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Sample records for modified intra-cerebral challenge

  1. Comparison between Modified Neuroendoscopy and Craniotomy Evacuation of Spontaneous Intra-Cerebral Hemorrhages: Study of Clinical Outcome and Glasgow Outcome Score

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    Arie Ibrahim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purposes: Stroke is still one of a leading health-care problem in industrial country and in the developing country. Spontaneous Intra-cerebral Hemorrhage accounts for 30–60% of all stroke admissions into a hospital. Presence of intra-cerebral hemorrhage is considered a poor prognostic factor due to the resultant obstruction to the mass effect following the presence of blood resulting in raised intracranial pressure. While the craniotomy procedure failed to show more benefits over functional outcome, a less invasive and quicker surgical decompression might improve the outcome. Neuroendoscopy is one of promising optional  on minimal invasive  treatment  for spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Material and Methods: We evaluated Glasgow Outcome Score and clinical outcome of patients with Spontaneous Intra-cerebral Hemorrhage who underwent modified neuroendoscopic surgery and craniotomy. Randomized control trial was performed during 27 months in 43 patients. Twenty-five patients treated with neuroendoscopy surgery and 18 patients with craniotomy. The removal of intra-cerebral hemorrhage was done by a modified neuroendoscopic transparent sheath made of silastic material, derived from pieces of thoracic tube No. 21F as a conduit working channel. Results: We analyzed statistically, clinical outcome assessment and Glasgow Outcome Scale 6 months post operative follow-up period. The mortality rate was significantly higher by Pearson chi-square methods, in craniotomy group n=12 (63.2% compared with neuroendoscopy group, n=7 (36.8% (p<.005. Patients with Glasgow Outcome Scale score 3–5 was higher in neuroendoscopy group, n=18 (75% compared with craniotomy group n=6 (25%. The survival rate analyzed by Kaplan Meier methods, found that patients in the neuroendoscopy group were a significantly longer survival rate compare with the craniotomy group during 6 months post operative follow-up period. Conclusions: Treatment of spontaneous

  2. Genetically Modified Products – Contradictions and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Pamfilie; Lavinia-Alexandra Cristescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the perception that consumers have about GM products, also taking into consideration the evolution of consumption and production of products based on genetically modified organisms. Therefore, the paper presents both aspects to clarify the concept of genetically modified organism (GMO issues such as typology, national or international regulations regarding this area) and global market development of genetically modified organisms, evolution which is presented by st...

  3. Spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage: A retrospective study of risk factors and outcome in a Turkish population

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    Asuman Celikbilek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Stroke, which remains the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer in developed countries, is a disorder causing permanent neurologic disability. Even though, hemorrhagic strokes are seen less than the ischemic type, they are more fatal. We studied the risk factors for spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH to direct the proper preventive treatment modalities and the effects of these factors on mortality as well as applied therapeutic strategies on survival. Materials and Methods: The archive records of 106 patients (60 male, 46 female who were diagnosed with spontaneous ICH in Baskent University Hospital, Ankara, between January 2003 and September 2008, were assessed retrospectively. Results: The mean age was found as 62.5. The most frequent risk factor was hypertension (73.5%; 69.2% of these hypertensive patients had uncontrolled blood pressure levels. The mortality rate was detected as 34.9% and patients were found to die approximately within 9 days after ICH. Older age, increased hemorrhage volume, ventricular extension of hemorrhage, and the presence of midline shift were found to significantly correlate with increased mortality (P < 0.05. Patients who underwent surgical therapy showed a longer survival rate (P = 0.016; however, no association was found between medical and surgical therapy in terms of mortality (P = 0.555. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that effective control of blood pressure is important in the prevention of spontaneous ICH; clinical and radiological findings with treatment modalities influencing mortality should be carefully managed.

  4. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

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    Michaela Sharpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

  5. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges.

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    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

  6. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

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    Chun Yan Gong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hectares of genetically modified (GM crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. Omics techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

  7. Genetically Modified Foods: Promises, Challenges and Safety Assessments

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    Manouchehr Dadgarnejad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Application of genetically modified organisms in the agriculture sector and food industry began since last years of 20th century. Since then this technology has become a central part of the broader public controversy about the advantages and safety of these products. This article has tried to review aspects of these types of organisms and foods.Results and Conclusion: Genetically modified technology has potential to overcome agricultural problems, such as biotic and abiotic issues by enhancing pests and herbicides resistance, drought tolerance, fast ripening, and finally enhancing yield and nutritional quality. Besides these revolutionary advantages, during the last decades some potential human, animal and environmental risks have been taken in account for these organisms or foods. However, no scientific evidence exists adequately about their harmful human or animal effects, and also, some new scientific and management methodologies (new technologies and regulations have been developed to mitigate the environmental risks. Some challenges such as pest adaptation are being solved by refuge technology, gene pyramiding and insertion of best-coupled primers through the known conditions reducing unintended outcomes including silencing, activation or rearrangement of non-target genome pieces. However, it does not mean that no harmful effect will happen in the future. Therefore, it is required that before release of any genetically modified crop, all requested risk assessments be performed, and then post release monitoring be done to follow the possible gene flow and prevent any potential disastrous contaminations to the food chain. Finally, it could be concluded that the safe usage of this technology, by considering all nationally and internationally accepted environmental and health safety assessment protocols, can help us to use advantages of this technology in agriculture, medicine and industry. However, more safety

  8. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  9. Genetically modified crops and small-scale farmers: main opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Samiee, Atry; Mahmoudi, Hossein; Jouzi, Zeynab; Rafiaani Khachak, Parisa; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Although some important features of genetically modified (GM) crops such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and drought tolerance might seem to be beneficial for small-scale farmers, the adoption of GM technology by smallholders is still slight. Identifying pros and cons of using this technology is important to understand the impacts of GM crops on these farmers. This article reviews the main opportunities and challenges of GM crops for small-scale farmers in developing countrie...

  10. Genetically modified crops and small-scale farmers: main opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Samiee, Atry; Mahmoudi, Hossein; Jouzi, Zeynab; Khachak, Parisa Rafiaani; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although some important features of genetically modified (GM) crops such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and drought tolerance might seem to be beneficial for small-scale farmers, the adoption of GM technology by smallholders is still slight. Identifying pros and cons of using this technology is important to understand the impacts of GM crops on these farmers. This article reviews the main opportunities and challenges of GM crops for small-scale farmers in developing countries. The most significant advantages of GM crops include being independent to farm size, environment protection, improvement of occupational health issues, and the potential of bio-fortified crops to reduce malnutrition. Challenges faced by small-scale farmers for adoption of GM crops comprise availability and accessibility of GM crop seeds, seed dissemination and price, and the lack of adequate information. In addition, R&D and production costs in using GM crops make it difficult for these farmers to adopt the use of these crops. Moreover, intellectual property right regulations may deprive resource poor farmers from the advantages of GM technology. Finally, concerns on socio-economic and environment safety issues are also addressed in this paper.

  11. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesing, Joseph E; Andres, David; Braverman, Michael P; Burns, Andrea; Felsot, Allan S; Harrigan, George G; Hellmich, Richard L; Reynolds, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Jansen van Rijssen, Wilna; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-20

    Advances in biotechnology continue to drive the development of a wide range of insect-protected, herbicide-tolerant, stress-tolerant, and nutritionally enhanced genetically modified (GM) crops, yet societal and public policy considerations may slow their commercialization. Such restrictions may disproportionately affect developing countries, as well as smaller entrepreneurial and public sector initiatives. The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, CA, USA; August 2014) included a symposium on "Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology" to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included (i) poor public understanding of GM technology and the need for enhanced communication strategies, (ii) nonharmonized and prescriptive regulatory requirements, and (iii) limited experience with regulations and product development within some public sector programs. The need for holistic resistance management programs to enable the most effective use of insect-protected crops was also a point of emphasis. This paper provides details on the symposium discussion and provides background information that can be used in support of further adoption of beneficial GM crops. Overall, it emphasizes that global adoption of modern agricultural biotechnology has not only provided benefits to growers and consumers but has great potential to provide solutions to an increasing global population and diminishing agricultural land. This potential will be realized by continued scientific innovation, harmonized regulatory systems, and broader communication of the benefits of the high-yielding, disease-resistant, and nutritionally enhanced crops attainable through modern biotechnology.

  12. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombriser, Lucas, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk; Lima, Nelson A.

    2017-02-10

    With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar–tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar–tensor modification of gravity.

  13. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Lima, Nelson A.

    2017-02-01

    With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar-tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar-tensor modification of gravity.

  14. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lombriser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar–tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar–tensor modification of gravity.

  15. Tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary IntraCerebral Haemorrhage (TICH-2): an international randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 superiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, Nikola; Flaherty, Katie; Appleton, Jason P; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Bereczki, Daniel; Beridze, Maia; Christensen, Hanne; Ciccone, Alfonso; Collins, Ronan; Czlonkowska, Anna; Dineen, Robert A; Duley, Lelia; Egea-Guerrero, Juan Jose; England, Timothy J; Krishnan, Kailash; Laska, Ann Charlotte; Law, Zhe Kang; Ozturk, Serefnur; Pocock, Stuart J; Roberts, Ian; Robinson, Thompson G; Roffe, Christine; Seiffge, David; Scutt, Polly; Thanabalan, Jegan; Werring, David; Whynes, David; Bath, Philip M

    2018-05-26

    Tranexamic acid can prevent death due to bleeding after trauma and post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether tranexamic acid reduces haematoma expansion and improves outcome in adults with stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage. We did an international, randomised placebo-controlled trial in adults with intracerebral haemorrhage from acute stroke units at 124 hospital sites in 12 countries. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid bolus followed by an 8 h infusion of 1 g tranexamic acid or a matching placebo, within 8 h of symptom onset. Randomisation was done centrally in real time via a secure website, with stratification by country and minimisation on key prognostic factors. Treatment allocation was concealed from patients, outcome assessors, and all other health-care workers involved in the trial. The primary outcome was functional status at day 90, measured by shift in the modified Rankin Scale, using ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for stratification and minimisation criteria. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN93732214. We recruited 2325 participants between March 1, 2013, and Sept 30, 2017. 1161 patients received tranexamic acid and 1164 received placebo; the treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The primary outcome was assessed for 2307 (99%) participants. The primary outcome, functional status at day 90, did not differ significantly between the groups (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·76-1·03, p=0·11). Although there were fewer deaths by day 7 in the tranexamic acid group (101 [9%] deaths in the tranexamic acid group vs 123 [11%] deaths in the placebo group; aOR 0·73, 0·53-0·99, p=0·0406), there was no difference in case fatality at 90 days (250 [22%] vs 249 [21%]; adjusted hazard ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·77-1·10, p=0·37). Fewer patients had serious adverse events after tranexamic

  16. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); I. Kondova (Ivanela); R.F. van Lavieren (Rob); F.H. Pistoor (Frank); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben); L. Mateo (Luis); P.J. Chaplin (Paul); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe use of classical smallpox vaccines based on vaccinia virus (VV) is associated with severe complications in both naive and immune individuals. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated replication-deficient strain of VV, has been proven to be safe in humans and

  17. Dental implants modified with drug releasing titania nanotubes: therapeutic potential and developmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Karan; Ivanovski, Sašo

    2017-08-01

    The transmucosal nature of dental implants presents a unique therapeutic challenge, requiring not only rapid establishment and subsequent maintenance of osseointegration, but also the formation of resilient soft tissue integration. Key challenges in achieving long-term success are sub-optimal bone integration in compromised bone conditions and impaired trans-mucosal tissue integration in the presence of a persistent oral microbial biofilm. These challenges can be targeted by employing a drug-releasing implant modification such as TiO 2 nanotubes (TNTs), engineered on titanium surfaces via electrochemical anodization. Areas covered: This review focuses on applications of TNT-based dental implants towards achieving optimal therapeutic efficacy. Firstly, the functions of TNT implants will be explored in terms of their influence on osseointegration, soft tissue integration and immunomodulation. Secondly, the developmental challenges associated with such implants are reviewed including sterilization, stability and toxicity. Expert opinion: The potential of TNTs is yet to be fully explored in the context of the complex oral environment, including appropriate modulation of alveolar bone healing, immune-inflammatory processes, and soft tissue responses. Besides long-term in vivo assessment under masticatory loading conditions, investigating drug-release profiles in vivo and addressing various technical challenges are required to bridge the gap between research and clinical dentistry.

  18. Electroless copper plating on 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane modified PET fabric challenged by ultrasonic washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yinxiang

    2009-01-01

    Electroless deposition of Cu on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric modified with 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane was investigated. Morphology, composition, structure, thermal decomposing behavior of copper coating PET fabric after ultrasonic washing in water for 1 h were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectrometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. Copper plating on modified fabric has good adherence stability and high electric conductivity before and after ultrasonic washing, while copper coating fabric without modification is easily destroyed during the washing process, which leads to the textile changing from conductor to dielectric. As the copper weight on the treated fabric is 28 g/m 2 , the shielding effectiveness (SE) is more than 54 dB at frequency ranging from 0.01 MHz to 18 GHz.

  19. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. An overview of genetically modified crop governance, issues and challenges in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Johnny; Ismail, Normaz Wana; Djama, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    The application of agricultural biotechnology attracts the interest of many stakeholders. Genetically modified (GM) crops, for example, have been rapidly increasing in production for the last 20 years. Despite their known benefits, GM crops also pose many concerns not only to human and animal health but also to the environment. Malaysia, in general, allows the use of GM technology applications but it has to come with precautionary and safety measures consistent with the international obligations and domestic legal frameworks. This paper provides an overview of GM crop technology from international and national context and explores the governance and issues surrounding this technology application in Malaysia. Basically, GM research activities in Malaysia are still at an early stage of research and development and most of the GM crops approved for release are limited for food, feed and processing purposes. Even though Malaysia has not planted any GM crops commercially, actions toward such a direction seem promising. Several issues concerning GM crops as discussed in this paper will become more complex as the number of GM crops and varieties commercialised globally increase and Malaysia starts to plant GM crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Contemporary challenges in applying of the modified model CAPM with country risk premium in emerging economies

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    Petrović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern approach in determining the expected return of foreign investors' investments is based on the evaluation investment in capital asset-CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model. In order to use the CAPM model for calculating the expected return of foreign investors in growing economies, it is developed the extended model CAPM with the risk premium in the country. This variant of the CAPM model has been used for estimating the cost of capital. This is the expected return on a portfolio of the company's stocks in less developed countries. Those countries have certain problems and factors of risk investment. This research examines the limitations and shortcomings in the application of the extended model with country risk premium, during the calculation of the cost of capital in the less developed economies. We present possible models to overcome those problems and also a need for upgrading of modified CAPM model with a risk premium of the country which, beside risk of the country (CR must have a discount for the 'advantage of the country'.

  2. Africa's inevitable walk to genetically modified (GM) crops: opportunities and challenges for commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, James A; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Misra, Manjit K; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2013-01-25

    High relative poverty levels in Africa are attributed to the continent's under performing agriculture. Drought, low-yielding crop varieties, pests and diseases, poor soils, low fertilizer use, limited irrigation and lack of modern technologies are among the problems that plague African agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) crops may possess attributes that can help overcome some of these constraints, but have yet to be fully embraced in the mix of technology solutions for African agriculture. Cognizant of this, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt are steadily growing GM crops on a commercial scale. Countries like Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda are increasingly field-testing these crops with the view to commercialize them. These countries show strong government support for GM technology. Progress by these first adopter nations provides an insight as to how GM crops are increasingly being viewed as one of the ways in which the continent can invigorate the agriculture sector and achieve food security. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CAR T Cells in Trials: Recent Achievements and Challenges that Remain in the Production of Modified T Cells for Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Ulrike; Arsenieva, Stanislava; Holzinger, Astrid; Abken, Hinrich

    2018-04-05

    The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells is attracting growing interest for the treatment of malignant diseases. Early trials with anti-CD19 CAR T cells have achieved spectacular remissions in B-cell leukemia and lymphoma, so far refractory, very recently resulting in the Food and Drug Administration approval of CD19 CAR T cells for therapy. With further applications and increasing numbers of patients, the reproducible manufacture of high-quality clinical-grade CAR T cells is becoming an ever greater challenge. New processing techniques, quality-control mechanisms, and logistic developments are required to meet both medical needs and regulatory restrictions. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art in manufacturing CAR T cells and the current challenges that need to be overcome to implement this type of cell therapy in the treatment of a variety of malignant diseases and in a greater number of patients.

  4. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) upon behaviorally challenged incarcerated male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult-to-manage, impulsive, and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. A secondary analysis of a subsample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods, and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for the management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult-to-manage aggressive behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hypoxia Stress Modifies Na/K-ATPase, H/K-ATPase, , and Isoform Expression in the Brain of Immune-Challenged Air-Breathing Fish

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    MC Subhash Peter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA in the brain segments, namely, prosencephalon (PC, mesencephalon (MC, and metencephalon (MeC in an obligate air-breathing fish exposed either to hypoxia stress (30 minutes forced immersion in water or challenged with zymosan treatment (25-200 ng g −1 for 24 hours or both. Zymosan that produced nonspecific immune responses evoked differential regulation of NKA, H + /K + -ATPase (HKA, and Na + / NH 4 + - ATPase (NNA in the varied brain segments. On the contrary, hypoxia stress that demanded activation of NKA in PC and MeC showed a reversed NKA activity pattern in MeC of immune-challenged fish. A compromised HKA and NNA regulation during hypoxia stress was found in immune-challenged fish, indicating the role of these brain ion transporters to hypoxia stress and immune challenges. The differential mRNA expression of α1-subunit isoforms of NKA, nkaα1a , nkaα1b , and nkaα1c , in hypoxia-stressed brain showed a shift in its expression pattern during hypoxia stress-immune interaction in PC and MC. Evidence is thus presented for the first time that ion transporters such as HKA and NNA along with NKA act as functional brain markers which respond differentially to both hypoxia stress and immune challenges. Taken together, the data further provide evidence for a differential Na + , K + , H + , and NH 4 + ion signaling that exists in brain neuronal clusters during hypoxia stress-immune interaction as a result of modified regulations of NKA, HKA, and NNA transporter functions and nkaα1 isoform

  6. Challenges and opportunities in establishing scientific and regulatory standards for determining therapeutic equivalence of modified-release products: Workshop summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling; Shah, Vinod P; Ganes, Derek; Midha, Kamal K; Caro, James; Nambiar, Prabu; Rocci, Mario L; Thombre, Avinash G; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Conner, Dale; Davit, Barbara; Fackler, Paul; Farrell, Colm; Gupta, Suneel; Katz, Russell; Mehta, Mehul; Preskorn, Sheldon H; Sanderink, Gerard; Stavchansky, Salomon; Temple, Robert; Wang, Yaning; Winkle, Helen; Yu, Lawrence

    2010-09-01

    Modified-release (MR) products are complex dosage forms designed to release drug in a controlled manner to achieve the desired efficacy and safety profiles. Inappropriate control of drug release from such products may result in reduced efficacy or increased toxicity. This paper is a summary report of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, International Pharmaceutical Federation, and Product Quality Research Institute workshop titled "Challenges and Opportunities in Establishing Scientific and Regulatory Standards for Assuring Therapeutic Equivalence of Modified Release Products", held October 1-2, 2009, in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop provided an opportunity for pharmaceutical scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to discuss current regulatory expectations and industry practices for evaluating the pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence of oral MR products. In the case of conventional monophasic MR formulations, the current regulatory approaches and criteria for bioequivalence evaluation were considered adequate for the assessment of therapeutic equivalence and inter-changeability of drug products. Additional measures may occasionally be needed to determine the bioequivalence of multiphasic MR products. The metric of partial AUC proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration received broad support as an additional measure for evaluating bioequivalence of multiphasic MR products designed to have a rapid onset of drug action followed by sustained response. The cutoff for partial AUCs may be based on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic/ response characteristics of the products under examination. If the new metric is highly variable, the bioequivalence limits may be set based on the known within-subject variability for the reference product. The current regulatory approaches and criteria for bioequivalence evaluation were considered adequate for the assessment of therapeutic equivalence and

  7. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  8. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  9. Hypoxia Stress Modifies Na+/K+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase, Na+/NH4+-ATPase, and nkaα1 Isoform Expression in the Brain of Immune-Challenged Air-Breathing Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, MC Subhash; Simi, Satheesan

    2017-01-01

    Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) in the brain segments, namely, prosencephalon (PC), mesencephalon (MC), and metencephalon (MeC) in an obligate air-breathing fish exposed either to hypoxia stress (30 minutes forced immersion in water) or challenged with zymosan treatment (25-200 ng g−1 for 24 hours) or both. Zymosan that produced nonspecific immune responses evoked differential regulation of NKA, H+/K+-ATPase (HKA), and Na+/NH4+-ATPase (NNA) in the varied brain segments. On the contrary, hypoxia stress that demanded activation of NKA in PC and MeC showed a reversed NKA activity pattern in MeC of immune-challenged fish. A compromised HKA and NNA regulation during hypoxia stress was found in immune-challenged fish, indicating the role of these brain ion transporters to hypoxia stress and immune challenges. The differential mRNA expression of α1-subunit isoforms of NKA, nkaα1a, nkaα1b, and nkaα1c, in hypoxia-stressed brain showed a shift in its expression pattern during hypoxia stress-immune interaction in PC and MC. Evidence is thus presented for the first time that ion transporters such as HKA and NNA along with NKA act as functional brain markers which respond differentially to both hypoxia stress and immune challenges. Taken together, the data further provide evidence for a differential Na+, K+, H+, and NH4+ ion signaling that exists in brain neuronal clusters during hypoxia stress-immune interaction as a result of modified regulations of NKA, HKA, and NNA transporter functions and nkaα1 isoform regulation. PMID:29238219

  10. Hypoxia Stress Modifies Na+/K+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase, [Formula: see text], and nkaα1 Isoform Expression in the Brain of Immune-Challenged Air-Breathing Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Mc Subhash; Simi, Satheesan

    2017-01-01

    Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) in the brain segments, namely, prosencephalon (PC), mesencephalon (MC), and metencephalon (MeC) in an obligate air-breathing fish exposed either to hypoxia stress (30 minutes forced immersion in water) or challenged with zymosan treatment (25-200 ng g -1 for 24 hours) or both. Zymosan that produced nonspecific immune responses evoked differential regulation of NKA, H + /K + -ATPase (HKA), and [Formula: see text] (NNA) in the varied brain segments. On the contrary, hypoxia stress that demanded activation of NKA in PC and MeC showed a reversed NKA activity pattern in MeC of immune-challenged fish. A compromised HKA and NNA regulation during hypoxia stress was found in immune-challenged fish, indicating the role of these brain ion transporters to hypoxia stress and immune challenges. The differential mRNA expression of α1-subunit isoforms of NKA, nkaα1a , nkaα1b , and nkaα1c , in hypoxia-stressed brain showed a shift in its expression pattern during hypoxia stress-immune interaction in PC and MC. Evidence is thus presented for the first time that ion transporters such as HKA and NNA along with NKA act as functional brain markers which respond differentially to both hypoxia stress and immune challenges. Taken together, the data further provide evidence for a differential Na + , K + , H + , and [Formula: see text] ion signaling that exists in brain neuronal clusters during hypoxia stress-immune interaction as a result of modified regulations of NKA, HKA, and NNA transporter functions and nkaα1 isoform

  11. Modified SEAGULL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuehn, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Original version of program incorporated into program SRGULL (LEW-15093) for use on National Aero-Space Plane project, its duty being to model forebody, inlet, and nozzle portions of vehicle. However, real-gas chemistry effects in hypersonic flow fields limited accuracy of that version, because it assumed perfect-gas properties. As a result, SEAGULL modified according to real-gas equilibrium-chemistry methodology. This program analyzes two-dimensional, hypersonic flows of real gases. Modified version of SEAGULL maintains as much of original program as possible, and retains ability to execute original perfect-gas version.

  12. Patient-tailored multimodal neuroimaging, visualization and quantification of human intra-cerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Sheng-Yang M.; Irimia, Andrei; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.

    2016-03-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the heterogeneity of lesion sizes and types necessitates a variety of imaging modalities to acquire a comprehensive perspective on injury extent. Although it is advantageous to combine imaging modalities and to leverage their complementary benefits, there are difficulties in integrating information across imaging types. Thus, it is important that efforts be dedicated to the creation and sustained refinement of resources for multimodal data integration. Here, we propose a novel approach to the integration of neuroimaging data acquired from human patients with TBI/ICH using various modalities; we also demonstrate the integrated use of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data for TBI analysis based on both visual observations and quantitative metrics. 3D models of healthy-appearing tissues and TBIrelated pathology are generated, both of which are derived from multimodal imaging data. MRI volumes acquired using FLAIR, SWI, and T2 GRE are used to segment pathology. Healthy tissues are segmented using user-supervised tools, and results are visualized using a novel graphical approach called a `connectogram', where brain connectivity information is depicted within a circle of radially aligned elements. Inter-region connectivity and its strength are represented by links of variable opacities drawn between regions, where opacity reflects the percentage longitudinal change in brain connectivity density. Our method for integrating, analyzing and visualizing structural brain changes due to TBI and ICH can promote knowledge extraction and enhance the understanding of mechanisms underlying recovery.

  13. Interfacial Modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ina; French, Roger H.

    2018-03-19

    Our project objective in the first and only Budget Period was to demonstrate the potential of nm-scale organofunctional silane coatings as a method of extending the lifetime of PV materials and devices. Specifically, the target was to double the lifetime performance of a laminated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) cell under real-world and accelerated aging exposure conditions. Key findings are that modification of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films (materials used as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) top contacts) resulted in decreased degradation of optical and electrical properties under damp heat (DH) exposure compared to un-modified AZO. The most significant finding is that modification of the AZO top contact of full CIGS devices resulted in significantly improved properties under DH exposure compared to un-modified devices, by a factor of 4 after 1000 h. Results of this one-year project have demonstrated that surface functionalization is a viable pathway for extending the lifetime of state-of-the-art CIGS devices.

  14. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  15. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual ...

  16. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ... myths Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ...

  17. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  18. Characterization of modified clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosad, J.; Jandl, J.; Woollins, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of clinoptilolite were modified using insoluble hexacyanoferrate from aqueous solution. The modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR and vibrational spectroscopy. The sorption properties of modified clinoptilolite were studied, too. Higher affinity for 137 Cs sorption in comparison with the natural clinoptilolite has been proved. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  20. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding ... in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about ...

  1. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support It takes a village: Building ...

  2. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alliance Our Story Our Vision Our Team Our Leadership Our Results Our Corporate Policies FAQs Careers Contact Us Media Store Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC ...

  3. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit All material contained on ...

  4. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  5. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  6. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  7. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social...

  8. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  9. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  10. Modified Allergens for Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitsuksanoa, Pattraporn; Głobińska, Anna; Jansen, Kirstin; van de Veen, Willem; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2018-02-16

    During the past few decades, modified allergens have been developed for use in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with the aim to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects. This review aims to provide an overview of the different types of modified allergens, their mechanism of action and their potential for improving AIT. In-depth research in the field of allergen modifications as well as the advance of recombinant DNA technology have paved the way for improved diagnosis and research on human allergic diseases. A wide range of structurally modified allergens has been generated including allergen peptides, chemically altered allergoids, adjuvant-coupled allergens, and nanoparticle-based allergy vaccines. These modified allergens show promise for the development of AIT regimens with improved safety and long-term efficacy. Certain modifications ensure reduced IgE reactivity and retained T cell reactivity, which facilities induction of immune tolerance to the allergen. To date, multiple clinical trials have been performed using modified allergens. Promising results were obtained for the modified cat, grass and birch pollen, and house dust mite allergens. The use of modified allergens holds promise for improving AIT efficacy and safety. There is however a need for larger clinical studies to reliably assess the added benefit for the patient of using modified allergens for AIT.

  11. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  12. Modified Nance palatal button

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modified Nance palatal button by which problems encountered in the palatal region around the acrylic button during space closure and molar distalization can be minimized.

  13. Modified microdissection electrocautery needle

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra; Kumar, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Electrocautery is routinely used in surgical procedures. The commercially available microdissection electrocautery needles are costly. To overcome this disadvantage, we have modified monopolar electrocautery tip to function as well as commercially available systems.

  14. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  15. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  16. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  17. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  18. Challenging makerspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Thestrup, Klaus

    This paper takes its departure in the EU-project MakEY - Makerspaces in the early years – enhancing digital literacy and creativity that is part of a H2020 RISE-program and is running January 2017 - June 2019. Here digital literacy and creative skills of young children between the age of 3......-8 will be developed through participation in creative activities in specially-designed spaces termed ‘makerspaces’. This paper discusses, develops and challenges this term in relation to Danish pedagogical traditions, to expanding makerspaces onto the internet and on how to combine narratives and construction....... The Danish part of the project will be undertaken by a small network of partners: DOKK1, a public library and open urban space in Aarhus, that is experimenting with different kind of makerspaces, spaces and encounters between people, The LEGO-LAB situated at Computer Science, Aarhus University, that has...

  19. Chemical and semisynthesis of modified histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play critical roles in the epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by directly altering the biophysical properties of chromatin or by recruiting effector proteins. The large number of PTMs and the inherent complexity in their population and signaling processes make it highly challenging to understand epigenetics-related processes. To address these challenges, accesses to homogeneously modified histones are obligatory. Over the last decade, synthetic protein chemists have been devising novel synthetic tools and applying state-of-the-art chemoselective ligation strategies to prepare precious materials useful in answering fundamental questions in this area. In this short review, we cover some of the recent breakthroughs in these directions in particular the synthesis and semi-synthesis of modified histones and their use to unravel the mysteries of epigenetics. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  1. Modified nasolacrimal duct stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Min; Jin Mei; Chen Huanjun; Li Yi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Traditional nasolacrimal duct stenting possesses some shortcoming including difficulty of pulling ball head guide wire from the nasal cavity with turbinate hypertrophy and nasal septal deviation. The new method of nose-oral tube track establishment can overcome the forementioned and increase the successful rate. Methods: 5 F catheter and arterial sheath were modified to be nasolacrimal duct stent delivery device respectively. Antegrade dacryocystography was taken firstly to display the obstructed site and followed by the modified protocol of inserting the guide wire through nasolacrimal duct and nasal cavity, and establishing the stent delivery track for retrograde stent placement. Results: 5 epiphora patients with failure implantation by traditional method were all succeeded through the modified stenting (100%). During 6-mouth follow-up, no serious complications and reocclusion occurred. Conclusion: The establishment of eye-nose-mouth-nose of external nasal guide wire track can improve the successful rate of nasolacrimal duct stenting. (authors)

  2. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  3. Glomar challenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J P

    1969-01-01

    The Glomar Challenger has a length of 400 ft, a 65-ft beam, and a depth of 27 ft 6-in. She has a draft of 20 ft with a gross displacement of 10,500 long tons. The principal specifications of the vessel are tabulated. To achieve dynamic positioning, 4 fixed thrusters and the vessel's 2 propulsion screws are utilized. The ''fix'' is obtained by placing a sonar beacon, with self contained batteries, on the ocean floor at a selected site. The vessel is provided with 4 hydrophones installed in the hull at the 4 corners of a square. The sonar beacon radiates sound waves at a fixed pulse rate. If the vessel is directly over the beacon, the sound waves will arrive at all hydrophones simultaneously. A difference in time of arrival indicates the vessel is off location. The sound signals received by the hydrophones are fed into a computer. They are changed into coordinate information, which serves as the primary function of determining corrective action by the vessel's propulsion and thruster system. The computer feeds back information into a control system, which enables the propulsion and thrusters to automatically respond, in order to keep the vessel on the predetermined location. The major drilling components are listed. The deep-sea drilling project is described. A summary of the first leg is given in tabular form.

  4. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  5. EAMJ Modifiable 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... MODIFIABLE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ACTIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN A KENYAN PRISON. A. S. Amwayi, MBChB, MSc., ... University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000- 0200, Nairobi, Kenya and E. M. Muchiri, MSc, PhD., Division ..... Diabetes and low BMI. 223452.81.

  6. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  7. Modifiable Combining Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Paul; Shafer, Glenn; Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2013-01-01

    Modifiable combining functions are a synthesis of two common approaches to combining evidence. They offer many of the advantages of these approaches and avoid some disadvantages. Because they facilitate the acquisition, representation, explanation, and modification of knowledge about combinations of evidence, they are proposed as a tool for knowledge engineers who build systems that reason under uncertainty, not as a normative theory of evidence.

  8. Modifying Cookbook Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert, L.; Clough, Michael P.; Berg, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Modifies an extended lab activity from a cookbook approach for determining the percent mass of water in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals to one which incorporates students' prior knowledge, engenders active mental struggling with prior knowledge and new experiences, and encourages metacognition. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  9. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  10. Modified Faraday cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  11. Tip-modified Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with tip-modified propellers and the methods which, over a period of two decades, have been applied to develop such propellers. The development is driven by the urge to increase the efficiency of propellers and can be seen as analogous to fitting end plates and winglets to aircraft...... propeller, have efficiency increases of a reasonable magnitude in both open-water and behind-ship conditions....

  12. Modified Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surafel Luleseged Tilahun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Firefly algorithm is one of the new metaheuristic algorithms for optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the flashing behavior of fireflies. In the algorithm, randomly generated solutions will be considered as fireflies, and brightness is assigned depending on their performance on the objective function. One of the rules used to construct the algorithm is, a firefly will be attracted to a brighter firefly, and if there is no brighter firefly, it will move randomly. In this paper we modify this random movement of the brighter firefly by generating random directions in order to determine the best direction in which the brightness increases. If such a direction is not generated, it will remain in its current position. Furthermore the assignment of attractiveness is modified in such a way that the effect of the objective function is magnified. From the simulation result it is shown that the modified firefly algorithm performs better than the standard one in finding the best solution with smaller CPU time.

  13. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  14. Organismos Geneticamente Modificados em alimentos: desafios metodológicos em função dos avanços tecnológicos e da rotulagem | Genetically Modified Organisms in Food: Methodological Challenges Based on Technological Advances and Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lawson-Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A extensão da área cultivada com plantas geneticamente modificadas e o desenvolvimento de novas construções genéticas que dão origem a novos eventos têm aumentado consideravelmente no Brasil e em todo mundo, e a tendência esperada é a continuação desse panorama. Neste artigo, foram apresentados os principais desafios enfrentados pelos analistas de alimentos, em especial os dos laboratórios de saúde pública, em função dos inúmeros avanços tecnológicos ocorridos no desenvolvimento das construções genéticas inseridas nas plantas, e as questões legislativas relativas à rotulagem desses alimentos. Foram considerados a necessidade de revisão do Decreto nº 4680/2003 de rotulagem, a carência e o alto custo no acesso dos materiais de referência a serem utilizados nas análises, a dificuldade de implantação de novas técnicas de triagem, de quantificação evento específicas assim como de sistemas de detecção de alto desempenho, e o restrito número de laboratórios oficiais atuando nessa área no Brasil. Para o enfrentamento desses desafios e consequente atuação mais efetiva dos órgãos de Vigilância Sanitária, serão necessários maiores investimentos tanto de recursos financeiros como recursos humanos. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The cultivated area and extent of genetically modified (GM plants and the development of new genetic constructs that give rise to new events have considerably increased in Brazil as well as worldwide. This panorama is expected to continue. The main challenges faced by food analysts, particularly those from public health laboratories, arise from many technological advances in the inserted genetic constructs on plant development and legislative issues related to the labeling of these products. This article addresses the need to revise Decree 4680/2003 (labeling of GM foods, the lack and high cost of access to reference

  15. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  16. Modified harmony search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  17. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  18. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  19. Ageing populations: the challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Rau, Roland

    2009-01-01

    birthdays. Although trends differ between countries, populations of nearly all such countries are ageing as a result of low fertility, low immigration, and long lives. A key question is: are increases in life expectancy accompanied by a concurrent postponement of functional limitations and disability......? The answer is still open, but research suggests that ageing processes are modifiable and that people are living longer without severe disability. This finding, together with technological and medical development and redistribution of work, will be important for our chances to meet the challenges of ageing...

  20. Bitumen based modified substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostolanyi, P.

    1987-01-01

    The necessary amounts of tetrahydrosilicic acid and methyl phenyl silicon oil are added to molten bitumen heated to temperatures of 50 to 200 degC. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and let to cool. The structure of the product comes close to gel and its properties (penetration, softening point, workability time, penetration index) may be changed in dependence on the amount of additions and on the time and temperature of heating. The advantage of the thus prepared modified material is its shorter workability time, its ability to bind materials with a certain water content, and its relatively low price. It may be used for fixing and storing low-and medium-level radioactive organic and thickened waste waters. (E.S.)

  1. Biodegradable modified Phba systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniscenko, L.; Dzenis, M.; Erkske, D.; Tupureina, V.; Savenkova, L.; Muizniece - Braslava, S.

    2004-01-01

    Compositions as well as production technology of ecologically sound biodegradable multicomponent polymer systems were developed. Our objective was to design some bio plastic based composites with required mechanical properties and biodegradability intended for use as biodegradable packaging. Significant characteristics required for food packaging such as barrier properties (water and oxygen permeability) and influence of γ-radiation on the structure and changes of main characteristics of some modified PHB matrices was evaluated. It was found that barrier properties were plasticizers chemical nature and sterilization with γ-radiation dependent and were comparable with corresponding values of typical polymeric packaging films. Low γ-radiation levels (25 kGy) can be recommended as an effective sterilization method of PHB based packaging materials. Purposely designed bio plastic packaging may provide an alternative to traditional synthetic packaging materials without reducing the comfort of the end-user due to specific qualities of PHB - biodegradability, Biocompatibility and hydrophobic nature

  2. Modified Clipped LMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfizad Mojtaba

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new algorithm is proposed for updating the weights of an adaptive filter. The proposed algorithm is a modification of an existing method, namely, the clipped LMS, and uses a three-level quantization ( scheme that involves the threshold clipping of the input signals in the filter weight update formula. Mathematical analysis shows the convergence of the filter weights to the optimum Wiener filter weights. Also, it can be proved that the proposed modified clipped LMS (MCLMS algorithm has better tracking than the LMS algorithm. In addition, this algorithm has reduced computational complexity relative to the unmodified one. By using a suitable threshold, it is possible to increase the tracking capability of the MCLMS algorithm compared to the LMS algorithm, but this causes slower convergence. Computer simulations confirm the mathematical analysis presented.

  3. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modified circular velocity law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  5. UNDERSTANDING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for multinational companies this is a potential source of huge profits, and for certain governments they represent an instrument for strategic control of food production within their countries as well as internationally. By taking into account the views of both advocates and opponents of this "revolutionary" method, authors believe that we should not a priori reject new and insufficiently studied technologies, but that in this particular it is necessary to be extremely cautious, in other words that from (bioethical point of view only those GMO investigations limited to scientific purposes are justified, provided that all required precautions have been taken. Also, authors are of the opinion that in this region as well as in Europe as a whole, at this moment, transgenic organisms are not necessery, neither in agricultural production nor in the food chain. Arguments for such a statement are found primarily in the potential issues that intentional breeding of GMOs might inflict upon the human health and environment. Namely, if borders of individual species are not overstepped and if their endogenous traits are made stronger, the potential risk of causing irreparable damage for both present and future generations which may be brought by changed biological succession will be reduced, i.e. one of the four fundamental bioethical principles will be applied and that is the nonmaleficence. Further intentional decreasing of biodiversity should not be allowed, which means

  6. UNDERSTANDING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for multinational companies this is a potential source of huge profits, and for certain governments they represent an instrument for strategic control of food production within their countries as well as internationally. By taking into account the views of both advocates and opponents of this "revolutionary" method, authors believe that we should not a priori reject new and insufficiently studied technologies, but that in this particular it is necessary to be extremely cautious, in other words that from (bioethical point of view only those GMO investigations limited to scientific purposes are justified, provided that all required precautions have been taken. Also, authors are of the opinion that in this region as well as in Europe as a whole, at this moment, transgenic organisms are not necessery, neither in agricultural production nor in the food chain. Arguments for such a statement are found primarily in the potential issues that intentional breeding of GMOs might inflict upon the human health and environment. Namely, if borders of individual species are not overstepped and if their endogenous traits are made stronger, the potential risk of causing irreparable damage for both present and future generations which may be brought by changed biological succession will be reduced, i.e. one of the four fundamental bioethical principles will be applied and that is the nonmaleficence. Further intentional decreasing of biodiversity should not be allowed, which means

  7. Management of excessive movable tissue: a modified impression technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Michael H C; Pow, Edmond H N

    2014-08-01

    Excessive movable tissue is a challenge in complete denture prosthetics. A modified impression technique is presented with polyvinyl siloxane impression material and a custom tray with relief areas and perforations in the area of the excessive movable tissue. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinguishing modified gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations

  9. MODIFIED GYPSUM BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONDRATEVA N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Statement of the problem. A disadvantage of the gypsum binder is the limited water resistance of products that historically led to the use of gypsum products mostly for internal construction and finishing works. To regulate the process of hydration and structure formation of the use of chemical additives that are introduced with the mixing water or in the production of the binder. As a rule, substances that increase the solubility of the gypsum binder referred to as the hardening accelerator, and substances which retard the solubility of the inhibitors of hardening of the mixture. Most accelerators and retarders hardening affect adversely on the final strength of the mixture. More effective impact on gypsum binder additives have plasticizers. The purpose of the article. Getting gypsum binder modified with the aim of improving its water resistance and improvement of some technological factors (the time of hardening, water gypsum ratio, etc. would reduce its shortcomings and expand the scope of application of the binder. Conclusion. The result of the research reviewed changes in the basic properties of the gypsum binder with the introduction of additives, plasticizers, and selected the most effective supplements to significantly reduce water gypsum ratio, to improve strength properties and to obtain gypsum binder more dense structure.

  10. Distinguishing modified gravity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: A.C.Davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.

  11. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  12. Implementing the 40 Gallon Challenge to Increase Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Mary Carol; Bauske, Ellen; Pugliese, Paul; Kolich, Heather; Boellstorff, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The 40 Gallon Challenge is an easy-to-use, comprehensive indoor and outdoor water conservation educational tool. It can be used nationwide and easily incorporated into existing educational programs. Promotional materials and pledge cards are available on the 40 Gallon Challenge website and can be modified by educators. The website displays data…

  13. Modifying Bananas: From Transgenics to Organics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dale

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas are one of the top ten world food crops. Unlike most other major food crops, bananas are difficult to genetically improve. The challenge is that nearly all banana cultivars and landraces are triploids, with high levels of male and female infertility. There are a number of international conventional breeding programs and many of these are developing new cultivars. However, it is virtually impossible to backcross bananas, thus excluding the possibility of introgressing new traits into a current cultivar. The alternative strategy is to “modify” the cultivar itself. We have been developing the capacity to modify Cavendish bananas and other cultivars for both disease resistance and enhanced fruit quality. Initially, we were using transgenes; genes that were derived from species outside of the Musa or banana genus. However, we have recently incorporated two banana genes (cisgenes into Cavendish; one to enhance the level of pro-vitamin A and the other to increase the resistance to Panama disease. Modified Cavendish with these cisgenes have been employed in a field trial. Almost certainly, the next advance will be to edit the Cavendish genome, to generate the desired traits. As these banana cultivars are essentially sterile, transgene flow and the outcrossing of modified genes into wild Musa species. are highly unlikely and virtually impossible in other triploid cultivars. Therefore, genetic changes in bananas may be compatible with organic farming.

  14. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  15. Applications of Graphene-Modified Electrodes in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-modified materials have captured increasing attention for energy applications due to their superior physical and chemical properties, which can significantly enhance the electricity generation performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC. In this review, several typical synthesis methods of graphene-modified electrodes, such as graphite oxide reduction methods, self-assembly methods, and chemical vapor deposition, are summarized. According to the different functions of the graphene-modified materials in the MFC anode and cathode chambers, a series of design concepts for MFC electrodes are assembled, e.g., enhancing the biocompatibility and improving the extracellular electron transfer efficiency for anode electrodes and increasing the active sites and strengthening the reduction pathway for cathode electrodes. In spite of the challenges of MFC electrodes, graphene-modified electrodes are promising for MFC development to address the reduction in efficiency brought about by organic waste by converting it into electrical energy.

  16. Horseshoes in modified Chen's attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yan; Yang Xiaosong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study dynamics of a class of modified Chen's attractors, we show that these attractors are chaotic by giving a rigorous verification for existence of horseshoes in these systems. We prove that the Poincare maps derived from these modified Chen's attractors are semi-conjugate to the 2-shift map

  17. Surface-modified electrodes (SME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.P.G.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1984-01-01

    This review deals with the literature (covered up to August 1983), the characterization and the applications of Surface-Modified Electrodes (SME). As a special class of SME's, the Enzyme-Modified Electrode (EME) is introduced. Three types of modification procedures are distinguished; i.e. covalent

  18. Modified General Relativity and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.-M. M.

    1997-10-01

    Aspects of the modified general relativity theory of Rastall, Al-Rawaf and Taha are discussed in both the radiation- and matter-dominated flat cosmological models. A nucleosynthesis constraint on the theory's free parameter is obtained and the implication for the age of the Universe is discussed. The consistency of the modified matter- dominated model with the neoclassical cosmological tests is demonstrated.

  19. Modifier genes: Moving from pathogenesis to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Edward R B

    2017-09-01

    This commentary will focus on how we can use our knowledge about the complexity of human disease and its pathogenesis to identify novel approaches to therapy. We know that even for single gene Mendelian disorders, patients with identical mutations often have different presentations and outcomes. This lack of genotype-phenotype correlation led us and others to examine the roles of modifier genes in the context of biological networks. These investigations have utilized vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Since one of the goals of research on modifier genes and networks is to identify novel therapeutic targets, the challenges to patient access and compliance because of the high costs of medications for rare genetic diseases must be recognized. A recent article explored protective modifiers, including plastin 3 (PLS3) and coronin 1C (CORO1C), in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMA is an autosomal recessive deficit of survival motor neuron protein (SMN) caused by mutations in SMN1. However, the severity of SMA is determined primarily by the number of SMN2 copies, and this results in significant phenotypic variability. PLS3 was upregulated in siblings who were asymptomatic compared with those who had SMA2 or SMA3, but identical homozygous SMN1 deletions and equal numbers of SMN2 copies. CORO1C was identified by interrogation of the PLS3 interactome. Overexpression of these proteins rescued endocytosis in SMA models. In addition, antisense RNA for upregulation of SMN2 protein expression is being developed as another way of modifying the SMA phenotype. These investigations suggest the practical application of protective modifiers to rescue SMA phenotypes. Other examples of the potential therapeutic value of novel protective modifiers will be discussed, including in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and glycerol kinase deficiency. This work shows that while we live in an exciting era of genomic sequencing, a functional understanding of biology, the impact of its

  20. CHALLENGES IN CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Retnowati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.

  1. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  2. Night Rover Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Night Rover Challenge was to foster innovations in energy storage technology. Specifically, this challenge asked competitors to create an energy...

  3. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  4. The environment : a new challenge to GATT

    OpenAIRE

    Sorsa, Piritta

    1992-01-01

    Will environmental issues challenge the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)? Calls for a new round of multilateral trade negotiations on the environment have multiplied. Environmentalists have kept up pressure to modify GATT. Industries with higher environmental costs may seek protection from imports. But the GATT, as a trade forum, is not the right place to discuss environmental solutions, contends the author. Focusing on trade will only distract attention from the true causes of e...

  5. Challenges for Better thesis supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirian, Laleh; Sayarifard, Azadeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Yunesian, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Conduction of thesis by the students is one of their major academic activities. Thesis quality and acquired experiences are highly dependent on the supervision. Our study is aimed at identifing the challenges in thesis supervision from both students and faculty members point of view. This study was conducted using individual in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD). The participants were 43 students and faculty members selected by purposive sampling. It was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Data analysis was done concurrently with data gathering using content analysis method. Our data analysis resulted in 162 codes, 17 subcategories and 4 major categories, "supervisory knowledge and skills", "atmosphere", "bylaws and regulations relating to supervision" and "monitoring and evaluation". This study showed that more attention and planning in needed for modifying related rules and regulations, qualitative and quantitative improvement in mentorship training, research atmosphere improvement and effective monitoring and evaluation in supervisory area.

  6. Challenges in anaesthesia for elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Camilla; Rasmussen, L S

    2014-01-01

    The segment of elderly individuals comprises a growing proportion of the global population. Health care systems and health care providers worldwide need to understand the specific challenges related to treatment of this heterogeneous patient population. The process of ageing is complex and under...... constant influence by numerous factors, for which reason the way human age is extremely individual. It is important to understand and acknowledge how elderly differ from younger adults, and how management needs to be modified and tailored to the individual patient in order to improve outcomes. The goal...... of treatment of an elderly patient is not necessarily to increase human longevity regardless of the consequences, but to increase active longevity free from disability and functional dependence. For older people, deterioration in function can be devastating and is often precipitated by a stressful event...

  7. MS Disease-Modifying Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease-modifying therapies Approval: 2014 US; 2014 CAN Pregnancy Category C (see footnote, page 11) Rash, headache, fever, nasal congestion, nausea, urinary tract infection, fatigue, insomnia, upper respiratory tract infection, herpes viral ...

  8. Value Modifier Public Use File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Center for Medicare (CM) has created a standard analytical file intended to promote transparency. For each Value Modifier performance year, CM will publish a...

  9. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect

  10. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth, E-mail: acd@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jha@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu [Centre for Particle Theory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.

  11. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  12. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  13. Chemically modified graphene based supercapacitors for flexible and miniature devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-01

    Rapid progress in the portable and flexible electronic devises has stimulated supercapacitor research towards the design and fabrication of high performance flexible devices. Recent research efforts for flexible supercapacitor electrode materials are highly focusing on graphene and chemically modified graphene owing to the unique properties, including large surface area, high electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical flexibility, and outstanding chemical stability. This invited review article highlights current status of the flexible electrode material research based on chemically modified graphene for supercapacitor application. A variety of electrode architectures prepared from chemically modified graphene are summarized in terms of their structural dimensions. Novel prototypes for the supercapacitor aiming at flexible miniature devices, i.e. microsupercapacitor with high energy and power density are highlighted. Future challenges relevant to graphene-based flexible supercapacitors are also suggested. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Implant materials modified by colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zboromirska-Wnukiewicz Beata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in general medicine led to the development of biomaterials. Implant material should be characterized by a high biocompatibility to the tissue and appropriate functionality, i.e. to have high mechanical and electrical strength and be stable in an electrolyte environment – these are the most important properties of bioceramic materials. Considerations of biomaterials design embrace also electrical properties occurring on the implant-body fluid interface and consequently the electrokinetic potential, which can be altered by modifying the surface of the implant. In this work, the surface of the implants was modified to decrease the risk of infection by using metal colloids. Nanocolloids were obtained using different chemical and electrical methods. It was found that the colloids obtained by physical and electrical methods are more stable than colloids obtained by chemical route. In this work the surface of modified corundum implants was investigated. The implant modified by nanosilver, obtained by electrical method was selected. The in vivo research on animals was carried out. Clinical observations showed that the implants with modified surface could be applied to wounds caused by atherosclerotic skeleton, for curing the chronic and bacterial inflammations as well as for skeletal reconstruction surgery.

  15. Intra-cerebral ventricular infusion of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of a rat glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.; Rewers, A.B.; Redgate, S.; Fisher, E.R.; Boggs, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer when administered by continuous infusion into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of the lateral cerebral ventricle was evaluated in a 9L gliosarcoma rat brain tumor model. Stereotactic implantation of a 5 x 10(4) tumor cell suspension into the left caudate nucleus was carried out in four groups of 10 rats each. Control animals had a median survival of 16.9 days (range 16-21 days). IUDR, 8.4 mg over 7 days administered by continuous infusion into the left lateral ventricle produced a slight survival advantage (median survival 21.5 days, range 12-56). Irradiation of the entire brain, 8 Gy on days 4, 6 and 7 after tumor cell implantation also produced a slight improvement in survival (median 19.5 days, range 17-34). The combination of radiation and IUDR infusion into the CSF produced a marked survival advantage (median 30.5, range 22-54) compared to the control and single modality treatment groups. This is the first demonstration of the effectiveness of IUDR as a radiosensitizer when administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle in the treatment of an intraparenchymal brain tumor

  16. Successful Use of Modified Suprapubic Catheter to Rescue Prostatorectal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chiu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostatorectal fistula is a complication following radiotherapy. It remains a clinical challenge to treat because most patients experience a poor quality of life. This case report discusses a modified suprapubic catheter for use in a patient with a prostatorectal fistula that developed after radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. It is an inexpensive, easily available, and more patient-tolerable catheter that improves quality of life. Herein, we describe the development of this catheter.

  17. Millennium Challenge Account

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarnoff, Curt

    2008-01-01

    .... foreign aid initiative. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) provides assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas...

  18. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  19. Occupational therapy in Australian acute hospitals: A modified practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley

    2016-08-01

    Ongoing changes to health-care funding Australia wide continue to influence how occupational therapists practise in acute hospitals. This study describes the practice challenges experienced by Western Australian acute care occupational therapists. Then, it explores if and how acute care occupational therapists are modifying their practice in response to these practice changes. This study used a qualitative grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 13 purposively selected acute care occupational therapists from four Western Australian metropolitan hospitals. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method to provide detailed descriptions of acute care occupational therapy practice and to generate theory. Five conceptual categories were developed. The first two addressed practice challenges: pragmatic organisational influences on client care and establishing a professional identity within the multidisciplinary team. Three categories related to therapist responses are as follows: becoming the client advocate, being the facilitator and applying clinical reasoning. Finally, modified practice was identified as the core category which explains the process whereby acute care occupational therapists are ensuring they remain relevant and authentic in the acute care context. Western Australian acute care occupational therapists are practising in a highly complex health context that presents many challenges. They are responding by using a modified form of practice that ensures occupational therapy skills remain relevant within the narrow confines of this health setting. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  20. Modifying agricultural crops for improved nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloughlin, Martina Newell

    2010-11-30

    The first generation of biotechnology products commercialized were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits whose value was often opaque to consumers. The coming generations of crop plants can be grouped into four broad areas each presenting what, on the surface, may appear as unique challenges and opportunities. The present and future focus is on continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and abiotic stress resistance in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and "bio-synthetics"; value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production factories for therapeutics and industrial products. From a consumer perspective, the focus on value-added traits, especially improved nutrition, is undoubtedly one of the areas of greatest interest. From a basic nutrition perspective, there is a clear dichotomy in demonstrated need between different regions and socioeconomic groups, the starkest being inappropriate consumption in the developed world and under-nourishment in Less Developed Countries (LDCs). Dramatic increases in the occurrence of obesity and related ailments in affluent regions are in sharp contrast to chronic malnutrition in many LDCs. Both problems require a modified food supply, and the tools of biotechnology have a part to play. Developing plants with improved traits involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory and indeed perception hurdles inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex traits modifications. Continuing improvements in molecular and genomic technologies are contributing to the acceleration of product development to produce plants with the appropriate quality traits for the different regions and needs. Crops with improved traits in the pipeline, the evolving technologies and the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead are covered. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  2. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  3. Dewey's Challenge to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Stephen M.; McCarthy, Lucille

    2010-01-01

    Given the serious social problems confronting Americans and others worldwide, the authors propose that Dewey's 1932 challenge to teachers is worthy of reconsideration by educators at all levels. In times similar to our own, Dewey challenged teachers to cultivate students' capacities to identify their happiness with what they can do to improve the…

  4. Challenges in fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young

    2013-11-01

    Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.

  5. Challenges in Fingertip Replantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young

    2013-01-01

    Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.

  6. Challenge and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaffy, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In the past twenty years, various industries have been forever altered by technology: newspapers, book publishing, the photography business, and many more. Higher education too faces unprecedented challenges primarily driven by rapid changes in technology. To meet these challenges and adapt to these changes, new models are needed. Six challenges…

  7. Employment challenges in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system......Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system...

  8. Modified Steiner functional string action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, C.F.; Johnston, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    It has recently been suggested by Ambartzumian et al. that the modified Steiner functional has desirable properties as an action for random surfaces and hence string world sheets. We perform a simulation of this action on a dynamically triangulated random surface to investigate this claim and find that the surfaces are in a flat phase

  9. Modified gravity without dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert; Papantonopoulos, L

    2007-01-01

    On an empirical level, the most successful alternative to dark matter in bound gravitational systems is the modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND, proposed by Milgrom. Here I discuss the attempts to formulate MOND as a modification of General Relativity. I begin with a summary of the phenomenological

  10. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  12. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  13. The challenges of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Monique; Lheureux, Yves; Leroyer, Veronique; Rollinger, Francois; Gauthier, Florence; Depauw, Denis; Reynal, Nathalie; Fraysse, Thierry; Burger, Eric; Bertrand, Adrien; Vallat, Christophe; Bernet, Philippe; Eimer, Michel; Boutin, Dominique; Bietrix, Philippe; Richard, Francoise; Piketty, Laurence; Mouchet, Chantal; Charre, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations which address the contexts and challenges of dismantling (legal framework, safety and radiation protection challenges, waste processing industry), and propose illustrations of dismantling challenges (example of operations to prepare EURODIF dismantling and CLIGEET work-group on EURODIF dismantling, examples of dismantling of EDF installations and CLIs' opinion on the dismantling of EDF installations, Brennilis dismantling follow-up performed by the CLI, examples of dismantling of CEA installations and opinion of a CLI on the dismantling of CEA installations)

  14. Challenges of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fernández-Manjón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although educational games have revealed to be a very effective focus in diverse situations, their use in education is still very limited. In this paper we analyse the main challenges concerning educational games that, from our perspective, have to be approached so that the use of this kind of games can be widespread. These challenges are classified in three main dimensions: socio-cultural, educational and technological. Once the challenges are identified, some possible measures are suggested to address or reduce these problems so that the use of educational games may be widespread.

  15. Key ecological challenges for closed systems facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William F.; Allen, John P.

    2013-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet, recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the maintenance of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of critical elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities, the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and backup technologies and strategic options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  16. Anthropocene Age Wicked Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Wu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    weather events, drought, and desertification; threatened food supplies; water pollution, air pollution, and soil contamination; and the connection of these to disease, violence, and terrorism. Wicked challenges are discussed in relation to enterprise excellence, sustainability, resilience and robustness...

  17. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  18. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  19. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  20. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  1. Community Challenge Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...

  2. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  3. The boomer challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals and the rest of health care will have to make some major adjustments to meet the needs of the aging baby boom generation. The first article in our year-long series inventories the many challenges that lie ahead.

  4. Overcoming Safeguards Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the 2010 IAEA International Safeguards Symposium was how best, from a technical perspective, to prepare for future verification challenges during this time of change. By bringing together the leading experts in the field from across the world, this symposium provided an opportunity for stakeholders to explore possible solutions in support of the IAEA's nuclear verification mission, and to identify areas where the different stakeholders in the safeguards business can help address these challenges

  5. Challenges in obesity research

    OpenAIRE

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M. Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regard...

  6. Complexation thermodynamics of modified cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion complexes between two bile salts and a range of differently methylated β-cyclodextrins were studied in an attempt to rationalize the complexation thermodynamics of modified cyclodextrins. Calorimetric titrations at a range of temperatures provided precise values of the enthalpies (ΔH......°), entropies (ΔS°), and heat capacities (ΔCp) of complexation, while molecular dynamics simulations assisted the interpretation of the obtained thermodynamic parameters. As previously observed for several types of modified cyclodextrins, the substituents at the rims of the cyclodextrin induced large changes......° and then a strong decrease when the degree of substitution exceeded some threshold. Exactly the same trend was observed for ΔCp. The dehydration of nonpolar surface, as quantified by the simulations, can to a large extent explain the variation in the thermodynamic parameters. The methyl substituents form additional...

  7. Generalized gravity from modified DFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakatani, Yuho; Uehara, Shozo; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2017-01-01

    Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T-duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.

  8. Generalized gravity from modified DFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakatani, Yuho [Department of Physics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine,Kyoto 606-0823 (Japan); Fields, Gravity and Strings, CTPU,Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Uehara, Shozo [Department of Physics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine,Kyoto 606-0823 (Japan); Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-04-20

    Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T-duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.

  9. Disulfiram as a radiation modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.D.; Maners, A.W.; Salari, H.; Baker, M.; Walker, E.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation modifying effect and toxicity of tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram) have been studied. Disulfiram (DSM) inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, dopamine-beta-oxygenase, microsomal mixed-function oxidases and cytochrome P-450 enzymes. It is widely used for aversion therapy in alcoholism. Disulfiram also inhibits tumor formation by several known carcinogens. A biphasic toxicity pattern of DSM is reported in the L-929 mouse fibroblast culture system. Disulfiram is 100 percent toxic at 2 X 10(-7) M (0.05 micrograms per ml), 23 percent toxic at 3 X 10(-7) M (0.1 microgram per ml), and 100 percent toxic again at 3.4 X 10(-6) M (1.0 microgram per ml). The pattern is similar to the biphasic toxicity pattern of DMS's major metabolite, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC). Reports of both radiation protection and radiation enhancement by DTC exist. Previously, a radioprotective effect by 2 X 10(-6) M DTC (dose modifying factor = 1.26) has been demonstrated in the L-929 cell system. To date, no radiation modifying properties of DSM have been reported. Our investigation of DSM as a radiation modifier at 3 X 10(-7) M (0.1 microgram per ml) did not show significant improvement in survival of irradiated cells treated with DSM relative to the irradiated control group, as determined by absence of a difference in the Do of the two groups. Considering DSM's close structural relationship to DTC, it is possible that DSM may exhibit a radioprotective effect when applied in a different concentration than what was used in our research

  10. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-01-01

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed

  11. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot... Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of... Challenge, please visit: http://challenge.wpi.edu . For general information on the NASA Centennial...

  12. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-079)] Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample... Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of... Challenge, please visit: http://wp.wpi.edu/challenge/ . For general information on the NASA Centennial...

  13. The Unique Challenges of Conserving Large Old Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Laurance, William F

    2016-06-01

    Large old trees play numerous critical ecological roles. They are susceptible to a plethora of interacting threats, in part because the attributes that confer a competitive advantage in intact ecosystems make them maladapted to rapidly changing, human-modified environments. Conserving large old trees will require surmounting a number of unresolved challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Class Size Reduction: Great Hopes, Great Challenges. Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    This policy brief examines the benefits and the challenges that accompany class-size reduction (CSR). It suggests that when designing CSR programs, states should carefully assess specific circumstances in their schools as they adopt or modify CSR efforts to avoid the unintended consequences that some programs have experienced. Some of the…

  15. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  17. Global challenges in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, James P.; Franssen, Herman T.; Simbeck, Dale R. MD

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and security concerns are stimulating global interest in hydrogen power, renewable energy, and advanced transportation technologies, but no significant movement away from oil and a carbon-based world economy is expected soon. Over the longer-term, however, a transition from fossil fuels to a non-carbon-based economy will likely occur, affecting the type of environment future generations may encounter. Key challenges will face the world's energy industry over the next few decades to ensure a smooth transition-challenges which will require government and industry solutions beginning as early as today. This paper identifies four critical challenges in energy and the choices which will have to be made on how best to confront growing pollution caused by fossil fuels and how to facilitate an eventual revolutionary-like transition to a non-carbon-based global economy

  18. The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  19. Centennial Challenges Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Sam; Eberly, Eric

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Centennial Challenges Program was initiated in 2005 to directly engage the public in the process of advanced technology development. The program offers incentive prizes to generate revolutionary solutions to problems of interest to NASA and the nation. The program seeks innovations from diverse and nontraditional sources. Competitors are not supported by government funding and awards are only made to successful teams when the challenges are met. In keeping with the spirit of the Wright Brothers and other American innovators, the Centennial Challenge prizes are offered to independent inventors including small businesses, student groups, and individuals. These independent inventors are sought to generate innovative solutions for technical problems of interest to NASA and the nation and to provide them with the opportunity to stimulate or create new business ventures.

  20. Observational tests of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhang Pengjie

    2008-01-01

    Modifications of general relativity provide an alternative explanation to dark energy for the observed acceleration of the Universe. Modified gravity theories have richer observational consequences for large-scale structures than conventional dark energy models, in that different observables are not described by a single growth factor even in the linear regime. We examine the relationships between perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields, and discuss strategies for measuring them using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering/dynamics, and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We show how a broad class of gravity theories can be tested by combining these probes. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining two key functions: the ratio of the two metric potentials, and the ratio of the gravitational 'constant' in the Poisson equation to Newton's constant. We also discuss quasilinear effects that carry signatures of gravity, such as through induced three-point correlations. Clustering of dark energy can mimic features of modified gravity theories and thus confuse the search for distinct signatures of such theories. It can produce pressure perturbations and anisotropic stresses, which break the equality between the two metric potentials even in general relativity. With these two extra degrees of freedom, can a clustered dark energy model mimic modified gravity models in all observational tests? We show with specific examples that observational constraints on both the metric potentials and density perturbations can in principle distinguish modifications of gravity from dark energy models. We compare our result with other recent studies that have slightly different assumptions (and apparently contradictory conclusions).

  1. Gelatin modified lipid nanoparticles for anti- viral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K S, Joshy; S, Snigdha; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Pothen, Laly A; Thomas, Sabu

    2017-10-01

    The major challenges to clinical application of zidovudine are its moderate aqueous solubility and relative short half-life and serious side effects due to frequent administrations. We investigated the preparation of zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles based on lipids which were further modified with the polymer gelatin. Formulation and stability of the modified nanoparticles were analysed from the physico-chemical characterizations. The interactions of nanoparticles with blood components were tested by haemolysis and aggregation studies. The drug content and entrapment efficiencies were assessed by UV analysis. The effect of nanoparticles on protein adsorption was assessed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In vitro release studies showed a sustained release profile of zidovudine. In vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles were performed in MCF-7 and neuro 2a brain cells. The enhanced cellular internalization of drug loaded modified nanoparticles in both the cell lines were revealed by fluorescence microscopy. Hence the present study focuses on the feasibility of zidovudine-loaded polymer modified lipid nanoparticles as carriers for safe and efficient HIV/AIDS therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Susan [Manhattan, KS; Wang, Donghai [Manhattan, KS; Zhong, Zhikai [Manhattan, KS; Yang, Guang [Shanghai, CN

    2008-08-26

    The present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  3. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Simó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  4. A New Modified Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature inspired meta-heuristic algorithms studies the emergent collective intelligence of groups of simple agents. Firefly Algorithm is one of the new such swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the flashing behavior of fireflies. The algorithm was first proposed in 2008 and since then has been successfully used for solving various optimization problems. In this work, we intend to propose a new modified version of Firefly algorithm (MoFA and later its performance is compared with the standard firefly algorithm along with various other meta-heuristic algorithms. Numerical studies and results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to existing algorithms.

  5. On the Modified Barkhausen Criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.

    2016-01-01

    Oscillators are normally designed according to the Modified Barkhausen Criterion i.e. the complex pole pair is moved out in RHP so that the linear circuit becomes unstable. By means of the Mancini Phaseshift Oscillator it is demonstrated that the distortion of the oscillator may be minimized by i...... by introducing a nonlinear ”Hewlett Resistor” so that the complex pole-pair is in the RHP for small signals and in the LHP for large signals i.e. the complex pole pair of the instant linearized small signal model is moving around the imaginary axis in the complex frequency plane....

  6. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  7. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.O'C.; Axford, W.I.; Summers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  8. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Axford, W.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.)); Summers, D. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))

    1982-03-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed.

  9. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  10. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  11. The challenge of conceiving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    the perspective of engineering design challenges where the need for problem identification is obvious to avoid the pitfall to reproduce and piecemeal engineer already existing product or service concepts. Problem identification is not a simple desk research task as it often involves a multitude of actors having......One of the big challenges in the CDIO approach to engineering education is the first part focusing on conceiving problems to be handled and eventually solved. Traditional engineering education has been dominated by its focus on technical disciplines emphasising their individual tool box of problem...

  12. Modified meta-heuristics using random mutation for truss topology optimization with static and dynamic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal J. Savsani

    2017-04-01

    The static and dynamic responses to the TTO problems are challenging due to its search space, which is implicit, non-convex, non-linear, and often leading to divergence. Modified meta-heuristics are effective optimization methods to handle such problems in actual fact. In this paper, modified versions of Teaching–Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO, Heat Transfer Search (HTS, Water Wave Optimization (WWO, and Passing Vehicle Search (PVS are proposed by integrating the random mutation-based search technique with them. This paper compares the performance of four modified and four basic meta-heuristics to solve discrete TTO problems.

  13. Modified Multi Prime RSA Cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Aminudin, N.; Che-Him, Norziha; Sufahani, Suliadi; Khalid, Kamil; Roslan, Rozaini

    2018-04-01

    RSA [1] is one of the mostly used cryptosystem in securing data and information. Though, it has been recently discovered that RSA has some weaknesses and in advance technology, RSA is believed to be inefficient especially when it comes to decryption. Thus, a new algorithm called Multi prime RSA, an extended version of the standard RSA is studied. Then, a modification is made to the Multi prime RSA where another keys is shared secretly between the receiver and the sender to increase the securerity. As in RSA, the methodology used for modified Multi-prime RSA also consists of three phases; 1. Key Generation in which the secret and public keys are generated and published. In this phase, the secrecy is improved by adding more prime numbers and addition of secret keys. 2. Encryption of the message using the public and secret keys given. 3. Decryption of the secret message using the secret key generated. For the decryption phase, a method called Chinese Remainder Theorem is used which helps to fasten the computation. Since Multi prime RSA use more than two prime numbers, the algorithm is more efficient and secure when compared to the standard RSA. Furthermore, in modified Multi prime RSA another secret key is introduced to increase the obstacle to the attacker. Therefore, it is strongly believed that this new algorithm is better and can be an alternative to the RSA.

  14. Modified Synthesis of Erlotinib Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Barghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An improved and economical method has been described for the synthesis of erlotinib hydrochloride, as a useful drug in treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Erlotinib hydrochloride was synthesized in seven steps starting from 3, 4-dihydroxy benzoic acid. In this study, we were able to modify one of the key steps which involved the reduction of the 6-nitrobenzoic acid derivative to 6-aminobenzoic acid derivative. An inexpensive reagent such as ammonium formate was used as an in situ hydrogen donor in the presence of palladium/charcoal (Pd/C instead of hydrogen gas at high pressure. Results: This proposed method proceeded with 92% yield at room temperature. Synthesis of erlotinib was completed in 7 steps with overall yield of 44%.Conclusion: From the results obtained it can be concluded that the modified method eliminated the potential danger associated with the use of hydrogen gas in the presence of flammable catalysts. It should be mentioned that the catalyst was recovered after the reaction and could be used again.

  15. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  16. A Challenge to Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterman, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Watson's Jeopardy victory raises the question of the similarity of artificial intelligence and human intelligence. Those of us who study human intelligence issue a challenge to the artificial intelligence community. We will construct a unique battery of tests for any computer that would provide an actual IQ score for the computer. This is the same…

  17. Challenging and valuable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, J.D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenging and valuable Inaugural speech given on May 7th 2008 at the occasion of the acceptance of the position of Professor Sustainable Housing Transformation at the faculty of Architeeture of the Delft University of Technology by Prof. J.D.M. van Hal MSc PhD.

  18. The energy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter addresses the challenge of switching US energy dependency from fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy for economic and environmental reasons. The topics discussed include the role of fossil fuels in the US economy, the role of chlorofluorocarbons and fossil fuel combustion on the greenhouse effect, energy choices, and the role of energy efficiency and nuclear energy

  19. The diesel challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article is focused on the challenges being faced by the diesel producer and these include a number of interesting developments which illustrate the highly competitive world of the European refiner. These include: The tightening quality requirements being legislated coupled with the availability of the ''city diesel'' from Scandinavia and elsewhere which is already being sold into the market. For a time there will be a clear means of product differentiation. One of the key questions is whether the consumer will value the quality difference; a growing demand for diesel which is outstripping the growth in gasoline demand and causing refiners headaches when it comes to balancing their supply/demand barrels; the emergence of alternative fuels which are challenging the traditional markets of the refiner and in particular, the niche markets for the higher quality diesel fuels. All of this at a time of poor margins and over-capacity in the industry with further major challenges ahead such as fuel oil disposal, tighter environmental standards and the likelihood of heavier, higher sulphur crude oils in the future. Clearly, in such a difficult and highly-competitive business environment it will be important to find low-cost solutions to the challenges of the diesel quality changes. An innovative approach will be required to identify the cheapest and best route to enable the manufacture of the new quality diesel. (Author)

  20. The Moon Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  1. Rooftop Garden Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    A small commercial building in a nearby industrial park has decided to install a rooftop garden for its employees to enjoy. The garden will be about 100 feet long and 75 feet wide. This article presents a design challenge for technology and engineering students wherein they will assist in the initial conceptual design of the rooftop garden. The…

  2. Hopes and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China tops the medal tally again at the Asian Games but still faces challenges in some events The curtain of the 16th Asian Games has fallen, but the 15 days of exciting competitions will be recorded in the history of the Games.

  3. Communication Challenge Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Tom; Vance, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Communication Challenge Softball is a developmentally appropriate game for middle school students. The game allows them to develop new communication skills using American Sign Language (signing). Traditional softball has been a part of physical education for years, and remains a popular sport played by children in community leagues throughout the…

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  5. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  6. BPI Challenge 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    BPI Challenge 2014: Similar to other ICT companies, Rabobank Group ICT has to implement an increasing number of software releases, while the time to market is decreasing. Rabobank Group ICT has implemented the ITIL-processes and therefore uses the Change-proces for implementing these so called

  7. The Challenges in Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Challenges in Communication. The conflict between connection oriented and connectionless. The seamless integration needs of broadcast, unicast and multicast in the midst growing security concerns. Like Indian roads – need to carry voice, internet traffic, video ...

  8. Biggest challenges in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen

    2013-04-01

    The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held on 18th October 2012, at Heidelberg University, Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the 'Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a 'World Café' style event.

  9. Biggest challenges in bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen

    2013-01-01

    The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held in October at Heidelberg University in Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the ‘Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a ‘World Café' style event.

  10. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  11. Challenge Beginning Teacher Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, John K.; Chval, Kathryn B.

    2013-01-01

    As beginning teachers start to recognize the complexity of teaching mathematics in elementary school classrooms and how their new vision for teaching mathematics creates new challenges, they experience discomfort--a healthy awareness that much is to be learned. Brousseau (1997) notes that changes in the roles that are implicitly assigned to the…

  12. Asia's new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliana; Vang, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Asian countries are currently undergoing significant changes with respect to their role in and interaction with the international economy. Despite their heterogeneity, Asian countries share the common aim to upgrade capacities, skills and capabilities. This paper aims at unpacking the challenges ...

  13. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need.

  14. 76 FR 41526 - Centennial Challenges 2011 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-063)] Centennial Challenges 2011 Strong... scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize... NASA Centennial Challenges Program please visit: http://www.nasa.gov/challenges . General questions and...

  15. 78 FR 19742 - Centennial Challenges: 2014 Night Rover Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-032] Centennial Challenges: 2014 Night... Centennial Challenges 2014 Night Rover Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with 51 U.S.C.... Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to stimulate innovation in technologies of interest...

  16. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-093] Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample... Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with... compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to stimulate innovation in...

  17. Feeding East Africa : are genetically modified crops part of the solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarjem, Ida Arff

    2017-01-01

    The African continent is faced with enormous challenges of poverty, hunger and food insecurity, which is exacerbated by climatic and environmental change, and a rapidly increasing population; and in the midst of it all is the smallholder and subsistence African farmer. Some believe that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GM crops may offer part of the solution to some of these challenges. The GMO debate has gained considerable traction in the East African region, as recent regulat...

  18. No matrix effect in double-blind, placebo-controlled egg challenges in egg allergic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Libbers, L.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van der Heide, S.; van der Meulen, G. N.; Kukler, J.; Kerkhof, M.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Background Diagnostic and accidental food allergic reactions may be modified by the matrix containing the allergenic food. Previous studies of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with peanut found an effect of the fat content of the challenge matrix on the severity of the

  19. On mechanism of metals modifying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, V.S.; Busol, F.I.

    1975-01-01

    Data from the literature are cited to show that in several cases, the mechanism of modification of metals and alloys by additives soluble in the melt cannot be explained by the adsorption hypothesis based on the surface activity of these additives. It is suggested that the mechanism of modification by soluble additives can be explained by the presence of a layer of liquid enriched (or depleted) in the additives preceding the crystallization front (densification by concentration), formed under actual conditions of crystallization as a result of the different solubilities of the additive in the solid and liquid phases of the base metal, regardless of its surface activity. This densification by concentration leads to the inhibition of crystal growth in the base metal (barrier action) and to concentration overcooling. On the basis of this theory it is suggested that the modifying action of additives can be predicted from some parameters of the phase diagrams. (author)

  20. Modified Aggressive Packet Combining Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer/data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve the performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme (MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining (PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with the basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability. (author)

  1. Genetically Modified Foods and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reci MESERI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To consume a balanced diet may prevent many illnesses. After the Second World War the “Green Revolution” was conducted to increase efficiency in agriculture. After its harmful effects on environment were understood genetically modified foods (GMO were served to combat hunger in the world. Today insufficiency in food product is not the main problem; imbalanced food distribution is the problem. In addition, GMO’s might be harmful for health and environment. Moreover economical dependency to industrialized countries will carry on. If the community tends to use up all the sources and the population increases steadily hunger will not be the only scarcity that the human population would face. There will also be shortage in energy and clean water resources. In conclusion combating just with hunger using high technology will only postpone the problems for a short period of time. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 455-460

  2. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskes, M.I.

    1994-08-01

    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideal for examining interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how parameters of MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examine the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show nonuniform deformation of the fiber.

  3. CE Challenges : Work to Do

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stjepandic, J; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Wognum, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    CE has been used for more than two decades now. Despite many successes and advantages, there are still many challenges to be addressed. These challenges are both technical and organisational. In the paper we will address the current challenges of CE. Many challenges

  4. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  5. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-04-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in The Physics Teacher; however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not before described in TPT. In this article an experiment is illustrated to explore projectile motion in a fun and challenging manner that has been used with both high school and university students. With a few simple materials, students have a vested interest in being able to calculate the height of the projectile at a given distance from its launch site. They also have an exciting visual demonstration of projectile motion when the lab is over.

  6. Mathematical olympiad challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical Olympiad Challenges is a rich collection of problems put together by two experienced and well-known professors and coaches of the U.S. International Mathematical Olympiad Team. Hundreds of beautiful, challenging, and instructive problems from algebra, geometry, trigonometry, combinatorics, and number theory were selected from numerous mathematical competitions and journals. An important feature of the work is the comprehensive background material provided with each grouping of problems. The problems are clustered by topic into self-contained sections with solutions provided separately. All sections start with an essay discussing basic facts and one or two representative examples. A list of carefully chosen problems follows and the reader is invited to take them on. Additionally, historical insights and asides are presented to stimulate further inquiry. The emphasis throughout is on encouraging readers to move away from routine exercises and memorized algorithms toward creative solutions to open-e...

  7. Challenges in sexual medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have...... placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain...... several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field...

  8. Characterizing challenged Minnesota ballots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, George; Lopresti, Daniel; Barney Smith, Elisa H.; Wu, Ziyan

    2011-01-01

    Photocopies of the ballots challenged in the 2008 Minnesota elections, which constitute a public record, were scanned on a high-speed scanner and made available on a public radio website. The PDF files were downloaded, converted to TIF images, and posted on the PERFECT website. Based on a review of relevant image-processing aspects of paper-based election machinery and on additional statistics and observations on the posted sample data, robust tools were developed for determining the underlying grid of the targets on these ballots regardless of skew, clipping, and other degradations caused by high-speed copying and digitization. The accuracy and robustness of a method based on both index-marks and oval targets are demonstrated on 13,435 challenged ballot page images.

  9. Challenges in Request Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis

    2014-01-01

    and its customers. The study provides an insight into a new area of supply chain management, including the process activity flow and challenges involved across the process. Furthermore, the method is dyadic including the customer in the case study, which is rare in related research....... profitability. This research study seeks to investigate the challenges of RQM in practice. Existing demand chain management literature is used as a basis for developing a RQM framework. RQM is investigated through an explorative research design in a dyadic B2B case study including a global industrial company......Request management (RQM) is a new term used for managing customer requests for new products. It is the counterpart to typical product development processes, which has no direct customer involvement. It is essential to manage customer requests in a structured and efficient way to obtain...

  10. US Cyber Challenge Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    tactics to prevent future attacks. This project will develop, test, evaluate and assess alternative methods for identifying computer security talent ...RESPONSIBLE PERSON FRANCES ROSE a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8...is ever increasing. Meeting the demand for top technical cybersecurity talent is one of the continuing challenges facing military and civilian

  11. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  12. The Terawatt Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegel, Nancy

    In response to concerns about accelerating climate change, the world is uniting to both envision and enable a global energy system that supports a sustainable environment and broad economic prosperity. Growth in the technology and the deployment of renewable energy has been dramatic. Evidence can be seen in the growth of photovoltaics (PV) and wind as contributors to worldwide electricity production over the last decade. PV and wind provided 1.2% and 3.7% of global electricity production in 2015, compared to 0.1% and 1.3% respectively in 2005. These numbers indicate both the rapid increase in the rate of deployment, as well as the remaining work to be done to extend this trend to transform a massive energy system and provide a significant fraction of the world's future energy demand with renewable energy. Based on recent trends, it is highly likely that global cumulative PV installation will reach terawatt scale in the next few decades. The challenges, as well as the resulting impact, vary greatly depending on whether we envision 1 TW ( 15% of 2015 global electricity capacity), 3 TW ( 50% of 2015 global electricity capacity) or 10 TW, a level that could drive electrification of transportation and industrial sectors and production of solar fuels. This presentation will draw upon the work of the 2016 GA-SERI (Global Alliance of Solar Energy Research Institutes) Terawatt Workshop to assess the feasibility and summarize the challenges for PV as a primary energy source. These challenges include the continuing demand for improved efficiency and reliability, the required magnitude of capital expenditure, the need for a sustainable industry (both financially and environmentally), as well as needs for grid modernization and consistent policies that support global climate goals. Physicists can play important roles in addressing this full range of challenges, from materials science to public policy, as well as in education of the public and its future leaders.

  13. Challenges in paediatric neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Ganjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in technique, knowledge and expertise have brought about rapid advances in the fields of paediatric neurosurgery and anaesthesia, and many procedures limited earlier to adults are now being increasingly attempted in neonates and small children, with good outcomes. This article highlights the challenges faced by the operating team while handling some of the technically complex procedures like awake craniotomy, interventional neuroradiology, minimally invasive neurosurgery, procedures in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suites, and neonatal emergencies in the paediatric population.

  14. Energy challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquet, V.

    2007-01-01

    Energy challenges represent one of the most important security paradigms in the Asia Pacific region where you have a mixture of growing energy dependency, fuelled by high economic growth, the emergence of new major players like China and India, and a quasi-complete absence of regional regulatory mechanisms to tackle the challenges in a multilateral way. These challenges mostly concern Japan and China, where crucial energy issues are aggravated by power rivalry, historical and ideological issues, and a lack of both economic and political harmony between them. Neither countries are self sufficient in terms of energy needs. This can lead to a shared analysis and common approaches regarding Japan and China concerning this issue. Their cases are. however very different and the solutions applied are related to different world views that are not easily reconcilable. Both countries share common objectives: both want security and stable supply. But there are also big divergences and these divergences could be new sources of conflict and misunderstanding between Tokyo and Beijing. One of the main differences is history related. Both China and Japan are uneasy regarding outside energy dependency. In Japan, memories of the pre-war oil embargo have not disappeared. The oil shocks of the 70's renewed this uneasiness. However, Japan's outside dependency is not new. Tokyo has learned to live with it, finding a system to alleviate this vulnerability in cooperation with its partners, multilateral institutions like the International Energy Agency (IEA). China's outside dependency is new. The country's dependency on oil, which began in 1993, is particularly challenging since the principles of independence, non interference and military autonomy, principles at the core of Maoist foreign strategy, did not completely disappear in spite of China's new policy of reform and opening up. China's leadership, even the fourth generation, did not forget its isolation during the 60's and 70's

  15. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  16. US Cyber Challenge Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Computers (General Term), Information Systems or Information Technology 0 6 5 1 1 13 Criminal Justice 0 0 0 1 0 1 Economics 0 0 1 0 0 1 Electrical...Assurance or Computer Security 8 6 15 10 7 46 Information Technology 4 1 9 1 4 19 Nanotechnology 0 1 0 0 0 1 Networking or Network Security 7 1 2 2 4...FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE US CYBER CHALLENGE RESEARCH CENTER FOR INTERNET SECURITY, INC FEBRUARY

  17. EDMS implementation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Marta

    2002-08-01

    The challenges faced by facilities wishing to implement an electronic medical record system are complex and overwhelming. Issues such as customer acceptance, basic computer skills, and a thorough understanding of how the new system will impact work processes must be considered and acted upon. Acceptance and active support are necessary from Senior Administration and key departments to enable this project to achieve measurable success. This article details one hospital's "journey" through design and successful implementation of an electronic medical record system.

  18. The Challenges of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrtle, Robert C

    Perhaps in no other period in recent times have the challenges leaders face been so profound. In these times of uncertainty and turbulence, we look to leaders who create a sense of purpose, who generate feelings of trust and optimism, and who tap the passion, talent, and efforts of those so essential to the success of the organization and of the people it serves. Our research suggests that becoming the leader whom people look to and admire requires an active commitment to responding to 5 essential leadership challenges. These are (1) creating a sense of purpose, (2) devising means for aligning the actions of the followers with that sense of purpose, (3) establishing a context that enables others to behave in a way that is consistent with the vision and values of the organization, (4) ensuring that the work that is done provides meaning to those engaging in the work activities, and (5) adding to the sum of everyone's knowledge through learning through reflective actions. In this article, we describe these challenges and offer suggestions that you can take to become a more effective and respected leader.

  19. Patients who challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael; Savulescu, Julian

    2006-12-01

    Individuals have different values. They seek to express their individuality even when receiving medical care. It is a part of modern medical practice and respect for patient autonomy to show respect for different values. We give an account of what it means to respect different values and challenging patients in medical practice. Challenging choices are often choices which are perceived by many to be either irrational or against a person's interests, such as engaging in harmful or excessively risky activities. When the medical profession is involved in such choices, the basic medical principle of acting in a person's best interests is challenged. Often doctors refuse to respect controversial choices on paternalistic grounds. We should all respect and facilitate the controversial choices of competent individuals, subject to resource limitations, our own and others well-being and autonomy, and the public interest. But more importantly, sometimes such choices make for a better, more autonomous life. Sometimes, such choices reflect considerations of global well-being or altruism, or idiosyncratic attitudes to risk. Sometimes, they reflect unusual values. However, in some other cases, controversial choices are irrational and are not expressions of our autonomy. Doctors should assist patients to make rational if individual choices. The patient also bears the responsibility for bringing his beliefs to the attention of the clinician.

  20. Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.

    1998-01-01

    Challenges and opportunities facing the Canadian natural gas industry were discussed. The greatest opportunity is that the industry will become part of a fully functioning continental gas market for the first time in history. The challenge will be to ensure that the access to continental markets, which the Alliance project would provide, moves forward in a timely way, especially if the proposed merger between Canada's two dominant natural gas pipelines occurs. The second challenge is to find ways to deal with global warming in a more sensible and knowledgeable way. In the view of this author, the implications of the Kyoto greenhouse gas emission protocol could be potentially devastating to the competitiveness of the North American economy. According to the author, the emission stabilization policy will save the Earth only 0.05 degree C of warming in 2025 based on projected planetary temperature rise from 1990 to 2050. By 2050, the stabilization of emissions will have resulted in savings of only 0.10 degrees C, still a negligible amount. The impact of the Canadian Kyoto obligation was analyzed using federal Department of the Environment data. It was noted that in order for Canada to meet its commitment of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 6 per cent by 2008-2012, actual annual reduction in emission would have to amount to 20-25 per cent. To achieve that would require unimaginably drastic measures. 1 tab., 1 fig

  1. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  2. Development Challenges in Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides essential insights into Bhutan’s developmental challenges. It analyzes and scrutinizes the sovereign state’s developmental approach, including the idea of Gross National Happiness (GNH), which has replaced Gross National Product (GNP) as a measurement of prosperity. The authors...... also explore and deconstruct ideational and cultural aspects of knowledge production and present a critical overall assessment of the political economy of education policy, health, ICT and migration in Bhutan. The book is divided into five parts all taking a critical approach towards inequality: Part...

  3. Cracking the Cipher Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Singh, Simon

    2002-01-01

    In the back of 'The Code Book', a history of cryptography, Simon Singh included a series of 10 encoded messages, each from a different period of history. The first person to crack all 10 messages would win a prize of £10,000. Now that the prize has been won, Simon can reveal the story behind the Cipher Challenge. Along the way he will show how mathematics can be used to crack codes, the role it played in World War Two and how it helps to guarantee security in the Information Age.

  4. Perishable Inventory Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in the retail supply chains. The goal is to find and evaluate the parameters which affect the decision making process, when finding the optimal order quantity and order time. The paper takes a starting point in the retail industry but links to other industries.......The paper investigates how inventory control of perishable items is managed and line up some possible options of improvement. This includes a review of relevant literature dealing with the challenges of determining ordering policies for perishable products and a study of how the current procedures...

  5. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  6. Nonderivative Modified Gravity: a Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Comelli, Denis; Pilo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the theories of gravity modified by a generic nonderivative potential built from the metric, under the minimal requirement of unbroken spatial rotations. Using the canonical analysis, we classify the potentials $V$ according to the number of degrees of freedom (DoF) that propagate at the nonperturbative level. We then compare the nonperturbative results with the perturbative DoF propagating around Minkowski and FRW backgrounds. A generic $V$ implies 6 propagating DoF at the non-perturbative level, with a ghost on Minkowski background. There exist potentials which propagate 5 DoF, as already studied in previous works. Here, no $V$ with unbroken rotational invariance admitting 4 DoF is found. Theories with 3 DoF turn out to be strongly coupled on Minkowski background. Finally, potentials with only the 2 DoF of a massive graviton exist. Their effect on cosmology is simply equivalent to a cosmological constant. Potentials with 2 or 5 DoF and explicit time dependence appear to be a further viable possib...

  7. Solution properties of hydrophobically modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested nine hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides with molecular weights situated between 1.58 and 0.89 × 106 g/mol for enhanced oil recovery applications. Their solution properties were investigated in the distilled water, brine solution, formation water and sea water. Their critical association concentrations were determined from the relationship between their concentrations and the corresponding apparent viscosities (ηapp at 30 °C at shear rate 6 s−1. They were between 0.4 and 0.5 g/dl. The brine solutions of 0.5 g/dl of HM-PAMs were investigated at different conditions regarding their apparent viscosities. Such conditions were mono and divalent cations, temperature ranging from 30 to 90 °C, the shear rate ranging from 6 to 30 s−1 and the aging time for 45 days. The surface and interfacial tensions for the HM-PAMs were measured for concentration range from 0.01 to 1 g/dl brine solutions at 30 °C and their emulsification efficiencies were investigated for 7 days. The discrepancy in the properties and efficiencies of the tested copolymers was discussed in the light of their chemical structure.

  8. Modified teleparallel gravity: Inflation without an inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco

    2007-01-01

    The Born-Infeld strategy to smooth theories having divergent solutions is applied to the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. Differing from other theories of modified gravity, modified teleparallelism leads to second order equations, since the teleparallel Lagrangian only contains first derivatives of the vierbein. We show that the Born-Infeld-modified teleparallelism solves the particle horizon problem in a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe by providing an initial exponential expansion without resorting to an inflaton field

  9. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R

    2014-07-01

    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance.

  10. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  11. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA’s limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  12. Biotechnology: challenges and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, A.

    1985-04-01

    Rapidly occurring technological breakthroughs in the wake of numerous discoveries in different fields, such as biochemistry, genetic engineering as well as cellular and molecular biology as described in this paper have a variety of industrial applications, and forcasts covering these and various other fields have been made. The emerging bio-industry, covering diverse industries, such as chemical, food, pharmaceutical, etc., as well as the domains of health, environmental protection and abatement of pollution present challenging prospects. Several biotechnology processes relating to bioenergy, fermentation, waste transformation, vaccines, etc. are of particular interest to the developing countries. The 'functioning systems' resulting from the breakthrouth in genetic engineering, entailing extraordinary refinement of analytical techniques and technological progress, pose the challenging task of harnessing them to the advantage of mankind. Providing effective legal protection, conducive to the development of biotechnologies-their innovative process and technological change-is a matter of serious concern, involving practical and economical considerations. Several other issues and questions, such as risk prevention and management of potential dangers and hazards in genetic recombination operation by way of safety regulations and necessary guidelines, questions relating to the clinical trials of the interferons-the wonder drug-as well as questions of professional ethics are raised by biotechnologies. Industry-funded research in biotechnology, where scientific and commercial imperatives are interlocked, has for instance, its repercussions on the traditional thrust of university system, specially the sanctity of autonomy for basic research.

  13. Résultats challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Club de pétanque

    2015-01-01

    C'est avec un temps magnifique que se disputait pour la deuxième année le Challenge de notre cher ami Patrick DURAND le jeudi 30 juillet 2015. Vingt-six personnes formées en doublettes s'affrontaient pour trois parties .Après des parties très serrées le juge arbitre Claude JOUVE épaulé par Alain PHILIPONA déclarait  vainqueur l'imbattable Claude MACARI suivi de très près par Eric DARMEDRU et à la troisième place Christian JOUVE. La première féminine était Mireille ROCHE. La soirée se clôturait par une succulente paëlla préparée par Jennifer et sa maman Sylvie JOUVE. Rendez-vous à tous pour le jeudi 27 août 2015 pour le challenge Jean-Claude FROT Nos concours sont ouverts à tous les amateurs de pétanque.

  14. [Challenges of Digital Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Jürg

    2018-06-01

    Challenges of Digital Medicine Abstract. Digitization is increasingly covering more and more sectors, including medicine. To ensure medical operation 365 × 24 hours, progressively more human and financial resources are necessary. The transformation of patient histories from paper into electronic patient records focused initially on documentation. Today, hospital information systems are increasingly used as a platform for the communication of all professionals involved in the patient process - in Switzerland, however, so far without providing patients direct access to their data. Digititizing processes intend to increase efficiency, but also to enhance clinical and administrative decision support and quality assurance. The introduction of the electronic patient record in Switzerland in 2020 is expected to provide cross-company, more complete documentation of patient care. Multimorbid patients, often treated in different institutions and by different specialists, should benefit from this in particular. Advances in artificial intelligence offer new opportunities in medicine. Challenges include ensuring reliable data protection, and better interoperability of the systems involved. Semantically structured, machine-readable data exchange is a necessity for both networked services and internationally competitive research.

  15. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    2016-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA's limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  16. Challenge Based Innovation gala

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Utriainen, Tuuli Maria; Toivonen, Harri; Nordberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Challenge Based Innovation gala   There’s a new experiment starting in CERN called IdeaLab where we work together with detector R&D researchers to help them to bridge their knowledge into a more human, societally oriented context. Currently we are located in B153, but will move our activities to a new facility next to the Globe in May 2014. One of our first pilot projects is a 5 month course CBI (Challenge Based Innovation) where two multidisciplinary student teams join forces with Edusafe & TALENT projects at CERN. Their goal is to discover what kind of tools for learning could be created in collaboration with the two groups. After months of user interviews and low resolution prototyping they are ready to share the results with us in the form of an afternoon gala. We warmly welcome you to join us to see the students' results and experience the prototypes they have conceived. The event is in three parts, you are welcome to visit all of them,...

  17. Managing the Fukushima Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi accident raises a fundamental question: Can science and technology prevent the inevitability of serious accidents, especially those with low probabilities and high consequences? This question reminds us of a longstanding challenge with the trans-sciences, originally addressed by Alvin Weinberg well before the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. This article, revisiting Weinberg's issue, aims at gaining insights from the accident with a special emphasis on the sociotechnical or human behavioral aspects lying behind the accident's causes. In particular, an innovative method for managing the challenge is explored referring to behavioral science approaches to a decision-making process on risk management; such as managing human behavioral risks with information asymmetry, seeking a rational consensus with communicative action, and pursuing procedural rationality through interactions with the outer environment. In short, this article describes the emerging need for Japan to transform its national safety management institutions so that these might be based on interactive communication with parties inside and outside Japan. PMID:24954604

  18. Challenges in Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas J; Baddour, Larry M; Habib, Gilbert; Hoen, Bruno; Salaun, Erwan; Pettersson, Gosta B; Schäfers, Hans Joachim; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2017-01-24

    Infective endocarditis is defined by a focus of infection within the heart and is a feared disease across the field of cardiology. It is frequently acquired in the health care setting, and more than one-half of cases now occur in patients without known heart disease. Despite optimal care, mortality approaches 30% at 1 year. The challenges posed by infective endocarditis are significant. It is heterogeneous in etiology, clinical manifestations, and course. Staphylococcus aureus, which has become the predominant causative organism in the developed world, leads to an aggressive form of the disease, often in vulnerable or elderly patient populations. There is a lack of research infrastructure and funding, with few randomized controlled trials to guide practice. Longstanding controversies such as the timing of surgery or the role of antibiotic prophylaxis have not been resolved. The present article reviews the challenges posed by infective endocarditis and outlines current and future strategies to limit its impact. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ATLAS Data Challenge 1

    CERN Document Server

    Poulard, G

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the ATLAS experiment started a series of Data Challenges (DC) of which the goals are the validation of the Computing Model, of the complete software suite, of the data model, and to ensure the correctness of the technical choices to be made. A major feature of the first Data Challenge (DC1) was the preparation and the deployment of the software required for the production of large event samples for the High Level Trigger (HLT) and physics communities, and the production of those samples as a world-wide distributed activity. The first phase of DC1 was run during summer 2002, and involved 39 institutes in 18 countries. More than 10 million physics events and 30 million single particle events were fully simulated. Over a period of about 40 calendar days 71000 CPU-days were used producing 30 Tbytes of data in about 35000 partitions. In the second phase the next processing step was performed with the participation of 56 institutes in 21 countries (~ 4000 processors used in parallel). The basic elements of ...

  20. The ALICE data challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, J.P.; Collignon, M.; Collin, F.; Durand, J.; Jarp, S.; Jouanigot, J.M.; Panzer, B.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Divia, R.; Rademakers, F.; Saiz, P.; Schossmaier, K.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vascotto, A.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998, the ALICE experiment and the CERN/IT division have jointly executed several large-scale high throughput distributed computing exercises: the ALICE data challenges. The goals of these regular exercises are to test hardware and software components of the data acquisition and computing systems in realistic conditions and to execute an early integration of the overall ALICE computing infrastructure. The authors report on the third ALICE Data Challenge (ADC III) that has been performed at CERN from January to March 2001. The data used during the ADC III are simulated physics raw data of the ALICE TPC, produced with the ALICE simulation program AliRoot. The data acquisition was based on the ALICE online framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system. The data, after event building, were then formatted with the ROOT I/O package and a data catalogue based on MySQL was established. The Mass Storage System used during ADC III is CASTOR. Different software tools have been used to monitor the performances. DATE has demonstrated performances of more than 500 MByte/s. An aggregate data throughput of 85 MByte/s was sustained in CASTOR over several days. The total collected data amounts to 100 TBytes in 100.000 files

  1. Challenges of Combining Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvall, Maria; Titelman, David; Bäärnhielm, Sofie

    2018-02-23

    Asylum seekers have increased risk of suicide and suicidal behavior, with differences related to origin, gender, and age. There are barriers to communication in clinical encounters between asylum seekers and clinicians. There is insufficient knowledge about how communication in the clinical encounter affects the suicide risk in female asylum seekers. To explore the documented communication between female asylum-seeking suicide attempters and clinicians and how it affects treatment. The medical records of 18 asylum-seeking women who had attempted suicide were analyzed with content analysis. Communication between patients and clinicians was affected by: the unbearable realities of the women; difficulties for clinicians in decoding languages of distress, and understanding trauma and subjective meanings of suicide; challenges of combining patients' and clinicians' perspectives; and a sense of shared powerlessness. The medical records did not give direct access to the patient's experience, only to the patient as documented by the clinician. The results suggest that clinicians working with asylum seekers who have attempted suicide need to develop an understanding of social and cultural factors and of trauma issues. A question for further study is how an enhanced integration of context and subjectivity in psychiatric practice would equip clinicians for the specific challenges encountered.

  2. 75 FR 47316 - Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge... teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to..., please visit: http://www.spaceward.org/elevator2010-ts . For general information on the NASA Centennial...

  3. Contemporary challenges in applying of the modified model CAPM with country risk premium in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Modern approach in determining the expected return of foreign investors' investments is based on the evaluation investment in capital asset-CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model). In order to use the CAPM model for calculating the expected return of foreign investors in growing economies, it is developed the extended model CAPM with the risk premium in the country. This variant of the CAPM model has been used for estimating the cost of capital. This is the expected return on a portfolio of the co...

  4. Ultra-modified rapid sequence induction with transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange: Challenging convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sakharam Kulkarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During positive pressure ventilation, gastric inflation and subsequent pulmonary aspiration can occur. Rapid sequence induction (RSI technique is an age-old formula to prevent this. We adopted a novel approach of RSI for patients with high risk of aspiration and evaluated it further in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries. We believe that, in patients with risk of gastric insufflation and pulmonary aspiration, transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange can be useful in facilitating pre- and apnoeic oxygenation till tracheal isolation is achieved.

  5. Managing complexity challenges for industrial engineering and operations management

    CERN Document Server

    López-Paredes, Adolfo; Pérez-Ríos, José

    2014-01-01

    This book presents papers by experts in the field of Industrial Engineering, covering topics in business strategy; modelling and simulation in operations research; logistics and production; service systems; innovation and knowledge; and project management. The focus of operations and production management has evolved from product and manufacturing to the capabilities of firms and collaborative management. Nowadays, Industrial Engineering is concerned with the study of how to design, modify, control and improve the performance of complex systems. It has extended its scope to any physical landscape populated by social agents. This raises a major challenge to Industrial Engineering:  managing complexity. This volume shows how experts are dealing with this challenge.

  6. Ligand-Modified Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles for Enhanced Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Jennifer; Wilhelm, Nadine; von Briesen, Hagen; Noske, Nadja; Günther, Christine; Langer, Klaus; Gorjup, Erwin

    2015-09-08

    The development of nonviral gene delivery systems is a great challenge to enable safe gene therapy. In this study, ligand-modified nanoparticles based on human serum albumin (HSA) were developed and optimized for an efficient gene therapy. Different glutaraldehyde cross-linking degrees were investigated to optimize the HSA nanoparticles for gene delivery. The peptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) and the HIV-1 transactivator of transduction sequence (Tat) are well-known as promising targeting ligands. Plasmid DNA loaded HSA nanoparticles were covalently modified on their surface with these different ligands. The transfection potential of the obtained plasmid DNA loaded RGD- and Tat-modified nanoparticles was investigated in vitro, and optimal incubation conditions for these preparations were studied. It turned out that Tat-modified HSA nanoparticles with the lowest cross-linking degree of 20% showed the highest transfection potential. Taken together, ligand-functionalized HSA nanoparticles represent promising tools for efficient and safe gene therapy.

  7. The competitive challenge in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.

    2005-01-01

    The increasingly competitive environment poses challenges to bankers. This paper emphasizes relationship banking as a prime source of the banks' comparative advantage. The proliferation of transaction-oriented banking (trading and financial market activities) does however seriously challenge

  8. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  9. A 100-Year Review: Metabolic modifiers in dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, R K

    2017-12-01

    The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues. Papers on metabolic modifiers became more frequent in the journal around 1950. Dairy farming changed radically between 1955 and 1965. Changes in housing and feeding moved more cows outside, and cows and heifers in all stages of lactation, including the dry period, were fed as a single group. Rations became wetter with the shift to corn silage as the major forage in many rations. Liberal grain feeding met the requirements of high-producing cows and increased production per cow but introduced new challenges; for example, managing and feeding cows as a group. These changes led to the introduction of new strategies that identified and expanded the use of metabolic modifiers. Research was directed at characterizing the new problems for the dairy cow created by group feeding. Metabolic modifiers went beyond feeding the cow and included environmental and housing factors and additives to reduce the incidence and severity of many new conditions and pathologies. New collaborations began among dairy cattle specialties that broadened our understanding of the workings of the cow. The Journal of Dairy Science then and now plays an enormously important role in dissemination of the findings of dairy scientists worldwide that address existing and new technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association

  10. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  11. Challenging the Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2004-01-01

    To many people, challenging the boundaries between the traditional disciplines in foreign language studies means doing cultural studies. The aim of this article is to pull in a different direction by suggesting how the interface between linguistics and literature may be another fertile field...... to explore in the study and teaching of foreign languages. Not only may linguistics and literature be employed to shed light on each other, the insights gained may furthermore prove useful in a broader context in our foreign language studies. The article begins with a brief introduction to literary...... linguistics in general and to Hallidayan linguistics in particular. The theoretical framework thus laid out, it is exemplified how Halliday's theory of language may be employed in the analysis of literature. The article concludes by considering the possible status of literary linguistics in a broader...

  12. Optics fabrication technical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabassier, G.; Ferriou, N.; Lavastre, E.; Maunier, C.; Neauport, J.; Taroux, D.; Balla, D.; Fornerod, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Before the production of all the LMJ (MEGAJOULE laser) optics, the CEA had to proceed with the fabrication of about 300 large optics for the LIL (laser integration line) laser. Thanks to a fruitful collaboration with high-tech optics companies in Europe, this challenge has been successfully hit. In order to achieve the very tight requirements for cleanliness, laser damage threshold and all the other high demanding fabrication specifications, it has been necessary to develop and to set completely new fabrication process going and to build special outsize fabrication equipment. Through a couple of examples, this paper gives an overview of the work which has been done and shows some of the results which have been obtained: continuous laser glass melting, fabrication of the laser slabs, rapid-growth KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) technology, large diffractive transmission gratings engraving and characterization. (authors)

  13. Challenge Measurements For Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator's ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  14. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  15. Sustainable Consumption: Research Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John

    The Board of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) decided in October 2015 that a proposal for a funding application call in the research area of “sustainable consumption” should be drawn up. According to the statutes of Mistra, research funded by the foundation...... international senior researchers in the eld — Lucia A. Reisch, Maurie J. Cohen, John B. Thøgersen and Arnold Tukker (see Appendix 3) — to draft a background report to prepare the call. The group’s tasks were outlined as follows: ► to describe the challenges facing society in this area, and the political (and...... the orientation of a new research program to be used as draft text for the call for funding applications. The aim of this background report is hence to shed light on future research topics within sustainable consumption from a Swedish perspective. The research pro- moted should help to develop Sweden...

  16. The Global Energy Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years....... Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy...

  17. Energy a planetary challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Souviron, J.P

    1996-01-01

    After explaining that nuclear energy as well fossil fuel energy are a problem for environment, in radioactive wastes for the first one and for the greenhouse effect for the second one, a new energy policy for France and for the whole countries in the world is described here. Technological and financial arguments in support of this demonstration, it is possible to live better on making the right choices; The energy future is built on the exploitation of two richnesses the energy economies and the renewable energies, as solar energy or wind energy. Technologies exist, they have to be improved and to be applied with judgment according to areas. This challenge is, above all, a question of policy will. (N.C.)

  18. The challenge of implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Heide Hauge

    2016-01-01

    of the paper: which factors influence the degree of implementation of innovation and entrepreneurship in the individual lecturers’ daily teaching? The paper questions the common approach taken by higher educational institutions whereby lecturers are urged to teach innovation and entrepreneurship with minor...... these concepts in daily teaching, as it is strongly encouraged by policy makers and educations. This paper aims to discuss how lecturers experience the challenge of teaching their own discipline while being imposed to embrace and promote innovation and entrepreneurship teaching. Through a single study case...... of the BATCoM education at VIA University College, Denmark, the paper shows that the knowledge, use and implementation of the concepts is far from anchored in the lecturers’ daily practices. Through qualitative interviews the paper highlights different aspects considered, to determine the research question...

  19. Technology Empowerment: Security Challenges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Wendell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nelson, Thomas R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skocypec, Russell D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    “Technology empowerment” means that innovation is increasingly accessible to ordinary people of limited means. As powerful technologies become more affordable and accessible, and as people are increasingly connected around the world, ordinary people are empowered to participate in the process of innovation and share the fruits of collaborative innovation. This annotated briefing describes technology empowerment and focuses on how empowerment may create challenges to U.S. national security. U.S. defense research as a share of global innovation has dwindled in recent years. With technology empowerment, the role of U.S. defense research is likely to shrink even further while technology empowerment will continue to increase the speed of innovation. To avoid falling too far behind potential technology threats to U.S. national security, U.S. national security institutions will need to adopt many of the tools of technology empowerment.

  20. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    and on a conceptual framework to examine equity in REDD+. Qualitative research with a case study in Cambodia provides the empirical foundation for the thesis, supplemented with a quantitative analysis of climate change research to address the fourth research question. Together, these articles and approaches...... these challenges, specific recomm ndations are summarized in the thesis, namely: better integration of qualitative methods in social assessments, greater emphasis on local inclusion and representativeness in relation to resource access and decision-making, more field research and cross...... social assessments in REDD+ are inadequate due to a dominant positivistic approach to methods and indicators for social assessment, which contrasts the complexities and context of REDD+ projects; 2) The distribution of costs and benefits within communities in Oddar Meanchey is uneven, as the costs...

  1. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  2. Multicore Programming Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Michael

    The computer industry is facing fundamental challenges that are driving a major change in the design of computer processors. Due to restrictions imposed by quantum physics, one historical path to higher computer processor performance - by increased clock frequency - has come to an end. Increasing clock frequency now leads to power consumption costs that are too high to justify. As a result, we have seen in recent years that the processor frequencies have peaked and are receding from their high point. At the same time, competitive market conditions are giving business advantage to those companies that can field new streaming applications, handle larger data sets, and update their models to market conditions faster. The desire for newer, faster and larger is driving continued demand for higher computer performance.

  3. Changing times, similar challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    With IHEEM celebrating its 70th Anniversary this month, HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, recently met the Institute's oldest surviving Past-President, Lawrence Turner OBE, who, having in 1964 established a small engineering business producing some of the NHS's earliest nurse call systems from the basement of his three-storey West Midlands home, has since seen the company, Static Systems Group, grow to become one of the U.K. market-leaders in its field. The Institute's President from 1979-1981, he looked back, during a fascinating two-hour discussion, at his time in the role, talked through some of the key technological and other changes he has seen in the past five decades, reflected on an interesting and varied career, and considered some of the very different current-day challenges that today's IHEEM President, and the Institute as a whole, face.

  4. [Ambulatory pediatrics: a challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransy, V; Gevers, B; Landsberg, M

    2006-01-01

    Ambulatory paediatrics in University hospitals has remarkably evolved during the past decade, along with technological progress and the current need for undelayed information and attention; demand for hospital medical advice increases consequently, either directly in outpatients wards or indirectly by phone or e-mails. Specific medico-social aspects linked essentially to populations' migration, poverty, chronic stress and family splitting are regularly encountered. Hospital architecture and adequacy of medical and nursing staff must both be adjusted to these changing medical demands including medical teaching. We now face the ever-growing challenge of providing an adequate management of actual medico-psycho-social aspects and integrating up-to-date paediatrics in our daily practices.

  5. Challenges in data science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, M.; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    of global properties from locally interacting data entities and clustering phenomena demand suitable approaches and methodologies recently developed in the foundational area of Data Science by taking a Complex Systems standpoint. Here, we deal with challenges that can be summarized by the question: "What...... can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ". Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking "What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?" These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection...... of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Hydropower Modeling Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andrade, Juan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Hydropower facilities are important assets for the electric power sector and represent a key source of flexibility for electric grids with large amounts of variable generation. As variable renewable generation sources expand, understanding the capabilities and limitations of the flexibility from hydropower resources is important for grid planning. Appropriately modeling these resources, however, is difficult because of the wide variety of constraints these plants face that other generators do not. These constraints can be broadly categorized as environmental, operational, and regulatory. This report highlights several key issues involving incorporating these constraints when modeling hydropower operations in terms of production cost and capacity expansion. Many of these challenges involve a lack of data to adequately represent the constraints or issues of model complexity and run time. We present several potential methods for improving the accuracy of hydropower representation in these models to allow for a better understanding of hydropower's capabilities.

  7. Media Challenging Status Quo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    and Libya creating headlines like “the Facebook revolution”. On the other hand, several scholars argue that it is naive to believe that social media in themselves create change: they may at the best facilitate already existing social and political movements (Downing 2008, Christakis & Fowler 2010...... and communication research is currently engaging in a longer and deeper process of examining and assessing the cultural consequences of networked communication. One present challenge is to understand digital media and networked communication at the intersection of established and countercultural, utopian......Digital media and especially so-called ‘social media’ have on the one hand been ascribed the power to change societies and empower democratic movements following the thoughts of e.g. Rheingold (2004), recently fueled by the democratic uprising in Arabic countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, Iran...

  8. Challenges for nuclear regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses issues that will present particular challenges to the nuclear industry, during the next decade, that should be addressed in order to achieve increased public acceptance of the industry. The issues of safety culture, peer review of safety, severe accidents, transport accidents and public communication are suggest as meriting special consideration. The need for nuclear regulatory agencies to establish credibility and for operating organisations to demonstrate accountability is emphasised, and the Australian experiences are reviewed. Increased collaboration by nuclear regulatory agencies in the Asian-pacific region is suggested, in order to encourage consistency of regulatory safety standards for the nuclear safety issues identified. Methods whereby this could be achieved within the framework of existing agreements and arrangements are suggested. 2 refs

  9. Some Challenges to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R. Conard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The word “sustainability” is often used in business in the belief that the current ways of doing things will be able to be continued with only minor changes to balance economic development with related environmental and social issues. There are, however, immense challenges that threaten the very sustainability of our global society, let alone individual businesses or developments. A few of the most important of these challenges—population growth, clean energy supply, fresh water availability, and global climate change—are discussed. As humanity forms its collective response to these threats, it is concluded that all intelligent people, but especially scientists, have important roles to play, not only in technical innovation, but also in catalyzing political action.

  10. The WCET Tool Challenge 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanxleden, Reinhard von; Holsti, Niklas; Lisper, Björn

    Following the successful WCET Tool Challenges in 2006 and 2008, the third event in this series was organized in 2011, again with support from the ARTIST DESIGN Network of Excellence. Following the practice established in the previous Challenges, the WCET Tool Challenge 2011 (WCC'11) dened two kin...

  11. WCET Tool Challenge 2011: Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonenfant, Armelle; Cassé, Hugues; Bünte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Following the successful WCET Tool Challenges in 2006 and 2008, the third event in this series was organized in 2011, again with support from the ARTIST DESIGN Network of Excellence. Following the practice established in the previous Challenges, the WCET Tool Challenge 2011 (WCC’11) defined two k...

  12. Challenges of Virtual School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; LaFrance, Jason; Beck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine challenges faced by virtual school leaders in the United States. Through semistructured interviews, the researchers explored challenges faced by eighteen leaders of fully online or blended online programs. Analysis revealed six main challenges: funding, staff, accountability, time, parents, and…

  13. New challenges in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Streicher, C. [Prosernat, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    New developments in the area of gas treatment will be to a large extent driven by the need to find appropriate solutions to the fundamental need of sustainable development. New gas treatment processes are developed with the aim to minimise contaminant emissions and meet most stringent environmental specifications. A new major challenge for the industry will be to implement new cost effective technologies for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Industry has also to minimise its costs, and therefore, in order to ensure at the same time a better protection of the environment and a better safety, it is necessary to innovate. The purpose of this seminar is precisely to identify better the innovations which are required in the area of gas treatment. These proceedings comprise 8 papers and a summary of the contributions to a round-table discussion dealing with the options for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The presentations treat of: the future prospects for the gas industry (M.F. Chabrelie, Cedigaz); the solutions for offshore gas treatment (C. Streicher, Prosernat); gas treatment with membranes (H. Meyer, GTI); the Axens Multibed{sub TM} technology for natural gas treatment (G. Jochem, Axens); the potentials and applications for the Propure co-current contactors (F.P. Nilsen, ProPure); the production of very-sour and super-sour large gas reserves: the new challenges (F. Lallemand, TotalFinaElf); Hybrisol, a new gas treatment process for sour natural gases (F. Lecomte, IFP); and the conception and building of large acid-gas removal units (J. Castel, Technip-Coflexip). (J.S.)

  14. Modified entropic gravitation in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Clovis Jacinto de

    2012-01-01

    Verlinde recently developed a theoretical account of gravitation in terms of an entropic force. The central element in Verlinde’s derivation is information and its relation with entropy through the holographic principle. The application of this approach to the case of superconductors requires to take into account that information associated with superconductor’s quantum vacuum energy is not stored on Planck size surface elements, but in four volume cells with Planck-Einstein size. This has profound consequences on the type of gravitational force generated by the quantum vacuum condensate in superconductors, which is closely related with the cosmological repulsive acceleration responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Remarkably this new gravitational type force depends on the level of breaking of the weak equivalence principle for cooper pairs in a given superconducting material, which was previously derived by the author starting from similar principles. It is also shown that this new gravitational force can be interpreted as a surface force. The experimental detection of this new repulsive gravitational-type force appears to be challenging.

  15. Chromatin-modifying proteins in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Cathrine K; Jensen, Klaus T; Lund, Anders Henrik

    2007-01-01

    -despite the fact that all cells in the organism contain the same genetic information. A large amount of data gathered over the last decades has demonstrated that deregulation of chromatin-modifying proteins is etiologically involved in the development and progression of cancer. Here we discuss how epigenetic...... alterations influence cancer development and review known cancer-associated alterations in chromatin-modifying proteins....

  16. Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It

  17. The Modified Enskog Equation for Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Ernst, M.H.

    1973-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that a modified form of the Enskog equation, applied to mixtures of hard spheres, should be considered as the correct extension of the usual Enskog equation to the case of mixtures. The main argument was that the modified Enskog equation leads to linear transport

  18. Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank

    2009-01-01

    This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...

  19. Achondroplasia: anaesthetic challenges for caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, L; Scott, G A; Agaram, R; McGrady, E; Duncan, A; Litchfield, K N

    2014-08-01

    Pregnancy in women with achondroplasia presents major challenges for anaesthetists and obstetricians. We report the case of a woman with achondroplasia who underwent general anaesthesia for an elective caesarean section. She was 99cm in height and her condition was further complicated by severe kyphoscoliosis and previous back surgery. She was reviewed in the first trimester at the anaesthetic high-risk clinic. A multidisciplinary team was convened to plan her peripartum care. Because of increasing dyspnoea caesarean section was performed at 32weeks of gestation. She received a general anaesthetic using a modified rapid-sequence technique with remifentanil and rocuronium. The intraoperative period was complicated by desaturation and high airway pressures. The woman's postoperative care was complicated by respiratory compromise requiring high dependency care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phosphonium modified clay/polyimide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, Hatice; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, octyltriphenylphosphonium bromide [OTPP-Br] was prepared from the reaction of triphenylphosphine and 1 -bromooctane. The modification of clay was done by ion exchange reaction using OTPP-Br in water medium. Poly(amic acid) was prepared from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-Oxydianiline (ODA). Polyimide(PI)/clay hybrids were prepared by blending of poly(amic acid) and organically modified clay as a type of layered clays. The morphology of the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structures of polyimide and Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  1. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  2. Security challenge to using smartphones for SHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abueh, Yeka; Liu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Pervasive smartphones have demonstrated great potential in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructures. Their sensing, processing, and communication capabilities along with crowdsourcing facility ease technical difficulties and reduce financial burdens of instrumentation and monitoring for SHM in civil infrastructures. However, smartphones are vulnerable to unintentional misuses and malicious attacks. This paper analyzes the vulnerabilities of smartphones in performing SHM and reveals the exploitation of those vulnerabilities. The work probes the attack surface of both devices and data. Device attack scenarios include hacking individual smartphones to modify the data stored on them and orchestrating smartphones to launch a distributed denial-of-service attack. Specifically, experiments are conducted to remotely access an Android smartphone and modify the sensing data of structural health stored on it. The work also presents a case study that reveals the sensitivity of a popular perturbation analysis method to faulty data delivered by a smartphone. The paper provides the direction of meeting the security challenge to using smartphones for SHM. As the first line of defense, device authentication is implemented in the smartphone to stop spoofing. Subsequently, message authentication is devised to maintain data integrity. There is a need to apply data science for the SHM immunity system against the sensitivity to data inaccuracy. The work also evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the proposed security measures, recommending varying levels of security to mitigate the adversaries to smartphones used in SHM systems. It calls for security solutions at the design stage of SHM systems rather than patching up after their implementations.

  3. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  4. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  5. VISIR: Experiences and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Tawfik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of crucial importance the integration of practical sessions in engineering curricula owing to their significant role in understanding engineering concepts and scientific phenomena. However, the lack of practical sessions due to the high costs of the equipment and the unavailability of instructors has caused a significant declination in experimentation in engineering education. Remote laboratories have tackled this issues providing online reusable and shared workbenches unconstrained by neither geographical nor time considerations. Thereby, they have extremely proliferated among universities and integrated into engineering curricula over the last decade. This contribution compiles diverse experiences based on the deployment of the remote laboratory, Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR, on the practices of undergraduate engineering grades at various universities within the VISIR community. It aims to show the impact of its usage on engineering education concerning the assessments of students and teachers as well. In addition, the paper address the next challenges and future works carried out at several universities within the VISIR community.

  6. Challenges for decommissioning policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the coming years, OECD member countries will be increasingly faced with the need to make appropriate provisions, in terms of policy, finance and management, for all aspects of decommissioning. Decommissioning requires regulatory approval and oversight, the directions of which are guided by national policy. In several instances, governments have only recently begun to address their approaches to decommissioning policy and regulation in national legislation, and international overviews of such approaches, which may eventually lead to international harmonization, are only now beginning to emerge. In parallel, policy and regulation have been evolving and a broadened competence has developed in relevant regulatory authorities. The challenge lying ahead is to establish a framework that will allow for the growth of nuclear industrial activities in competitive, globalized markets, while maintaining and assuring the safety of decommissioning for the public and for workers. Within this context, institutional arrangements, stakeholder issues, costs and funding, waste management and policies for release from regulatory control, as well as the availability of technologies and skills, need to be reviewed. (author)

  7. Whiplash Continues Its Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Gwendolen

    2016-10-01

    There have been many advances in the management of neck pain disorders, but a personal frustration as a clinician and researcher in the field is that the incidence of full recovery following a whiplash injury as a result of a motor vehicle crash has not increased and, subsequently, the rate of transition to chronic neck pain has not lessened. The commentaries in this special issue reflect the multifaceted nature of whiplash-associated disorders and the wide-ranging research in the field. While management of whiplash, especially the challenge of lessening the rate of transition to chronicity, has yet to be achieved, the picture is becoming clearer. This should give great confidence and some hope to individuals with whiplash-associated disorders who have long-term pain and functional disability that after the next decade of research and clinical development, the outcomes following whiplash are likely to be vastly improved. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(10):815-817. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0112.

  8. Challenges in Piaget's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibace, Roger

    2013-03-01

    The publication of After Piaget (Martí and Rodríguez 2012) hopefully triggers a new effort to understand the richness of the efforts of that major psychologist of the 20th century. Piaget was consistently concerned with part/whole relationships throughout his life. He addressed this issue philosophically, epistemologically, and psychologically. Conceptually Piaget struggled with the issue of continuity/discontinuity in development and changed his mind about how to reconcile the discontinuities of stages with his concept of development. I also attribute his variability to the implications of his important work on perception, and to his willingness to get involved in widespread concrete applications of his approach to education including the education of children with special needs; his center for genetic epistemology, and his interest in psychoanalysis. Benefiting from all the authors of After Piaget, I want to point out that Piaget has identified many major issues that will continue to constitute challenges to psychology in this century. These include specifying terms such as 'development;' methodological issues such as sampling both quantitatively in one culture and across cultures; comprehensive inclusion of the psychological processes covered by introductory textbooks in psychology; and conceptual issues such as the relationships among all these parts within a whole. I make a distinction between an 'issue' and a 'problem'--problems have solutions; while issues refer to controversies in science generally as well as in psychology that have persisted for centuries.

  9. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Auerbach-Nevo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of “pathogen-specific antibiotics,” in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification.

  10. Challenges in Regulating Ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiippana, P.

    2016-01-01

    Finland has recent experience in regulating design, construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Also decommissioning is topical as the research reactor will enter a decommissioning phase in the near future. From regulator’s point of view, the paper discusses potential challenges related to ageing management at the Finnish nuclear facilities throughout their lifetime. Based on the experience the most important decisions to ensure adequate provisions against adverse effects of various ageing phenomena and mechanisms are made much earlier than operation starts, namely during design, construction and manufacturing of systems, structures and components (SSC). Early consideration of ageing management resulting in good engineering including ageing-proof manufacturing and construction practices is of particular importance for new reactors. Elongated design lifetime of new reactors underlines the need of all available means to minimize progress of ageing beforehand and to create prerequisites for well-established condition monitoring and maintenance up to decommissioning. Furthermore, continuous research and development in order to understand various types of ageing and to detect degradation before SSC’s failure is expected as soon as a facility has been put in service. All these activities have to be supported by proper information and knowledge management in each phase of the facility’s life span. (author)

  11. Challenges of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development in many countries, the magnetic confinement fusion experiments finally seem to be getting close to the original first goal: the point of ''scientific break-even''. Plans are being made for a generation of experiments and tests with actual controlled thermonuclear fusion conditions. Therefore engineers and material scientists are hard at work to develop the required technology. In this paper the principal elements of a generic fusion reactor are described briefly to introduce the reader to the nature of the problems at hand. The main portion of the presentation summarises the recent advances made in this field and discusses the major issues that still need to be addressed in regard to materials and technology for fusion power. Specific examples are the problems of the first wall and other components that come into direct contact with the plasma, where both lifetime and plasma contamination are matters of concern. Equally challenging are the demands on structural materials and on the magnetic-field coils, particularly in connection with the neutron-radiation environment of fusion reactors. Finally, the role of ceramics must be considered, both for insulators and for fuel breeding purposes. It is evident that we still have a formidable task before us, but at this point none of the problems seem to be insoluble. (author)

  12. Osteomyelitis: a current challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Souza Jorge

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.

  13. 'Scrap yard challenge'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollick, A.

    2000-01-01

    'Plutonium'. The word evokes deep reactions outside of the nuclear industry. Although the majority of Plutonium currently in existence is man-made and therefore perceived as being unnatural, plutonium has been found as a product of the Oklo natural reactor in Gabon. This paper seeks to challenge two concepts, that of the Nuclear Control Institute that Plutonium is unnatural, 'fiendishly toxic' and one of the 'substances most hazardous to man' and the second image that a high security Plutonium store is merely a 'scrapyard' containing a material which has little use. The nuclear industry has often been accused of treating Plutonium and its accumulation casually in proportion to the risks perceived by those outside the industry. As a result this paper seeks to demonstrate that the industry is aware of the concerns of the public and is actively seeking viable solutions. The paper looks at Plutonium itself and explores the issues surrounding military and civil Plutonium in adding to the current stockpiles. It also suggests three possible alternatives for dealing with these Plutonium stockpiles and arrives at a conclusion as to which solutions currently appear most viable. (authors)

  14. Challenges in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greve, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

  15. Modifying and developing health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L W

    1984-01-01

    The literatures on both behavior modification and behavioral development have engendered innovations in public health programs, addressing problems of patient adherance to preventive and therapeutic regimens, delay in seeking diagnosis of illness symptoms, risk-taking behavior, and other aspects of lifestyle associated with health. Because most of this literature derives from psychology, there has been a distinct bias in the construction of interventions, pointing them directly at individuals, usually in a counseling or small group mode of delivery. These developments served public health well enough during a decade or so when the preoccupation was with utilization of health services and medical management of chronic diseases. With the publication of the Lalonde Report in Canada in 1974, the passage of Public Law 94-317 in 1976 in the United States, and similar initiatives in other English-speaking and European countries, the recognition of the greater complexities of lifestyle development and modification in the absence of symptoms has taken hold. Policy makers and public health workers seek a more efficient and equitable set of strategies to meet the behavioral health challenges of modern society without placing the entire weight of responsibility for behavior on the individual or on therapeutic practitioners. Concurrently, on a more global scale and in the developing countries, a concern has emerged for strategies that give individuals, families, and communities a greater role in deciding their own health priorities. The convergence of these two trends--one seeking to distribute responsibility for lifestyle more equitably and the other seeking to distribute responsibility for planning health programs more equitably --calls for policies, strategies, and interventions that will place similar emphasis on health education and organizational, economic, and environmental supports for health behavior. The combination of these elements of support for behavior calls, in

  16. Allosteric regulation of epigenetic modifying enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, Beth E; Cole, Philip A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic enzymes including histone modifying enzymes are key regulators of gene expression in normal and disease processes. Many drug development strategies to target histone modifying enzymes have focused on ligands that bind to enzyme active sites, but allosteric pockets offer potentially attractive opportunities for therapeutic development. Recent biochemical studies have revealed roles for small molecule and peptide ligands binding outside of the active sites in modulating the catalytic activities of histone modifying enzymes. Here we highlight several examples of allosteric regulation of epigenetic enzymes and discuss the biological significance of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eigenvalue Decomposition-Based Modified Newton Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the Hessian matrix is not positive, the Newton direction may not be the descending direction. A new method named eigenvalue decomposition-based modified Newton algorithm is presented, which first takes the eigenvalue decomposition of the Hessian matrix, then replaces the negative eigenvalues with their absolute values, and finally reconstructs the Hessian matrix and modifies the searching direction. The new searching direction is always the descending direction. The convergence of the algorithm is proven and the conclusion on convergence rate is presented qualitatively. Finally, a numerical experiment is given for comparing the convergence domains of the modified algorithm and the classical algorithm.

  18. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  19. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fang JIN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches.

  20. Is the role of the environment in carcinogenesis overestimated. [Individual health status, modifying factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E J

    1979-01-01

    The dominant role of the physical and chemical environment in the development of cancer is challenged. Analyses of the etiology of skin, bladder, respiratory and gastric cancers are presented which demonstrate the considerable extent to which one's health status may modify the initiation and promotion of environmentally asociated cancers. It is concluded that although environmental factors may initiate and/or promote 85 to 90 percent of all cancers this is misleading since it neglects the critical role of the individual's health status as a factor modifying carcinogenesis.

  1. The stem factor challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.J.; Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that still needs to be met in the effort to understand the operation of motor-operated, rising-stem valves is the ability to determine stem factor throughout the valve's load range. The stem factor represents the conversion of operator torque to stem thrust. Determining the stem factor is important because some motor-operated valves (MOVs) cannot be tested in the plant at design basis conditions. The ability of these valves to perform their design basis function (typically, to operate against specified flow and pressure loads) must be ensured by analytical methods or by extrapolating from the results of tests conducted at lower loads. Because the stem factor tends to vary in response to friction and lubrication phenomena that occur during loading and wedging, analytical methods and extrapolation methods have been difficult to develop and implement. Early investigations into variability in the stem factor tended to look only at the tip of the iceberg; they focused on what was happening at torque switch trip, which usually occurs at full wedging. In most stems, the stem factor is better (lower) in the wedging transient than before wedging, so working with torque switch trip data alone led many early researchers to false conclusions about the relationship between stem factor and load. However, research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has taken a closer look at what happens during the running portion of the closing stroke along with the wedging portion. This shift in focus is important, because functional failure of a valve typically consists of a failure to isolate flow, not a failure to achieve full wedging. Thus, the stem factor that must be determined for a valve's design basis closing requirements is the one that corresponds with the running load before wedging

  2. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  3. Decommissioning - The worldwide challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, John

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Whatever the future may hold for nuclear power, there are closed or ageing nuclear facilities in many countries around the world. While these may be in safe care and maintenance at present, a sustainable long term solution is required. Facilities need to be decommissioned, contaminated land remediated, and wastes conditioned for safe storage or disposal. Practical nuclear site restoration has been demonstrated internationally. This experience has revealed generic challenges in dealing with old, often experimental, facilities. These include: Facilities not designed for ease of decommissioning; Records of plant construction and operation, and of the materials utilised and wastes produced, not to modern standards; Fuels and wastes stored for long periods in less than optimal conditions, leading to deterioration and handling problems; The historic use of experimental fuels and materials, giving rise to unique waste streams requiring unique waste management solutions; The application of modern safety and environmental standards to plant which dates from the 1940s, 50s and 60s, requiring investment before decommissioning can even commence. These problems can be tackled, as examples from UKAEA's own programme will illustrate. But two fundamental issues must be recognised and considered. First, the costs of decommissioning older facilities are very high, and may place a heavy burden on national budgets, despite using best efforts to control them. We can limit these costs by learning from one another's experience and sharing the development of new techniques and technologies. UKAEA has already initiated a programme of international collaboration, and hopes that other IAEA countries will be encouraged to follow suit. But whilst the costs of decommissioning may be high, the process normally meets with public acceptance. This is seldom the case for long term waste storage or disposal. Until waste management routes are available - either nationally or internationally

  4. WANO. Development, programs, challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferburg, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the accident at the Soviet RBMK reactor unit 4 in Chernobyl the nuclear industry founded the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). To this day, the purpose of the organization has been to enhance worldwide cooperation of nuclear industry and, in this way, strengthen the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. Following some first steps after 1986, the charter of the organization was signed at the WANO constituent assembly in Moscow on May 15 and 16, 1989. The member companies thus committed themselves to support WANO's mission. WANO was established for these purposes: ''The mission of WANO is to maximize the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants worldwide by working together to assess, benchmark and improve performance through mutual support, exchange of information, and emulation of best practices.'' The WANO programs developed speedily thereafter. The focus was on peer reviews. In 2000, the first interim objective had been reached: Fifty percent of all member nuclear power plants had undergone peer reviews. In addition, plant-related peer reviews were extended throughout all operator organizations, and corporate peer reviews were developed. The other WANO programs as well, i.e. exchanges of experience, technical support, and performance indicators, exerted more and more influence on industry. Peer reviews covered entire operator organizations, and corporate peer reviews were developed. The worldwide paradigm shift in evaluating the use of nuclear power, and the associated construction programs for new nuclear power plants already in their implementation phase, assigned a new quality to the work of WANO. The organization is preparing a long-term strategy in the face of the challenges to be expected. The ultimate objective of these efforts is to support member organizations from the first preparations of a nuclear power plant project to the end of commercial operation. (orig.)

  5. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  6. The Repack Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Daniele Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Physics data stored in CERN tapes is quickly reaching the 100 PB milestone. Tape is an ever-changing technology that is still following Moore's law in terms of capacity. This means we can store every year more and more data in the same amount of tapes. However this doesn't come for free: the first obvious cost is the new higher capacity media. The second less known cost is related to moving the data from the old tapes to the new ones. This activity is what we call repack. Repack is vital for any large tape user: without it, one would have to buy more tape libraries and more floor space and, eventually, data on old non supported tapes would become unreadable and be lost forever. In this paper we describe the challenge of repacking 115 PB before LHC data taking starts in the beginning of 2015. This process will have to run concurrently with the existing experiment tape activities, and therefore needs to be as transparent as possible for users. Making sure that this works out seamlessly implies careful planning of the resources and the various policies for sharing them fairly and conveniently. To tackle this problem we need to fully exploit the speed and throughput of our modern tape drives. This involves proper dimensioning and configuration of the disk arrays and all the links between them and the tape servers, i.e the machines responsible for managing the tape drives. It is also equally important to provide tools to improve the efficiency with which we use our tape libraries. The new repack setup we deployed has on average increased tape drive throughput by 80%, allowing them to perform closer to their design specifications. This improvement in turn means a 48% decrease in the number of drives needed to achieve the required throughput to complete the full repack on time.

  7. Nutlin-3a and Cytokine Co-loaded Spermine-Modified Acetalated Dextran Nanoparticles for Cancer Chemo-Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauleth-Ramos, Tomás; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Liu, Dongfei

    2017-01-01

    The combination of chemo- and immunotherapy represents one promising strategy to overcome the existent challenges in the present-day anticancer therapy. Here, spermine-modified acetalated dextran nanoparticles (Sp-AcDEX NPs), co-loaded with the non-genotoxic molecule Nutlin-3a (Nut3a), and the cy......The combination of chemo- and immunotherapy represents one promising strategy to overcome the existent challenges in the present-day anticancer therapy. Here, spermine-modified acetalated dextran nanoparticles (Sp-AcDEX NPs), co-loaded with the non-genotoxic molecule Nutlin-3a (Nut3a...

  8. A Direct Assessment of Obesogenic Built Environments: Challenges and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasevic, D.; Vukmirovich, N.; Lear, S.A.; Salim Yusuf; Teo, K.; Chow, C.; Dagenais, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges faced during direct built environment (BE) assessments of 42 Canadian communities of various income and urbanization levels. In addition, we recommend options for overcoming such challenges during BE community assessments. Direct BE assessments were performed utilizing two distinct audit methods: (1) modified version of Irvine-Minnesota Inventory in which a paper version of an audit tool was used to assess BE features and (2) a Physical Activity and Nutrition Features audit tool, where the presence and positions of all environmental features of interest were recorded using a Global-Positioning-System (GPS) unit. This paper responds to the call for the need of creators and users of environmental audit tools to share experiences regarding the usability of tools for BE assessments. The outlined BE assessment challenges plus recommendations for overcoming them can help improve and refine the existing audit tools and aid researchers in future assessments of the BE

  9. Introducing Teamwork Challenges in Simulation Using Game Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Todd P; Kwan, Karen Y; Liberman, Danica; Song, Eric; Dao, Eugene H; Chung, Dayun; Morton, Inge; Festekjian, Ara

    2015-08-01

    Poor teamwork and communication during resuscitations are linked to patient safety problems and poorer outcomes. We present a novel simulation-based educational intervention using game cards to introduce challenges in teamwork. This intervention uses sets of game cards that designate roles, limitations, or communication challenges designed to introduce common communication or teamwork problems. Game cards are designed to be applicable for any simulation-based scenario and are independent from patient physiology. In our example, participants were pediatric emergency medicine fellows undergoing simulation training for orientation. We describe the use of card sets in different scenarios with increasing teamwork challenge and difficulty. Both postscenario and summative debriefings were facilitated to allow participants to reflect on their performance and discover ways to apply their strategies to real resuscitations. In this article, we present our experience with the novel use of game cards to modify simulation scenarios to improve communication and teamwork skills.

  10. The modified Gauss diagonalization of polynomial matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.

    1982-10-01

    The Gauss algorithm for diagonalization of constant matrices is modified for application to polynomial matrices. Due to this modification the diagonal elements become pure polynomials rather than rational functions. (author)

  11. Cadmium Adsorption on HDTMA Modified Montmorillionite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Elmuntasir I. Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto modified montmorillonite clay is investigated. Batch adsorption experiments performed revealed an enhanced removal of cadmium using HDTMA modified montmorillonite to 100% of its exchange capacity. Modified montmorillonite adsorption capacity increases at higher pHs suggesting adsorption occurs as a result of surface precipitation and HDTMA complex formation due to the fact that the original negatively charged montmorillonite is now covered by a cationic layer of HDTMA. Adsorption isotherms generated followed a Langmuir isotherm equation possibly indicating a monolayer coverage. Adsorption capacities of up to 49 mg/g and removals greater than 90% were achieved. Anionic selectivity of the HDTMA modified monmorillonite is particularly advantageous in water treatment applications where high concentrations of less adsorbable species are present, and the lack of organoclay affinity for these species may allow the available capacity to be utilized selectively by the targeted species.

  12. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundie, P.; McLeod, N.

    1997-01-01

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation

  13. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Spotlight on Research Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice By Colleen Labbe, ... D., Ph.D., Rush University. Altering a key protein involved in the development of vitiligo may protect ...

  14. preconditioning the modified conjugate gradient method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    steepest descent method, the number of matrix-vector products per iteration .... modified CGM algorithm is used for large class of problems that is not ..... New Trends in the Mathematical and Computer Sciences with Applications to Real World.

  15. Risks and benefits of genetically modified foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... education on the subject to the public. Modern ... published were on the progress of GMF technology followed by attitude studies (such as perceptions ..... Genetically Modified Corn: Environmental Benefits and. Risks.

  16. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Facultat de Veterinària

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  17. Genetically Modified Organisms : Public Knowledge, Attitudes and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... that genetically modified crops can contribute to food security in developing ... opponents maintain that their social and economic impacts are unknown and ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  18. Some Effects of a Modified Workweek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jack M.

    1977-01-01

    Reports on a study that included examination of the degree of change in selected aspects of job satisfaction and organizational performance after the organization adopted a form of modified workweek. (Author/IRT)

  19. Modified and reverse radiometric flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Ba, H; Khin, M M; Aung, K; Thida, [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-06-01

    Determination of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 60]Co by using modified and reverse radiometric flow injection analysis is described. Two component RFIA was also realized using [sup 60]Co and [sup 137]Cs radionuclides. (author) 2 refs.; 5 figs.

  20. Challenges of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigot, W.L.; Kocher, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Dow TRIGA Mark I nuclear reactor achieved first criticality on July 6, 1967. Since then it has been modified and improved to take advantage of instrumental progress and to avoid obsolescence. The reactor has been primarily used as a source of neutrons for neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the nuclear chemistry group within the Analytical Sciences Laboratory, which serves the Dow manufacturing and research facilities world-wide. This reactor, initially licensed to operate at 100 kilowatts, was previously owned, and came equipped with a vacuum-tube based control system bearing the serial number 1. In 1971 and 1973 new transistor-based equipment, a wide-range linear channel and a wide-range log channel, respectively, was installed, a considerable improvement. Fifteen years later a microprocessor-based instrumentation and control system was introduced by General Atomics (GA) to take advantage of instrumentation improvements and to provide replacements for equipment which could no longer be maintained. This system was installed at Dow in late 1990. The license was improved: at the time of the 1986 license renewal effort changes were made which allowed the reactor to be operated at power levels of up to 300 kilowatts in order to improve analytical sensitivity. That license, issued in 1989, is for a twenty-year span, which takes the facility well into the next century. Another license amendment in 1990 allowed the installation of the digital safety channel used in the new GA system. The new microprocessor-based system brought new ways of operating the new problems. Maintenance items now include network components and hard disks, among others, and different modes of operation are required. There have been a great number of computer-related unintentional shutdowns; our experience with this shows slow improvement. Significant improvements have been made in the instrumentation used for the NAA program. The original equipment was based on NaI(Tl) detectors (with one 5

  1. Penumbra modifier for optimal electron fields combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElSherbini, N.; Hejazy, M.A.; Khalil, W.

    2003-01-01

    Abutment of two or more electron fields to irradiate extended areas may lead to significant dose inhomogeneities in the junction region. This study describes the geometric and dosimetric characteristics of a device developed to modify the penumbra of an electron beam and therapy improve of dose uniformity in the over lap region when fields are abutted. The device is lipowitz metal block placed on top of the insertion plate of the electron applicator and positioned to stop part of he electron beam on side of field abutment. The air-scattered electrons beyond the block increase the penumbra width from about 1,4 to 2-7-43.4 cm at SSD 100 cm, the modified penumbra is broad and almost linear at all depths for the 6.8, and 15 MeV electron beams used. Film dosimetry was used to obtain profiles, iso-dose distributions, single modified beams and matched fields of 6, 10, and 15 MeV. Wellhofer dosimetry system was used to obtain beam profiles and iso-dose distributions of single modified beams needed for CADPLAN treatment planning system, which used to optimize and compare the skin gap to be used and to quantify the dose uniformity in a junction of the field separation for both modified and non-modified beams. Results are presented for various field configurations without the penumbra modifier; lateral setup error of 2-3 mm may introduce dose variations of 20% or more in the junction region. Similar setup error cause less than 5% dose variations when the penumbra modifier is used to match the field

  2. CONCRETE BASED ON MODIFIED DISPERSE CEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rudenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article considers definition of the bond types occurring in a modified cement concrete matrix, and the evaluation of the quality of these links in a non-uniform material to determine the geometrical and physical relationships between the structure and the cement matrix modifiers. Methodology. To achieve this purpose the studies covered the microstructure of dispersed modified concrete cement matrix, the structure formation mechanism of the modified cement concrete system of natural hardening; as well as identification of the methods of sound concrete strength assessment. Findings. The author proposed a model of the spatial structure of the concrete cement matrix, modified by particulate reinforcement crystal hydrates. The initial object of study is a set of volume elements (cells of the cement matrix and the system of the spatial distribution of reinforcing crystallohydrates in these volume elements. It is found that the most dangerous defects such as cracks in the concrete volume during hardening are formed as a result of internal stresses, mainly in the zone of cement matrix-filler contact or in the area bordering with the largest pores of the concrete. Originality. The result of the study is the defined mechanism of the process of formation of the initial strength and stiffness of the modified cement matrix due to the rapid growth of crystallohydrates in the space among the dispersed reinforcing modifier particles. Since the lack of space prevents from the free growth of crystals, the latter cross-penetrate, forming a dense structure, which contributes to the growth of strength. Practical value. Dispersed modifying cement matrix provides a durable concrete for special purposes with the design performance characteristics. The developed technology of dispersed cement system modification, the defined features of its structure formation mechanism and the use of congruence principle for the complex of technological impacts of physical

  3. Automatic bounding estimation in modified NLMS algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahtalebi, K.; Doost-Hoseini, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Modified Normalized Least Mean Square algorithm, which is a sign form of Nlm based on set-membership (S M) theory in the class of optimal bounding ellipsoid (OBE) algorithms, requires a priori knowledge of error bounds that is unknown in most applications. In a special but popular case of measurement noise, a simple algorithm has been proposed. With some simulation examples the performance of algorithm is compared with Modified Normalized Least Mean Square

  4. Mechanical properties of chemically modified portuguese pinewood

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Duarte B; Mai, Carsten; Militz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    To turn wood into a construction material with enhanced properties, many methods of chemical modification have been developed in the last few decades. In this work, mechanical properties of pine wood were chemically modified, compared and evaluated. Maritime pine wood (Pinus pinaster) was modified with four chemical processes: 1,3-dimethylol-4,5- dihydroxyethyleneurea, N-methylol melamine formaldehyde, tetra-alkoxysilane and wax. The following mechanical properties were assessed experiment...

  5. Global Convergence of a Modified LS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu JinKui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The LS method is one of the effective conjugate gradient methods in solving the unconstrained optimization problems. The paper presents a modified LS method on the basis of the famous LS method and proves the strong global convergence for the uniformly convex functions and the global convergence for general functions under the strong Wolfe line search. The numerical experiments show that the modified LS method is very effective in practice.

  6. Weak lensing probes of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of modifications to general relativity on large-scale weak lensing observables. In particular, we consider three modified gravity scenarios: f(R) gravity, the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, and tensor-vector-scalar theory. Weak lensing is sensitive to the growth of structure and the relation between matter and gravitational potentials, both of which will in general be affected by modified gravity. Restricting ourselves to linear scales, we compare the predictions for galaxy-shear and shear-shear correlations of each modified gravity cosmology to those of an effective dark energy cosmology with the same expansion history. In this way, the effects of modified gravity on the growth of perturbations are separated from the expansion history. We also propose a test which isolates the matter-potential relation from the growth factor and matter power spectrum. For all three modified gravity models, the predictions for galaxy and shear correlations will be discernible from those of dark energy with very high significance in future weak lensing surveys. Furthermore, each model predicts a measurably distinct scale dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy and shear correlations, which can be traced back to the physical foundations of each model. We show that the signal-to-noise for detecting signatures of modified gravity is much higher for weak lensing observables as compared to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, measured via the galaxy-cosmic microwave background cross-correlation.

  7. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  8. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples.

  9. Automatic fault extraction using a modified ant-colony algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Junsheng; Sun, Sam Zandong

    2013-01-01

    The basis of automatic fault extraction is seismic attributes, such as the coherence cube which is always used to identify a fault by the minimum value. The biggest challenge in automatic fault extraction is noise, including that of seismic data. However, a fault has a better spatial continuity in certain direction, which makes it quite different from noise. Considering this characteristic, a modified ant-colony algorithm is introduced into automatic fault identification and tracking, where the gradient direction and direction consistency are used as constraints. Numerical model test results show that this method is feasible and effective in automatic fault extraction and noise suppression. The application of field data further illustrates its validity and superiority. (paper)

  10. The Cosmonauts challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Blatchford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the experience of working with Russia’s cultural, industrial and political sectors, this paper investigates how the development of new contacts and partnerships has contributed not only to the loan of material of historic significance to the Science Museum’s exhibition, but more broadly changes perceptions about Russia and its space programme in the western world. Addressing the multiple challenges involved – legal, political and security, among others – it reveals the importance of many of the space objects themselves as well as demonstrating how the Science Museum has helped to maintain a dialogue with Russia even during the most testing times. In September 2015 the Science Museum opened the most ambitious special exhibition it had ever undertaken: Cosmonauts: birth of the space age. Whilst the creation of a ‘blockbuster’ exhibition might be the normal expectation of a great art museum, the fact that a science museum should undertake such an endeavour is equally worthy of comment, and this article seeks to illustrate the exceptional curatorial, museological, logistical, legal and political hurdles that this project had to overcome. Indeed, they would astonish even the grandest and most experienced of the international art museums. Art museums are delighted when they can display the acclaimed works of Monet, but even the most valuable paintings cannot be said to be have been official state secrets in the way that so much Russian space technology has been. The curatorial team kept its nerve because of a compelling sense that while the project delivery was high stress, the intellectual rewards would be considerable, and especially the opportunity to present a story of human endeavour in which cultural and scientific excellence are so intertwined. When the project team started out they could never have anticipated that they would be seeking to deliver an audacious exhibition set against a background of very serious strains

  11. Our biggest challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, P; Ray, S

    1994-06-01

    womanhood without children. Women do not believe they have child-bearing choices. Differential AIDS mortality for women will decrease the young female population, which will increase pressure on women to bear children. The greatest challenge is to make women feel valued and believe in themselves.

  12. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified natural killer cell-based immunotherapy and immunological synapse formation in cancer and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Tian, Shuo; Zhang, Kai; Xiong, Wei; Lubaki, Ndongala Michel; Chen, Zhiying; Han, Weidong

    2017-12-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the body's immune defenses. Current chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cell immunotherapy shows strong promise for treating various cancers and infectious diseases. Although CAR-modified NK cell immunotherapy is rapidly gaining attention, its clinical applications are mainly focused on preclinical investigations using the NK92 cell line. Despite recent advances in CAR-modified T cell immunotherapy, cost and severe toxicity have hindered its widespread use. To alleviate these disadvantages of CAR-modified T cell immunotherapy, additional cytotoxic cell-mediated immunotherapies are urgently needed. The unique biology of NK cells allows them to serve as a safe, effective, alternative immunotherapeutic strategy to CAR-modified T cells in the clinic. While the fundamental mechanisms underlying the cytotoxicity and side effects of CAR-modified T and NK cell immunotherapies remain poorly understood, the formation of the immunological synapse (IS) between CAR-modified T or NK cells and their susceptible target cells is known to be essential. The role of the IS in CAR T and NK cell immunotherapies will allow scientists to harness the power of CAR-modified T and NK cells to treat cancer and infectious diseases. In this review, we highlight the potential applications of CAR-modified NK cells to treat cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and discuss the challenges and possible future directions of CAR-modified NK cell immunotherapy, as well as the importance of understanding the molecular mechanisms of CAR-modified T cell- or NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and side effects, with a focus on the CAR-modified NK cell IS.

  13. Radioecological challenges for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, mining became popular in the mid-1990's when the mining amendments to the law made the mining activities easier for foreign companies. Also the price of the minerals rose and mining in Finland became economically profitable. Expanding mining industry brought new challenges to radiation safety aspect since radioactive substances occur in nearly all minerals. In Finnish soil and bedrock the average crystal abundance of uranium and thorium are 2.8 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. It cannot be predicted beforehand how radionuclides behave in the mining processes which why they need to be taken into account in mining activities. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has given a national guide ST 12.1 based on the Finnish Radiation Act. The guide sets the limits for radiation doses to the public also from mining activities. In general, no measures to limit the radiation exposure are needed, if the dose from the operation liable to cause exposure to natural radiation is no greater than 0.1 mSv per year above the natural background radiation dose. If the exposure of the public may be higher than 0.1 mSv per year, the responsible party must provide STUK a plan describing the measures by which the radiation exposure is to be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. In that case the mining company responsible company has to make a radiological baseline study. The baseline study must focus on the environment that the mining activities may impact. The study describes the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the environment before any mining activities are started. The baseline study lasts usually for two to three years in natural circumstances. Based on the baseline study measurements, detailed information of the existing levels of radioactivity in the environment can be attained. Once the mining activities begin, it is important that the limits are set for the wastewater discharges to the environment and environmental surveillance in the vicinity of

  14. Challenges Facing Group Work Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  15. The Challenge of the Deanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Joni; Wolverton, Mimi

    This paper addresses the evolution of the kinds of challenges that deans have met over time and examines perceptions of today's deans concerning their ability to deal effectively with current challenges. A sample of deans (n=695) in the colleges of education, business, liberal arts, and nursing at 360 public and private institutions was surveyed…

  16. IT Challenges for Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the various Information Technology challenges for aerospace medicine. The contents include: 1) Space Medicine Activities; 2) Private Medical Information; 3) Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health; 4) Mission Medical Support; 5) Data Repositories for Research; 6) Data Input and Output; 7) Finding Data/Information; 8) Summary of Challenges; and 9) Solutions and questions.

  17. Statistics Poster Challenge for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brad; Freeman, Jenny; Stillman, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of data are important life skills. A poster challenge for schoolchildren provides an innovative outlet for these skills and demonstrates their relevance to daily life. We discuss our Statistics Poster Challenge and the lessons we have learned.

  18. Gout: a review of non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Lindsey A.; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2014-01-01

    Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid within the joints. Gout affects millions worldwide and has an increasing prevalence. Recent research has been carried out to better qualify and quantify the risk factors predisposing individuals to gout. These can largely be broken into non-modifiable risk factors such as sex, age, race, and genetics, and modifiable risk factors such as diet and lifestyle. Increasing knowledge of factors predisposing certain individuals to gout could potentially lead to improved preventive practices. This review summarizes the non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors associated with development of gout. PMID:25437279

  19. Two-stage reconstruction with the modified Paneva-Holevich technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Kieran

    2013-05-01

    Flexor tendon reconstruction poses both a technical challenge to the hand surgeon and a rehabilitative challenge to the patient and therapist. The modified Paneva-Holevich technique, using a pedicled intra-synovial graft, is a safe and reliable means of staged flexor tendon reconstruction, offering a number of theoretical advantages over classic free-tendon grafting techniques. Clinical outcomes are at the least comparable, if not superior, to those achieved following free-tendon techniques with most authors reporting a low requirement for third stage tenolysis.

  20. Characterization of lime mortar additivated with crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.

    2018-01-01

    Additivating mortars with crystallization modifiers is a novel approach to mitigate salt crystallization damage in historic masonry. Once verified the effectiveness of crystallization modifiers in bulk solution, the next step consists in verifying whether: (i) modifiers are still effective when

  1. RESEARCH OF THE STRESS STATE OF A MODIFIED IN-SITU CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rudenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article focuses on investigation of the stress state of a modified in-situ concrete of natural hardening. Methodology. To achieve the aim, the research of the microstructure of the modified cement matrix of concrete, as well as the mechanism of structure formation of modified concrete with natural hardening was conducted; the methods for reliable evaluation of concrete strength were defined. Findings. The development of internal stresses affects the properties of concretedifferently. With an increase in temperature-shrinkage deformations in time and, thus, with increasing structural stresses in the cement sheath around the grains of the filler two opposite processes may develop: zone of plastic flow or cracking. Originality. It was established that the structural features complex of the modified concrete when the load transfer leads to the formation of extensive zones of prefracture which is able to absorb a significant amount of elastic strain energy that provides the design deformation properties of the concrete for special purposes. Ideas about the definition of the criteria of cracking modified concrete, hardening under natural conditions had further development. Practical value. The resulting equations allow to solve the problem about the minimum level of structural stress in monolithic concrete in a saturated large placeholder, as well as to assess the influence of structural stresses on the properties of concrete. In normal concrete with a relatively thin cement sheath at temperature-shrinkage deformations, high tangential and low radial tension occur. In vivo, this stress is higher as a result of higher values of Δε(τ, which is not observed in the modified concrete. In the modified concretes only tangential stresses are the greatest danger to structures. The change of shrinkage stress with time is straightforward. The total temperature-shrinkage deformations have a sawtooth graph. For modified concrete the amplitude is 48

  2. Challenges for Older Drivers in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi P. Payyanadan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with age-related factors, geographical settings—urban, suburban, and rural areas—also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS, and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of a modified energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganthi, L.; Jagadeesan, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is carried out to validate model formulation. A modified model has been developed to predict the future energy requirement of coal, oil and electricity, considering price, income, technological and environmental factors. The impact and sensitivity of the independent variables on the dependent variable are analysed. The error distribution pattern in the modified model as compared to a conventional time series model indicated the absence of clusters. The residual plot of the modified model showed no distinct pattern of variation. The percentage variation of error in the conventional time series model for coal and oil ranges from -20% to +20%, while for electricity it ranges from -80% to +20%. However, in the case of the modified model the percentage variation in error is greatly reduced - for coal it ranges from -0.25% to +0.15%, for oil -0.6% to +0.6% and for electricity it ranges from -10% to +10%. The upper and lower limit consumption levels at 95% confidence is determined. The consumption at varying percentage changes in price and population are analysed. The gap between the modified model predictions at varying percentage changes in price and population over the years from 1990 to 2001 is found to be increasing. This is because of the increasing rate of energy consumption over the years and also the confidence level decreases as the projection is made far into the future. (author)

  4. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  5. Magnetically modified biocells in constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, E.G.; Panina, L.K. [Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kolikov, V.A., E-mail: kolikov1@yandex.ru [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bogomolova, E.V. [Botanical Institute of the RAS after V.L.Komarov, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Snetov, V.N. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cherepkova, I.A. [Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kiselev, A.A. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell’ size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - Highlights: • The inverse problem was solved for finding zero velocity isolines of magnetically modified biological cells. • Solution of the inverse problem depends on the size of cells and the number of nanoparticles attached to the single cell. • The experimental data are in agreement with theoretical solution.

  6. Rifkin broadens challenge in biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M

    1984-07-20

    Jeremy Rifkin has petitioned a U.S. district court, the National Institutes of Health, and the Environmental Protection Agency in a campaign to prevent private companies, as well as universities, from releasing genetically modified organisms into the environment until the possible environmental impact of these experiments has been analyzed. Rifkin is seeking to stop Advanced Genetic Sciences and Cetus Corporation from conducting field tests respectively of modified frost-resistant bacteria and disease-resistant plants. His efforts have already led scientists at Stanford University to postpone voluntarily the planting of corn seed containing recombinant DNA.

  7. Esthetic management of compromised ridge in the anterior maxilla, a modified prosthetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lambodharan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacing a missing tooth with an implant, especially in the esthetic zone has been increasing demand for the patient. Placing dental implants in the esthetic zone, especially in the compromised ridge with thin gingival thin biotype is considered to be the ultimate challenge for many dentists. This case report illustrates the implant placement in the traumatic anterior maxilla with thin gingival biotype (Class IV and a modified approach in prosthetic placement.

  8. Staged closure of a giant omphalocele with amnion preservation, modified technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram H. Aljahdali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Closure of a giant omphalocele can be challenging. Preservation of the amnion in staged closure is not commonly practiced. Here, we describe 2 cases of giant omphalocele treated with a modified amnion preservation, staged closure technique. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and safety of this technique, and the versatility of amnion to adapt to an escharization strategy if closure is not achievable.

  9. Defining a safe genetically modified organism: Boundaries of scientific risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Barrett; Elisabeth Abergel

    2002-01-01

    The development and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) crops continues despite persisting uncertainties regarding environmental impacts. Canada is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of GM crops. Regulators have claimed that existing federal policies for assessing environmental hazards are ‘science-based’ and sufficiently precautionary. We challenge this by examining the scientific data used to approve one variety of GM canola for environmental release. We argue tha...

  10. Oral food challenges in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yung Yum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients assume that allergic reactions against foods are responsible for triggering or worsening their allergic symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who would benefit from an elimination diet, while avoiding unnecessary dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy depends on the thorough review of the patients's medical history, results of supplemented trials of dietary elimination, and in vivo and in vitro tests for measuring specific IgE levels. However, in some cases the reliability of such procedures is suboptimal. Oral food challenges are procedures employed for making an accurate diagnosis of immediate and occasionally delayed adverse reactions to foods. The timing and type of the challenge, preparation of patients, foods to be tested, and dosing schedule should be determined on the basis of the patient's history, age, and experience. Although double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges(DBPCFC are used to establish definitively if a food is the cause of adverse reactions, they are time-consuming, expensive and troublesome for physician and patients. In practice, An open challenge controlled by trained personnel is sufficient especially in infants and young children. The interpretation of the results and follow-up after a challenge are also important. Since theses challenges are relatively safe and informative, controlled oral food challenges could become the measure of choice in children.

  11. Modified bitumen for embedding of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, C.

    1984-11-01

    This work describes new possibilities of using polymer modified bitumen as matrix material for embedding of low- and medium level radioactive wastes. Epoxy resins, polyurethane resins and styrene-butadiene-copolymers with 20-40 weight per cent are used as modifying agents. Penetration and softening point (ring and ball) of modified samples have been measured. Further the resistance to toluene and leaching rate in n-heptane have been determined. Within these polymer bitumen combinations investigated, the epoxy resins having a high epoxid equivalent weight with dicarbooxylic acid anhydrid hardeners and tertiary amin accelerators give the most dense network, highest thermodimensional stability and lowest leaching rate in organic solvents. 71 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Modified planar functions and their components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried Meidl

    2017-01-01

    functions in odd characteristic as a vectorial bent function. We finally point out that though these components behave somewhat different than the multivariate bent4 functions, they are bent or semibent functions shifted by a certain quadratic term, a property which they share with their multivariate......Zhou ([20]) introduced modified planar functions in order to describe (2n; 2n; 2n; 1) relative difference sets R as a graph of a function on the finite field F2n, and pointed out that projections of R are difference sets that can be described by negabent or bent4 functions, which are Boolean...... functions given in multivariate form. One of the objectives of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of these component functions of modified planar functions. Moreover, we obtain a description of modified planar functions by their components which is similar to that of the classical planar...

  13. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health.

  14. Search for minimal paths in modified networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, W.-C.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of searching for all minimal paths (MPs) in a network obtained by modifying the original network, e.g. for network expansion or reinforcement, is discussed and solved in this study. The existing best-known method to solve this problem was a straightforward approach. It needed extensive comparison and verification, and failed to solve some special but important cases. Therefore, a more efficient, intuitive and generalized method to search for all MPs without an extensive research procedure is proposed. In this presentation, first we develop an intuitive algorithm based upon the reformation of all MPs in the original network to search for all MPs in a modified network. Next, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is analyzed and compared with the existing methods. Finally, examples illustrate how all MPs are generated in a modified network based upon the reformation of all of the MPs in the corresponding original network

  15. Modified iron oxide nanomaterials: Functionalization and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Samira; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have aroused the interest of researchers of materials' chemistry due to its exceptional properties such as decent magnetic, electric, catalytic, biocompatibility, and low toxicity. However, these magnetic nanoparticles are predisposed towards aggregation and forming larger particles, due to its strong anisotropic dipolar interactions, particularly in the aqueous phase, consequently depriving them of dispersibility and particular properties, ultimately degrading their performance. Hence, this review focuses on modified magnetic nanoparticles that are stable, easily synthesized, possess a high surface area and could be facile-separated via magnetic forces, and are of low toxicity and costs for applications such as catalyst/catalyst support, food security, biomedical, and pollutant remediation. - Highlights: • Nanomagnetite is interesting due to its exceptional properties. • Nanomagnetite is predisposed towards aggregation and forming larger particles. • Modified nanomagnetite are stable, easily synthesized, possess high surface area. • Modified nanomagnetite got applications as catalyst/catalyst support.

  16. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  17. Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

    2006-05-01

    Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.

  18. Modified iron oxide nanomaterials: Functionalization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Samira; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd

    2016-10-15

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have aroused the interest of researchers of materials' chemistry due to its exceptional properties such as decent magnetic, electric, catalytic, biocompatibility, and low toxicity. However, these magnetic nanoparticles are predisposed towards aggregation and forming larger particles, due to its strong anisotropic dipolar interactions, particularly in the aqueous phase, consequently depriving them of dispersibility and particular properties, ultimately degrading their performance. Hence, this review focuses on modified magnetic nanoparticles that are stable, easily synthesized, possess a high surface area and could be facile-separated via magnetic forces, and are of low toxicity and costs for applications such as catalyst/catalyst support, food security, biomedical, and pollutant remediation. - Highlights: • Nanomagnetite is interesting due to its exceptional properties. • Nanomagnetite is predisposed towards aggregation and forming larger particles. • Modified nanomagnetite are stable, easily synthesized, possess high surface area. • Modified nanomagnetite got applications as catalyst/catalyst support.

  19. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1997-11-18

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 31 figs.

  20. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  1. Eight challenges in phylodynamic inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D.W. Frost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of phylodynamics, which attempts to enhance our understanding of infectious disease dynamics using pathogen phylogenies, has made great strides in the past decade. Basic epidemiological and evolutionary models are now well characterized with inferential frameworks in place. However, significant challenges remain in extending phylodynamic inference to more complex systems. These challenges include accounting for evolutionary complexities such as changing mutation rates, selection, reassortment, and recombination, as well as epidemiological complexities such as stochastic population dynamics, host population structure, and different patterns at the within-host and between-host scales. An additional challenge exists in making efficient inferences from an ever increasing corpus of sequence data.

  2. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  3. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lassen, J.; Kettlitz, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods......, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and attitudes, public trust in regulatory institutions, scientists and industry, and the need to develop communication strategies that explicitly include public concerns rather than exclude them. Increased...

  4. Modified basin-type solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mously, M.K.; El-Ashry, M.Y.; El-Iraqi, M.H.

    1981-07-01

    A modified basin-type solar still (BTSS) has been developed. The new idea introduced is to re-use the latent heat due to condensation for increasing the temperature of saline water flowing into the device. A new term had been introduced in the balance of equation of conventional BTSS leading to the increase of the efficiency. According to the suggested model, a modified BTSS had been constructed and tested. It is found that the increase in the efficiency is about 14%. (author)

  5. Modified dispersion relations and black hole physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Yi; Li Xiang; Hu Bo

    2006-01-01

    A modified formulation of the energy-momentum relation is proposed in the context of doubly special relativity. We investigate its impact on black hole physics. It turns out that such a modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of black holes. In particular, this modified dispersion relation also changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of black holes approaches the Planck scale. It can prevent black holes from total evaporation, as a result providing a plausible mechanism to treat the remnant of black holes as a candidate for dark matter

  6. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin, E-mail: clampitt@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu [Center for Particle Cosmology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  7. Proposal for Modified Damage Probability Distribution Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1996-01-01

    Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub-committee on st......Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub...

  8. Modifying effect of low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalendo, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that irradiation of Hela cells with stimulating doses of 0,1 Gy changes the cells' response to the subsequent radiation effect of greater value: instead of DNA synthesis inhibition stimulation takes place. Modifying effect of preliminary irradiation with 0,1 Gy manifests it self only in case if there is a certain time interval not less than 3 minutes and not more than 10 minutes (3-5 minutes is optimal interval). Data on modifying effect with 0,1 Gy at subcellular and cellular-population levels are presented. 21 refs.; 6 figs

  9. Modified Arthroscopic Brostrom Procedure With Bone Tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-08-01

    The open anatomic repair of the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments (modified Brostrom procedure) is widely accepted as the standard surgical stabilization procedure for lateral ankle instability that does not respond to conservative measures. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedures with a suture anchor have been reported to achieve both anatomic repair of the lateral ankle ligaments and management of the associated intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates are higher than open Brostom procedures. Many of these complications are associated with the use of a suture anchor. We report a modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure in which the anterolateral ankle capsule is anchored to the lateral malleolus through small bone tunnels instead of suture anchors.

  10. Analysis of the Modified Smith Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Herrera-Cuartas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis about the modified Smith predictor, is presented. The modified Smith predictor is a scheme used to control stable, unstable and integrative systems. The closed loop equation is developed and analyzed. Additionally, various test are made to verify the behavior of the control scheme. Specify, three test are made. First, it is verify the behavior of the scheme to deal with an uncertainty in the delay model. Second, it is verify the behavior in the face of uncertainties in the parameter of the rational model. 

  11. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pancoski, S.E.; Alther, G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  12. Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398

  13. Problem Analysis: Challenging All Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Katie; Davis, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Garcia and Davis describe problem analysis as the process of examining a given mathematics exercise to find ways in which the problem can be modified and extended to create a richer learning opportunity for students. Students are often reluctant to attempt what they perceive to be higher-order thinking problems, but problem…

  14. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  15. A framework for a European network for a systematic environmental impact assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graef, F.; Römbke, J.; Binimelis, R.; Myhr, A.I.; Hilbeck, A.; Breckling, B.; Dalgaard, T.; Stachow, U.; Catacora-Vargas, G.; Bohn, T.; Quist, D.; Darvas, B.; Dudel, G.; Oehen, B.; Meyer, H.; Henle, K.; Wynne, B.; Metzger, M.J.; Knäbe, S.; Settele, J.; Székács, A.; Wurbs, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Murphy-Bokern, D.; Buiatti, M.; Giovannetti, M.; Debeljak, M.; Andersen, E.; Paetz, A.; Dzeroski, S.; Tappeser, B.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Wosniok, W.; Séralini, G.-E.; Aslaksen, I.; Pesch, R.; Maly, S.; Werner, A.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the impacts of growing genetically modified (GM) crops remains a major political and scientific challenge in Europe. Concerns have been raised by the evidence of adverse and unexpected environmental effects and differing opinions on the outcomes of environmental risk assessments

  16. Challenges in Designing Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a systematic and thorough survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order...... to investigate if the challenges can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during...

  17. PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES FOR CORPORATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Proxy contest, Corporate governance, Prospects, Challenges, Nigeria ... this advantage, cumulative voting is rare in publicly traded firms and most ..... framework needs to be put in place in Nigeria, which will highlight the gains of ...

  18. Refugee status determination: three challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Refugee status determination (RSD, which is vital to the protection of so many asylum seekers worldwide, is at best an imperfect, haphazard and challenging process. It merits greater attention and appropriate reform.

  19. Challenging environmental mythology: wrestling Zeus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dini, J. W; Lehr, Jay H

    2003-01-01

    .... At a time when the public can be thoroughly confused between fact and fiction regarding our environmental concerns, this book proposes to challenge our concerns in clear, jargon free language that we can...

  20. Presidential Transition. Challenges and Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, David

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention to these themes will help the new administration successfully implement its agenda and address both long-standing and newly emerging management, fiscal, and other challenges that confront...

  1. Challenge of COPD: Getting Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD Getting Tested Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Getting Tested Everyone at risk for COPD who has cough, sputum production, or shortness of ...

  2. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  3. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  4. The challenges of amblyopia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maconachie, Gail D.E.; Gottlob, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction) and/or strabismic (turn of one eye) amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 199...

  5. Technology in Parkinson disease: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espay, Alberto J.; Bonato, Paolo; Nahab, Fatta; Maetzler, Walter; Dean, John M.; Klucken, Jochen; Eskofier, Bjoern M.; Merola, Aristide; Horak, Fay; Lang, Anthony E.; Reilmann, Ralf; Giuffrida, Joe; Nieuwboer, Alice; Horne, Malcolm; Little, Max A.; Litvan, Irene; Simuni, Tanya; Dorsey, E. Ray; Burack, Michelle A.; Kubota, Ken; Kamondi, Anita; Godinho, Catarina; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Mitsi, Georgia; Krinke, Lothar; Hausdorff, Jeffery M.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Papapetropoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization, sophistication, proliferation, and accessibility of technologies are enabling the capturing of more and previously inaccessible phenomena in Parkinson disease (PD). However, more information has not translated into greater understanding of disease complexity to satisfy diagnostic and therapeutic needs. Challenges include non-compatible technology platforms, the need for wide-scale and long-term deployment of sensor technology (in particular among vulnerable elderly patients), and the gap between the “big data” acquired with sensitive measurement technologies and their limited clinical application. Major opportunities could be realized if new technologies are developed as part of open-source and/or open-hardware platforms enabling multi-channel data capture, sensitive to the broad range of motor and non-motor problems that characterize PD, and adaptable into self-adjusting, individualized treatment delivery systems. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society Task Force on Technology is entrusted to convene engineers, clinicians, researchers, and patients to promote the development of integrated measurement and closed-loop therapeutic systems with high patient adherence that also serve to: 1) encourage the adoption of clinico-pathophysiologic phenotyping and early detection of critical disease milestones; 2) enhance tailoring of symptomatic therapy; 3) improve subgroup targeting of patients for future testing of disease modifying treatments; and 4) identify objective biomarkers to improve longitudinal tracking of impairments in clinical care and research. This article summarizes the work carried out by the Task Force toward identifying challenges and opportunities in the development of technologies with potential for improving the clinical management and quality of life of individuals with PD. PMID:27125836

  6. Preconditioning the modified conjugate gradient method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the convergence analysis of the conventional conjugate Gradient method was reviewed. And the convergence analysis of the modified conjugate Gradient method was analysed with our extension on preconditioning the algorithm. Convergence of the algorithm is a function of the condition number of M-1A.

  7. Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Biodeterioration of Plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits of two local plantain cultivars and a disease-resistant tetraploid hybrid were subjected to modified atmosphere packaging. The same organisms namely Colletotricum musae, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium monilifomae, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, were isolated from the local cultivars and the ...

  8. A Modified Scheme of Triplectic Quantization

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, B.; Gitman, D. M.; Lavrov, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    A modified version of triplectic quantization, first introduce by Batalin and Martnelius, is proposed which makes use of two independent master equations, one for the action and one for the gauge functional such that the initial classical action also obeys that master equation.

  9. Lorentz invariance violation in modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environmentally dependent violation of Lorentz invariance in scalar-tensor models of modified gravity where General Relativity is retrieved locally thanks to a screening mechanism. We find that fermions have a modified dispersion relation and would go faster than light in an anisotropic and space-dependent way along the scalar field lines of force. Phenomenologically, these models are tightly restricted by the amount of Cerenkov radiation emitted by the superluminal particles, a constraint which is only satisfied by chameleons. Measuring the speed of neutrinos emitted radially from the surface of the earth and observed on the other side of the earth would probe the scalar field profile of modified gravity models in dense environments. We argue that the test of the equivalence principle provided by the Lunar ranging experiment implies that a deviation from the speed of light, for natural values of the coupling scale between the scalar field and fermions, would be below detectable levels, unless gravity is modified by camouflaged chameleons where the field normalisation is environmentally dependent.

  10. Self-healing of polymer modified concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd_Elmoaty M. Abd_Elmoaty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Self healing phenomenon of concrete has been observed in traditional, fibrous, self compacting concrete. This phenomenon occurred mainly due to the presence of unhydrated cement particles in the presence of water. Mechanism of polymer in concrete depends on creating a layer and net of polymer around cement particles which enhances the properties of polymer modified concrete. This mechanism may affect the self healing of this type of concrete. This work aims to study the presence of the self healing phenomenon in polymer modified concrete and the related parameters. An experimental investigation on self healing of polymer modified concrete was undertaken. In this research work, effect of polymer type, polymer dose, cement content, cement type, w/cm ratio and age of damage were studied. The healing process extended up to 60 days. Ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements were used to evaluate the healing process. Results indicated that, the self healing phenomenon existed in polymer modified concrete as in traditional concrete. The increase of polymer dose increases the healing degree at the same healing time. This increase depends on polymer type. Also, the decrease of w/cm ratio reduces the self healing degree while the use of Type V Portland cement improves the self healing process compared with Type I Portland cement. Cement content has an insignificant effect on healing process for both concrete with and without polymer. In addition, the increase of damage age decreases the efficiency of self healing process.

  11. NITROANILINE FILM-HOLE MODIFIED GLASSY CARBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    substances (such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and so on) that exist together .... stirring the electrolytes in the cell, a small magnetic bar was used in BASi C3 ..... Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V. New electrochemical sensor based on Ni-doped .... Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Tang, L.; Lu, J.; Li, J. Application of graphene-modified electrode for.

  12. A linear combination of modified Bessel functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A linear combination of modified Bessel functions is defined, discussed briefly, and tabulated. This combination was found to recur in the analysis of various heat transfer problems and in the analysis of the thermal behavior of living tissue when modeled by cylindrical shells.

  13. Modified penoplasty for concealed penis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianyou; Zhang, Liyu; Su, Cheng; Li, Zhongmin; Wen, Yingquan

    2013-09-01

    To report a modified penoplasty technique for concealed penis in children. Between January 2006 and June 2012, 201 cases of concealed penis were surgically repaired with modified penoplasty. The modified penoplasty technique consisted of 3 major steps: (1) degloved the penile skin and excised the inner prepuce, (2) advanced penoscrotal skin to cover penile shaft, and (3) fixed the penis base and reconstructed the penoscrotal angle. Two hundred one cases of concealed penis were enrolled in this study over a period of 6 years. Mean age at the time of surgery was 5.3 years (range 1-13 years) and mean operative time was 40 minutes (range 30-65minutes). All patients were routinely followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Most patients developed postoperative edema and were resolved within 1 month, whereas 20 cases developed prolonged postoperative edema, especially at the site of frenulum, which took 3 months to be resolved. Ten cases had retraction after surgery. No erection difficulties were recorded. Patients/parents reported better hygiene and improved visualization and accessibility of penis after surgery and were satisfied with the cosmetic outcome. The result of this study shows that the modified penoplasty technique is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for concealed penis with satisfied cosmetic outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rheological testing of crumb rubber modified bitumen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available used to analyse crumb rubber modified (CRM) bitumen is that the specified gap setting in the configuration of the DSR between the upper and lower test platens is too small to accommodate crumb rubber particles. DSR testing of CRM bitumen therefore...

  15. Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal Hypospadias. Adham Elsaied, Basem Saied, and Mohammed El- ... All operations were performed by the authors,using fine instruments and under 3.5X loupe ... the other needed an operation to close the fistula six months later. The case with meatal recession had ...

  16. does earthworms density really modify soil's hydrodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Ababsa,, M. Kribaa, D. Addad, L. Tamrabet and M. Baha

    1 mai 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. DOES EARTHWORMS DENSITY REALLY MODIFY SOIL'S HYDRODYNAMIC.

  17. Solving Differential Equations Using Modified Picard Iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many classes of differential equations are shown to be open to solution through a method involving a combination of a direct integration approach with suitably modified Picard iterative procedures. The classes of differential equations considered include typical initial value, boundary value and eigenvalue problems arising in physics and…

  18. Drought in a human-modified world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Stahl, Kerstin; Baldassarre, Di Giuliano; Clark, Julian; Rangecroft, Sally; Wanders, Niko; Gleeson, Tom; Dijk, van Albert I.J.M.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Hannaford, Jamie; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Ryan; Hannah, David M.; Sheffield, Justin; Svoboda, Mark; Verbeiren, Boud; Wagener, Thorsten; Lanen, van Henny A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current human-modified world, or Anthropocene, the state of water stores and fluxes has become dependent on human as well as natural processes. Water deficits (or droughts) are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological anomalies, land surface processes, and human inflows,

  19. Biopreservation in modified atmosphere packaged vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennik, M.H.J.

    1997-01-01


    Recent trends in food preservation are the use of mild preservation techniques, such as modified atmosphere (MA) packaging and refrigeration, to prolong the shelflife of foods without affecting the fresh character of the product. This has resulted in the development of a new generation of

  20. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of ...

  1. Beam aperture modifier design with acoustic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weipeng; Ren, Chunyu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we present a design concept of acoustic beam aperture modifier using two metasurface-based planar lenses. By appropriately designing the phase gradient profile along the metasurface, we obtain a class of acoustic convex lenses and concave lenses, which can focus the incoming plane waves and collimate the converging waves, respectively. On the basis of the high converging and diverging capability of these lenses, two kinds of lens combination scheme, including the convex-concave type and convex-convex type, are proposed to tune up the incoming beam aperture as needed. To be specific, the aperture of the acoustic beam can be shrunk or expanded through adjusting the phase gradient of the pair of lenses and the spacing between them. These lenses and the corresponding aperture modifiers are constructed by the stacking ultrathin labyrinthine structures, which are obtained by the geometry optimization procedure and exhibit high transmission coefficient and a full range of phase shift. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed beam aperture modifiers. Due to the flexibility in aperture controlling and the simplicity in fabrication, the proposed modifiers have promising potential in applications, such as acoustic imaging, nondestructive evaluation, and communication.

  2. Factors Modifying Burnout in Osteopathic Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Jessica; Yost, Morgan; Sexton, Patricia; LaBaere, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of the current study are to examine factors modifying burnout and identify which of these factors place osteopathic medical students at risk for developing burnout. The current study used a cross-sectional study design and an anonymous, web-based survey to assess burnout and depression in osteopathic medical students. The survey included Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Stressors and their impact scale, students' sleeping and studying habits, and students' extracurricular involvement. In total, 1294 osteopathic medical students completed the survey. Burnout was present in 516 (39.9%) osteopathic medical students, and 1006 (77.0%) met criteria for depression. Females were 1.5 times more likely to be burned out in comparison to males. For the burnout subscales, males had lower emotional exhaustion, slightly higher depersonalization, and lower personal accomplishment. Lesbian/gay/bisexual/asexual students were 2.62 times more likely to be burned out compared with heterosexual students. Depression and academic, personal, and family stressors were all strongly linked to overall burnout. Finally, for modifiable factors, average hours of sleep, average hours spent studying, and club involvement appeared to be linked to burnout. The current study suggested that a variety of factors, including non-modifiable, situational, and modifiable, impact burnout in osteopathic medical students. Future research is necessary since burnout in physicians affects the quality of care provided to patients.

  3. Lorentz invariance violation in modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2012-06-06

    We consider an environmentally dependent violation of Lorentz invariance in scalar-tensor models of modified gravity where General Relativity is retrieved locally thanks to a screening mechanism. We find that fermions have a modified dispersion relation and would go faster than light in an anisotropic and space-dependent way along the scalar field lines of force. Phenomenologically, these models are tightly restricted by the amount of Cerenkov radiation emitted by the superluminal particles, a constraint which is only satisfied by chameleons. Measuring the speed of neutrinos emitted radially from the surface of the earth and observed on the other side of the earth would probe the scalar field profile of modified gravity models in dense environments. We argue that the test of the equivalence principle provided by the Lunar ranging experiment implies that a deviation from the speed of light, for natural values of the coupling scale between the scalar field and fermions, would be below detectable levels, unless gravity is modified by camouflaged chameleons where the field normalisation is environmentally dependent.

  4. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Noordam, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has steadily increased since their introduction to the market in the mid-1990s. Before these crops can be grown and sold they have to obtain regulatory approval in many countries, the process of which includes a pre-market safety assessment. The

  5. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  6. Tetrapterous butterfly attractors in modified Lorenz systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Simin; Tang, Wallace K.S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the Lorenz-type tetrapterous butterfly attractors are firstly reported. With the introduction of multiple segment piecewise linear functions, these interesting and complex attractors are obtained from two different modified Lorenz models. This approach are verified in both simulations and experiments.

  7. Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludman, S.

    2006-05-01

    We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model ΛCDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)

  8. Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bludman, S

    2006-05-15

    We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model {lambda}CDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)

  9. Modified TPA-supported removable pontic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Missing posterior teeth or necessary asymmetric orthodontic extraction may lead to migration, tilting of the adjacent teeth, and supra-eruption of the opposing teeth along with compromised esthetics. The modified TPA supported removable pontic acts as an esthetic pontic during orthodontic space closure.

  10. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us.

  11. Modified Antifreeze Liquids for Use on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Report presents results of evaluation of two antifreeze liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol and five viscosity modifiers: gelatin, gum tragacanth, starch, agarose powder and citrus pectin. Purpose of evaluation to find best way of dealing with frost formation on Space Shuttle.

  12. mwnts composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: A poly p-aminosalicylic acid (Poly(p-ASA)) and multiwall carbon nanotubes. (MWCNTs) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed by casting the MWNTs on the GC electrode surface followed by electropolymerization of the p-ASA on the MWCNTs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviours ...

  13. Addressing the Socioeconomic Impacts of Genetically Modified ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But despite rapid diffusion of genetically modified (GM) cotton - and ... Argentina, South America, Brazil, Paraguay, North and Central America, China, India, Pakistan ... A Expansão Da Cultura Do Algodão Transgênico Na Região Do Norte De ...

  14. Cosmology with modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that the application of Newtonian dynamics to an expanding spherical region leads to the correct relativistic expression (the Friedmann equation) for the evolution of the cosmic scalefactor. Here, the cosmological implications of Milgrom's modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) are

  15. Integrable boundary conditions and modified Lax equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avan, Jean; Doikou, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    We consider integrable boundary conditions for both discrete and continuum classical integrable models. Local integrals of motion generated by the corresponding 'transfer' matrices give rise to time evolution equations for the initial Lax operator. We systematically identify the modified Lax pairs for both discrete and continuum boundary integrable models, depending on the classical r-matrix and the boundary matrix

  16. A Survey of Teachers' and Principals' Practices and Challenges in Fostering New Immigrant Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shelley Stagg; Ladky, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This research, using questionnaire and interview data, examined practices and challenges of educators in areas of southern Ontario in fostering immigrant parents' support for their children's literacy. Results showed that teachers learn about the language and culture of their students, modify homework assigned to their ESL students, and encourage…

  17. Transition metal-modified zinc oxides for UV and visible light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, J Z; Dillert, R; Bahnemann, D W

    2012-11-01

    In order to use photocatalysis with solar light, finding more active and especially visible light active photocatalysts is a very important challenge. Also, studies of these photocatalysts should employ a standardized test procedure so that their results can be accurately compared and evaluated with one another. A systematic study of transition metal-modified zinc oxide was conducted to determine whether they are suitable as visible light photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO modified with eight different transition metals (Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ru, Ti, Zr) in three different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 at.%) was investigated under irradiation with UV as well as with visible light. The employed activity test is the gas-phase degradation of acetaldehyde as described by the ISO standard 22197-2. The results suggest that the UV activity can be improved with almost any modification element and that there exists an optimal modification ratio at about 0.1 at.%. Additionally, Mn- and Ru-modified ZnO display visible light activity. Especially the Ru-modified ZnO is highly active and surpasses the visible light activity of all studied titania standards. These findings suggest that modified zinc oxides may be a viable alternative to titanium dioxide-based catalysts for visible light photocatalysis. Eventually, possible underlying mechanisms are proposed and discussed.

  18. General Relativity solutions in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2018-06-01

    Recent gravitational wave observations of binary black hole mergers and a binary neutron star merger by LIGO and Virgo Collaborations associated with its optical counterpart constrain deviation from General Relativity (GR) both on strong-field regime and cosmological scales with high accuracy, and further strong constraints are expected by near-future observations. Thus, it is important to identify theories of modified gravity that intrinsically possess the same solutions as in GR among a huge number of theories. We clarify the three conditions for theories of modified gravity to allow GR solutions, i.e., solutions with the metric satisfying the Einstein equations in GR and the constant profile of the scalar fields. Our analysis is quite general, as it applies a wide class of single-/multi-field scalar-tensor theories of modified gravity in the presence of matter component, and any spacetime geometry including cosmological background as well as spacetime around black hole and neutron star, for the latter of which these conditions provide a necessary condition for no-hair theorem. The three conditions will be useful for further constraints on modified gravity theories as they classify general theories of modified gravity into three classes, each of which possesses i) unique GR solutions (i.e., no-hair cases), ii) only hairy solutions (except the cases that GR solutions are realized by cancellation between singular coupling functions in the Euler-Lagrange equations), and iii) both GR and hairy solutions, for the last of which one of the two solutions may be selected dynamically.

  19. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from Challenge 1B to Challenge 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, Stanislav; Porter, Edward K; Gair, Jonathan; Baker, John G; Arnaud, Keith; Benacquista, Matthew J; Cornish, Neil J; Crowder, Jeff; Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt; Larson, Shane L; Plagnol, Eric; Vecchio, Alberto; Barack, Leor; Blaut, Arkadiusz; Fairhurst, Stephen; Harry, Ian; Gong Xuefei; Khurana, Deepak; Krolak, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a programme to demonstrate and encourage the development of LISA data-analysis capabilities, tools and techniques. At the time of this workshop, three rounds of challenges had been completed, and the next was about to start. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the entries to the latest completed round, Challenge 1B. The entries confirm the consolidation of a range of data-analysis techniques for galactic and massive-black-hole binaries, and they include the first convincing examples of detection and parameter estimation of extreme-mass-ratio inspiral sources. In this paper we also introduce the next round, Challenge 3. Its data sets feature more realistic waveform models (e.g., galactic binaries may now chirp, and massive-black-hole binaries may precess due to spin interactions), as well as new source classes (bursts from cosmic strings, isotropic stochastic backgrounds) and more complicated nonsymmetric instrument noise

  20. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-06-23

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Ubeda, 18-22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes.

  1. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I.; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A.; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Úbeda, 18–22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes. PMID:20015858

  2. Preventing and managing challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Nutmeg

    2018-02-21

    Patients exhibiting challenging behaviour, which includes any non-verbal, verbal or physical behaviour, is a significant issue in healthcare settings. Preventing such behaviour and the harm it can cause is important for healthcare organisations and individuals, and involves following a public health model comprised of three tiers: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention aims to reduce the risk of challenging behaviour occurring in the first instance; secondary prevention involves reducing the risk associated with imminent challenging behaviour and its potential escalation; and tertiary prevention focuses on minimising the physical and emotional harm caused by challenging behaviours, during and after an event. De-escalation should be the first-line response to challenging behaviour, and healthcare staff should use a range of techniques - maintaining safety, self-regulation, effective communication, and assessment and actions - to reduce the incidence of challenging behaviour. In some situations, physical interventions may be required to protect the safety of the individual, healthcare staff and other individuals involved, and healthcare staff should be aware of local policies and procedures for this. Following a serious incident, where there was potential or actual harm to patients and healthcare staff, healthcare organisations should use post-incident reviews to learn from the situation, while healthcare staff should be offered the opportunity for debriefing. Positive responses to challenging behaviour at an organisational and individual level can lead to improved work environments for healthcare staff and optimal patient care and outcomes. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  3. Working through Challenges in Doing Interview Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Roulston PhD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent methodological work that draws on a ‘constructionist’ approach to interviewing - conceptualizes the interview as a socially-situated encounter in which both interviewer and interviewee play active roles. This approach takes the construction of interview data as a topic of examination. This article adopts the view that close examination of how particular interactions are accomplished provides additional insights into not only the topics discussed, but also how research design and methods might be modified to meet the needs of projects. Focus is specifically given to investigation of sequences observed as puzzling or challenging during interviews, or via interview data that emerged as problematic in the analysis process. How might close analyses of these sorts of sequences be used to inform research design and interview methods? The article explores (1 how problematic interactions identified in the analysis of focus group data can lead to modifications in research design, (2 an approach to dealing with reported data in representations of findings, and (3 how data analysis can inform question formulation in successive rounds of data generation. Findings from these types of examinations of interview data generation and analysis are valuable for informing both interview practice as well as research design in further research.

  4. The Environmental Challenges for the Oil Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Manso, F.

    1998-01-01

    Oil has been and will continue to be indispensable to assure the growth of the world economy, but it is also responsible to have an impact on the environment. One of the most important challenges for the future, in particular for the oil sector, is to make this growth sustainable for the environment. To do this, refineries must plan a huge amount of investments for the next future to modify substantially their industrial structures to reformulate transportation fuels (diesel and gasoline) to comply the new limits for the emissions generated during the production and distribution of oil products and to apply new safety rules in order to improve the compatibility of the refineries with the territory. To fulfil all this actions the oil sector will have to face very high costs without any certainty of the return of investments, due to the extreme uncertainty to forecast the future oil demand in Italy after the Kyoto Protocol. To be ready within the year 2005, Italian refineries must decide now to invest, but they are not sure to have a market in the future for the products that they are going to produce [it

  5. Challenges in Cultivating EOSDIS User Survey Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquist, C. L.; Sofinowski, E. J.; Walter, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2004 NASA has surveyed users of its Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to determine user satisfaction with its services. The surveys have been conducted by CFI Group under contract with the Federal Consulting Group, Executive Agent in government for the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The purpose of these annual surveys is to help EOSDIS and the data centers assess current status and improve future services. The survey questions include demographic and experiential questions in addition to the ACSI and EOSDIS specific rating questions. In addition to customer satisfaction, analysis of each year's results has provided insight into the survey process. Although specific questions have been added, modified, or deleted to reflect changes to the EOSDIS system and processes, the model rating questions have remained the same to ensure consistency for evaluating cross year trends. Working with the CFI Group, we have refined the invitation and questions to increase clarity and address the different ways diverse groups of users access services at EOSDIS data centers. We present challenges in preparing a single set of questions that go to users with backgrounds in many Earth science disciplines. These users may have contacted any of the 12 EOSDIS data centers for information or may have accessed data or data products from many kinds of aircraft and satellite instruments. We discuss lessons learned in preparing the invitation and survey questions and the steps taken to make the survey easier to complete and to encourage increased participation.

  6. Ammonia synthesis on Au modified Fe(111) and Ag and Cu modified Fe(100) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytken, Ole; Waltenburg, Hanne Neergaard; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate any influence of steps and possible positive effects of making surface alloys the ammonia synthesis has been investigated over Au modified Fe(111) and Ag and Cu modified Fe(100) single crystals in the temperature range 603-773 K, using a system combining ultra-high vacuum...... and a high-pressure cell. Ammonia was synthesized from a stoichiometric (N-2:3H(2)) gas mixture at a pressure of 2 bar. By deposition of small amounts of An, the ammonia production activity of the Fe(1 1 1) surface can be enhanced. More important, for the gold modified surface, the reaction order in ammonia...

  7. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy.

  8. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits, but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. Much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis is needed to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. There is a further oportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges must be overcome. The first step is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of three key technical challenges is plasma engineering - burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost

  9. Cobalt phthalocyanine modified electrodes utilised in electroanalysis: nano-structured modified electrodes vs. bulk modified screen-printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W; Pillay, Jeseelan; Metters, Jonathan P; Banks, Craig E

    2014-11-19

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no "electrocatalysis" is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where "electrocatalysis" has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  10. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Foster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  11. Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The design of new and upgrades of existing high energy particle accelerators is reviewed in light of the current knowledge of the standard model determined from existing and past machines and funding factors. Current financing of science will delay determining unknowns, such as CP violation, proton decay, neutrino properties, and dark matter. Three options are given: (1) obtain more funding, (2) downsize scientific personnel as are private enterprises or (3) develop new technology which will reduce the high cost of building current designs of high energy accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Takayasu's arteritis: a challenging diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, D M

    2009-03-01

    The practices of medicine and surgery are inherently and irrevocably entwined. This case report highlights the need for an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to care of the modern patient. Our patient fulfils the traditional Ishikawa\\'s criteria and the modified Ishikawa\\'s criteria for the clinical diagnosis of Takayasu\\'s disease. Her case underpins the need for co-ordinated care and careful periodic review of the symptomatology and signs of the multiple clinic attendees.

  13. Experimental modified orthotopic piggy-back liver autotransplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roveda, L.; Zonta, A.; Staffieri, F.; Timurian, D.; DiVenere, B.; Bakeine, G.J.; Crovace, A.; Prati, U.

    2009-01-01

    The classical orthotopic liver autotransplantation is a very challenging and time wasting technique; it includes the division of major hepatic vessels and choledocus, and subsequent reconnection by end to end anastomoses. The caval end to end anastomoses are the most difficult to be performed and the interposition of a prosthesis can be required. We adopted the classical orthotopic liver autotransplantation technique in 2 patients affected with diffused liver metastases from colorectal cancer, for extracorporeal neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The procedure required very long operating times and the extracorporeal circulation (ECC) set up; furthermore the vena cava reconstruction was performed by the interposition of a goretex-prosthesis. We propose a 'modified orthotopic piggy-back technique' to simplify liver reconnection and shorten the operating time. Materials and methods: The technique was developed in the swine (25 kg body weight), under general anaesthesia. We performed the resection of the retro-hepatic vena cava with preservation of the caval flow during the anhepatic phase, by interposing a goretex-prosthesis. The reconstruction of the vena cava was then performed by a side-to-side cava-prosthesis anastomosis with lateral clamping of the prosthesis. The procedure was then completed according to the classical technique of liver transplantation. Results: The mean time for VC reconstruction was 56 (±10) min. and the mean time for side-to-side VC-prosthesis anastomosis was 13 (±4) min. Conclusions: The 'modified orthotopic piggy-back technique' can simplify the reimplant of the liver during autotransplantation and shorten the operating time. Furthermore also the time of total extracorporeal circulation is reduced, as during the anhepatic phase and during the side-to-side cava-prosthesis anastomosis the flow in the inferior vena cava is uninterrupted.

  14. Experimental modified orthotopic piggy-back liver autotransplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roveda, L. [Oncologic Surgery, Cancer Center of Excellence Fond. ' T.Campanella' , Europa Avenue, Catanzaro CZ-88100 (Italy)], E-mail: roveda.l@libero.it; Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, PV 27100 (Italy); Staffieri, F. [Veterinary Surgery Unit, Department of Emergencies and Organs Transplantation, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SP per Casamassima km 3, Valenzano, BA 70010 (Italy); Timurian, D.; DiVenere, B. [Surgery ' Madonna delle Grazie' Hospital, Contrada Cattedra Ambulante, Matera, MT 75100 (Italy); Bakeine, G.J. [Laboratorio Nazionale di Tecnologie Avanzate e Nanoscienza (TASC), Basovizza, TR (Italy); Crovace, A. [Veterinary Surgery Unit, Department of Emergencies and Organs Transplantation, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SP per Casamassima km 3, Valenzano, BA 70010 (Italy); Prati, U. [Oncologic Surgery, Cancer Center of Excellence Fond. ' T.Campanella' , Europa Avenue, Catanzaro CZ-88100 (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The classical orthotopic liver autotransplantation is a very challenging and time wasting technique; it includes the division of major hepatic vessels and choledocus, and subsequent reconnection by end to end anastomoses. The caval end to end anastomoses are the most difficult to be performed and the interposition of a prosthesis can be required. We adopted the classical orthotopic liver autotransplantation technique in 2 patients affected with diffused liver metastases from colorectal cancer, for extracorporeal neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The procedure required very long operating times and the extracorporeal circulation (ECC) set up; furthermore the vena cava reconstruction was performed by the interposition of a goretex-prosthesis. We propose a 'modified orthotopic piggy-back technique' to simplify liver reconnection and shorten the operating time. Materials and methods: The technique was developed in the swine (25 kg body weight), under general anaesthesia. We performed the resection of the retro-hepatic vena cava with preservation of the caval flow during the anhepatic phase, by interposing a goretex-prosthesis. The reconstruction of the vena cava was then performed by a side-to-side cava-prosthesis anastomosis with lateral clamping of the prosthesis. The procedure was then completed according to the classical technique of liver transplantation. Results: The mean time for VC reconstruction was 56 ({+-}10) min. and the mean time for side-to-side VC-prosthesis anastomosis was 13 ({+-}4) min. Conclusions: The 'modified orthotopic piggy-back technique' can simplify the reimplant of the liver during autotransplantation and shorten the operating time. Furthermore also the time of total extracorporeal circulation is reduced, as during the anhepatic phase and during the side-to-side cava-prosthesis anastomosis the flow in the inferior vena cava is uninterrupted.

  15. Osseointegration of biochemically modified implants in an osteoporosis rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Stadlinger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of implant surface modifications on osseointegration in an osteoporotic rodent model. Sandblasted, acid-etched titanium implants were either used directly (control or were further modified by surface conditioning with NaOH or by coating with one of the following active agents: collagen/chondroitin sulphate, simvastatin, or zoledronic acid. Control and modified implants were inserted into the proximal tibia of aged ovariectomised (OVX osteoporotic rats (n = 32/group. In addition, aged oestrogen competent animals received either control or NaOH conditioned implants. Animals were sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks post-implantation. The excised tibiae were utilised for biomechanical and morphometric readouts (n = 8/group/readout. Biomechanical testing revealed at both time points dramatically reduced osseointegration in the tibia of oestrogen deprived osteoporotic animals compared to intact controls irrespective of NaOH exposure. Consistently, histomorphometric and microCT analyses demonstrated diminished bone-implant contact (BIC, peri-implant bone area (BA, bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV and bone-mineral density (BMD in OVX animals. Surface coating with collagen/chondroitin sulphate had no detectable impact on osseointegration. Interestingly, statin coating resulted in a transient increase in BIC 2 weeks post-implantation; which, however, did not correspond to improvement of biomechanical readouts. Local exposure to zoledronic acid increased BIC, BA, BV/TV and BMD at 4 weeks. Yet this translated only into a non-significant improvement of biomechanical properties. In conclusion, this study presents a rodent model mimicking severely osteoporotic bone. Contrary to the other bioactive agents, locally released zoledronic acid had a positive impact on osseointegration albeit to a lesser extent than reported in less challenging models.

  16. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  17. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  18. Higgs Machine Learning Challenge 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Olivier, A-P; Bourdarios, C ; LAL / Orsay; Goldfarb, S ; University of Michigan

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been using Machine Learning (ML) techniques such as boosted decision trees (paper) and neural nets since the 90s. These techniques are now routinely used for difficult tasks such as the Higgs boson search. Nevertheless, formal connections between the two research fields are rather scarce, with some exceptions such as the AppStat group at LAL, founded in 2006. In collaboration with INRIA, AppStat promotes interdisciplinary research on machine learning, computational statistics, and high-energy particle and astroparticle physics. We are now exploring new ways to improve the cross-fertilization of the two fields by setting up a data challenge, following the footsteps of, among others, the astrophysics community (dark matter and galaxy zoo challenges) and neurobiology (connectomics and decoding the human brain). The organization committee consists of ATLAS physicists and machine learning researchers. The Challenge will run from Monday 12th to September 2014.

  19. Success of Breast Cancer Startup Challenge Inspires Second Challenge | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Thomas Stackhouse, Joseph Conrad, and Michele Newton, Contributing Writers, and Rosemarie Truman, Guest Writer Sixty-one teams have been accepted into, and are now competing in, the Neuro Startup Challenge, a new collaboration established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with The Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI) and Heritage Provider Network, Inc.

  20. The medical leadership challenge in healthcare is an identity challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse the identity challenges that physicians with medical leadership positions face. Four qualitative case studies were performed to address the fact that identity is processual, relational and situational. Physicians with managerial roles were interviewed, as well as their peers, supervisors and subordinates. Furthermore, observations were made to understand how different identities are displayed in action. This study illustrates that medical leadership implies identity struggles when physicians have manager positions, because of the different characteristics of the social identities of managers and physicians. Major differences are related between physicians as autonomous individuals in a system and managers as subordinates to the organizational system. There are psychological mechanisms that evoke the physician identity more often than the managerial identity among physicians who are managers, which explains why physicians who are managers tend to remain foremost physicians. The implications of the findings, that there are major identity challenges by being both a physician and manager, suggest that managerial physicians might not be the best prerequisite for medical leadership, but instead, cooperative relationships between physicians and non-physician managers might be a less difficult way to support medical leadership. Acknowledging and addressing identity challenges can be important both in creating structures in organizations and designing the training for managers in healthcare (both physicians and non-physicians) to support medical leadership. Medical leadership is most often related to organizational structure and/or leadership skills, but this paper discusses identity requirements and challenges related to medical leadership.

  1. The Challenge of Prejudice: Counsellors' Talk about Challenging Clients' Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…

  2. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ''ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits,'' but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. We need much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. We have a further opportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, we need to overcome three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges. The first programmatic challenge is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of the three key technical challenges is plasma engineering -- burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost. Some design requirements are now too strict; some are too lax. Fuel cycle design requirements are presently too strict, mandating inappropriate T separation from H and D. Heat sink requirements are presently too lax; they should be strengthened to ensure that maximum loss of coolant accident temperatures drop

  3. Zero Energy Schools: The Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    School buildings have a lot of potential to achieve zero energy (ZE) in new construction as well as in retrofits. There are many examples of schools operating at ZE, and many technical resources available to guide school districts and their design and construction teams through the process. When school districts embark on the path to ZE, however, they often confront challenges related to processes and a perception that ZE buildings require 'new,' unconventional, and expensive technologies, materials, or equipment. Here are some of the challenges school districts and their design and construction teams commonly encounter, and the solutions they use to overcome them.

  4. Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.

    2001-04-01

    Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

  5. Conclusion: challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, D W

    1993-12-01

    The title "Challenges for the Future" implies the challenge to summarize a very complex meeting. Of necessity, I will present a personal impression. My interest is in risk assessment, which I define as a process for summarizing science in support of decision making. Risk assessment is sometimes regarded as arcane numerology, a rigid process of computing risk numbers in which much available science is unused. I am a strong advocate for the broader definition of risk assessment. It is encouraging to learn how much science is becoming available for use in risk assessment for gasoline, its components, and alternative fuels.

  6. Challenge of the oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaidah, A M

    1981-11-01

    The oil market is experiencing a different environment in 1981 as demand for OPEC oil fades while customers run down their inventories. The oil-producing countries face a new challenge, but the need of consuming countries for secure oil supplies and the need of producing countries to broaden their economies and reduce dependence on a depleting resource continue. Two episodes 1973 to 1975 and late 1978 to the present, illustrate the current market situation. The impact of these episodes is the basis for recommended long-run goals that go beyond market management to the real challenge of converting oil resources into the real assets of economic development. (DCK)

  7. Challenges and opportunities for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Sun, Zhanli; Müller, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) is a promising mechanism of payments for ecosystem services with the aim to effectively reduce emissions in an efficient and equitable manner. REDD+ is part of the Paris-agreement reached at the UNFCCC COP21 in December 2015...... the opportunities and challenges of REDD+ for achieving effective, efficient and equitable outcomes and co-benefits (3E+). We substantiate our survey results with a literature review. Results suggest that the challenges in achieving the 3E+ relate to the disproportionality between deforestation drivers...

  8. Thermally modified bentonite clay for copper removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Bentonite clay coming from Pernambuco was thermally modified in order to increase its affinity and capacity in the copper removal in porous bed. The application of this procedure is justified by the low cost of clay, their abundance and affinity for various metal ions. Thermally treatment modifies the clay adsorption properties enables its use in porous bed system, with the increase in surface area and mechanical strength. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N_2 physisorption. Then tests were carried out for adsorption of copper in various experimental conditions and evaluated the mass transfer zone, useful and total adsorbed removal amounts and total copper removal percentage. The results showed that the clay treated at higher temperature showed higher copper removal. (author)

  9. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Bae, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-01-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch

  10. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolites are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOG's and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powered organoclay is employed. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline

  11. Genetically modified plants: Decade of commercial cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.

  12. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food.

  13. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-01-01

    in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...... program. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of a consecutive series of Dutch CRC patients undergoing colorectal surgery were analyzed. Modifiable risk factors were correlated to the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) and compared within two groups: none or mild complications (CCI ... complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...

  14. Protective properties of radiation-modified polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surnina, N.N.; Saltykova, L.A.; Strochkova, E.M.; Tatarenko, O.F.

    1986-09-01

    A study was made of the mass transfer of corrosive liquids and gases through polyethylene films modified by radiation surface grafting. Studies were performed on an unstabilized type A film with graft adhesion-active layer based on polymethacrylic acid. The protective properties of the polymer coating in corrosive fluids with low vapor tension were estimated by impedance measurements. Steel specimens with a protective coating of radiation-modified polyethylene film were exposed to 10% sulfuric acid at room temperature. The results indicated that the acid did not penetrate through to the metal surface. The films retain their protective properties and protect the metal from the acid. Radiation modification significantly improves the adhesion of polyethylene to metals without reducing physical and mechanical properties of the polymers. 50 references, 1 figure.

  15. Modified dispersion relations, inflation, and scale invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Stefano; Friedhoff, Victor Nicolai; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2018-02-01

    For a certain type of modified dispersion relations, the vacuum quantum state for very short wavelength cosmological perturbations is scale-invariant and it has been suggested that this may be the source of the scale-invariance observed in the temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. We point out that for this scenario to be possible, it is necessary to redshift these short wavelength modes to cosmological scales in such a way that the scale-invariance is not lost. This requires nontrivial background dynamics before the onset of standard radiation-dominated cosmology; we demonstrate that one possible solution is inflation with a sufficiently large Hubble rate, for this slow roll is not necessary. In addition, we also show that if the slow-roll condition is added to inflation with a large Hubble rate, then for any power law modified dispersion relation quantum vacuum fluctuations become nearly scale-invariant when they exit the Hubble radius.

  16. Perceptual learning modifies untrained pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpiro, Sarit F A; Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-07-07

    Perceptual learning improves detection and discrimination of relevant visual information in mature humans, revealing sensory plasticity. Whether visual perceptual learning affects motor responses is unknown. Here we implemented a protocol that enabled us to address this question. We tested a perceptual response (motion direction estimation, in which observers overestimate motion direction away from a reference) and a motor response (voluntary smooth pursuit eye movements). Perceptual training led to greater overestimation and, remarkably, it modified untrained smooth pursuit. In contrast, pursuit training did not affect overestimation in either pursuit or perception, even though observers in both training groups were exposed to the same stimuli for the same time period. A second experiment revealed that estimation training also improved discrimination, indicating that overestimation may optimize perceptual sensitivity. Hence, active perceptual training is necessary to alter perceptual responses, and an acquired change in perception suffices to modify pursuit, a motor response. © 2014 ARVO.

  17. Adsorption of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution: Agrowaste-modified kaolinite vs surfactant modified bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Unuabonah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption efficiency of a new hybrid clay adsorbent for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is compared with known modified clay adsorbents. The new hybrid clay adsorbent (HYCA showed far higher adsorption capacities for the adsorption of various PAH molecules compared with sodium dodecyl sulfate modified and humic acid modified Bentonite clay adsorbents. With the new hybrid clay adsorbent (HYCA, the adsorption of some of the larger PAH molecules was complete in the first 1 h as compared with ≈ 62% and ≈ 76% observed for both humic acid modified and sodium dodecyl sulfate modified Bentonite clay adsorbents respectively. In 24 h adsorption of the PAHs was complete for all adsorbents with HYCA adsorbent showing better efficiency in the removal of the PAH molecules from aqueous solutions. No significant change was observed with increase in time up to 48 h. The adsorption was observed to be more spontaneous with HYCA adsorbent than with either modified Bentonite adsorbents. The enthalpy of adsorption did not follow any specific order and were not consistent for all PAH molecules considered.

  18. On modifying the magnetite films with complexonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.I.; Bardasheva, T.I.

    1992-01-01

    Formation of magnetite layers on the surface of low-carbon steels and in neutral ammonium-nitrade eelctrolytes containing complexonate type inhibitors is studied to improve protection corrosion resistance of oxide coatings by means of electrochemical and gravimetrical techniques. Phosphonates are determined to affect kinetics and thickness of magnetite film formation, to increase protection properties of oxide layers. Complexonate-modified oxide coating is characterized by increased corrosion-resistance including that to chloride activating action

  19. A class of minimally modified gravity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chunshan; Mukohyama, Shinji, E-mail: chunshan.lin@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the Hamiltonian structure of a class of gravitational theories whose actions are linear in the lapse function. We derive the necessary and sufficient condition for a theory in this class to have two or less local physical degrees of freedom. As an application we then find several concrete examples of modified gravity theories in which the total number of local physical degrees of freedom in the gravity sector is two.

  20. The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Matin Qaim

    2009-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been used commercially for more than 10 years. Available impact studies of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops show that these technologies are beneficial to farmers and consumers, producing large aggregate welfare gains as well as positive effects for the environment and human health. The advantages of future applications could even be much bigger. Given a conducive institutional framework, GM crops can contribute significantly to global food se...

  1. Globalisation, Powerty and Genetically Modified Agricultural Product

    OpenAIRE

    Aktas, Erkan

    2006-01-01

    Poverty and income equality have become to stand in the forefront of the world that globalised through neo-classical policies after 1980. Besides technological dependence, globalisation wave has also led to a commercial dependence of surrounding countries to the central countries as well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate globalisation process in the world through its results of technological development and poverty. Production of genetically modified products which were justified as a...

  2. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...

  3. Viscosity in Modified Gravity 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iver Brevik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A bulk viscosity is introduced in the formalism of modified gravity. It is shownthat, based on a natural scaling law for the viscosity, a simple solution can be found forquantities such as the Hubble parameter and the energy density. These solutions mayincorporate a viscosity-induced Big Rip singularity. By introducing a phase transition inthe cosmic fluid, the future singularity can nevertheless in principle be avoided. 

  4. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  5. Chemically modified carbon fibers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolenko, I.N.; Lyubliner, I.P.; Gulko, N.V.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive review about chemically modified carbon fibers (e.g. by incorporation of other elements) and is structured as follows: 1. Types of carbon fibers, 2. Structure of carbon fibers, 3. Properties of carbon fibers, 4. The cellulose carbonization process, 5. Formation of element-carbon fiber materials, 6. Surface modification of carbon fibers, and 7. Applications of carbon fibers (e.g. adsorbents, catalysts, constituents of composites). (MM)

  6. The spatial impact of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    MUNRO, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) organisms have attracted a great deal of public attention, analysis of their economic impacts has been less common. It is, perhaps, spatial externalities where the divergence between efficient and unregulated outcomes is potentially largest, because the presence of transgenic crops may eliminate or severely reduce the planting of organic varieties and other crops where some consumers have a preference for non-GM crops. This paper constructs a simple model of...

  7. Modified superstring in light cone gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Tatewaki, Machiko.

    1988-01-01

    We analyze the covariant superstring theory proposed by Siegel in light cone gauge. The physical states are the direct product of those of Green-Schwarz Superstring and the additional internal space spanned by light cone spinors. At clasical level, there is no difference among observables in Siegel's modified Superstring theory (SMST) and Green-Schwarz's one (GSST). However SMST can not be quantized with additional constraints as the physical state conditions. (author)

  8. Genetically modified trees: State and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Marina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified trees are the result of modern plant breeding. Its introduction into the environment for experimental purposes or wider cultivation is defined differently from country to country. Public opinion is divided! Conducted research are part of the activities within the COST Action FP0905 „Biosafety of forest transgenic trees”, which aims to collect information and define the scientific attitude on genetically modified trees as a basis for future European Union (EU policy in this field. The collected information refer to eight countries: four EU member states (Italy, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria and four countries in the process of pre-accession (Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. A comparative analysis involved the state of forest resources (area of forest land and forest cover, forestry legislation, legislation relating to genetically modified organisms and the general public attitude on this issue. The collected information provide a good basis for understanding this issue in order to define a clear scientific attitude as a recommendation. [Acknowledgements. The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the COST Action FP0905 „Biosafety of forest transgenic trees” for assigned STSM and financial support, also special thanks to the Host institution (Tuscany Region - Directorate General in Florence for kind cooperation. The performed research was partially conducted within the Project „Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia“ TP 31041

  9. Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzi L

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ghezzi, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti Neurology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Fondazione Cà Granda, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, disease-modifying drugs, diagnosis, treatment

  10. Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc −1 , since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future

  11. Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Davis, Anne-Christine [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Winther, Hans A. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Zhao, Gong-Bo, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-01

    In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}, since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.

  12. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  13. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Leonard C. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ishida, Takanobu [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between -0.24 and +1.25 VSCE while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-ρ-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  14. Modified Angle's Classification for Primary Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandranee, Kaushik Narendra; Chandranee, Narendra Jayantilal; Nagpal, Devendra; Lamba, Gagandeep; Choudhari, Purva; Hotwani, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to propose a modification of Angle's classification for primary dentition and to assess its applicability in children from Central India, Nagpur. Modification in Angle's classification has been proposed for application in primary dentition. Small roman numbers i/ii/iii are used for primary dentition notation to represent Angle's Class I/II/III molar relationships as in permanent dentition, respectively. To assess applicability of modified Angle's classification a cross-sectional preschool 2000 children population from central India; 3-6 years of age residing in Nagpur metropolitan city of Maharashtra state were selected randomly as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Majority 93.35% children were found to have bilateral Class i followed by 2.5% bilateral Class ii and 0.2% bilateral half cusp Class iii molar relationships as per the modified Angle's classification for primary dentition. About 3.75% children had various combinations of Class ii relationships and 0.2% children were having Class iii subdivision relationship. Modification of Angle's classification for application in primary dentition has been proposed. A cross-sectional investigation using new classification revealed various 6.25% Class ii and 0.4% Class iii molar relationships cases in preschool children population in a metropolitan city of Nagpur. Application of the modified Angle's classification to other population groups is warranted to validate its routine application in clinical pediatric dentistry.

  15. Modified angle's classification for primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Narendra Chandranee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to propose a modification of Angle's classification for primary dentition and to assess its applicability in children from Central India, Nagpur. Methods: Modification in Angle's classification has been proposed for application in primary dentition. Small roman numbers i/ii/iii are used for primary dentition notation to represent Angle's Class I/II/III molar relationships as in permanent dentition, respectively. To assess applicability of modified Angle's classification a cross-sectional preschool 2000 children population from central India; 3–6 years of age residing in Nagpur metropolitan city of Maharashtra state were selected randomly as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Majority 93.35% children were found to have bilateral Class i followed by 2.5% bilateral Class ii and 0.2% bilateral half cusp Class iii molar relationships as per the modified Angle's classification for primary dentition. About 3.75% children had various combinations of Class ii relationships and 0.2% children were having Class iii subdivision relationship. Conclusions: Modification of Angle's classification for application in primary dentition has been proposed. A cross-sectional investigation using new classification revealed various 6.25% Class ii and 0.4% Class iii molar relationships cases in preschool children population in a metropolitan city of Nagpur. Application of the modified Angle's classification to other population groups is warranted to validate its routine application in clinical pediatric dentistry.

  16. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from challenge 3 to challenge 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine; Robinson, Emma L; Baker, John G; McWilliams, Sean T; Arnaud, Keith A; Benacquista, Matthew J; Cornish, Neil J; Adams, Matt; Larson, Shane L; Mandel, Ilya; Porter, Edward K; Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt; Vecchio, Alberto; Blaut, Arkadiusz; Bridges, Michael; Feroz, Farhan; Cohen, Michael; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a program to demonstrate LISA data-analysis capabilities and to encourage their development. Each round of challenges consists of one or more datasets containing simulated instrument noise and gravitational waves from sources of undisclosed parameters. Participants analyze the datasets and report best-fit solutions for the source parameters. Here we present the results of the third challenge, issued in April 2008, which demonstrated the positive recovery of signals from chirping galactic binaries, from spinning supermassive-black-hole binaries (with optimal SNRs between ∼10 and 2000), from simultaneous extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (SNRs of 10-50), from cosmic-string-cusp bursts (SNRs of 10-100), and from a relatively loud isotropic background with Ω gw (f) ∼ 10 -11 , slightly below the LISA instrument noise.

  17. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from challenge 3 to challenge 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine; Robinson, Emma L [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm bei Potsdam (Germany); Baker, John G; McWilliams, Sean T; Arnaud, Keith A [Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Benacquista, Matthew J [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Cornish, Neil J; Adams, Matt [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Larson, Shane L [Department of Physics, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Mandel, Ilya [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Porter, Edward K [APC, UMR 7164, University Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75025 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Vecchio, Alberto [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT (United Kingdom); Blaut, Arkadiusz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Bridges, Michael; Feroz, Farhan [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB30HE (United Kingdom); Cohen, Michael [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gair, Jonathan R., E-mail: Michele.Vallisneri@jpl.nasa.go [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB30HA (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-21

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a program to demonstrate LISA data-analysis capabilities and to encourage their development. Each round of challenges consists of one or more datasets containing simulated instrument noise and gravitational waves from sources of undisclosed parameters. Participants analyze the datasets and report best-fit solutions for the source parameters. Here we present the results of the third challenge, issued in April 2008, which demonstrated the positive recovery of signals from chirping galactic binaries, from spinning supermassive-black-hole binaries (with optimal SNRs between approx10 and 2000), from simultaneous extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (SNRs of 10-50), from cosmic-string-cusp bursts (SNRs of 10-100), and from a relatively loud isotropic background with OMEGA{sub gw}(f) approx 10{sup -11}, slightly below the LISA instrument noise.

  18. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. The Challenge of Weather Prediction Old and Modern Ways of Weather Forecasting. B N Goswami. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session,. 'Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity', and cognisant of the primary audience,. I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address ...

  20. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  1. eHealth Recruitment Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…

  2. The Challenges of Digital Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Because digital devices and online environments can simultaneously be transformatively empowering and maddeningly disruptive, the work of integrating digital learning tools into schools is usually difficult and complex. Common challenges arise, however, and can be thoughtfully addressed by proactive leadership. In the end, technology change in…

  3. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Research Award: IDRC Challenge Fund

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...

  5. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  6. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...

  7. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the ... The conundrum of fee-free higher education is not an abstract concept floating ... You can choose to engage with the issue by expressing yourself in many ways. .... Africa today, such as Recognition of Prior Learning (SAQA, 2004), we very ...

  8. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  9. IPTV: Challenges and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.M. Bonastre; M.J. Montpetit; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe move to IP Protocol Television (IPTV) has challenged the traditional television industry by opening the Internet to high quality real time television content delivery. Thus it has provided an enabling set of key technologies to understand and foster further innovations in the

  10. They rose to the challenge!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    The Challenge-Based Innovation programme is a Masters-level initiative developed at CERN in collaboration with many universities around the world. The first programme saw 45 students take part, and their final results were presented at an official "gala" held on 26 February.   On 26 February, after their official presentations, the six CBI teams presented their prototypes to the public in the IdeaSquare building.   As part of the IdeaSquare project, the Challenge-Based Innovation (CBI) programme is based on a very pragmatic question: can the tools and results produced by basic research (like that being carried out at CERN) be used to solve societal problems? If so, how? To answer this question, 45 students from very different professional and cultural backgrounds formed six teams, each with a specific societal challenge to solve (see here). Over a six-month period – from September 2014 to February 2015 – the six teams worked on the challenge in o...

  11. Accountability: new challenges, new forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerkum, C.; Aarts, N.

    2012-01-01

    The general call for more accountability, affecting all western institutions, has reached the communication professionals as well. How can they cope with this new challenge? The danger is that they focus mainly on outcomes, so on performative accountability, whereas decisional accountability,

  12. Neuroscience challenges to philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Orantos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a possible framework to critically define the concept of human nature and person in dialogue with Neuroscience. He tries to help meet the challenge of the naturalism in the current thought.

  13. Monitoring challenges and innovative ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, R.V.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Levine, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring programs are difficult to design even when they focus on specific problems. Ecosystems are complex, and it is often impossible to predetermine what aspects of system structure or dynamics will respond to a specific insult. It is equally difficult to interpret whether a response is a stabilizing compensatory mechanism or a real loss of capacity to maintain the ecosystem. The problems are compounded in a broad monitoring program designed to assess ecosystem health'' at regional and continental scales. It is challenging in the extreme to monitor ecosystem response, at any scale, to past insults as well as an unknown future array of impacts. The present paper will examine some of the fundamental issues and challenges raised by large-scale monitoring efforts. The challenges will serve as a framework and as an excuse to discuss several important topics in more detail. Following the discussion of challenges, we suggest some basic innovations that could be important across a range of monitoring programs. The innovations include integrative measures, innovative methodology, and creative interpretation. 59 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  15. Climate change challenges for SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    This paper takes a theoretical perspective on the challenges that climate changes pose for SEA. The theoretical framework used is the sociologist Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and the aspects that characterise this society. Climate change is viewed as a risk, and the theory is used to derive...

  16. Challenges to Vocational Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    Challenges to vocational teacher education include technological change that is sending large numbers of adults back to school; increasing numbers of women, minorities, and handicapped individuals who are seeking employment in nontraditional occupations; vocational preparation for jobs in the information economy; teacher recruitment; and creative…

  17. Challenges in a Physics Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carola Hernández; Ravn, Ole; Forero Shelton, Antonio Manu

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies and analyses some of the challenges that arose in a development process of changing from a content-based teaching environment to a student-centred environment in an undergraduate physics course for medicine and biology students at Universidad de los Andes. Through the use...

  18. Challenges to 5G standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Interoperable, ubiquitous and dynamic are key objectives for fifth-generation (5G) communication systems and applications. These characteristics are also at the core of the main challenges that researchers, manufacturers, regulators and standardization bodies face when designing targeted strategies...... for the successful deployment of 5G enabling technologies....

  19. Challenging Sexual Harassment on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy V.

    2010-01-01

    More than thirty years ago, an administrative assistant at Cornell University first challenged her university's indifference to her boss's sexually predatory behavior. While she did not prevail, her case sparked a movement. Litigation, news stories, and government guidelines defining sexual harassment followed. And universities responded: policies…

  20. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruning, O [CERN AB/ABP, Y03600, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Oliver.Bruning@cern.ch

    2008-05-15

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex.