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Sample records for modified live marker

  1. Identifying Markers of Dignity-Conserving Care in Long-Term Care: A Modified Delphi Study.

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    Genevieve N Thompson

    Full Text Available Ensuring that people living in nursing homes (NHs are afforded with dignity in their daily lives is an essential and humane concern. Promoting dignity-conserving care is fundamentally important. By nature, however, this care is all-encompassing and holistic, and from current knowledge it is challenging to create explicit strategies for measuring dignity-conserving care. In practice the majority of current NH indicators of quality care are derived from information that is routinely collected on NH residents using the RAI-Minimum Data Set (MDS. In this regard, issues that are more tangible to resident dignity such as being treated with respect, compassion, and having opportunities to engage with others are not adequately captured in current NH quality of care indicators. An initial set of markers was created by conducting an integrative literature review of existing markers and indicators of dignity in the NH setting. A modified Delphi process was used to prioritize essential dignity-conserving care markers for use by NH providers, based on factors such as the importance to fostering a culture of dignity, the impact it may have on the residents, and how achievable it is in practice. Through this consensus building technique, we were able to develop a comprehensive set of markers that capture the range and diversity of important dignity-conserving care strategies for use in NHs. The final 10 markers were judged as having high face validity by experts in the field and have explicit implications for enhancing the provision of daily dignified care to NH residents. These markers make an important addition to the traditional quality indicators used in the NH setting and as such, bridge an important gap in addressing the psychosocial and the less easily quantified needs of NH residents.

  2. Using Live-Cell Markers in Maize to Analyze Cell Division Orientation and Timing.

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    Rasmussen, Carolyn G

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed live-cell markers provide an opportunity to explore the dynamics and localization of proteins in maize, an important crop and model for monocot development. A step-by-step method is outlined for observing and analyzing the process of division in maize cells. The steps include plant growth conditions, sample preparation, time-lapse setup, and calculation of division rates.

  3. Melanosomal dynamics assessed with a live-cell fluorescent melanosomal marker.

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    Jan M Bruder

    Full Text Available Melanocytes present in skin and other organs synthesize and store melanin pigment within membrane-delimited organelles called melanosomes. Exposure of human skin to ultraviolet radiation (UV stimulates melanin production in melanosomes, followed by transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to neighboring keratinocytes. Melanosomal function is critical for protecting skin against UV radiation, but the mechanisms underlying melanosomal movement and transfer are not well understood. Here we report a novel fluorescent melanosomal marker, which we used to measure real-time melanosomal dynamics in live human epidermal melanocytes (HEMs and transfer in melanocyte-keratinocyte co-cultures. A fluorescent fusion protein of Ocular Albinism 1 (OA1 localized to melanosomes in both B16-F1 cells and HEMs, and its expression did not significantly alter melanosomal distribution. Live-cell tracking of OA1-GFP-tagged melanosomes revealed a bimodal kinetic profile, with melanosomes exhibiting combinations of slow and fast movement. We also found that exposure to UV radiation increased the fraction of melanosomes exhibiting fast versus slow movement. In addition, using OA1-GFP in live co-cultures, we monitored melanosomal transfer using time-lapse microscopy. These results highlight OA1-GFP as a specific and effective melanosomal marker for live-cell studies, reveal new aspects of melanosomal dynamics and transfer, and are relevant to understanding the skin's physiological response to UV radiation.

  4. [Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].

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    An, Liyou; Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Yang, Tingjia; Cheng, Yong

    2012-12-01

    We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neo(r)) or double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLC14 or pAPLM construct, resulting in a total of 806 reconstructed embryos, a pregnancy rate at 35 d (53.8%, 39.1%) and 60 d (26.9%, 21.7%), and an offspring birth rate (1.9%, 1.4%) with 5 and 7 newborn cloned goats, respectively. Transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern-blot in all cloned offspring. There were no significant differences at the reconstructed embryo fusion rates, pregnancy rates and the birth rate (P > 0.05) between single and double markers groups. The Neo(r)/GFP double markers could improve the reliability for accurately and efficiently selecting the genetically modified donor cells. No adverse effect was observed on the efficiency of transgenic goat production by SCNT using somatic cells transfected with double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers vector.

  5. mRNA detection in living cell using phosphorothioate-modified molecular beacon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG HongXing; YANG XiaoHai; WANG KeMin; TAN WeiHong; LI Wei

    2009-01-01

    In this study, GFP mRNA in COS-7 cell and GFP-transfected COS-7 cell was detected in real time using phosphorothioate-modified molecular beacon based on living cell imaging method. Results showed that phosphorothioate-modified molecular beacon still kept the advantages of molecular beacon, such as, excellent selectivity, high sensitivity, and no separation detection. In addition, this modification could significantly increase the nuclease resistance of molecular beacon. Phosphorothioate-modified molecular beacon can efficiently reduce the false positive signal and improve the accuracy of living cell mRNA detection.

  6. Dietary Biotin Supplementation Modifies Hepatic Morphology without Changes in Liver Toxicity Markers

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    Leticia Riverón-Negrete

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological concentrations of biotin have pleiotropic effects. Several reports have documented that biotin supplementation decreases hyperglycemia. We have shown that a biotin-supplemented diet increased insulin secretion and the mRNA abundance of proteins regulating insulin transcription and secretion. We also found enlarged pancreatic islets and modified islet morphology. Other studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify tissue structure. Although biotin administration is considered safe, little attention has been given to its effect on tissue structure. In this study, we investigated the effect of biotin supplementation on hepatic morphology and liver toxicity markers. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet for 8 weeks. Versus the control mice, biotin-supplemented mice had an altered portal triad with dilated sinusoids, increased vascularity, and bile conducts. Furthermore, we observed an increased proportion of nucleomegaly and binucleated hepatocytes. In spite of the liver morphological changes, no differences were observed in the serum liver damage indicators, oxidative stress markers, or antioxidant enzymes. Our data demonstrate for the first time that biotin supplementation affects liver morphology in normal mice, and that these modifications are not paralleled with damage markers.

  7. Dietary Biotin Supplementation Modifies Hepatic Morphology without Changes in Liver Toxicity Markers

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    Riverón-Negrete, Leticia; Sicilia-Argumedo, Gloria; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Alcántar-Fernández, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological concentrations of biotin have pleiotropic effects. Several reports have documented that biotin supplementation decreases hyperglycemia. We have shown that a biotin-supplemented diet increased insulin secretion and the mRNA abundance of proteins regulating insulin transcription and secretion. We also found enlarged pancreatic islets and modified islet morphology. Other studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify tissue structure. Although biotin administration is considered safe, little attention has been given to its effect on tissue structure. In this study, we investigated the effect of biotin supplementation on hepatic morphology and liver toxicity markers. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet for 8 weeks. Versus the control mice, biotin-supplemented mice had an altered portal triad with dilated sinusoids, increased vascularity, and bile conducts. Furthermore, we observed an increased proportion of nucleomegaly and binucleated hepatocytes. In spite of the liver morphological changes, no differences were observed in the serum liver damage indicators, oxidative stress markers, or antioxidant enzymes. Our data demonstrate for the first time that biotin supplementation affects liver morphology in normal mice, and that these modifications are not paralleled with damage markers. PMID:28105429

  8. The challenges of classical swine fever control: modified live and E2 subunit vaccines.

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    Huang, Yu-Liang; Deng, Ming-Chung; Wang, Fun-In; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Yi

    2014-01-22

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important, highly contagious disease of swine worldwide. CSF is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and domestic pigs and wild boars are its only natural hosts. The two main strategies used to control CSF epidemic are systematic prophylactic vaccination and a non-vaccination stamping-out policy. This review compares the protective efficacy of the routinely used modified live vaccine (MLV) and E2 subunit vaccines and summarizes the factors that influence the efficacy of the vaccines and the challenges that both vaccines face to CSF control. Although MLV provide earlier and more complete protection than E2 subunit vaccines, it has the drawback of not allowing differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). The marker vaccine of E2 protein with companion discriminatory test to detect antibodies against E(rns) allows DIVA and is a promising strategy for future control and eradication of CSF. Maternal derived antibody (MDA) is the critical factor in impairing the efficacy of both MLV and E2 subunit vaccines, so the well-designed vaccination programs of sows and piglets should be considered together. Because of the antigen variation among various genotypes of CSFV, antibodies raised by either MLV or subunit vaccine neutralize genotypically homologous strains better than heterologous ones. However, although this is not a major concern for MLV as the induced immune responses can protect pigs against the challenge of various genotypes of CSFVs, it is critical for E2 subunit vaccines. It is thus necessary to evaluate whether the E2 subunit vaccine can completely protect against the current prevalent strains in the field. An ideal new generation of vaccine should be able to maintain the high protective efficiency of MLV and overcome the problem of antigenic variations while allowing for DIVA.

  9. [Expression of CD48 as a live marker to distinguish division of hematopoietic stem cells].

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    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Lu-Yun; Pang, Ya-Kun; Dong, Fang; Ji, Qing; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Tao; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Gao, Ying-Dai

    2014-06-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are capable of self-renewal or differentiation when they divide. Three types of cell divisions exist. A dividing stem cell may generate 2 new stem cells (symmetrical renewal division), or 2 differentiating cells (symmetrical differentiation division), or 1 cell of each type (asymmetrical division). This study was aimed to explore an efficient and stable method to distinguish the way of cell division in hematopoietic stem cells. Previous studies showed that the distribution of Numb in a cell could be used to distinguish the type of cell division in various kinds of cells. Therefore, the distribution of Numb protein was detected by immunofluorescence in mitotic CD48(-)CD150(+)LSK cells of mice exploring the relationship between Numb protein and centrosomes. Since CD48 positive marks the HSC that have lost the ability to reconstitute the blood system in mice, CD48 marker could be used to distinguish cell fate decision between self-renewal and differentiation as a living marker. In this study, the CD48(-)CD150(+)LSK cells were sorted from bone marrow cells of mice and the cells were directly labeled with Alexa Fluor (AF) 488-conjugated anti-CD48 antibody in living cultures. After 3 days, the percentage of AF488(+) cells was evaluated under microscope and by FACS. Then colony forming cell assay (CFC) was performed and the ability of cell proliferation were compared between AF488(+) and AF488(-) cells. The results showed that Numb could be used to distinguish different cell division types of hematopoietic stem cells, which was symmetrically or asymmetrically segregated in mitotic CD48(-)CD150(+)LSK cells. The self-labeled fluorochrome could be detected both by FACS as well as microscope. There were about 40% AF488(+) cells after 3 day-cultures in medium titrated with self-labeled AF 488-conjugated anti-CD48 antibody, and the results were consistent between confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. The colony forming ability of

  10. Evaluation of reproductive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 afforded by annual revaccination with modified-live viral or combination modified-live/killed viral vaccines after primary vaccination with modified-live viral vaccine.

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    Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel; Rodning, Soren P; Riddell, Kay P; Brodersen, Bruce W; Scruggs, Daniel; Short, Thomas; Grotelueschen, Dale

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) provided by annual revaccination with multivalent modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine or multivalent combination viral (CV) vaccine containing temperature-sensitive modified-live BoHV-1 and killed BVDV when MLV vaccines were given pre-breeding to nulliparous heifers. Seventy-five beef heifers were allocated into treatment groups A (n=30; two MLV doses pre-breeding, annual revaccination with MLV vaccine), B (n=30; two MLV doses pre-breeding, annual revaccination with CV vaccine) and C (n=15; saline in lieu of vaccine). Heifers were administered treatments on days 0 (weaning), 183 (pre-breeding), 366 (first gestation), and 738 (second gestation). After first calving, primiparous cows were bred, with pregnancy assessment on day 715. At that time, 24 group A heifers (23 pregnancies), 23 group B heifers (22 pregnancies), and 15 group C heifers (15 pregnancies) were commingled with six persistently infected (PI) cattle for 16days. Ninety-nine days after PI removal, cows were intravenously inoculated with BoHV-1. All fetuses and live offspring were assessed for BVDV and BoHV-1. Abortions occurred in 3/23 group A cows, 1/22 group B cows, and 11/15 group C cows. Fetal infection with BVDV or BoHV-1 occurred in 4/23 group A offspring, 0/22 group B offspring, and 15/15 group C offspring. This research demonstrates efficacy of administering two pre-breeding doses of MLV vaccine with annual revaccination using CV vaccine to prevent fetal loss due to exposure to BVDV and BoHV-1.

  11. Oxidative stress markers and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a patient with GLUT1 deficiency treated with modified Atkins diet.

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    Kitamura, Yuri; Okumura, Akihisa; Hayashi, Masaharu; Mori, Harushi; Takahashi, Satoru; Yanagihara, Keiko; Miyata, Rie; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Mimaki, Takashi; Abe, Shinpei; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2012-05-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome is an inborn error of glucose transport across blood-tissue barriers, and the modified Atkins diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment. To investigate the effects of the modified Atkins diet, we examined the cerebrospinal fluid markers and performed phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a patient with glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome before and after the modified Atkins diet. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of the oxidative stress markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and hexanoyl-lysine adduct, were markedly increased above the cutoff index and were normalized 18 months after the modified Atkins diet. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements showed 18% increase of PCr/γ-ATP ratio after the modified Atkins diet. These results suggest that the modified Atkins diet may reduce oxidative stress in the brain and improve energy reserve capacity, which is important in sustaining electrophysiological activities essential for performing brain functions.

  12. Biomarkers of safety and immune protection for genetically modified live attenuated Leishmania vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis-Discovery and implications

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    Sreenivas eGannavaram

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite intense efforts there is no safe and efficacious vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis, which is fatal and endemic in many tropical countries. A major shortcoming in the vaccine development against blood borne parasitic agents such as Leishmania is the inadequate predictive power of the early immune responses mounted in the host against the experimental vaccines. Often immune correlates derived from in-bred animal models do not yield immune markers of protection that can be readily extrapolated to humans. The limited efficacy of vaccines based on DNA, sub-unit, heat killed parasites has led to the realization that acquisition of durable immunity against the protozoan parasites requires a controlled infection with a live attenuated organism. Recent success of irradiated malaria parasites as a vaccine candidate further strengthens this approach to vaccination. We developed several gene deletion mutants in L. donovani as potential live attenuated vaccines and reported extensively on the immunogenicity of LdCentrin1 deleted mutant in mice, hamsters and dogs. Additional limited studies using genetically modified live attenuated Leishmania parasites as vaccine candidates have been reported. However, for the live attenuated parasite vaccines, the primary barrier against widespread use remains the absence of clear biomarkers associated with protection and safety. Recent studies in evaluation of vaccines e.g., influenza and yellow fever vaccines, using systems biology tools demonstrated the power of such strategies in understanding the immunological mechanisms that underpin a protective phenotype. Applying similar tools in isolated human tissues such as PBMCs from healthy individuals infected with live attenuated parasites such as LdCen1-/- in vitro followed by human microarray hybridization experiments will enable us to understand how early vaccine-induced gene expression profiles and the associated immune responses are coordinately regulated

  13. Evaluation of genetically modified sugarcane lines carrying Cry 1AC gene using molecular marker techniques.

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    Ismail, Roba M

    2013-01-01

    Five genetically modified insect resistant sugarcane lines harboring the Bt Cry 1AC gene to produce insecticidal proteins were compared with non-transgenic control by using three types of molecular marker techniques namely, RAPD, ISSR and AFLP. These techniques were applied on transgenic and non-transgenic plants to investigate the genetic variations, which may appear in sugarcane clones. This variation might demonstrate the genomic changes associated with the transformation process, which could change important molecular basis of various biological phenomena. Genetic variations were screened using 22 different RAPD primers, 10 ISSR primers and 13 AFLP primer combinations. Analysis of RAPD and ISSR banding patterns gave no exclusive evidence for genetic variations. Meanwhile, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.45% in each of RAPD and ISSR, while the polymorphism generated by AFLP analysis was 1.8%. The maximum percentage of polymorphic bands was 1.4%, 1.1% and 5.5% in RAPD, ISSR and AFLP, respectively. These results demonstrate that most transgenic lines showed genomic homogeneity and verified minor genomic changes. Dendrograms revealing the relationships among the transgenic and control plants were developed from the data of each of the three marker types.

  14. Simultaneous detection of mRNA and protein stem cell markers in live cells

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    Bao Gang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological studies and medical application of stem cells often require the isolation of stem cells from a mixed cell population, including the detection of cancer stem cells in tumor tissue, and isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells after eliciting the expression of specific genes in adult cells. Here we report the detection of Oct-4 mRNA and SSEA-1 protein in live carcinoma stem cells using respectively molecular beacon and dye-labeled antibody, aiming to establish a new method for stem cells detection and isolation. Results Quantification of Oct-4 mRNA and protein in P19 mouse carcinoma stem cells using respectively RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry confirmed that their levels drastically decreased after differentiation. To visualize Oct-4 mRNA in live stem cells, molecular beacons were designed, synthesized and validated, and the detection specificity was confirmed using control studies. We found that the fluorescence signal from Oct-4-targeting molecular beacons provides a clear discrimination between undifferentiated and retinoic acid-induced differentiated cells. Using deconvolution fluorescence microscopy, Oct-4 mRNAs were found to reside on one side of the cytosol. We demonstrated that, using a combination of Oct-4 mRNA-targeting molecular beacon with SSEA-1 antibody in flow cytometric analysis, undifferentiated stem cells can be clearly distinguished from differentiated cells. We revealed that Oct-4 targeting molecular beacons do not seem to affect stem cell biology. Conclusion Molecular beacons have the potential to provide a powerful tool for highly specific detection and isolation of stem cells, including cancer stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells without disturbing cell physiology. It is advantageous to perform simultaneous detection of intracellular (mRNA and cell-surface (protein stem cell markers in flow cytometric analysis, which may lead to high detection sensitivity and efficiency.

  15. Markers of Decompression Stress of Mass Stranded/Live Caught and Released vs. Single Stranded Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Markers of Decompression Stress of Mass Stranded /Live...Caught and Released vs. Single Stranded Marine Mammals Michael Moore Biology Department Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, MA 02543...analyze blood samples from captive, wild-caught, and stranded marine mammals in order to compare concentrations of Microparticles (MPs). If confirmed

  16. UPDRS activity of daily living score as a marker of Parkinson's disease progression.

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    Harrison, Madaline B; Wylie, Scott A; Frysinger, Robert C; Patrie, James T; Huss, Diane S; Currie, Lillian J; Wooten, G Frederick

    2009-01-30

    The activities of daily living (ADL) subscore of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) captures the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on daily function and may be less affected than other subsections by variability associated with drug cycle and motor fluctuations. We examined UPDRS mentation, ADL and motor subscores in 888 patients with idiopathic PD. Multiple linear regression analyses determined the association between disease duration and UPDRS subscores as a function of medication status at examination and in a subset of patients with multiple examinations. Independent of medication status and across cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, ADL subscores showed a stronger and more stable association with disease duration than other UPDRS subscores after adjusting for age of disease onset. The association between disease duration and the motor subscore depended on medication status. The strong association between ADL subscore and disease duration in PD suggests that this measure may serve as a better marker of disease progression than signs and symptoms assessed in other UPDRS sections.

  17. Relationship between physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in independent community-living elderly individuals.

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    Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Zarrazquin, I; Maquibar, A; Yanguas, J J; Sánchez-Fernández, C E; Gil, J; Irazusta, A; Ruiz-Litago, F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between objective data of physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in older men and women. Participants were old adults, aged≥60years (61 women and 34 men) who were all capable of performing basic daily activities by themselves and lived on their own. To describe physical activity we used objective data measured by accelerometers which record active and sedentary periods during everyday life for five days. Determination of oxidative stress was conducted from three perspectives: determination plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and membrane lipid peroxidation (TBARS). In the group of women, those who met physical activity recommendations (WR) had lower level of TAS. In addition, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively correlated with TAS. Simultaneously, MVPA was correlated with increase in the GPx antioxidant enzyme activity, and the counts per minute were positively correlated with CAT activity. In the group of men, the cpm and the MVPA were negatively correlated with lipid peroxidation while lifestyle physical activity was positively correlated with CAT activity. These findings suggest that MVPA in the elderly although it is related to a decrease in the TAS in women, induces adaptive increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in both women and men. These results suggest that at this time of life, it is not only the amount of physical activity performed that is important but also its intensity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying and characterizing alternative molecular markers for the symbiotic and free-living dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium.

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    Xavier Pochon

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A-I that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1 identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2 characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H, and 3 conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools and reciprocal comparisons to identify homologous genes from 55,551 cDNA sequences representing two Symbiodinium and six additional dinoflagellate EST libraries. Of the 84 candidate genes identified, 7 Symbiodinium genes (elf2, coI, coIII, cob, calmodulin, rad24, and actin were characterized by sequencing 23 DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H. Four genes displaying higher rates of genetic divergences than ITS-2 within clade C were selected for in-depth phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that calmodulin has limited taxonomic utility but that coI, rad24, and actin behave predictably with respect to Symbiodinium lineage C and are potential candidates as new markers for this group. The approach for targeting candidate genes described here can serve as a model for future studies aimed at identifying and testing new phylogenetically informative genes for taxa where transcriptomic and genomics data are available.

  19. Identifying and characterizing alternative molecular markers for the symbiotic and free-living dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Putnam, Hollie M; Burki, Fabien; Gates, Ruth D

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A-I) that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1) identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2) characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H), and 3) conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools and reciprocal comparisons to identify homologous genes from 55,551 cDNA sequences representing two Symbiodinium and six additional dinoflagellate EST libraries. Of the 84 candidate genes identified, 7 Symbiodinium genes (elf2, coI, coIII, cob, calmodulin, rad24, and actin) were characterized by sequencing 23 DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H). Four genes displaying higher rates of genetic divergences than ITS-2 within clade C were selected for in-depth phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that calmodulin has limited taxonomic utility but that coI, rad24, and actin behave predictably with respect to Symbiodinium lineage C and are potential candidates as new markers for this group. The approach for targeting candidate genes described here can serve as a model for future studies aimed at identifying and testing new phylogenetically informative genes for taxa where transcriptomic and genomics data are available.

  20. Safe sorting of GFP-transduced live cells for subsequent culture using a modified FACS vantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T U; Gram, G J; Nielsen, S D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A stream-in-air cell sorter enables rapid sorting to a high purity, but it is not well suited for sorting of infectious material due to the risk of airborne spread to the surroundings. METHODS: A FACS Vantage cell sorter was modified for safe use with potentially HIV infected cells. S...... culture. CONCLUSIONS: Sorting of live infected cells can be performed safely and with no deleterious effects on vector expression using the modified FACS Vantage instrument.......BACKGROUND: A stream-in-air cell sorter enables rapid sorting to a high purity, but it is not well suited for sorting of infectious material due to the risk of airborne spread to the surroundings. METHODS: A FACS Vantage cell sorter was modified for safe use with potentially HIV infected cells...... culture. RESULTS: The bacteriophage sorting showed that the biologically active material was confined to the sorting chamber. A failure mode simulating a nozzle blockage resulted in detectable droplets inside the sorting chamber, but no droplets could be detected when an additional air suction from...

  1. Tracking neuronal marker expression inside living differentiating cells using molecular beacons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Della Vedova, Paolo; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring gene expression is an important tool for elucidating mechanisms of cellular function. In order to monitor gene expression during nerve cell development, molecular beacon (MB) probes targeting markers representing different stages of neuronal differentiation were designed and synthesized...

  2. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

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    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A modified agar pad method for mycobacterial live-cell imaging

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    Robertson Brian D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two general approaches to prokaryotic live-cell imaging have been employed to date, growing bacteria on thin agar pads or growing bacteria in micro-channels. The methods using agar pads 'sandwich' the cells between the agar pad on the bottom and a glass cover slip on top, before sealing the cover slip. The advantages of this technique are that it is simple and relatively inexpensive to set up. However, once the cover slip is sealed, the environmental conditions cannot be manipulated. Furthermore, desiccation of the agar pad, and the growth of cells in a sealed environment where the oxygen concentration will be in gradual decline, may not permit longer term studies such as those required for the slower growing mycobacteria. Findings We report here a modified agar pad method where the cells are sandwiched between a cover slip on the bottom and an agar pad on top of the cover slip (rather than the reverse and the cells viewed from below using an inverted microscope. This critical modification overcomes some of the current limitations with agar pad methods and was used to produce time-lapse images and movies of cell growth for Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Conclusions This method offers improvement on the current agar pad methods in that long term live cell imaging studies can be performed and modification of the media during the experiment is permitted.

  4. Effects of supplementing n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and walnuts on cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a randomized, crossover, free-living intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Whitmore, Bonny; Haddad, Ella; Sabaté, Joan; Rajaram, Sujatha

    2014-03-27

    Plant and marine n-3 fatty acids (FA) may favorably modify select markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Whether supplementing the habitual diet of lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV) with walnuts (containing α-linolenic acid, ALA) and n-3 FA enriched eggs (containing primarily docosahexaenoic acid, DHA and ALA) would have equivalent effects on CVD risk factors is explored in this study. In this study, 20 healthy free-living LOVs following their habitual diet were randomly assigned in a crossover design to receive one of three supplements: n-3 FA enriched egg (6/week), walnuts (28.4 g, 6/week) or a standard egg, 6/week (control) for 8 weeks each with 4-wk washout between treatments. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, serum lipids and inflammatory markers were measured at the end of each treatment. Dietary compliance was observed by an expected increase in erythrocyte membrane ALA following the walnut treatment and in DHA following the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. Walnut treatment lowered serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and Apo B (p vegetarian.

  5. Tissue-specifically regulated site-specific excision of selectable marker genes in bivalent insecticidal, genetically-modified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhan; Ding, Xuezhi; Hu, Shengbiao; Sun, Yunjun; Xia, Liqiu

    2013-12-01

    Marker-free, genetically-modified rice was created by the tissue-specifically regulated Cre/loxP system, in which the Cre recombinase gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) were flanked by two directly oriented loxP sites. Cre expression was activated by the tissue-specific promoter OsMADS45 in flower or napin in seed, resulting in simultaneous excision of the recombinase and marker genes. Segregation of T1 progeny was performed to select recombined plants. The excision was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and sequence analyses indicating that efficiency varied from 10 to 53 % for OsMADS45 and from 12 to 36 % for napin. The expression of cry1Ac and vip3A was detected by RT-PCR analysis in marker-free transgenic rice. These results suggested that our tissue-specifically regulated Cre/loxP system could auto-excise marker genes from transgenic rice and alleviate public concerns about the security of GM crops.

  6. Phenotypic and functional markers for 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-modified regulatory dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A W; Holmstrøm, K; Jensen, S S;

    2009-01-01

    The clinical use of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance has been hampered by the lack of a widely acknowledged method for generating human regulatory DCs but even more so by the non-existence of reliable markers. Thus, we set out to find reliable markers that can...... CD14 and reduced CD1a on the cell surface. These VD3-treated DCs exert a long-lasting inefficient T cell stimulation and induce T cell hyporesponsiveness with regulatory potential. Importantly, such VD3-treated DCs were readily distinguishable from untreated DCs by low levels of interleukin-23...

  7. Application of spin markers for study of liposome prepared by the modified reverse-phase evaporation method

    OpenAIRE

    Pentak, Danuta; Sułkowski, Wiesław W.; Wolińska, Agnieszka; Maślanka, Sławomir; Bojko, Barbara; Maciążek, Małgorzata; Równicka, Joanna; Sułkowska, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The EPR spectroscopy was used to determine the structure and physicochemical properties of liposomes prepared from L-α-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl (DPPC) by the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV). EPR study was carried out in the temperature range from 297 K to 340 K i.e. below and above the phase transition temperature TC of DPPC. On the basis of EPR spectra of spin marker 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) incorporated into the liposome, the parameter f was deter...

  8. UPDRS ACTIVITY OF DAILY LIVING SCORE AS MARKER OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE PROGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Madaline B.; Wylie, Scott A.; Frysinger, Robert C.; Patrie, James T.; Huss, Diane S.; Currie, Lillian J.; Wooten, G. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    The Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscore of the UPDRS captures the impact of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) on daily function and may be less affected than other subsections by variability associated with drug cycle and motor fluctuations. We examined UPDRS mentation, ADL and motor subscores in 888 patients with idiopathic PD. Multiple linear regression analyses determined the association between disease duration and UPDRS subscores as a function of medication status at examination and in a su...

  9. Long-term viremia and fecal shedding in pups after modified-live canine parvovirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Desario, Costantina; Cavalli, Alessandra; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Ventrella, Gianpiero; Rizzi, Stefania; Aulicino, Stefano; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2014-06-24

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) modified live virus vaccines are able to infect vaccinated dogs replicating in the bloodstream and enteric mucosa. However, the exact duration and extent of CPV vaccine-induced viremia and fecal shedding are not known. With the aim to fill this gap, 26 dogs were administered two commercial vaccines containing a CPV-2 or CPV-2b strain and monitored for 28 days after vaccination. By using real-time PCR, vaccine-induced viremia and shedding were found to be long lasting for both vaccinal strains. Vaccinal CPV-2b shedding was detected for a shorter period than CPV-2 (12 against 19 mean days) but with greater viral loads, whereas viremia occurred for a longer period (22 against 19 mean days) and with higher titers for CPV-2b. Seroconversion appeared as early as 7 and 14 days post-vaccination for CPV-2b and CPV-2 vaccines, respectively. With no vaccine there was any diagnostic interference using in-clinic or hemagglutination test, since positive results were obtained only by fecal real-time PCR testing. The present study adds new insights into the CPV vaccine persistence in the organism and possible interference with diagnostic tests.

  10. Genetic Markers of the Host in Persons Living with HTLV-1, HIV and HCV Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Assone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 are prevalent worldwide, and share similar means of transmission. These infections may influence each other in evolution and outcome, including cancer or immunodeficiency. Many studies have reported the influence of genetic markers on the host immune response against different persistent viral infections, such as HTLV-1 infection, pointing to the importance of the individual genetic background on their outcomes. However, despite recent advances on the knowledge of the pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection, gaps in the understanding of the role of the individual genetic background on the progress to disease clinically manifested still remain. In this scenario, much less is known regarding the influence of genetic factors in the context of dual or triple infections or their influence on the underlying mechanisms that lead to outcomes that differ from those observed in monoinfection. This review describes the main factors involved in the virus–host balance, especially for some particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA haplotypes, and other important genetic markers in the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP and other persistent viruses, such as HIV and HCV.

  11. The Relationship of Antibodies to Modified Citrullinated Vimentin and Markers of Bone and Cartilage Destruction in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To make individualised decisions regarding treatment is one of the most important challenges in clinical practise, and identification of sensitive and specific markers of prognosis is an important research question. The main objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between the level of autoantibodies, radiographic changes and laboratory markers of bone, and cartilage destruction. Methods. A total of 114 RA patients were examined. The serum concentration of IgM RF, antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP, modified citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP, ng/mL were measured. The van der Heijde-modified Sharp Score was used to quantify the radiologic changes. Results. Among the patients who were high-positive for anti-MCV, the value of total modified Sharp score (mTSS (96.5; 66–120 was higher as well as the joint space narrowing (82; 60.5–105.5, and a higher level of MMP-3 was recorded more frequently (56% in comparison with negative/low-positive patients (57; 31–88, 50; 29–82, 31% resp., P<0.05. The level of COMP was also higher among patients high-positive for anti-MCV (9.7; 8.1–13.1 and 6.8; 5.4–10.7, resp., P=0.02. Conclusion. A high positive level of anti-MCV as contrasted with anti-CCP and IgM RF is associated with more pronounced destructive changes in the joints.

  12. Populational genetic structure of free-living maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus determined by proteic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. R. De Mattos

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic analysis of presumptive twenty gene loci products was conducted in hemolisates and plasma samples of twenty-eight maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus from an area in northeastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The area sampled was divided into three sub-areas, with the Mogi-Guaçu and Pardo rivers regarded as barriers to the gene flow. The polymorphism degree and heterozygosity level (intralocus and average estimated in this study were similar to those detected by other authors for maned wolves and other species of wild free-living canids. The samples of each sub-area and the total sample exhibited genotype frequencies consistent with the genetic equilibrium model. The values of the F-statistics evidenced absence of inbreeding and population subdivision and, consequently, low genetic distances were found among the samples of each area.

  13. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination.

  14. Variation in the Markers of Nutritional and Oxidative State in a Long-Lived Seabird: Associations with Age and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urvik, Janek; Meitern, Richard; Rattiste, Kalev; Saks, Lauri; Hõrak, Peeter; Sepp, Tuul

    2016-01-01

    Age-related declines in life-history traits have been widely observed in free-living animals. Several theories link senescence to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure several widely used markers of oxidative and nutritional state in a long-lived seabird, the common gull (Larus canus), in order to assess the suitability of these markers for describing deterioration in physiological condition associated with chronological age and survival. Associations with longevity and individual consistency of these parameters over the years (repeatability) were also assessed. Senescence in fitness parameters was observed during the study period: in females, laying date and clutch mass were related to bird age in a curvilinear manner, with middle-aged birds breeding earlier and laying heavier eggs. The only parameter associated with aging processes was glutathione concentration in erythrocytes, which was lower in female birds with longer life spans. Of indexes of nutritional state, plasma triglyceride concentration showed a between-individual increase with age, suggesting selective mortality of birds with low levels. Additionally, total plasma protein levels of individual males increased with age. The mostly negative results of this study hint that the commonly used parameters of physiological condition and oxidative state used in this study do not adequately reflect an individual's long-term health condition. Alternatively, it is possible that in common gulls, senescence occurs in reproductive mechanisms but not in mechanisms responsible for maintaining an organism's redox balance, consistent with the idea that different aspects of an organism's physiological condition age at different rates. Significant interannual repeatability was detected in three plasma constituents-carotenoids, uric acid, and total protein-all of which can possibly be linked to variation in dietary habits.

  15. Efficacy of lifestyle changes in modifying practical markers of wellness and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masley, Steven Cameron; Weaver, Wendy; Peri, Gil; Phillips, Sharon E

    2008-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of asking people to add fiber, exercise, and stress management to their lifestyles to enhance markers of wellness and aging. A 10-week, randomized control study conducted in a wellness center in St Petersburg, Florida. Participants were adults aged 21 to 65 years who exercised fewer than 3 days per week. Fifty-six subjects were randomized to a control or an intervention group. Subjects followed a diet with > 30 g of fiber and VO2 max), total cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein (TC:HDL) ratio, and cognition. Initial analyses with analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparing the intervention group to the control group showed significant improvements in TC:HDL (8.9% average; P = .02) and change in weight (2.3 kg average; P = .016). When the groups were compared, the improvements in cognitive flexibility and VO2 max with ANOVA were not significant (P = .17 and P = .11, respectively). Additional independent t tests showed decreases in TC:HDL of 8.9% (P = .02) and TC of 7.3% (P = .001) for the intervention group compared to the control group. A mean increase of 29% in VO2 max of intervention subjects who exercised aerobically for at least 30 minutes 5 days/week was significant (P = .02) compared to the control group. Over the 10 weeks, the control group showed no significant change in lipids, body composition, cognition, and fitness, whereas the intervention group showed decreased body mass index (BMI) of 0.72 (P = .02), weight loss of 2.3 kg (P = .016), and decreased body fat of 1.6% (P 24 who exercised 5 to 6 days/week lost 4.8 kg and 4.1 kg in body fat. Also, in the intervention group, several of the cognitive scores showed statistically significant improvements from baseline: mental speed (4.6%, P = .014), reaction time (4.5%, P = .023), and cognitive flexibility (11.7%, P = .019), but none of these cognitive changes was significant with independent t testing when compared to the control group. A diet high in fiber and low in saturated fat

  16. Streptavidin Modified ZnO Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator for Detection of Tumor Marker Mucin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Guo, Peng; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-09-01

    A ZnO-based film bulk acoustic resonator has been fabricated using a magnetron sputtering technology, which was employed as a biosensor for detection of mucin 1. The resonant frequency of the thin-film bulk acoustic resonator was located near at 1503.3 MHz. The average electromechanical coupling factor {K}_{eff}^2 and quality factor Q were 2.39 % and 224, respectively. Using the specific binding system of avidin-biotin, the streptavidin was self-assembled on the top gold electrode as the sensitive layer to indirectly test the MUC1 molecules. The resonant frequency of the biosensor decreases in response to the mass loading in range of 20-500 nM. The sensor modified with the streptavidin exhibits a high sensitivity of 4642.6 Hz/nM and a good selectivity.

  17. Multiplex PCR-based simultaneous amplification of selectable marker and reporter genes for the screening of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi; Singh, Monika

    2009-06-24

    The development and commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops with enhanced insect and herbicide resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and improved nutritional quality has expanded dramatically. Notwithstanding the huge potential benefits of GM crops, the perceived environmental risks associated with these crops need to be addressed in proper perspective. One critical concern is the adventitious presence or unintentional mixing of GM seed in non-GM seed lots, which can seriously affect the global seed market. It would therefore be necessary though a challenging task to develop reliable, efficient, and economical assays for GM detection, identification, and quantification in non-GM seed lots. This can be systematically undertaken by preliminary screening for control elements and selectable or scorable (reporter) marker genes. In this study, simplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays individually as well as simultaneously amplifying the commonly used selectable marker genes, i.e., aadA, bar, hpt, nptII, pat encoding, respectively, for aminoglycoside-3'-adenyltransferase, Streptococcus viridochromogenes phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase, hygromycin phosphotransferase, neomycin phosphotransferase, Streptococcus hygroscopicus phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase, and a reporter gene uidA encoding beta-d-glucuronidase, were developed as a reliable tool for qualitative screening of GM crops. The efficiency of the assays was also standardized in the test samples prepared by artificial mixing of transgenic seed samples in different proportions. The developed multiplex PCR assays will be useful in verifying the GM status of a sample irrespective of the crop and GM trait.

  18. Prevalence of microbiological markers in bone tissue from live and cadaver donors in the musculoskeletal tissue bank of Passo Fundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dutra Roos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To conduct an epidemiological analysis on the main microbiological markers in bone tissue that was processed at the musculoskeletal tissue bank of Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, in Passo Fundo, between August 2007 and October 2011.Methods:Between August 2007 and October 2011, 202 musculoskeletal tissue samples were collected for the tissue bank. Among these, 159 samples were from living donor patients and 43 were from cadaver donors. The following serological tests were requested: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, HIV and HTLV.Results:Among the 159 living donors, 103 (64.75% were men and 56 (35.25% were women. The patients' mean age was 59.35 ± 8.87 years. Out of this total, 76 tissue samples (47.8% from donors were rejected. There was no difference in the number of rejections in relation to sex (p = 0.135 or age (p = 0.523. The main cause of rejection was serologically positive findings for the hepatitis B virus, which was responsible for 48 rejections (63.15%. Among the 43 cadaver donors, the mean age was 37.84 ± 10.32 years. Of these, 27 (62.8% were men and 16 (37.2% were women. Six of the samples collected from cadaver donors were rejected (13.9%, and the main cause of rejection was serologically positive findings for the hepatitis C virus, which was responsible for three cases (50%. There was no significant difference in the number of rejections in relation to sex (p = 0.21 or age (p = 0.252.Conclusion:There were a greater number of rejections of tissues from living donors (47.8% than from cadaver donors (13.9%. Among the living donors, the main cause of rejection was the presence of serologically positive findings of the hepatitis B virus, while among the cadaver donors, it was due to the hepatitis C virus.

  19. Development and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of the modified live virus vaccine strain of equine arteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Go, Yun Young; Huang, Chengjin M; Meade, Barry J; Lu, Zhengchun; Snijder, Eric J; Timoney, Peter J; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2012-08-01

    A stable full-length cDNA clone of the modified live virus (MLV) vaccine strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV) was developed. RNA transcripts generated from this plasmid (pEAVrMLV) were infectious upon transfection into mammalian cells, and the resultant recombinant virus (rMLV) had 100% nucleotide identity to the parental MLV vaccine strain of EAV. A single silent nucleotide substitution was introduced into the nucleocapsid gene (pEAVrMLVB), enabling the cloned vaccine virus (rMLVB) to be distinguished from parental MLV vaccine as well as other field and laboratory strains of EAV by using an allelic discrimination real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. In vitro studies revealed that the cloned vaccine virus rMLVB and the parental MLV vaccine virus had identical growth kinetics and plaque morphologies in equine endothelial cells. In vivo studies confirmed that the cloned vaccine virus was very safe and induced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against EAV in experimentally immunized horses. When challenged with the heterologous EAV KY84 strain, the rMLVB vaccine virus protected immunized horses in regard to reducing the magnitude and duration of viremia and virus shedding but did not suppress the development of signs of EVA, although these were reduced in clinical severity. The vaccine clone pEAVrMLVB could be further manipulated to improve the vaccine efficacy as well as to develop a marker vaccine for serological differentiation of EAV naturally infected from vaccinated animals.

  20. Biosilica from Living Diatoms: Investigations on Biocompatibility of Bare and Chemically Modified Thalassiosira weissflogii Silica Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Roberta Cicco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs with a large surface area and pore volume have attracted considerable attention for their application in drug delivery and biomedicine. Here we propose biosilica from diatoms as an alternative source of mesoporous materials in the field of multifunctional supports for cell growth: the biosilica surfaces were chemically modified by traditional silanization methods resulting in diatom silica microparticles functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS and 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the –SH or –NH2 were successfully grafted onto the biosilica surface. The relationship among the type of functional groups and the cell viability was established as well as the interaction of the cells with the nanoporosity of frustules. These results show that diatom microparticles are promising natural biomaterials suitable for cell growth, and that the surfaces, owing to the mercapto groups, exhibit good biocompatibility.

  1. Thiazole derivative-modified upconversion nanoparticles for Hg2+ detection in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Xiaowang; Zhang, Yuhai; Marks, Robert; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Qichun

    2015-12-01

    Mercury ion (Hg2+) is an extremely toxic ion, which will accumulate in human bodies and cause severe nervous system damage. Therefore, the sensitive and efficient monitoring of Hg2+ in human bodies is of great importance. Upconversion nanoparticle (UCNPs) based nano probes exhibit no autofluorescence, deep penetration depth and chemical stability in biological samples, as well as a large anti-stokes shift. In this study, we have developed thiazole-derivative-functionalized UCNPs, and employed an upconversion emission intensity ratio of 540 nm to 803 nm (I540/I803) as a ratiometric signal to detect Hg2+ in living cells showing excellent photo stability and high selectivity. Our nano probe was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The low cytotoxicity of our probe was confirmed by an MTT assay and the UCL test in HeLa cells was carried out by confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrated that organic-dye-functionalized UCNPs should be a good strategy for detecting toxic metal ions when studying cellular biosystems.Mercury ion (Hg2+) is an extremely toxic ion, which will accumulate in human bodies and cause severe nervous system damage. Therefore, the sensitive and efficient monitoring of Hg2+ in human bodies is of great importance. Upconversion nanoparticle (UCNPs) based nano probes exhibit no autofluorescence, deep penetration depth and chemical stability in biological samples, as well as a large anti-stokes shift. In this study, we have developed thiazole-derivative-functionalized UCNPs, and employed an upconversion emission intensity ratio of 540 nm to 803 nm (I540/I803) as a ratiometric signal to detect Hg2+ in living cells showing excellent photo stability and high selectivity. Our nano probe was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The low cytotoxicity of our probe was confirmed by an MTT assay and the UCL test in HeLa cells was carried out by

  2. Metals uptake by live yeast and heat-modified yeast residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgia Labuto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biosorption of Cd2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ at pHs 3, 4, 5 and 6 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae both alive and biologically inactivated by different heating procedures (oven, autoclave or spray dry technique originated from alcohol industry. The material inactivated by autoclave (IA, at 120°C, 30 min had the best performance for metals uptake: 1.88 ± 0.07 (Cu2+, 2.22 ± 0.02 (Cr3+ and 1.57 ± 0.08 g kg-1 (Pb2+. For Cd2+; while the material inactivated by spray dry (RY presented the higher sorption capacity, 2.30 ± 0.08 g kg-1. The sorption studies showed that the biosorbent materials presented different sorption capacities and an ideal sorption pH. The sorption sites were investigated by potentiometric titration and FT-IR and showed that different heating processes used to inactivate biological samples produce materials with different characteristics and with a diverse sorption capacity due to modification of the available sorption sites. This suggests that inactivation by heating can be an alternative to improve the performance of biosorbents. The main sorption sites for each material were phenolic for live yeast (LY and carboxylic for yeast inactivated by heating in an autoclave (IA.

  3. Effects of erythropoietin and vitamin E-modified membrane on plasma oxidative stress markers and anemia of hemodialyzed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usberti, Mario; Gerardi, GianMario; Bufano, Giuseppe; Tira, Paola; Micheli, Annamaria; Albertini, Alberto; Floridi, Ardesio; Di Lorenzo, Diego; Galli, Francesco

    2002-09-01

    Oxidant stress has a pathogenic role in uremic anemia, possibly interfering with erythropoietin (EPO) function and red blood cell (RBC) survival. Therefore, it is expected that antioxidant therapy might exert a beneficial effect on these parameters. To test this hypothesis, we investigated some oxidant stress indices, anemia levels, and RBC survival in 47 hemodialysis (HD) patients randomly assigned to three groups. Patients in groups A (n = l8) and B (n = 20) were on dialysis therapy using conventional cellulosic and synthetic membranes and were administered high and low doses of recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO), respectively. Patients in group C (n = 9) were dialyzed with vitamin E-modified membranes (CL-Es) and investigated in a two-step prospective study. In step Cl, patients were administered rHuEPO doses similar to those of group A. In step C2, rHuEPO doses were reduced to those of group B. As oxidant stress markers, we determined in plasma the susceptibility of lipids to undergo iron-catalyzed oxidation (reactive oxygen molecules [ROMs] test) and malondialdehyde-4-hydroxynonenal (MDA-4HNE), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), total thiol (-SH), and total antioxidant activity. RBC survival was measured using the chromium 51 T/2 technique in 22 patients. Results show that: (1) high rHuEPO doses (groups A and C1) were associated with decreased ROM production, low alpha-T levels, and slightly increased -SH levels compared with corresponding groups on low rHuEPO doses (groups B and C2); (2) treatment with CL-Es (group C) increased plasma alpha-T and decreased -SH levels; these data were associated with decreased indices of lipid peroxidation, particularly MDA-4HNE 1evels, only in patients administered low rHuEPO doses; (3) alpha-T concentration influenced RBC survival, which was remarkably decreased in HD patients; patients treated with CL-Es showed a better degree of anemia correction; and (4) alpha-T level correlated negatively with -SH level and seemed to be independent

  4. Relationship between risk factors and activities of daily living using modified Shah Barthel Index in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, W.; Rachmayanti, S.; Werdhani, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors of stroke. The study aimed to determine the relationship between hypertension and diabetes mellitus risk factors and dependence on assistance with activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. The study used an analytical observational cross-sectional design. The study’s sample included 44 stroke patients selected using the quota sampling method. The relationship between the variables was analyzed using the bivariate chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression. Based on the chi-squared test, the relationship between the Modified Shah Barthel Index (MSBI) score and hypertension and diabetes mellitus as stroke risk factors, were p = 0.122 and p = 0.002, respectively. The logistic regression results suggest that hypertension and diabetes mellitus are stroke risk factors related to the MSBI score: p = 0.076 (OR 4.076; CI 95% 0.861-19.297) and p = 0.007 (OR 22.690; CI 95% 2.332-220.722), respectively. Diabetes mellitus is the most prominent risk factor of severe dependency on assistance with activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients.

  5. Effect of modified constraint-induced movement therapy on the activities of daily living of patients with acute stroke

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    Wei-ming ZHANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the rehabilitation effect of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT on activities of daily living (ADL in patients with acute ischemic stroke.  Methods A total of 60 patients in acute stage of cerebral stroke with limb dysfunction admitted in Ruijin Hospital from December 2012 to May 2013, were randomly divided into routine rehabilitation treatment group (control group, N = 30 and mCIMT group (N = 30. Control group was given routine rehabilitation training, 60 min each time, twice per day, 5 d per week; mCIMT group received mCIMT treatment with the similar frequency. After 2-week training, all patients were transferred to rehabilitation center for 4-week continous training. The total treatment period was 6 weeks. All of those patients received assessment before treatment and 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks after treatment on the ability of daily living and motor function, including the modified Barthel Index (mBI, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA and Berg Balance Scale (BBS.  Results Patients in both groups got increased mBI (P = 0.004, 0.000, 0.000, FMA (upper limb: P = 0.000, for all and BBS scores (P = 0.005, 0.000, 0.000 2, 6, 12 weeks after treatment. FMA (lower limb score was increased 6 and 12 weeks after treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Compared to the control group, patients in mCIMT group got increased mBI (P = 0.000, for all, FMA (upper limb: P = 0.000, for all; lower limb: P = 0.000, for all and BBS scores (P = 0.000, for all 2, 6, 12 weeks after treatment.  Conclusions mCIMT has positive therapeutic effects on the motor function of limbs in hemiplegic patients with stroke in acute stage, which can improve the balance ability and the ability of daily life, so as to raise the quality of life of patients. The efficacy of mCIMT is superior to general routine rehabilitation treatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.006

  6. Visual detection of STAT5B gene expression in living cell using the hairpin DNA modified gold nanoparticle beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianpeng; Shan, Lingling; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Yang; Zhu, Hongyan; Deng, Dawei; Qian, Zhiyu; Achilefu, Samuel; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-03-15

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) is an important protein in JAK-STAT signaling pathway that is responsible for the metastasis and proliferation of tumor cells. Determination of the STAT5B messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) relating to the STAT5B expression provides insight into the mechanism of tumor progression. In this study, we designed and used a special hairpin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for human STAT5B mRNA to functionalize gold nanoparticles, which served as a beacon for detecting human STAT5B expression. Up to 90% quenching efficiency was achieved. Upon hybridizing with the target mRNA, the hairpin DNA modified gold nanoparticle beacons (hDAuNP beacons) release the fluorophores attached at 5' end of the oligonucleotide sequence. The fluorescence properties of the beacon before and after the hybridization with the complementary DNA were confirmed in vitro. The stability of hDAuNP beacons against degradation by DNase I and GSH indicated that the prepared beacon is stable inside cells. The detected fluorescence in MCF-7 cancer cells correlates with the specific STAT5B mRNA expression, which is consistent with the result from PCR measurement. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the hDAuNP beacons internalized in cells without using transfection agents, with intracellular distribution in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus. The results demonstrated that this beacon could directly provide quantitative measurement of the intracellular STAT5B mRNA in living cells. Compared to the previous approaches, this beacon has advantages of higher target to background ratio of detection and an increased resistance to nuclease degradation. The strategy reported in this study is a promising approach for the intracellular measurement of RNA or protein expression in living cells, and has great potential in the study of drug screening and discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of a modified live intranasal bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in three-week-old calves experimentally challenged with BRSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangeel, I.; Antonis, A.F.G.; Fluess, M.; Peters, A.R.; Harmeyer, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a widespread cause of lower respiratory tract disease in cattle. Calves less than four months of age are often involved in outbreaks of respiratory disease. We evaluated the efficacy of a single intranasal dose of a bivalent modified live vaccine containi

  8. A versatile, bar-coded nuclear marker/reporter for live cell fluorescent and multiplexed high content imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Krylova

    Full Text Available The screening of large numbers of compounds or siRNAs is a mainstay of both academic and pharmaceutical research. Most screens test those interventions against a single biochemical or cellular output whereas recording multiple complementary outputs may be more biologically relevant. High throughput, multi-channel fluorescence microscopy permits multiple outputs to be quantified in specific cellular subcompartments. However, the number of distinct fluorescent outputs available remains limited. Here, we describe a cellular bar-code technology in which multiple cell-based assays are combined in one well after which each assay is distinguished by fluorescence microscopy. The technology uses the unique fluorescent properties of assay-specific markers comprised of distinct combinations of different 'red' fluorescent proteins sandwiched around a nuclear localization signal. The bar-code markers are excited by a common wavelength of light but distinguished ratiometrically by their differing relative fluorescence in two emission channels. Targeting the bar-code to cell nuclei enables individual cells expressing distinguishable markers to be readily separated by standard image analysis programs. We validated the method by showing that the unique responses of different cell-based assays to specific drugs are retained when three assays are co-plated and separated by the bar-code. Based upon those studies, we discuss a roadmap in which even more assays may be combined in a well. The ability to analyze multiple assays simultaneously will enable screens that better identify, characterize and distinguish hits according to multiple biologically or clinically relevant criteria. These capabilities also enable the re-creation of complex mixtures of cell types that is emerging as a central area of interest in many fields.

  9. Virus detection by PCR following vaccination of naive calves with intranasal or injectable multivalent modified-live viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Paul H; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Riddell, Kay P; Scruggs, Daniel W; Cortese, Victor S

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated duration of PCR-positive results following administration of modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines to beef calves. Twenty beef calves were randomly assigned to either group 1 and vaccinated intranasally with a MLV vaccine containing bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), or to group 2 and vaccinated subcutaneously with a MLV vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2), BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3. Deep nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and transtracheal washes (TTW) were collected from all calves, and whole blood was collected from group 2 calves and tested by PCR. In group 1, the proportions of calves that tested PCR-positive to BVDV, BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 on any sample at any time were 0%, 100%, 100%, and 10%, respectively. In group 1 calves, 100% of calves became PCR-positive for BoHV-1 by day 3 post-vaccination and 100% of calves became PCR-positive for BRSV by day 7 post-vaccination. In group 2, the proportions of calves that tested positive to BVDV, BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 on any sample at any time were 50%, 40%, 10%, and 0%, respectively. All threshold cycle (Ct) values were >30 in group 2 calves, irrespective of virus; however, Ct values PCR-positive results for BoHV-1 and BRSV. All calves were PCR-negative for all viruses after day 28. Following intranasal MLV viral vaccination, PCR results and Ct values for BRSV and BoHV-1 suggest that attempts to differentiate vaccine virus from natural infection is unreliable.

  10. Effects on metabolic markers are modified by PPARG2 and COX2 polymorphisms in infants randomized to fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Hellgren, Lars I.;

    2014-01-01

    in humans. We explored possible effect modification by FADS, PPARG2, and COX2 genotypes to support potential effects of n-3 LCPUFA on metabolic markers in infants. Danish infants (133) were randomly allocated to daily supplementation with a teaspoon (~5 mL/day) of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) from 9...... to 18 months of age. Before and after the intervention, we assessed BP, erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA, plasma lipid profile, insulin, and glucose in addition to functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in FADS, PPARG2, and COX2. At 18 months, plasma TAG was lower in the FO compared with SO group (p = 0...

  11. Use of mchI Encoding Immunity to the Antimicrobial Peptide Microcin H47 as a Plasmid Selection Marker in Attenuated Bacterial Live Vectors▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chee-Mun; Wang, Jin Yuan; Chinchilla, Magaly; Levine, Myron M.; Blackwelder, William C.; Galen, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Live attenuated bacterial strains expressing heterologous antigens represent an attractive vaccine development strategy. However, the use of drug resistance genes for the selection of expression plasmids introduced into live vectors poses theoretical health risks. Therefore, we developed a novel approach for plasmid selection based on immunity to the antimicrobial peptide microcin H47 (MccH47). Two expression plasmids encoding the reporter green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) were constructed; selection markers comprised either mchI, conferring immunity to MccH47 (pGEN222I), or bla (encoding β-lactamase), conferring conventional resistance to ampicillin (pGEN222). GFPuv-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses were analyzed in mice immunized intranasally either with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CVD 908-htrA or Shigella flexneri 2a CVD 1208S live vector and were boosted parenterally with purified GFPuv. Similar IgG antibody responses were observed for both pGEN222 and pGEN222I when either CVD 1208S or CVD 908-htrA(pGEN222I) was used as the carrier. Interestingly, CVD 908-htrA(pGEN222I) elicited a significantly higher IgG response than CVD 908-htrA(pGEN222). We also compared the priming potential of homologous priming either with CVD 908-htrA(pGEN222I) or CVD 1208S(pGEN222I) to heterologous priming first with CVD 908-htrA(pGEN222I) and then with CVD 1208S(pGEN222I) and vice versa. Immunization with two unrelated live vectors significantly enhanced the IgG responses compared to responses engendered by homologous CVD 908-htrA(pGEN222I) but not to those of CVD 1208S(pGEN222I). MccH47 offers an alternate system for plasmid selection in bacterial live vectors that greatly improves their clinical acceptability. Furthermore, the success of the heterologous priming strategy supports the feasibility of the future development of multivalent live vector-based immunization strategies against multiple human pathogens. PMID:18663003

  12. A six degrees-of-freedom marker set for gait analysis: repeatability and comparison with a modified Helen Hayes set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas D; Ghoussayni, Salim N; Ewins, David J; Kent, Jenny A

    2009-08-01

    Kinematic gait analysis is limited by simplified marker sets and related models. The majority of sets in clinical use were developed with low resolution imaging systems so required various assumptions about body behaviour. Further major limitations include soft tissue artefact and ambiguity in landmark identification. An alternative is the use of sets based on six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) principles, primarily using marker clusters for tracking. This study evaluates performance of a 6DOF set, based largely on CAST/ISB recommendations, through comparison with a conventional set and assessment of repeatability. Ten healthy subjects were assessed in treadmill walking, with both sets applied simultaneously on two occasions. Data were analysed using repeatability coefficients, correlation of key features, and comparison of joint angle curves and difference curves with confidence bands. Apart from pelvic tilt all segment and joint angles from both sets showed high within and between session repeatability (CMC>0.80). Hip rotations showed clear differences between the two sets with indications in support of the 6DOF set. Knee coronal angles showed evidence of cross-talk in the conventional set, highlighting difficulties with anatomical identification despite control measures such as a foot alignment template. Knee transverse angles showed inconsistent patterns for both sets. At the ankle the conventional set only allowed true measurement in two planes so with high repeatability the 6DOF set is preferable. The 6DOF set showed comparable performance to the conventional set and overcomes a number of theoretical limitations, however further development is needed prior to clinical implementation.

  13. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat length as modifier of the association between Persistent Organohalogen Pollutant exposure markers and semen characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Aleksander; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants was suggested to impair male reproductive function. A gene-environment interaction has been proposed. No genes modifying the effect of persistent organohalogen pollutants on reproductive organs have yet been identified. We aimed...... and morphology) and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were determined. CAG and GGN repeat lengths were determined by direct sequencing of leukocyte DNA. RESULTS: A statistically significant interaction was found between the CB-153 group and CAG repeat category in relation to sperm concentration and total sperm count...

  14. Polyphenols from halophytes and modified atmosphere packaging improve sensorial and biochemical markers of quality of common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Concetta Maria; Bono, Gioacchino; Arena, Rosaria; Randazzo, Mariano; Manuguerra, Simona; Santulli, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Quality and shelf-life of whole and filleted Coryphaena hippurus, stored with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and natural antioxidants from halophytes (HAL), were investigated. Fillets were divided into control, simply sealed in trays; MAP, preserved by modified atmosphere (45% CO2, 50% N2, 5% O2); and MAP-HAL, pretreated with antioxidants and preserved by MAP. Whole and filleted fish were stored at -1 ± 0.5°C for 18 days. The quality of the samples was analyzed at the time of packaging and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days. The MAP and MAP-HAL groups maintained the best sensorial profile, pH, and drip loss with respect to the untreated fillets. Higher levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and oxidized proteins were observed in untreated samples with respect to the MAP and MAP-HAL groups. The principle component analysis revealed a different quality profile for untreated and MAP-treated fish.

  15. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody Against HPT and Its Application to Detecting Marker Protein in Genetically Modified Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-CHEN YANG; SU-XIANG ZHANG; GUO-HUA PI; YING-HUA LI; ZHEN ZHU; XIAO-GUANG YANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To produce the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) and to develop immunoassay based on mAbs for biosafety assessment of HPT in genetically modified rice (GM rice). Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant 6His. HPT protein, and the conventional hybridoma technology was used to generate the monoclonal hybridoma cells. ELISA and Western blot were used to analyze the specificity of mAbs recognizing HPT and the cross reaction with other proteins. A double-Ab sandwich ELISA method was established to detect HPT expression level in the sck gene-modified rice plants. Results Four hybridomas, named F1, D4-2, D4-4, and D4-5, producing the mAbs against HPT were successfully obtained with the titer of ascetic mAbs ranging from 1×10-4 to 1×10-5. Identification of subclass showed that all the produced mAbs belonged to IgG1. Western blot showed specific binding reaction between the mAbs to the HPT proteins expressed in the GM rice. A double sandwich ELISA coated with anti-HPT polyclonal antibody was established with mAbs as sandwich antibody, which showed a sensitivity of 30ng/mL and did not crossreact with other proteins. The expression level of HPT in the leaves of sck-transformed lines was detected (80-150ng/mL). But HPT protein in the grain and seed of GM rice could not be detected using this ELISA assay. Conclusion Anti-HPT mAbs prepared herein have a high specificity and can be used for rapid assay of HPT antigen. The expression level of HPT in the GM rice grain and seed is lower than our ELISA detection limit.

  16. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet, a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Theta Burst Stimulation of the Cerebellum Modifies the TMS-Evoked N100 Potential, a Marker of GABA Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allanah Harrington

    Full Text Available Theta burst stimulation (TBS of the cerebellum, a potential therapy for neurological disease, can modulate corticospinal excitability via the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway, but it is uncertain whether its effects are mediated via inhibitory or facilitatory networks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on the N100 waveform of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP, a marker of intracortical GABAB-mediated inhibition. 16 healthy participants (aged 18-30 years; 13 right handed and 3 left handed received 30Hz intermittent TBS (iTBS, continuous TBS (cTBS or sham stimulation over the right cerebellum, in three separate sessions. The first 8 participants received TBS at a stimulus intensity of 80% of active motor threshold (AMT, while the remainder received 90% of AMT. Motor evoked potentials (MEP and TEP were recorded before and after each treatment, by stimulating the first dorsal interosseus area of the left motor cortex. Analysis of the 13 right handed participants showed that iTBS at 90% of AMT increased the N100 amplitude compared to sham and cTBS, without significantly altering MEP amplitude. cTBS at 80% of active motor threshold decreased the N100 amplitude and cTBS overall reduced resting MEP amplitude. The study demonstrates effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on inhibitory cortical networks that may be useful for treatment of neurological conditions associated with dysfunctional intracortical inhibition.

  19. Rapid Generation of Marker-Free P. falciparum Fluorescent Reporter Lines Using Modified CRISPR/Cas9 Constructs and Selection Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollon, Catherin Marin; van Pul, Fiona J. A.; Imai, Takashi; Ramesar, Jai; Chevalley-Maurel, Séverine; de Roo, Guido M.; Veld, Sabrina A. J.; Kroeze, Hans; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M. D.; Janse, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful genome editing technique employed in a wide variety of organisms including recently the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. Here we report on further improvements to the CRISPR/Cas9 transfection constructs and selection protocol to more rapidly modify the P. falciparum genome and to introduce transgenes into the parasite genome without the inclusion of drug-selectable marker genes. This method was used to stably integrate the gene encoding GFP into the P. falciparum genome under the control of promoters of three different Plasmodium genes (calmodulin, gapdh and hsp70). These genes were selected as they are highly transcribed in blood stages. We show that the three reporter parasite lines generated in this study (GFP@cam, GFP@gapdh and GFP@hsp70) have in vitro blood stage growth kinetics and drug-sensitivity profiles comparable to the parental P. falciparum (NF54) wild-type line. Both asexual and sexual blood stages of the three reporter lines expressed GFP-fluorescence with GFP@hsp70 having the highest fluorescent intensity in schizont stages as shown by flow cytometry analysis of GFP-fluorescence intensity. The improved CRISPR/Cas9 constructs/protocol will aid in the rapid generation of transgenic and modified P. falciparum parasites, including those expressing different reporters proteins under different (stage specific) promoters. PMID:27997583

  20. A modified method for diffusive monitoring of 3-ethenylpyridine as a specific marker of environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusimäki, Leea; Peltonen, Kimmo; Vainiotalo, Sinikka

    A previously introduced method for monitoring environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was further validated. The method is based on diffusive sampling of a vapour-phase marker, 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP), with 3 M passive monitors (type 3500). Experiments were done in a dynamic chamber to assess diffusive sampling in comparison with active sampling in charcoal tubes or XAD-4 tubes. The sampling rate for 3-EP collected on the diffusive sampler was 23.1±0.6 mL min -1. The relative standard deviation for parallel samples ( n=6) ranged from 4% to 14% among experiments ( n=9). No marked reverse diffusion of 3-EP was detected nor any significant effect of relative humidity at 20%, 50% or 80%. The diffusive sampling of 3-EP was validated in field measurements in 15 restaurants in comparison with 3-EP and nicotine measurements using active sampling. The 3-EP concentration in restaurants ranged from 0.01 to 9.8 μg m -3, and the uptake rate for 3-EP based on 92 parallel samples was 24.0±0.4 mL min -1. A linear correlation ( r=0.98) was observed between 3-EP and nicotine concentrations, the average ratio of 3-EP to nicotine being 1:8. Active sampling of 3-EP and nicotine in charcoal tubes provided more reliable results than sampling in XAD-4 tubes. All samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after elution with a 15% solution of pyridine in toluene. For nicotine, the limit of quantification of the charcoal tube method was 4 ng per sample, corresponding to 0.04 μg m -3 for an air sample of 96 L. For 3-EP, the limit of quantification of the diffusive method was 0.5-1.0 ng per sample, corresponding to 0.04-0.09 μg m -3 for 8 h sampling. The diffusive method proved suitable for ETS monitoring, even at low levels of ETS.

  1. Prevalence of microbiological markers in bone tissue from live and cadaver donors in the musculoskeletal tissue bank of Passo Fundo☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Roos, Bruno; Valdomiro Roos, Milton; Camisa Júnior, Antero; Moreno Ungaretti Lima, Ezequiel; Noshang Pereira, Rafael; Luciano Zangirolami, Maurício; Machado de Albuquerque, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct an epidemiological analysis on the main microbiological markers in bone tissue that was processed at the musculoskeletal tissue bank of Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, in Passo Fundo, between August 2007 and October 2011. Methods Between August 2007 and October 2011, 202 musculoskeletal tissue samples were collected for the tissue bank. Among these, 159 samples were from living donor patients and 43 were from cadaver donors. The following serological tests were requested: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, HIV and HTLV. Results Among the 159 living donors, 103 (64.75%) were men and 56 (35.25%) were women. The patients’ mean age was 59.35 ± 8.87 years. Out of this total, 76 tissue samples (47.8%) from donors were rejected. There was no difference in the number of rejections in relation to sex (p = 0.135) or age (p = 0.523). The main cause of rejection was serologically positive findings for the hepatitis B virus, which was responsible for 48 rejections (63.15%). Among the 43 cadaver donors, the mean age was 37.84 ± 10.32 years. Of these, 27 (62.8%) were men and 16 (37.2%) were women. Six of the samples collected from cadaver donors were rejected (13.9%), and the main cause of rejection was serologically positive findings for the hepatitis C virus, which was responsible for three cases (50%). There was no significant difference in the number of rejections in relation to sex (p = 0.21) or age (p = 0.252). Conclusion There were a greater number of rejections of tissues from living donors (47.8%) than from cadaver donors (13.9%). Among the living donors, the main cause of rejection was the presence of serologically positive findings of the hepatitis B virus, while among the cadaver donors, it was due to the hepatitis C virus. PMID:26229832

  2. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  3. Serum Aberrant N-Glycan Profile as a Marker Associated with Early Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Patients Receiving a Living Donor Kidney Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Daisuke; Yoneyama, Tohru; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Tobisawa, Yuki; Mori, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Tanaka, Masakazu; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Sasaki, Hideo; Saito, Mitsuru; Harada, Hiroshi; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari; Satoh, Shigeru; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-08-08

    We determined if the serum N-glycan profile can be used as a diagnostic marker of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) in living donor kidney transplant (LKTx) recipients. Glycoblotting, combined with mass spectrometry, was used to retrospectively examine N-glycan levels in the postoperative sera of 197 LKTx recipients of whom 16 recipients had ABMR with or without T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), 40 recipients had TCMR, and 141 recipients had no adverse events. Multivariate discriminant analysis for prediction of ABMR was performed by inputting an ABMR event as an explanatory variable and sex, age, and serum N-glycan level as objective variables. The N-glycan score was calculated by multiplying the level of candidate objective variables by objective function values. The ABMR predictive performance of the N-glycan score was assessed by receiver operator characteristic curve and Kaplan-Meier curve analyses. The N-glycan score discriminated ABMR with 81.25% sensitivity, 87.85% specificity, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.892 that was far superior to that of preformed donor-specific antibody status (AUC, 0.761). Recipients with N-glycan-positive scores >0.8770 had significantly shorter ABMR survival than that of recipients with N-glycan-negative scores. Although the limitations of our study includ its small sample size and retrospective nature, the serum N-glycan score may contribute to prediction of ABMR.

  4. Benefits of Substituting Sitting with Standing and Walking in Free-Living Conditions for Cardiometabolic Risk Markers, Cognition and Mood in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard M. F. M. Duvivier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated whether substituting sitting with standing and self-perceived light walking in free-living conditions would improve cardiometabolic risk factors, mood, and cognition in overweight/obese adults.Methods: In a randomized, cross-over study, 24 (m/f: 13/11 sedentary overweight/obese participants (64 ± 7 years, BMI 29 ± 2 kg/m2 followed two activity regimens of each 4 days in free-living conditions: “Sit”: sitting 13.5 h/day, standing 1.4 h/day, self-perceived light-intensity walking 0.7 h/day; for “SitLess” these activities lasted 7.6, 4.0, and 4.3 h/day, respectively. Meals were standardized and physical activity was assessed by accelerometry (activPAL. Insulin sensitivity (expressed as Matsuda-index based on an oral glucose tolerance test, circulating lipids, blood pressure, mood (pleasantness and arousal, and cognition were assessed on the morning after the activity regimens. Quality of life and sleep were assessed on the last day of the activity regimens.Results: We observed that AUC (0–190 min for insulin decreased by 20% after SitLess vs. Sit [10,125 (656 vs. 12,633 (818; p = 0.006]. Insulin sensitivity improved by 16% after SitLess vs. Sit [Matsuda-index, mean (SEM: 6.45 (0.25 vs. 5.58 (0.25 respectively; p = 0.007]. Fasting triglycerides, non-HDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B decreased by 32, 7, and 4% respectively, whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 7% after SitLess vs. Sit (all p < 0.01. Diastolic blood pressure was lower after SitLess vs. Sit (p < 0.05. Pleasantness (as one marker of mood status after the oral glucose tolerance test was higher after SitLess vs. Sit (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between regimens for cognition, quality of life and sleep.Conclusions: Reducing sitting time in free-living conditions markedly improved insulin sensitivity, circulating lipids, and diastolic blood pressure. Substituting sitting with standing and self-perceived light walking is an

  5. A modified natural cycle results in higher live birth rate in vitrified-thawed embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yichun; Fan, Hongfang; Styer, Aaron K; Xiao, Zhiying; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jianrui; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Xingling; Zhang, Zhan

    2016-10-01

    There is no consensus regimen for the optimal endometrial preparation for cryopreservation and vitrified-thawed embryo transfer cycles. This is largely caused by the lack of sufficient investigation and analyses on the respective pregnancy and perinatal outcomes by different regimens. This study aimed to compare both pregnancy and perinatal outcomes between the modified natural and artificial cycles in vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation. A total of 1,482 vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer cycles were reviewed including 427 modified natural cycles (NC), 132 ovulation induction cycles (OC), 794 artificial cycles (AC), and 129 GnRH agonist artificial cycles (GAC). The primary outcome that was evaluated was live birth rate. The NC regimen demonstrated a higher rate of ongoing pregnancy (43.8% vs. 30.2%, P = 0.002) and a lower rate of late abortion (2.8% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.003) than the GAC regimen as well as a higher implantation rate (31.9% vs. 27.1%, P = 0.008) and live birth rate (43.1% vs. 34.1%, P = 0.002) than the AC regimen. A significantly higher peak endometrial thickness before transfer was observed in patients using the NC and GAC regimens (10.0 ± 1.7, 9.9 ± 2.4) compared to the AC regimens (9.2 ± 1.5, P = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the NC protocol was associated with a higher live birth rate. There were no significant differences in rates of pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality, birth defects, mean birth weight, and other perinatal outcomes among the regimens. Modified natural cycle endometrial preparation regimen for vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer is associated with superior live birth pregnancy outcomes compared to artificial cycles. Future studies are warranted to investigate the underlying biologic mechanisms of these findings. Abbreviations ART: assisted reproductive technology; BMI: body mass index; FET: frozen-thawed embryo transfer; HCG: human chorionic

  6. Distinction between infections with European and American/vaccine type PRRS virus after vaccination with a modified-live PRRS virus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Sørensen, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    In July 1996 a modified live Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine, based on an American (US) strain of the PRRS virus (PRRSV), was licensed in Denmark. The vaccine was licensed for use in 3-18 week old pigs, exclusively. Starting during the middle of October 1996, several...... herds who had recently begun vaccination, experienced acute PRRS-like symptoms including an increasing number of abortions and stillborn piglets and an increasing mortality in the nursing period. During the period from October 1996 until May 1997, the PRRS virus (PRRSV), identified as the vaccine......-vaccinated herds in Denmark have become infected with the vaccine-like PRRSV. Possible routes of transmission are the introduction of vaccinated pigs to the herd, use of semen from artificial insemination (AI) centres or airborne transmission. The situation of PRRS in Denmark is now complicated by the fact...

  7. EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL LYSINE ON PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODY TITER AND RECTAL TEMPERATURE IN RESPONSE TO A MODIFIED-LIVE VIRAL VACCINE IN NEONATAL CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR, caused by bovine herpesvirus-1, contributes significantly to economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industry. Lysine has been shown reduce virulence of herpesviruses in felids and humans. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lysine on serum IBR antibody titer and rectal temperature in response to a modified-live Intranasal (IN or Intramuscular (IM respiratory-virus vaccination. Sixty-four neonatal Holstein bull calves (7±2 d of age; BW = 37±4.2 kg were used in a completely randomized design. Calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with either 17 g/d L-lysine monohydrochloride (LYS; 28 calves or an equivalent amount of casein (CAS; 28 calves for 42 d. Calves were then vaccinated with either an IN IBR-Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3 or an IM (IBR-PI3-bovine viral diarrhea type I and II, bovine respiratory syncytial virus modified-live vaccine on d 36. A control group (8 calves received no supplement or vaccination. All calves were housed in individual calf pens (1.2×2.1 m. Daily feed intakes were monitored and BW measured weekly. Calves were bled on d 0, 35, 36, 37 and 42. Temperature data loggers were attached to rectal probes and temperatures were recorded every 5 min from d 28 to d 42. No significant differences were determined for average performance, rectal temperature, or IBR antibody titers with either IN or IM vaccinations between LYS and CAS treated calves (p>0.10. However, serum urea nitrogen and the ratio of serum lysine: Arginine increased (p<0.05 for LYS compared to CAS calves. These results suggest that supplementing lysine impacts nitrogen metabolism but does not alter the response to IBR vaccination or animal performance in neonatal Holstein calves.

  8. Equating activities of daily living outcome measures: the Functional Independence Measure and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Woo, Hee-Soon; Shim, Sunhwa; Li, Chih-Ying; Yoonjeong, Lim; Velozo, Craig A

    2016-12-08

    To create a crosswalk between the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor items and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI). Korean community-dwelling adult patients (n = 276) completed the FIM and K-MBI on the same day in outpatient rehabilitation hospitals. We used a single group design with the Rasch common person equating and conducted a factor analysis of the co-calibrated item pool using the two measures. Rasch analysis was used to investigate the psychometrics of the equated test items in the identified factor structure(s). The correlation between FIM raw scores and converted K-MBI scores was examined. Three measurement constructs were identified: self-care, mobility, involuntary movement. The equated test items in the three constructs demonstrated good person separation reliability (r = 0.94-0.96) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha =0.93-0.97). The three crosswalks between the FIM raw scores and converted K-MBI scores demonstrated good correlations (r = 0.91-0.93, all p test items demonstrating good psychometrics. The crosswalks would address the incomparable scoring systems between the FIM motor items and K-MBI. Implications for Rehabilitation The three crosswalk tables (scoring tables) would allow clinicians to compare or translate a patient's motor scores between the FIM and K-MBI. The crosswalk tables would allow health-care administrators to track patients' functional status across various rehabilitation facilities that exclusively use the FIM or K-MBI.

  9. A pandemic influenza H1N1 live vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara is highly immunogenic and protects mice in active and passive immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of novel influenza vaccines inducing a broad immune response is an important objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate live vaccines which induce both strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the novel human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and to show protection in a lethal animal challenge model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose, the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1 strain (CA/07 were inserted into the replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus--a safe poxviral live vector--resulting in MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-N1-Ca vectors. These live vaccines, together with an inactivated whole virus vaccine, were assessed in a lung infection model using immune competent Balb/c mice, and in a lethal challenge model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice after passive serum transfer from immunized mice. Balb/c mice vaccinated with the MVA-H1-Ca virus or the inactivated vaccine were fully protected from lung infection after challenge with the influenza H1N1 wild-type strain, while the neuraminidase virus MVA-N1-Ca induced only partial protection. The live vaccines were already protective after a single dose and induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies and of interferon-gamma-secreting (IFN-gamma CD4- and CD8 T-cells in lungs and spleens. In the lungs, a rapid increase of HA-specific CD4- and CD8 T cells was observed in vaccinated mice shortly after challenge with influenza swine flu virus, which probably contributes to the strong inhibition of pulmonary viral replication observed. In addition, passive transfer of antisera raised in MVA-H1-Ca vaccinated immune-competent mice protected SCID mice from lethal challenge with the CA/07 wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating MVA-based H1N1 live vaccines induce a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for

  10. A touchdown PCR for the differentiation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) field strains from the modified live vaccine strain RacH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterrieder, N; Hübert, P H; Brandmüller, C; Kaaden, O R

    1994-12-01

    More than 50 reference strains and field isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) were examined by a touchdown PCR. Primers for specific amplification of EHV-1 DNA were chosen from the terminal and internal repeat regions of the EHV-1 genome where the high-passaged live vaccine strain RacH displays symmetric 850 bp deletions. The positive strand and one negative strand primer were designed to encompass the deletions present in RacH, and the second negative strand primer was designed to hybridize within these deletions. Discrimination between field isolates and the vaccine strain was achieved by the generation of amplification products of different size: In all EHV-1 reference strains and field isolates, a 495 bp DNA fragment was amplified specifically, whereas a 310 bp fragment was amplified when DNA of the vaccine strain RacH was used as a template. PCR amplification was only obtained in the presence of 8-10% dimethylsulfoxide and when the primer annealing temperatures were decreased stepwise from 72 degrees C to 60 degrees C. Under these conditions as little as 100 fg template DNA, corresponding to about 100 genome equivalents, could be detected. The PCR assay allows fast and sensitive discrimination of the modified live vaccine strain RacH from field strains of EHV-1 since it is applicable to viral DNA extracted from organ samples and paraffin-embedded tissues. It may thus be helpful for examining the potential involvement of the RacH live vaccine strain in abortions of vaccinated mares.

  11. Feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus antibody responses in seronegative specific pathogen-free kittens after parenteral administration of an inactivated FVRCP vaccine or a modified live FVRCP vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Michael R

    2012-02-01

    Two groups of feline panleukopenia (FPV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) seronegative kittens (six cats per group) were administered one of two feline viral rhinotracheitis, calcivirus and panleukopenia (FVRCP) vaccines subcutaneously (one inactivated and one modified live) and the serological responses to each agent were followed over 49 days (days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49). While the kittens administered the modified live FPV vaccine were more likely to seroconvert on day 7 after the first inoculation than kittens administered the inactivated vaccine, all kittens had seroconverted by day 14. In contrast, FHV-1 serological responses were more rapid following administration of the inactivated FVRCP vaccine when compared with the modified live FVRCP vaccine. There were no statistical differences between the serological response rates between the two FVRCP vaccines in regard to FCV.

  12. Standardized surgical techniques for adult living donor liver transplantation using a modified right lobe graft: a video presentation from bench to reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Kim, Ki-Hun; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    After having experienced more than 2,000 cases of adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we established the concepts of right liver graft standardization. Right liver graft standardization intends to provide hemodynamics-based and regeneration-compliant reconstruction of vascular inflow and outflow. Right liver graft standardization consists of the following components: Right hepatic vein reconstruction includes a combination of caudal-side deep incision and patch venoplasty of the graft right hepatic vein to remove the acute angle between the graft right hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava; middle hepatic vein reconstruction includes interposition of a uniform-shaped conduit with large-sized homologous or prosthetic grafts; if the inferior right hepatic vein is present, its reconstruction includes funneling and unification venoplasty for multiple short hepatic veins; if donor portal vein anomaly is present, its reconstruction includes conjoined unification venoplasty for two or more portal vein orifices. This video clip that shows the surgical technique from bench to reperfusion was a case presentation of adult LDLT using a modified right liver graft from the patient's son. Our intention behind proposing the concept of right liver graft standardization is that it can be universally applicable and may guarantee nearly the same outcomes regardless of the surgeon's experience. We believe that this reconstruction model would be primarily applied to a majority of adult LDLT cases.

  13. Si Hablas Espanol Eres Mojado (If You Speak Spanish You are a Wetback): Spanish as an Identity Marker in the Lives of Mexicano Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the function of Spanish in the school lives of Mexican American children, documenting the discussion through the experiences of five fifth-grade friends. Spanish serves to unify them, but it also serves to keep others out of the friendship group. Educators must recognize that language minority children have special needs. (SLD)

  14. Development of a dual-protective live attenuated vaccine against H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses by modifying the NS1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-hye; Song, Min-Suk; Park, Su-Jin; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Baek, Yun Hee; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kim, Semi; Jang, Hyung-Kwan; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Chul-Joong; Choi, Young Ki

    2015-07-01

    An increasing number of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry have caused serious economic losses and raised concerns for human health due to the risk of zoonotic transmission. However, licensed H5N1 and H9N2 vaccines for animals and humans have not been developed. Thus, to develop a dual H5N1 and H9N2 live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), the HA and NA genes from a virulent mouse-adapted avian H5N2 (A/WB/Korea/ma81/06) virus and a recently isolated chicken H9N2 (A/CK/Korea/116/06) virus, respectively, were introduced into the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone expressing truncated NS1 proteins (NS1-73, NS1-86, NS1-101, NS1-122) but still possessing a full-length NS gene. Two H5N2/NS1-LAIV viruses (H5N2/NS1-86 and H5N2/NS1-101) were highly attenuated compared with the full-length and remaining H5N2/NS-LAIV viruses in a mouse model. Furthermore, viruses containing NS1 modifications were found to induce more IFN-β activation than viruses with full-length NS1 proteins and were correspondingly attenuated in mice. Intranasal vaccination with a single dose (10(4.0) PFU/ml) of these viruses completely protected mice from a lethal challenge with the homologous A/WB/Korea/ma81/06 (H5N2), heterologous highly pathogenic A/EM/Korea/W149/06 (H5N1), and heterosubtypic highly virulent mouse-adapted H9N2 viruses. This study clearly demonstrates that the modified H5N2/NS1-LAIV viruses attenuated through the introduction of mutations in the NS1 coding region display characteristics that are desirable for live attenuated vaccines and hold potential as vaccine candidates for mammalian hosts.

  15. A retrospective case-control study of modifiable risk factors and cutaneous markers in Indian patients with young coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Aggarwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Indians have the highest risk rates for coronary artery disease (CAD among all ethnic groups. There is a paucity of data on the risk factors and clinical markers associated with premature CAD. We aimed to determine whether young CAD is due to preventable lifestyle-related factors and cutaneous clinical markers are useful in identifying at-risk patients. Design Single-centre retrospective study. Setting Tertiary care center. Participants A total of 292 patients (age ≤40 years who presented with acute CAD between January 2005 and June 2009 and 92 age, and gender-matched controls. Major outcome measures Details of smoking, family history of premature CAD, waist size, blood sugar and lipid profile. Clinical evidence of arcus juvenilis, premature greying of hair and premature baldness sought. Results Dyslipidaemia (91%, smoking (74.3%, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (68.9%, central obesity (47.7% and greying of hair (34.9% were the most commonly associated factors. Compared with male patients, females had greater prevalence of dyslipidaemia, low HDL-C, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes and family history of premature CAD. The presence of cutaneous markers was significantly associated with premature CAD. Conclusions CAD in young Indian people is multifactorial; dyslipidaemia, low HDL-C, smoking, hypertension, central obesity and family history of premature CAD are the most common risk factors. Smoking in men and central obesity in women are the most prevalent factors. Clinicians should be highly suspicious of patients with presence of cutaneous markers, and they should be followed intensively for lifestyle modifications.

  16. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Canine distemper virus modified live vaccine shedding for differentiation from infection with wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Sanchez, Elena; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains a common cause of infectious disease in dogs, particularly in high-density housing situations such as shelters. Vaccination of all dogs against CDV is recommended at the time of admission to animal shelters and many use a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. From a diagnostic standpoint for dogs with suspected CDV infection, this is problematic because highly sensitive diagnostic real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests are able to detect MLV virus in clinical samples. Real-time PCR can be used to quantitate amount of virus shedding and can differentiate vaccine strains from wild-type strains when shedding is high. However, differentiation by quantitation is not possible in vaccinated animals during acute infection, when shedding is low and could be mistaken for low level vaccine virus shedding. While there are gel-based RT-PCR assays for differentiation of vaccine strains from field strains based on sequence differences, the sensitivity of these assays is unable to match that of the real-time RT-PCR assay currently used in the authors' laboratory. Therefore, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that detects CDV MLV vaccine strains and distinguishes them from wild-type strains based on nucleotide sequence differences, rather than the amount of viral RNA in the sample. The test is highly sensitive, with detection of as few as 5 virus genomic copies (corresponding to 10(-1) TCID(50)). Sequencing of the DNA real-time products also allows phylogenetic differentiation of the wild-type strains. This test will aid diagnosis during outbreaks of CDV in recently vaccinated animals.

  17. Marker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  18. Risk of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity is Modified by Non-HLA Genetic Markers During the First Year of Clinical Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adlercreutz, Emma H.; Hansen, Dorthe; Mortensen, Henrik B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study plotted the prevalence of celiac disease associated antibodies in relation to demographic patterns, genetic and metabolic markers during the first year after diagnosis in a multinational cohort of children with T1D. Material and Methods: Sera from a total of 261 children (128 males...... measuring IgG-tTG. Children positive in both assays in two consecutive samples were defined as having celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA). Associations between CDA and genotypes of HLA, IL18 rap, CCR 5, PTPN2 and correlations with islet autoantibodies (ICA, GADA, IA2 and IA) and HbA1C and C-peptide were...

  19. Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

    2004-10-01

    Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the "bonytongues") constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among the morphologically differentiated extant families of this group. In this study, we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for this group, based on the analysis of more than 4000 characters from five molecular markers (the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear genes RAG2 and MLL). Our taxonomic sampling includes one representative of each extant non-mormyrid osteoglossomorph genus, one representative for the monophyletic family Mormyridae, and four outgroup taxa within the basal Teleostei. Maximum parsimony analysis of combined and equally weighted characters from the five molecular markers and Bayesian analysis provide a single, well-supported, hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships and show the group to be monophyletic. The tree topology is the following: (Hiodon alosoides, (Pantodon buchholzi, (((Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Scleropages sp.), (Arapaima gigas, Heterotis niloticus)), ((Gymnarchus niloticus, Ivindomyrus opdenboschi), ((Notopterus notopterus, Chitala ornata), (Xenomystus nigri, Papyrocranus afer)))))). We compare our results with previously published phylogenetic hypotheses based on morpho-anatomical data. Additionally, we explore the consequences of the long terminal branch length for the taxon Pantodon buchholzi in our phylogenetic reconstruction and we use the obtained phylogenetic tree to reconstruct the evolutionary history of electroreception in the Notopteroidei.

  20. Ischemia-Modified Albumin as a Marker of Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Case for Revising the Concept of “N-Terminal Modification” to “Fatty Acid Occupation” of Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Oran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA is assumed “N-terminal modified” albumin which is generated immediately following myocardial ischemia. The diagnosis of IMA is based on reduced cobalt binding affinity to albumin which is attributed mainly to incapability of cobalt to bind at albumin’s modified N-terminus. Although the albumin cobalt binding test was accepted as a potentially powerful marker for discriminating acute coronary syndrome from nonischemic chest pain, its usefulness has been brought into question in recent years. Patients with acutely ischemic myocardium exhibit a rapid increase in serum levels of fatty acids (FAs. Almost all released FAs are strongly bound to albumin which create conformational changes in the protein with resultant reduced cobalt binding affinity. There is a clear metabolic and temporal relationship between IMA measured via albumin cobalt binding testing and serum levels of FAs. In line with what has been suggested recently in the literature, we conclude that a shift from the concept of “N-terminal modified” to “FA-occupied” albumin is required, as this better describes IMA in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We also offer “oxidation modified albumin, OMA,” which is conceptually different from the “FA-occupied” IMA, to describe modification of albumin in chronic disease associated with increased oxidative stress.

  1. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  2. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  3. How important are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical markers to the long-term formal employment among people living with HIV in developing countries? A study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odek, W O; Glendinning, A; Charalambous, S

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationship of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) clinical markers and socio-demographic characteristics with long-term formal employment among people living with HIV (PLHIV). 554 adults, 55% females, on HIV treatment for at least two years at two public hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. A retrospective cohort design, tracing changes in study participants' formal employment status since the first HIV-positive diagnosis. Data collection included historical medical records review and interviewer-administered questionnaires. 44% of all study participants (39% and 49% among males and females, respectively) were formally employed at the time of the study, primarily in low-skilled jobs in the private sector. The majority (83%) of males and 60% of females remained in formal employment since being diagnosed as HIV-positive. Female gender, education to grade 12 or higher, a smaller household size and being married were significantly associated with current formal employment. Formal employment was unrelated to HIV treatment indicators (CD4 count, viral load and duration since diagnosis). Of those in formal employment, 68 (28%) were aware of HIV policies at their workplaces, which was also positively associated with the duration in their current employment. PLHIV in developing country contexts can enter into and maintain formal employment, especially when treatment and workplace support are available. Thus, employer organisations should implement effective workplace HIV policies to enhance employment experiences of their workforce living with HIV. Care and support services for people on HIV treatment should also address their career development needs.

  4. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrud, L.S.; Lee, E.H.; Fairbrother, A.; Burdick, C.; Reichman, J.R.; Bollman, M.; Storm, M.; King, G.; Van De Water, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. Most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximal gene flow distances observed were 21 km and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants, respectively, that were located in primarily nonagronomic habitats. The selectable marker used in these studies was the CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium spp. strain CP4 that encodes 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and confers resistance to glyphosate herbicide. Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results. Additional studies are needed to determine whether introgression will occur and whether it will affect the ecological fitness of progeny or the structure of plant communities in which transgenic progeny may become established.

  5. Evaluation on the Use of β-Lactamase and Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzyme Gene Sequences as Markers for the Early Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Doss

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major causes of infections including the hospital acquired (Nosocomial infections. Detection of them and their antibiotic resistance profile by conventional method takes about three days. Recently, DNA based diagnostic methods are being used for the identification of the pathogens. Hence we have tested a rapid and sensitive method using DNA sequences as markers for detecting the presence of three genes coding for the enzymes that inactivate the two most commonly used Anti-pseudomonadal drugs such as β-lactam antibiotics (Penicillin, and its derivatives and Aminoglycosides such as Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, Streptomycin. The internal region of these genes were used for designing and synthesizing primers and these primers were used in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR to screen for the presence of these genes in the clinical isolates and to label them non-radioactively with Biotin. They in turn were used to detect the presence of the antibiotic resistance genes in the clinical isolates by hybridization. The specificity (ratio of positive results obtained in both methods and the sensitivity (the minimum amount of sample DNA and the labeled probe required for the tests were evaluated.

  6. Endovascular treatment of chronic cerebro spinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis modifies circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Mariasanta; Bruno, Aldo; Mastrangelo, Diego; De Vizia, Marcella; Bernardo, Benedetto; Rosa, Buonagura; De Lucia, Domenico

    2014-10-01

    We performed a monocentric observational prospective study to evaluate coagulation activation and endothelial dysfunction parameters in patients with multiple sclerosis undergoing endovascular treatment for cerebro-spinal-venous insufficiency. Between February 2011 and July 2012, 144 endovascular procedures in 110 patients with multiple sclerosis and chronical cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency were performed and they were prospectively analyzed. Each patient was included in the study according to previously published criteria, assessed by the investigators before enrollment. Endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation parameters were determined before the procedure and during follow-up at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months after treatment, respectively. After the endovascular procedure, patients were treated with standard therapies, with the addition of mesoglycan. Fifty-five percent of patients experienced a favorable outcome of multiple sclerosis within 1 month after treatment, 25% regressed in the following 3 months, 24.9% did not experience any benefit. In only 0.1% patients, acute recurrence was observed and it was treated with high-dose immunosuppressive therapy. No major complications were observed. Coagulation activation and endothelial dysfunction parameters were shown to be reduced at 1 month and stable up to 12-month follow-up, and they were furthermore associated with a good clinical outcome. Endovascular procedures performed by a qualified staff are well tolerated; they can be associated with other currently adopted treatments. Correlations between inflammation, coagulation activation and neurodegenerative disorders are here supported by the observed variations in plasma levels of markers of coagulation activation and endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Markers of Mineral Metabolism Are Not Associated With Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity in Community-Living Elderly Persons: The Health Aging and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Wassel, Christina L.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Najjar, Samer S.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Fried, Linda F.; de Boer, Ian H.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Newman, Anne B.; Hausman, Dorothy; Sarnak, Mark J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disorders in mineral metabolism are associated with risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients with kidney disease as well as in the general population. This risk is thought to be mediated, in part, through the mechanism of stiffening of the arteries. METHODS The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between serum calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and arterial pulse wave velocity (aPWV) among 2,229 community-dwelling elderly persons participating in the Health Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 72 years; 52% were woman, 39% were black, and 17% had chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2). In parallel unadjusted analyses, the following associations were observed: 2.86% greater aPWV per 12 ng/ml (s.d.) lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval −4.38%, −1.31%), 3.04% greater aPWV per 28 pg/ml (s.d.) higher iPTH (95% confidence interval 1.42–4.68%), and 2.37% lower aPWV per 0.5 mg/dl (s.d.) higher phosphorus (95% confidence interval −3.90% to − 0.81%). Except for phosphorus, these associations were attenuated and rendered no longer statistically significant after adjustment for demographic risk factors, clinical site, season, medications and other CVD risk factors. The results were similar in men and women and were not dependent on the presence of CKD. CONCLUSIONS Among well-functioning community-dwelling elderly persons, only serum phosphorus was associated with aPWV; and this association was in the opposite direction of the one hypothesized. Factors other than vascular stiffening may mediate the relationship between disordered mineral metabolism and CVD events in community-living elders. PMID:21436791

  8. Investigation of MDA-LDL (malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein) as a prognostic marker for coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuo; Tashiro, Jun; Yamazaki, Kenya; Nakamura, Yoshitake; Miyazaki, Akira; Bujo, Hideaki; Saito, Yasushi; Kanno, Takashi; Maekawa, Masato

    2015-10-23

    Although increased circulating levels of malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), there is no direct evidence that increased MDA-LDL is a prognostic factor for CAD. Forty-two patients (20 diabetic and 22 non-diabetic patients) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled, and their baseline MDA-LDL levels were determined by immunoassay. Follow-up coronary angiography was performed at 2 to 7 months post-PCI. The patients were then divided into 2 groups, with in-stent restenosis (ISR) (n=13) and without ISR (n=29), and the baseline MDA-LDL levels were compared. We also studied 34 diabetics with CAD for up to 57 months until the onset of the next coronary event. In the diabetic patients, the mean MDA-LDL level was significantly higher in those with ISR than in those without ISR (151+/-61 vs. 90+/-26 U/l, p=0.010). A baseline MDA-LDL value of 110 U/l for differentiating between diabetics with and without ISR was defined as the cut-off value. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that a circulating MDA-LDL of ≥ 110 U/l correlated significantly with a higher prevalence of cardiac events than MDA-LDL diabetic patients with CAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination.

  10. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the most widely used marker system for plant variety characterization and ... gene tagging in marker assisted breeding and gene cloning in .... PLS-2 and PAU Selection Long) to 1.00 (between PC. 2062 and .... Comparative analyses of genetic diversities within tomato.

  11. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... seeded and black-seeded cultivars and breeding lines. The group B included 70 ... maize, rice and tomatoes (Reif et al., 2006; Vigouroux et al., 2005; Warburton et ..... development of molecular markers for marker-assisted breeding. .... Selection under domestication: evidence for a sweep in the rice Waxy ...

  12. Tempo-spatially resolved cellular dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus transacting activator of transcription (Tat) peptide-modified nanocargos in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Yang, Qiaoyu; Xiao, Lehui

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocarriers in living cells is of great importance for the rational design of efficient drug delivery cargos as well as the development of robust biomedical diagnostic probes. In present study, with a dual wavelength view darkfield microscope (DWVD), the tempo-spatially resolved dynamics of Tat peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (TGNPs, with size similar to viruses) in living HeLa cells were extensively explored. It was found that energy-dependent endocytosis (both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes were involved) was the prevailing pathway for the cellular uptake of TGNPs. The time-correlated dynamic spatial distribution information revealed that TGNPs could not actively target the cell nuclei, which is contrary to previous observations based on fixed cell results. More importantly, the inheritance of TGNPs to the daughter cells through mitosis was found to be the major route to metabolize TGNPs by HeLa cells. These understandings on the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocargos in living cells would provide deep insight on how to improve and controllably manipulate their translocation efficiency for targeted drug delivery.Understanding the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocarriers in living cells is of great importance for the rational design of efficient drug delivery cargos as well as the development of robust biomedical diagnostic probes. In present study, with a dual wavelength view darkfield microscope (DWVD), the tempo-spatially resolved dynamics of Tat peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (TGNPs, with size similar to viruses) in living HeLa cells were extensively explored. It was found that energy-dependent endocytosis (both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes were involved) was the prevailing pathway for the cellular uptake of TGNPs. The time-correlated dynamic spatial distribution information revealed that TGNPs

  13. Immunization against mucosal disease--bovine viral Diarrhea (MD-BVD) in calves applying lapinized vaccine against swine fever and a modified live virus of MD-BVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambiev, H; Tsvetkov, P; Nikolov, A; Gaytandgieva, R

    1975-01-01

    Calves vaccinated with the modified strain C24V react by creating neutralizing antibodies in high titres and are resistent to infection while non-immunized calves manifest the clinical symptoms of MD-BVD. Calves, vaccinated with the lapinized strain "K" of the SF virus react by creating neutralizing antibodies in low titres against the vius of MD-BVD and manifest no apparent clinical symptoms after challenge with the virulent strain MD-BVD.

  14. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  15. The reliability and validity of the Modified Condom Outcome Expectancy Scale (MCOES) among an international sample of HIV-negative partners of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, S G; Celentano, D A; Mcgrath, J W; Chard, S E; Gangakhedkar, R R; Joglekar, N; Malhotra-Kohli, R; Kamya, M; Fullem, A

    2003-06-01

    Safer sexual behaviour is vital in curbing the HlV epidemic in many developing countries where the epidemic is primarily transmitted through heterosexual sex. Reliable and valid assessment of factors related to HIV risk behaviours are important in testing behavioural theories as well as informing effective AIDS prevention programmes. The current study tests the reliability and validity of a modified version of the Condom Outcome Expectancy Scale (COES) among a sample of HI'-negative sexual partners (n = 100) of HIV-infected individuals in Pune, India, Chang Mai,Thailand and Kampala, Uganda. Internal consistency reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which had a value of 0.80 for the entire sample, with site-specific values of. 0.78 for India; 0.75 for Thailand; and 0.79 for Uganda. Test-retest reliability was conducted to test the scale's stability over time with 60% of the sample, resulting in a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.70. The scale's structure was explored by analyzing response scores on the items using principal components analysis, which yielded a two-factor solution. The study indicates the utility of a modified version of the widely tested COES across international settings. Such research is necessary in understanding intervention targets across international settings.

  16. Construction of a Streptococcus iniae sortase A mutant and evaluation of its potential as an attenuated modified live vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zou, L L; Li, A X

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus iniae is a major Gram-positive aquatic pathogen, which causes invasive diseases in cultured fish worldwide. The identification of potential virulence determinants of streptococcal infections will help to understand and control this disease, but only a few have been confirmed in S. iniae. Sortase A (srtA) is the key enzyme that anchors pre-mature cell wall-attached proteins to peptidoglycan and it can affect the correct positioning of surface proteins, as well as the course of Gram-positive bacterial infection, thereby making it a potential target in the study of virulence factors and disease control. In this study, the 759 bp srtA gene was cloned from pathogenic S. iniae TBY-1 strain and the mutant strain TBY-1ΔsrtA was constructed via allelic exchange mutagenesis. We found that srtA shares high similarities with sortase A from other Streptococcus spp. Direct survival rate assay and challenge experiments were performed, which showed that the mutant strain TBY-1ΔsrtA had a lower survival capacity in healthy tilapia blood and it was less virulent than the wild type strain in tilapia, thereby indicating that the deletion of sortase A affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. iniae. The mutant strain TBY-1ΔsrtA was used as a live vaccine, which was administered via intraperitoneal injection, and it provided the relative percent survival value of 95.5% in Nile tilapia, thereby demonstrating its high potential as an effective attenuated live vaccine candidate.

  17. A new generation of modified live-attenuated avian influenza viruses using a two-strategy combination as potential vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haichen; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    In light of the recurrent outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), there is a pressing need for the development of vaccines that allow rapid mass vaccination. In this study, we introduced by reverse genetics temperature-sensitive mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of an avian influenza virus, A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2) (WF10). Further genetic modifications were introduced into the PB1 gene to enhance the attenuated (att) phenotype of the virus in vivo. Using the att WF10 as a backbone, we substituted neuraminidase (NA) for hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine purposes. In chickens, a vaccination scheme consisting of a single dose of an att H7N2 vaccine virus at 2 weeks of age and subsequent challenge with the wild-type H7N2 LPAI virus resulted in complete protection. We further extended our vaccination strategy against the HPAI H5N1. In this case, we reconstituted an att H5N1 vaccine virus, whose HA and NA genes were derived from an Asian H5N1 virus. A single-dose immunization in ovo with the att H5N1 vaccine virus in 18-day-old chicken embryos resulted in more than 60% protection for 4-week-old chickens and 100% protection for 9- to 12-week-old chickens. Boosting at 2 weeks posthatching provided 100% protection against challenge with the HPAI H5N1 virus for chickens as young as 4 weeks old, with undetectable virus shedding postchallenge. Our results highlight the potential of live att avian influenza vaccines for mass vaccination in poultry.

  18. Evaluation of Psn, HmuR and a modified LcrV protein delivered to mice by live attenuated Salmonella as a vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic Yersinia pestis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, Christine G; Sun, Wei; Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Perry, Robert; Roland, Kenneth L; Fetherston, Jacqueline; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-12-16

    We evaluated the ability of Yersinia pestis antigens HmuR, Psn and modified forms of LcrV delivered by live attenuated Salmonella strains to stimulate a protective immune response against subcutaneous or intranasal challenge with Y. pestis CO92. LcrV196 is a previously described truncated protein that includes aa 131-326 of LcrV and LcrV5214 has been modified to replace five key amino acids required for interaction with the TLR2 receptor. Psn is the outer membrane receptor for the siderophore, yersiniabactin, and the bacteriocin, pesticin. Mice immunized with Salmonella synthesizing Psn, LcrV196 or LcrV5214 developed serum IgG responses to the respective Yersinia antigen and were protected against pneumonic challenge with Y. pestis. Immunization with Salmonella synthesizing Psn or LcrV196 was sufficient to afford nearly full protection against bubonic challenge, while immunization with the strain synthesizing LcrV5214 was not protective. Immunization with Salmonella synthesizing HmuR, an outer membrane protein involved in heme acquisition in Y. pestis, was poorly immunogenic and did not elicit a protective response against either challenge route. These findings indicate that both Psn and LcrV196 delivered by Salmonella provide protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  20. Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves

  1. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  2. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  3. Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ≥ 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ≥ 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days.

  4. Ethylene glycol modified 2-(2‧-aminophenyl)benzothiazoles at the amino site: the excited-state N-H proton transfer reactions in aqueous solution, micelles and potential application in live-cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo-Qing; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Yu-Wei; Chung, Kun-You; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Yi-Jhen; Chao, Chi-Min; Liu, Kuan-Miao; Tseng, Huan-Wei; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2016-03-01

    Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether and poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether modified 2-(2‧-aminophenyl)benzothiazoles, namely ABT-P3EG, ABT-P7EG and ABT-P12EG varied by different chain length of poly(ethylene glycol) at the amino site, were synthesized to probe their photophysical and bio-imaging properties. In polar, aprotic solvents such as CH2Cl2 ultrafast excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) takes place, resulting in a large Stokes shifted tautomer emission in the green-yellow (550 nm) region. In neutral water, ABT-P12EG forms micelles with diameters of 15  ±  3 nm under a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of ~80 μM, in which the tautomer emission is greatly enhanced free from water perturbation. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that all ABT-PnEGs have negligible cytotoxicity against HeLa cells even at doses as high as 1 mM. Live-cell imaging experiments were also performed, the results indicate that all ABT-PnEGs are able to enter HeLa cells. While the two-photon excitation emission of ABT-P3EG in cells cytoplasm shows concentration independence and is dominated by the anion blue fluorescence, ABT-P7EG and ABT-P12EG exhibit prominent green tautomer emission at  >  CMC and in part penetrate to the nuclei, adding an additional advantage for the cell imaging.

  5. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  6. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  7. Transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms and the ... of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. ... use of living modified organisms (LMOs) such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the ...

  8. Marker Recycling in Candida albicans through CRISPR-Cas9-Induced Marker Excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe here a new approach to marker recycling, a controlled sequence of steps in which a genetic marker is selected and then lost. Marker recycling is important for genetic manipulation, because it allows a single selection marker to be used repeatedly. Our approach relies upon the ability of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to make a targeted double-strand break in DNA and the expectation that a double-strand break within a selection marker may promote recombination between directly repeated sequences that flank the marker. We call the approach CRISPR-Cas9-induced marker excision (CRIME). We tested the utility of this approach with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is typically diploid. We used two selection markers, modified to include flanking direct repeats. In a proof-of-principle study, we created successive homozygous deletions in three genes through use of the two markers and had one of the markers available in the final strain for further selection and recycling. This strategy will accelerate the creation of multiple-mutant strains in C. albicans. CRISPR-Cas9 systems have been applied to many organisms, so the genetic design principles described here may be broadly applicable. IMPORTANCE It is critical to be able to alter genes in order to elucidate their functions. These alterations often rely upon markers that allow selection for a rare cell in a population that has incorporated a piece of DNA. The number of alterations that can be accomplished is thus limited by the number of selection markers that are available. This limitation is circumvented by marker recycling strategies, in which a marker is eliminated after its initial use. Then, the marker can be used again. In this report, we describe a new marker recycling strategy that is enabled by recently developed CRISPR-Cas9 technology. PMID:28317025

  9. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term care and institutional living. Sheltered Housing Sheltered housing is often in a home that offers personal-care support, housekeeping services, and meals. Social work services and coordination for activities can be ...

  10. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if needs change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or their families usually pay for it. Health and long-term care insurance policies may cover ...

  11. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . HIV Treatment Works Get In Care HIV 101 Locate a ... Sharing Your Status Stay In Care Understanding Care HIV Treatment Cost of HIV Treatment Related Health Conditions Live ...

  12. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  13. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  14. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, C.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (United States). Rockwell Hanford Operations

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  15. Outdoor Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  16. Live-Musikprogrammierung in Haskell

    CERN Document Server

    Thielemann, Henning

    2012-01-01

    We aim to compose algorithmic music in an interactive way with multiple participants. To this end we develop an interpreter for a sub-language of the non-strict functional programming language Haskell that allows to modify the program during its execution. Our system can be used both for musical live-coding and for demonstration and education of functional programming.

  17. Modified Backcross Pyramiding Breeding with Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection and Its Applications in Cotton%分子标记辅助选择的修饰回交聚合育种方法及其在棉花上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭旺珍; 张天真; 朱协飞; 潘家驹

    2005-01-01

    修饰回交育种法是将杂种品系间杂交和回交方法结合起来,用于棉花多个优良性状聚合的育种改良方法.随着分子标记技术日益完善地用于育种的选择中,提出了分子标记辅助选择的修饰回交聚合育种方法.它以生产上推广或即将推广的品种为轮回亲本,将修饰回交育种法和分子标记辅助选择育种相结合,同时对轮回亲本的遗传背景和具有育种目标性状的基因或QTL进行选择,从而可显著提高育种效率.利用这一方法,以长江流域推广品种泗棉3号为轮回亲本,山西94-24和7235品系分别为抗虫基因和优质QTL的供体亲本,进行分子标记辅助的优质QTL系统选择和外源Bt基因的表型及分子选择.在(泗棉3号×7235)BC1F4中获得遗传背景与泗棉3号相近,株型稳定,且具有优质QTL的高强株系,在(泗棉3号×转Bt品系94-24)BC4F1中获得遗传背景与泗棉3号相近,抗棉铃虫效果明显的单株.进一步通过高世代优质和抗虫目标株系的互交,分子标记辅助目标性状选择,目标基因纯合及稳定性检测,使高强纤维QTL和Bt基因快速聚合,培育出了优质、高产的抗虫棉新品系南农85188.%Using upland cotton (G.hirsutum L.) as research material,our objective was to describe and implement a modified backcrossing approach for introgressing transgenes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) into target genetic backgrounds. Modified backcrossing is an improved breeding procedure combining inter-strain crossing and backcrossing methods to pyramid many traits. In the wake of availability of molecular marker technology for application to plant breeding, we propose a new backcrossing method called modified backcross pyramiding breeding (MBPB) combined with molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). With MBPB, MAS was used in modified backcrossing and selection, i.e., target genes or QTLs and the recurrent parental background was simultaneously selected by molecular

  18. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2014-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... of the social world pushes questions about education and life, disregarding being educated as human control of nature....

  19. Molecular marker databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał Tadeusz; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    The detection and analysis of genetic variation plays an important role in plant breeding and this role is increasing with the continued development of genome sequencing technologies. Molecular genetic markers are important tools to characterize genetic variation and assist with genomic breeding. Processing and storing the growing abundance of molecular marker data being produced requires the development of specific bioinformatics tools and advanced databases. Molecular marker databases range from species specific through to organism wide and often host a variety of additional related genetic, genomic, or phenotypic information. In this chapter, we will present some of the features of plant molecular genetic marker databases, highlight the various types of marker resources, and predict the potential future direction of crop marker databases.

  20. Living edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2014-01-01

    of the involved actors at the border. By doing so, the study underlines a forgotten, yet important, role of this edge zone – being a zone of commonality between the house and city, between indoors and outdoors, between the man at home and the man at the street. The city of Copenhagen promotes porous borders...... is a collection of material from the case study of an ongoing PhD study titled: LIVING EDGE - The Architectural and Urban Prospect of Domestic Borders. The paper includes a description of the problem analysis, research question, method, discussion and conclusion....

  1. ARTIFICIAL LIVING SYSTEM AND ITS COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongguang

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the author shows some artificial living systems, whose basic life characteristics are explored, especially the differentiation in evolution from single cellular to multi-cellular organism. In addition, the author discusses diversity and evolvability also.The author gives a modified entropy function to measure the diversity. Finally, the author drops an open problem about the structure of "gene" of artificial living systems, so that we can measure the evolutionary order between the artificial living systems.

  2. 饲粮中添加苏氨酸和色氨酸对接种猪繁殖与呼吸综合征弱毒苗生长猪免疫反应的影响%Effects of Dietary Threonine and Tryptophan on Immune Response of Growing Pigs Inoculated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 赵迎飞; 方正锋; 林燕; 车炼强; 杨敏; 吴德

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen healthy castrated growing pigs with an initial body weight of (29.11 ±4.41) kg were used to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) and tryptophan (Trp) on immune response of growing pigs inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified live virus vaccine.The pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 replicates in each treatment and 1 pig per replicate.According to a 2 × 2 factorial design,growing pigs received diets containing two amino acid levels [Lys:Thr:Trp =100:64:18 (NRC level) or Lys:Thr:Trp =100:80:26 (test level)] and were injected with 2 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PRRS modified live virus vaccine on day 0 and 35 of experiment.Blood samples were collected to determine the contents of plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ),intedeukin-10 (IL-10),interleukin1β (IL-1β) and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) on days 14,28,35 and 49 of experiment,and pigs were slaughtered to collect lung tissue on day 49 of experiment.And real-time quantitative PCR was applied to determine the relative mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor1 to 10 (TLR1 to TLR10) in lungs.The results showed as follows:compared with the supplementation of NRC levels of Thr and Trp,when pigs were injected with PBS,serum IgG content in pigs fed diets containing the test levels of Thr and Trp was significantly increased on days 14 and 28 of experiment (P <0.05) ; when pigs were injected with PRRS modified live virus vaccine,pigs fed diets containing the test levels of Thr and Trp had a higher serum IgG content on day 35 of experiment (P < 0.05).Compared with PBS injection,the higher plasma IFN-γ,IL-10 and IL-1β contents were observed under immune stress condition challenged by PRRS modified live virus vaccine on days 14,28 and 35 of experiment (P < 0.05).Moreover,compared with the supplementation of NRC levels of Thr and Trp,the supplementation of test levels of Thr and Trp increased plasma IL-1 β (except for day 14 of

  3. A novel double expression shuttle vector to get marker-free recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara%改良型痘苗病毒安卡拉株表达系统可删除筛选标记的双表达穿梭载体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑其升; 毕志香; 李梅清; 侯继波; 陈溥言

    2011-01-01

    A novel double expression shuttle vector named pLR-gpt was constructed for marker-free recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generation. A delectable Eco gpt marker was adopted with Cre/LoxP DNA recombination system and a BHK-21 cell line that can express Cre enzyme. Eco gpt gene controlled by P7.5 promoter from Vaccinia virus was cloned between two LoxP sites in the same direction. Additionally, two multiple cloning site under control of other two Vaccinia virus promoters were constructed outside LoxP sites. With this new transfer vector, Eco gpt marker in rMVA can be deleted on BHK-Cre with interaction between Cre enzyme and LoxP sequence. In order to verify the efficacy of this system, ORF5 and ORF6 gene of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) NJ-a strain were cloned into two multiple cloning sites of pLR-gpt to construct recombinant plasmid pLR-ORF5/ORF6. Homologous recombination between pLR-ORF5/ORF6 and wtMVA on BHK-21 cell was mediated by liposome by infecting cells with 0.01 MOI wtMVA two hours before transfection. After twelve cycles of selection, recombinant MVA with selecting marker Eco gpt was obtained and named as rMVAgpt-GP5/M. By infecting BHK-Cre, the Eco gpt marker in rMVAgpt-GP5/M was deleted and this rMVA was named as rMVA-GP5/M. Expression of GP5 and M protein was identified with Western blotting and IFA. Results from PCR and biological study for rMVA indicated that Eco gpt marker was completely deleted. Conclusions: double expression transfer vector for marker-free recombinant Modified vaccinia virus Ankara generation was successfully constructed, and works well in MVA expression system.%为了构建改良型痘苗病毒安卡拉株表达系统可删除筛选标记的双表达穿梭载体,利用Cre/LoxPDNA重组系统以及本实验室表达Cre酶的BHK-21细胞系(BHK-Cre),以大肠杆菌黄嘌吟-鸟嘌呤磷酸核糖转移酶(Eco gpt)为筛选标记构建可删除筛选标记的双表

  4. Serviced Living

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ As recently as ten years ago,the term serviced apartment made no sense to most people living in Beijing and residing in hotels was the only options for foreign visitors. But since then, serviced apartments have begun to appear in big cities all around China. In Beijing alone, it is estimated that there are more than 30,000service apartments spread across dozens of properties occupying a space of more than I million square meters. Concentrating in the Financial Street, the Central Business District and Zhongguancun, also known as China's Silicon Valley, the explosion in service apartments in the city continues to be fueled by the influx of overseas and domestic business people.

  5. Live CMS

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    CMS live from Facebook. The Pixel Tracker (or Pixel Detector) is the innermost instrument in the very heart of the CMS apparatus, installed around the LHC beampipe. This is the very point where new particles, such as the Higgs boson, are produced by the energy of the proton proton collisions, and so the Pixel detector receives the largest particle-flux of any sub-component of CMS. The new component is made up of two “parts”: a central barrel region (called BPIX), made of two cylindrical halves, and forward discs on either side of the collision point (FPIX). The new BPIX was manufactured by a consortium of European institutes from Switzerland, Italy and Germany, supported by CERN. The new FPIX was manufactured by 14 institutes in the USA.

  6. Modified Ureterosigmoidostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To introduce an operation procedure and evaluate the coutinence diversion results of the modified ureterosigmoidostomy after radical cystectomy. Methods Fourteen cases of bladder cancer or prostate carcinoma were operated on with modified Sigma pouch from Feb, 1998 to Dec, 1999. A longitudinal incision about 25 cm on the sigmoid uall was done to form a low pressure pouch. The vertex of the new pouch was fixed to sacrum. Both ends of ureters were anastomosed side to side and to form a big nipple and inserted into the top of pouch for 2 to 3 centimeters. Results It took about sixty five minutes to create a new low pressure pouch after radical cystectomy. Early complication of was found in two cases postoperatively, and cured with temporary colonostomy. Hydronephrosis and hypokalemia in one patient were cured by percutaneous anterograde ureter dilatation with balloon and oral replacement of potassium salt. All patients displayed urinary continence. No symptomatic renal infection or hypercholoraemic acidosis occurred. Conclusion Modified ureterosigmoidostomy is a safe procedure of urinary diversion and provides a big volume, low intravesical pressure pouch. The patients are free from the troublesome urine-bag, intermittert catheterization , and upper urinary tracts are protected effectively. The quality of life is satisfied.

  7. 单、双标记基因筛选的转人乳铁蛋白基因供核细胞生产克隆山羊效率的比较%Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安礼友; 袁玉国; 于宝利; 杨廷佳; 成勇

    2012-01-01

    为比较两种筛选标记基因生产转人乳铁蛋白(hLF)基因克隆山羊的效率,利用单(新霉素抗性基因,Neor)、双(新霉素抗性和绿色荧光蛋白基因,Neor/GFP)标记基因筛选转基因的供核细胞,并制作体细胞核移植转基因山羊.山羊胎儿成纤维细胞电转染单标记基因表达载体(pBLC14)或双标记基因表达载体(pAPLM),分别有58.8%(20/34)和86.7%(26/30)的抗性细胞株检测到外源基因;转染pAPLM的细胞传代培养后,仅有20% (6/30)株细胞在传代中所有细胞均能观察到荧光;分别以pBLC14和pAPLM的细胞株作为供核细胞进行体细胞核移植,共获得806枚重构胚胎,胚胎移植受体后35d、60 d妊娠率分别为53.8%、26.9%和39.1%、21.7%,最终分别产下5只(1.9%)和7只(1.4%)克隆山羊;经PCR及Southern blotting检测,所有出生山羊均整合有外源基因.结果显示,以单、双标记基因筛选供核细胞,其重构胚融合率、怀孕率和克隆动物出生率差异不显著(P>0.05),Neor/GFP双标记基因能准确、有效地用于转基因供核细胞筛选.同时,结果也表明Neor/GFP双标记基因转染的体细胞作为供核细胞对体细胞克隆效率未出现不利影响.%We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neor) or double (Neo7GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLCl4 or pAPLM construct, resulting in

  8. Molecular Markers for Food Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martins-Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA analysis with molecular markers has opened a way to understand complex organism's genome. It is presently being widely applied across different fields, where food takes a preeminent position. Constant outbreaks of foodborne illnesses are increasing consumer's attention towards more detailed information related to what they are consuming. This overview reports on the areas where food traceability has been considered, and the problems that still remain to be bypassed in order to be widely applied. An outline of the most broadly used PCR-based methods for food traceability is described. Applications in the area of detection of genetically modified organisms, protected denomination of origin, allergenic and intolerance reactions are detailed in order to understand the dimension of the performed studies.

  9. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  10. Marker development in ornamental plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusden, van A.W.; Arens, P.

    2009-01-01

    Development of markers for a new crop or development of additional markers for a crop where markers have been developed in the past raises the question of the intended use of the markers. Depending on the different objectives in mind one marker type may be better suited then another. In general one

  11. Improving selection of markers in nutrition research: evaluation of the criteria proposed by the ILSI Europe Marker Validation Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Philip C; Boobis, Alan; Braun, Deborah; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise; Einöther, Suzanne; Greyling, Arno; Matthys, Christophe; Putz, Peter; Wopereis, Suzan; Woodside, Jayne V; Antoine, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-16

    The conduct of high-quality nutrition research requires the selection of appropriate markers as outcomes, for example as indicators of food or nutrient intake, nutritional status, health status or disease risk. Such selection requires detailed knowledge of the markers, and consideration of the factors that may influence their measurement, other than the effects of nutritional change. A framework to guide selection of markers within nutrition research studies would be a valuable tool for researchers. A multidisciplinary Expert Group set out to test criteria designed to aid the evaluation of candidate markers for their usefulness in nutrition research and subsequently to develop a scoring system for markers. The proposed criteria were tested using thirteen markers selected from a broad range of nutrition research fields. The result of this testing was a modified list of criteria and a template for evaluating a potential marker against the criteria. Subsequently, a semi-quantitative system for scoring a marker and an associated template were developed. This system will enable the evaluation and comparison of different candidate markers within the same field of nutrition research in order to identify their relative usefulness. The ranking criteria of proven, strong, medium or low are likely to vary according to research setting, research field and the type of tool used to assess the marker and therefore the considerations for scoring need to be determined in a setting-, field- and tool-specific manner. A database of such markers, their interpretation and range of possible values would be valuable to nutrition researchers.

  12. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  13. Fiducial Marker Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body General Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) Proton Therapy Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Fiducial Marker Placement Sponsored by ...

  14. Living Nanomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  15. Marker development in ornamental plants

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Development of markers for a new crop or development of additional markers for a crop where markers have been developed in the past raises the question of the intended use of the markers. Depending on the different objectives in mind one marker type may be better suited then another. In general one can think of two main objectives for the use of markers; variety identification and breeding applications. In view of recent developments in molecular genetics, and sequencing technologies in parti...

  16. Immunogenicity of viral vector, prime-boost SIV vaccine regimens in infant rhesus macaques: attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) recombinant SIV vaccines compared to live-attenuated SIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Koen K A; Abel, Kristina; Earl, Patricia; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Easlick, Juliet; Moore, Joseph; Buonocore-Buzzelli, Linda; Schmidt, Kimberli A; Wilson, Robert L; Simon, Ian; Moss, Bernard; Rose, Nina; Rose, John; Marthas, Marta L

    2010-02-10

    In a previously developed infant macaque model mimicking HIV infection by breast-feeding, we demonstrated that intramuscular immunization with recombinant poxvirus vaccines expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) structural proteins provided partial protection against infection following oral inoculation with virulent SIV. In an attempt to further increase systemic but also local antiviral immune responses at the site of viral entry, we tested the immunogenicity of different orally administered, replicating vaccines. One group of newborn macaques received an oral prime immunization with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing SIVmac239 gag, pol and env (VSV-SIVgpe), followed 2 weeks later by an intramuscular boost immunization with MVA-SIV. Another group received two immunizations with live-attenuated SIVmac1A11, administered each time both orally and intravenously. Control animals received mock immunizations or non-SIV VSV and MVA control vectors. Analysis of SIV-specific immune responses in blood and lymphoid tissues at 4 weeks of age demonstrated that both vaccine regimens induced systemic antibody responses and both systemic and local cell-mediated immune responses. The safety and immunogenicity of the VSV-SIVgpe+MVA-SIV immunization regimen described in this report provide the scientific incentive to explore the efficacy of this vaccine regimen against virulent SIV exposure in the infant macaque model.

  17. Neural activity, memory, and dementias: serotonergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    Dysfunctional memory seems to be a key component of diverse dementias and other neuropsychiatric disorders; unfortunately, no effective treatment exists for this, probably because of the absence of neural biomarkers accompanying it. Diverse neurotransmission systems have been implicated in memory, including serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). There are multiple serotonergic pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species and neural markers providing new insights into memory functions and dysfunctions. Serotonin in mammal species has multiple neural markers, including receptors (5-HT1-7), serotonin transporter, and volume transmission, which are present in brain areas involved in memory. Memory, amnesia, and forgetting modify serotonergic markers; this influence is bidirectional. Evidence shows insights and therapeutic targets and diverse approaches support the translatability of using neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions, including memory formation and amnesia. For instance, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT4, and 5-HT6 receptors are involved in tau protein hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, at least, 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as serotonin transporter seem to be useful neural markers and therapeutic targets. Hence, available evidence supports the notion that several mechanisms cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity or memory, including changes in the number of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Considering that memory is a key component of dementias, hence reversing or reducing memory deficits might positively affect them?

  18. A Live Attenuated Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Proviral Vaccine with a Modified S2 Gene Provides Protection from Detectable Infection by Intravenous Virulent Virus Challenge of Experimentally Inoculated Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Craigo, Jodi K.; Howe, Laryssa; Steckbeck, Jonathan D.; Cook, Sheila; Issel, Charles; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Previous evaluations of inactivated whole-virus and envelope subunit vaccines to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have revealed a broad spectrum of efficacy ranging from highly type-specific protection to severe enhancement of viral replication and disease in experimentally immunized equids. Among experimental animal lentivirus vaccines, immunizations with live attenuated viral strains have proven most effective, but the vaccine efficacy has been shown to be highly dependent on the nature and severity of the vaccine virus attenuation. We describe here for the first time the characterization of an experimental attenuated proviral vaccine, EIAVUKΔS2, based on inactivation of the S2 accessory gene to down regulate in vivo replication without affecting in vitro growth properties. The results of these studies demonstrated that immunization with EIAVUKΔS2 elicited mature virus-specific immune responses by 6 months and that this vaccine immunity provided protection from disease and detectable infection by intravenous challenge with a reference virulent biological clone, EIAVPV. This level of protection was observed in each of the six experimental horses challenged with the reference virulent EIAVPV by using a low-dose multiple-exposure protocol (three administrations of 10 median horse infectious doses [HID50], intravenous) designed to mimic field exposures and in all three experimentally immunized ponies challenged intravenously with a single inoculation of 3,000 HID50. In contrast, naïve equids subjected to the low- or high-dose challenge develop a detectable infection of challenge virus and acute disease within several weeks. Thus, these data demonstrate that the EIAV S2 gene provides an optimal site for modification to achieve the necessary balance between attenuation to suppress virulence and replication potential to sufficiently drive host immune responses to produce vaccine immunity to viral exposure. PMID:12805423

  19. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin P Davies

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED, the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.

  20. Living Gluten Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Living Gluten Free Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents ... Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 Number 1 ...

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  4. Living with endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvic pain - living with endometriosis; Endometrial implant - living with endometriosis; Endometrioma - living with endometriosis ... counter pain relievers can reduce the pain of endometriosis. These include: Ibuprofen (Advil) Naproxen (Aleve) Acetaminophen (Tylenol) ...

  5. Living with an Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With an Arrhythmia Many arrhythmias are harmless. It's common to have an occasional ... heartbeat or mild palpitations . People who have harmless arrhythmias can live healthy lives. They usually don't ...

  6. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  7. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  8. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  9. Serum Magnesium Levels Modify the Influence of “Living High-Training Low” on Weight Loss among Overweight Adolescents%低氧训练对肥胖青少年减控体重的影响与血镁浓度相关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹; 苏利强; 杨钦; 魏玉琴; 田倩倩; 陈文鹤; 陈佩杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective :Previous studies shows that the intervention of “living high‐training low”may lower body weight ,and magnesium levels are inversely associated with obesity risk .How‐ever ,little is known if magnesium levels modify the influence of “Living High‐Training Low”on weight loss .Method :A total of 34 overweight adolescents (11~15 years of age) were en‐rolled and were divided into two groups ;the low magnesium group (LM ,below median ,n=17) and the high magnesium group (HM ,median and above ,n=17) .Within each group ,par‐ticipants were randomly assigned into the Living low‐Training Low group or the Living High‐Training Low group .Participants in the living low‐training low groups underwent exercise training in daytime and slept in regular environment ,while participants in the Living High‐Training Low groups underwent exercise training in daytime and slept in hypoxia room e‐quipped with hypoxia systems that simulated an altitude of 2 700 meters .Before and after the 4‐week intervention ,body composition and metabolic health‐related blood biomarkers were as‐sessed .Results :After the intervention ,weight loss was observed in all 4 groups .The influ‐ences of living high training low on weight loss were greater in participants with high serum magnesium levels (11 .86% ± 1 .10% ) than that among individuals in other groups ( P<0 .01) .Conclusions :Findings from this intervention study suggest that the influence of “Living High‐Training Low” on weight loss among overweight adolescents is modified by magnesium status .This effect may be related to leptin .%目的:以往研究表明,低氧训练可以减控体重;镁浓度和肥胖相关风险因子存在负相关。然而,机体镁浓度是否会影响低氧训练减控体重的效果,尚无相关报道。方法:志愿参加全封闭式减控体重的超重青少年34名(年龄11~15岁),干预前测试受试者血清镁浓度,按照中位值将所有

  10. STR MARKERS. GENOTYPING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Sirbu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available STR (short tandem repeats loci consist of short, repetitive sequence elements of 2-8 bp in length. These abundant repeats are well distributed throughout the human genome and are rich source of highly polymorphic markers. There are literally hundreds of STR systems which have been mapped throughout the human genome. Several dozen have been investigated for application to human identity testing. These STR loci are found on almost every chromosome in the genome. They may be amplified using a variety of PCR primers. Tetranucleotide repeats have been most popular among forensic scientists due to their fidelity in PCR amplification although some tri- and pentanucleotide repeats are also in use. In this paper we intend (far from being exhaustive to present a synthesis of the characteristics of these genetic markers and their applications in genotyping, giving as an example the use of the STRs in a paternity testing case.

  11. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  12. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R;

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  13. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubicciotti, Roger S. (El Cerrito, CA); Karu, Alexander E. (Kensington, CA); Krauss, Ronald M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  14. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    mongolism are high-risk candidates for certain types of leukemia. Similarly, hemophiliacs have a correspondingly high incidence of color blindness . (4...genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type. GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...their study had linked color blindness , cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. They further hypothesized the existence of a sex-linked carrier gene

  15. Genetically modified crops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halford, N. G

    2012-01-01

    ... Without Tissue Culture Selectable Marker Genes Visual/Scoreable Marker Genes Design and Construction of Genes for Introduction into Plants Promoter Types The Use of GM to Characterise Gene Promoter...

  16. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Microglobulin, Serum, Urine, or CSF Related tests: Albumin , Tumor Markers , CSF Analysis All content on Lab Tests Online ...

  17. Immunolabeling artifacts and the need for live-cell imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnell, Ulrike; Dijk, Freark; Sjollema, Klaas A.; Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent fusion proteins have revolutionized examination of proteins in living cells. Still, studies using these proteins are met with criticism because proteins are modified and ectopically expressed, in contrast to immunofluorescence studies. However, introducing immunoreagents inside cells can

  18. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.

  19. Object Markers in Ikalanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Letsholo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an on-going debate amongst linguists regarding the status of the object marker (OM. Some scholars argue that OMs are agreement morphology (Baker 2010, Riedel 2009 while others argue that OMs are pronominal and not agreement morphology (Nevins 2010, Kramer, under review, Labelle 2007, Demuth and Johnson 1990, Mchombo 2002. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this debate using data from Ikalanga to support the view that OMs are pronominal clitics. I discuss evidence in favor of the agreement analysis as well as that in favor of the pronominal analysis. OMs in Ikalanga behave like agreement morphology in that they attach only to the verbal stem, only one OM occurs in a clause, and they share grammatical features (person, gender and number with the lexical NP with which they co-refer. However, there are many ways in which OMs behave like pronominals. For example, OMs do not vary in form according to the mood of a sentence or negation while subject markers, which I analyze as agreement morphemes do. They are not obligatory in Ikalanga sentences while subject markers are. OMs are not subject to locality constraints while agreement is. They can be bound by the subject (backward pronominalization, something unexpected of agreement and there is ample evidence to show that the lexical NP with which the OM co-refers is an adjunct, a fact which has been used in the literature to argue that the OM is pronominal in such a set up. The evidence in favor of the pronominal analysis however, is more compelling and therefore I conclude that OMs are pronominal clitics and not agreement morphology.

  20. A linear combination of modified Bessel functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A linear combination of modified Bessel functions is defined, discussed briefly, and tabulated. This combination was found to recur in the analysis of various heat transfer problems and in the analysis of the thermal behavior of living tissue when modeled by cylindrical shells.

  1. Helical Gears Modified To Decrease Transmission Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Tooth surfaces of helical gears modified, according to proposed design concept, to make gears more tolerant of misalignments and to improve distribution of contact stresses. Results in smaller transmission errors, with concomitant decreases in vibrations and noise and, possibly, increases in service lives.

  2. Living with hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000360.htm Living with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss, you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  3. Living with Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PD. Strategies for living well may include: Managing nutrition and medications – to maintain the highest quality of daily living with Parkinson's disease. Performing activities that may benefit you and your ...

  4. Living with Thalassemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public » Health Topics » Thalassemias » Living With Thalassemias Explore Thalassemias What Are... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Anemia ...

  5. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  6. Living with Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  7. Administration for Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Input Working Together, in Our Communities The Administration for Community Living was created around the fundamental ... Players U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Community Living

  8. Living with Hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Hemophilia If you or your child has hemophilia, you ... today is likely to live a normal lifespan. Hemophilia Treatment Centers The Federal Government funds a nationwide ...

  9. Smart markers for watershed-based cell segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Can Fahrettin; Arslan, Salim; Durmaz, Irem; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    Automated cell imaging systems facilitate fast and reliable analysis of biological events at the cellular level. In these systems, the first step is usually cell segmentation that greatly affects the success of the subsequent system steps. On the other hand, similar to other image segmentation problems, cell segmentation is an ill-posed problem that typically necessitates the use of domain-specific knowledge to obtain successful segmentations even by human subjects. The approaches that can incorporate this knowledge into their segmentation algorithms have potential to greatly improve segmentation results. In this work, we propose a new approach for the effective segmentation of live cells from phase contrast microscopy. This approach introduces a new set of "smart markers" for a marker-controlled watershed algorithm, for which the identification of its markers is critical. The proposed approach relies on using domain-specific knowledge, in the form of visual characteristics of the cells, to define the markers. We evaluate our approach on a total of 1,954 cells. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach, which uses the proposed definition of smart markers, is quite effective in identifying better markers compared to its counterparts. This will, in turn, be effective in improving the segmentation performance of a marker-controlled watershed algorithm.

  10. Smart markers for watershed-based cell segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Fahrettin Koyuncu

    Full Text Available Automated cell imaging systems facilitate fast and reliable analysis of biological events at the cellular level. In these systems, the first step is usually cell segmentation that greatly affects the success of the subsequent system steps. On the other hand, similar to other image segmentation problems, cell segmentation is an ill-posed problem that typically necessitates the use of domain-specific knowledge to obtain successful segmentations even by human subjects. The approaches that can incorporate this knowledge into their segmentation algorithms have potential to greatly improve segmentation results. In this work, we propose a new approach for the effective segmentation of live cells from phase contrast microscopy. This approach introduces a new set of "smart markers" for a marker-controlled watershed algorithm, for which the identification of its markers is critical. The proposed approach relies on using domain-specific knowledge, in the form of visual characteristics of the cells, to define the markers. We evaluate our approach on a total of 1,954 cells. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach, which uses the proposed definition of smart markers, is quite effective in identifying better markers compared to its counterparts. This will, in turn, be effective in improving the segmentation performance of a marker-controlled watershed algorithm.

  11. Genetic markers for schizophrenic subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, V

    1982-01-01

    By the study of hereditary serum protein markers in psychotic patients and normal controls, a surplus of Gc 1-1 (p less than 0.01) and transferrin B variants (p less than 0.0027) has been established in schizophrenias. Affective psychoses are characterized by an excess of the haptoglobin (Hp) serum type 2-2 (p less than 0.001). These general statements have to be modified in regard to the clinical and psychopathological subdivision beyond the traditional classification into two major groups of endogenous mental disease. Using Leonhard's criteria, the prevalence of Gc 1-1 is restricted to the systematic schizophrenias reaching its highest value in hebephrenias, which are followed by paraphrenic and catatonic forms in this trait. In contrast to this, periodical catatonia and affective paraphrenia, classified as subgroups of the unsystematic schizophrenias, have Gc 1-1 frequencies like healthy controls. On the other hand, the Hp 2-2 value is not increased in the systematic schizophrenias, but it displays a relative overplus in the unsystematic forms. Concerning the Hp 2-2 and Gc 1-1 frequencies a certain similarity can be observed between affective paraphrenia and the paranoid psychoses with late onset, it they are characterized by a cyclic axis syndrome as described by the Vienna school. The cycloid psychoses are marked by an extreme surplus of Hp 2-2 (p less than 0.001) and an overweight of Gc 1-1 (p less than 0.05). Probably the Gc and Hp alleles play a role as risk factors or accidental effectors in the multifactorial genetic systems responsible for the biological background of psychoses. For both serum systems a selective interaction is discussed considering the vitamin D transport by the Gc proteins with the relation to neuronal consolidation and the possible influence of Hp 2-2 on transport and receptor functions.

  12. Molecular marker applications in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alice C; Tollenaere, Reece; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Individuals within a population of a sexually reproducing species will have some degree of heritable genomic variation caused by mutations, insertion/deletions (INDELS), inversions, duplications, and translocations. Such variation can be detected and screened using molecular, or genetic, markers. By definition, molecular markers are genetic loci that can be easily tracked and quantified in a population and may be associated with a particular gene or trait of interest. This chapter will review the current major applications of molecular markers in plants.

  13. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  14. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  15. Urinary markers in bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrooman, O.P.; Witjes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many markers for the detection of bladder cancers have been tested. Almost all urinary markers reported are better than cytology with regard to sensitivity, but they score lower in specificity. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most important urinary biomarkers studied and

  16. [Support in living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, H

    1993-06-01

    "Lebenshilfe" (help in living) is of crucial importance for the organization of live of persons with a handicap. This help in living, training and social integration, however, requires an image of the handicapped person that unrestrictedly recognizes her right to live and to be a human being with a handicap. But todays hedonistic and preference-utilitarian social trends make other, selecting value judgements. This article comments on these dubious ethical positions critically and develops a paradigmatic, positive point of view. This statement is partly based on the principles of 2 self-help organizations of the same name ("Lebenshilfe für geistig Behinderte") in Germany and in Austria.

  17. Living with Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HFI Summits Newsletter Our Stories Calendar of Events Advertise RESOURCES Health Savings Card Links Webinars YOUR LIVER Overview Adults Children & Adolescents Nutrition & Health Lifestyle RESEARCH DVDs Overview Live- ...

  18. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home ...

  19. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke- ...

  20. Markers of renal function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj Gowda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  1. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manetto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (biomolecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.

  2. The governmentalization of living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rose, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    and scales (e.g. the QALY and DALY) has contributed to a governmentalization of living, in the course of which the social and personal consequences of living with disease come to be an object of political concern, and made knowable, calculable and thereby amenable to various strategies of intervention. We...

  3. Animals that Live Longest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶扬志

    2000-01-01

    Reptiles(爬行类) are animals that live longest. The turtle's(海龟)long life is legendary(传奇的), no one has ever been able to calculate the exact age of the turtle, and for good reason, tortoises live a lot longer than humans do.

  4. Living Willow Huts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  5. Living with Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home / Living with Parkinson’s Living with Parkinson’s “Parkinson’s is a part of my life, but ... Tips from the Health Care Team Finding Resources Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want ...

  6. Probably safe or live

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a formal characterisation of safety and liveness properties for fully probabilistic systems. As for the classical setting, it is established that any (probabilistic tree) property is equivalent to a conjunction of a safety and liveness property. A simple algorithm is provided to

  7. Our Urban Living Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    the boundaries between private and public space become fluid. Based on specific Cobe projects, Our Urban Living Room tells stories about the architectural development of Copenhagen, while exploring the progression of the Danish Capital - from an industrial city into an urban living room, known as one...

  8. Living the Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, John; Warring, Anette Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines experiments in communal living in Britain and Denmark in the early 1970s, using life-story interviews from seventeen members of two British and two Danish communes. It examines communal living as a fusion of radical political principles with the practice of experimental coll...

  9. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide a q...

  10. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  11. PALM and STORM: unlocking live-cell super-resolution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henriques, R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Live-cell fluorescence light microscopy has emerged as an important tool in the study of cellular biology. The development of fluorescent markers in parallel with super-resolution imaging systems has pushed light microscopy into the realm...

  12. Raman microscopy of individual living human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the distribution of different biomolecules in living human embryonic stem cells grown on glass substrates, without the need for fluorescent markers. In our work we improve the quality of measurements by finding a buffer that gives low fluorescence, growing...

  13. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction.

  14. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The i...

  15. Interventions in everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2015-01-01

    clients change their everyday lives to overcome their troubles. They also highlight what it involves for clients to accomplish this. It is concluded that we need more research on how to understand intervention; on the interaction between interventions and clients’ conduct of their everyday life......The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so...

  16. Digital Living at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    Does living with digital technology inevitably lead to digital living? Users talking about a digital home control system, they have had in their homes for eight years, indicate that there is more to living with digital technology than a functional-operational grip on regulation. Our analysis...... of these user voices has directed us towards a ‘home-keeping’ design discourse, which opens new horizons for design of digital home control systems by allowing users to perform as self-determined controllers and groomers of their habitat. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of a ‘home...

  17. Living with Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoni, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores what living together can offer in rethinking political theory and in creating a space in which "politics" is not just a matter between people, but also with nature. These lessons about living together emerge from fieldwork around practices in which worms are central. Thus......, the work focuses on ecologists who, in turn, examine worms; and worms amateurs who learn to collect and identify them in the field. Composting, and the waste-eating of earthworms are also experimented with. The "living together " that worms unearth is about eating and being eaten - a set of relations...

  18. Living with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Kirsten Tarri

    2004-01-01

    Living with psoriasis is a considerable burden and quality of life in patients is deeply affected, yet compliance with therapy is a major problem. The literature is abundant in quantitative studies stating the incidence of decrease in quality of life and related, measurable terms, and in efforts...... of energy. They described their lives as a tightrope walking of taking into account the disease yet having a life worth living. The personal significance of the disease showed to be the most important factor in respect to the patients’ deliberations and actions regarding treatment and care. The patients...

  19. Genetically modified plants in practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Říhová, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    Genetic engineering (GI) of plants is a very current topic, and more and more controversial, since it is becoming an inseparable part of our lives. GI has, among other things, a great potential to help solve the current problem of hunger and malnutrition in certain parts of the world. The goal of this project is to clarify what genetically modified (GM) plants are, to present the possibilities of their practical use, to explain methods of preparation and to consider their advantages and event...

  20. NABIC marker database: A molecular markers information network of agricultural crops

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) reconstructs a molecular marker database for useful genetic resources. The web-based marker database consists of three major functional categories: map viewer, RSN marker and gene annotation. It provides 7250 marker locations, 3301 RSN marker property, 3280 molecular marker annotation information in agricultural plants. The individual molecular marker provides information such as marker name, expressed sequence tag number...

  1. POLYCAPROLACTAM MODIFIED BY POLYPHENYLQUINOXALINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guisheng; LU Fengcai

    1990-01-01

    Three polycaprolactam samples modified by 0.05- 0.50% polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by weight were prepared. Their structure and mechanical properties were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, density, tensile,impact,DTA and visco-elastic method. PPQ induced the formation of "crystal grains" distributed evenly over nylon spherulites in modified samples, which were observed for the first time, and strengthened modified samples. Modified nylons had higher crystallinities, higher Tg ,more nearly perfect spherulites than MC nylon itself, and showed typical reinforcing effect on mechanical properties.

  2. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  3. Elimination of Marker Genes from Transformed Filamentous Fungi by Unselected Transient Transfection with a Cre-expressing Plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A convenient method to remove selectable markers from fungal transformants permits the markers to be used for sequential transformations, and should also reduce public concerns and regulatory impediments to applications involving environmental release of genetically modified fungi. We report a metho...

  4. Optical Tracking With Two Markers for Robust Prospective Motion Correction for Brain Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Zahneisen, Benjamin; Keating, Brian; Herbst, Michael; Chang, Linda; Zaitsev, Maxim; Ernst, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Object Prospective motion correction (PMC) during brain imaging using camera-based tracking of a skin-attached marker may suffer from problems including loss of marker visibility due to the coil and false correction due to non-rigid-body facial motion, such as frowning or squinting. A modified PMC system is introduced to mitigate these problems and increase the robustness of motion correction. Materials and Methods The method relies on simultaneously tracking two markers, each providing six degrees of freedom, that are placed on the forehead. This allows us to track head motion when one marker is obscured, and detect skin movements to prevent false corrections. Experiments were performed to compare the performance of the two-marker motion correction technique to the previous single-marker approach. Results Experiments validate the theory developed for adaptive marker tracking and skin movement detection, and demonstrate improved image quality during obstruction of the line-of-sight of one marker, when subjects squint, or when subjects squint and move simultaneously. Conclusion The proposed methods eliminate two common failure modes of PMC and substantially improve the robustness of PMC and can be applied to other optical tracking systems capable of tracking multiple markers. The methods presented can be adapted to the use of more than two markers. PMID:26121941

  5. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...... of the essays fails to recognise problems of sport-biography. Indeed, several focus explicitly on exemplifications of these problems and as such the book raises important questions for writing in a variety of sporting and educational disciplines....

  6. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand ... High resolution [22.9 MB] Open Captioned [14.5 MB] Request a higher resolution file Copy the ...

  8. Healthy Living after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... look to maintain health and wellness. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home ... To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health Ebola and Contact Tracing Global Disease Detectives in ... Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke- ...

  11. Living with Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Is At Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Transfusion Heart Failure Thalassemias Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke-free Multiunit Housing ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Division of News and Electronic Media Email Recommend ...

  13. Living with Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Atherosclerosis Improved treatments have reduced the number of deaths ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  14. Living with Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  15. Living With Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Lupus Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Lupus July 2014 Living With Lupus: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family ... If You Have Lupus? Symptom Checklist What Is Lupus? Lupus is an autoimmune (AW-toe-ih-MYOON) ...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A Grocery Store’s Healthy Options A Plate Full ... 4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza Influenza (:30) ...

  17. Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living There are many ways to maintain a good quality of life Make Text Smaller Make Text Larger You are ... these changes, there are ways to maintain a good quality of life. Review the tips on these pages to learn ...

  18. Living with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Failure Currently, heart failure has no cure. You'll ... avoid harmful side effects. Take Steps To Prevent Heart Failure From Getting Worse Certain actions can worsen your ...

  19. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Corner Stores Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA Hidden Sodium Salt Matters Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health ( ... Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA Hidden Sodium Hidden Sodium Me? Have a baby? Preconception Health ...

  20. Living with Fanconi Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... November 1, 2011 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG ...

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza Influenza (: ... 2010 Source: Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI) Other versions: Spanish (5:10) Healthy Living Featured Videos Fight Germs. ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center (EOC) 101 Emergency Operations Center CDC Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  3. Living Better with Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Living Better with Osteoarthritis Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents What Is Osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. ...

  4. Living with others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabiliute, Emilija

    Living with Others’ is an ethnographic study of everyday lives and health-seeking practices among urban poor living in a settlement in the margins of Delhi, India.By exploring subjectivities, lived experiences of poverty, and relations through a prism ofhealth, the inquiry aims to move beyond...... the explorations of precarity embedded in political economies and urban governance that dominate discussions on urban poor neighbourhoods in India.Empirically, the study draws on long-term ethnographic fieldwork and interviews among urban poor,mostly women;and formal and informal health practitioners, abundant...... community belonging and relatedness among neighbours and families.Concurrently, the study showshowthe knowledge of relatedness informsgovernmental health interventionswhichproblematizefamilial relations through evaluations of care in the families amidst poverty; and which functioned to sustain familial...

  5. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza Influenza (: ... 2010 Source: Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI) Other versions: Spanish (5:10) Healthy Living Featured Videos Fight Germs. ...

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tricky Treats Hygiene Fight Germs. Wash Your Hands! Go with the Flow Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Wash ... Wes Studi: Signs (:30) Traveler’s Health Way to Go Way to Go: Many Healthy Returns (4:00) ...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lives shows how patients can play an active role in reminding healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene ... Director for Communication, Division of News and Electronic Media Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ...

  9. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frausing, Kristian Park

    2014-01-01

    Background: Even in the Danish welfare state inequality in health proves hard to overcome. According to the literature elderly men living alone seem to be a vulnerable group in several respects: they lead shorter lives; are at increased risk of committing suicide; and some are found to have....... 1. An electronic survey is distributed nationwide to municipal preventive home visitors in order to obtain information about their views on the men’s particular needs and the suitability of current health care services. 2. A group of elderly men living alone is interviewed about their own opinions...... and views on the matters. Results: It is expected that the study will contribute to a nuanced basis of knowledge for the public health care services for elderly men living alone. Also importantly, we wish to focus health care professionals’ attention to the question of realistic and meaningful goals...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke-free Multiunit ... The Story of Folic Acid Fortification Through the Eyes of the Eagle Wes Studi: Don’t Get ...

  11. Administration for Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grantees About ACL Organization Why Community Living? Authorizing Statutes Budget Mandatory Grant Allocations Strategic Plan Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Home FEATURES #InclusionWorks IL Final Rule Get ACL ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home Smoke-free Multiunit Housing ... Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  13. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition Most people are surprised to learn that the ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  14. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...... dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...

  15. Living with your ileostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may need to wear bigger clothes. Going Back to Work and Day-to-Day Life Your ... a tank top. Always empty your pouch before swimming. Alternative Names Standard ileostomy - living with; Brooke ileostomy - ...

  16. Living with VHL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effectively manage the VHL and lead full and productive lives. Early diagnosis, regularly surveillance, appropriate ... Sign Up VHLA Login Sitemap © 2017 by The VHL Alliance. All Rights Reserved. The VHL Alliance is a ...

  17. Imaging of mobile long-lived nanoplatforms in the live cell plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameshuber, Mario; Weghuber, Julian; Ruprecht, Verena; Gombos, Imre; Horváth, Ibolya; Vigh, László; Eckerstorfer, Paul; Kiss, Endre; Stockinger, Hannes; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2010-12-31

    The plasma membrane has been hypothesized to contain nanoscopic lipid platforms, which are discussed in the context of "lipid rafts" or "membrane rafts." Based on biochemical and cell biological studies, rafts are believed to play a crucial role in many signaling processes. However, there is currently not much information on their size, shape, stability, surface density, composition, and heterogeneity. We present here a method that allows for the first time the direct imaging of nanoscopic long-lived platforms with raft-like properties diffusing in the live cell plasma membrane. Our method senses these platforms by their property to assemble a characteristic set of fluorescent marker proteins or lipids on a time scale of seconds. A special photobleaching protocol was used to reduce the surface density of labeled mobile platforms down to the level of well isolated diffraction-limited spots without altering the single spot brightness. The statistical distribution of probe molecules per platform was determined by single molecule brightness analysis. For demonstration, we used the consensus raft marker glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored monomeric GFP and the fluorescent lipid analog BODIPY-G(M1), which preferentially partitions into liquid-ordered phases. For both markers, we found cholesterol-dependent homo-association in the plasma membrane of living CHO and Jurkat T cells in the resting state, thereby demonstrating the existence of small, mobile, long-lived platforms containing these probes. We further applied the technology to address structural changes in the plasma membrane during fever-type heat shock: at elevated temperatures, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored monomeric GFP homo-association disappeared, accompanied by an increase in the expression of the small heat shock protein Hsp27.

  18. Public Health needs modified strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rathi MBBS, M.Sc Epidemiology, Assistant Professor, Department Of Community Medicine, S. B. K. S. Medical Institute and Research Centre, Piparia, Vadodara - 391760, Gujarat, Email -rathisj@yahoo.com

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available is a fast changing field. In fact, the whole concept of diagnosing and treating a patient is modifying rapidly. Benchmarks of the medical progress are continually changing: infectious/communicable diseases ravaged mankind for centuries but the dramatic decline in infectious/communicable diseases, during mid 19th century due to improvements in sanitation, nutrition and general living conditions among affluent countries has changed the picture. But due to re-emergence of certain infectious/communicable diseases the World Health Report 1996 declared that infectious/communicable diseases have not only become the world's leading cause of premature death, but they also threaten to cripple social and economic development in developing countries1. And here we are living in the twenty-first century still bewildered and confused by infectious/communicable diseases despite the availability of vaccination, latest diagnostic facilities, chemotherapy and above all well-trained medical professionals. What makes the scenario particularly tragic is that most infectious/communicable diseases are easily treatable; the failure is operational one. .........

  19. Imaging markers for Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchetta, Martina; Chételat, Gael; Rabinovici, Gil D.; de Leon, Mony J.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Reiman, Eric M.; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Black, Sandra E.; Brooks, David J.; Carrillo, Maria C.; Fox, Nick C.; Herholz, Karl; Nordberg, Agneta; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Thies, William; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Weiner, Michael W.; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; DeCarli, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Revised diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD) acknowledge a key role of imaging biomarkers for early diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy depends on which marker (i.e., amyloid imaging, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG]-PET, SPECT, MRI) as well as how it is measured (“metric”: visual, manual, semiautomated, or automated segmentation/computation). We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of marker vs metric in separating AD from healthy and prognostic accuracy to predict progression in mild cognitive impairment. The outcome measure was positive (negative) likelihood ratio, LR+ (LR−), defined as the ratio between the probability of positive (negative) test outcome in patients and the probability of positive (negative) test outcome in healthy controls. Diagnostic LR+ of markers was between 4.4 and 9.4 and LR− between 0.25 and 0.08, whereas prognostic LR+ and LR− were between 1.7 and 7.5, and 0.50 and 0.11, respectively. Within metrics, LRs varied up to 100-fold: LR+ from approximately 1 to 100; LR− from approximately 1.00 to 0.01. Markers accounted for 11% and 18% of diagnostic and prognostic variance of LR+ and 16% and 24% of LR−. Across all markers, metrics accounted for an equal or larger amount of variance than markers: 13% and 62% of diagnostic and prognostic variance of LR+, and 29% and 18% of LR−. Within markers, the largest proportion of diagnostic LR+ and LR− variability was within 18F-FDG-PET and MRI metrics, respectively. Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of imaging AD biomarkers is at least as dependent on how the biomarker is measured as on the biomarker itself. Standard operating procedures are key to biomarker use in the clinical routine and drug trials. PMID:23897875

  20. Functional measures, inflammatory markers and endothelin-1 as predictors of 360-day survival in centenarians

    OpenAIRE

    Szewieczek, Jan; Francuz, Tomasz; Dulawa, Jan; Legierska, Katarzyna; Hornik, Beata; W?odarczyk, Iwona; Janusz-Jencze?, Magdalena; Batko-Szwaczka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Centenarians represent a rapidly growing population. To better characterize this specific age group, we have performed a cross-sectional study to observe associations between functional measures and a range of biochemical markers, including inflammatory markers and their significance as predictors of 360-day survival. Medical history and physical and functional assessment (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Katz Index (activities of daily living, ADL) and Barthel Index (Barthel Index) of A...

  1. Tumour markers in gastrointestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamerz, R.

    1988-02-01

    For non-endocrine gastrointestinal tumours the following tumour markers are of clinical interest: For esophageal cancer CEA (sensitivity, s: 40-60%) and SCC (squamous cell carcinoma antigen, x: 20-50%); for gastric cancer CEA (s: 30-40%) as well as CA 19-9 (s: 30-40%) because of complementary results (additive s: 50-60); for hepatocellular cancer AFP (first choice, s: 70-90%; second choice CA 19-9, s: 50-70%); for cholangiocellular cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%); for secondary liver cancer in general CEA; for biliary tract cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%) as well as for excretory pancreatic cancer (s: 70-90%); for colorectal cancer CEA (s: 40-70%) as a first choice marker, and CA 19-9 (s: 20-60%) as a second choice marker, and for anal cancer SCC. The frequency of tumour marker determinations depends on follow-up care recommendations for different tumour diseases (e.g. 1-3 monthly during the 1st and 2nd postoperative year, following chemotherapy courses, on change of therapy, on restaging and at unclear alteration of the clinical state). Tumour markers are only valuable adjuncts to the medical care of tumour patients and therefore useless as solitary findings or on missing therapeutic consequence.

  2. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a central histological feature of chronic liver diseases and is characterized by the accumulation and reorganization of the extracellular matrix. The gold standard for assessment of fibrosis is histological evaluation of a percutaneous liver biopsy. Albeit a considerable......-epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  3. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  4. DNA damage markers in dermal fibroblasts in vitro reflect chronological donor age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Croco, Eleonora; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-01-01

    The aging process is accompanied by an accumulation of cellular damage, which compromises the viability and function of cells and tissues. We aim to further explore the association between in vitro DNA damage markers and the chronological age of the donor, as well as long-lived family membership...... markers and long-lived family membership or cardiovascular disease. Results were comparable when fibroblasts were stressed in vitro with rotenone. In conclusion, we found that DNA damage foci of cultured fibroblasts are significantly associated with the chronological age, but not biological age...

  5. Phosphine modified cobalt hydroformylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensburg, H. van; Tooze, R.P.; Foster, D.F. [Sasol Technology UK, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Janse van Rensburg, W. [Sasol Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    An ongoing challenge in phosphine modified cobalt hydroformylation is the fundamental understanding of the electronic and steric properties of phosphine ligands that influence the selectivity and activity of the catalytic reaction. A series of acyclic and cyclic phosphines have been prepared and tested in phosphine modified cobalt hydroformylation of 1-octene. Molecular modelling on a series of phospholanes showed some interesting theoretical and experimental correlations. We also evaluated the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as an alternative for phosphines in modified cobalt hydroformylation. (orig.)

  6. Modifying toxicokinetics with antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, F J; Borron, S W; Bismuth, C

    1995-12-01

    Five approaches may be described through which antidotes can modify toxicokinetics: (1) Decreased bioavailability of the toxins; (2) Cellular redistribution of the toxin in the organism; (3) Promotion of elimination in an unchanged form; (4) Slowing of metabolic activation pathways; (5) Acceleration of metabolic deactivation pathways. However, the ability to modify toxicokinetics with a new treatment, while demonstrating an understanding of the mechanism of action, must never be construed to be, in and of itself, the goal of therapy. The ultimate evaluation of an antidote modifying toxicokinetics is strictly clinical.

  7. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard

    2014-01-01

    that is far from the middle class view of the health care professionals. Methods: The purpose of the study, carried out throughout 2014 and 2015, is to produce knowledge about singular elderly men’s needs, everyday lives and ideas about health, masculinity, and a good aging process. The study is in two phases......Background: Even in the Danish welfare state inequality in health proves hard to overcome. According to the literature elderly men living alone seem to be a vulnerable group in several respects: they lead shorter lives; are at increased risk of committing suicide; and some are found to have...... and quality of life requires complex action, especially for those in socially marginalized positions whose ways of and attitudes towards life have been thoroughly established, and it raises the interesting question of whether a scarcity of resources leads to a certain notions of health and the good life...

  8. Suitability of non-lethal marker and marker-free systems for development of transgenic crop plants: present status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, P; Ramkumar, G; Sakthivel, K; Sundaram, R M; Madhav, M S; Balachandran, S M

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified crops are one of the prudent options for enhancing the production and productivity of crop plants by safeguarding from the losses due to biotic and abiotic stresses. Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods are used to develop transgenic crop plants in which selectable marker genes (SMG) are generally deployed to identify 'true' transformants. The commonly used SMG obtained from prokaryotic sources when employed in transgenic plants pose risks due to their lethal nature during selection process. In the recent past, some non-lethal SMGs have been identified and used for selection of transformants with increased precision and high selection efficiency. Considering the concerns related to bio-safety of the environment, it is desirable to remove the SMG in order to maximize the commercial success through wide adoption and public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food crops. In this review, we examine the availability, and the suitability of wide range of non-lethal selection markers and elimination of SMG methods to develop marker-free transgenics for achieving global food security. As the strategies for marker-free plants are still in proof-of-concept stage, adaptation of new genomics tools for identification of novel non-lethal marker systems and its application for developing marker-free transgenics would further strengthen the crop improvement program.

  9. Specific gut microbiota features and metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Le Chatelier, E; Prifti, E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gut microbial gene richness and specific bacterial species are associated with metabolic risk markers in humans, but the impact of host physiology and dietary habits on the link between the gut microbiota and metabolic markers remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify...... gut metagenomic markers associated with estimates of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and inflammation in obesity, and to explore whether the associations between metagenomic and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for body fat, age and habitual dietary intake. METHODS: Faecal DNA from 53......; however, the negative correlation with insulin resistance observed for B. longum and F. prausnitzii appeared to be modified by the intake of dietary fibre and fat, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that several gut bacterial species are linked to metabolic risk markers in obesity, also after...

  10. Ischaemic Markers in Acute Hepatic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Sushanta Kumar; Nanda, Rachita; Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nayak, Parsuram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatic injury of varied aetiology may progress to Acute Liver Failure (ALF). Compromised microcirculation is thought to be a deciding factor of hepatic hypoxia may be involved in disease progression that needs early detection. Ischaemia markers like serum Ischaemia- modified albumin (IMA), ALT-LDH ratio and ALT-LDH index have been suggested for its detection at early stage. Aim To find out the association of Ischaemia markers like serum IMA, ALT-LDH ratio and ALT-LDH index in acute hepatic injury cases. Materials and Methods Forty one diagnosed acute liver injury cases of varied aetiology admitted in Department of Medicine, and Gastroenterology of SCB Medical College, Cuttack were enrolled in the study along with 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Blood collected at time of admission and at time of discharge (1st day and 7th day) were evaluated for FPG, RFT, LFT, Serum Albumin along with serum LDH, IMA, PT-INR and platelet count. Result Serum bilirubin, hepatic enzymes, IMA, PT-INR was more markedly raised in cases than controls on the 1st day of admission. ALT-LDH ratio and index were significantly low in complicated cases. However, on responding to treatment the ALT-LDH index on 7th day registered a rise in comparison to the 1st day, while serum IMA revealed an insignificant decline showing improvement in hepatic hypoxia. ALT-LDH ratio remains more or less same on response to treatment. Conclusion Serum IMA and ALT-LDH Index reveals association with disease process in Acute Hepatic Injury cases both clinically and biochemically and can be used as supportive parameters for the diagnosis of disease process. PMID:27190791

  11. POLYCAPROLACTAM MODIFIED BY POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guisheng; LU Fengcai

    1990-01-01

    Three polycaprolactam samples modified by 0.05 - 0.50% polybenzimidazole (PBI) by weight were prepared. Their structure and mechanical properties were characterized by means of FT- IR, SEM, DTA,density tensile,impact and viscoelastic method. PBI delayed the superimposed polymerization-crystallization process of the activated anionic polymerization of caprolactam. The monomer casting (MC) nylons modified by PBI had lower crystallinities,lower Tg and more nearly perfect spherulites than MCnylon itself, and showed a typical toughening effect.

  12. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  13. Material Culture As Cosmological Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriades, G.

    2009-08-01

    The present paper aims to spot out which kind of cosmological markers could be detect by the study of material culture. Ground for such cognitive approach is the ``comet'' pattern impressed on a Neolithic north Italian ceramic (Valcamonica, Italy) and its correlation with a ``comet'' rock-art configuration from the same geographical area.

  14. Literature Review of Discourse Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕴萱; 王孝伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to supplying theoretical foundation for discourse markers(DMs),introducing the relevant definitions as well as the previous classifications of DMs.The functions of discourse markers are also added so as to provide a deep insight into

  15. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  16. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; Giordano,L.G.P.; Flaiban,K.K.M.C.; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  17. Molecular markers in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed A; James, Nicholas D

    2005-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the malignancies for which extensive information regarding molecular pathogenesis and genetic predictors of natural history as well as response to various modalities of treatment based on molecular profile is available. As more prognostic markers are being investigated in clinical trial settings, in the not very distant future we will be able to use these predictive markers in clinical decision-making. Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary tumor and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. A need for tumor markers that can be incorporated into clinical practice to add prognostic information and to refine the conventional TNM and grading systems in terms of treatment response and prognosis is crucial. Intravesical and systemic chemotherapy in bladder cancer are limited in their efficacy in the treatment of bladder cancer patients primarily when they are unable to induce apoptosis in bladder tumor cells. Understanding the apoptotic signals and the cascade of reactions that give pro-survival signals will go a long way in refining the treatments and will help in the future to individualize cancer therapies. It is imperative to study the role of these mechanisms in prospective clinical trials in a quest to find predictive markers that can help to tailor treatments, keeping in view the molecular heterogeneity.

  18. Molecular markers for granulovacuolar degeneration are present in rimmed vacuoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakamori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rimmed vacuoles (RVs are round-oval cytoplasmic inclusions, detected in muscle cells of patients with myopathies, such as inclusion body myositis (IBM and distal myopathy with RVs (DMRV. Granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD bodies are spherical vacuoles containing argentophilic and hematoxyphilic granules, and are one of the pathological hallmarks commonly found in hippocampal pyramidal neurons of patients with aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These diseases are common in the elderly and share some pathological features. Therefore, we hypothesized that mechanisms of vacuolar formation in RVs and GVD bodies are common despite their role in two differing pathologies. We explored the components of RVs by immunohistochemistry, using antibodies for GVD markers. METHODS: Subjects included one AD case, eight cases of sporadic IBM, and three cases of DMRV. We compared immunoreactivity and staining patterns for GVD markers. These markers included: (1 tau-modifying proteins (caspase 3, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 [CDK5], casein kinase 1δ [CK1δ], and c-jun N-terminal kinase [JNK], (2 lipid raft-associated materials (annexin 2, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 [LRRK2], and flotillin-1, and (3 other markers (charged multi-vesicular body protein 2B [CHMP2B] and phosphorylated transactive response DNA binding protein-43 [pTDP43] in both GVD bodies and RVs. Furthermore, we performed double staining of each GVD marker with pTDP43 to verify the co-localization. RESULTS: GVD markers, including lipid raft-associated proteins and tau kinases, were detected in RVs. CHMP2B, pTDP43, caspase 3, LRRK2, annexin 2 and flotillin-1 were detected on the rim and were diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of RV-positive fibers. CDK5, CK1δ and JNK were detected only on the rim. In double staining experiments, all GVD markers colocalized with pTDP43 in RVs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that RVs of muscle

  19. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a husband or wife. What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the ... Not have a selfish motive for donating. Paid donation is illegal in the ... leave for being organ donors. Other employers have similar programs, so check ...

  20. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  1. A "Living" Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Bogatyrev

    2004-01-01

    Biomimetics (or bionics) is the engineering discipline that constructs artificial systems using biological principles. The ideal final result in biomimetics is to create a living machine. But what are the desirable and non-desirable properties of biomimetic product? Where can natural prototypes be found? How can technical solutions be transferred from nature to technology? Can we use living nature like LEGO bricks for construction our machines? How can biology help us? What is a living machine? In biomimetic practice only some "part" (organ, part of organ, tissue) of the observed whole organism is utilized. A possible template for future super-organism extension for biomimetic methods might be drawn from experiments in holistic ecological agriculture (ecological design, permaculture, ecological engineering, etc. ). The necessary translation of these rules to practical action can be achieved with the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), specifically adjusted to biology. Thus, permaculture, reinforced by a TRIZ conceptual framework, might provide the basis for Super-Organismic Bionics, which is hypothesized as necessary for effective ecological engineering. This hypothesis is supported by a case study-the design of a sustainable artificial nature reserve for wild pollinators as a living machine.

  2. Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC-TV videos cover a variety of health, safety and preparedness topics and include closed-captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  4. Cave Dwellers’ Lives Improved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    IN the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi. there are many gullies but little rain, which has deeply affected the growth of crops there. People have been living under hard conditions for generations until very recently. The State government has encouraged rural economic policies which has enabled the people of this area to develop a diversified economy that has greatly improved life.

  5. Tips for Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Group Register Your Group Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Food for Thought: Heart-healthy Diet is Also Good For Your Brain Cooking for Health Physical Activity Get Moving ... Blood Pressure and Stroke When the Beat is Off - Atrial Fibrillation Converging ...

  6. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...

  7. Learning from Live Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  8. Arts-of-living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe term 'art-of-living' refers to capabilities for leading a good life. Since there are different views on what a good life is, there could also be a difference in the capabilities called for. In this paper I distinguish two main views on the good life: the 'virtuous' life and the

  9. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  10. Living with Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart disease (CHD), you can take steps to control its ... the section of this article titled "How Is Heart Disease Treated?" You also can visit the Health Topics ...

  11. Living with Rh Incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Rh Incompatibility If you have Rh-negative blood, injections of Rh immune globulin can reduce your ... baby or come in contact with Rh-positive blood. If you're Rh-negative, your risk of problems from Rh incompatibility is ...

  12. Readiness for Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peronard, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a comparative analysis between workers in healthcare with high and low degree of readiness for living technology such as robotics. To explore the differences among workers’ readiness for robotics in healthcare, statistical analysis was conducted in the data set obtained from 200...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A Grocery Store’s Healthy Options A Plate Full ...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health (4:30) Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health (2:00) Tricky Treats Hygiene Fight Germs. Wash Your Hands! Go with the Flow Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Wash Your Hands Physical Activity Knees Lifted High Making Health Easier: Active ...

  15. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  16. Moab's Living Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a…

  17. Living with dams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.F. Saeijs (Henk); K.D. Schuijt (Kirsten)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractDams have proven their usefulness in preventing and mitigating floods, and water scarcity and generating electricity. They are indispensable in present society. But at the same time, they cause serious ecological, social and economical problems. Consequently we have to live with a dams

  18. The governmentalization of living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rose, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    of the twentieth century. As is well known, the compilation and tabulation of vital statistics – death-rates, birth-rates, morbidity rates – contributed to the birth of the ‘population’ in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The population is reformatted from the middle of the twentieth century by ‘modified...

  19. ``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

  20. Development of novel chloroplast microsatellite markers for Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Xu, L A; Cao, F L; Zhang, H J; Yu, F X

    2015-07-13

    Ginkgo biloba is considered to be a living fossil that can be used to understand the ancient evolutionary history of gymnosperms, but little attention has been given to the study of its population genetics, molecular phylogeography, and genetic resources assessment. Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers are powerful tools for genetic studies of plants. In this study, a total of 30 perfect cpSSRs of Ginkgo were identified and characterized, including di-, tri, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide repeats. Fifteen of 21 designed primer pairs were successfully amplified to yield specific polymerase chain reaction products from 16 Ginkgo cultivars. Polymorphic cpSSRs were further applied to determine the genetic variation of 116 individuals in 5 populations of G. biloba. The results showed that 24 and 76% genetic variation existed within and among populations of this species, respectively. These polymorphic and monomorphic cpSSR markers can be used to trace the origin and evolutionary history of Ginkgo.

  1. System architecture for ubiquitous live video streaming in university network environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available an architecture which supports ubiquitous live streaming for university or campus networks using a modified bluetooth inquiry mechanism with extended ID, integrated end-user device usage and adaptation to heterogeneous networks. Riding on that architecture...

  2. Living in history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Lee, Peter J.; Krslak, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til samtidsbegi......Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til...

  3. Live feeds in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, Ph.; Sorgeloos, P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two decades intensive larviculture of several fish and shellfish species has expanded into a multimillion dollar industry. Although much progress has been made in identifying the dietary requirements of the larvae of various aquaculture species, the mass culture of their early larval stages still requires the use of live feeds. Selected either through trial and error approaches or because of their convenience in mass production and use, hatcheries are relying today on three grou...

  4. Improving assisted living care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Nancy; Gesell, Sabina B; Widmer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a national measurement system, private vendors of satisfaction measurement and improvement services have played a crucial role in the quality movement in the assisted living industry. Survey responses from 175 resident-family dyads at 20 facilities were analyzed to identify priorities for service improvement from the customers' perspective. They include improving care provided by aides and management, meal service, and activities. Practical solutions for addressing these issues are presented.

  5. Learning, Working and Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke

    In the recent years, learning and knowing have emerged as key issues in understanding work organizations. Identifying ways in which learning can be supported in the workplace has been a long standing concern for organization studies and education. The book presents new ways of thinking about...... learning at work. Moreover it paves the way for the repositioning of learning, working and living in the context of organizationel complexity....

  6. Living the (codesign) lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim;

    2011-01-01

    Design research environments are becoming visible in many places, in universities, in design schools, in companies and in public organizations. What most of them have in common is a commitment to the exploration of the possible rather than the factual. In this paper we will discuss what define su...... that the laboratories of design research must have a consistent portfolio yet design researchers still have to mobilize and join forces with the many “living labs” of the everyday....

  7. Infrared-modified Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Federico

    2012-01-01

    We consider a Hubble expansion law modified in the infra-red by distance-dependent terms, and attempt to enforce homogeneity upon it. As a warm-up, we re-derive the basic kinematics of a Friedman Robertson Walker universe without using standard general relativistic tools: we describe the expansion with a `Hubble velocity field' rather than with a four dimensional metric. Then we extend this analysis to the modified Hubble expansion and impose a transformation for velocities that makes it identical for all comoving observers, and therefore homogeneous. We derive the modified equation for light ray trajectories and other geometrical properties that are incompatible with the general relativistic description. We speculate that this extended framework could help addressing cosmological problems which are normally explained with accelerating expansions.

  8. Carbohydrate markers of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer in the world and the sixth in Europe. Pancreatic cancer is more frequent in males than females. Worldwide, following diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, <2% of patients survive for 5 years, 8% survive for 2 years and <50% survive for only approx. 3 months. The biggest risk factor in pancreatic cancer is age, with a peak of morbidity at 65 years. Difficulty in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer causes a delay in its detection. It is one of the most difficult cancers to diagnose and therefore to treat successfully. Additional detection of carbohydrate markers may offer a better diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Carbohydrate markers of cancer may be produced by the cancer itself or by the body in response to cancer, whose presence in body fluids suggests the presence and growth of the cancer. The most widely used, and best-recognized, carbohydrate marker of pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9 [CA (carbohydrate antigen) 19-9]. However, the relatively non-specific nature of CA 19-9 limits its routine use in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but it may be useful in monitoring treatment of pancreatic cancer (e.g. the effectiveness of chemotherapy), as a complement to other diagnostic methods. Some other carbohydrate markers of pancreatic cancer may be considered, such as CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), CA 50 and CA 242, and the mucins MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5AC, but enzymes involved in the processing of glycoconjugates could also be involved. Our preliminary research shows that the activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases, including HEX (N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase), GAL (β-D-galactosidase), FUC (α-L-fucosidase) and MAN (α-D-mannosidase), in serum and urine may be used in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  9. Tip-modified Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with tip-modified propellers and the methods which, over a period of two decades, have been applied to develop such propellers. The development is driven by the urge to increase the efficiency of propellers and can be seen as analogous to fitting end plates and winglets to aircraft...... wings. The literature on four different designs is reviewed: the end-plate propeller; the two-sided, shifted end-plate propeller; the tip-fin propeller; and the bladelet propeller. The conclusion is that it is indeed possible to design tip-modified propellers that, relative to an optimum conventional...

  10. Serotonin, neural markers and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals’ species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence

  11. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence.

  12. Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasel Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.

  13. Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Antonio; Alzate, Juan Fernando; Macleod, Ewan Thomas; Lüder, Carsten Günter Kurt; Fasel, Nicolas; Hurd, Hilary

    2010-11-09

    The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms.In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.

  14. Imaging with second-harmonic radiation probes in living tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Rachel; Lanvin, Thomas; Hsieh, Chia-Lung; Pu, Ye; Psaltis, Demetri

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate that second-harmonic radiation imaging probes are efficient biomarkers for imaging in living tissue. We show that 100 nm and 300 nm BaTiO(3) nanoparticles used as contrast markers could be detected through 50 μm and 120 μm of mouse tail tissue in vitro or in vivo. Experimental results and Monte-Carlo simulations are in good agreement.

  15. Imaging with second-harmonic radiation probes in living tissue

    OpenAIRE

    GRANGE, Rachel; Lanvin, Thomas; Hsieh, Chia-Lung; Pu, Ye; Psaltis, Demetri

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that second-harmonic radiation imaging probes are efficient biomarkers for imaging in living tissue. We show that 100 nm and 300 nm BaTiO_3 nanoparticles used as contrast markers could be detected through 50 μm and 120 μm of mouse tail tissue in vitro or in vivo. Experimental results and Monte-Carlo simulations are in good agreement.

  16. Measurement of arterial wall thickness as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, E; Hovingh, GK; Wiegman, A; Duriez, P; Smit, AJ; Fruchart, JC; Kastelein, JJP

    2004-01-01

    Large observational studies and atherosclerosis regression trials of lipid-modifying pharmacotherapy have established that intima-media thickness of the carotid and femoral arteries, as measured noninvasively by B-mode ultrasound, is a valid surrogate marker for the progression of atherosclerotic di

  17. Vocatives and discourse markers in textualinteractive grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Penhavel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the class of Vocatives and the class of Discourse Markers as proposed within Textualinteractive Grammar, and we try to demonstrate that Vocatives can work as Discourse Markers.

  18. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies.

  19. Magnetic nanoparticles as markers for cellular MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2005-03-01

    Cellular MR imaging is a rapidly growing field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, that induce a hypointense contrast on the MR images, have now widely been used to mark cells in vitro and in vivo. Following intravenous injection, the particles are rapidly taken up by phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system, and imaging of this "macrophage activity" has been translated into the clinic for tumor staging of the liver and lymph nodes. A new, still experimental application of magnetic particles as cellular markers is its use to monitor cell migration and cell trafficking following labeling and transfer to living organisms. Further exploitation of this technique will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of in vivo cell biology as well as translation into the clinic to monitor (stem) cell-based therapies.

  20. Magnetic nanoparticles as markers for cellular MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulte, Jeff W.M. [Department of Radiology and Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 217 Traylor, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)]. E-mail: jwmbulte@mri.jhu.edu

    2005-03-15

    Cellular MR imaging is a rapidly growing field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, that induce a hypointense contrast on the MR images, have now widely been used to mark cells in vitro and in vivo. Following intravenous injection, the particles are rapidly taken up by phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system, and imaging of this 'macrophage activity' has been translated into the clinic for tumor staging of the liver and lymph nodes. A new, still experimental application of magnetic particles as cellular markers is its use to monitor cell migration and cell trafficking following labeling and transfer to living organisms. Further exploitation of this technique will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of in vivo cell biology as well as translation into the clinic to monitor (stem) cell-based therapies.

  1. Preliminary Research on Discourse Markers and Politeness in the Spanish of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Constanza Gómez Ríos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study determines the dynamics of the discourse markers and politeness in sociolinguistic interviews among Spanish speakers living in the Chicago area. The analysis is based on theories of social relations and politeness strategies (Brown and Levinson, 1987 and Bravo, 1999. By analyzing the markers within the turn organization (i.e. beginning of the turn and during the turn development, this study revealed that speakers make use of three main types of markers: connectors, modals, and appellatives. The findings suggest that the selection of a marker maintains a close relationship with the speaker’s main goal in the conversation. Either, the speaker detaches himself/herself from the interlocutor or he/she gets close to him/her. Thus, the speaker employs mitigation or intensification strategies through various linguistic forms or pauses that appear with the marker or within the turn. This study with Spanish speakers living in the area of Chicago confirms, as other studies in Spanish, that the interaction between markers and politeness is conditioned to the context and the role of the speakers.

  2. Modified differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chartier, Philippe; Hairer, Ernst; Vilmart, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the theory of modified differential equations (backward error analysis) an approach for the construction of high order numerical integrators that preserve geometric properties of the exact flow is developed. This summarises a talk presented in honour of Michel Crouzeix.

  3. Identification of novel plasma glycosylation-associated markers of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catera, Mariangela; Borelli, Vincenzo; Malagolini, Nadia; Chiricolo, Mariella; Venturi, Giulia; Reis, Celso A.; Osorio, Hugo; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M.; Capri, Miriam; Monti, Daniela; Ostan, Rita; Franceschi, Claudio; Dall'Olio, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The pro- or anti-inflammatory activities of immunoglobulins G (IgGs) are controlled by the structure of the glycan N-linked to Asn297 of their heavy chain. The age-associated low grade inflammation (inflammaging) is associated with increased plasmatic levels of agalactosylated IgGs terminating with N-acetylglucosamine (IgG-G0) whose biogenesis has not been fully explained. Although the biosynthesis of glycans is in general mediated by glycosyltransferases associated with internal cell membranes, the extracellular glycosylation of circulating glycoproteins mediated by plasmatic glycosyltransferases has been recently demonstrated. In this study we have investigated the relationship between plasmatic glycosyltransferases, IgG glycosylation and inflammatory and aging markers. In cohorts of individuals ranging from infancy to centenarians we determined the activity of plasmatic β4 galactosyltransferase(s) (B4GALTs) and of α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GAL1, the glycosylation of IgG, the GlycoAge test (a glycosylation-based marker of aging) and the plasma level of inflammatory and liver damage markers. Our results show that: 1) plasmatic B4GALTs activity is a new marker of aging, showing a linear increase throughout the whole age range. 2) plasmatic ST6GAL1 was high only in children and in people above 80, showing a quadratic relationship with age. 3) Neither plasmatic glycosyltransferase correlated with markers of liver damage. 4) plasmatic ST6GAL1 showed a positive association with acute phase proteins in offspring of short lived parents, but not in centenarians or in their offspring. 5) Although the glycosylation of IgGs was not correlated with the level of the two plasmatic glycosyltransferases, it showed progressive age-associated changes consistent with a shift toward a pro-inflammatory glycotype. PMID:26840264

  4. Valuing different human lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Landy, Justin F

    2014-04-01

    Do people think of the value of all human lives as equivalent irrespective of age? Affirmations of the equal value of all human lives are culturally prominent, yet much evidence points to the fact that the young are often prioritized over the old in life-and-death decision-making contexts. Studies 1-3 aimed to reconcile this tension by showing that although individuals are seen as more equal with respect to negative rights not to be harmed or killed (though not completely equal), they are seen as less equal with respect to positive rights to be aided or saved. Age exerts a large and systematic impact on decisions about who to save and about whose death is more tragic, suggesting that individuals are seen as possessing differing amounts of contingent value. These initial studies also yielded the novel finding that, although children are prioritized over adults, older children are often prioritized over younger children. Study 4 replicated this finding with a think-aloud methodology; the study showed that the preference for older children appears to be driven by their having had more invested in their lives, their better developed social relations, and their greater understanding of death. Studies 5a-5c demonstrated the independent causal effects of each of these variables on judgments of life's value. Finally, in Studies 6 and 7, mediation methods were used to show that older children's more meaningful social relations primarily explain the greater value of older than of younger children. These findings have implications for bioethics and medical policy.

  5. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  6. Living olefin polymerization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  7. On The Living Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richards

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the work The Living Room, directed by the author, and reflects on its meanings and functions. The article confronts problems performance raises in relation to contemporary social life, bringing forward the isolation of life today and the possibilities performance offers to fight it. We problematise the crisis experienced by the author and the consequent creation of the work as a mobile performative device in relation to the staging space. Finally, the work questions the forms of interaction and type of participation possible in performance.

  8. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  9. Living with a Single Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  10. Living with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sickle Cell Disease If you or your child has sickle ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sickle Cell Disease (Nicholas) 09/02/2011 In this video— ...

  11. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  12. Living with Lupus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Living With Lupus KidsHealth > For Parents > Living With Lupus A A ... disease for both doctors and their patients. About Lupus A healthy immune system produces proteins called antibodies ...

  13. "Living" free radical photopolymerization initiated from surface-grafted iniferter monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.; Simon, H.K.; Werts, M.P L; van der Vegte, E.W.; Hadziioannou, G

    2000-01-01

    A method for chemically modifying a surface with grafted monolayers of initiator groups, which can be used for a "living" free radical photopolymerization, is described. By using "living" free radical polymerizations, we were able to control the length of the grafted polymer chains and therefore the

  14. High Resolution Discovery Proteomics Reveals Candidate Disease Progression Markers of Alzheimer's Disease in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C Hendrickson

    Full Text Available Disease modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD constitute a major goal in medicine. Current trends suggest that biomarkers reflective of AD neuropathology and modifiable by treatment would provide supportive evidence for disease modification. Nevertheless, a lack of quantitative tools to assess disease modifying treatment effects remains a major hurdle. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers such as total tau, p-tau and Ab42 are well established markers of AD; however, global quantitative biochemical changes in CSF in AD disease progression remain largely uncharacterized. Here we applied a high resolution open discovery platform, dMS, to profile a cross-sectional cohort of lumbar CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients versus those from non-AD/non-demented (control patients. Multiple markers were identified to be statistically significant in the cohort tested. We selected two markers SME-1 (p<0.0001 and SME-2 (p = 0.0004 for evaluation in a second independent longitudinal cohort of human CSF from post-mortem diagnosed AD patients and age-matched and case-matched control patients. In cohort-2, SME-1, identified as neuronal secretory protein VGF, and SME-2, identified as neuronal pentraxin receptor-1 (NPTXR, in AD were 21% (p = 0.039 and 17% (p = 0.026 lower, at baseline, respectively, than in controls. Linear mixed model analysis in the longitudinal cohort estimate a decrease in the levels of VGF and NPTXR at the rate of 10.9% and 6.9% per year in the AD patients, whereas both markers increased in controls. Because these markers are detected by mass spectrometry without the need for antibody reagents, targeted MS based assays provide a clear translation path for evaluating selected AD disease-progression markers with high analytical precision in the clinic.

  15. Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Matuszewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement. In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies. RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%. New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33. Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  16. [Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewska, Agnieszka; Madej, Marta; Wiland, Piotr

    2016-03-25

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement. In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies). RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%. New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP) and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33). Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  17. Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Matuszewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement.In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies. RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%.New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33. Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  18. Carbohydrate markers in colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Jankowska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneously mutated multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes in colon epithelial cell and its progeny, may cause proliferation out of control and create benign colon neoplasm (colon polyp). If additional mutations involve genes responsible for cell adhesion and movement, aberrant epithelial cells may become malignant (colon cancer) and invade surrounding and remote tissues, creating secondary tumors called metastases. Incidence of colorectal cancer dramatically increases at 50-65 year of age. In Europe in 2006 colorectal cancer consisted 12.9% of all cancers and caused 207,400 deaths. To laboratory detection and monitoring of colon cancer are used tumor markers. Tumor markers are substances produced by the body in response to cancer, or by cancer tissue itself. Glycoconjugate markers for colon cancer include aberrant: mucins covering the surface of the colon epithelial cells, cadherins, selectins and Ig-like adhesion molecules mediating cell-cell adhesion, integrins and integral membrane proteoglycans responsible for adhesion of colon epithelial cells to extracellular matrix, glycoconjugate components of ECM, as well as lysosomal membrane glycoproteins and exoglycosidases. Detection of colon cancer at early non malignant stage is crucial in its prevention and eradication. As colon cancer is the effect of accumulation many somatic mutations in oncogens, supressors, mismatch repair genes and many genes responsible for posttranslational modifications of proteins, multidirectional approach should be applied for its detection. A glycobiological approach to diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer should be directed to detection changes in glycosylation accompanying every step of colon cancer progression, and correlation between changes in glycosylation and tumor progression.

  19. Experiencing Liveness in Contemporary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together dynamic perspectives on the concept of liveness in the performing arts, engaging with the live through the particular analytical focus of audiences and experience. The status and significance of the live in performance has become contested: perceived as variously as a ...

  20. Living liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles, often termed “active fluid,” has attracted enormous attention in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here, we introduce a class of active matter––living liquid crystals (LLCs)––that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications. PMID:24474746

  1. Exotic Long - Lived Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, Morten Dam

    A search for hadronising long-lived massive particles at the Large Hadron Collider is conducted with the ATLAS detector. No excess events are found. Based on statistical analysis, upper limits on the production cross section are observed to be between $0.01$ pb and $0.006$ pb for colour octet particles (gluinos) with masses ranging from $300 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ to $1400 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$, and $0.01$ pb to $0.004$ pb for colour triplet particles (stops and sbottoms) with masses ranging from $200 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ to $900 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$. In the context of Supersymmetry with decoupled sfermion and sboson sectors (Split-SUSY), this gives a lower limit on the gluino mass of $989 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$, and $683 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ for the stop mass and $618 \\ \\mathrm{GeV/c}^2$ for the sbottom mass. In addition, a new method is presented that improves the speed ($\\beta$) estimation for long-lived particles in the ATLAS tile calorimeter with a factor of $7$ improvement in resolution at low-$\\beta$ and ...

  2. CERN's live webcasts

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2012-01-01

    You may well have noticed when watching the seminar on 4 July that the CERN webcast site has had a makeover.   The new-look site went live on 26 June and provides a detailed schedule of upcoming webcasts as well as easy access to those of recent events.  It is fully compatible with Smartphones and tablets - which wasn't the case until now – and enables viewers to see both the speaker and the presentation, thanks to two separate video recordings. Another innovation: permanent webcasts. In a single click, you can access and view all the channels run by the ATLAS collaboration, including Public Outreach channel, Technical channel and Public Development channel.   And if you want to add your own event to the schedule and broadcast it live via the web,  just go to this address. You can also restrict access to your webcasts to a pre-defined audience. Behind the scenes, the webcast service has also been busy modernising its infrastructure:...

  3. Complex Macromolecular Architectures by Living Cationic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Reem D.

    2015-05-01

    Poly (vinyl ether)-based graft polymers have been synthesized by the combination of living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers with other living or controlled/ living polymerization techniques (anionic and ATRP). The process involves the synthesis of well-defined homopolymers (PnBVE) and co/terpolymers [PnBVE-b-PCEVE-b-PSiDEGVE (ABC type) and PSiDEGVE-b-PnBVE-b-PSiDEGVE (CAC type)] by sequential living cationic polymerization of n-butyl vinyl ether (nBVE), 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (CEVE) and tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethylene glycol vinyl ether (SiDEGVE), using mono-functional {[n-butoxyethyl acetate (nBEA)], [1-(2-chloroethoxy) ethyl acetate (CEEA)], [1-(2-(2-(t-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethoxy) ethoxy) ethyl acetate (SiDEGEA)]} or di-functional [1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol di(1-ethyl acetate) (cHMDEA), (VEMOA)] initiators. The living cationic polymerizations of those monomers were conducted in hexane at -20 0C using Et3Al2Cl3 (catalyst) in the presence of 1 M AcOEt base.[1] The PCEVE segments of the synthesized block terpolymers were then used to react with living macroanions (PS-DPE-Li; poly styrene diphenyl ethylene lithium) to afford graft polymers. The quantitative desilylation of PSiDEGVE segments by n-Bu4N+F- in THF at 0 °C led to graft co- and terpolymers in which the polyalcohol is the outer block. These co-/terpolymers were subsequently subjected to “grafting-from” reactions by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene to afford more complex macromolecular architectures. The base assisted living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers were also used to synthesize well-defined α-hydroxyl polyvinylether (PnBVE-OH). The resulting polymers were then modified into an ATRP macro-initiator for the synthesis of well-defined block copolymers (PnBVE-b-PS). Bifunctional PnBVE with terminal malonate groups was also synthesized and used as a precursor for more complex architectures such as H-shaped block copolymer by “grafting-from” or

  4. Living Cell Microarrays: An Overview of Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Jonczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Living cell microarrays are a highly efficient cellular screening system. Due to the low number of cells required per spot, cell microarrays enable the use of primary and stem cells and provide resolution close to the single-cell level. Apart from a variety of conventional static designs, microfluidic microarray systems have also been established. An alternative format is a microarray consisting of three-dimensional cell constructs ranging from cell spheroids to cells encapsulated in hydrogel. These systems provide an in vivo-like microenvironment and are preferably used for the investigation of cellular physiology, cytotoxicity, and drug screening. Thus, many different high-tech microarray platforms are currently available. Disadvantages of many systems include their high cost, the requirement of specialized equipment for their manufacture, and the poor comparability of results between different platforms. In this article, we provide an overview of static, microfluidic, and 3D cell microarrays. In addition, we describe a simple method for the printing of living cell microarrays on modified microscope glass slides using standard DNA microarray equipment available in most laboratories. Applications in research and diagnostics are discussed, e.g., the selective and sensitive detection of biomarkers. Finally, we highlight current limitations and the future prospects of living cell microarrays.

  5. Molecular Markers: an Introduction and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Rashad Al-Samarai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic development of molecular genetics has laid the groundwork for genomics. It has introduced new generations of molecular markers for use in the genetic improvement of farm animals. These markers provide more accurate genetic information and better understanding of the animal genetic resources. Scientists, unfamiliar with the different molecular techniques tend to get lost as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. This review represents a trail to shade alight on the different types of molecular markers by introducing a brief summary on the development of genetic markers including both the classical genetic markers and more advanced DNA-based molecular markers. This review could be helpful to better understand the characteristics of different genetic markers and the genetic diversity of animal genetic resources.

  6. [Seldinger modified technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cuenca, Francisco; Linares Escudero, Joaquín; Romo García, Raquel; Cubo Amaya, Manuel; Climent Villanueva, Magdalena; Santos Sarria, Remedios

    2008-12-01

    The authors describe the procedure to insert central blood vessel catheters through peripheral blood vessel catheters using the Seldinger modified technique since critically ill patients service at the Carlos Haya Regional University Hospital in Malaga cares for a high number of patients who need to have canalized a central blood vessel catheter to maximize the treatment they receive. In many cases it is not possible to insert a DRUM type central blood vessel catheter due to an insufficient blood vessel caliber and then the nursing team at this hospital opts to carry out a procedure to canalize a central blood vessel using the Seldinger modified technique. This report was presented at the III National Social-Sanitary Nursing Congress.

  7. Modified Newton's rings: II

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitanya, T Sai; Krishna, V Sai; Anandh, B Shankar; Umesh, K S

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier work (Shankar kumar Jha, A Vyas, O S K S Sastri, Rajkumar Jain & K S Umesh, 'Determination of wavelength of laser light using Modified Newton's rings setup', Physics Education, vol. 22, no.3, 195-202(2005)) reported by our group, a version of Newton's rings experiment called Modified Newton's rings was proposed. The present work is an extension of this work. Here, a general formula for wavelength has been derived, applicable for a plane of observation at any distance. A relation between the focal length and the radius curvature is also derived for a plano-convex lens which is essentially used as a concave mirror. Tracker, a video analysis software, freely downloadable from the net, is employed to analyze the fringes captured using a CCD camera. Two beams which give rise to interference fringes in conventional Newton's rings and in the present setup are clearly distinguished.

  8. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  9. Modified Faraday cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  10. RNA-modifying enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2003-02-01

    A bewildering number of post-transcriptional modifications are introduced into cellular RNAs by enzymes that are often conserved among archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. The modifications range from those with well-understood functions, such as tRNA aminoacylation, to widespread but more mysterious ones, such as pseudouridylation. Recent structure determinations have included two types of RNA nucleobase modifying enzyme: pseudouridine synthases and tRNA guanine transglycosylases.

  11. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  12. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick

    2010-05-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior.

  13. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  14. The impact of a discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements on life satisfaction among the elderly in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqun Guan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of a discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements on the relationship between living arrangements and life satisfaction among the elderly in China. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the 2005 dataset of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey was performed. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction and living arrangements. RESULTS: Among those with concordant actual and preferred living arrangements, living in a nursing home increased the likelihood of life satisfaction, whereas living alone and living with a spouse decreased the likelihood of life satisfaction compared to living with the next generation and a spouse. Among those with discordant living arrangements, there were no differences in life satisfaction between the various living arrangements, except that living with a spouse increased life satisfaction compared to living with the next generation and a spouse. CONCLUSIONS: A discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements modifies the relationship between life satisfaction and actual living arrangement. Living in a nursing home is a good option for Chinese elder care only if the older individual emotionally accepts it. Living alone or with a spouse is not a good arrangement for elder care, even though it is often preferred by the elderly. Those with discordant living arrangements are more satisfied living with their spouses.

  15. The impact of a discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements on life satisfaction among the elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jinqun; Li, Hui; Sun, Hong; Wang, Ting; Wu, Weiping

    2015-09-01

    To explore the effects of a discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements on the relationship between living arrangements and life satisfaction among the elderly in China. Secondary analysis of the 2005 dataset of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey was performed. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction and living arrangements. Among those with concordant actual and preferred living arrangements, living in a nursing home increased the likelihood of life satisfaction, whereas living alone and living with a spouse decreased the likelihood of life satisfaction compared to living with the next generation and a spouse. Among those with discordant living arrangements, there were no differences in life satisfaction between the various living arrangements, except that living with a spouse increased life satisfaction compared to living with the next generation and a spouse. A discrepancy between actual and preferred living arrangements modifies the relationship between life satisfaction and actual living arrangement. Living in a nursing home is a good option for Chinese elder care only if the older individual emotionally accepts it. Living alone or with a spouse is not a good arrangement for elder care, even though it is often preferred by the elderly. Those with discordant living arrangements are more satisfied living with their spouses.

  16. Molecular markers in studies on fish parasites (Platyhelminthes: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Junio da Graça

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies with molecular markers are currently more common for all groups of living organisms. Molecular techniques used in Platyhelminthes parasites of fishes do not merely reveal complex life cycles, but are important for species distinction and the elucidation of the phylogenetic hypothesis. Current research verified which molecular markers were mainly used phylogenetic studies on Platyhelminthes parasites of fish so that subsidies for further phylogenetic studies in Icthyoparasitology could be provided. Data base of CAPES Journals platform was employed for bibliometric analysis comprising the keywords “fish” and “phylogeny” associated with “Cestoda”, “Digenea” or “Monogenea”. Information retrieved was quantified and tabulated. Most studies were on Monogenea (43%, followed by Digenea (37% and Cestoda (18%. Ribosomal molecular markers were the most used in the phylogenetic studies for fish parasites. Due to the advance of molecular biology techniques and of bioinformatics, with more robust phylogenetic analysis, the use of these techniques in other areas such as Ichytioparasitology is on the increase. In fact, molecular phylogenetics and morphological structures analysis have efficiently contributed towards the understanding of phylogenetic relationships among the groups.

  17. Incentivizing living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynowiec, Jessica; Kim, Jennifer; Qazi, Yasir A

    2009-04-01

    The number of organs available for the patients on the transplant waitlist remains at a disproportionate low. All possible methods to curtail this shortage, including providing donors with incentives, have been proposed. This article reviews recent publications addressing the benefits and risks involved in incentivizing living donation. The debate about the ethics, feasibility, and possible models for compensating organ donors has been prominent in recent literature. As certain countries take lead on this initiative, others are cautiously weighing in on the impact implementations of such policies may have on the society, especially on the underprivileged. The shortage of organs has resulted in proposal of strategies that encroach on certain moral and ethical principles. Providing incentives to donors is one such strategy that is likely to receive a lot of attention in the next few years.

  18. Living on the edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1989-01-01

    A brief update on the destruction of the environment is given. The concern is for the coastal waters and rivers which are polluted daily by raw sewage, industrial waste, and sedimentation, e.g., the Juru in Malaysia, the Pasig in the Philippines, and the Chao Phraya in Thailand are open sewers by the time the rivers reach the sea or bay. Metropolitan Manila's river is said to be biologically dead from pollution, and the bays of Manila and Jakarta suffer from oxygen depletion. Unfortunately, the coastal area maintains population as well as the wealth of marine life. In the US in 1990, 75% of the population will live within 50 miles of a shore including the Great Lakes. 30 southeast Asia's 50 largest cities are located on or near a coast. Over fishing, over population, over developing, and over exploitation are unacceptable; the alternative is for man to correct his mistakes.

  19. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  20. New Homes, New Lives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolling, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis by Marie Kolling is an ethnography of forced resettlement in the urban periphery of Salvador, Northeast Brazil, and the new lives the families tried to make for themselves in its aftermath in new state-built social housing. The resettlement was part of state-led slum upgrading...... interventions under the urban development project Better Days (Dias Melhores), a name that alludes to the optimism it evoked. As a woman expressed before she was resettled: “a new house, a new life”. The thesis portrays contemporary Brazil and its massive transformations since the beginning of the new...... millennium, and how it was experienced and acted upon by resettled families. It analyses their dreams for the future and their attempts to realize them in the rapidly changing Brazilian society. The thesis is based on fourteen months of fieldwork conducted in Brazil between July 2012 and March 2015. Extended...

  1. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  2. Biomimetic silica encapsultation of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroch, David Benjamin

    Living cells perform complex chemical processes on size and time scales that artificial systems cannot match. Cells respond dynamically to their environment, acting as biological sensors, factories, and drug delivery devices. To facilitate the use of living systems in engineered constructs, we have developed several new approaches to create stable protective microenvironments by forming bioinspired cell-membrane-specific silica-based encapsulants. These include vapor phase deposition of silica gels, use of endogenous membrane proteins and polysaccharides as a site for silica nucleation and polycondensation in a saturated environment, and protein templated ordered silica shell formation. We demonstrate silica layer formation at the surface of pluripotent stem-like cells, bacterial biofilms, and primary murine and human pancreatic islets. Materials are characterized by AFM, SEM and EDS. Viability assays confirm cell survival, and metabolite flux measurements demonstrate normal function and no major diffusion limitations. Real time PCR mRNA analysis indicates encapsulated islets express normal levels of genetic markers for β-cells and insulin production. The silica glass encapsulant produces a secondary bone like calcium phosphate mineral layer upon exposure to media. Such bioactive materials can improve device integration with surrounding tissue upon implantation. Given the favorable insulin response, bioactivity, and long-term viability observed in silica-coated islets, we are currently testing the encapsulant's ability to prevent immune system recognition of foreign transplants for the treatment of diabetes. Such hybrid silica-cellular constructs have a wide range of industrial, environmental, and medical applications.

  3. A systematic review of the use of genetically modified food in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao,Rong; 高溶

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Genetically Modified (GM) food, which is one of the fruit of the modern biotechnology, is closely related to people's lives. GM food, specifically, GM crops, also known as biotech food, are produced from genetically modified organisms (GMO), which use genetic engineering techniques to introduce, recombine and modify DNA. The safety of GM food still do not have final conclusion at present. Although GM food has been introduced into China for over 15 years, many of the surveys ...

  4. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  5. Winning a living wage: The legacy of living wage campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana; Hall, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Living wage campaigns, led by community organisations and trade unions, aim to raise the wages and working conditions of some of the most vulnerable workers in society. But are they, ultimately successful in doing this? Drawing on the first major impact study of living wages campaigns in the UK, recent research into employment practices in the cleaning sector and primary research undertaken with cleaning workers at the University of East London, we assess the legacy of living wage campaigns a...

  6. PAV markers in Sorghum bicolour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Xin; Liu, Zhiquan; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle;

    2015-01-01

    genome sequence data of four sorghum inbred lines for the discovery and validation of small-size PAVs (40bp-10kb). Five thousand five hundreds and eleven (5,511) genic small-size PAVs (40 bp-10 kb) were identified and found to affect 3238 genes. These PAVs were mainly distributed on the sub...... enriched in stress responses and protein modification. We used 325 polymorphic PAVs in two sorghum inbred lines Ji2731 and E-Tian, together with 49 SSR markers, and constructed a genetic map, which consisted of 10 linkage groups corresponding to the 10 chromosomes of sorghum and spanned 1430.3 cM in length...... covering 97 % of the region of the physical genome. The resources reported here should be useful for genetic study and breeding of sorghum and related species....

  7. PAV markers in Sorghum bicolour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Xin; Liu, Zhiquan; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    2015-01-01

    genome sequence data of four sorghum inbred lines for the discovery and validation of small-size PAVs (40bp-10kb). Five thousand five hundreds and eleven (5,511) genic small-size PAVs (40 bp-10 kb) were identified and found to affect 3238 genes. These PAVs were mainly distributed on the sub...... enriched in stress responses and protein modification. We used 325 polymorphic PAVs in two sorghum inbred lines Ji2731 and E-Tian, together with 49 SSR markers, and constructed a genetic map, which consisted of 10 linkage groups corresponding to the 10 chromosomes of sorghum and spanned 1430.3 cM in length...... covering 97 % of the region of the physical genome. The resources reported here should be useful for genetic study and breeding of sorghum and related species....

  8. Annexin A6 modifies muscular dystrophy by mediating sarcolemmal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Demonbreun, Alexis R; Vo, Andy H; Swanson, Kaitlin E; Kim, Ellis Y; Fahrenbach, John P; Holley-Cuthrell, Jenan; Eskin, Ascia; Chen, Zugen; Squire, Kevin; Heydemann, Ahlke; Palmer, Abraham A; Nelson, Stanley F; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2014-04-22

    Many monogenic disorders, including the muscular dystrophies, display phenotypic variability despite the same disease-causing mutation. To identify genetic modifiers of muscular dystrophy and its associated cardiomyopathy, we used quantitative trait locus mapping and whole genome sequencing in a mouse model. This approach uncovered a modifier locus on chromosome 11 associated with sarcolemmal membrane damage and heart mass. Whole genome and RNA sequencing identified Anxa6, encoding annexin A6, as a modifier gene. A synonymous variant in exon 11 creates a cryptic splice donor, resulting in a truncated annexin A6 protein called ANXA6N32. Live cell imaging showed that annexin A6 orchestrates a repair zone and cap at the site of membrane disruption. In contrast, ANXA6N32 dramatically disrupted the annexin A6-rich cap and the associated repair zone, permitting membrane leak. Anxa6 is a modifier of muscular dystrophy and membrane repair after injury.

  9. Efficient, Antibiotic Marker-Free Transformation of a Dicot and a Monocot Crop with Glutamate 1-Semialdehyde Aminotransferase Selectable Marker Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradini, Nicoletta; Giancaspro, Angelica; Nicolia, Alessandro; Gadaleta, Agata; Veronesi, Fabio; Rosellini, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-free, efficient in vitro selection in plant genetic engineering can improve risk perception and speed up pre-market scrutiny of genetically modified crops. We provide a protocol for genetic transformation of two important crops, durum wheat and alfalfa, using a bacterial and a plant-derived selectable marker gene encoding mutated, gabaculine-insensitive glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase (GSA) enzymes. These methods can potentially be applied, with minor adaptations, to many other monocot and dicot crop plants.

  10. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos Chaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similarfashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is doneby replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vectorpotential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vectoranalysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHDequations.

  11. Modified Lattice Landau Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Von Smekal, L; Sternbeck, A; Williams, A G

    2007-01-01

    We propose a modified lattice Landau gauge based on stereographically projecting the link variables on the circle S^1 -> R for compact U(1) or the 3-sphere S^3 -> R^3 for SU(2) before imposing the Landau gauge condition. This can reduce the number of Gribov copies exponentially and solves the Gribov problem in compact U(1) where it is a lattice artifact. Applied to the maximal Abelian subgroup this might be just enough to avoid the perfect cancellation amongst the Gribov copies in a lattice BRST formulation for SU(N), and thus to avoid the Neuberger 0/0 problem. The continuum limit of the Landau gauge remains unchanged.

  12. Modified Slash Lindley Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Reyes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new distribution, called the modified slash Lindley distribution, which can be seen as an extension of the Lindley distribution. We show that this new distribution provides more flexibility in terms of kurtosis and skewness than the Lindley distribution. We derive moments and some basic properties for the new distribution. Moment estimators and maximum likelihood estimators are calculated using numerical procedures. We carry out a simulation study for the maximum likelihood estimators. A fit of the proposed model indicates good performance when compared with other less flexible models.

  13. Modified harmony search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  14. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EvangelosChaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similar fashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is done by replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vector potential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vector analysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHD equations.

  15. Population Structure in Naegleria fowleri as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupat-Goutaland, Bénédicte; Régoudis, Estelle; Besseyrias, Matthieu; Mularoni, Angélique; Binet, Marie; Herbelin, Pascaline; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Naegleria sp. is a free living amoeba belonging to the Heterolobosea class. Over 40 species of Naegleria were identified and recovered worldwide in different habitats such as swimming pools, freshwater lakes, soil or dust. Among them, N. fowleri, is a human pathogen responsible for primary amoeboic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Around 300 cases were reported in 40 years worldwide but PAM is a fatal disease of the central nervous system with only 5% survival of infected patients. Since both pathogenic and non pathogenic species were encountered in the environment, detection and dispersal mode are crucial points in the fight against this pathogenic agent. Previous studies on identification and genotyping of N. fowleri strains were focused on RAPD analysis and on ITS sequencing and identified 5 variants: euro-american, south pacific, widespread, cattenom and chooz. Microsatellites are powerful markers in population genetics with broad spectrum of applications (such as paternity test, fingerprinting, genetic mapping or genetic structure analysis). They are characterized by a high degree of length polymorphism. The aim of this study was to genotype N. fowleri strains using microsatellites markers in order to track this population and to better understand its evolution. Six microsatellite loci and 47 strains from different geographical origins were used for this analysis. The microsatellite markers revealed a level of discrimination higher than any other marker used until now, enabling the identification of seven genetic groups, included in the five main genetic groups based on the previous RAPD and ITS analyses. This analysis also allowed us to go further in identifying private alleles highlighting intra-group variability. A better identification of the N. fowleri isolates could be done with this type of analysis and could allow a better tracking of the clinical and environmental N. fowleri strains.

  16. Population Structure in Naegleria fowleri as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Coupat-Goutaland

    Full Text Available Naegleria sp. is a free living amoeba belonging to the Heterolobosea class. Over 40 species of Naegleria were identified and recovered worldwide in different habitats such as swimming pools, freshwater lakes, soil or dust. Among them, N. fowleri, is a human pathogen responsible for primary amoeboic meningoencephalitis (PAM. Around 300 cases were reported in 40 years worldwide but PAM is a fatal disease of the central nervous system with only 5% survival of infected patients. Since both pathogenic and non pathogenic species were encountered in the environment, detection and dispersal mode are crucial points in the fight against this pathogenic agent. Previous studies on identification and genotyping of N. fowleri strains were focused on RAPD analysis and on ITS sequencing and identified 5 variants: euro-american, south pacific, widespread, cattenom and chooz. Microsatellites are powerful markers in population genetics with broad spectrum of applications (such as paternity test, fingerprinting, genetic mapping or genetic structure analysis. They are characterized by a high degree of length polymorphism. The aim of this study was to genotype N. fowleri strains using microsatellites markers in order to track this population and to better understand its evolution. Six microsatellite loci and 47 strains from different geographical origins were used for this analysis. The microsatellite markers revealed a level of discrimination higher than any other marker used until now, enabling the identification of seven genetic groups, included in the five main genetic groups based on the previous RAPD and ITS analyses. This analysis also allowed us to go further in identifying private alleles highlighting intra-group variability. A better identification of the N. fowleri isolates could be done with this type of analysis and could allow a better tracking of the clinical and environmental N. fowleri strains.

  17. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID eALI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  18. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  19. Live videotransmitteret undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Ørngreen

    2013-11-01

    På Bioanalytikeruddannelsen i Aarhus, VIAs sundhedsfaglige højskole, har man i en længere periode haft et kombi-hold, hvor man kombinerer traditionel og live transmitteret undervisning (via et innovativt valg af videokonferencesystem. På de såkaldte netdage er der mulighed for enten at møde op til undervisningen, som man plejer, eller at deltage i undervisningen hjemmefra. Artiklen præsenterer et deltagende aktionsforskningsprojekt mellem projektteamet på udannelsen og forskere fra Aalborg Universitet. Målet var at: afdække potentialer og barrierer ud fra et it-støttet læringsperspektiv; udvikle robuste didaktiske undervisningsscenarier; samt kvalificere underviserne og hermed forankringen af projektet. Forskningsdata blev indsamlet gennem videooptagelser, ”dagens spørgsmål” til de studerende, fokusgruppeinterview med lærerne, og Pædagogisk Dag-workshop. Analysen sætter fokus på erfaringerne under anvendelse af professionshøjskolernes Rektorkollegiums Studieaktivitetsmodel. Slutteligt samles der i artiklen op på de teknologsike, sociale og didaktiske-pædagogiske relationer set i lyset af projektets mål og resultater. Abstract in English At the education for Biomedical Laboratory Scientist at Aarhus, VIA's healthcare college, they have a combi-class, combining traditional and live broadcast teaching (via an innovative choice of video conferencing system. In the so-called net-days, there is the option to either attend the classes as usual, or to attend classes from home. This paper presents a participatory action research project between the project team at VIA and researchers from Aalborg University. The objectives were to: identify potentials and barriers from an IT-supported learning perspective; develop robust didactic teaching scenarios; qualify teachers, and secure the anchoring of the project. Research data were collected through video recordings, "questions of the day" to the students, focus group interviews with teachers and

  20. Identifying Discourse Markers in Spoken Dialog

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Allen, J F; Heeman, Peter A.; Byron, Donna; Allen, James F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for identifying discourse marker usage in spontaneous speech based on machine learning. Discourse markers are denoted by special POS tags, and thus the process of POS tagging can be used to identify discourse markers. By incorporating POS tagging into language modeling, discourse markers can be identified during speech recognition, in which the timeliness of the information can be used to help predict the following words. We contrast this approach with an alternative machine learning approach proposed by Litman (1996). This paper also argues that discourse markers can be used to help the hearer predict the role that the upcoming utterance plays in the dialog. Thus discourse markers should provide valuable evidence for automatic dialog act prediction.

  1. First trimester serum markers to predict preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Kawaguchi, Rie

    2012-05-01

    A variety of different biomarkers to predict preeclampsia have been identified in the last ten years. Most of these markers have been detected and quantified in maternal blood, and their potency to predict preeclampsia prior to the onset of clinical symptoms has been evaluated. The amount of such markers depends on various conditions, including the source of the marker (fetal/placental and/or maternal), the interaction of this marker with other proteins in maternal blood as well as the stability of the markers during freezing and thawing. Here we describe two of the putative early, first trimester biomarkers, placental protein 13 and placental growth factor. There is still the hope that - even in the absence of any treatment regimen today - such predictive markers will help to speed the development of a cure for preeclampsia.

  2. Pollen dispersal analysis using DNA markers

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhou; Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Modes of pollen dispersal are important for plant ecology, conservation, and evolutionary biology as pollen-mediated gene flow connects one generation of sexually-reproducing plants to the next. With the development of DNA molecular techniques, molecular markers (especially microsatellite markers) have replaced traditional physical markers for pollen flow analysis. Methods of paternity assignment with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference have greatly improved the estimation of pollen flo...

  3. HEALTHY LIVING WITH NUTRACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Now a day every person wants to live the healthy life. Synthetic medicines are having some certain drawbacks. So nutraceuticals will definitely play promising and unique way of safer medicines. Nature is one of the most important resources of human foods and medicines. Rapidly increasing knowledge on nutrition, medicine, and plant has fortunately changed the concepts about food, health and, brought in a revolution on them. Nutritional therapy and phototherapy have emerged as new concepts of safer medicine. These systems have quickly and widely spread in recent years. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals, natural plant foods, and the use of nutritional therapy and phototherapy have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent and treat diseases. Nutraceuticals used in various diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, eye cycle, diabetes. The use of the dietary fiber, omega 3 fatty acid, antioxidant, probiotic, for the better human life possible. This review attempts to display and remark on these aspects. It summarizes the progress made on nutraceuticals, utritional therapy, health benefits, regulation and their promising approach. It also covers development stages of nutraceuticals.

  4. Satisfied Men Live Longer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne; Rostler; 尤北还

    2001-01-01

    作为上篇的一个姊妹篇,我们很乐意向读者推荐本文。古人云,知足常乐。读完本文,也许你会改其二字:知足长寿。文章告诉我们: Men who reported high levels of satisfaction with their lives were more likely to be alive 20 years later. 知足者竟然能在这个世界上多生活20年!你信否? 文章还提到了男女之别,颇发人深省: It seems to me that the coping abilities of women with distress and dissatisfaction may be better than in men. Men who feel dissatisfied might cope with their feelings by abusing alcohol, smoking and not exercising while women might talk to friends or seek professional help. 你若是男性读者,是否可以从中得到某种启迪? 文章最精彩的句子大概在文末: It is not enough for a human being to earn money and be in physically good condition. One should respect mental health as well.】

  5. Shared lives, shared energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, P.; Goss, K.

    1982-07-01

    A social experiment in Denmark is described in which 25 families combine private ownership (each family owns its own home) and collectivism (each family owns 1/25 of the grounds, large common house and other facilities). The superinsulated individual homes are small (< 1000 ft/sup 2/) but the common house (7800 ft/sup 2/) provides dining and meeting facilities for all 25 families as well as a central heating plant. Heat may be supplied from solar, wind and/or oil-fired boiler. Adequate hot water storage is provided using solar collectors and a 55 kW Vesta wind generator (surplus power is sold). All south facing roof surfaces are fitted with solar collectors (4455 ft/sup 2/ total). A total of 70% of the energy used is produced on site (solar and wind). The manner of living and sharing (child care, automobiles, cooking, etc.) is described as well as typical floor plans for the units. Other collective housing in Denmark is described and it is postulated that overdrevet may serve as a model. (MJJ)

  6. Living-with Shakespeare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Broqua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article studies three interpretations of Sonnet 130 by three American experimental poets. Rereading Bloom’s considerations on Shakespeare in The Anxiety of Influence and comparing them with Jacques Derrida’s Specters of Marx, this article shows that rather than thinking of Shakespeare as a cursing ghost, Harryette Mullen’s, Stephen Ratcliffe’s and Jen Bervin’s texts reveal Shakespeare as a ghost and a host. Their texts are attempts to live with Shakespeare in the present, thus prompting us to look back on the theory of the intertext.Cet article étudie trois réinterpretations du sonnet 130 de Shakespeare par trois poètes expérimentaux des Etats-Unis. Après avoir relu la théorie d’Harold Bloom telle qu’il l’applique à Shakespeare dans The Anxiety of Influence et l’avoir rapidement mise en contraste avec celle de Jacques Derrida dans Spectres de Marx, cet article montre que les textes de Harryette Mullen, Stephen Ratcliffe et Jen Bervin ne font pas de Shakespeare un fantôme de la malédiction. Ils tentent plutôt de vivre-avec Shakespeare dans le présent, nous amenant ainsi à reconsidérer la théorie de l’intertexte.

  7. When Do Living Wages Bite?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Adams; David Neumark

    2004-01-01

    Many features of living wage laws may influence the strength of their effects on wages and employment of low-skill individuals. Echoing past research, business assistance living wage laws generate stronger wage increases and employment reductions than contractor-only laws. But broader enforcement or implementation and geographic concentration of living wage laws also appear to strengthen their effects. Finally, geographic concentration may be more significant than the distinction between busi...

  8. Synthetic organisms and living machines

    OpenAIRE

    Deplazes, Anna; Huppenbauer, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The difference between a non-living machine such as a vacuum cleaner and a living organism as a lion seems to be obvious. The two types of entities differ in their material consistence, their origin, their development and their purpose. This apparently clear-cut borderline has previously been challenged by fictitious ideas of “artificial organism” and “living machines” as well as by progress in technology and breeding. The emergence of novel technologies such as artificial life, nanobiotechno...

  9. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  10. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tugwell, Jenna, E-mail: jenna.tugwell@googlemail.co [Department of Radiology, Ysbyty Gwynedd Hospital, Bangor, North Wales (United Kingdom); Maddison, Adele [Nuffield Health, Shrewsbury Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  11. Trail Trees: Living Artifacts (Vivifacts of Eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Kawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Living trees historically modified by human populations, oftentimes referred to as “culturally modified trees” (CMTs, are found throughout the North American landscape. In eastern North America specifically, indigenous populations bent thousands of trees to mark trails, and some of these still exist in the region today. In this article, we present a synthesis of current knowledge on trail trees, including their speculated functions, formation, and selection. We also examine the theoretical implications of these living artifacts (or vivifacts and how they may open new avenues for investigation by archaeologists, environmental historians, and ethnobiologists. To conclude, we make a call for expanded public recognition and documentation of trail trees, discussing the need for their incorporation into forest and park management plans.

  12. The power of living things: Living memorials as therapeutic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. McMillen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen

    2017-01-01

    In response to the events of 11 September 2001 (9/11), many communities came together to create living memorials. Many living memorials were established near the crash sites, but others were created across the United States from urban to rural areas, with designs ranging from entire forests to single trees. They were created by surviving family members, supporters of...

  13. Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

  14. Solo Living - the meaning of home for persons living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    Like in other countries, the number of people living in one-person households is growing in Denmark. The share of Danes living alone has increased from 9.1% in 1981 to 16.1% in 2006, and the increase is particularly marked for persons aged 30 to 60 years (the "middle-aged"). This raises...... the analytical question of how middle-aged persons who are living alone experience and shape their dwelling and integrate it into their everyday practices. This paper discusses this question on the basis of qualitative interviews with middle-aged Danes living alone. The preliminary results from the study show...... that solo livers to a great extent experience and use their dwellings in ways similar to persons living in multi-person households. However, differences are also observed. Firstly, all interviewed solo livers emphasize independence from others as important. Several of the informants have had negative...

  15. The living publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction

  16. Synthesis of Modified Methylaluminoxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Bo-chao; Zhao Xu-tao; Yin Yuan-qi; Wei Shao-yi

    2004-01-01

    Methylaluminoxane (MAO) is one of the most important cocatalysts of metallocene catalysts. The yield and activity of MAO is low when using Al2(SO4)3 nH2O and other inorganic hydrates to synthesize methylaluminoxane. The repeatability of this reaction is not good. The product cost is very high because one of the raw materials (Trimethylaluminium, TMA) to prepare MAO is very expensive. In addition, on standing, MAO toluene solution tends to gel. Gelled MAO can not be used to prepare supported metallocene catalyets.With the development of gas phase and slurry polymerization of olefine by metallocene catalysts,the application of supported metallocene catalysts becomes more and more important.This paper relates to the use of trimethylaluminium (TMA), tri-isobutylaluminium(TIBA) and silica gel containing from about 4 to about 22 percent by weight absorbed water to synthesize modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO). This method, which integrates synthesis and supporting of MMAO, simplify the preparing process of metallocene catalysts. By using this method, the yield and activity of modified methylaluminoxane is higher than using Al2(SO4)3 nH2O and other inorganic hydrates, and what is more, not only the product cost is lowered, but also gelled MAO is avoided. In addition, the repeatability of this reaction is much better because TIBA is stabler than TMA.Synthesis of Modified MAO: A one liter three neck flask equipped with a magnetic stirring bar and a constant pressure funnel was charged with 250ml of dried and degassed toluene. 60g of undehydrated silica gel (Davison 955) which contains 12 weight percent absorbed water was added into the flask. The resulting mixture was stirred at -10℃ for 30 minutes. Thereafter 90ml of trimethylaluminum/toluene solution (2.0M) was dropped slowly into the flask in 60 minutes. The resulting mixture was allowed to react under stirring at -10℃ for 1hours, then at 0℃ for 1 hours,then at ambient temperature for 1 hours and finally at 40

  17. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents.

  18. Viruses as living processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, John; Guttinger, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    The view that life is composed of distinct entities with well-defined boundaries has been undermined in recent years by the realisation of the near omnipresence of symbiosis. What had seemed to be intrinsically stable entities have turned out to be systems stabilised only by the interactions between a complex set of underlying processes (Dupré, 2012). This has not only presented severe problems for our traditional understanding of biological individuality but has also led some to claim that we need to switch to a process ontology to be able adequately to understand biological systems. A large group of biological entities, however, has been excluded from these discussions, namely viruses. Viruses are usually portrayed as stable and distinct individuals that do not fit the more integrated and collaborative picture of nature implied by symbiosis. In this paper we will contest this view. We will first discuss recent findings in virology that show that viruses can be 'nice' and collaborate with their hosts, meaning that they form part of integrated biological systems and processes. We further offer various reasons why viruses should be seen as processes rather than things, or substances. Based on these two claims we will argue that, far from serving as a counterexample to it, viruses actually enable a deeper understanding of the fundamentally interconnected and collaborative nature of nature. We conclude with some reflections on the debate as to whether viruses should be seen as living, and argue that there are good reasons for an affirmative answer to this question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The living publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction

  20. Modified Clipped LMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfizad Mojtaba

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new algorithm is proposed for updating the weights of an adaptive filter. The proposed algorithm is a modification of an existing method, namely, the clipped LMS, and uses a three-level quantization ( scheme that involves the threshold clipping of the input signals in the filter weight update formula. Mathematical analysis shows the convergence of the filter weights to the optimum Wiener filter weights. Also, it can be proved that the proposed modified clipped LMS (MCLMS algorithm has better tracking than the LMS algorithm. In addition, this algorithm has reduced computational complexity relative to the unmodified one. By using a suitable threshold, it is possible to increase the tracking capability of the MCLMS algorithm compared to the LMS algorithm, but this causes slower convergence. Computer simulations confirm the mathematical analysis presented.

  1. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  2. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-05-19

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  3. Biochemical genetic markers in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaszmann, J C; Fautret, A; Noyer, J L; Feldmann, P; Lanaud, C

    1989-10-01

    Isozyme variation was used to identify biochemical markers of potential utility in sugarcane genetics and breeding. Electrophoretic polymorphism was surveyed for nine enzymes among 39 wild and noble sugarcane clones, belonging to the species most closely related to modern varieties. Up to 114 distinct bands showing presence versus absence type of variation were revealed and used for qualitative characterization of the materials. Multivariate analysis of the data isolated the Erianthus clone sampled and separated the Saccharum spontaneum clones from the S. robustum and S. officinarum clones; the latter two were not differentiated from one another. The analysis of self-progenies of a 2n=112 S. spontaneum and of a commercial variety showed examples of mono- and polyfactorial segregations. Within the progeny of the variety, co-segregation of two isozymes frequent in S. spontaneum led to them being assigned to a single chromosome initially contributed by a S. spontaneum donor. This illustrates how combined survey of ancestral species and segregation analysis in modern breeding materials should permit using the lack of interspecific cross-over to establish linkage groups in a sugarcane genome.

  4. Introduction: Teaching Black Lives Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Austin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An introduction to Radical Teacher, Issue 106: Teaching Black Lives Matter. This issue brings together a diverse collection of articles exploring educator’s responses, strategies, and stories on how #BlackLivesMatter has informed their teaching practice, the content of their courses, and their personal relationship to colleagues, family, friends, and self.

  5. Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokeshwar, V.B.; Habuchi, T.; Grossman, H.B.; Murphy, W.M.; Hautmann, S.H.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Bono, A.V.; Getzenberg, R.H.; Goebell, P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schalken, J.A.; Fradet, Y.; Marberger, M.; Messing, E.; Droller, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first of 2 articles that summarize the findings of the International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers. The objectives of our panel were to reach a consensus on the areas where markers are needed, to define the attributes of an ideal tumor marker, and to identify

  6. Diagnostic markers for germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2015-01-01

    -related, such as placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), OCT4 (POU5F1), NANOG, AP-2g (TFAP2C) and LIN28. These genes are not expressed in normal adult germ cells, hence are useful immunohistochemical markers for GCNIS and GCT subtypes in tissue specimens. Some of these markers can also be used for immunocytochemistry...

  7. Discourse Markers in Second Language Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Mahide; Kleiner, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the use of discourse markers by advanced Turkish learners of English. The research discussed here aims to make an initial contribution to the study of how discourse markers are used by second-language learners, and to illustrate why such research should be valuable and necessary component of interlanguage pragmatics. (Author/VWL)

  8. Smart magnetic markers use in hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-11-01

    One of the main challenges and unknowns during shale gas exploration is to assess the range and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. It is also essential to assess the distribution of proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. Solving these problems may considerably increase the efficiency of the shale gas extraction. Because of that, the idea of smart magnetic marker, which can be detected when added to fracturing fluid, has been considered for a long time. This study provides overview of the possibilities of magnetic marker application for shale gas extraction. The imaging methods using electromagnetic markers, are considered or developed in two directions. The first possibility is the markers' electromagnetic activity throughout the whole volume of the fracturing fluid. Thus, it can be assumed that the whole fracturing fluid is the marker. Among these type of hydraulic fracturing solutions, ferrofluid could be considered. The second possibility is marker, which is just one of many components of the fracturing fluid. In this case feedstock magnetic materials, ferrites and nanomaterials could be considered. Magnetic properties of magnetite could be too low and ferrofluids' or nanomaterials' price is unacceptably high. Because of that, ferrites, especially ZnMn ferrites seems to be the best material for magnetic marker. Because of the numerous applications in electronics, it is cheap and easily available, although the price is higher, then that of magnetite. The disadvantage of using ferrite, could be too small mechanical strength. It creates an essential need for combining magnetic marker with proppant into magnetic-ceramic composite.

  9. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

  10. Percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G.F.; Josipovic, Mirjana; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund

    2013-01-01

    A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications.......A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications....

  11. New immunological serum markers in bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, S; Pedersen, S S; Koldkjær, O G;

    2008-01-01

    High mobility group-box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a late-onset proinflammatory cytokine. Soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor (sCD163) is a specific marker of anti-inflammatory macrophages. The study purpose was to relate the levels of these new markers in bactaeremic patients to levels of well-know...

  12. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the dif

  13. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  14. Clinical neuropathology practice guide 5-2013: markers of neuronal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Harvey B.

    2013-01-01

    This review surveys immunocytochemical and histochemical markers of neuronal lineage for application to tissue sections of fetal and neonatal brain. They determine maturation of individual nerve cells as the tissue progresses to mature architecture. From a developmental perspective, neuronal markers are all about timing. These diverse cellular labels may be classified in two ways: 1) time of onset of expression (early; intermediate; late); 2) labeling of subcellular structures or metabolic functions (nucleoproteins; synaptic vesicle proteins; enolases; cytoskeletal elements; calcium-binding; nucleic acids; mitochondria). Apart from these positive markers of maturation, other negative markers are expressed in primitive neuroepithelial cells and early stages of neuroblast maturation, but no longer are demonstrated after initial stages of maturation. These examinations are relevant for studies of normal neuroembryology at the cellular level. In fetal and perinatal neuropathology they provide control criteria for application to malformations of the brain, inborn metabolic disorders and acquired fetal insults in which neuroblastic maturation may be altered. Disorders, in which cells differentiate abnormally, as in tuberous sclerosis and hemimegalencephaly, pose another yet aspect of mixed cellular lineage. The measurement in living patients, especially neonates, of serum and CSF levels of enolases, chromogranins and S-100 proteins as biomarkers of brain damage may potentially be correlated with their corresponding tissue markers at autopsy in infants who do not survive. The neuropathological markers here described can be performed in ordinary hospital laboratories, not just research facilities, and offer another dimension of diagnostic precision in interpreting abnormally developed fetal and postnatal brains. PMID:23883617

  15. Thin film based semi-active resonant marker design for low profile interventional cardiovascular MRI devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysoy, Engin; Yildirim, Dursun Korel; Ozsoy, Cagla; Mutlu, Senol; Kocaturk, Ozgur

    2017-02-01

    A new microfabrication method to produce low profile radio frequency (RF) resonant markers on catheter shafts was developed. A semi-active RF resonant marker incorporating a solenoid and a plate capacitor was constructed on the distal shaft of a 5 Fr guiding catheter. The resulting device can be used for interventional cardiovascular MRI procedures. Unlike current semi-active device visualization techniques that require rigid and bulky analog circuit components (capacitor and solenoid), we fabricated a low profile RF resonant marker directly on guiding the catheter surface by thin film metal deposition and electroplating processes using a modified physical vapor deposition system. The increase of the overall device profile thickness caused by the semi-active RF resonant marker (130 µm thick) was lowered by a factor of 4.6 compared with using the thinnest commercial non-magnetic and rigid circuit components (600 µm thick). Moreover, adequate visibility performance of the RF resonant marker in different orientations and overall RF safety were confirmed through in vitro experiments under MRI successfully. The developed RF resonant marker on a clinical grade 5 Fr guiding catheter will enable several interventional congenital heart disease treatment procedures under MRI.

  16. Where Plumes Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    From the perspective of fluid dynamics, `Plumes or not?' might be the wrong question. Let me begin by defining a few terms. Plume with a `P' is the well-known thermal structure with thin (order 100 km) tail and large, bulbous head that originates at the core-mantle boundary. The thin tail/large, bulbous-head morphology has been generated in a number of laboratory and numerical experiments. It can be seen, for example, on the cover of the famous fluid dynamics text by Batchelor. There is a clearly-defined range of parameters for which this structure is the preferred solution for instabilities arising from a bottom boundary layer in a convecting fluid. For example, a strong temperature-dependent rheology is needed. By contrast, plume with a `p' is any cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical instability originating from a thermal (or thermo-chemical) boundary layer. In fluid dynamics plume is sometimes used interchangeable with jet. Unless there is a very small temperature drop across the core-mantle boundary or a rather remarkable balance between temperature and composition at the base of the mantle, there are almost certainly plumes. (Note the little p.) Are these plumes the thermal structures with thin (order 100 km) tails and large bulbous heads or could they be broad, hot regions such as the degree 2 pattern seen in global seismic tomography images of the lower mantle, or the disconnected droplets seen in chaotic convection? To study this question, I will present a sequence of numerical `experiments' that illustrate the morphology of instabilities from a basal thermal boundary layer, i.e., plumes. Some of the aspects I will present include: spherical geometry, temperature-and pressure-dependence of rheology, internal heating, pressure-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, variable coefficient of thermal diffusivity, phase transformations, and compositional layering at the base of the mantle. The goal is to map out the parameters and conditions where Plumes live

  17. Construction of marker-free transplastomic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kerry A; Maliga, Pal

    2007-04-01

    Because of its prokaryotic-type gene expression machinery, maternal inheritance and the opportunity to express proteins at a high level, the plastid genome (plastome or ptDNA) is an increasingly popular target for engineering. The ptDNA is present as up to 10,000 copies per cell, making selection for marker genes essential to obtain plants with uniformly transformed ptDNA. However, the marker gene is no longer desirable when homoplastomic plants are obtained. Marker-free transplastomic plants can now be obtained with four recently developed protocols: homology-based excision via directly repeated sequences, excision by phage site-specific recombinanses, transient cointegration of the marker gene, and the cotransformation-segregation approach. Marker excision technology will benefit applications in agriculture and in molecular farming.

  18. Macrophage serum markers in pneumococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Weis, Nina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients with pneumoc......OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients...... on the probability of survival when sCD163 and CRP were known (p = .25). CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage marker response in pneumococcal bacteremia was compromised in old age. In patients disease outcome....

  19. Protein nonenzymatic modifications and proteasome activity in skeletal muscle from the short-lived rat and long-lived pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero-Otín, Manel; Requena, Jesús R; Bellmunt, Maria Josep; Ayala, Victoria; Pamplona, Reinald

    2004-10-01

    What are the mechanisms determining the rate of animal aging? Of the two major classes of endothermic animals, bird species are strikingly long-lived compared to similar size mammalian counterparts. Since oxidative stress is causally related to the basic aging process, markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins (glutamic semialdehyde, aminoadipic semialdehyde, N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine; N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N(epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine and dinitrophenylhydrazyne-reactive protein carbonyls, peptidase activities of the proteasome, and amino acid and membrane fatty acyl composition were identified and measured in skeletal muscle from the short-lived rat (maximum life span, 4 years) and compared with the long-lived pigeon (maximum life span, 35 years). Skeletal muscle from pigeon showed significantly higher levels of glutamic semialdehyde, protein carbonyls (by western blot), N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine. No differences were observed for aminoadipic semialdehyde, whereas the lipoxidation marker N(epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine displayed a significant low steady-state level, probably related with their significantly lower membrane unsaturation. The amino acid compositional analysis revealed that arginine, serine, threonine and methionine showed significantly lower levels in pigeon. Finally, pigeon samples showed also significantly lower levels of the peptidase activities of the proteasome. These results reinforces the role of structural components such as membrane unsaturation and protein composition in determining the longer maximum life span showed by birds compared with mammals of similar body size.

  20. The effects of kidney transplantation on sleep, melatonin, circadian rhythm and quality of life in kidney transplant recipients and living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russcher, Marije; Nagtegaal, J Elsbeth; Nurmohamed, S Azam; Koch, Birgit C P; van der Westerlaken, Monique M L; van Someren, Eus J W; Bakker, Stephan J L; Ter Wee, Pieter M; Gaillard, Carlo A J M

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is an important medical problem in patients with end-stage renal disease. It might be related to the disruption of the body's circadian clock since nocturnal levels of its key biomarker melatonin are markedly reduced. We aimed at investigating whether a change in renal function due to kidney transplantation or donation would modify sleep, melatonin levels, circadian rhythmicity, and quality of life in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and living donors (LD). In KTR, we assessed saliva melatonin concentrations, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness prior to and at 2 weeks and 3 months after transplantation. In LD, we assessed these parameters prior to and at 3 months after donation. We additionally assessed 24-hour core body temperature (cBT), 24-hour blood pressure profile, and quality of life (QoL) prior to and 3 months after transplantation. Twenty-three KTR and 23 LD completed the study. Regarding sleep, the amount of nighttime awake minutes tended to be reduced in recipients after transplantation (p = 0.05). Nocturnal melatonin concentrations did not change with transplantation or donation. Blood pressure dipping profile and the two circadian markers dim-light melatonin onset and time of core body temperature minimum did not change. Nevertheless, KTR reported that daytime sleepiness and QoL had improved. Objectively nocturnal sleep quality marginally improved after transplantation. Subjectively patients reported improved QoL and daytime sleepiness scores. Changes in renal function were not associated with modified melatonin secretion or circadian rhythmicity.

  1. Effect of modified constraint-induced movement therapy on motor function and ability of daily living for Parkinson's disease%改良强制性运动疗法对帕金森病患者运动功能和日常生活能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方翠霓; 郭思思; 邓景贵; 宋治; 宋涛; 刘佳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨改良强制性运动疗法(modified constraint-induced movement therapy,mCIMT)对帕金森病患者运动功能和日常生活能力的影响.方法 从2010年8月~2013年4月期间我院收治的帕金森病患者中选取68例,随机分为研究组(34例)和对照组(34例),两组患者均给予临床常规药物治疗、康复知识讲座及常规康复治疗;研究组患者在此基础上给予改良强制性运动疗法,持续8周,每周5d,每天3h.治疗前后对两组患者进行UPDRSⅡ评分和UPDRSⅢ评分.结果 经过8周治疗后,两组患者UPDRSⅡ评分和UPDRSⅢ评分均较治疗前降低,研究组患者的以上两项评分均显著低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在神经内科药物治疗及常规康复治疗基础上给予改良强制性运动能够进一步提高帕金森病患者的运动功能,改善患者的日常生活活动能力.

  2. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  3. Spectral Markers of Erythrocytes on Solid Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiziev, Adkhamjon A.; Krakhmalev, V. A.

    Proposed in previous paper [1,2] the new nondestructive method of optical microscopy allows to examine the structures of living cells (human erythrocytes) in their natural colors without its staining by using a specially designed substrate for deposition of biological sample and observing a native blood smears in reflected light. Color interference contrast image is achieved due to special condition of experiment is connected with chose of angle of incidental light, wave length of light of reflected ray, chemical composition of sample, thickness of sample, refractive index of sample, refractive index of substrate, chemical composition of substrate [1,2]. We can identify chemical compounds of erythrocytes after calibration color scale by alternative methods. For comparison we used Synchrotron Radiation based Fourier Transformed Infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy. By focusing of infrared beam of FTIR microscope on cell surface we can screen and distinguish difference erythrocytes by its color. For example on Fig. 49.1 we can see two neighbored erythrocytes where one of them have red color (point 1) and other-green (point 5). To identify their spectral markers we measured IR absorption spectra of cells at different points (1,2,3,4 and 5). Intermediated area (points 3 and 4) correspond to substrate spectra (silicon substrate) and their spectra are same. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids. At 1,650 cm-1 the amide I band is observed, which results, principally, from the n(CO) stretching vibrations of the protein amide bonds; the amide II band, near 1,550 cm-1, is a combination of the d(N-H) bending and n(C-N) stretching vibrations of the amide bonds. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids [3. The intensities of the absorption bands at 2,920 and 2,850 cm-1 in green erythrocyte (point 5) were also

  4. Vitamin D-rich marine Inuit diet and markers of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Louise Holm; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Laurberg, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Inuit diet in Greenland consists mainly of fish and marine mammals, rich in vitamin D. Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory capacity but markers of inflammation have been found to be high in Inuit living on a marine diet. Yet, the effect of vitamin D on inflammation in Inuit remains...... unsettled. This led us to investigate the association between vitamin D and markers of inflammation in a population with a high intake of a marine diet. We studied 535 Inuit and non-Inuit living in West and East Greenland. Information concerning dietary habits was obtained by interview-based FFQ. Blood...... samples were drawn for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitinase-3-like protein 1(YKL-40). Participants were divided into three groups based on degree of intake of the traditional Inuit diet. The diet groups (Inuit diet/mixed diet/imported foods) were...

  5. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Kramkowska; Teresa Grzelak; Krystyna Czyżewska; Ewa Mierzejewska; Renata Welc-Faleciak; Andrzej Bohatyrewicz; Aleksandra Lanocha; Rafał Celiński; Agata Bielawska-Drózd; Justyna Joniec; Marcin Kołodziej; Grzegorz Graniak; Mariusz Goniewicz; Leszek Kubiak

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumpt...

  6. Overview of genetically modified crops and their relevance for Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Marisser H. Álvarez-Guevara; Luvianca G. Gil-Moreno; Julio A. Gó - mez-Rodríguez; Huete-Pérez,Jorge A

    2012-01-01

    The first transgenic plants were created in Europe about three decades ago. In Nicaragua, however, there is not commercial cultivation of transgenic crops allowed yet, and the only history of transgenic grain imports occurred in 2005, when the introduction of 15 events of GM maize was first authorized. The Law on Prevention of Risks from Living Modified Organisms by Means of Molecular Biotechnology was published in 2010, and more recently, in September 2012, the Law on Conservation and Sustai...

  7. Living labs design and assessment of sustainable living

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra-Santin, Olivia; Lockton, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the results of a multi-annual project with sustainable Living Labs in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands. Living Labs – as initiated by the authors – have proved to be very promising research, design, co-creation and communication facilities for the development and implementation of sustainable innovations in the home. The book provides an inspiring introduction to both the methodology and business modelling for the Living Lab facilities. Understanding daily living at home is key to designing products and services that support households in their transition to more sustainable lifestyles. This book not only explores new ways of gaining insights into daily practices, but also discusses developing and testing design methods to create sustainable solutions for households. These new methods and tools are needed because those available are either ineffective or cause rebound-effects. Intended for researchers and designers with an interest in the transition to sustainable...

  8. Optimal marker-strategy clinical trial design to detect predictive markers for targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yong; Liu, Suyu; Yuan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In developing targeted therapy, the marker-strategy design (MSD) provides an important approach to evaluate the predictive marker effect. This design first randomizes patients into non-marker-based or marker-based strategies. Patients allocated to the non-marker-based strategy are then further randomized to receive either the standard or targeted treatments, while patients allocated to the marker-based strategy receive treatments based on their marker statuses. Little research has been done on the statistical properties of the MSD, which has led to some widespread misconceptions and placed clinical researchers at high risk of using inefficient designs. In this article, we show that the commonly used between-strategy comparison has low power to detect the predictive effect and is valid only under a restrictive condition that the randomization ratio within the non-marker-based strategy matches the marker prevalence. We propose a Wald test that is generally valid and also uniformly more powerful than the between-strategy comparison. Based on that, we derive an optimal MSD that maximizes the power to detect the predictive marker effect by choosing the optimal randomization ratios between the two strategies and treatments. Our numerical study shows that using the proposed optimal designs can substantially improve the power of the MSD to detect the predictive marker effect. We use a lung cancer trial to illustrate the proposed optimal designs.

  9. The modified Atkins diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L

    2008-11-01

    In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50-90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed.

  10. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G; Smith, Kylie J

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease.

  11. Comparison of 2 methods of measuring spine angular kinematics during dynamic flexion movements: skin-mounted markers compared with markers affixed to rigid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Samuel J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the spine flexion angle time histories computed with the 2 described techniques (dot product [DP] and a modified joint coordinate system [JCS] approaches) that used vector algebra and used skin-mounted markers to the spine flexion angles derived using local coordinate systems constructed from rigid bodies affixed to the pelvis and thorax during spine flexion movements. Discrepancies between the simplified marker setup and a criterion standard (CS) method for measuring spine kinematics were quantified. Sixteen participants performed full forward spine flexion. Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained from markers affixed bilaterally over the greater trochanters, iliac crests, and 10th ribs. Time varying spine flexion angles were derived from the 3-, and 2-dimensional marker data using a DP and a modified JCS approach. Criterion standard spine kinematics were obtained from clusters of markers adhered to 2 rigid fins that were affixed over the pelvis and trunk. The DP and JCS methods were compared with the CS by computing root mean squared differences and correlations during the spine flexion trials. Descriptive measurements of missing kinematic data were also obtained. On average, root mean squared differences were 30.1% lower for the JCS method of deriving spine flexion angles. Correlations were also higher for the JCS method by 2.5%, compared with the DP method. The findings suggest that the adapted JCS method is superior to the DP method for deriving spine flexion angles. This is especially true when only 2-dimensional coordinate data are available. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary Comparative Analysis of Phenological Varieties of Quercus robur by ISSR-Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Chokheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus robur L. is a valuable wood species having long ontogeny and promising to create long-living artificial plantings of recreational and ameliorative purposes in the steppes zone of Russia and other countries. In this work we have performed the genotyping of varieties of Quercus robur L. obtained from collection of Botanical Garden of Southern Federal University using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR molecular markers. The most polymorphic ISSR-marker (GA 8YC was found in the collection. The polymorphic DNA markers identified in the present study can be used for the future breeding works to obtain valuable genotypes of Quercus genus. In addition we have performed DNA fingerprinting of the prospective sample of the variety Q. robur var. tardiflora Czern.

  13. LiveCode mobile development

    CERN Document Server

    Lavieri, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide written in a tutorial-style, ""LiveCode Mobile Development Hotshot"" walks you step-by-step through 10 individual projects. Every project is divided into sub tasks to make learning more organized and easy to follow along with explanations, diagrams, screenshots, and downloadable material.This book is great for anyone who wants to develop mobile applications using LiveCode. You should be familiar with LiveCode and have access to a smartphone. You are not expected to know how to create graphics or audio clips.

  14. Raman microscopy of individual living human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the distribution of different biomolecules in living human embryonic stem cells grown on glass substrates, without the need for fluorescent markers. In our work we improve the quality of measurements by finding a buffer that gives low fluorescence, growing...... cells on glass substrates (whose Raman signals are relatively weak compared to that of the cells) and having the backside covered with gold to improve the image contrast under direct white light illumination. The experimental setup used for Raman microscopy is the commercially available confocal...

  15. An Overview of Neuroendocrine Tumour Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Özaslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As there are many different subtypes of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs, many kinds of markers are used for their diagnosis and follow-up. Most of these markers, such as calcitonin, catecholamines, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, insulin, gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, and glucagon are specific to one subtype of NET. In addition, there are also general markers used in various NET subtypes; the most commonly used ones are chromogranin-A (CgA, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, and synaptophysin. The sensitivity and specificity levels of CgA are highest among all NET markers. However, specific markers, such as calcitonin in medullary thyroid carcinoma, insulin in insulinoma and cathecolamines in feocromocitoma are more useful than CgA. CgA is an auxiliary marker in cases with relapse or metastasis of such functional NETs. Carcinoid syndrome is characterized by serotonin hypersecretion with the other products and 5-HIAA level is used to determine the serotonin hypersecretion. Thus, 5-HIAA is the specific marker for carcinoid tumors which comprise two-thirds of all NETs.

  16. Augmented Reality Marker Hiding with Texture Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norihiko; Sato, Tomokazu; Nakashima, Yuta; Yokoya, Naokazu

    2016-10-19

    Augmented reality (AR) marker hiding is a technique to visually remove AR markers in a real-time video stream. A conventional approach transforms a background image with a homography matrix calculated on the basis of a camera pose and overlays the transformed image on an AR marker region in a real-time frame, assuming that the AR marker is on a planar surface. However, this approach may cause discontinuities in textures around the boundary between the marker and its surrounding area when the planar surface assumption is not satisfied. This paper proposes a method for AR marker hiding without discontinuities around texture boundaries even under nonplanar background geometry without measuring it. For doing this, our method estimates the dense motion in the marker's background by analyzing the motion of sparse feature points around it, together with a smooth motion assumption, and deforms the background image according to it. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in various environments with different background geometries and textures.

  17. Markers inside wood : tree rings as archives of insect outbreaks, drift-sand dynamics, and spring flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copini, P.

    2015-01-01

    MARKERS INSIDE WOOD – TREE RINGS AS ARCHIVES OF INSECT OUTBREAKS, DRIFT-SAND DYNAMICS AND SPRING FLOODING Trees are long-living organisms that record ecologically relevant information in their xylem that can be accessed by dendrochronology, the study of tree rings. Specific environmental event

  18. Clinical observation on modified constraint-induced movement therapy(mCIMT)and constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) on rehabilitation of hand function and ability of daily living in patients with stroke%改良和传统强制性运动疗法对脑卒中偏瘫患者上肢运动功能疗效的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 王文清; 程子辉; 高江华; 滕晓东; 瓮长水; 毕胜

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察改良强制性运动疗法和强制性运动疗法对脑卒中偏瘫患者手功能和日常生活能力的影响.方法 选取58例符合入选标准的脑卒中偏瘫患者,随机分为改良组(27例)和强制组(31例).强制组和改良组采用限制健侧肢体动作,在治疗期间要求患者穿戴吊带和夹板,每天清醒时固定时间不少于90%,强制组每日6 h,每周训练5 d,连续2周;改良组在治疗环境中进行,每日2 h,每周3次,其它时间在日常生活活动中进行训练,连续10周.治疗前、后分别采用简易上肢机能检查量表(STEF)和Barthel指数(BI)评价患者的上肢运动功能.结果 两组患者在治疗前,STEF和Barthel指数中的10项评分差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).经过治疗后,组内评分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05),BI差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 改良强制性运动疗法和强制性运动疗法可以有效提高偏瘫患者上肢的灵活性和运动速度.改良强制性运动疗法在改善日常生活活动能力方面明显优于强制性运动疗法.%Objective To study the influence of modified constraint - induced movement therapy( mCIMT ) and constraint - induced movement therapy ( CIMT ) on rehahilitation of hand function and ability of daily living in patients with stroke. Methods Fifty - eight patients with stroke were randomly divided into mCIMT group ( n =27 ) and CIMT group ( n = 31 ). The movement of unimpaired extremities in patients of CIMT group and mCIMT group had been restricted by placing them in slings for 90% waking hours in a whole day for training. Patients in CIMT treatment group were exercised for 6 h/d. 5 days a week for 2 weeks in a row. and patients in mCIMT group were exercised for 2 h/d, 3 days a week, and they were also exercised in daily living at least 2 hours every day for ten consecutive weeks. All patients in these two groups were assessed by scale of STEF( Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function )and

  19. Markers of Perioperative Bowel Complications in Colorectal Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomír Hyšpler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a clinical condition whose treatment often involves intestinal resection. Such treatment frequently results in two major gastrointestinal complications after surgery: anastomotic leakage and prolonged ileus. Anastomotic leakage is a serious complication which, more often than not, is diagnosed late; to date, C-reactive protein is the only available diagnostic marker. A monocentric, prospective, open case-control study was performed in patients (n=117 undergoing colorectal surgery. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (i-FABP, citrulline, D-lactate, exhaled hydrogen, Escherichia coli genomic DNA, and ischemia modified albumin (IMA were determined preoperatively, postoperatively, and on the following four consecutive days. Bacterial DNA was not detected in any sample, and i-FABP and D-lactate lacked any distinct potential to detect postoperative bowel complications. Exhaled breath hydrogen content showed unacceptably low sensitivity. However, citrulline turned out to be a specific marker for prolonged ileus on postoperative days 3-4. Using a cut-off value of 20 μmol/L, a sensitivity and specificity of ~75% was achieved on postoperative day 4. IMA was found to be an efficient predictor of anastomosis leak by calculating the difference between preoperative and postoperative values. This test had 100% sensitivity and 80% specificity and 100% negative and 20% positive predictive value.

  20. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the western world for both men and women. Lung cancer appears to be a perfect candidate for a screening program, since it is the number one cancer killer, it has a long preclinical phase, curative treatment for the minority of patients who are diagnosed early and a target population at risk (smokers and it is also a major economic burden. The earliest approaches to identifying cancer markers were based on preliminary clinical or pathological observations, although molecular biology is a strong candidate for occupying a place among the set of methods. In search of markers, several alterations, such as mutations, loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite instability, DNA methylation, mitochondrial DNA mutations, viral DNA, modified expression of mRNA, miRNA and proteins, and structurally altered proteins have all been analysed. MicroRNAs (miRNA are small RNA molecules, about 19-25 nucleotides long and encoded in genomes of plants, animals, fungi and viruses. It has been reported that miRNAs may have multiple functions in lung development and that aberrant expression of miRNAs could induce lung tumorigenesis. We review here the role of miRNAs in lung tumorigenesis and also as a novel type of biomarker.-----------------------------------Cite this article as:Silva J, Garcia V, Lopez-Gonzalez A, Provencio M. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013;1(1:010111. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0101.11

  1. MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR METASTATIC PROSTATE ADENOCARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The search of molecular markers of metastasing and prognosis in prostate cancer remains an urgent task. In this study, we investigated the relationship of gene expression heparanase-1 (HPSE1 and D-glucuronil C5-epimerase (GLCE with early disease relapse and metastasis of a 2,5−3 years after diagnosis. It was shown that the ratio of the expression levels of genes HPSE1/GLCE > 1 may serve as a prognostic relapse marker and trends of the tumour to metastasis. The data obtained suggest to use this option as a molecular marker for the diagnostics of metastatic process and the disease prognosis.

  2. Salivary Markers for Periodontal and General Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan Podzimek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of biomarkers in saliva is becoming an important part of laboratory diagnostics and the prediction of not only periodontal, but also other tissue and organ diseases. Biomarkers in saliva (e.g., enzymes, protein markers, or oxidative stress markers can be used for activity determination and for periodontal disease prognosis. Saliva also contains many markers which can predict the risk of certain diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, oncology, endocrinology, and psychiatric diseases. The study of salivary components proteomics clearly shows the relationship of periodontal diseases and diseases of distant systems, organs, or tissues.

  3. New microsatellite markers for bananas (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, E P; Silva, P H; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Santos, V J; Vilarinhos, A D; Santos, C M R; Souza Júnior, M T; Miller, R N G

    2012-04-27

    Thirty-four microsatellite markers (SSRs) were identified in EST and BAC clones from Musa acuminata burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 and validated in 22 Musa genotypes from the Banana Germplasm Bank of Embrapa-CNPMF, which includes wild and improved diploids. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. The markers were considered highly informative based on their polymorphism information content values; more than 50% were above 0.5. These SSRs will be useful for banana breeding programs, for studies of genetic diversity, germplasm characterization and selection, development of saturated genetic linkage maps, and marker assisted selection.

  4. Cardiomyocyte Marker Expression in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts by Cell-Free Cardiomyocyte Extract and Epigenetic Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Talaei-Khozani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regenerative capacity of the mammalian heart is quite limited. Recent reports have focused on reprogramming mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes. We investigated whether fibroblasts could transdifferentiate into myocardium. Methods: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with Trichostatin A (TSA and 5-Aza-2-Deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC. The treated cells were permeabilized with streptolysin O and exposed to the mouse cardiomyocyte extract and cultured for 1, 10, and 21 days. Cardiomyocyte markers were detected by immunohistochemistry. Alkaline phosphatase activity and OCT4 were also detected in cells treated by chromatin-modifying agents. Results: The cells exposed to a combination of 5-aza-dC and TSA and permeabilized in the presence of the cardiomyocyte extract showed morphological changes. The cells were unable to express cardiomyocyte markers after 24 h. Immunocytochemical assays showed a notable degree of myosin heavy chain and α-actinin expressions after 10 days. The expression of the natriuretic factor and troponin T occurred after 21 days in these cells. The cells exposed to chromatin-modifying agents also expressed cardiomyocyte markers; however, the proportion of reprogrammed cells was clearly smaller than that in the cultures exposed to 5-aza-dC , TSA, and extract. Conclusion: It seems that the fibroblasts were able to eliminate the previous epigenetic markers and form new ones according to the factors existing in the extract. Since no beating was observed, at least up to 21 days, the cells may need an appropriate extracellular matrix for their function.

  5. Multicolour nanoscopy of fixed and living cells with a single STED beam and hyperspectral detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Franziska R.; Loidolt, Maria; Westphal, Volker; Butkevich, Alexey N.; Gregor, Carola; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2017-04-01

    The extension of fluorescence nanoscopy to larger numbers of molecular species concurrently visualized by distinct markers is of great importance for advanced biological applications. To date, up to four markers had been distinguished in STED experiments featuring comparatively elaborate imaging schemes and optical setups, and exploiting various properties of the fluorophores. Here we present a simple yet versatile STED design for multicolour imaging below the diffraction limit. A hyperspectral detection arrangement (hyperSTED) collects the fluorescence in four spectral channels, allowing the separation of four markers with only one excitation wavelength and a single STED beam. Unmixing of the different marker signals based on the simultaneous readout of all channels is performed with a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. We illustrate the approach showing four-colour nanoscopy of fixed and living cellular samples.

  6. MODIFIED LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To furtherly reduce the subxiphoid port site pain,improve the cosmetic result and patient satisfaction,and increase the safety for patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy by advanced laparoscopic knotting skill.Methods:Among our 1500 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy since 1991,120 cases of modified laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) were performed with three 5-mm ports and one 10-mm port(for laparoscope and sepcien withdrawn).There were 25 male and 95 female patients with an average age of 55 years (24~77years).The indications for MLC included polypoid lesions of gallbladder (21),simple cholecystitis(3),cholecystolithiasisi with chronic cholecystitis(84),with acute suppurative cholecystitis(7),with atrophic cholecystitis(5).Results:There were 5 patients underwent combined laparoscopic appendectomy(3),fenestration of hepatic cyst(1),and drainge for liver abscess(1).The average operative time for MLC was 55 minutes(30~150min),blood loss was 10ml(3~50ml),and postoperative stay was 3 days(1~5days).There were no conversion from MLC to either LC or open surgery,without mortality.Complications were limited to two patients(1.7%).One was retained common bile duct stone and another was port site bleeding after operation.They were treated by transduodenal endoscopic stone retrieval and simple suture ligation,respecrtively.Conclusions:The advantages of MLC conducted mainly by advanced laparoscopic knotting techniques were no more laparoscope (either 2-mm or 5-mm)needed,no sacrifice of good illumination and laproscopic image.Most of all,its costeffective and operative safety were all improved furtherly.

  7. On a modified electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, H R

    2012-09-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.

  8. Parent and Child Living Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushaw, David R.

    1978-01-01

    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  9. Living with Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious complications. However, if you ... changes and medicines, go to "How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?" Work closely with your doctor to control ...

  10. Living with Diabetic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic heart disease (DHD) increases the likelihood of earlier and more ... also tend to have less success from certain heart disease treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and ...

  11. Living Alone With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Allison K; Richardson, Virginia E

    2017-02-01

    Although most individuals experiencing cognitive impairment (CI) reside with a caregiver, an estimated 800,000 live alone. Such individuals may have an increased risk for injury to self or others through self-neglect as a result of the CI symptoms. While persons living alone with CI have been identified as an important area for needed research, few studies have been able to examine this population due to the challenges of identifying and recruiting study participants. By using the National Health & Aging Trends Study data set, the researchers explored the characteristics to describe this population. The results of this study indicated that the majority of persons living with CI were older, widowed females who were not diagnosed with Alzheimer's or dementia but tested positive on cognitive screening measures. Further, the majority of persons living alone with CI relied on adult children and paid professionals as the primary care providers.

  12. Advanced Melanoma Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    In case you missed it, watch this recent Facebook Live event about the current state of research and treatment for advanced stage melanoma. To learn more, see our evidence-based information about skin cancer, including melanoma.

  13. Living With Diabetes: Foot Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  14. Living with Diabetes: Foot Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  15. National Center for Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCAL Senior Living Executive Council Meeting The Drake Hotel Chicago - Chicago, IL OCT 14 AHCA/NCAL 68th ... Certification Clinical Practice Guidelines Customer Relations Health Information Technology In-Service Training Tools Labor, Workforce, and OSHA ...

  16. Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam

    In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....

  17. Living Kidney Donors and ESRD

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-01-01

    There are over 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These two locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry s...

  18. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  19. Molecular fluctuation in living cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐孝威

    1997-01-01

    The concept of molecular fluctuation in living cells is introduced. Many apparently different experi-mental facts in living cells, including the velocity non-uniformity of organelle movement, the saltatory movement of transport vesicles in axoplasmic transport, the chromosome oscillation during metaphase in mitosis and the pauses in the chromosome movement during anaphase are explained using a unified viewpoint. A method of determination of average number of the attached motor protein molecules from the experimental data is also proposed.

  20. Three Passions I Live For

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英

    2005-01-01

    Looking back on my past twenty years full of passions and enthusiasm, I feel grateful and to live a healthy and happy life. There are a lot of qualities I have learnt from ordinary life that guided me through. If I am asked to list the first three, I will put health, happiness of my family and enough financial support as the passions I live for.

  1. Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam

    In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....

  2. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Orlando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  3. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs.

  4. Improving the health and lives of people living in slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheuya, Shaaban A

    2008-01-01

    Urban poverty, ill health, and living in slums are intrinsically interwoven. Poverty is multidimensional and there is no agreement on a universal definition. UN-HABITAT has introduced an operational definition of slums that is restricted to legal aspects and excludes the more difficult social dimensions. The World Health Organization definition is more comprehensive and uses a health and social determinants approach that is strongly based on the social conditions in which people live and work. Health and improving the lives of people living in slums is at the top of international development agenda. Proactive strategies to contain new urban populations and slum upgrading are the two key approaches. Regarding the latter, participatory upgrading that most often involves the provision of basic infrastructure is currently the most acceptable intervention in developing countries. In urbanization of poverty, participatory slum upgrading is a necessary but not sufficient condition to reduce poverty and improve the lives of slum dwellers. Empowering interventions that target capacity development and skill transfer of both individuals and community groups--as well as meaningful negotiations with institutions, such as municipal governments, which can affect slum dwellers' lives--appear to be the most promising strategies to improve the slum dwellers' asset bases and health. Non-governmental organizations, training institutions, and international development partners are best placed to facilitate horizontal relationships between individuals, community groups, and vertical relationships with more powerful institutions that affect the slum dwellers' lives. The main challenge appears to be lack of commitment from the key stakeholders to upgrade interventions citywide.

  5. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  6. Heidegger, lived experience and method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2014-07-01

    A discussion of the assumption that Heidegger's philosophy in Being And Time provides a warrant for the study of lived experience. It is generally assumed, in nursing as in other disciplines, that Heidegger's philosophy points, uncontroversially, to the study of lived experience. It is also assumed that studies of this type will take the form of qualitative interviews which seek to explore the respondent's experience of a particular phenomenon and to elicit the meanings which the individual concerned attaches to that experience. Being And Time; the philosophical literature on Heidegger since 1999; the literature of experimental social psychology, 1970-2012. According to Heidegger, there is no such thing as 'lived experience'. The concept is embedded in the subject-object dualism that he is attempting to dismantle. In Heideggerian terms, interviews intended to explore 'lived experience' can only reproduce the voice of das Man, the 'They', not the voice of unique individuals. Methods more in keeping with Heidegger's philosophy include observation, naturalistic experiments, some forms of discourse analysis and conceptually associated lines of enquiry involving vocabularies of motive, scripts and the performative aspects of language use. Nursing researchers who wish to embrace Heidegger's philosophy as a basis for their work should abandon 'lived experience' interviews and adopt one of the alternative methods suggested above. Nursing researchers who wish to continue with 'lived experience' interviews should seek an alternative philosophical or theoretical basis for their work. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-06

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital.

  8. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  9. [Biochemical and immunohistochemical markers of brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajtr, D; Průsa, R; Houst'ava, L; Sámal, F; Kukacka, J; Pachl, J

    2006-07-01

    Proteins released to circulation from affected tissues during primary or secondary trauma brain injury might be used as serum markers of glial or ganglial cells damage (neuron specific enolasis and S100 B protein). Other markers of trauma can be proved as relatively specific of diffuse axonal injury by immunohistochemical detectoin (amyloid prekurzor protein, neuron specific enolasis, glial fibrilar acidic protein and superficial antigen receptor CD 68). Some markers are associated with blood brain barrier damage (matrix metaloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and synthase of nitric oxide (iNOS)). We aimed in our short communication on biomechanics of developed of trauma, primary or secondary kinds of trauma brain injury and use of trauma brain injury markers for clinical diagnostics and management of patients.

  10. term Immunological Markers of HIV Progression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... 2Department of Haematology, College of Medicine, University of .... microglobulin as alternative markers for the examination and ...... Dunne J., Feighery C., Whelan A. (1996): Beta-2-microglobulin, .... www.flipper.diff.org/.

  11. Today’s oxidative stress markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Czerska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress represents a situation where there is an imbalance between the reactive oxygen species (ROS and the availability and the activity of antioxidants. This balance is disturbed by increased generation of free radicals or decreased antioxidant activity. It is very important to develop methods and find appropriate biomarkers that may be used to assess oxidative stress in vivo. It is significant because appropriate measurement of such stress is necessary in identifying its role in lifestyle-related diseases. Previously used markers of oxidative stress, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS or malondialdehyde (MDA, are progressively being supplemented by new ones, such as isoprostanes (IsoPs and their metabolites or allantoin. This paper is focusing on the presentation of new ones, promising markers of oxidative stress (IsoPs, their metabolites and allantoin, taking into account the advantage of those markers over markers used previously. Med Pr 2015;66(3:393–405

  12. Viral markers in HIV infection and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A L; Dwyer, D E; Dowton, D N

    1993-01-01

    Viral and immune markers are used for monitoring either progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease or response to antiviral therapy. Ideal properties of viral markers are that they are present in all HIV-infected persons at all stages of disease, that they are related to disease pathogenesis, that they can be easily quantitated, that this quantitation correlates rapidly and predictably with both disease stage and response to antivirals, and that they can be developed into rapid, reproducible automated tests. Currently available viral markers include HIV p24 antigenemia (after acid glycine dissociation), anti-p24 antibody titres, quantitative DNA and RNA polymerase chain reaction performed on cells and plasma, and HIV isolate phenotype. In Australia, these markers have been studied in acute HIV seroconversion, in neonatal infection, in body fluids other than blood, and in monitoring of response to antiviral drug therapy.

  13. LiveGantt: Interactively Visualizing a Large Manufacturing Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jaemin; Huh, Jaeseok; Park, Jonghun; Kim, Bohyoung; Seo, Jinwook

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce LiveGantt as a novel interactive schedule visualization tool that helps users explore highly-concurrent large schedules from various perspectives. Although a Gantt chart is the most common approach to illustrate schedules, currently available Gantt chart visualization tools suffer from limited scalability and lack of interactions. LiveGantt is built with newly designed algorithms and interactions to improve conventional charts with better scalability, explorability, and reschedulability. It employs resource reordering and task aggregation to display the schedules in a scalable way. LiveGantt provides four coordinated views and filtering techniques to help users explore and interact with the schedules in more flexible ways. In addition, LiveGantt is equipped with an efficient rescheduler to allow users to instantaneously modify their schedules based on their scheduling experience in the fields. To assess the usefulness of the application of LiveGantt, we conducted a case study on manufacturing schedule data with four industrial engineering researchers. Participants not only grasped an overview of a schedule but also explored the schedule from multiple perspectives to make enhancements.

  14. Germplasm-regression-combined marker-trait association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Key words: Association analysis, marker assisted selection (MAS), molecular marker, quantitative trait, ... For these reasons, plant .... forage yield and seven markers ..... because of the death of sea buckthorn plantations from.

  15. Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Prostate 35: 185-192, 1998 osteoblasts on prostate carcinoma proliferation and chemo- 32. Trikha M, Cai Y, Grignon D, Honn KV: Identification taxis ...Markers for Human Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bruce R. Zetter, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Children’s Hospital Boston, Massachusetts...March 2001 Final (1 Sep 98 - 28 Feb 01) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer DAMD17-98-1

  16. Identification of Carnation varieties using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, P.F.P.; Esselink, G.; Noordijk, Y.; Kodde, L.P.; Hof, L.; Wietsma, W.A.; Vosman, B.

    2009-01-01

    As in many ornamentals, also in carnation the number of varieties in common knowledge is large and identification throughout the chain from breeder to consumer using plant material from different stages and organs may be needed. Results in this study on the use of microsatellite markers from Dianthus caryophyllus L. for the characterization of carnation varieties as well as the construction and evaluation of a molecular database show that these markers show potential for identification purposes

  17. Serum tumour markers in malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Pallavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignancy of the body cavities with dismal prognosis. It has been a diagnostic dilemma for years with many clinical and pathological mimics. Discovery of a reliable tumour marker will definitely be of value in screening individuals with a history of asbestos exposure, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of malignant mesothelioma. Many tumour markers have been studied and speculatively associated with the malignant mesothelioma, but much still needs to be proven.

  18. Effect of Air Pollutant Markers on Multiple Sclerosis Relapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mehrpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is one of the autoimmune diseases with an unknown cause. The aim of this study was to explore the link between air quality and MS relapses in patients who suffer from MS.This time-series study was conducted on patients registered at the Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society in 2011-2012. They were randomly selected from patients lived in Tehran in the last five years, and had at least one relapse in the last three years. The link between monthly mean air pollutant levels and the relapses of MS in the participants was studied.Among the registered 160 participants, at least 150 had one attack during 2009 and 2012. Most air pollutants such as NO2, NO and CO are in high levels in the rainy season. Others like Pm10 and Nox are in high levels in the dry season. The correlation between NO2 levels of all markers of air quality and MS relapses (P=0.03, r=0.27 is weak. Best ARIMA model (p,d,q; 1,0,1 was determined between number of monthly relapses and living place, although this model was not significant (P=0.3 (AR; P=0.000, MA;P=0.4.Air pollutants might be regarded as a risk factor for MS relapse.

  19. Solo Living - the meaning of home for persons living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    Like in other countries, the number of people living in one-person households is growing in Denmark. Within the last three decades, the share of the Danish population living alone has increased from 16.1% in 1981 to 22.9% in 2006. The increase has been particularly marked for the young adults aged...... 18-29 years and the "mature adults" aged 30-60 years. As Danish housing is generally designed for families rather than one-person households, this raises the analytical  questions of how particularly the 30-60 years-old solo livers experience and shape their dwelling and how they integrate...... it into their everyday practices. The paper discusses these questions on the basis of qualitative interviews with solo livers aged 30-60 years. The study shows that solo livers to a great extent experience and use their dwelling in ways similar to persons living in family households. However, differences are also...

  20. Living Well with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Living Well with Sickle Cell Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir People with sickle cell disease can live full lives and enjoy most of ...

  1. Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease Past Issues / ... Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment / Four Inches and Seven Pounds… / Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten- ...

  2. Comparison of a retrotransposon-based marker with microsatellite markers for discriminating accessions of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, G C; Ferreira, J L; Rocha, H S; Borém, A; Pasqual, M; Cançado, G M A

    2012-05-21

    Identification and knowledge concerning genetic diversity are fundamental for efficient management and use of grapevine germplasm. Recently, new types of molecular markers have been developed, such as retrotransposon-based markers. Because of their multilocus pattern, retrotransposon-based markers might be able to differentiate grapevine accessions with just one pair of primers. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this type of marker, we compared retrotransposon marker Tvv1 with seven microsatellite markers frequently used for genotyping of the genus Vitis (VVMD7, VVMD25, VVMD5, VVMD27, VVMD31, VVS2, and VZAG62). The reference population that we used consisted of 26 accessions of Vitis, including seven European varieties of Vitis vinifera, four North American varieties and hybrids of Vitis labrusca, and 15 rootstock hybrids obtained from crosses of several Vitis species. Individually, the Tvv1 and the group of seven SSR markers were capable of distinguishing all accessions except 'White Niagara' compared to 'Red Niagara'. Using the Structure software, the retrotransposon marker Tvv1 generated two clusters: one with V. vinifera plus North American varieties and the other comprising rootstocks. The seven SSR markers generated five clusters: V. vinifera, the North American varieties, and three groups of rootstock hybrids. The percentages of variation explained by the first two components in the principal coordinate analysis were 65.21 (Tvv1) and 50.42 (SSR markers) while the Mantel correlation between the distance matrixes generated by the two types of markers was 42.5%. We conclude that the Tvv1 marker is useful for DNA fingerprinting, but it lacks efficiency for discrimination of structured groups.

  3. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Linwah

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers including gene expression profiles, somatic gene alterations, and circulating peripheral markers have augmented diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic options for thyroid cancer patients.

  4. Core outcome measures for interventions to prevent or slow the progress of dementia for people living with mild to moderate dementia: Systematic review and consensus recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groskreutz, Derek; Grinbergs-Saull, Anna; Howard, Rob; O’Brien, John T.; Mountain, Gail; Woods, Bob; Perneczky, Robert; McCleery, Jenny; Pickett, James; Challis, David; Charlesworth, Georgina; Featherstone, Katie; Jones, Roy; Schneider, Justine; Shepperd, Sasha; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ballard, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Garrard, Peter; Kehoe, Patrick; Passmore, Peter; Robinson, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Background There are no disease-modifying treatments for dementia. There is also no consensus on disease modifying outcomes. We aimed to produce the first evidence-based consensus on core outcome measures for trials of disease modification in mild-to-moderate dementia. Methods and findings We defined disease-modification interventions as those aiming to change the underlying pathology. We systematically searched electronic databases and previous systematic reviews for published and ongoing trials of disease-modifying treatments in mild-to-moderate dementia. We included 149/22,918 of the references found; with 81 outcome measures from 125 trials. Trials involved participants with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) alone (n = 111), or AD and mild cognitive impairment (n = 8) and three vascular dementia. We divided outcomes by the domain measured (cognition, activities of daily living, biological markers, neuropsychiatric symptoms, quality of life, global). We calculated the number of trials and of participants using each outcome. We detailed psychometric properties of each outcome. We sought the views of people living with dementia and family carers in three cities through Alzheimer’s society focus groups. Attendees at a consensus conference (experts in dementia research, disease-modification and harmonisation measures) decided on the core set of outcomes using these results. Recommended core outcomes were cognition as the fundamental deficit in dementia and to indicate disease modification, serial structural MRIs. Cognition should be measured by Mini Mental State Examination or Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale. MRIs would be optional for patients. We also made recommendations for measuring important, but non-core domains which may not change despite disease modification. Limitations Most trials were about AD. Specific instruments may be superseded. We searched one database for psychometric properties. Interpretation This is the first review to

  5. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  6. Video fingerprinting for live events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet; Haitsma, Jaap; Barvinko, Pavlo; Langelaar, Gerhard; Maas, Martijn

    2009-02-01

    Multimedia fingerprinting (robust hashing) as a content identification technology is emerging as an effective tool for preventing unauthorized distribution of commercial content through user generated content (UGC) sites. Research in the field has mainly considered content types with slow distribution cycles, e.g. feature films, for which reference fingerprint ingestion and database indexing can be performed offline. As a result, research focus has been on improving the robustness and search speed. Live events, such as live sports broadcasts, impose new challenges on a fingerprinting system. For instance, highlights from a soccer match are often available-and viewed-on UGC sites well before the end of the match. In this scenario, the fingerprinting system should be able to ingest and index live content online and offer continuous search capability, where new material is identifiable within minutes of broadcast. In this paper, we concentrate on algorithmic and architectural challenges we faced when developing a video fingerprinting solution for live events. In particular, we discuss how to effectively utilize fast sorting algorithms and a master-slave architecture for fast and continuous ingestion of live broadcasts.

  7. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  8. Information use in colonial living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Julian C; Votier, Stephen C; Dall, Sasha R X

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that many animals live in groups, there is still no clear consensus about the ecological or evolutionary mechanisms underlying colonial living. Recently, research has suggested that colonies may be important as sources of social information. The ready availability of information from conspecifics allows animals to make better decisions about avoiding predators, reducing brood parasitism, migratory phenology, mate choice, habitat choice and foraging. These choices can play a large part in the development and maintenance of colonies. Here we review the types of information provided by colonial animals and examine the different ways in which decision-making in colonies can be enhanced by social information. We discuss what roles information might take in the evolution, formation and maintenance of colonies. In the process, we illustrate that information use permeates all aspects of colonial living.

  9. Electronic Interfacing with Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James T.

    The direct interfacing of living cells with inorganic electronic materials, components or systems has led to the development of two broad categories of devices that can (1) transduce biochemical signals generated by biological components into electrical signals and (2) transduce electronically generated signals into biochemical signals. The first category of devices permits the monitoring of living cells, the second, enables control of cellular processes. This review will survey this exciting area with emphasis on the fundamental issues and obstacles faced by researchers. Devices and applications that use both prokaryotic (microbial) and eukaryotic (mammalian) cells will be covered. Individual devices described include microbial biofuel cells that produce electricity, bioelectrical reactors that enable electronic control of cellular metabolism, living cell biosensors for the detection of chemicals and devices that permit monitoring and control of mammalian physiology.

  10. The Living Challenges of Ambient Assisted Living - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is a rapidly evolving research and development area propelled by scarcity of health resources caused by an aging workforce and increase of Citizens in need of health care and health assistance on a regular basis. This paper presents a literature review of the current...

  11. The Living Challenges of Ambient Assisted Living - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is a rapidly evolving research and development area propelled by scarcity of health resources caused by an aging workforce and increase of Citizens in need of health care and health assistance on a regular basis. This paper presents a literature review of the current...

  12. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy for clients with chronic stroke: interrupted time series (ITS) design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JuHyung; Lee, NaYun; Cho, YongHo; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that modified constraint-induced movement therapy has on upper extremity function and the daily life of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was conduct for 2 stroke patients with hemiplegia. It was performed 5 days a week for 2 weeks, and the participants performed their daily living activities wearing mittens for 6 hours a day, including the 2 hours of the therapy program. The assessment was conducted 5 times in 3 weeks before and after intervention. The upper extremity function was measured using the box and block test and a dynamometer, and performance daily of living activities was assessed using the modified Barthel index. The results were analyzed using a scatterplot and linear regression. [Results] All the upper extremity functions of the participants all improved after the modified constraint-induced movement therapy. Performance of daily living activities by participant 1 showed no change, but the results of participant 2 had improved after the intervention. [Conclusion] Through the results of this research, it was identified that modified constraint-induced movement therapy is effective at improving the upper extremity functions and the performance of daily living activities of chronic stroke patients.

  13. Intravitreal live adult Brugian filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Nageswar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human ocular infestation by live filarial worm is a rare occurrence and has been reported mostly form South-East Asia. It involves the eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber and uvea. No case of intravitreal Brugian microfilaria / adult worm has been found by Medline search. Here we report a case of live intravitreal adult Brugian filaria, where the parasite was successfully removed by pars plana vitrectomy. Identification of the worm was done by light microscopy and confirmed by immuno chromatographic test.

  14. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Woo

    Full Text Available Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, α-, γ-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice.

  15. Astronomy Cast Live: Live Blogging Today's Science to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrose-Fetter, Rebecca; Gay, P. L.; Astronomy Cast LIVE Team

    2008-05-01

    In today's digital, on-demand society, consumers of information both want to know exactly what is happening as it is happening, and to be able to subscribe to content of their choosing. Meeting the needs of these tech savvy individuals are bloggers, podcasters and vodcasters. Using text, audio, and video to reach their respective audiences, these communicators are the new face of public outreach and journalism, but even their communications means are starting to become passé in the face of live blogging. The idea behind live blogging is simple: Take any person - even an undergraduate - with an Internet connected device, put them someplace interesting, and have them report on what they are seeing and experiencing online in real-time. This new tool is bringing astronomy enthusiasts around the world the thrill of live astronomy announcements, attending talks in real, and being "in the room" with astronomers via an Internet connection. These audiences can be anyone, from any nation, with any age. Beyond the public communications benefits of this program, it is also a program that allows the participation of early undergraduate students in science conferences. To date, two undergraduate students and five E/PO professionals have live blogged text, audio, and video content from three science conferences and a shuttle launch. Together, they have produced over 200 hundred stories that have reached tens of thousands of people around the world. In this poster we describe how we have made astronomy live blogging a reality from both the technical and personal standpoint. This project is funded through NSF grant # 0744944.

  16. Development of a Simple and Efficient System for Excising Selectable Markers in Arabidopsis Using a Minimal Promoter::Cre Fusion Construct

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The development of rapid and efficient strategies to generate selectable marker-free transgenic plants could help increase the consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) plants. To produce marker-free transgenic plants without conditional treatment or the genetic crossing of offspring, we have developed a rapid and convenient DNA excision method mediated by the Cre/loxP recombination system under the control of a -46 minimal CaMV 35S promoter. The results of a transient expression assay...

  17. Anticipatory Mechanisms in Evolutionary Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals firstly with a revisiting of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Darwin in his book never uses the word "evolution", but shows a clear position about mutability of species. Darwin's Natural Selection was mainly inspired by the anticipatory Artificial Selection by humans in domestication, and the Malthus struggle for existence. Darwin showed that the struggle for existence leads to the preservation of the most divergent offspring of any one species. He cited several times the canon of "Natura non facit saltum". He spoke about the origin of life from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. Finally, Darwin made anticipation about the future researches in psychology. This paper cites the work of Ernst Mayr who was the first, after 90 years of an intense scientific debate, to present a new and stable Darwinian paradigm as the "Evolutionary Synthesis" in 1942. To explain what is life, the Living Systems Theory (LST) by J. G. Miller is presented. It is showed that the Autopoietic Systems Theory of Varela et al is also a fundamental component of living systems. In agreement with Darwin, the natural selection is a necessary condition for transformation of biological systems, but is not a sufficient condition. Thus, in this paper we conjecture that an anticipatory evolutionary mechanism exists with the genetic code that is a self-replicating and self-modifying anticipatory program. As demonstrated by Nobel laureate McClintock, evolution in genomes is programmed. The word "program" comes from "pro-gram" meaning to write before, by anticipation, and means a plan for the programming of a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions, as genes of behavioural responses, that is part of an organism. For example, cell death may be programmed by what is called the apoptosis. This definitively is a great breakthrough in our understanding of biological evolution. Hence

  18. Tumor markers in breast cancer- European Group on Tumor Markers recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Rafael; Barak, Vivian; van Dalen, Arie

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations are presented for the routine clinical use of serum and tissue-based markers in the diagnosis and management of patients with breast cancer. Their low sensitivity and specificity preclude the use of serum markers such as the MUC-1 mucin glycoproteins (CA 15.3, BR 27.29) and carcin...

  19. Prognostic markers for bladder cancer: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habuchi, T.; Marberger, M.; Droller, M.J.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Grossman, H.B.; Schalken, J.A.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Murphy, W.M.; Bono, A.V.; Goebell, P.; Getzenberg, R.H.; Hautmann, S.H.; Messing, E.; Fradet, Y.; Lokeshwar, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    The International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers evaluated markers that have the ability to predict tumor recurrence, progression, development of metastases, or response to therapy or patient survival. This article summarizes those findings. The panel mainly reviewed articles

  20. Science for Life and Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Landes, Nancy M.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an elementary school science program developed by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study entitled "Science for Life and Living: Integrating Science, Technology and Health." Discussed are the rationale, unifying themes, organization, teaching model, implementation, development, production, and support for this program. (CW)

  1. Men's Role and Men's Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James B.

    1978-01-01

    The growing literature on men is clearly a response to the cultural ferment generated by feminism. However, as in the discussion of women's lives since the first advent of feminism, centuries of assumptions do not give way readily to appropriate scientific skepticism. (Author/MC)

  2. Living Fossil’ Found

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fishermen in east China’s Anhui Province have found a wild Chinese alligator, often re- ferred to as a "living fossil," local authorities said. The 20-kg reptile was captured in a pond in Wanshou Village, Wuhu County, on June 23, while villagers were fishing. It was believed to

  3. Coelacanths as 'almost living fossils’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eCavin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its usage by Darwin in 1859, the concept of ‘living fossil’ has undergone multiple definitions and has been much discussed and criticized. Soon after its discovery in 1938, the coelacanth Latimeria was regarded as the iconic example of a ‘living fossil’. Several morphological studies have shown that the coelacanth lineage (Actinistia has not displayed critical morphological transformation during its evolutionary history and molecular studies have revealed a low substitution rate for Latimeria, indicating a slow genetic evolution. This statement, however, has been recently questioned by arguing that the low substitution rate was not real, and that the slow morphological evolution of actinistians was not supported by paleontological evidence. The assessment of morphological transformation among three vertebrate lineages during a time interval of circa 400 million years shows that the morphological disparity of coelacanths is much more reduced than the morphological disparity of Actinopterygii and Tetrapoda. These results support the idea that living coelacanths are singular organisms among the living world.

  4. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  5. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  6. Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

  7. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  8. Attitude toward living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L.; Ramis, G.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Quereda, J.J.; Herrero-Medrano, J.M.; Mrowiec, A.; Mendonça, L.; López-Navas, A.; Ríos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was

  9. Investigating Evolution with Living Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessman, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes two investigative labs that use live plants to illustrate important biological principles, include quantitative analysis, and require very little equipment. Each lab is adaptable to a variety of class sizes, course contents, and student backgrounds. Topics include the evolution of flower size in Mimulus and pollination of Brassicas. (DDR)

  10. The Living Rainforest Sustainable Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de H.F.; Hansen, K.; Logan, A.; Witte Groenholland, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Living Rainforest (www.livingrainforest.org) is an educational charity that uses rainforest ecology as a metaphor for communicating general sustainability issues to the public. Its greenhouses and office buildings are to be renovated using the most sustainable methods currently available. This w

  11. Educating Lives for Christian Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darin H.; Wadell, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how educating lives for Christian wisdom might serve as an antidote to the vice of "acedia," a prominent feature of the culture of contemporary higher education. After suggesting that the capital vice of "acedia" seems to capture well various facets of our present age and how the pursuit of wisdom serves…

  12. Investigating Evolution with Living Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessman, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes two investigative labs that use live plants to illustrate important biological principles, include quantitative analysis, and require very little equipment. Each lab is adaptable to a variety of class sizes, course contents, and student backgrounds. Topics include the evolution of flower size in Mimulus and pollination of Brassicas. (DDR)

  13. Resensi Buku: The Living Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Chairina Laksmi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Book ReviewJudul buku    : The Living CompanyPenulis    : Arie de GeusPengantar    : Peter M. SengePenerbit    : Harvard Business School PressTahun terbit    : 1997Tebal    : xiv + 214 hal

  14. Tuning SERS for living erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Parshina, E.Y.; Khabanova, V.V.;

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a unique technique to study submembrane hemoglobin (Hbsm) in erythrocytes. We report the detailed design of SERS experiments on living erythrocytes to estimate dependence of the enhancemen t factor for main Raman bands of Hbsm on silver nanoparticle (Ag...

  15. DNA Markers for Food Products Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Scarano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Media constantly refer of unscrupulous producers that adulterate, alter or replace premium products in food chains with the goal to maximize illegally profits. Food traceability is a central issue for the identification of improper labeling of processed food and feed and there are rules aimed to protect consumers and producers against fraudulent substitution of quality products in food chain, but the tools available are not always appropriate. DNA-based markers proved very effective for fresh and processed food molecular authentication. In this review, we illustrate potential and limits of different DNA markers focusing on low, medium and high-throughput markers, in order to monitor the genetic identity of food components in meat, fish and plants net-chains.

  16. Monitoring of alcohol markers by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslavska, Jitka; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Work dealing with the monitoring of alcohol markers by CE performed during the past two decades led to the development of assays for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), ethyl sulfate, ethyl glucuronide, and phosphatidylethanol in body fluids and first attempts for the detection of the urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ratio and stable hemoglobin acetaldehyde adducts. Most notably are assays for CDT that have been commercialized and are being used in many laboratories under routine conditions. This paper provides insight into the development, specifications, and use of the currently known CE-based assays suitable to detect alcohol markers. The achievements reached so far indicate that CE is an attractive technology for monitoring alcohol markers. This is particularly seen with the CDT assays that do not require an elaborate sample pretreatment and thus could be fully automated for high-throughput analyses on multicapillary instruments.

  17. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.

    2010-01-01

    Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular...... was the topic of a recent European plant breeding workshop. The participants evaluated strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the use of molecular markers and we formalized their inputs into breeder’s perspectives and perspectives seen from the organic sector’s standpoint. Clear strengths were...... markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture...

  18. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhulu Ragimekula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feeding ever-increasing population is the main challenge faced by the agricultural scientists and to meet this plant breeders have to put continuous efforts to develop new crop varieties on fast track basis. DNA based polymorphism, commonly known as DNA markers can be used for genetic improvement through selection for favourable traits such as disease resistance. Molecular markers are becoming an essential component in backcross breeding programs for tracking the resistance genes in gene pyramiding. Marker assisted selection (MAS, is expected to increase genetic response by affecting efficiency and accuracy of selection. Even though marker-assisted selection now plays a prominent role in the field of plant breeding, examples of successful, practical outcomes are rare. MAS, with few exceptions, has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding. It is clear that DNA markers hold great promise, but realizing that promise remains elusive. The economic and biological constraints such as a low return of investment in small-grain cereal breeding, lack of diagnostic markers, and the prevalence of QTL-background effects hinder the broad implementation of MAS. Until complex traits can be fully dissected, the application of MAS will be limited to genes of moderate-to-large effect and to applications that do not endanger the response to conventional selection. Till then, observable phenotype will remain an important component of genetic improvement programmes, because it takes in to account the collective effect of all genes. In future, chip-based, high-throughput genotyping platforms and the introduction of genomic selection will reduce the current problems of integrating MAS in practical breeding programs and open new avenues for a molecular-based resistance breeding.

  19. A Review of Living Collections with Special Emphasis on Sustainability and Its Impact on Research Across Multiple Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Formal living collections have unique characteristics that distinguish them from other types of biorepositories. Comprising diverse resources, microbe culture collections, crop and biodiversity plant germplasm collections, and animal germplasm repositories are commonly allied with specific research communities or stakeholder groups. Among living collections, microbial culture collections have very long and unique life histories, with some being older than 100 years. Regulatory, financial, and technical developments have impacted living collections in many ways. International treaty obligations and restrictions on release of genetically modified organisms complicate the activities of living collections. Funding for living collections is a continuing challenge and threatens to create a two-tier system where medically relevant collections are well funded and all other collections are underfunded and hence understaffed. Molecular, genetic, and whole genome sequence analysis of contents of microbes and other living resource collections bring additional value to living collections. PMID:27869477

  20. Electromagnetic waves and living cells: A kinetic thermodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Cells are complex thermodynamic systems. Their energy transfer, thermo-electro-chemical processes and transports phenomena can occur across the cells membranes, the border of the complex system. Moreover, cells can also actively modify their behaviours in relation to any change of their environment. All the living systems waste heat, which is no more than the result of their internal irreversibility. This heat is dissipated into their environment. But, this wasted heat represents also a sort of information, which outflows from the cell towards its environment, completely accessible to any observer. The analysis of irreversibility related to this wasted heat can represent a new useful approach to the study of the cells behaviour. This approach allows us to consider the living systems as black boxes and analyse only the inflows and outflows and their changes in relation to any environmental change. This analysis allows also the explanation of the effects of electromagnetic fields on the cell behaviour.