots/treatment) formulated with the following maize grains: near-isogenic control (control), conventional maize, and transgenic test corn line 59122 containing event DAS-59122-7. Differences between 59122 and control group means were evaluated with statistical significance at P < 0.05. Body weight and gain, egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency for hens fed the 59122 corn were not significantly different from the respective values for hens fed diets formulated with control maize grain. Egg component weights, Haugh unit measures, and egg weight class distribution were similar regardless of the corn source. This research indicates that performance of hens fed diets containing 59122 maize grain, as measured by egg production and egg quality, was similar to that of hens fed diets formulated with near-isogenic corn grain.

  7. Accuracy of genomic selection in European maize elite breeding populations.

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-03-01

    Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.

  8. An improved method for chromosome counting in maize.

    Kato, A

    1997-09-01

    An improved method for counting chromosomes in maize (Zea mays L.) is presented. Application of cold treatment (5C, 24 hr), heat treatment (42 C, 5 min) and a second cold treatment (5C, 24 hr) to root tips before fixation increased the number of condensed and dispersed countable metaphase chromosome figures. Fixed root tips were prepared by the enzymatic maceration-air drying method and preparations were stained with acetic orcein. Under favorable conditions, one preparation with 50-100 countable chromosome figures could be obtained in diploid maize using this method. Conditions affecting the dispersion of the chromosomes are described. This technique is especially useful for determining the somatic chromosome number in triploid and tetraploid maize lines.

  9. NS maize hybrids in production regions of Serbia

    Stojaković Milisav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen NS maize hybrids of FAO 300-700 maturity groups were evaluated in strip trials (plot size 1,120 m2 at 30 locations in Serbia. In all locations including all production regions, the most yielding hybrid was NS 6030 with average yield of 10.9 t ha-1. The additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI and the sites regression (SREG models were used to study basic structure of G x E interactions and the possible existence of different mega-environments in Serbian maize growing regions in 2009. The results of the 15 hybrids x 10 locations for grain yield in maize showed by biplot technique indicate several specific location-hybrid deviations (the AMMI biplot, and possible existence of at least one mega-environment (the GGE biplot. .

  10. Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness measuring 100mmx50mm all arranged in this order contributed to the heating. The test results gave temperature above 45OC in the drying chamber, and the moisture content of 50kg of maize reduced to about 12.5% in three days of 9hours each day of drying.

  11. C4 photosynthetic machinery: insights from maize chloroplast proteomics

    Qi eZhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.

  12. Structural properties of maize hybrids established by infrared spectra

    Radenović Čedomir N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of the infrared (IR spectroscopy method for determination of structural properties of maize hybrid grains. The IR spectrum of maize grain has been registered in the following hybrids: ZP 341, ZP 434 and ZP 505. The existence of spectral bands varying in both number and intensity, as well as their shape, frequency and kinetics have been determined. They have been determined by valence oscillations and deformation oscillations of the following organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, amides, alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, esters and aldehydes and ketones, characteristic for biogenic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. In this way, possible changes in the grain structure of observed maize hybrids could be detected.

  13. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    Asimwe, I.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Forty five steers (2.5–3.0 years of age and 200±5 (SEM) kg body weight) were allotted randomly into five diets to assess the effects of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot using diets based on either molasses or maize grain combined with maize or rice by-products. The diets...... were hay and concentrate mixtures of hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and a control of maize meal with molasses (MMMO). All concentrate mixtures contained cotton seed cake, mineral mixture.......35 for HFMO) than in maize grain based diets (6.94, 6.73 and 6.19 for RPMM, MMMO and HFMM, respectively). Energy intake was highest (P

  14. Foraging in maize field areas: A risky business?

    Boily, Monique; Aras, Philippe; Jumarie, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    In Quebec, Canada, the cultivation of maize dominates the agricultural territory. This crop requires a sustained supply of fertilizers from different sources: chemical, natural or from residual materials (sludge). These amendments contain metallic trace elements, which may lead to metal-contaminated maize pollen, a possible source of prooxidants for the foraging bees. Our objective was to determine whether maize fields environment influences the oxidation processes and the accumulation of metals in bees. A few days prior to pollen shedding, beehives were installed in maize fields: one organically grown (site A) and three conventionally grown (sites B, C and D). Soil, maize pollen and bees were analyzed for metal content. Every 15days, bees were collected and analyzed for peroxidation of lipids, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs), proteins, retinoids and lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and α-tocopherol). The compound β-carotene was the most abundant in bees from all sites, followed by α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, α-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. Retinaldehyde and retinol varied according to times and sites without demonstrating clear trends. However, significant differences between sites were noted in 13-cis-retinoic acid and two retinoic acid metabolites measured in bees, suggesting alteration in the reduction-oxidation processes. In line with these results, the level of lipid peroxidation was globally higher in sites B, C and D compared with the organic site. Higher concentrations of metals were observed in soil and pollen from the field A, but bees metal contents were equal or less than those measured in bees from other sites. Higher bee MTLP levels were measured in sites B, C and D. For most sampling times, the discriminant analysis revealed that the conditions were distinguished by the oxidation processes in bees. Our data suggest that bees foraging in conventionally grown maize fields are at risk of increased oxidative damages which can

  15. Weed diversity identification on growth phases of twelve maize varieties

    Rahayu, M.; Yudono, P.; Indradewa, D.; Hanudin, E.

    2018-03-01

    Weed is one of the factors that disturb maize cultivation. Each maize variety has specific characteristics which will lead to weeds diversity in particular farm. This study aimed to identify the effect of maize variety on weed diversity on maize’s growth phases. The research was conducted from March to July 2016 in Banguntapan, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The field research was arranged by using Randomised Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments were maize varieties, consist of 12 levels: ‘Bisi 18’, ‘Bisi 2’, ‘Pertiwi 3’, ‘NK 22’, ‘NK 33’, ‘DK 959’, ‘P23’, ‘DK 771’, ‘DK 95’, ‘Bima 19 Uri’, ‘Bisma’, and ‘Sukmaraga’. The results showed that at four weeks after planting (WAP) the most of weeds were growing on varieties ‘Bisi 18’, ‘NK 33’, ‘P 23’, and ‘DK 95’, there were 14 species. Bulbostylispuberula and Cyperusrotundus were growing on all maize varieties with the highest SDR on ‘Sukmaraga’ and ‘DK 959’. At six WAP, weeds that grew, most consists of four species of sedges, six species of grasses and 24 species of broadleaf. While at the age of eight WAP, the weeds that grow at least on ‘NK 33’ that were 13 species and the most on ‘P23’ that were 21 species. Dactyloctenium aeghypthium having highest SDR in all maize varieties except Bisi 18. The highest SDR value on Bisi 18 was Boerhaavia erecta about 16.23%.

  16. Oleoyl and linoleoyl esters of fumonisin B1 are differently produced by Fusarium verticillioides on maize and rice based media.

    Falavigna, C; Lazzaro, I; Galaverna, G; Dall'Asta, C; Battilani, P

    2016-01-18

    Fatty acid esters of fumonisins, namely oleoyl- and linoleoyl esters of fumonisin B1 (EFB1OA and EFB1LA, respectively), are modified forms of fumonisins whose formation and occurrence have been reported so far in naturally infected maize and in artificially inoculated rice. There is a lack of knowledge about the mechanism of formation, mainly in relation to the role played by the substrate. Therefore, in this work we studied the dynamics of accumulation of the toxin and its esters, together with their precursor, in maize and rice based media inoculated with different strains of F. verticillioides and incubated at 25 °C for 7-45 days. The production pattern of FB1 and its modified forms was significantly influenced by growth media, reaching a higher concentration in cornmeal compared to rice based medium. Similarly, cornmeal was more supportive for the conversion of FB1 by considering the esterification rate, with a prevalence of linoleoyl esters compared to oleoyl esters resembling the OA/LA rate in both media. The conversion of FB1 into fatty acid esters was also shown as strain-related. Results, thus, strongly support the hypothesis that fatty acid esters of FB1 are produced by the fungus itself at a late stage of growth, or at a certain point of FB1 accumulation in the medium, using fatty acids from the substrate.

  17. Physiological response of wheat, maize and cotton to gamma irradiation

    Sharabash, M.T.M.; Gaweesh, S.S.M.; Orabi, I.O.A.; Hammad, A.H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Grains of wheat triticum aestivum vulgare cv. Giza 155, maize Zea mays cv. double hybrid strain 17 S and cotton seeds Gossypium barbadence cv. Giza 67 were irradiated with successive doses of gamma rays from 0 to 64 Krad. Irradiating wheat grains with 1 Krad, maize grains with 0.5 Krad and cotton seeds with 4 Krad stimulated their germination and enhanced the growth of seedlings and their chlorophyll content. Also, these doses activated Alpha- and Beta-Amylase in the seeds. Higher doses had suppression effects. Peroxidase value in the seedlings of the three species was accelerated progressively in concomitant with the increase in the dosage

  18. Comparison of energy and yield parameters in maize crop

    Memon, S.Q.; Mirjat, M.S.; Amjad, N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine direct and indirect input energy in maize production and to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption in maize crop. Result showed that emergence percent, plant height, number of grains per cob and grain yield were the highest in deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input and output were the highest in deep tillage with NPK at the rate 150-75-75kg/ha. The net energy gain was found the highest in deep tillage followed by conventional tillage and the lowest net energy gain in zero tillage. (author)

  19. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. "Omics" of maize stress response for sustainable food production: opportunities and challenges.

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study.

  1. CYCLOXYDIM-TOLERANT MAIZE – BREEDERS STANDPOINT

    G. Bekavac

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cycloxydim-Tolerant Maize (CTM was developed by researches at the University of Minnesota. CTM plants were regenerated from tissue culture selected for callus growth in the presence of cycloxydim, and the resulting plants were shown to contain a nuclear mutation, expressed as a single, partially dominant gene (known as Acc1 that conferred tolerance to the herbicide. Cycloxydim is a systemic herbicide for post emergence application in dicot crops to selectively control grass weeds. Corn, like most grasses is susceptible to cycloxydim due to inhibited acetyl-coenzyimeA carboxylaze enzyme activity. There are two key benefits of this technology: first, cycloxydim applications in CTM hybrids can be delayed until the weed spectrum and population density exceed agro-economic threshold; second, cycloxydim can be applied at either stage of plant development with no effect on basic agronomic traits, compared to non treated plants. Nevertheless, this type of tolerance requires 2 genes to be fully effective, i.e. gene must be present in both inbred parents to provide complete tolerance in the resulting hybrid. Such type of tolerance doubles the chances for yield drag and doubles the number of inbred conversions needed. This also limits germplasm integration and increases time lag in developing hybrids. Despite these difficulties, many seed companies introduce tolerance to cycloxydim into their commercial inbreds, and many of them have already commercialized CTM hybrids. Finally, it came as a logical question what is more important – hybrid performance or new trait? Critical to the success of this technology has been yield performance of CTM hybrids. At the same time, performance and herbicide tolerance do not exclude each other and can surely co-exist. To be accepted, this coexistence must secure high profitability to corn producers. However, CTM hybrids will not replace conventional ones on a large scale, but could be used as a specific tool, or could

  2. Glycaemic Response to Quality Protein Maize Grits

    Leonora N. Panlasigui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbohydrates have varied rates of digestion and absorption that induces different hormonal and metabolic responses in the body. Given the abundance of carbohydrate sources in the Philippines, the determination of the glycaemic index (GI of local foods may prove beneficial in promoting health and decreasing the risk of diabetes in the country. Methods. The GI of Quality Protein Maize (QPM grits, milled rice, and the mixture of these two food items were determined in ten female subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control bread and three test foods were given on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick at time intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and analyzed for glucose concentrations. Results. The computed incremental area under the glucose response curve (IAUC varies significantly across test foods (P<.0379 with the pure QPM grits yielding the lowest IAUC relative to the control by 46.38. Resulting GI values of the test foods (bootstrapped were 80.36 (SEM 14.24, 119.78 (SEM 18.81, and 93.17 (SEM 27.27 for pure QPM grits, milled rice, and rice-QPM grits mixture, respectively. Conclusion. Pure QPM corn grits has a lower glycaemic response compared to milled rice and the rice-corn grits mixture, which may be related in part to differences in their dietary fibre composition and physicochemical characteristics. Pure QPM corn grits may be a more health beneficial food for diabetic and hyperlipidemic individuals.

  3. Genomic Predictability of Interconnected Biparental Maize Populations

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Endelman, Jeffrey B.; Stange, Michael; Sorrells, Mark E.; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2013-01-01

    Intense structuring of plant breeding populations challenges the design of the training set (TS) in genomic selection (GS). An important open question is how the TS should be constructed from multiple related or unrelated small biparental families to predict progeny from individual crosses. Here, we used a set of five interconnected maize (Zea mays L.) populations of doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from four parents to systematically investigate how the composition of the TS affects the prediction accuracy for lines from individual crosses. A total of 635 DH lines genotyped with 16,741 polymorphic SNPs were evaluated for five traits including Gibberella ear rot severity and three kernel yield component traits. The populations showed a genomic similarity pattern, which reflects the crossing scheme with a clear separation of full sibs, half sibs, and unrelated groups. Prediction accuracies within full-sib families of DH lines followed closely theoretical expectations, accounting for the influence of sample size and heritability of the trait. Prediction accuracies declined by 42% if full-sib DH lines were replaced by half-sib DH lines, but statistically significantly better results could be achieved if half-sib DH lines were available from both instead of only one parent of the validation population. Once both parents of the validation population were represented in the TS, including more crosses with a constant TS size did not increase accuracies. Unrelated crosses showing opposite linkage phases with the validation population resulted in negative or reduced prediction accuracies, if used alone or in combination with related families, respectively. We suggest identifying and excluding such crosses from the TS. Moreover, the observed variability among populations and traits suggests that these uncertainties must be taken into account in models optimizing the allocation of resources in GS. PMID:23535384

  4. Maize production in mid hills of Nepal: from food to feed security

    Krishna Prasad Timsina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in 2016 to analyze the production and utilization of maize in Nepal. Sixty maize growers from Kavre and Lamjung districts were selected using purposive, cluster and simple random sampling techniques. Similarly, six feed industries and five maize experts from Chitwan district were also interviewed. Study shows 56% of the total areas were used for maize production and 50% of the maize areas were covered by hybrid maize. There was no practice of contract maize production. The results revealed that 60%, 25% and 3% of the grain were used for animal feed, food and seed respectively in hill districts. Whereas the remaining amount of the maize (12% was sold to the different buyers. The proportion of maize feed supply to different animals in the study area was varying. Result shows that at least 1.5 million tons of maize is required only to the feed industries affiliated with national feed industry association in Nepal. Similarly, out of total maize used in feed production, 87% of the maize was imported from India each year by feed industries. Analysis shows negative correlation between scale of feed production and use of domestic maize due to unavailability of required quantity of maize in time. The major pre-condition of feed industries for maize buying was moisture content which must be equal or less than 14%. Very little or no inert materials and physical injury, free from fungal attack and bigger size were also the criteria for maize buying. However, some of the feed industries were also thinking about protein and amino acid contents. Result shows 13% and 8.5% increasing demand of poultry feed and animal feed, respectively over the last five year in Nepal. Most likely, maize is known as a means of food security in Nepal, however, in the context of changing utilization patterns at the farm level and also tremendous increasing demand of maize at the industry level suggest to give more focus on development and dissemination of

  5. ProFITS of maize: a database of protein families involved in the transduction of signalling in the maize genome

    Zhang Zhenhai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L. is an important model for plant basic and applied research. In 2009, the B73 maize genome sequencing made a great step forward, using clone by clone strategy; however, functional annotation and gene classification of the maize genome are still limited. Thus, a well-annotated datasets and informative database will be important for further research discoveries. Signal transduction is a fundamental biological process in living cells, and many protein families participate in this process in sensing, amplifying and responding to various extracellular or internal stimuli. Therefore, it is a good starting point to integrate information on the maize functional genes involved in signal transduction. Results Here we introduce a comprehensive database 'ProFITS' (Protein Families Involved in the Transduction of Signalling, which endeavours to identify and classify protein kinases/phosphatases, transcription factors and ubiquitin-proteasome-system related genes in the B73 maize genome. Users can explore gene models, corresponding transcripts and FLcDNAs using the three abovementioned protein hierarchical categories, and visualize them using an AJAX-based genome browser (JBrowse or Generic Genome Browser (GBrowse. Functional annotations such as GO annotation, protein signatures, protein best-hits in the Arabidopsis and rice genome are provided. In addition, pre-calculated transcription factor binding sites of each gene are generated and mutant information is incorporated into ProFITS. In short, ProFITS provides a user-friendly web interface for studies in signal transduction process in maize. Conclusion ProFITS, which utilizes both the B73 maize genome and full length cDNA (FLcDNA datasets, provides users a comprehensive platform of maize annotation with specific focus on the categorization of families involved in the signal transduction process. ProFITS is designed as a user-friendly web interface and it is

  6. Performance evaluation of quality protein maize genotypes across various maize production agro ecologies of Nepal

    Jiban Shrestha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify superior quality protein maize genotypes for grain yield under different agro climatic conditions of terai and hill districts in Nepal, the coordinated varietal trials (CVT were conducted at Dailekh, Doti, Salyan, Lumle and Pakhribas in 2013 and Salyan, Pakhribas and Kabre in 2014 during summer season and coordinated farmer’s field trials (CFFT at Surkhet and Dailekh in 2013 and Salyan, Pakhribas and Khumaltar in 2014 during summer season. The experiment was carried out using randomized complete block design with three replications for CVT and CFFT. Across the locations and years the superior genotypes found under CVT were S01SIYQ, S01SIWQ-2 and Poshilo Makai-1 where as S99TLYQ-HG-AB, S99TLYQ-B and Poshilo Makai-1 were found superior genotypes under CFFT. The superior genotypes derived from CFFT will be promoted further for similar environments across the country.

  7. Impact of genetically modified maize expressing Cry 3Bb1 on some non-target arthropods

    Hussein, Hany; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Sehnal, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2012), s. 5124-5131 ISSN 1819-544X R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91093 Grant - others:projekt MOBITAG(CZ) REGPOT-2008-1, GA 229518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : MON 88017 * Cry3Bb1 * non-target organisms Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection http://www.aensiweb.com/jasr/jasr/2012/5124-5131.pdf

  8. WITHDRAWN: Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified (GM) maize in Iran food products.

    Hosseini, Motahreh Sadat; Eslami, Gilda; Hajimohammadi, Bahador; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Derakhshan, Zahra; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Ferrante, Margherita

    2018-01-11

    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal. Copyright © 2018.

  9. Identity, regulation, and activity of inducible diterpenoid phytoalexins in maize

    Phytoalexins constitute a broad category of pathogen and insect-inducible biochemicals that locally protect plant tissues. Due to their agronomic significance, maize and rice have been extensively investigated for their terpenoid-based defenses which include insect-inducible monoterpene and sesquite...

  10. DELPHI ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS TO MAIZE PRODUCTION IN ...

    A descriptive Delphi study was conducted to: identify constraints to maize production on SNL from the perspectives of crop researchers, extension officers and farmers; categorise the constraints; rank them in order of importance; and identify ways of addressing them. A total of 33 constraint items were identified and ...

  11. Comparative evaluation of organic wastes for improving maize ...

    The potential of three agricultural waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), banana waste (BW) and pressmud (PM) was tested in a pot experiment growing maize. The results of the experiment showed highly significant increase in plant height, dry matter yields and NPK contents with the application of fertilizers, particularly ...

  12. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems. The objectives of this st...

  13. Homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) cDNA’s in maize

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This reaction ...

  14. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from cloned cDNA

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) is the type member of the marafiviruses within the family Tymoviridae. A cDNA clone from which infectious RNA can be transcribed was produced from a US isolate of MRFV (MRFV-US). Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of mai...

  15. Effect of Replacement of Maize with Cassava Root Meal Fortified ...

    The effects of replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM) fortified with palm oil on performance of starter broilers were determined in a 28-day feeding trial. Diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated such that they contained cassava root meal, fortified with 20% palm oil, in the proportions 10, 20, 30 and 40%, ...

  16. Replacement value of millet for maize on performance and ...

    The experiment was conducted to determine the performance characteristics and haematological indices of broiler chickens fed varying levels of millet as a replacement for maize. Three hundred and thirty day old Marshal Broiler chickens were assigned to 5 dietary treatment groups. Each treatment was replicated 3 times ...

  17. Nutritional value of huitlacoche, maize mushroom caused by Ustilago maydis

    Mehmet AYDOĞDU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smutty maize cobs, caused by Ustilago maydis ((DC Corda., a fungus belonging to Basidiomycetes, can be seen wherever maize is grown. It is considered as a fungal disease limiting maize yield worldwide. However, in Mesoamerica, it is called as “huitlacoche” and evaluated as an edible mushroom. The present study was conducted to examine nutritional characteristics of this mushroom. In the study, smutty cobs naturally infected by U. maydis were randomly gleaned from plants in maize producing areas in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, in 2015. Huitlacoche was analyzed in terms of proximate composition, fatty acids, mineral elements, total phenolic and flavonoid matters and antioxidant activity. Average protein content was 12%, while fatty acids ranged from 0.44 to 42.49% (dry basis. Of the 11 fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids had the highest percentages. Phosphorus (342.07 mg/kg and magnesium (262.69 mg/kg were found in high quantities. As for total phenolic and flavonoid matters were 113.11 mg GAE/kg and 28.51 mg CE/kg, respectively. The study suggests that huitlacoche has numerous good nutritional features for human diet, thus, it can be evaluated as a valuable food source in international cuisines.

  18. Establishment of compatibility in the Ustilago maydis/maize pathosystem

    Doehlemann, Gunther; Wahl, Ramon; Vranes, Miroslav; de Vries, Ronald P; Kämper, Jörg; Kahmann, Regine

    The fungus Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic pathogen parasitizing on maize. The most prominent symptoms of the disease are large tumors in which fungal proliferation and spore differentiation occur. In this study, we have analyzed early and late tumor stages by confocal microscopy. We show that

  19. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the

  20. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize.

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the

  1. Intra-Household Impacts of Small Farm Commercialization of Maize ...

    This study was designed to analyze the impacts of small farm commercialization of maize enterprise on farming households in Abia State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 150 farming households through interview schedule and analysed using tables, percentages, a 4-scale Likert-type ranking method and ordinary least ...

  2. Isolation, Modification and Characterization of Tiger-Nut, Maize ...

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... ... starch properties. SEM images showed that morphological architecture of granules was ... food starch are corn, potato, wheat, cassava/tapioca, rice and maize are ... rice, pea, sago, oat, barley, rye, amaranth and certain other source of .... Micrographs of native and oxidized starch are shown in Figure 1.

  3. Productivity of Maize hybrid maturity classes in Savanna ...

    With the continued development and release of such hybrids, there is need to continue to screen them in order to ascertain their potential productivity in different agro-ecologies. A study was, therefore, carried out between June and October 2011, to screen nine hybrid varieties of maize for growth and yield potentials in two ...

  4. Returns, productivity and constraints analyses of cassava/maize ...

    The study was conducted in Isi-Uzo LGA of Enugu State, and evaluated the productivity and profitability of cassava/maize/melon mixed cropping with the aim to determine the degree and direction of influence of the production factors and identification of constraints militating against the enterprise. Multistage and purposive ...

  5. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Small Holder Maize Growing ...

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of technical efficiency of smallholder maize producers and identify its determinants in Horo Guduru Wollega zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A Cobb-Douglass stochastic production function model was used for the analysis. To specify technical inefficiency effects ...

  6. Enhanced fodder yield of maize genotypes under saline irrigation is ...

    Poor quality irrigation water adversely affects the growth and yield of crops. This study was designed to evaluate the growth, fodder yield and ionic concentration of three promising maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under the influence of varying quality irrigation water, with different salinity levels. The genotypes, such as ...

  7. Critical parameters for maize yield under irrigation farming in the ...

    This study examines the critical variables that determine maize yield under irrigation farming in the savanna ecological zone of Kwara State. Seventy-five soil samples were randomly collected from irrigation farm of Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority Ilorin and bulked into 15 ...

  8. Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs ...

    Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs. TS Brand, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  9. Researchers urge climate-resilience support for South African maize ...

    20 avr. 2016 ... Maize yields in parts of South Africa could decline by up to 20% by the 2050s as a result of climate change, research has shown. This could have a dramatic impact on subsistence farmers, with the poorest likely to be hardest hit. South Africa's Financial and Fiscal Commission tabled the findings for ...

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure. ABSTRACT: This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to ...

  11. effect of tillage, rhizobium inoculation in maize-soybean- based ...

    main plot, four rhizobium inoculation in soybean-maize-based cropping systems ... production systems, such as cropping systems, ... of commercial inoculants. Studies ... and distributed by IITA business incubation ... sowing, while the remaining part (2/3) was done as ...... biological nitrogen fixation potential and grain yield.

  12. Nitrogen effects on maize yield following groundnut in rotation on ...

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    way cross hybrid 'R215' was hand-planted at two seeds per planting station on ... Maize grain. N uptake was calculated as the product of dry matter yield and .... saved from farmer crops and no fertilizer) on farmers' fields. Causes ...

  13. Sources And Use Of Extension Information Among Maize Farmers In ...

    ... plant spacing, fertilizer application, post-harvest processing, and storage. Recommendations on herbicides and pesticides were however, not utilized to a great extent by the respondents. Key words: Extension information, improved maize, utilization, sources of information. Journal Of Agriculture And Social Research Vol.

  14. Imazapyr-resistant maize technology adoption for witch weed control ...

    Saharan Africa. A new technology known as imazapyr-resistant maize (IRM) has proven to be effective in controlling it. This study examined the status of IRM adoption in western Kenya. A cross sectional survey that included 600 households, ...

  15. Analysis of moniliformin in maize plants using hydrophilic interaction chromatography

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thrane, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    A novel HPLC method was developed for detection of the Fusarium mycotoxin, moniliformin in whole maize plants. The method is based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) on a ZIC zwitterion column combined with diode array detection and negative electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI...

  16. Growth and dry matter accumulation in drought resistant maize ( Zea ...

    growth, dry matter accumulation and yield characters of maize planted under the same environmental conditions. The trial was conducted during the 2010 wet season at Bagauda the Kano University of Technology (KUST) temporary research farm (11° 39° N, 08° 20° E).The treatments consisted of three sowing dates ...

  17. Women Farmers' Contributions to Maize Production in Afijio Local ...

    user

    counts, percentages and mean while Pearson Product Moment Correlation and ... showed that age (r = 0.950, P<0.05), farm size (r = 0.174, P<0.05), ... literacy) be intensified, young women be encouraged to be more involved in maize ... farmers, only few of the studies actually ... socio-economic characteristics of women.

  18. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  19. Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste ...

    Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste products on nutrient digestibility and performance by lambs. ... The diets had similar intake and nutrient digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Lambs fed the 25 and 50% PW diets had higher intakes of crude ...

  20. Image-based thresholds for weeds in maize fields

    Asif, Ali; Streibig, Jens Carl; Christensen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    in some parts of the field and if late germinating weeds do not affect yield, it may not be necessary the spray such places from an economic point of view. Consequently, it makes sense to develop weed control thresholds for patch spraying, based on weed cover early in the growing season. In Danish maize...

  1. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hy...... maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication....

  2. Facilitation of phosphorus uptake in maize plants by mycorrhizosphere bacteria

    Battini, Fabio; Grønlund, Mette; Agnolucci, Monica

    2017-01-01

    availability of soil P. This study investigated whether biofertilizers and bioenhancers, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their associated bacteria could enhance growth and P uptake in maize. Plants were grown with or without mycorrhizas in compartmented pots with radioactive P tracers and were...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Two ...

    Background: Aflatoxicosis resulting from consumption of contaminated maize poses a significant public health problem in many countries including Kenya, and many people living in developing countries could be chronically exposed to aflatoxin through their diet. It is caused by Aflatoxins produced by fungus of species ...

  4. In-vitro mutation breeding technology in maize

    Nesticky, M.

    1988-08-01

    Gamma-irradiation and in-vitro culture, separately or combined, as a tool for inducing mutation in maize were evaluated. This type of research has been hampered in maize because (i) maize is a cross pollinating crop and highly heterozygous and (ii) embryogenesis and plant regeneration of plants from in-vitro culture have been difficult. In the present study, carefully designed and elaborated experiments were conducted using an inbred line CH1 31 which is capable of somatic embryogenesis for the subject of mutagenesis and another line Bu 8Ro 2 for the test cross partner. Results showed: 1) Both the regeneration of plants from in-vitro culture and gamma-irradiation induced a similar spectrum of morphological variation. Although the variation with somaclones was more frequent that radiation induced mutations under the conditions used, combination of explant irradiation and in-vitro culture gave the highest frequencies of genetic variation. 2) Some of the mutations in quantitative characters can be recogned in heterozygous state. 3) Mutation can cause variation in combining ability (extent of heterosis). 4) Efficiency at embryogenesis differs with genotypes of maize. 3 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Effect of replacing maize with pride of barbados ( Delonix regia ...

    The five dietary treatments contained 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of Delonix regia seed meal (DRSM) for maize in a completely randomized design experiment. The parameters investigated during the study were: feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed cost. At the end of the feeding trial, ...

  6. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Alford, Adam; Krupke, Christian H

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn) seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  7. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Adam Alford

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  8. Development of nematode resistance maize varieties by diallel ...

    The study was conducted in 2014 and 2015 cropping season at the Centre for agricultural research and extension (CARE) of Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) located at latitude 050 27‖ N and longitude 070 O2‖ E within the rain forest agro-ecology of Nigeria; to assess the tolerance level of maize ...

  9. Do Refuge Plants Favour Natural Pest Control in Maize Crops?

    Quispe, Reinaldo; Mazón, Marina; Rodríguez-Berrío, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests’ natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies. Insects occurring in all the plants, including the maize crop itself, were sampled weekly during the crop growing cycle, from February to June 2011. All individuals collected were identified and classified into three functional groups: herbivores, parasitoids, and predators. Refuges were compared based on their effectiveness in enhancing the populations of predator and parasitoid insects of the crop enemies. Refuges A and B were the most effective, showing the highest richness and abundance of both predators and parasitoids, including several insect species that are reported to attack the main insect pests of maize (Spodoptera frugiperda and Rhopalosiphum maidis), as well as other species that serve as alternative hosts of these natural enemies. PMID:28718835

  10. Hydrocarbon-degrading Capability of Bacteria isolated from a Maize ...

    Hydrocarbon-degrading Capability of Bacteria isolated from a Maize-Planted, Kerosene-contaminated Ilorin Alfisol. ... also revealed that some bacteria survive and even thrive in kerosene contaminated soil and hence have the potential to be used in biodegradation and/or bioremediation of oil contaminated soils and water.

  11. Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Yola North Local ...

    user

    ABSTRACT. This study was carried out in Abeokuta, South-western Nigeria in 2008 and 2009 to assess the impact of tillage and poultry manure (PM) on soil infiltration rate and maize root growth. The experiment was a split-plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of three tillage treatments: zero tillage.

  12. Manganese, iron and copper contents in leaves of maize plants ...

    Micronutrients such as boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) play important physiological roles in humans and animals. Zn and B are the micronutrients most often deficient in maize, in Iran. A completely randomized factorial block design experiment was carried out at Fars province of Iran during ...

  13. Regenerability of elite tropical maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines ...

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... maize production (Evenson and Gollin, 2003) due to high heterotic ... the culture media used in the process (Armstrong and. Green, 1985). This calls .... a temperature of 27 ± 1°C. After two weeks of culture on the EMM, embryogenic .... al., 2008). This could be due to blockage of cell division and inactivation ...

  14. Hardpan and maize root distribution under conservation and ...

    Hardpan and maize root distribution under conservation and conventional tillage in agro-ecological zone IIa, Zambia. ... There is no scientific basis for the recommendation given to farmers by agricultural extension workers to “break the hardpan” in fields under manual or animal tillage in the study areas. Key Words: Soil ...

  15. Comparative Energy Values Of Sorghum Distillers Waste, Maize ...

    A balance trial aimed at determining the energy values of Sorghum Distiller's Wastes (SDW), Maize cob (MC) and Shea butter Waste (SBW) for barrows was conducted using a 4 x 4 Latin square cross- over experimental design. While feed intake was influenced (P < 0.05) by the test feed ingredients, the weight gained was ...

  16. Decomposition characteristics of maize ( Zea mays . L.) straw with ...

    Decomposition of maize straw incorporated into soil with various nitrogen amended carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios under a range of moisture was studied through a laboratory incubation trial. The experiment was set up to simulate the most suitable C/N ratio for straw carbon (C) decomposition and sequestering in the soil.

  17. Influence of some environmental factors on maize productivity in ...

    Temperature, humidity and direction of the prevailing wind are parts of significant environmental factors, which have greater impact on crop productivity, especially with the recent global climate change. These were researched into on maize seeds planted at three different furrow orientations on the field; Or. 900, Or. 600 and ...

  18. Drought tolerant tropical maize ( Zea mays L.) developed through ...

    Maize is a staple food crop for millions of Africans. Despite this fact, African farmers have been harvesting average grain yield of not more than 2 t/ha while there is a potential of producing more than 10 t/ha. Drought is one of the major abiotic constraints contributing to this low productivity. Drought diminishes crop ...

  19. easily practicable packages for weed management in maize abstract

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    response of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars to integrate such control practices. Field experiments were ... et moins stratégies de gestion des mauvaises herbes sur les coûts de gestion du maïs. .... number, vertical leaf angle and leaf area density.

  20. productivity of maize hybrid maturity classes in savanna agro

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    11, ... it requires fertile, well-drained loam soil, well- ... This was equivalent to 320 g per ... Agronomic characteristics of hybrid varieties of maize used in the field experiment in ... moisture content, at which figure it is believed to ..... Textural class.