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Sample records for modified gianturco expandable

  1. Experimental study with modified Gianturco expandable stunt in the dog urethra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Ryong; Han, Young Min; Leu, Chun Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and urethral stricture are common causes of urethral obstruction over 50 years of age. To evaluate the usefulness of the Gianturo expandable stent for dilatation of the urethra, 14 single stents were placed in the posterior urethra (2 in prostatic urethra, 12 in membranous urethra), 20 in the anterior urethra. And 4 six - eight connected stents were positioned in the posterior urethra to straddle at the internal sphincter or external sphincter and followed up for 2 weeks (one dog), 1 month (two dog), 2 months (one dog), 3 months (one dog), 5 months (one dog), 9 months (three dog), and 14 months (two dogs). Seven of 18 stents in the posterior urethra and 5 of 20 in the anterior urethra wee migrated during the follow-up. By 2 weeks after placements, 100% expansion was achieved in the posterior urethra, but by 1 month in the anterior urethra. Partial or complete epithelial covering of the stents was observed 1 month after stent placement in the anterior urethra, but mucosal folds were observed in the anterior and posterior urethra. Urinary incontinence was not observed in all cases. Our experience suggest that Gianturco expandable stent can be used in dilating and maintaining the lumen of the prostatic urethra and urethral stricture.

  2. Rare and fatal complication of Gianturco tracheobronchial stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asopa, Sanjay; Moorjani, Narain; Saad, Rasheed A; Turner, Jonathan T; Amer, Khalid M

    2007-11-01

    Tracheobronchial stents are increasingly being used for the management of compromised large airways. Traditionally they have been used to palliate malignant conditions; however, they are now being used more frequently for nonmalignant conditions. The use of Gianturco self-expanding metal stent (William Cook, Bjaeverskov, Denmark) has been challenged for treatment of tracheobroncheomalacia, as fracture of the metal work could prove fatal. In this report we describe a case of fracture in the metal framework of a Gianturco stent resulting in recurrent pneumothoraces; heralding fatal haemoptysis as a result of perforation of the left subclavian artery.

  3. Gianturco metallic biliary stent in malignant biliary obstruction: results of follow-up in dead patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Byung Suk; Kim, Chan Soo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choi, See Sung; Won, Jong Jin; Kim, Haak Cheul; Chae, Kwon Mook [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iri (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    In order to study the patency, restenosis, efficacy, and complication of the metallic stent in the course of treatment of malignant biliary obstruction, the results of follow up of the dead patients after stent insertion were reviewed. Self-expandable Gianturco metallic stent with 10-mm diameter was successfully inserted in 33 patients: 10 with Klatskin tumor, 7 with common bile duct cancer, 7 with gallbladder cancer, 5 with pancreatic cancer, 2 with recurred stomach cancer, one with periampullary cancer, one with hepatocellular carcinoma. The overall duration of survival and patency of the stents in 33 patients were 5.2 months(1-12 months) and 4.9 months(1-14 months), respectively. Restenosis of metallic stents was found in 9 cases(27%), after 6.1 months in average. Causes of stent occlusion were overgrowing of tumor in 5, overgrowing and ingrowing of tumor in 3, extraductal dislodgement in one case. Two cases of symptomatic cholangitis after stent placement were successfully treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy. Three cases of destruction and migration of metallic stents were found after 6 months. On the basis of our experience, insertion of Gianturco metallic biliary stent is an acceptable treatment method in the malignant biliary obstruction, especially for whom short term survival is expected.

  4. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus Using 0.052″ Gianturco Coil With Bioptome Controlled Delivery%0.052吋Gianturco coil弹簧栓子经导管封堵动脉导管未闭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏呈森; 周银宝; 解春红

    2002-01-01

    目的:评价0.052吋Gianturco coil弹簧栓子经导管封堵动脉导管未闭(PDA)的疗效及安全性.方法:10例PDA患者在基础和骶管麻醉下,用心内膜心肌活检钳控制和传递0.052Gianturco coil弹簧栓子,顺行经导管封堵PDA.结果:8例1枚Gianturco coil弹簧栓子、1例3枚Gianturco coil弹簧栓子完全封堵成功,1例因Gianturco coil弹簧栓子未能回收至传递鞘内改行手术结扎.结论:用0.052Gianturco coil弹簧栓子经导管封堵3.0~4.0 mm直径的PDA,是安全、可靠的非手术方法.

  5. Preparation and Antiflame Performance of Expandable Graphite Modified with Sodium Hexametaphosphate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Hongmei; Pang, Xiuyan; Zhai, Zhixiao

    2015-01-01

    A kind of polyphosphate modified expandable graphite (EGp) was prepared in graphite oxidation and intercalation reaction with KMnO4 as oxidant, H2SO4 as intercalator, and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP...

  6. Durability of Modified Expanded Polystyrene Concrete after Dynamic Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available EPS concrete was produced by mixing the expanded polystyrene spheres (EPS and polymer emulsion and thickener to the matrix concrete, and this concrete had good vibration energy absorption characteristics. Based on the experimental data obtained on EPS volume ratio of 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by replacing matrix or coarse aggregate, the two design styles had nearly the same compressive strength. By applying frequency of 5 Hz, 50000 or 100000 times, 40 KN, 50 KN, and 60 KN cyclic loading, it is shown that the higher the inclusion size was, the lower the compressive strength of the EPS concrete would be; the larger the applying dynamic cyclic load was, the more obvious the compressive strength changing would be. Meanwhile, the strength of EPS concrete had no evident change after durability test. The results of this research had practical significance on using EPS concrete in some long-term cyclic dynamic load engineering.

  7. Voltammetric Detection of Urea on an Ag-Modified Zeolite- Expanded Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manea, F.; Pop, A.; Radovan, C.; Malchev, P.G.; Bebeselea, A.; Burtica, G.; Picken, S.J.; Schoonman, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a modified expanded graphite composite electrode based on natural zeolitic volcanic tuff modified with silver (EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy) was developed. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed a reasonably fast electron transfer and a good stability of the electrode in 0.1 M NaOH supporting elec

  8. [Endovascular treatment of a large aneurysm of the splenic artery using the Gianturco spirals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legkiĭ, A V; Maskin, S S; Ponomarev, E A; Ganichkin, S A; Mochaĭlo, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    A splenic artery aneurysm is a rarely encountered disease typically proceeding symptom-free and associated with a relatively high lethality rate, should a rupture occur. Currently, various types of endovascular treatment for this nosological entity are used widely. The article deals with a case of successful embolization of a large aneurysm of the splenic artery by means of the Gianturco spirals. The minimally invasive nature and high efficacy of this method make it possible to regard it as one of the therapeutic modalities for treating splenic-artery aneurysms.

  9. Detachable Gianturco spring coils to occlude small patent ductus arteriosus. Preliminary results; Occlusione percutanea del dotto di Botallo con spirali di Gianturco con rilascio controllato. Risultati preliminari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparini, Daniele; Basadonna, Pier Tommaso [Azienda Ospedaliera ad alta specializzazione S. Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia. Modulo di Radiologia vascolare e interventistica; Fontanelli, Alessandro; Bernardi, Guglielmo; Morocutti, Giorgio [Azienda Ospedaliera ad alta specializzazione S. Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy). Istituto di Cardiologia. Modulo di Emodinanica e interventistica

    1997-04-01

    Introduction: Botallo`s duct occlusion with Gianturco coils is effective in the fistulas with max diameter of 3.3 mm. The insertion technique does not permit to control coil positioning inside the fistula and the coil itself may migrate to the pulmonary artery. They report their experience with a new system of temporary hookup of the coil proximal end to a metal thread (Cook device) which permits to change the position of the coil or to replace it. Materials and methods: They treated 6 patients with persistence of Botallo`s duct (diameter: 2-3.5 mm, mean: 2.9 mm). The duct was occluded in 5/6 patients. The coil migrated to the pulmonary artery in a case where the hookup system permitted to retrieve and then replace it with too big for the small aorta. No complications were observed. Results: Follow-up chest films at 24 hours showed coil stability and color Doppler US confirmed the occlusion. The patients were discharged after 24 hours. The follow-up at 6 months confirmed the procedure success. Conclusions: The hookup system was effective to control coil positioning and to extract and replace the coils. The effectiveness of this occlusion technique would be improved if a wider range of coil sizes and types were available.

  10. The quantification of hemodynamic parameters downstream of a Gianturco Zenith stent wire using newtonian and non-newtonian analog fluids in a pulsatile flow environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E

    2012-11-01

    Although deployed in the vasculature to expand vessel diameter and improve blood flow, protruding stent struts can create complex flow environments associated with flow separation and oscillating shear gradients. Given the association between magnitude and direction of wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial phenotype expression, accurate representation of stent-induced flow patterns is critical if we are to predict sites susceptible to intimal hyperplasia. Despite the number of stents approved for clinical use, quantification on the alteration of hemodynamic flow parameters associated with the Gianturco Z-stent is limited in the literature. In using experimental and computational models to quantify strut-induced flow, the majority of past work has assumed blood or representative analogs to behave as Newtonian fluids. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of this assumption. We present here the experimental quantification of flow through a Gianturco Z-stent wire in representative Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood analog environments using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Fluid analogs were circulated through a closed flow loop at physiologically appropriate flow rates whereupon PIV snapshots were acquired downstream of the wire housed in an acrylic tube with a diameter characteristic of the carotid artery. Hemodynamic parameters including WSS, oscillatory shear index (OSI), and Reynolds shear stresses (RSS) were measured. Our findings show that the introduction of the stent wire altered downstream hemodynamic parameters through a reduction in WSS and increases in OSI and RSS from nonstented flow. The Newtonian analog solution of glycerol and water underestimated WSS while increasing the spatial coverage of flow reversal and oscillatory shear compared to a non-Newtonian fluid of glycerol, water, and xanthan gum. Peak RSS were increased with the Newtonian fluid, although peak values were similar upon a doubling of flow rate. The introduction of the

  11. Modeling of adsorption of toxic chromium on natural and surface modified lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalhori, Ebrahim Mohammadi, E-mail: zarrabi62@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box No: 31485/561, Alborz, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34220 Davutpasa, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Uygur, Nihan, E-mail: uygur.n@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Adiyaman University, 02040 Altinsehir, Adiyaman (Turkey); Zarrabi, Mansur, E-mail: mansor62@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box No: 31485/561, Alborz, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shmeis, Reham M. Abu, E-mail: r.abushmeis@yahoo.com [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, PO Box 140753, code 11814, Amman (Jordan)

    2013-12-15

    Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) modified with an aqueous solution of magnesium chloride MgCl{sub 2} and hydrogen peroxide H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was used to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption properties of the used adsorbents were investigated through batch studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effect created by magnesium chloride on the modification of the LECA surface was greater than that of hydrogen peroxide solution and showed a substantial increase in the specific surface area which has a value of 76.12 m{sup 2}/g for magnesium chloride modified LECA while the values of 53.72 m{sup 2}/g, and 11.53 m{sup 2}/g were found for hydrogen peroxide modified LECA and natural LECA, respectively. The extent of surface modification with enhanced porosity in modified LECA was apparent from the recorded SEM patterns. XRD and FTIR studies of themodified LECA surface did not show any structural distortion. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the modified Freundlich kinetic model and the equilibrium data fitted the Sips and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations better than other models. Maximum sorption capacities were found to be 198.39, 218.29 and 236.24 mg/g for natural LECA, surface modified LECA with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and surface modified LECA with MgCl{sub 2}, respectively. Adsorbents were found to have only a weak effect on conductivity and turbidity of aqueous solutions. Spent natural and surface modified LECA with MgCl{sub 2} was best regenerated with HCl solution, while LECA surface modified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was best regenerated with HNO{sub 3} concentrated solution. Thermal method showed a lower regeneration percentage for all spent adsorbents.

  12. Structural, Dynamical, and Electronic Transport Properties of Modified DNA Duplexes Containing Size-Expanded Nucleobases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A [ORNL; Orozco, Modesto [Institut de Recerca Biomedica, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Luque, Javier [Universitat de Barcelona; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Blas, Jose [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha; Ordejon, Pablo J [ORNL; Huertas, Oscar [Universitat de Barcelona; Tabares, Carolina [Universitat de Barcelona

    2011-01-01

    Among the distinct strategies proposed to expand the genetic alphabet, sizeexpanded nucleobases are promising for the development of modified DNA duplexes with improved biotechnological properties. In particular, duplexes built up by replacing canonical bases with the corresponding benzo-fused counterparts could be valuable as molecular nanowires. In this context, this study reports the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations carried out to examine the structural and dynamical features of size-expanded DNAs, including both hybrid duplexes containing mixed pairs of natural and benzo-fused bases (xDNA) and pure size-expanded (xxDNA) duplexes. Furthermore, the electronic structure of both natural and size-expanded duplexes is examined by means of density functional computations. The results confirm that the structural and flexibility properties of the canonical DNA are globally little affected by the presence of benzo-fused bases. Themost relevant differences are found in the enhanced size of the grooves, and the reduction in the twist. However, the analysis also reveals subtle structural effects related to the nature and sequence of benzo-fused bases in the duplex. On the other hand, electronic structure calculations performed for xxDNAs confirm the reduction in the HOMOLUMO gap predicted from the analysis of the natural bases and their size-expanded counterparts, which suggests that pure size-expanded DNAs can be good conductors. A more complex situation is found for xDNAs, where fluctuations in the electrostatic interaction between base pairs exerts a decisive influence on the modulation of the energy gap.

  13. Preparation and Antiflame Performance of Expandable Graphite Modified with Sodium Hexametaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of polyphosphate modified expandable graphite (EGp was prepared in graphite oxidation and intercalation reaction with KMnO4 as oxidant, H2SO4 as intercalator, and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP as assistant intercalator. The feasible mass ratio of C : KMnO4 : H2SO4 (98% : SHMP was determined as 1.0 : 0.3 : 4.5 : 0.6, H2SO4 was diluted to 77 wt% before intercalation reaction, and the reaction lasted for 40 min at 40°C. Expanded volume and initial expansion temperature of the prepared EGp reached 600 mL/g (at 800°C and 151°C, respectively. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy testified the intercalation and layer structure of EGp, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy illuminated the intercalated functional groups. Flame retardance of the prepared EGp and the referenced EG (with only H2SO4 as intercalator for linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE was also investigated. Addition of 30 wt% EGp to the polymer improved the limiting oxygen index (LOI from 17.5 to 27.3%. On the other hand, the LOI of the same amount of the referenced EG was only 24.6%. Assistant intercalation of SHMP improved the dilatability and flame retardancy.

  14. A bound system in the expanding universe with modified holographic Ricci dark energy and dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Li, En-Kun; Geng, Jin-Ling; Duan, Peng-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a bound system in the expanding background has been investigated in this paper. The background is described by a FRW universe with the modified holographic dark energy model, whose equation of state parameter changes with time and can cross the phantom boundary. To study the evolution of the bound system, an interpolating metric is considered, and on this basis the geodesics of a test particle are given. The equation of motion and the effective potential are also derived from the geodesics. By studying the the effective potential and the evolution of the radius of a test particle in the bound system of the Milky Way galaxy, we have found that the galaxy would go through three stages: expands from a singular point; stays in a discoid for a period of time; big rip in the future. With the help of analysing the critical angular momentum, we find that the test particle needs less angular momentum to escape from the center mass as time passes.

  15. Voltammetric Detection of Urea on an Ag-Modified Zeolite-Expanded Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop Schoonman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modified expanded graphite composite electrode based on natural zeolitic volcanic tuff modified with silver (EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy was developed. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed a reasonably fast electron transfer and a good stability of the electrode in 0.1 M NaOH supporting electrolyte. This modified electrode exhibited moderate electrocatalytic effect towards urea oxidation, allowing its determination in aqueous solution. The linear dependence of the current versus urea concentration was reached using square-wave voltammetry in the concentrations range of urea between 0.2 to 1.4 mM, with a relatively low limit of detection of 0.05 mM. A moderate enhancement of electroanalytical sensitivity for the determination of urea at EG-Ag-Z-Epoxy electrode was reached by applying a chemical preconcentration step prior to voltammetric/amperometric quantification.

  16. Synthesis and CO2 adsorption study of modified MOF-5 with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and expandable graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sami; Bustam, M. A.; Shariff, A. M.; Elkhalifah, Ali E. I.; Murshid, G.; Riaz, Nadia

    2014-10-01

    MOF-5 was synthesized by solvothermal method and its reactivation under anhydrous conditions. This research is conducted to investigate the effect of MOF-5 and MOF-5 modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and expandable graphite (EG) on the performance of CO2 adsorption. The synthesized MOFs were characterized using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) for surface morphology, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal stability, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystals plane, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) for surface area and CO2 adsorption. The result had showed that the modified MOF-5 enhanced the CO2 adsorption compared to the pure MOF-5. The increment in the CO2 uptake capacities of MOF materials was attributed to the decrease in the pore size and enhancement of micropore volume of MOF-5 by multi-walled carbon nanotube and EG incorporation. The BET surface area of the synthesized MOF-5@MWCNTs is more than MOF-5. The CO2 sorption capacities of MOF-5 and MOF-5@MWCNTs were observed to increase from 0.00008 to 0.00048 mol g-1 at 298 K and 1 bar. The modified MOF-5@MWCNTs resulted in the highest CO2 adsorption followed by the modified MOF-5@ EG and lastly, MOF-5.

  17. New, expanded, and modified use of approved antineoplastic agents in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Maurie

    2007-02-01

    Over the past several years, clinical research efforts in ovarian cancer employing a number of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antineoplastic agents have permitted the development of approaches that both improve the effectiveness and decrease the toxicities of systemic therapy of ovarian cancer. These initiatives, including prospective trials and retrospective examinations of large clinical experience, have involved agents previously approved by the FDA for use in ovarian cancer (e.g., cisplatin, paclitaxel, topotecan, and liposomal doxorubicin) and the development of new strategies for drugs approved for other malignant conditions (e.g., gemcitabine, docetaxel, etoposide, irinotecan, vinorelbine, and bevacizumab). It can be anticipated that future studies involving novel approved agents will further expand the oncologist's weapons against ovarian cancer.

  18. The development of self-expanding peripheral stent with ion-modified surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotkov, Alexander I.; Kashin, Oleg A.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.; Krukovskii, Konstantin V.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir M.; Borisov, Dmitry P.; Kretov, Evgenii I.

    2016-11-01

    In work researches of chemical composition of surface layers of self-expanding stents of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and their functional and mechanical properties after plasma immersion processing by ions of silicon (Si). It is established that in the treatment in the inner and outer surfaces of stents formed doped silicon layer with a thickness of 80 nm. The formation of the doped layer does not impair the functional properties of the stent. At human body temperature, the stent is fully restore its shape after removing the deforming load. The resulting graph of loading of stents during their compression between parallel plates. The research results allow the conclusion that Si-doped stents are promising for treatment of peripheral vascular disease. However, related studies on laboratory animals are required.

  19. Genome mining expands the chemical diversity of the cyanobactin family to include highly modified linear peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikoski, Niina; Liu, Liwei; Jokela, Jouni; Wahlsten, Matti; Gugger, Muriel; Calteau, Alexandra; Permi, Perttu; Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fewer, David P

    2013-08-22

    Ribosomal peptides are produced through the posttranslational modification of short precursor peptides. Cyanobactins are a growing family of cyclic ribosomal peptides produced by cyanobacteria. However, a broad systematic survey of the genetic capacity to produce cyanobactins is lacking. Here we report the identification of 31 cyanobactin gene clusters from 126 genomes of cyanobacteria. Genome mining suggested a complex evolutionary history defined by horizontal gene transfer and rapid diversification of precursor genes. Extensive chemical analyses demonstrated that some cyanobacteria produce short linear cyanobactins with a chain length ranging from three to five amino acids. The linear peptides were N-prenylated and O-methylated on the N and C termini, respectively, and named aeruginosamide and viridisamide. These findings broaden the structural diversity of the cyanobactin family to include highly modified linear peptides with rare posttranslational modifications.

  20. Electrochemical Determination of Brilliant Blue and Tartrazine Based on an Ionic Liquid-Modified Expanded Graphite Paste Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Ye; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Brilliant Blue (BB) and tartrazine (Tz) using an ionic liquid-modified expanded graphite paste electrode (IL-EGPE). The IL-EGPE was prepared by mixing ionic liquid-expanded graphite composite (IL-EG) with solid paraffin. Compared with the EGPE, the IL-EGPE remarkably enhanced the electrocatalytic oxidation signals of BB and Tz. Under optimal experimental conditions, the designed IL-EGPE exhibited wide linear responses to BB and Tz ranging from 5.0×10(-9) to 4.0×10(-6) M and 1.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-6) M, respectively. The detection limits for BB and Tz were 2.0×10(-9) M (1.6 ng/mL) and 3.3×10(-9) M (1.8 ng/mL) at an S/N of 3, respectively. This electrode showed good reproducibility, stability, and reusability. The proposed method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of BB and Tz in a soft drink with satisfactory results.

  1. [Occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus with a Gianturco-Grifka device. First case at the Instituo Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayer Calderón, J; Aldana Pérez, T; San Luis Miranda, R; Maza Juárez, G; Lázaro Castillo, J L; Ramírez Reyes, H; Quintero, L R; Arias Monroy, L; Campos Gómez, A

    2000-01-01

    We present the initial experience of closing of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with a new device; Gianturco-Grifka, at the General Hospital of The Medical Center "La Raza". The patient was a 4 year's old girl, in whom we detected continuous murmur in the second intercostal space, echocardiography showed a long conical patent ductus arteriosus 4.9 mm of diameter, systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery was 35 mm Hg with QP/QS 1.6:1. Hemodynamic study revealed a long conical ductus arteriosus 5 mm of diameter, type A1 from Krichenko classification. We proceeded to occlude the PDA with a Gianturco-Grifka device of 7 mm. Immediately after the PDA occlusion the shunt disappeared, there were no complications during the procedure. More cases are needed to determine long term benefits and limitations, of this procedure. However we conclude that technically it is easy to use. There is greater decrease of residual shunt that the one reported with other devices.

  2. Graft-versus-leukemia effect of HLA-haploidentical central-memory T-cells expanded with leukemic APCs and modified with a suicide gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Monica; Perna, Serena Kimi; Falcone, Laura; Camisa, Barbara; Magnani, Zulma; Bernardi, Massimo; Crotta, Alessandro; Tresoldi, Cristina; Fleischhauer, Katharina; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Gregori, Silvia; Caligaris Cappio, Federico; Ciceri, Fabio; Bordignon, Claudio; Cignetti, Alessandro; Bondanza, Attilio; Bonini, Chiara

    2013-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical family donor (haplo-HSCT) is a readily available and potentially curative option for high-risk leukemia. In haplo-HSCT, alloreactivity plays a major role in the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect, which, however, is frequently followed by relapse due to emerging leukemic cell variants that have lost the unshared HLA haplotype as a mechanism of immune escape. We report that stimulation of HLA-haploidentical donor T lymphocytes with leukemic antigen-presenting cells (L-APCs) expands a population of leukemia-reactive T cells, which, besides alloreactivity to unshared HLAs, contain leukemia-associated specificities restricted by shared HLAs. According to a preferential central-memory (T(CM)) phenotype and to high interleukin (IL)-7Rα expression, these T cells persist in vivo and sustain a major GVL effect in a clinically relevant xenograft model. Moreover, we demonstrate that modifying L-APC-expanded T cells to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) suicide gene enables their elimination with the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV), therefore providing a safety switch in case of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). These results warrant the clinical investigation of L-APC-expanded T cells modified with a suicide gene in the setting of haplo-HSCT.

  3. Staged abdominal closure with intramuscular tissue expanders and modified components separation technique of a giant incisional hernia after repair of a ruptured omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Tatekawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with omphalocele, several different techniques are performed for repair of the abdominal wall defect. We present the case of a staged abdominal closure of a giant incisional hernia after repair of a ruptured omphalocele. At birth, skin flap coverage associated with silo formation occurred, but the abdominal wall defect remained, resulting in a giant abdominal hernia. To expand the layers of the abdominal wall, tissue expanders were placed between the bilateral internal oblique and transverses abdominis muscles. Postoperatively, a modified components separation technique was performed. The abdominal wall was closed in the midline. Upon closure of the skin in the midline, bilateral relaxing incisions were performed, covering the remaining defect with artificial dermis. At the age of one year and 7 months, the patient had no recurrent incisional hernia nor any wound complications.

  4. Synthesis and CO{sub 2} adsorption study of modified MOF-5 with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and expandable graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sami, E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Bustam, M. A., E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Shariff, A. M., E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Elkhalifah, Ali E. I., E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Murshid, G., E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Riaz, Nadia, E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com [Research Center for Carbon Dioxide Capture, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    MOF-5 was synthesized by solvothermal method and its reactivation under anhydrous conditions. This research is conducted to investigate the effect of MOF-5 and MOF-5 modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and expandable graphite (EG) on the performance of CO{sub 2} adsorption. The synthesized MOFs were characterized using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) for surface morphology, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal stability, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystals plane, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) for surface area and CO{sub 2} adsorption. The result had showed that the modified MOF-5 enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption compared to the pure MOF-5. The increment in the CO{sub 2} uptake capacities of MOF materials was attributed to the decrease in the pore size and enhancement of micropore volume of MOF-5 by multi-walled carbon nanotube and EG incorporation. The BET surface area of the synthesized MOF-5@MWCNTs is more than MOF-5. The CO{sub 2} sorption capacities of MOF-5 and MOF-5@MWCNTs were observed to increase from 0.00008 to 0.00048 mol g-1 at 298 K and 1 bar. The modified MOF-5@MWCNTs resulted in the highest CO{sub 2} adsorption followed by the modified MOF-5@ EG and lastly, MOF-5.

  5. Expanded eggshell procedure combined with closing-opening technique (a modified vertebral column resection) for the treatment of thoracic and thoracolumbar angular kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyu; Yuan, Suomao; Tian, Yonghao; Wang, Lianlei; Zheng, Yanping; Li, Jianmin

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a modified vertebral column resection for the treatment of thoracolumbar angular kyphosis. A total of 13 patients (8 male, 5 female) with thoracolumbar kyphosis (kyphotic angle > 60°) were included in this study (Group A). There were 3 patients with failure of spinal formation (Type 1 deformity), 6 patients with old thoracic or lumbar compression fracture, and 4 patients with old spinal tuberculosis (including 1 case of T3-5 vertebral malunion). The average preoperative kyphotic angle was 67.3° (range 62°-75°). Each patient underwent an expanded eggshell procedure combined with the closing-opening technique for the treatment of thoracolumbar angular kyphosis. Sixteen patients who were previously treated with a closing-opening wedge osteotomy in the same spine classification group (kyphotic angle > 60°) were used as a control group (Group B). In Group A, the average (± SD) operative time was 400 ± 60 minutes, and the average blood loss was 960 ± 120 ml. There were no surgery-related complications observed during or after the operations. The average local kyphotic angle was 20.3° (range 18°-24.5°), and the average correction rate was 68.7%. In Group B, the average operative time was 470 ± 90 minutes, and the average blood loss was 2600 ± 1600 ml (range 1200-8200 ml). There were segmental vessels and spinal canal venous plexus injury in 1 case, spinal cord injury in 1 case, dural tearing in 2 cases, pleural rupture in 2 cases, and hemothorax and pneumothorax in 1 case. Each patient had more than 2 years of follow-up. At the latest follow-up examination, the average regional kyphotic angle was 19.9° ± 9.1° (range 19°-34°), and there was no significant loss of correction (p > 0.05). There was greater blood loss and a higher complication rate in Group B than in Group A (p < 0.05). An expanded eggshell procedure combined with the closing-opening technique for the treatment of thoracolumbar

  6. Clinical study of modifying method of sturuing expanded scalp%扩张头皮改良缝合方法临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京玉; 陈敏亮; 赖琳英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of a modifying method of closing scalp on hair follicle and its clinical effects. Methods We have cut the scalp pararelled the hair growth direction.then pruned the expansion capsule and galea aponeurotica inner scalp margin 1mm,interrupted suturing directly, avoiding hair bulb continuous sutured in scalp. Results From 2010 to 2011,this method have been applied in 56 patients who with expanded flap in head. Follow-up result shows that this method can effectively protect the hair follicle,prevent hair loss and scar formation. Conclusion This new method of sturuing scalp can preventing localized alopecia and scar effectively.%目的:探讨头皮改良缝合方法对毛囊的保护作用及其临床效果.方法:平行于毛发方向切开头皮,将扩张后包膜层或帽状腱膜缘修剪至头皮缘内1mm,拉拢间断缝合,头皮层则避开毛球部间断缝合.结果:2010年~2011年,应用于56例头部扩张皮瓣缝合术患者,术后随访证实此缝合方法能有效的保护毛囊、减少脱发和瘢痕的产生.结论:改良头皮缝合方法可有效减少瘢痕性秃发.

  7. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft modified by the Senate; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite modifie par le senat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-10-07

    This document presents the draft of the law (TA no. 2) modified by the French Senate regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply. The first Title, devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply, contains 5 articles. The second Title deals along articles 6 through 12 with the production of electricity. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four is devoted to the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 through 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 through 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transitory Provisions. This law draft was debated in public seance in Paris on 7 October 1999 and signed by the President Christian Poncelet.

  8. Expanding earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Arguments in favor of an expanding earth are presented. The author believes that the theory of plate tectonics is a classic error in the history of geology. The case for the expanding earth is organized in the following way: introductory review - face of the earth, development of expanding earth concept, necessity for expansion, the subduction myth, and definitions; some principles - scale of tectonic phenomena, non-uniformitarianism, tectonic profile, paleomagnetism, asymmetry of the earth, rotation of the earth, and modes of crustal extension; regional studies - western North America, Central America, South-East Asia, and the rift oceans; tests and cause of expansion. 824 references, 197 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  9. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  10. Expanding the utility of modified vascularized femoral periosteal bone-flaps: An analysis of its form and a comparison with a conventional-bone-graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshitaka; Hibino, Naohito; Kobayashi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascularized medial femoral condyle (MFC) corticoperiosteal bone-flap is a well-accepted technique when dealing with tissue defects or infection. Its role in refractory conditions and in the possible use for options concerning modifications of this bone-flap compared to a conventional iliac bone graft (conventional-graft) are rarely discussed. Methods We reviewed 21 consecutive cases concerning alternatives with some modifications of original MFC bone-flap surgery used to treat refractory conditions with bone defects, necrosis, or infection in the extremities. We present our devised approaches for this boneflap, and especially modifications of the grafted bone (including strut bone, perforator to the vastus medialis muscle, and the use of one vascular pedicle for some bone flaps) as well as the combined use of artificial bone as hybrid bone transplantation. We also compared the clinical results of 21 cases that received a conventional-graft. Results and Conclusions Following flap placement, 100% of the nonunion sites healed in an average of 2 months, which was significantly shorter than 5.5 months for the conventional-graft. The results showed the expanding possibility for options with regard to the form and options of this bone-flap as well as the shortening the duration of treatment, especially at the site of an infected distal tibia, insertion of the Achilles tendon on the posterior aspect of calcaneal osteomyelitis, distal end of the clavicle, clavicle or forearm with a bone defect, small bones with refractory conditions, and a femur without implant failure. However, it was not efficient for treating a forearm without bone defect. PMID:25983463

  11. Expanded and Wild-type Ataxin-3 Modify the Redox Status of SH-SY5Y Cells Overexpressing α-Synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Carolina; Perfeito, Rita; Laço, Mário; Wüllner, Ullrich; Rego, A Cristina

    2017-02-25

    Neurodegenerative diseases are considered to be distinct clinical entities, although they share the formation of proteinaceous aggregates and several neuropathological mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggest a possible interaction between proteins that have been classically associated to distinct neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, common molecular and cellular pathways might explain similarities between disease phenotypes. Interestingly, the characteristic Parkinson's disease (PD) phenotype linked to bradykinesia is also a clinical presentation of other neurodegenerative diseases. An example is Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), with some patients presenting parkinsonism and a positive response to levodopa (L-DOPA). Protein aggregates positive for α-synuclein (α-Syn), a protein associated with PD, in the substantia nigra of MJD models made us hypothesize a putative additive biological effect induced by expression of α-Syn and ataxin-3 (Atx3), the protein affected in MJD. Hence, in this study we analysed the influence of these two proteins (α-Syn and wild-type or mutant Atx3) on modified redox signaling, a pathological process potentially linked to both diseases, and also the impact of exposure to iron and rotenone in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Our results show that both α-Syn and mutant Atx3 overexpression per se increased oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH2), and co-expression of these proteins exhibited additive effect on intracellular oxidation, with no correlation with apoptotic features. Mutant Atx3 and α-Syn also potentiated altered redox status induced by iron and rotenone, a hint to how these proteins might influence neuronal dysfunction under pro-oxidant conditions. We further show that overexpression of wild-type Atx3 decreased intracellular DCFH2 oxidation, possibly exerting a neuroprotective role.

  12. Endovascular treatment of intrahepatic inferior vena cava obstruction from malignant hepatocellular tumor thrombus utilizing Luminexx self-expanding nitinol stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambo, Glenn W. [Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, 4516 North Armenia Avenue, Tampa, FL 33603 (United States)], E-mail: xraydoc2@yahoo.com; Leto, John [Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, 3001 W. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., Tampa, FL 33607 (United States); George, Christopher [Department of Hematology and Oncology, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, 4301 W. Habana Avenue, Suite 1, Tampa, FL 33607 (United States); Van Epps, Kelly; Woeste, Troy; Berlet, Mathew [Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, 4516 North Armenia Avenue, Tampa, FL 33603 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction is a well-described clinical entity. Most IVC obstructions from malignant neoplasms are a direct result of tumor compression [Oviedo J, Cerda S. Vascular invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001;125: 454-5; Furui S, Sawada S, et al. Gianturco stent placement in malignant caval obstruction: analysis of factors for predicting the outcome. Radiology 1995;195:147-52; Fletcher WS, Lakin PC, et al. Results of treatment of inferior vena cava syndrome with expandable metallic stents. Arch Surg 1998;133:935-8]. The symptoms of IVC obstruction include progressive ascites, scrotal edema and lower body edema. These constellations of symptoms are described as IVC syndrome and are devastating to a patient with end-stage cancer. We describe a palliative therapy utilizing Luminexx nitinol self-expanding stents to treat intracaval hepatoma thrombus obstructing the IVC. The procedure is rapidly performed, technically reliable, and has essentially no morbidity or mortality. This procedure can be performed in the interventional radiology suite with excellent results resolving the IVC syndrome soon after placement of the stents. We believe endovascular stenting as an excellent palliative therapy for patients with IVC syndrome and should be the treatment of choice for caval obstructions due to intraluminal tumor thrombus.

  13. Targeting CD20+ Aggressive B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma by Anti-CD20 CAR mRNA-Modified Expanded Natural Killer Cells In Vitro and in NSG Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yaya; Hochberg, Jessica; Yahr, Ashlin; Ayello, Janet; van de Ven, Carmella; Barth, Matthew; Czuczman, Myron; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2015-04-01

    The prognosis is very dismal for patients with relapsed CD20(+) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Facilitating the development of alternative novel therapeutic strategies is required to improve outcomes in patients with recurrent/refractory CD20(+) B-NHL. In this study, we investigated functional activities of anti-CD20 CAR-modified, expanded peripheral blood NK cells (exPBNK) following mRNA nucleofection against CD20(+) B-NHL in vitro and in vivo. CAR(+) exPBNK had significantly enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity, compared with CAR(-) exPBNK against CD20(+) Ramos (P CAR(+) exPBNK in response to CD20(+) B-NHL -: specific stimulation. In Raji-Luc and Raji-2R-Luc xenografted NOD/SCID/γ-chain(-/-) (NSG) mice, the luciferase signals measured in the CAR(+) exPBNK-treated group were significantly reduced, compared with the signals measured in the untreated mice and in mice treated with the CAR(-) exPBNK. Furthermore, the CAR exPBNK-treated mice had significantly extended survival time (P CAR(-) exPBNK-treated mice (P CAR may have therapeutic potential for treating patients with poor-risk CD20(+) hematologic malignancies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  15. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  16. Forehead tissue expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, W H

    1991-02-01

    The use of the forehead flap for nasal reconstruction has long been used by reconstructive surgeons. A case is presented in which comprised forehead skin is utilized following expansion by a tissue expander.

  17. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  18. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  19. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  20. Expanding mediation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, P.P.C.C.

    2012-01-01

    In his article In Between Us, Yoni van den Eede expands existing theories of mediation into the realm of the social and the political, focusing on the notions of opacity and transparency. His approach is rich and promising, but two pitfalls should be avoided. First, his concept of ‘in-between’ runs

  1. Expanding Student Assessment Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartscher, Beth; Carter, Andrea; Lawlor, Anna; McKelvey, Barbara

    This paper describes an approach for expanding assessment opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding of content. The targeted population consisted of elementary and junior high school students in two schools in a growing middle-class community in north central Illinois. The elementary school enrolled 467 students and the junior…

  2. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  3. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  4. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  5. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  6. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, B A [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-29

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  7. Long-Term Care Hospital (LTCH) PPS Expanded Modified MEDPAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) file contains records for 100 percent of Medicare beneficiaries who received hospital inpatient services at a LTCH...

  8. Long-Term Care Hospital (LTCH) PPS Expanded Modified MEDPAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) file contains records for 100 percent of Medicare beneficiaries who received hospital inpatient services at a LTCH...

  9. Expanding contraceptive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The goals of Family Health International (FHI) have been to introduce a variety of birth control options to people in developing countries, and to provide information to the user on the advantages and disadvantages of each method. FHI has worked with many developing countries in clinical trials of established as well as new contraceptive methods. These trials played an important part in making 2 sterilization procedures, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy popular for women. Further research improved the methods and have made them the most popular in the world, chosen by 130 million users. FHI is doing clinical trials on a new IUD, that is a copper bearing T-shaped device called the TCu380A. they have collected data on over 10,000 women using IUD's and early analysis indicates TCu380A is more effective than others. FHI is also evaluating devices such as Norplant that will prevent pregnancy up to 5 years by implanting the capsules in the arm. More than 8,000 women are being tested to determine the acceptability of implants in different geographical locations. Other research groups are doing work in 10 additional countries: Bangladesh will expand its program to 24,000 women and Nepal to 8,000 women. Trials are also being conducted on progestogen pills, since they do not lesson the volume of milk in breast feeding. FHI has also worked to introduce creative community-based distribution channels. In one case, specially trained health workers delivered contraceptives door-to-door in over 150,000 households. They found that 2 of 3 women accepted the pills and in a follow up survey 90% were still using them. FHI is now focusing on ways to improve moving new contraceptives from clinical testing on everyday use. They will coordinate training programs, educational material, media campaigns, and efforts with other international organizations, government agencies, and family planning groups.

  10. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  11. Expanded indications for combo ceramic onlays/inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    The ability to use conservative ceramic restorations may be limited because of the location and placement of the gingival margin while preparing the tooth for an inlay/onlay. The following technique, which uses a combination of modified preparation and special processing of a restoration combining gold and ceramic, may actually help expand the conservative treatment modality.

  12. Browsing Your Virtual Library: The Case of Expanding Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Wayne; Enright, Jeanne; Mackenzie, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Describes "Expanding Universe: a classified search tool for amateur astronomy," a Web site maintained by the Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library which uses a modified form of the Dewey Decimal Classification to organize a large file of astronomy hotlinks. Highlights include structure, HTML coding, design requirements, and future…

  13. Trivalent expanders and hyperbolic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ivrissimtzis, Ioannis; Vdovina, Alina

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a family of trivalent expanders which tessellate compact hyperbolic surfaces with large isometry groups. We compare this family with Platonic graphs and modifications of them and prove topological and spectral properties of these families.

  14. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  15. Superhydrophobic modification fails to improve the performance of small diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toes, GJ; van Muiswinkel, KW; van Oeveren, W; Suurmeijer, AJH; Timens, W; Stokroos, [No Value; van den Dungen, JJAM

    To determine whether superhydrophobic modification of small diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts improves the performance of these grafts, we assessed neointima formation and platelet deposition in standard and superhydrophobic modified ePTFE grafts. Standard and

  16. Unintended Consequences of Expanding the Genetic Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollum, Marvin; Ashwood, Brennan; Jockusch, Steffen; Lam, Minh; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2016-09-14

    The base pair d5SICS·dNaM was recently reported to incorporate and replicate in the DNA of a modified strain of Escherichia coli, thus making the world's first stable semisynthetic organism. This newly expanded genetic alphabet may allow organisms to store considerably more information in order to translate proteins with unprecedented enzymatic activities. Importantly, however, there is currently no knowledge of the photochemical properties of d5SICS or dNaM-properties that are central to the chemical integrity of cellular DNA. In this contribution, it is shown that excitation of d5SICS or dNaM with near-visible light leads to efficient trapping of population in the nucleoside's excited triplet state in high yield. Photoactivation of these long-lived, reactive states is shown to photosensitize cells, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and to a marked decrease in cell proliferation, thus warning scientists of the potential phototoxic side effects of expanding the genetic alphabet.

  17. Federal government expands compliance initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, J K

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, the Federal government initiated Operation Restore Trust to increase enforcement of fraud and abuse regulations in Medicare and Medicaid programs. With the success of the original initiative, the government is expanding the project to additional states and program areas. The initial scrutiny of home health agencies, nursing homes, hospice care, and durable medical equipment is being expanded to managed care plans and acute care hospitals with an eye toward DRG creep. To manage this increased enforcement activity, healthcare organizations should institute comprehensive corporate compliance programs. Such programs should provide a framework that delineates responsibilities and provides a systematic means to resolve issues in a timely manner.

  18. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  19. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  20. ERBU, Expanding Rubber Band Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Domingos

    2015-01-01

    I put forward a simple unidimensional mechanical analogue of the three-dimensional universe models of modern relativistic cosmology. The main goal of the proposal is the appropriate appreciation of the intrinsic relationship between Hubble's law and the homogeneity of expanding relativistic models.

  1. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  2. Expandable Shelter/Container Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    without removing whatever payload might be in the contai ner. Equ i pment located in the expanded porti on of the ES/C durin g norma l operat i ons is...and Supply BattalIon , Div isi on Support Coianand. In addition , divisional avIation battalions have an A Irc raft Maintenance Company. The TOE

  3. 47 CFR 64.1401 - Expanded interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expanded interconnection. 64.1401 Section 64...) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Expanded Interconnection § 64.1401 Expanded interconnection. (a... 69, subpart G of this chapter, shall offer expanded interconnection for interstate special...

  4. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space......, providing a clear game design assignment that involves the formulation of intended player experience and a description of game mechanics. The second layer focuses on game design thinking from six different aspects of game design chosen in relation to the framing of the game design assignment. The third....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  5. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretch, Dale [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Wright, Brad [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fortini, Matt [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fink, Neal [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ramadan, Bassem [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Eybergen, William [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  6. Unconventional microfluidics: expanding the discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Mao, Xiaole; Stratton, Zackary S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-04-21

    Since its inception, the discipline of microfluidics has been harnessed for innovations in the biomedicine/chemistry fields-and to great effect. This success has had the natural side-effect of stereotyping microfluidics as a platform for medical diagnostics and miniaturized lab processes. But microfluidics has more to offer. And very recently, some researchers have successfully applied microfluidics to fields outside its traditional domains. In this Focus article, we highlight notable examples of such "unconventional" microfluidics applications (e.g., robotics, electronics). It is our hope that these early successes in unconventional microfluidics prompt further creativity, and inspire readers to expand the microfluidics discipline.

  7. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  8. Collapsible truss structure is automatically expandable

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Coil springs wound with maximum initial tension in a three-truss, closed loop structure form a collapsible truss structure. The truss automatically expands and provides excellent rigidity and close dimensional tolerance when expanded.

  9. Black holes in an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Gary W; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2010-04-02

    An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P = w rho with -1 black hole temperature.

  10. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  11. Shear Acceleration in Expanding Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, F M

    2016-01-01

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi-Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge ...

  12. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  13. Modified Ureterosigmoidostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To introduce an operation procedure and evaluate the coutinence diversion results of the modified ureterosigmoidostomy after radical cystectomy. Methods Fourteen cases of bladder cancer or prostate carcinoma were operated on with modified Sigma pouch from Feb, 1998 to Dec, 1999. A longitudinal incision about 25 cm on the sigmoid uall was done to form a low pressure pouch. The vertex of the new pouch was fixed to sacrum. Both ends of ureters were anastomosed side to side and to form a big nipple and inserted into the top of pouch for 2 to 3 centimeters. Results It took about sixty five minutes to create a new low pressure pouch after radical cystectomy. Early complication of was found in two cases postoperatively, and cured with temporary colonostomy. Hydronephrosis and hypokalemia in one patient were cured by percutaneous anterograde ureter dilatation with balloon and oral replacement of potassium salt. All patients displayed urinary continence. No symptomatic renal infection or hypercholoraemic acidosis occurred. Conclusion Modified ureterosigmoidostomy is a safe procedure of urinary diversion and provides a big volume, low intravesical pressure pouch. The patients are free from the troublesome urine-bag, intermittert catheterization , and upper urinary tracts are protected effectively. The quality of life is satisfied.

  14. Influence of Expanded Graphite Surface Ozonation on the Adhesion between Carbon Additive and Cement Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cement mortars modified with expanded graphite (EG) subjected to surface treatments in gaseous ozone were investigated. It was shown that the bonding between carbon additive and cement paste strongly depends on the surface modification of EG and the chemical composition of EG surface plays the important role in shaping the mechanical properties of cement composites. The expanded graphite subjected to ozone treatment showed the substantial increase of flexural toughness of cement composite. Th...

  15. Mechanism of Fume Suppression and Performance on Asphalt of Expanded Graphite for Pavement under High Temperature Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Gang; HE Zhaoyi; HUANG Yangcheng; ZHOU Chao; YUAN Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    Fume suppression mechanisms and the effect of expanded graphite on the performance of asphalt were studied by applying infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and comprehensive thermal analysis (TG, DSC). The experimental results confirm that asphalt which is mixed with expandable graphite will expand in the process of hot mix, and the expanded graphite layer will swell by the light component in the asphalt. The light component in the asphalt and PAHs adsorption on expanded graphite surface or part of the plug in the expanded graphite layer between plates made nucleation crystallization growth. And the Van der Waals force and the bonding of the lattice can effectively restrain the asphalt fume release. Meanwhile, the expanding agent with oxidative can spread into the asphalt, leading to asphalt oxygenated and plastic abate, while the ductility decreases. Expanded graphite, SBS modifier and environment- friendly plasticizers are used to composite modified asphalt. According to asphalt fume release experiment, normal test of asphalt performance, Brookfield viscosity test, RTFOT test and asphalt mixture tests (high temperature stability, low temperature stability, water stability), it has been proven that the modified asphalt’s performance is better than that of matrix asphalt and equivalent to that of SBS modified asphalt. Furthermore, it has good fume suppression effect.

  16. Expanding mTOR signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yang; Kun-Liang Guan

    2007-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has drawn much attention recently because of its essential role in cell growth control and its involvement in human tumorigenesis. Great endeavors have been made to elucidate the functions and regulation of mTOR in the past decade. The current prevailing view is that mTOR regulates many fundamental biological processes, such as cell growth and survival, by integrating both intracellular and extracellular signals, including growth factors, nutrients, energy levels, and cellular stress. The significance of mTOR has been highlighted most recently by the identification of mTOR-associated proteins. Amazingly, when bound to different proteins, mTOR forms distinctive complexes with very different physiological functions. These findings not only expand the roles that mTOR plays in cells but also further complicate the regulation network. Thus, it is now even more critical that we precisely understand the underlying molecular mechanisms in order to directly guide the development and usage of anti-cancer drugs targeting the mTOR signaling pathway. In this review, we will discuss different mTOR-associated proteins, the regulation of mTOR complexes, and the consequences of mTOR dysregulation under pathophysiological conditions.

  17. Cat Scratch Disease: Expanded Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan A.; Plesec, Thomas P.; Sabella, Camille; Udayasankar, Unni K.; Singh, Arun D.

    2016-01-01

    Background To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. Methods Case report. Results A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7.5 × 3.8 mm lesion with a possible 6.3 mm of retrolaminar extension into the substance of the optic nerve. Brain MRI did not show evidence of optic nerve involvement but revealed a 6-mm nodule of the pineal gland suggestive of a pineoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and histopathology revealed a suppurative granulomatous inflammation suggestive of Bartonella infection. Upon further questioning, the patient had recent exposure to kittens with areas of cat scratches along both of his arms. He was subsequently referred to and treated with a 2-week course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin by the pediatric infectious disease specialist. Repeat brain MRI showed interval total resolution of enlarged pineal gland. Conclusion: Optic nerve granulomas are a rare presentation of cat scratch disease and could potentially masquerade as retinoblastoma. PMID:27843905

  18. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  19. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  20. Quark and Gluon Production from a Boost-invariantly Expanding Color Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Taya, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Particle production from an expanding classical color electromagnetic field is extensively studied, motivated by the early stage dynamics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We develop a formalism at one-loop order to compute the particle spectra by canonically quantizing quark, gluon and ghost fluctuations under the presence of such an expanding classical color background field; the canonical quantization is done in the $\\tau$-$\\eta$ coordinates in order to take into account manifestly the expanding geometry. As a demonstration, we model the expanding classical color background field by a boost-invariantly expanding homogeneous color electric field with lifetime $T$, for which we obtain analytically the quark and gluon production spectra by solving the equations of motion of QCD non-perturbatively with respect to the color electric field. In this paper we study (i) finite lifetime effect which is found to modify significantly the particle spectra from those expected from the Schwinger formula; (ii) t...

  1. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  2. Cosmology with modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that the application of Newtonian dynamics to an expanding spherical region leads to the correct relativistic expression (the Friedmann equation) for the evolution of the cosmic scalefactor. Here, the cosmological implications of Milgrom's modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) are cons

  3. Equilibrium thermodynamics in modified gravitational theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    We show that it is possible to obtain a picture of equilibrium thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in the expanding cosmological background for a wide class of modified gravity theories with the Lagrangian density $f(R, \\phi, X)$, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $X=-(\

  4. Forests vanish as population expands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Madagascar's forests have been reduced to a narrowing strip along the eastern escarpment. Of the original forest cover of 11.2 million hectares, only 7.6 million remained in 1950. Today this has been halved to 3.8 million hectares--which means the habitat for the island's unique wildlife has been halved, in just 40 years. Every year some 3% of the remaining forest is cleared, almost all of that to provide land for populations expanding at 3.2% a year. The story of 1 village, Ambodiaviavy, near Ranomafana, shows the process at work. 50 years ago the whole area was dense forest. 8 families, 32 people in all, came here in 1947, after French colonials burned down their old village. At first the new settlers farmed only the valley bottoms, easily irrigated by the stream running down from the hilltops. There was no shortage of land. Each family took as much as they were capable of working. Over the next 43 years, the village population swelled 10 times over, to 320, and the number of families grew to 36. Natural growth was supplemented by immigration from the overcrowded plateau, where all cultivable land was occupied. The valley bottom lands had filled up completely by the 1950s. New couples started to clear forest on the sloping valley sides. They moved gradually uphill until today, they are 2/3 of the way to the hilltops. There was a parallel decline in the size of each family's paddy holding--also fueled by population growth. When children marry, parents have to subdivide their own land and give them a plot. So holding in the irrigated valley bottoms have dwindled. Today only a few are big enough to feed a family. The more children in a family, the smaller their share as adults will be. The village chief lives in a small mud hut, looking out over a valley he once owned entirely. Since then he has had 10 children, and given parcels away to each. Though he is the wealthiest man in the village in cattle, his son are among the poorest. They 1/2 a hectare of paddy each

  5. Time to Grow: Year Two Report on ExpandED Schools. A TASC Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of data from the second year of The After-School Corporation's (TASC's) national demonstration of an expanded school day for elementary and middle school students shows that ExpandED Schools improved school culture, decreased rates of students' chronic absenteeism and helped students develop positive learning habits and attitudes.…

  6. Expanded porphyrins as third order non-linear optical materials: Some structure-function correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sabapathi Gokulnath; Tavarekere K Chandrashekar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear optical properties of representative core-modified expanded porphyrins have been investigated with an emphasis on the structure-property relationship between the aromaticity and conformational behaviour. It has been shown that the measured two-photon absorption cross section (2) values depend on the structure of macrocycle, its aromaticity and the number of -electrons in conjugation.

  7. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  8. PROLANG: an expandable software in protein chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, P; Caporale, C; Sepe, C

    1990-04-01

    PROLANG is an improved version of the PROSOFT program. Improvements to the old commands were made and new ones were added, PROLANG is an open software that users with BASIC programming experience can easily expand.

  9. Gas Emissivity of a Modified Cellulose Mix at the Temperature of 900°C

    OpenAIRE

    Zawieja Z.; Sawicki J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study of gas emissivity and the volumetric gas flow rate from a patented modified cellulose mix used in production of disposable sand casting moulds. The modified cellulose mix with such additives as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite and microspheres was used as the study material. The results for gas emissivity and the gas flow rate for the modified cellulose mix were compared with the gas emissivity of the commercial material used in gating systems...

  10. Confining caesium in expanded natural Perlite

    OpenAIRE

    Rehspringer, Jean Luc; Balencie, J.; Vilminot, Serge; Burger, Didier; Boos, Anne; Estournès, Claude

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We present the potential use of expanded perlite, a metastable amorphous hydrated aluminum silicate, as a permanent medium for the long-term confinement of caesium. A simple loading by mixing an aqueous caesium nitrate solution and expanded perlite at 300K followed by thermal annealing leads to 96% sintering. The formation of pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, a naturally occurring mineral phase, appears as the crystalline phase embedded in a glassy phase. Leaching tests on the res...

  11. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available by the polymer matrix and the exfoliating graphite prevents the formation of a flammable air fuel mixture. Keywords: Expandable graphite; graphite oxide; graphite intercalation compound; exfoliation; thermal analysis ________________ *Corresponding author: Tel... char residue [6] and this contributes to the mechanisms of flame retardant action [5]. Expandable graphite (EG) is a partially oxidized form of graphite containing intercalated guest species (e.g., sulfuric acid anions) in-between the stacked...

  12. Planning the milking center in expanding dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J F; Armstrong, D V; Gamroth, M J; Martin, J G

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on dairies that want to expand and milk more cows through an existing parlor or by building new parlor. The expansion process can be divided into the following three phases: 1) financial evaluation, 2) design, and 3) construction. A financial evaluation should be carried out first to determine the resources that are available for expanding the dairy operation. This phase is extremely important, considering that 68% of the dairies that expand have cash flow problems within the first 2 yr of operation. The next phase is to design the milking center, and options include expanding the present parlor or constructing a new parlor. The present parlor can be expanded by addition of stalls, but group size must also expand to maintain cow flow at the larger parlor size. Group size can often be increased by combining corrals or free-stall alleys. The third phase in the expansion is to determine the most efficient milking procedure during the construction or remodeling of the facilities.

  13. Expanded Schools: Developing Mindsets to Support Academic Success. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The national demonstration of ExpandED Schools, The After-School Corporation's (TASC) expanded learning model, was launched in 2011-12 in New York City, Baltimore, and New Orleans. The ExpandED Schools demonstration is being evaluated by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) and is rolling out at a time when there is heightened awareness among…

  14. Second Generation Self-Inflating Tissue Expanders: A Two-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Omran Al Madani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tissue expansion is a well-established surgical technique that produces an additional amount of normal skin to cover a defect. This technique is appealing because the skin quality and color are from the patient’s own. The widely used injectable expanders are of great reliability but carry the disadvantage of being painful during injection and most of the time require multiple clinic visits. So the idea of self-inflation became attractive and hydrogel expanders were developed and became widely known for being painless during clinic visit and decrease number of visits. The first generation expanders were modified by adding an enclosing plastic shell to decrease the unopposed expansion that occurred in the first generation expanders, which lead to pressure necrosis of the skin flaps. This made it an attractive option for tissue expansion in children and some adult patients. Patients, Materials, and Methods. Charts of 17 patients were retrospectively reviewed, all of them had second generation self-inflating expanders implanted over a 2-year period for one of two purposes, the treatment of giant nevi or burn scars. Results. Fifteen patients were females and 2 were males. The indication was large burn scar in 14 cases (14/17, in which 47/55 expanders were implanted, and giant nevus in 3/17 cases in which 8/55 expanders were implanted. Extrusion of the expander occurred in 8/55 expanders (14.5%, which occurred in 6/14 patients. The highest percentage of extrusion occurred in the neck in which two out of three expanders extruded; otherwise this complication does not seem to be related to the indication, gender, nor age of the patients. It seems to be that it is technical in nature. The patients did not have to get any injections to fill the tissue expanders, which made the expansion process less painful and more convenient. Conclusion. This seems to be currently the largest published review in which second generation expanders were used

  15. Analog model for an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurtner, S E C

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few years numerous papers concerning analog models for gravity have been published. It was shown that the dynamical equation of several systems (e.g. Bose-Einstein condensates with a sink or a vortex) have the same wave equation as light in a curved-space (e.g. black holes). In the last few months several papers were released which deal with simulations of the universe. In this article the de-Sitter universe will be compared with a freely expanding three-dimensional spherical Bose-Einstein condensate. Initially the condensate is in a harmonic trap, which suddenly will be switched off. At the same time a small perturbation will be injected in the center of the condensate cloud. The motion of the perturbation in the expanding condensate will be discussed, and after some transformations the similarity to an expanding universe will be shown.

  16. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    of expanded audit reports, namely information on the assurance level, materiality levels and key audit matters (KAM), on bank director perceptions of the quality of the financial statements, the audit and the audit report, as well as on their credit approval decisions. We conduct an experiment involving......Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact...... a sample of 105 bank directors and use ANCOVA to determine the predictors of bank director perceptions and decisions. Our findings suggest that disclosing the assurance level has a significantly positive impact. In contrast, we cannot demonstrate a material effect of expanding the audit report to include...

  17. SRS K-AREA MATERIAL STORAGE - EXPANDING CAPABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    2013-07-02

    In support of the Department of Energy’s continued plans to de-inventory and reduce the footprint of Cold War era weapons’ material production sites, the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, located in the K-Area Complex (KAC) at the Savannah River Site reservation, has expanded since its startup authorization in 2000 to accommodate DOE’s material consolidation mission. During the facility’s growth and expansion, KAMS will have expanded its authorization capability of material types and storage containers to allow up to 8200 total shipping containers once the current expansion effort completes in 2014. Recognizing the need to safely and cost effectively manage other surplus material across the DOE Complex, KAC is constantly evaluating the storage of different material types within K area. When modifying storage areas in KAC, the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) must undergo extensive calculations and reviews; however, without an extensive and proven security posture the possibility for expansion would not be possible. The KAC maintains the strictest adherence to safety and security requirements for all the SNM it handles. Disciplined Conduct of Operations and Conduct of Projects are demonstrated throughout this historical overview highlighting various improvements in capability, capacity, demonstrated cost effectiveness and utilization of the KAC as the DOE Center of Excellence for safe and secure storage of surplus SNM.

  18. Wankel engines as steam expanders: design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, O.; Naik, S.; O' Callaghan, P.W.; Probert, S.D. (Cranfield Inst. of Tech., Bedford (GB). Dept. of Applied Energy)

    1991-01-01

    Rotary Wankel engines offer several advantages compared with turbines and other positive-displacement machines as the expansion devices in low-power-output Rankine-cycle systems. So a Wankel expander was selected as the most appropriate device for a steam Rankine-engine, operating principally as a mini combined heat-and-power unit, providing a mechanical output of 5-20 kW. A computer-aided-design technique for selecting the optimal geometry and location of the ports of the expander is described: the computer programs are available from the authors. Lubrication and possible material combinations are also discussed. (author).

  19. Radiation damping in closed expanding universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernui, Armando

    The dynamics of a coupled model (harmonic oscillator-relativistic scalar field) in Conformal Robertson-Walker (k = +1) spacetimes is investigated. The exact radiation-reaction equation of the source-including the retarded radiation terms due to the closed space geometry - is obtained and analyzed. A suitable family of Lyapunov functions is constructed to show that, if the spacetime expands monotonely, then the source's energy damps. A numerical simulation of this equation for expanding Universes, with and without Future Event Horizon, is performed.

  20. Bound systems in an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, G A

    2000-01-01

    The Schwarzchild solution insertion in an expanding universe, the so-called "Swiss cheese model," is shown to possess an extrinsic curvature miss-match. One consequence is that some trajectories are discontinuous functions of their initial conditions. An alternate metric is proposed which goes smoothly between the Schwarzchild exterior solution and the Friedmann-Lemaitre, expanding universe metric. It is further shown that the effects of the expansion on planetary motions in the solar system are too small to be currently observed for this alternate metric.

  1. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  2. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  3. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  4. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    compositions and (b) unravelling of the contributions of stress-depth and composition-depth profiles in expanded austenite layers are summarised and discussed. It is shown through simulation of line profiles that the combined effects of composition gradients, stress gradients and stacking fault gradients can...

  5. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  6. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  7. Expanding Educational Excellence: The Power of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Winn, Donna-Marie; Harradine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore four major barriers to academic success that must be addressed, briefly describe two projects that have worked to address these barriers, and make recommendations for moving forward as they work to expand educational excellence for all students. They provide examples of the myriad ways in which schools have the…

  8. Expanded austenite; crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The identity of expanded austenite as developing during low temperature nitriding and/or carburizing of austenitic stainless steel has been under debate since the very first observation of this phase. In the present article recent results obtained with i) homogeneous samples of various uniform...

  9. Consonant confusions in amplitude-expanded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Nerbonne, G P

    1996-12-01

    The perceptual consequences of expanding the amplitude variations in speech were studied under conditions in which spectral information was obscured by signal correlated noise that had an envelope correlated with the speech envelope, but had a flat amplitude spectrum. The noise samples, created individually from 22 vowel-consonant-vowel nonsense words, were used as maskers of those words, with signal-to-noise ratios ranging from -15 to 0 dB. Amplitude expansion was by a factor of 3.0 in terms of decibels. In the first experiment, presentation level for speech peaks was 80 dB SPL. Consonant recognition performance for expanded speech by 50 listeners with normal hearing was as much as 30 percentage points poorer than for unexpanded speech and the types of errors were dramatically different, especially in the midrange of S-N ratios. In a second experiment presentation level was varied to determine whether reductions in consonant levels produced by expansion were responsible for the differences between conditions. Recognition performance for unexpanded speech at 40 dB SPL was nearly equivalent to that for expanded speech at 80 dB SPL. The error patterns obtained in these two conditions were different, suggesting that the differences between conditions in Experiment 1 were due largely to expanded amplitude envelopes rather than differences in audibility.

  10. Properties of extruded expandable breadfruit products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried breadfruit was extruded with a twin screw extruder to develop a value-added expanded fruit product. This research studied the effects of barrel temperature (120-160°C), moisture content (13-25%), feeding rate (13-25 kg/h) and screw speed (115-175rpm) on physicochemical properties (bulk densit...

  11. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...

  12. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  13. Heat expanded starch-based compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur K; Holtman, Kevin M; Shey, Justin; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Berrios, Jose; Wood, Delilah; Orts, William J; Imam, Syed H

    2007-05-16

    A heat expansion process similar to that used for expanded bead polystyrene was used to expand starch-based compositions. Foam beads made by solvent extraction had the appearance of polystyrene beads but did not expand when heated due to an open-cell structure. Nonporous beads, pellets, or particles were made by extrusion or by drying and milling cooked starch slurries. The samples expanded into a low-density foam by heating 190-210 degrees C for more than 20 s at ambient pressures. Formulations containing starch (50-85%), sorbitol (5-15%), glycerol (4-12%), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL, 5-15%), and water (10-20%) were studied. The bulk density was negatively correlated to sorbitol, glycerol, and water content. Increasing the EVAL content increased the bulk density, especially at concentrations higher than 15%. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) increased the bulk density more than EVAL. The bulk density was lowest in samples made of wheat and potato starch as compared to corn starch. The expansion temperature for the starch pellets decreased more than 20 degrees C as the moisture content was increased from 10 to 25%. The addition of EVAL in the formulations decreased the equilibrium moisture content of the foam and reduced the water absorption during a 1 h soaking period.

  14. In Vitro Selection Using Modified or Unnatural Nucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Bedenbaugh, Robert S.; Singh, Shruti; Meyer, Adam J.; Hatala, Paul J.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Hall, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Incorporation of modified nucleotides into in vitro RNA or DNA selections offer many potential advantages, such as the increased stability of selected nucleic acids against nuclease degradation, improved affinities, expanded chemical functionality, and increased library diversity. This unit provides useful information and protocols for in vitro selection using modified nucleotides. It includes a discussion of when to use modified nucleotides; protocols for evaluating and optimizing transcription reactions, as well as confirming the incorporation of the modified nucleotides; protocols for evaluating modified nucleotide transcripts as template in reverse transcription reactions; protocols for the evaluation of the fidelity of modified nucleotides in the replication and the regeneration of the pool; and a protocol to compare modified nucleotide pools and selection conditions. PMID:25606981

  15. Thermodynamics in Modified Gravity Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that there does exist an equilibrium description of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in the expanding cosmological background for a wide class of modified gravity theories with the Lagrangian density $f(R, \\phi, X)$, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $X$ is the kinetic energy of a scalar field $\\phi$. This comes from a suitable definition of an energy momentum tensor of the "dark" component obeying the local energy conservation law in the Jordan frame. It is shown that the equilibrium description in terms of the horizon entropy $S$ is convenient because it takes into account the contribution of the horizon entropy $\\hat{S}$ in non-equilibrium thermodynamics as well as an entropy production term.

  16. Modifying Gravity at Low Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Shaw, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the growth of cosmological perturbations in modified gravity models where a scalar field mediates a non-universal Yukawa force between different matter species. The growth of the density contrast is altered for scales below the Compton wave-length of the scalar field. As the universe expands, the Compton wave-length varies in time in such a way that scales which where outside the range of the scalar field force may feel it at a lower redshift. In this case, both the exponent $\\gamma$ measuring the growth of Cold Dark Matter perturbations and the shift function representing the ratio of the two Newtonian potentials $\\psi$ and $\\phi$ may differ from their values in General Relativity at low redshift.

  17. Expanding advanced civilizations in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, C

    2005-01-01

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way \\cite{Webb}. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  18. Parameter estimation for an expanding universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieci Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parameter estimation for excitations of Dirac fields in the expanding Robertson–Walker universe. We employ quantum metrology techniques to demonstrate the possibility for high precision estimation for the volume rate of the expanding universe. We show that the optimal precision of the estimation depends sensitively on the dimensionless mass m˜ and dimensionless momentum k˜ of the Dirac particles. The optimal precision for the ratio estimation peaks at some finite dimensionless mass m˜ and momentum k˜. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by choosing the probe state as an eigenvector of the hamiltonian. This occurs because the largest quantum Fisher information is obtained by performing projective measurements implemented by the projectors onto the eigenvectors of specific probe states.

  19. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k......Da and HES 450 kDa) and dextran (DEX 500 kDa). Particle size and molecular weight distribution were determined by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). The biodistribution was investigated non-invasively in nude mice using multispectral optical imaging. The most promising polymer conjugate...

  20. Hubble, Hubble's law and the expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble's name is associated closely with the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and distances of galaxies. Hubble also did a lot of pioneering work on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at Hubble's law and discuss how it relates with models of the universe. We also give a historical perspective of the discoveries that led to the Hubble's law.

  1. The Galatia preparation plant expands throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.R.; Campbell, J.A.L.; Riffey, R.L. [Kerr-McGee Coal, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Profiles the Kerr-McGee`s Galatia coal preparation plant, located on the Galatia Mine complex near Marian (Illinois). The plant, first opened in 1984, originally consisted of a coarse heavy-media vessel circuit, dual heavy-media cyclone circuits, and split fine-coal flotation. In 1994 the plant was expanded adding new technology whilst retaining the original design concepts. New technology installed included new spirals and fiberglass replacement components to overcome corrosion. 3 figs.

  2. Inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafermos, Mihalis [University of Cambridge, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Rendall, Alan D [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2005-12-07

    A new criterion for inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry is presented. It is applied to derive a number of new results and to simplify the proofs of existing ones. In particular, it shows that the solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with T{sup 2} symmetry, including the vacuum solutions, are inextendible in the future. The technique introduced adds a qualitatively new element to the available tool-kit for studying strong cosmic censorship. (letter to the editor)

  3. Hubble, Hubble's law and the expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble's name is associated closely with the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and distances of galaxies. Hubble also did a lot of pioneering work on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at Hubble's law and discuss how it relates with models of the universe. We also give a historical perspective of the discoveries that led to the Hubble's law.

  4. GWDC Expands High-End Market Share

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is a decision of great significance for GWDC to expand high-end market share in order to realize its transformation of development strategy and improve its development quality. As an important step of GWDC to explore high-end market, Oman PDO Project marks the first time that the Chinese petroleum engineering service team cooperates with the transnational petroleum corporations ranking first three in the world.

  5. Expander Graphs in Pure and Applied Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Expander graphs are highly connected sparse finite graphs. They play an important role in computer science as basic building blocks for network constructions, error correcting codes, algorithms and more. In recent years they have started to play an increasing role also in pure mathematics: number theory, group theory, geometry and more. This expository article describes their constructions and various applications in pure and applied mathematics.

  6. Strings, Fivebranes and an Expanding Universe

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that velocity-dependent forces between parallel fundamental strings moving apart in a $D-$dimensional spacetime implied an accelerating expanding universe in $D-1$-dimensional space-time. Exact solutions were obtained for the early time expansion in $D=5,6$. Here we show that this result also holds for fundamental strings in the background of a fivebrane, and argue that the feature of an accelerating universe would hold for more general $p$-brane-seeded models.

  7. Cosmic strings in an expanding spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Burd, A.B.

    1988-03-15

    We study string solutions in an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The back reaction of the string on the spacetime has been ignored so that the background stays Friedmannian throughout the evolution. By numerically integrating the field equations in both radiation- and matter-dominated eras, we discover some new oscillatory solutions. The possible damping of these oscillations is discussed. For late times the solution becomes identical to the static one.

  8. Inverted porphyrins and expanded porphyrins: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pushpan; S Venkatraman; V G Anand; J Sankar; H Rath; T K Chandrashekar

    2002-08-01

    Porphyrins and metallopophyrins have attracted the attention of chemists for the past 100 years or more owing to their widespread involvement in biology. More recently, synthetic porphyrins and porphyrin-like macrocycles have attracted the attention of researchers due to their diverse applications as sensitizers for photodynamic therapy, MRI contrasting agents, and complexing agents for larger metal ions and also for their anion binding abilities. The number of -electrons in the porphyrin ring can be increased either by increasing the number of conjugated double bonds between the pyrrole rings or by increasing the number of heterocyclic rings. Thus, 22 sapphyrins, 26 rubyrins, 30 heptaphyrins, 34 octaphyrins and higher cyclic polypyrrole analogues containing 40, 48, 64, 80 and 96 systems have recently been reported in the literature. These macrocycles show rich structural diversity where normal and different kinds of inverted structures have been identified. In this review, an attempt has been made to collect the literature of the inverted porphyrins and expanded porphyrins reported until December 2001. Since the meso aryl expanded porphyrins have tendency to form both inverted and non-inverted structures more emphasis has been given to meso aryl expanded porphyrins.

  9. Lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Thomas; Guo, Lifei; Orgill, Dennis P; Padera, Robert F; Schmid, Thomas M; Spector, Myron

    2012-10-01

    Capsular contraction is the most common complication of breast reconstruction surgery. While presence of the contractile protein alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is considered among the causes of capsular contraction, the exact etiology and pathophysiology is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of lubricin in capsular formation and contraction by determining the presence and distribution of the lubricating protein lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules. Related aims were to evaluate select histopathologic features of the capsules, and the percentage of cells expressing α-SMA, which reflects the myofibroblast phenotype. Capsules from tissue expanders were obtained from eight patients. Lubricin, at the tissue-implant interface, in the extracellular matrix, and in cells, and α-SMA-containing cells were evaluated immunohistochemically. The notable finding was that lubricin was identified in all tissue expander capsules: as a discrete layer at the tissue-implant interface, extracellular, and intracellular. There was a greater amount of lubricin in the extracellular matrix in the intimal-subintimal zone when compared with the tissue away from the implant. Varying degrees of synovial metaplasia were seen at the tissue-implant interface. α-SMA-containing cells were also seen in all but one patient. The findings might help us better understand factors involved in capsule formation.

  10. Measurements of an expanding surface flashover plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J. R., E-mail: john.harris@colostate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    A better understanding of vacuum surface flashover and the plasma produced by it is of importance for electron and ion sources, as well as advanced accelerators and other vacuum electronic devices. This article describes time-of-flight and biased-probe measurements made on the expanding plasma generated from a vacuum surface flashover discharge. The plasma expanded at velocities of 1.2–6.5 cm/μs, and had typical densities of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}. The expansion velocity of the plasma leading edge often exhibited a sharp increase at distances of about 50 mm from the discharge site. Comparison with biased-probe data suggests that, under most conditions, the plasma leading edge was dominated by negative ions, with the apparent increase in velocity being due to fast H{sup −} overtaking slower, heavier ions. In some cases, biased-probe data also showed abrupt discontinuities in the plasma energy distribution co-located with large changes in the intercepted plasma current, suggesting the presence of a shock in the leading edge of the expanding plasma.

  11. Optical cavity resonator in an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We study evolution of frequency of a standing electromagnetic (EM) wave in a resonant optical cavity placed to the expanding manifold described by the Robertson-Walker metric. One builds a local coordinate system in which spacetime is locally Minkowskian. However, due to the conformal nature of the Robertson-Walker metric the conventional transformation to the local inertial coordinates introduces ambiguity in the physical interpretation of the local time coordinate. Therefore, contrary to a common-sense expectation, a straightforward implementation of EEP alone does not allow us to decide whether atomic clocks ticks at the same rate as the clocks based on EM modes of a cavity. To resolve the ambiguity we analyzed the cavity rigidity and the oscillation of its EM modes in an expanding universe by employing the Maxwell equations. We found out that both the size of the cavity and the EM frequency experience an adiabatic drift in conformal coordinates as the universe expands. We set up the oscillation equation f...

  12. Analysis of Expandability and Modifiability of Computer Configuration Concepts for ATC. Volume I. Distributed Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Modification ........... 4-2 4.1.2 Increasing Traffic Load ........... 4-5 4.1.3 Introduction of New Technology.... 4-7 4.1.4 Software (Design, Implementation...Engineering Requirements ETABS Electronic Tabular Display System ETD Estimated Time of Departure ETF Estimated Time Over Fix Fc Clearance Generation... software , is changing rapidly so that a system designed today may be obsolete by the time it is installed. A bigger problem is the requirement to make

  13. Efficiency factors of singlet oxygen generation from core-modified expanded porphyrin: tetrathiarubyrin in ethanol

    CERN Document Server

    Ha, J H; Kim, Y R; Jung, G Y; Lee, Y H; Shin, K

    2001-01-01

    The photophysical properties and the singlet oxygen generation efficiency of tetrathiarubyrin have been investigated to elucidate the possibility of its use as a photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. The observed photophysical properties were affected by various molecular aspects, such as extended pi conjugation, structural distortion, and internal heavy atom. The steady-state electronic absorption spectrum was red-shifted due to the extended pi-conjugation, and the spin orbital coupling was enhanced by the structural distortion and the internal heavy atom effect. As a result of the enhanced spin orbital coupling, the triplet quantum yield increased to 0.90 +- 0.10 and the triplet state lifetime was shortened to 7.0 +- 1.2 mu s. Since the triplet state decays at a relatively faster rate, the efficiency of the oxygen quenching of the triplet state decreases. The singlet oxygen quantum yield was estimated to be 0.52 +- 0.02, which is somewhat lower t...

  14. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  15. Creating Healthful Home Food Environments: Results of a Study with Participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Smalling, Agueda Lara; Thompson, Debbe; Watson, Kathleen B.; Reed, Debra; Konzelmann, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. Design: Two-group randomized control trial; intervention versus usual EFNEP curriculum. Setting: Texas EFNEP classes. Participants:…

  16. Expanded mode lasers for telecommunications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lealman, Ian F.

    This thesis describes the development of a long wavelength (1.55 μm) expanded mode semiconductor laser. The increased spot size of the laser improves both the coupling efficiency to cleaved fibre and fibre alignment tolerances and reduces packaging cost. In this type of device the strength of the waveguide is gradually reduced towards the front facet allowing the mode to adiabatically expand so that the laser mode is better matched in size to that of a cleaved fibre. This can be achieved by either reducing the refractive index of the guide or reducing the amount of material in the core. The structure chosen was a buried heterostructure laser that utilised a twin guide consisting of an upper higher refractive index guide (the active region of the laser) above a weak passive guide. The width of the active region was reduced along part of the device allowing the mode to expand into the weak underlying guide. The guide structure was optimised using a variable grid finite difference mode solver, and the taper length calculated by an approximation to Love's method. Detailed results are presented for the measured light-current characteristic, farfield and coupling loss to cleaved fibre. These coupling losses were compared to the calculated data thus allowing the waveguide design to be optimised. Several iterations in the design of the device were undertaken, with the aim of reducing the coupling loss to cleaved single mode fibre without significantly compromising the laser performance. The final device design had extremely low coupling losses as low as 1.2 dB to cleaved fibre. Finally, the positive impact this device had on passive alignment using a silicon motherboard is examined, and the application this technology to a range of other optoelectronic components is discussed.

  17. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8 N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264 N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890 N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective

  18. FOAM: Expanding the horizons of climate modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobis, M.; Foster, I.T.; Schafer, C.M. [and others

    1997-10-01

    We report here on a project that expands the applicability of dynamic climate modeling to very long time scales. The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) is a coupled ocean atmosphere model that incorporates physics of interest in understanding decade to century time scale variability. It addresses the high computational cost of this endeavor with a combination of improved ocean model formulation, low atmosphere resolution, and efficient coupling. It also uses message passing parallel processing techniques, allowing for the use of cost effective distributed memory platforms. The resulting model runs over 6000 times faster than real time with good fidelity, and has yielded significant results.

  19. Two Stage Sibling Cycle Compressor/Expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    vol. 5, p. 424. 11. L. Bauwens and M.P. Mitchell, " Regenerator Analysis: Validation of the MS*2 Stirling Cycle Code," Proc. XVIIIth International...PL-TR--94-1051 PL-TR-- 94-1051 TWO STAGE SIBLING CYCLE COMPRESSOR/EXPANDER Matthew P. Mitchell . Mitchell/ Stirling Machines/Systems, Inc. No\\ 1995...ty. THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED PL-TR-94-1051 This final report was prepared byMitchell/ Stirling Machines/Systems, Inc., Berkeley, CA under Contract

  20. Expanding Slayer Statutes to Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Common law has a dictum that people must not benefit from their crimes. In years past, states have enacted slayer rules to prevent killers from inheriting from their victims. The specific criteria and applicability of slayer rules vary by jurisdiction. Recently, several states, including Washington, have expanded their slayer rules to disqualify persons from inheriting if they have been involved in abuse or financial exploitation of the deceased. Reviewed herein are the abuse disinheritance laws, the relationship of the laws to concepts of testamentary capacity and undue influence, and the relevance to forensic psychiatric evaluations.

  1. Sinopec Strives to Expand Domestic Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan

    2001-01-01

    @@ China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec) strives to expand its domestic market share during the Tenth Five-Year Plan period (2001~2005). The assets of Sinopec totaled 536.3 billion yuan at the end of 2000 while the business income reached 375.4billion yuan. Sinopec produced 37.24 million tons of crude oil and 3.916 billion cubic meters of natural gas and processed 105.47million tons of crude and 2.165million tons of ethylene in 2000.

  2. Expanding Lorentzian Wormholes in R2 Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, S. N.; Riazi, N.

    2011-10-01

    We present traversable, Lorentzian wormholes in the framework of R^{2} gravity. These wormholes are obtained by assuming constant Ricci scalar and trace-less equation of state. The metric is asymptotically RW, and locally that of a Lorentzian wormhole. Dynamics of the cosmological background, as well as the expanding wormhole are discussed. Weak energy condition near the wormhole throat is also examined. It is shown that the positive energy density condition can be satisfied all-over a spacelike hypersurface at large enough cosmological times and small enough, positive cosmological constant.

  3. Concurrent Manipulation of Expanded AVL Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章寅; 许卓群

    1998-01-01

    The concurrent manipulation of an expanded AVL tree(EAVL tree)s considered in this paper.The presented system can support any number of concurrent processes which perform searching,insertion and deletion on the tree.Simulation results indicate the high performance of the system.Elaborate techniques are used to achieve such a system unavailable based on any known algorithms.Methods developed in this paper may provide new insights into other problems in the area of concurrent search structure manipulation.

  4. Historical Notes on the Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.; Belenkyi, Ari; Nussbaumer, Harry; Peacock, John

    2014-01-01

    The article Measuring the Hubble constant by Mario Livio and Adam Riess (Physics Today, October 2013, page 41) reviewed studies of the expanding universe from the 1920s to the present. Although the history of the subject underwent considerable compression to fit the length of a magazine article, we think it may leave a misleading impression of some of the key steps to our current understanding. We therefore offer the following clarifications. Most significantly, papers by Arthur Eddington and by Willem de Sitter in 1930, who successfully promoted Georges Lematres 1927 article for the Scientific Society of Brussels, effected a paradigm shift in interpretation of extragalactic redshifts in 1930. Before then, the astronomical community was generally unaware of the existence of nonstatic cosmological solutions and did not broadly appreciate that redshifts could be thought of locally as Doppler shifts in an expanding matter distribution. Certainly, in 1929 Edwin Hubble referred only to the de Sitter solution of 1917. At the time, the relation between distance and redshift predicted in that model was generally seen purely as a manifestation of static spacetime curvature.

  5. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-04-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l(-1)). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters.

  6. Subspace Expanders and Matrix Rank Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Khajehnejad, Amin; Hassibi, Babak

    2011-01-01

    Matrix rank minimization (RM) problems recently gained extensive attention due to numerous applications in machine learning, system identification and graphical models. In RM problem, one aims to find the matrix with the lowest rank that satisfies a set of linear constraints. The existing algorithms include nuclear norm minimization (NNM) and singular value thresholding. Thus far, most of the attention has been on i.i.d. Gaussian measurement operators. In this work, we introduce a new class of measurement operators, and a novel recovery algorithm, which is notably faster than NNM. The proposed operators are based on what we refer to as subspace expanders, which are inspired by the well known expander graphs based measurement matrices in compressed sensing. We show that given an $n\\times n$ PSD matrix of rank $r$, it can be uniquely recovered from a minimal sampling of $O(nr)$ measurements using the proposed structures, and the recovery algorithm can be cast as matrix inversion after a few initial processing s...

  7. Familiarity expands space and contracts time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Anna; Spiers, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    When humans draw maps, or make judgments about travel-time, their responses are rarely accurate and are often systematically distorted. Distortion effects on estimating time to arrival and the scale of sketch-maps reveal the nature of mental representation of time and space. Inspired by data from rodent entorhinal grid cells, we predicted that familiarity to an environment would distort representations of the space by expanding the size of it. We also hypothesized that travel-time estimation would be distorted in the same direction as space-size, if time and space rely on the same cognitive map. We asked international students, who had lived at a college in London for 9 months, to sketch a south-up map of their college district, estimate travel-time to destinations within the area, and mark their everyday walking routes. We found that while estimates for sketched space were expanded with familiarity, estimates of the time to travel through the space were contracted with familiarity. Thus, we found dissociable responses to familiarity in representations of time and space. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. "Phase freezeout" in isentropically expanding matter

    CERN Document Server

    Iosilevskiy, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Features of isentropic expansion of warm dense matter (WDM) created by intense energy fluxes (strong shock compression or instant isochoric heating by laser or heavy ions) are under discussion in situation when ($i$) -- thermodynamic trajectory of such expansion crosses binodal of liquid-gas phase transition, and ($ii$) -- expansion within the two-phase region is going along equilibrium branch (not metastable one) of the two-phase mixture isentrope. It is known in the plane case that because of break in the expansion isentrope at binodal point (in $P-V$ plane) i.e. jump of sound velocity in this point, there appears extended zone ("boiling layer") of uniformity in expanding material with constant thermodynamic and kinematic parameters. It corresponds just to the state on this binodal of boiling liquid. The point is that because of self-similarity of such expansion (in plane case) this boiling layer contains finite and fixed part of whole expanding material. This property makes it possible (at least formally) ...

  9. Expanded HIV Screening Projected to Decrease Spread of the Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Virus Expanded HIV Screening Projected To Decrease Spread of the Virus Email Facebook Twitter April ... 2014, April 3). Expanded HIV Screening Projected To Decrease Spread of the Virus. Retrieved from https://www. ...

  10. Direct detection of expanded trinucleotide repeats using DNA hybridization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petronis, A.; Tatuch, Y.; Kennedy, J.L. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Recently, unstable trinucleotide repeats have been shown to be the etiologic factor in several neuropsychiatric diseases, and they may play a similar role in other disorders. To our knowledge, a method that detects expanded trinucleotide sequences with the opportunity for direct localization and cloning has not been achieved. We have developed a set of hybridization-based methods for direct detection of unstable DNA expansion. Our analysis of myotonic dystrophy patients that possess different degrees of (CTG){sub n} expansion, versus unaffected controls, has demonstrated the identification of the trinucleotide instability site without any prior information regarding genetic map location. High stringency modified Southern blot hybridization with a PCR-generated trinucleotide repeat probe allowed us to detect the DNA fragment containing the expansion in myotonic dystrophy patients. The same probe was used for fluorescent in situ hybridization and several regions of (CTG){sub n}/(CAG){sub n} repeats in the human genome were detected, including the myotonic dystrophy locus on chromosome 19q. These strategies can be applied to directly clone genes involved in disorders caused by unstable DNA.

  11. Expanding the Scope of Practice for Pharmacists in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Edward Randall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On 15 December 2009 the Regulated Health Professions Statute Law Amendment Act, 2009 (Bill 179 received Royal Assent in Ontario. The resulting legislative amendments were intended to strengthen government oversight of the health regulatory colleges, promote interprofessional collaboration, and make better use of health professionals’ existing skills and training by enhancing the scope of practice for several health professions in order to improve health system efficiency. Among the most notable scope of practice enhancements were those given to pharmacists, who would be permitted to: modify and renew existing prescriptions, prescribe a limited range of drugs independent of a physician, and administer medications such as vaccinations via injection or inhalation. The reform was driven in large part by the government’s concerns related to the rising cost of health care, the public’s desire for greater access to services, and demonstrated successes of similar reforms in other jurisdictions. While the Ontario reform has had some clear success, such as expanding the public’s access to influenza vaccinations, to date, the evidence of achieving other goals remains weak. In particular, there is no clear evidence of improved health system efficiency and associated cost effectiveness. Moreover, it is possible that Ontario’s umbrella regulatory model may be making interprofessional collaboration more, rather than less, difficult to realize.

  12. Expanding Global Mindedness through a 4-H International Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.; Peterson, Donna J.; Iwata, Chieko; Kobia, Caroline; Reddy, Raja

    2017-01-01

    With expanding global interdependence, it is vital that 4-H youths learn more about the ever-increasing diverse cultures in their own communities as well as expand their global mindedness and understanding of globalization. The 4-H International Village (a) offers a comfortable yet engaging avenue for youths to expand their knowledge of and…

  13. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  14. Optical cavity resonator in an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.

    2015-02-01

    We study the cosmological evolution of frequency of a standing electromagnetic wave in a resonant optical cavity placed to the expanding manifold described by the Robertson-Walker metric. Because of the Einstein principle of equivalence (EEP), one can find a local coordinate system (a local freely falling frame), in which spacetime is locally Minkowskian. However, due to the conformal nature of the Robertson-Walker metric the conventional transformation to the local inertial coordinates introduces ambiguity in the physical interpretation of the local time coordinate, . Therefore, contrary to a common-sense expectation, a straightforward implementation of EEP alone does not allow us to unambiguously decide whether atomic clocks based on quantum transitions of atoms, ticks at the same rate as the clocks based on electromagnetic modes of a cavity. To resolve this ambiguity we have to analyse the cavity rigidity and the oscillation of its electromagnetic modes in an expanding universe by employing the full machinery of the Maxwell equations irrespectively of the underlying theory of gravity. We proceed in this way and found out that the size of the cavity and the electromagnetic frequency experience an adiabatic drift in conformal (unphysical) coordinates as the universe expands in accordance with the Hubble law. We set up the oscillation equation for the resonant electromagnetic modes, solve it by the WKB approximation, and reduce the coordinate-dependent quantities to their counterparts measured by a local observer who counts time with atomic clock. The solution shows that there is a perfect mutual cancellation of the adiabatic drift of cavity's frequency by space transformation to local coordinates and the time counted by the clocks based on electromagnetic modes of cavity has the same rate as that of atomic clocks. We conclude that if general relativity is correct and the local expansion of space is isotropic there should be no cosmological drift of frequency of a

  15. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way.

  16. Yaglom law in the expanding solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoberidze, G; Carbone, V

    2013-01-01

    We study the Yaglom law, which relates the mixed third order structure function to the average dissipation rate of turbulence, in a uniformly expanding solar wind by using the two scales expansion model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We show that due to the expansion of the solar wind two new terms appear in the Yaglom law. The first term is related to the decay of the turbulent energy by nonlinear interactions, whereas the second term is related to the non-zero cross-correlation of the Els\\"asser fields. Using magnetic field and plasma data from WIND and Helios 2 spacecrafts, we show that at lower frequencies in the inertial range of MHD turbulence the new terms become comparable to Yaglom's third order mixed moment, and therefore they cannot be neglected in the evaluation of the energy cascade rate in the solar wind.

  17. Henry Norris Russell and the Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    DeVorkin, David H

    2013-01-01

    Henry Norris Russell, one of the most influential American astronomers of the first half of the 20th Century, had a special place in his heart for the Lowell Observatory. Although privately critical of the founder for his pronouncements about life on Mars and the superiority of the Mars Hill observing site, he always supported the Observatory in public and professional circles. He staunchly supported Tombaugh's detection of a planet as leading from Lowell's prediction, and always promoted V. M. Slipher's spectroscopic investigations of planetary and stellar phenomena. But how did he react to Slipher's puzzling detection of the extreme radial velocities of spiral nebulae starting in 1912, and how did he regard the extension and interpretation of those observations by Hubble and others in following decades? Here we describe the arc of Russell's reactions, dating from Slipher's first detection, as an indicator of how mainstream stellar astronomers reacted to the concept of an expanding universe.

  18. Expandable pallet for space station interface attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A foldable expandable pallet having a basic square configuration is disclosed. Each pallet is comprised of a plurality of struts, joined together by node point fittings to make a rigid structure. Some of the struts have hinge fittings and are spring loaded to permit collapse of the module for stowage and transport to a space station. Dimensions of the pallet are selected to provide convenient, closely spaced attachment points between the relatively widely spaced trusses of a space station platform. A pallet is attached to a truss at four points; one close fitting hole; two oversize holes; and a slot; to allow for thermal expansion/contraction and for manufacturing tolerances. Applications of the pallet include its use in rotary or angular joints; servicing of splints; with gridded plates; as an instrument mounting bases; and as a roadbed for a Mobile Service Center (MSC).

  19. Ergodic theory of expanding thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Thurston maps are topological generalizations of postcritically-finite rational maps. This book provides a comprehensive study of ergodic theory of expanding Thurston maps, focusing on the measure of maximal entropy, as well as a more general class of invariant measures, called equilibrium states, and certain weak expansion properties of such maps. In particular, we present equidistribution results for iterated preimages and periodic points with respect to the unique measure of maximal entropy by investigating the number and locations of fixed points. We then use the thermodynamical formalism to establish the existence, uniqueness, and various other properties of the equilibrium state for a Holder continuous potential on the sphere equipped with a visual metric. After studying some weak expansion properties of such maps, we obtain certain large deviation principles for iterated preimages and periodic points under an additional assumption on the critical orbits of the maps. This enables us to obtain general eq...

  20. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination.......Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... capacity to see political, social, and economic changes that do not conform to conventional theories, as well as distorting our understanding of how the contemporary world works. What policymakers want, more than prediction or recitation of conventional theories, is context to understand how policy can...

  1. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, S Jay

    2014-01-01

    In the context of a homogeneous universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions covering several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available...

  2. Particles formation in an expanding plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoute, E.; Hallo, L.; Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Stenz, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, CNRS-CEA, 33 - Talence (France); Hebert, D.; Chevalier, J.M.; Rullier, J.L.; Palmier, S. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2009-08-15

    Interaction of a laser beam with a target generates a high velocity expanding plasma plume, solid debris and liquid nano- and micro-particles. They are produced from plasma recombination and vapor condensation and can be deposited on optical elements located nearby the target. Two distinct kinds of particles were observed depending on the temperature achieved in the plasma plume: large micrometer-size fragments for temperatures lower than the critical temperature, and very small nanometer-size particles for higher temperatures. The paper presents experimental observations of fragments and nano-particles in plasma plumes and a comparison with models. A good agreement has been found for nano-particle sizes and distributions. This simple modeling can also be used for nuclei production in the nanosecond time scale. Our estimates show that particle size can be correlated to laser wavelength and fluences.

  3. Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun-Ichiro Setsune

    2012-11-01

    Expanded porphyrin analogues with unique figure-eight conformation were prepared by way of useful pyrrole intermediates such as bis(azafulvene)s and 2-borylpyrrole. Supramolecular chirogenesis of cyclooctapyrrole O1 with 32-cycloconjugation was successfully applied to determine absolute configuration of chiral carboxylic acids. Dinuclear CuII complex of cyclooctapyrrole O2 with interrupted -conjugation was resolved by HPLC into enantiomers and their helical handedness was determined by theoretical simulation of their CD spectral pattern. Enantioselective induction of helicity in the metal helicate formation in the presence of a chiral promoter was demonstrated by using ()-(+)-1-(1-phenyl)ethylamine that favoured , helicity. Dinuclear CoII complexes of cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine O3 were found to be substitution labile and pick up amino acid anions in water. Those amino acid complexes of O3Co2 were rendered to adopt a particular unidirectional helical conformation preferentially depending on the ligated amino acid anion.

  4. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 371-374

  5. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 371-374

  6. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bray

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing privileges from a specific list of drugs. The goals of the optometry reform were to increase access to care, decrease burden on medical and hospital resources and allow optometrists to practice to their full scope. The policy response was spurred by a recommendation from the Health Professions Regulatory Advisory Council and the prescribing precedence in other Canadian jurisdictions. Bill 171, The Health Systems Improvement Act, amended The Optometry Act, 1991, Section 4 to include the authorized act of prescribing designated drugs, while The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice, passed on 6 April 2011, listed the individual drugs optometrists are authorized to prescribe. The resulting response of a specific list of authorized drugs was seen as a limiting and inflexible system that will require changes as newer drugs are developed.

  7. Heptaphyrins: Expanded porphyrins with seven heterocyclic rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Venkataramanarao G Anand; Simi K Pushpan; Sundararaman Venkatraman; Tavarekere K Chandrashekar

    2003-10-01

    Expanded porphyrins containing seven pyrrole/heterocyclic rings linked in a cyclic fashion are termed heptaphyrins. The number of -electrons in heptaphyrins depends on the number of meso carbon bridges used to link the heterocyclic rings, accordingly heptaphyrins with 28-electrons and 30 -electrons are reported to date. Both condensation reactions of the appropriate precursors and acid-catalysed oxidative coupling reactions have been utilized to synthesise the heptaphyrins. The 30 heptaphyrins exhibit rich structural diversity where some of the heterocyclic rings in the macrocycle undergo a 180° ring flipping. An overview of the synthetic methods employed for the synthesis of heptaphyrins, their spectroscopic properties, structural behaviour and aromatic properties are highlighted in this paper.

  8. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome II, expanding the clinical spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 4.5 year old Egyptian male child, fourth in the order of birth of healthy remote consanguineous parents. He has typical facial as well as skeletal features of Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS II. The facial features included bilateral downward slanting palpebral fissures, bulbous nose, long filtrum, retromicrognathia, sparse hair in the scalp and thick eyebrows. The skeletal features included retarded bone age, cone shaped epiphyses of the phalanges and multiple exostoses. The patient has also growth retardation, moderate mental retardation and hyperlaxity of the right knee joint. However our patient has some features not reported in TRPS II patients. These included bilateral partial ptosis, long eye lashes, preauricular skin tag, short 2nd right finger, short metacarpals of both thumbs. So we have to expand the clinical spectrum. Karyotype demonstrated 46,XY,del 8(q23.3-q24.1.

  9. Expanding Greenland’s Glacial Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and adjecent glaciers and ice caps has accelerated within the last decades, and these changes are accurately observed using a variety of different data products. However, the observational era is relatively short offering little insight into past dynamics. O...... the entire 20th century show rapid and widespread responses to climate change. On a longer time-scale is the Holocene history of Helheim Glacier reconstructed using evidence of glacial presence accumulated in lake sediments....... On order to expand the glacial history of Greenland, this thesis explores physical and geological archives for evidence of the glaciers’ past response to climatic variations. Using aerial photographs, the dynamic history of the Greenland Ice Sheet is extended back to 1900 C.E. Glacier changes covering...

  10. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-07-01

    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cosmic strings in an expanding spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Burd, A.B.

    1987-04-01

    We investigate the stability of a static, infinitely long and straight vacuum string solution under inhomogeneous axisymmetric time-dependent perturbations. We find it to be perturbatively stable. We further extend our work by finding a string solutions in an expanding Universe. The back reaction of the string on the gravitational field has been ignored. The background is assumed to be a Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. By numerically integrating the field equations in a radiation and matter dominated models, we discover oscillatory solutions. The possible damping of these oscillations is discussed. For late times the solution becomes identical to the static one studied in the first part of the paper. 19 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Expanding Greenland’s Glacial Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and adjecent glaciers and ice caps has accelerated within the last decades, and these changes are accurately observed using a variety of different data products. However, the observational era is relatively short offering little insight into past dynamics. O...... the entire 20th century show rapid and widespread responses to climate change. On a longer time-scale is the Holocene history of Helheim Glacier reconstructed using evidence of glacial presence accumulated in lake sediments....... On order to expand the glacial history of Greenland, this thesis explores physical and geological archives for evidence of the glaciers’ past response to climatic variations. Using aerial photographs, the dynamic history of the Greenland Ice Sheet is extended back to 1900 C.E. Glacier changes covering...

  13. Gravitational wave memory in an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the gravitational wave memory effect in an expanding FLRW spacetime. We find that if the gravitational field is decomposed into gauge-invariant scalar, vector, and tensor modes after the fashion of Bardeen, only the tensor mode gives rise to memory, and this memory can be calculated using the retarded Green's function associated with the tensor wave equation. If locally similar radiation source events occur on flat and FLRW backgrounds, we find that the resulting memories will differ only by a redshift factor, and we explore whether or not this factor depends on the expansion history of the FLRW universe. We compare our results to related work by Bieri, Garfinkle, and Yau.

  14. A Modified Model Predictive Control Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bing Hu; Wen-Hua Chen

    2005-01-01

    In implementations of MPC (Model Predictive Control) schemes, two issues need to be addressed. One is how to enlarge the stability region as much as possible. The other is how to guarantee stability when a computational time limitation exists. In this paper, a modified MPC scheme for constrained linear systems is described. An offline LMI-based iteration process is introduced to expand the stability region. At the same time, a database of feasible control sequences is generated offline so that stability can still be guaranteed in the case of computational time limitations. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of this new approach.

  15. POLYCAPROLACTAM MODIFIED BY POLYPHENYLQUINOXALINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guisheng; LU Fengcai

    1990-01-01

    Three polycaprolactam samples modified by 0.05- 0.50% polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by weight were prepared. Their structure and mechanical properties were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, density, tensile,impact,DTA and visco-elastic method. PPQ induced the formation of "crystal grains" distributed evenly over nylon spherulites in modified samples, which were observed for the first time, and strengthened modified samples. Modified nylons had higher crystallinities, higher Tg ,more nearly perfect spherulites than MC nylon itself, and showed typical reinforcing effect on mechanical properties.

  16. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  17. Two Expanding Integrable Models of the Geng-Cao Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiurong Guo

    2014-01-01

    interesting results. In the paper, we will deduce two kinds of expanding integrable models of the Geng-Cao (GC hierarchy by constructing different 6-dimensional Lie algebras. One expanding integrable model (actually, it is a nonlinear integrable coupling reduces to a generalized Burgers equation and further reduces to the heat equation whose expanding nonlinear integrable model is generated. Another one is an expanding integrable model which is different from the first one. Finally, the Hamiltonian structures of the two expanding integrable models are obtained by employing the variational identity and the trace identity, respectively.

  18. Tratamiento de la persistencia del conducto arterioso con el coil desprendible de gianturco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gutiérrez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron 43 pacientes con persistencia del conducto arterioso en un período de 26 meses. Dos pacientes tenían además una estenosis pulmonar valvular y tres pacientes defectos septales (dos comunicaciones interventriculares y un canal AV. Se observaron tres casos con migración del coil a la pulmonar, de los cuales se logró extraer dos. El tamaño del coil más usado es el de 5 mm y cinco vueltas y el siguiente es el de 8 mm y cinco vueltas. Cuatro pacientes ameritaron dos coils para cerrar el conducto arterioso. En siete pacientes se encontró hipertensión arterial pulmonar de leve a moderada de los cuales cinco eran síndrome de Down. El diámetro del ductus más frecuentemente observado fue el de 2 mm. con una variación de 1,7 a 4 mm. La edad al momento del cierre varió de 6 meses a 10 años con una media de 42,9 meses +-26,3 meses; el peso varió de 7 a 30 kilos con una media de 14,9 kilos+-5,5 kilos.We found 43 patients with patent ductus arteriosus in a period of 26 months. Two patients had a pulmonary valve stenosis and three patients show septum defects( ventricular septal defect in two and one with an AV canal. We have three patients with migration of the coil to the pulmonary artery without consequences. The size of the coil more frequently used was 5 mm and 5 loops. Four patient need two coils for closure of the PDA. Seven patients show pulmonary hypertension from mild to moderate, five of them were Down syndrome. The diameter of the ductus more frequently observed was 2 mm. The age at the moment of the closure was 6 months to 10 years mean 42,9 months+-26,3 months; the weight was from 7 kilos to 30 kilos mean 14,9+-5,5 kilos.

  19. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are an emerging class of biomaterials that are reaching worldwide attention due to their biocompatible, nontoxic properties and abundant surface chemistries that lend them to a wide range of biomedical applications. Furthermore, surface functional groups of NDs can easily be tailored to exhibit desirable chemical, physical and biological properties. Such characteristics naturally allow for NDs' surface to be considered as ideal carriers for various molecules and biomolecules intended for the delivery or removal of molecules in vivo. NDs have already shown to have a high affinity for various biological molecules, including DNA and proteins. This dissertation, however, expands NDs' use to the adsorption of carcinogenic mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). It has been estimated that myocotoxins are found in approximately 25 % of the world's crops each year. Ingestion of mycotoxins contaminated crops has been linked to hepatocellular carcinoma, disease and death. Therefore, we aim to develop ND enterosorbents, for the binding and removal of mycotoxins within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thereby eliminating the effects of these toxins. While NDs are readily available, raw, unmodified NDs, like those typically received from vendors, possess inhomogeneous aggregate sizes and surface characteristics. Our research first explored several ND modification techniques to enhance ND's adsorption of AfB1 and OTA. Modification methods assessed in this research include size reduction techniques, plasma treatments, silane surface coatings and homogenous surface group termination, including carboxylation, hydrogenation and hydroxylation. The effectiveness of these NDs for mycotoxins removal was determined by calculations of maximum capacities and binding constants, as obtained through the Langmuir isotherm and related transform equations. Several of these treatments also showed heightening of the NDs' inherent zeta potentials (ZPs), which were

  20. Influence of Expanded Graphite Surface Ozonation on the Adhesion between Carbon Additive and Cement Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ślosarczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Cement mortars modified with expanded graphite (EG subjected to surface treatments in gaseous ozone were investigated. It was shown that the bonding between carbon additive and cement paste strongly depends on the surface modification of EG and the chemical composition of EG surface plays the important role in shaping the mechanical properties of cement composites. The expanded graphite subjected to ozone treatment showed the substantial increase of flexural toughness of cement composite. The above results were confirmed by XPS and SEM analysis. Normal 0 21 false false false PL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5860

  1. Influence of Expanded Graphite Surface Ozonation on the Adhesion between Carbon Additive and Cement Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ślosarczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Cement mortars modified with expanded graphite (EG subjected to surface treatments in gaseous ozone were investigated. It was shown that the bonding between carbon additive and cement paste strongly depends on the surface modification of EG and the chemical composition of EG surface plays the important role in shaping the mechanical properties of cement composites. The expanded graphite subjected to ozone treatment showed the substantial increase of flexural toughness of cement composite. The above results were confirmed by XPS and SEM analysis. Normal 0 21 false false false PL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5860

  2. BOOK REVIEW: The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, B. A.

    2005-07-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music—a new type of `cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson,\\endcolumn hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature’s code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one’s mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  3. Compressor-expander units for mobile fuel cell systems; Verdichter und Expander fuer mobile Brennstoffzellensysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, O. [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany).; Pischinger, S.; Schoenfelder, C.; Steidten, T. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA)

    2004-08-01

    The air supply of hydrogen-powered fuel cell systems containing PEM fuel cells has a significant impact on their efficiency and mode of operation. Therefore, several mechanical compressors and expanders were examined at the RWTH Aachen. Simulations were then performed to determine the behaviour of the fuel cell system. This article discusses the findings of a project commissioned by the Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e.V. (FVV). (orig.)

  4. Helical Screw Expander Evaluation Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A functional 1-MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested in Utah in 1978 to 1979 with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer-equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Additional testing was performed in Mexico in 1980 under a cooperative test program using the same test array, and machine efficiency was measured at 62% maximum with the rotors partially coated with scale, compared with approximately 54% maximum in Utah with uncoated rotors, confirming the importance of scale deposits within the machine on performance. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  5. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  6. Expanding the role of internal facility assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.L.; Levenson, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP) is an effective and comprehensive system to evaluate environmental compliance at individual USAF installations. The ECAMP assessment is typically performed by a team of experts from the installation`s Major Command (MAJCOM) Headquarters, and is often augmented with technical contractor support. As directed by Air Force policy, an external ECAMP assessment is required at a minimum of every three years for each installation. In the intervening years, each installation is required to perform an internal ECAMP assessment, with its own personnel and resources. Even though team composition differs, the internal and external ECAMP assessments are likely to be very similar in scope, objectives, and deliverables. For over nine years, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has supported several Air Force MAJCOMs in performing their external ECAMP assessments. More recently, ANL has also had the opportunity to provide technical support and training at individual installations during their preparation and conduct of internal ECAMP assessments. From that experience, the authors have learned that the quality and value of the internal assessment is enhanced by making it a vehicle for training, planning, and interaction among organizations. Various strategies and techniques have been successfully employed to derive maximum benefit and insight from the internal assessment process. Experiences that involve expanding the scope and objectives of internal assessments to meet specific goals are presented. The expansion of scope and objectives include preassessment training, planning, and evaluator interactions as part of the overall internal assessment process.

  7. Expandable Purge Chambers Would Protect Cryogenic Fittings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2004-01-01

    Expandable ice-prevention and cleanliness-preservation (EIP-CP) chambers have been proposed to prevent the accumulation of ice or airborne particles on quick-disconnect (QD) fittings, or on ducts or tubes that contain cryogenic fluids. In the original application for which the EIP-CP chambers were conceived, there is a requirement to be able to disconnect and reconnect the QD fittings in rapid succession. If ice were to form on the fittings by condensation and freezing of airborne water vapor on the cold fitting surfaces, the ice could interfere with proper mating of the fittings, making it necessary to wait an unacceptably long time for the ice to thaw before attempting reconnection. By keeping water vapor away from the cold fitting surfaces, the EIP-CP chambers would prevent accumulation of ice, preserving the ability to reconnect as soon as required. Basically, the role of an EIP-CP chamber would be to serve as an enclosure for a flow of dry nitrogen gas that would keep ambient air away from QD cryogenic fittings. An EIP-CP chamber would be an inflatable device made of a fabriclike material. The chamber would be attached to an umbilical plate holding a cryogenic QD fitting.

  8. The expanding fireball of Nova Delphini 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G H; ten Brummelaar, T; Gies, D R; Farrington, C D; Kloppenborg, B; Chesneau, O; Monnier, J D; Ridgway, S T; Scott, N; Tallon-Bosc, I; McAlister, H A; Boyajian, T; Maestro, V; Mourard, D; Meilland, A; Nardetto, N; Stee, P; Sturmann, J; Vargas, N; Baron, F; Ireland, M; Baines, E K; Che, X; Jones, J; Richardson, N D; Roettenbacher, R M; Sturmann, L; Turner, N H; Tuthill, P; van Belle, G; von Braun, K; Zavala, R T; Banerjee, D P K; Ashok, N M; Joshi, V; Becker, J; Muirhead, P S

    2014-11-13

    A classical nova occurs when material accreting onto the surface of a white dwarf in a close binary system ignites in a thermonuclear runaway. Complex structures observed in the ejecta at late stages could result from interactions with the companion during the common-envelope phase. Alternatively, the explosion could be intrinsically bipolar, resulting from a localized ignition on the surface of the white dwarf or as a consequence of rotational distortion. Studying the structure of novae during the earliest phases is challenging because of the high spatial resolution needed to measure their small sizes. Here we report near-infrared interferometric measurements of the angular size of Nova Delphini 2013, starting one day after the explosion and continuing with extensive time coverage during the first 43 days. Changes in the apparent expansion rate can be explained by an explosion model consisting of an optically thick core surrounded by a diffuse envelope. The optical depth of the ejected material changes as it expands. We detect an ellipticity in the light distribution, suggesting a prolate or bipolar structure that develops as early as the second day. Combining the angular expansion rate with radial velocity measurements, we derive a geometric distance to the nova of 4.54 ± 0.59 kiloparsecs from the Sun.

  9. Expanding solvent SAGD in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, P.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Das, S.; Wheeler, T.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Srinivasan, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects have proven effective for the recovery of oil and bitumen. Expanding solvent (ES) SAGD pilot projects have also demonstrated positive results of improved performance. This paper presented the results of a simulation study that investigated several important factors of the ES-SAGD process, including solvent types; concentration; operating pressure; and injection strategy. The objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of the ES-SAGD process in terms of production acceleration and energy requirements; to optimize solvent selection; to understand the effect of dilation in unconsolidated oil sands and the directional impact on reservoir parameters and oil production rate in ES-SAGD; and to understand the impact of operating conditions such as pressure, solvent concentration, circulation preheating period and the role of conduction heating and grid size in this process. The advantages of ES-SAGD over SAGD were also outlined. The paper presented results of sensitivity studies that were conducted on these four factors. Conclusions and recommendations for operating strategy were also offered. It was concluded that dilation is an important factor for SAGD performance at high operating pressure. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  10. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2015-05-01

    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  11. Massive Fermi gas in the expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The behavior of a decoupled ideal Fermi gas in a homogeneously expanding three-dimensional volume is investigated, starting from an equilibrium spectrum. In case the gas is massless and/or completely degenerate, the spectrum of the gas can be described by an effective temperature and/or an effective chemical potential, both of which scale down with the volume expansion. In contrast, the spectrum of a decoupled massive and non-degenerate gas can only be described by an effective temperature if there are strong enough self-interactions such as to maintain an equilibrium distribution. Assuming perpetual equilibration, we study a decoupled gas which is relativistic at decoupling and then is red-shifted until it becomes non-relativistic. We find expressions for the effective temperature and effective chemical potential which allow us to calculate the final spectrum for arbitrary initial conditions. This calculation is enabled by a new expansion of the Fermi-Dirac integral, which is for our purpose superior to the well-known Sommerfeld expansion. We also compute the behavior of the phase space density under expansion and compare it to the case of real temperature and real chemical potential. Using our results for the degenerate case, we also obtain the mean relic velocity of the recently proposed non-thermal cosmic neutrino background.

  12. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  13. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  14. Physical expander in Virtual Tree Overlay

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Taisuke; Valero, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new construction of constantdegree expanders motivated by their application in P2P overlay networks and in particular in the design of robust trees overlay. Our key result can be stated as follows. Consider a complete binary tree T and construct a random pairing {\\Pi} between leaf nodes and internal nodes. We prove that the graph G\\Pi obtained from T by contracting all pairs (leaf-internal nodes) achieves a constant node expansion with high probability. The use of our result in improving the robustness of tree overlays is straightforward. That is, if each physical node participating to the overlay manages a random pair that couples one virtual internal node and one virtual leaf node then the physical-node layer exhibits a constant expansion with high probability. We encompass the difficulty of obtaining this random tree virtualization by proposing a local, selforganizing and churn resilient uniformly-random pairing algorithm with O(log2 n) running time. Our algorithm has the merit ...

  15. Neuroimaging of Parkinson's disease: Expanding views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Sundman, Mark H; Hickey, Patrick; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-12-01

    Advances in molecular and structural and functional neuroimaging are rapidly expanding the complexity of neurobiological understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD). This review article begins with an introduction to PD neurobiology as a foundation for interpreting neuroimaging findings that may further lead to more integrated and comprehensive understanding of PD. Diverse areas of PD neuroimaging are then reviewed and summarized, including positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging, transcranial sonography, magnetoencephalography, and multimodal imaging, with focus on human studies published over the last five years. These included studies on differential diagnosis, co-morbidity, genetic and prodromal PD, and treatments from L-DOPA to brain stimulation approaches, transplantation and gene therapies. Overall, neuroimaging has shown that PD is a neurodegenerative disorder involving many neurotransmitters, brain regions, structural and functional connections, and neurocognitive systems. A broad neurobiological understanding of PD will be essential for translational efforts to develop better treatments and preventive strategies. Many questions remain and we conclude with some suggestions for future directions of neuroimaging of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expanding Taylor bubble under constant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voirand, Antoine; Benselama, Adel M.; Ayel, Vincent; Bertin, Yves

    2016-09-01

    Modelization of non-isothermal bubbles expanding in a capillary, as a contribution to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs), is the scope of this paper. The liquid film problem is simplified and solved, while the thermal problem takes into account a constant heat flux density applied at the capillary tube wall, exchanging with the liquid film surrounding the bubble and also with the capillary tube outside medium. The liquid slug dynamics is solved using the Lucas-Washburn equation. Mass and energy balance on the vapor phase allow governing equations of bubble expansion to be written. The liquid and vapor phases are coupled only through the saturation temperature associated with the vapor pressure, assumed to be uniform throughout the bubble. Results show an over-heating of the vapor phase, although the particular thermal boundary condition used here always ensures an evaporative mass flux at the liquid-vapor interface. Global heat exchange is also investigated, showing a strong decreasing of the PHP performance to convey heat by phase change means for large meniscus velocities.

  17. Expanding the solar spectrum used by photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Min; Blankenship, R. E.

    A limiting factor for photosynthetic organisms is their light-harvesting efficiency, that is the efficiency of their conversion of light energy to chemical energy. Small modifications or variations of chlorophylls allow photosynthetic organisms to harvest sunlight at different wavelengths. Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms usually utilize only the visible portion of the solar spectrum. The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina carries out oxygenic photosynthesis but contains mostly chlorophyll d and only traces of chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll d provides a potential selective advantage because it enables Acaryochloris to use infrared light (700–750 nm) that is not absorbed by chlorophyll a. Recently, an even more red-shifted chlorophyll termed chlorophyll f has been reported. Here, we discuss using modified chlorophylls to extend the spectral region of light that drives photosynthetic organisms.

  18. Phosphine modified cobalt hydroformylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensburg, H. van; Tooze, R.P.; Foster, D.F. [Sasol Technology UK, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Janse van Rensburg, W. [Sasol Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    An ongoing challenge in phosphine modified cobalt hydroformylation is the fundamental understanding of the electronic and steric properties of phosphine ligands that influence the selectivity and activity of the catalytic reaction. A series of acyclic and cyclic phosphines have been prepared and tested in phosphine modified cobalt hydroformylation of 1-octene. Molecular modelling on a series of phospholanes showed some interesting theoretical and experimental correlations. We also evaluated the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as an alternative for phosphines in modified cobalt hydroformylation. (orig.)

  19. Modifying toxicokinetics with antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, F J; Borron, S W; Bismuth, C

    1995-12-01

    Five approaches may be described through which antidotes can modify toxicokinetics: (1) Decreased bioavailability of the toxins; (2) Cellular redistribution of the toxin in the organism; (3) Promotion of elimination in an unchanged form; (4) Slowing of metabolic activation pathways; (5) Acceleration of metabolic deactivation pathways. However, the ability to modify toxicokinetics with a new treatment, while demonstrating an understanding of the mechanism of action, must never be construed to be, in and of itself, the goal of therapy. The ultimate evaluation of an antidote modifying toxicokinetics is strictly clinical.

  20. Spherical Accretion in a Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Wasserman, Ira

    1996-10-01

    We consider spherically symmetric accretion of material from an initially homogeneous, uniformly expanding medium onto a Newtonian point mass M. The gas is assumed to evolve adiabatically with a constant adiabatic index F, which we vary over the range Γ ɛ [1, 5/3]. We use a one-dimensional Lagrangian code to follow the spherical infall of material as a function of time. Outflowing shells gravitationally bound to the point mass fall back, giving rise to a inflow rate that, after a rapid rise, declines as a power law in time. If there were no outflow initially, Bondi accretion would result, with a characteristic accretion time-scale ta,0. For gas initially expanding at a uniform rate, with a radial velocity U = R/t0 at radius R, the behavior of the flow at all subsequent times is determined by ta,0/t0. If ta,0/t0 ≫ 1, the gas has no time to respond to pressure forces, so the fluid motion is nearly collisionless. In this case, only loosely bound shells are influenced by pressure gradients and are pushed outward. The late-time evolution of the mass accretion rate Mdot is close to the result for pure dust, and we develop a semianalytic model that accurately accounts for the small effect of pressure gradients in this limit. In the opposite regime, ta,0/t0 ≪ 1, pressure forces significantly affect the motion of the gas. At sufficiently early times, t ≤ ttr, the flow evolved along a sequence of quasi-stationary, Bondi-like states, with a time-dependent Mdot determined by the slowly varying gas density at large distances. However, at later times, t ≥ ttr, the fluid flow enters a dustllke regime; ttr is the time when the instantaneous Bondi accretion radius reaches the marginally bound radius. The transition time ttr depends sensitively on ta,0/t0 for a given Γ and can greatly exceed t0. We show that there exists a critical value Γ = 11/9, below which the transition from fluid to ballistic motion disappears. As one application of our calculations, we consider the

  1. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; L. Massey Simonich, Staci; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-09-06

    In her letter to the editor1 regarding our recent Feature Article “Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework” 2, Dr. von Göetz expressed several concerns about terminology, and the perception that we propose the replacement of successful approaches and models for exposure assessment with a concept. We are glad to have the opportunity to address these issues here. If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The framework would support improved generation, organization, and interpretation of data as well as modeling and prediction, not replacement of models. The field of toxicology has seen the benefits of wide use of one or more organizational frameworks (e.g., mode and mechanism of action, adverse outcome pathway). These frameworks influence how experiments are designed, data are collected, curated, stored and interpreted and ultimately how data are used in risk assessment. Exposure science is poised to similarly benefit from broader use of a parallel organizational framework, which Dr. von Göetz correctly points out, is currently used in the exposure modeling community. In our view, the concepts used so effectively in the exposure modeling community, expanded upon in the AEP framework, could see wider adoption by the field as a whole. The value of such a framework was recognized by the National Academy of Sciences.3 Replacement of models, databases, or any application with the AEP framework was not proposed in our article. The positive role broader more consistent use of such a framework might have in enabling and advancing “general activities such as data acquisition, organization…,” and exposure modeling was discussed

  2. Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (≥200 mg/day. Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118 were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74. Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  3. Exposing medical students to expanding populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindenthal JJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available JJ Lindenthal,1,2 JA DeLisa,3 GF Heinrich,4 WS Calderón Gerstein,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 5Hospital Nacional Ramiro Prialé, EsSalud, Huancayo, Peru Abstract: Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international “experience”, in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician–patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article. Keywords: MiniMed program, equal access, underserved populations, Newark Renaissance House, Kintock Group, role modeling 

  4. AstroCom NYC: Expanding the Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, Saavik; Agueros, Marcel A.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Robbins, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is an undergraduate mentoring program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City (City University of New York - an MSI, American Museum of Natural History, and Columbia). AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students' residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and readies and inspires them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC provides a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, research and career mentors, outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. Stipends in part alleviate the burdens at home typical for CUNY students so they may concentrate on their academic success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. For our second cohort, we dramatically improved the application and screening process, implemented a number of tools to evaluate their potential for grad school, and began growing a network of potential hosts for summer internships around NY State and the US. We review these implementations and outcomes, as well as plans for Year 3, when we expect many of our current students to compete for external summer REUs, and after greatly expanding the program reach through a NASA community college initiative.

  5. Expanding Lookout Capabilities for Architectural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shick, B.

    SMC/SYSW/ENY's Lookout tool provides a M&S capability for architectural analysis. It models the contributions of ground and space-based assets in several mission threads and scenarios to quantify overall Space Situational Awareness (SSA) capability. Plotting performance results versus costs enables decision makers to identify and evaluate Best Value families of systems and combinations of architectures. Currently, SMC intends to use Lookout to impact the Fiscal Year 2012 budget programming cycle, the National SSA Initial Capabilities Document (ICD) and Architecture definition effort, planning for programs of record, and AFSPC & SMC leadership. Ultimately, Lookout will enable additional space superiority analysis. Previous Lookout work focused on modeling the metric tracking capabilities of the Space Surveillance Network (detecting and tracking) and proposed concepts to close identified collection shortfalls. SMC/SYSW/ENY leveraged some of the lessons learned in developing and implementing the metric tracking models to expand Lookout to develop an initial characterization capability, including non-resolved space object identification (SOI), imaging, and Foreign Instrumentation and Signals (FIS) Intelligence. Characterization collection phenomenologies added in FY08 and FY09 include mechanical tracking and phased array radars, visible telescopes, and signals collection. Lookout enables evaluating the characterization collections for quantity, quality, and timeliness. Capturing the Tasking, Collection, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination processes represent one of the biggest challenges in including characterization capabilities in mission thread and scenario-based analysis. The SMC/SYSW/ENY team met with several representatives of the community and held community-wide Technical Interchange Meetings. Based on feedback from these meetings, SMC created an infrastructure for modeling the tasking processes and scales to relate collection quality to intelligence

  6. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  7. AIDSCAP initiative expands prevention efforts for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    By 2000, women will likely comprise 50% of HIV-infected persons worldwide. Women, regardless of number of sexual partners, are especially vulnerable to HIV. One act of intercourse puts women at an 18 times greater risk than men of acquiring HIV. Traditional gender roles denying women the power to protect their own health exacerbate their biological susceptibility to HIV infection. AIDSCAP's Women's Initiative (AWI) aims to secure culturally and gender-sensitive AIDSCAP interventions and strategies and to advance AIDSCAP's leadership role in developing HIV/AIDS prevention models for women. More than 50% of AIDSCAP current projects target women. AWI integrates a broader gender perspective into AIDSCAP's project design, technical assistance, evaluation and monitoring, and policy projects. It has expanded target women's groups beyond the groups traditionally considered at high risk. To date, various AIDSCAP projects have trained and educated about one million women. The Christian Reformed World Relief Committee (CRWRC) is involved in HIV/AIDS prevention activities. Its AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Health Promotion Prevention Program with Market Women in Senegal targets self-employed market women and urban female youth in Dakar, Kaoloack, and Thies. CRWRC worked with two women's groups to develop a sexual health promotion package with HIV/AIDS and STD IEC (information, education, and communication) materials and has trained 20 facilitators to use the promotion package. It helps the two collaborating groups to develop their organization capacities so they can implement and evaluate sustainable HIV/STD prevention programs. AIDSCAP also supports training of Kenyan family planning provider activities in HIV prevention of the JSI Family Planning Sector Project. It collaborates with the Center of Women Workers in Haiti to provide women factory workers IEC and condoms to promote risk reduction behavior. AWI also conducts research and policy activities (e

  8. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs A Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The theory of expander graphs is a rapidly developing topic in mathematics and computer science, with applications to communication networks, error-correcting codes, cryptography, complexity theory, and much more. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs: A Beginner's Guide is a comprehensive introduction to expander graphs, designed to act as a bridge between classroom study and active research in the field of expanders. It equips those with little or no prior knowledge with the skills necessary to both comprehend current research articles and begin their own research. Central to this book are fou

  9. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  10. POLYCAPROLACTAM MODIFIED BY POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guisheng; LU Fengcai

    1990-01-01

    Three polycaprolactam samples modified by 0.05 - 0.50% polybenzimidazole (PBI) by weight were prepared. Their structure and mechanical properties were characterized by means of FT- IR, SEM, DTA,density tensile,impact and viscoelastic method. PBI delayed the superimposed polymerization-crystallization process of the activated anionic polymerization of caprolactam. The monomer casting (MC) nylons modified by PBI had lower crystallinities,lower Tg and more nearly perfect spherulites than MCnylon itself, and showed a typical toughening effect.

  11. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  12. In vitro comparison of self-expanding versus balloon-expandable stents in a human ex vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenacher, Lars; Rohde, Stefan; Gänger, Ellen; Deutsch, Jochen; Kauffmann, Günter W; Richter, Götz M

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to compare the radial strength and expansile precision of self-expanding stents and balloon-expandable stents in a human cadaver bifurcation model. Seven different self-expanding (LUMINEXX, JOSTENT SelfX, JOSTENT SelfX hrf, Sinus-Repo, Sinus SuperFlex, Easy Wallstent, SMART) and four different balloon-expandable stent models (Palmaz, Sinus Stent, SAXX Medium, JOSTENT peripheral), each type 10 stents (total n = 110 stents) were implanted into the common iliac arteries of human cadaver corpses. The maximum stent diameter was 10 mm for all models. After stent implantation, the specimens were filled with silicone caoutchouc. After 24 h, the vascular walls including the stents were removed from the hardened casts. Diameters were taken and the weight of the cast cylinders was measured in air and in purified water to calculate the volume of the bodies (according to Archimedes Law) as a relative but precise degree for the radial strength of the implanted stents. The cylindrical casts of the self-expanding stents showed lower mean diameters (8.2 +/- 1.0 mm) and mean volumes (0.60 +/- 0.14 ml/cm) than in the balloon-expandable stent group (10.1 +/- 0.3 mm and 0.71 +/- 0.04 ml/cm, respectively; p < 0.01). The nominal maximum diameter of 10 mm was not achieved in any of the self-expanding stents, but this was achieved in more than 70% (29/40) of the balloon-expandable stent specimens (p < 0.05). The variation between achieved volumes was significantly larger in self-expanding (range: 0.23-0.78 ml/cm) than in balloon-expandable stents (range: 0.66-0.81 ml/cm; p < 0.05). Self-expanding stents presented considerably lower radial expansion force and lower degree of precision than balloon-expandable stents.

  13. An Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) Metric Describing Matter in an Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P Castelo

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested an expanding locally anisotropic metric (ELA) ansatz describing matter in a flat expanding universe which interpolates between the Schwarzschild (SC) metric near point-like central bodies of mass 'M' and the Robertson-Walker (RW) metric for large radial coordinate: 'ds^2=Z(cdt)2 - 1/Z (dr1-(Hr1/c) Z^(alpha/2+1/2)(cdt))^2-r1^2 dOmega', where 'Z=1-U' with 'U=2GM/(c^2r1)', 'G' is the Newton constant, 'c' is the speed of light, 'H=H(t)=\\dot(a)/a' is the time-dependent Hubble rate, 'dOmega=dtheta^2+sin^2(theta) dvarphi^2' is the solid angle element, 'a' is the universe scale factor and we are employing the coordinates 'r1=ar', being 'r' the radial coordinate for which the RW metric is diagonal. For constant exponent 'alpha=alpha0=0' it is retrieved the isotropic McVittie (McV) metric and for 'alpha=alpha0=1' it is retrieved the locally anisotropic Cosmological-Schwarzschild (SCS) metric, both already discussed in the literature. However it is shown that only for constant exponent 'alpha=alpha0> 1' ...

  14. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  15. Principles of the fifth order tuning of beam expanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F.; Aniel, T.

    1995-12-31

    An analytical treatment of the third and fifth order optics of beam expanders is described, which allows precise tuning of the optical elements of the beam line, and efficient optimization of the beam uniformizing at the extended target. An application to a two-dimensional expander is given as an illustration. (authors). 4 refs.

  16. 47 CFR 69.121 - Connection charges for expanded interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Connection charges for expanded interconnection... interconnection. (a) Appropriate connection charge subelements shall be established for the use of equipment and facilities that are associated with offerings of expanded interconnection for special access and...

  17. Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    USAARL Report No. 2015-08 Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression By Mark S. Adams Frederick Brozoski Katie...13 iv This page is intentionally left blank. 1 Introduction Expanded bead polystyrene (EPS) is widely...EPS energy attenuating liners typically have complex geometric shapes. However, the use of flat sheets of polystyrene facilitated the sample

  18. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  19. The helical screw expander evaluation project. [for geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A positive-displacement helical-screw expander of the Lysholm type has been adapted for geothermal service and successfully demonstrated in a 50 kW prototype power system. Evaluation of the expander by tests of a new model in a 1 MW power system under wellhead conditions in selected liquid-dominated geothermal fields is proposed. The objectives are to determine the performance characteristics of the expander and power system over a broad range of operating conditions and also to examine the concept of wellhead power plants. Throttling and fractionation of the fluids from the test wells is planned to simulate a wide range of wellhead pressures and steam fractions. Variation in the expander exhaust pressure is also planned. The investigation will include expander efficiency, corrosion, erosion, scale formation and control, and endurance testing. Interaction studies with the wells and an electric grid are also proposed.

  20. Surface modification of a natural graphite/phenol formaldehyde composite plate with expanded graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongjie; Wang, Yuxin; Xu, Li; Lu, Jun; Wu, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-09-01

    Natural graphite/phenol formaldehyde (NG/PF) resin composite plates modified with thin layers of expanded graphite (EG) are fabricated by mold compression to lower the contact resistance between the plates and gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The modification considerably reduces contact resistance versus bare NG/PF plates. The extent of the decrease in contact resistance is influenced by the expanded volume of EG used. A low contact resistance of 1.42 m{omega} cm{sup 2} persists for the EG (150 ml g{sup -1})-modified NG/PF plates despite the PF content, whereas that of bare plates increases from 3.62 to 17.01 m{omega} cm{sup 2} as PF content changes from 5 wt% to 30 wt%. With increasing EG thickness on the surface of NG/PF plates, contact resistance at first decreases and then approaches a constant value when the NG layer exceeds 40 {mu}m. More importantly, the total electrical resistance, as expressed by volume resistance, can be reduced by applying EG layers to NG/PF composite plates. The reduction of total resistance is more remarkable for the composite plates with high PF content because the bulk resistance of the EG layer can be well compensated by the decrease of contact resistance at a proper range of EG layer thickness. (author)

  1. Infrared-modified Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Federico

    2012-01-01

    We consider a Hubble expansion law modified in the infra-red by distance-dependent terms, and attempt to enforce homogeneity upon it. As a warm-up, we re-derive the basic kinematics of a Friedman Robertson Walker universe without using standard general relativistic tools: we describe the expansion with a `Hubble velocity field' rather than with a four dimensional metric. Then we extend this analysis to the modified Hubble expansion and impose a transformation for velocities that makes it identical for all comoving observers, and therefore homogeneous. We derive the modified equation for light ray trajectories and other geometrical properties that are incompatible with the general relativistic description. We speculate that this extended framework could help addressing cosmological problems which are normally explained with accelerating expansions.

  2. Tip-modified Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with tip-modified propellers and the methods which, over a period of two decades, have been applied to develop such propellers. The development is driven by the urge to increase the efficiency of propellers and can be seen as analogous to fitting end plates and winglets to aircraft...... wings. The literature on four different designs is reviewed: the end-plate propeller; the two-sided, shifted end-plate propeller; the tip-fin propeller; and the bladelet propeller. The conclusion is that it is indeed possible to design tip-modified propellers that, relative to an optimum conventional...

  3. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ESO Astronomers Contribute towards Resolution of Cosmic Puzzle Since the discovery of the expansion of the Universe by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1920's, by measurement of galaxy velocities, astronomers have tried to learn how this expansion changes with time. Until now, most scientists have been considering two possibilities: the expansion rate is slowing down and will ultimately either come to a halt - whereafter the Universe would start to contract, or it will continue to expand forever. However, new studies by two independent research teams, based on observations of exploding stars ( supernovae ) by ESO astronomers [1] with astronomical telescopes at the La Silla Observatory as well as those of their colleagues at other institutions, appear to show that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating . The results take the discovery of the cosmological expansion one step further and challenge recent models of the Universe. If the new measurements are indeed correct, they show that the elusive "cosmological constant" , as proposed by Albert Einstein , contributes significantly to the evolution of the Universe. The existence of a non-zero cosmological constant implies that a repulsive force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion , and consequently leads to an ever-expanding Universe. This new research is being named as the "Breakthrough of the Year" by the renowned US science journal Science in the December 18, 1998, issue. A Press Release is published by the journal on this occasion. "Fundamental Parameters" of the Universe Three fundamental parameters govern all cosmological models based on the theory of General Relativity. They are 1. the current expansion rate as described by Hubble's constant , i.e. the proportionality factor between expansion velocity and distance 2. the average matter density in the Universe, and 3. the amount of "other energy" present in space. From the measured values of these fundamental

  4. Tissue regeneration during tissue expansion and choosing an expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the various aspects of tissue regeneration during the process of tissue expansion. "Creep" and mechanical and biological "stretch" are responsible for expansion. During expansion, the epidermis thickens, the dermis thins out, vascularity improves, significant angiogenesis occurs, hair telogen phase becomes shorter and the peripheral nerves, vessels and muscle fibres lengthen. Expansion is associated with molecular changes in the tissue. Almost all these biological changes are reversible after the removal of the expander.This study is also aimed at reviewing the difficulty in deciding the volume and dimension of the expander for a defect. Basic mathematical formulae and the computer programmes for calculating the dimension of tissue expanders, although available in the literature, are not popular. A user-friendly computer programme based on the easily available Microsoft Excel spread sheet has been introduced. When we feed the area of defect and base dimension of the donor area or tissue expander, this programme calculates the volume and height of the expander. The shape of the expander is decided clinically based on the availability of the donor area and the designing of the future tissue movement. Today, tissue expansion is better understood biologically and mechanically. Clinical judgement remains indispensable in choosing the size and shape of the tissue expander.

  5. Modified clay sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1990-04-10

    This patent describes a clay-based sorbent. It comprises a clay having an external surface and lamellar layers; and cationic surfactant ions having a hydrocarbon portion and a cationic head portion, the cationic surfactant ions being irreversibly bound to the external surface by the hydrocarbon portion. This patent also describes cetylpyridinium-aluminum hydroxy-montmorillonite; the clay-based sorbent wherein the clay is a non-expandable clay; and the clay-based sorbent wherein the cationic surfactant ions are selected from the group consisting of ionized cetylpyridinium chloride and cetylakonium chloride.

  6. Modified differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chartier, Philippe; Hairer, Ernst; Vilmart, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the theory of modified differential equations (backward error analysis) an approach for the construction of high order numerical integrators that preserve geometric properties of the exact flow is developed. This summarises a talk presented in honour of Michel Crouzeix.

  7. Balloon-expandable Metallic Stents for Airway Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Takashi; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Otani, Shinji; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Yamane, Masaomi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro

    2016-10-01

    Stent placement is an essential treatment for airway diseases. Although self-expandable metallic stents and silicone stents are commonly applied for the treatment of airway diseases, these stents are unsuitable for the treatment of small airway diseases encountered in pediatric patients and lung transplant recipients with airway complications. Currently, only vascular balloon-expandable metallic stents are available for the treatment of small airway diseases; however, little research has been conducted on the use of these stents in this field. We have launched a prospective feasibility study to clarify the safety and efficacy of balloon-expandable metallic stents for the treatment of airway diseases.

  8. Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chung-Li; Wang, Jung-Der; Chu, Po-Chin; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon

    2010-01-01

    Expanded perlite has been assumed as simple nuisance, however during an accidental spill out in Taiwan, among 24 exposed workers followed for more than 6 months, three developed persisted respiratory symptoms and positive provocation tests were compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During simulation experiment expanded perlite is shown to be very dusty and greatly exceed current exposure permission level. Review of literature and evidence, though exposure of expanded perlite below permission level may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short term heavy exposure is warranted.

  9. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  10. On The Relativity of Redshifts: Does Space Really "Expand"?

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geraint F

    2016-01-01

    In classes on cosmology, students are often told that photons stretch as space expands, but just how physical is this picture? Does space really expand? In this article, we explore the notion of the redshift of light with Einstein's general theory of relativity, showing that the core underpinning principles reveal that redshifts are both simpler and more complex than you might naively think. This has significant implications for the observed redshifting of photons as they travel across the universe, often refereed to as the cosmological redshift, and for the idea of expanding space.

  11. Steric restrictions of RISC in RNA interference identified with size-expanded RNA nucleobases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Armando R; Peterson, Larryn W; Kool, Eric T

    2012-08-17

    Understanding the interactions between small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), the key protein complex of RNA interference (RNAi), is of great importance to the development of siRNAs with improved biological and potentially therapeutic function. Although various chemically modified siRNAs have been reported, relatively few studies with modified nucleobases exist. Here we describe the synthesis and hybridization properties of siRNAs bearing size-expanded RNA (xRNA) nucleobases and their use as a novel and systematic set of steric probes in RNAi. xRNA nucleobases are expanded by 2.4 Å using benzo-homologation and retain canonical Watson-Crick base-pairing groups. Our data show that the modified siRNA duplexes display small changes in melting temperature (+1.4 to -5.0 °C); substitutions near the center are somewhat destabilizing to the RNA duplex, while substitutions near the ends are stabilizing. RNAi studies in a dual-reporter luciferase assay in HeLa cells revealed that xRNA nucleobases in the antisense strand reduce activity at some central positions near the seed region but are generally well tolerated near the ends. Most importantly, we observed that xRNA substitutions near the 3'-end increased activity over that of wild-type siRNAs. The data are analyzed in terms of site-dependent steric effects in RISC. Circular dichroism experiments show that single xRNA substitutions do not significantly distort the native A-form helical structure of the siRNA duplex, and serum stability studies demonstrated that xRNA substitutions protect siRNAs against nuclease degradation.

  12. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering.

  13. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  14. The Canonical Expanding Soliton and Harnack inequalities for Ricci flow

    CERN Document Server

    Cabezas-Rivas, Esther

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Canonical Expanding Ricci Soliton, and use it to derive new Harnack inequalities for Ricci flow. This viewpoint also gives geometric insight into the existing Harnack inequalities of Hamilton and Brendle.

  15. Overcoming the Barriers to Expanded Pharmacy Service--Pharmaceutical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Cognitive, situational, and attitudinal barriers to expanding the role of the pharmacist in the health care services are discussed. Attention is focused on how pharmacy education can overcome some of these barriers. (SF)

  16. Massive expanding hematoma of the chin following blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thanvir Mohamed Niazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic hematoma of the face is common and usually self-limiting in nature. We report an unusual massive expanding hematoma of the chin within 9 h following a blunt trauma with no associated injuries or fracture.

  17. Massive expanding hematoma of the chin following blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, K Thanvir Mohamed; Raja, Dharmesh Kumar; Prakash, R; Balaji, V R; Manikandan, D; Ulaganathan, G; Yoganandha, R

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic hematoma of the face is common and usually self-limiting in nature. We report an unusual massive expanding hematoma of the chin within 9 h following a blunt trauma with no associated injuries or fracture.

  18. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  19. Outreach Plan : Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge for Expanded Hunting Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Outreach Plan for Sherburne NWR states that hunting opportunities will be expanded on the Refuge to include wild turkey hunting by disabled and youth hunters.

  20. Simulation of the growth of the 3D Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Supernova Remnants using an expanding reference frame

    CERN Document Server

    Fraschetti, Federico; Ballet, Jean; Decourchelle, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Context: The Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities generated by the deceleration of a supernova remnant during the ejecta-dominated phase are known to produce finger-like structures in the matter distribution which modify the geometry of the remnant. The morphology of supernova remnants is also expected to be modified when efficient particle acceleration occurs at their shocks. Aims: The impact of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities from the ejecta-dominated to the Sedov-Taylor phase is investigated over one octant of the supernova remnant. We also study the effect of efficient particle acceleration at the forward shock on the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Methods: We modified the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code RAMSES to study with hydrodynamic numerical simulations the evolution of supernova remnants in the framework of an expanding reference frame. The adiabatic index of a relativistic gas between the forward shock and the contact discontinuity mimics the presence of accelerated particles. Results: The ...

  1. An expanding locally anisotropic (ELA) metric describing matter in an expanding universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo Ferreira, P., E-mail: pedro.castelo.ferreira@ist.utl.p [CENTRA-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1100-001 Lisboa (Portugal); U. Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologia-Eng. Electrotecnica, Campo Grande 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-02-08

    It is suggested an expanding locally anisotropic metric (ELA) ansatz describing matter in a flat expanding universe which interpolates between the Schwarzschild (SC) metric near point-like central bodies of mass M and the Robertson-Walker (RW) metric for large radial coordinate: ds{sup 2}=Zc{sup 2}dt{sup 2}-1/Z (dr{sub 1}-(Hr{sub 1})/c Z{sup (alpha)/2+1/2} cdt){sup 2}-r{sub 1}{sup 2}dOMEGA, where Z=1-U{sub SC} with U{sub SC}=2GM/(c{sup 2}r{sub 1}), G is the Newton constant, c is the speed of light, H=H(t)=a{sup .}/a is the time-dependent Hubble rate, dOMEGA=dtheta{sup 2}+sin{sup 2}thetadphi{sup 2} is the solid angle element, a is the universe scale factor and we are employing the coordinates r{sub 1}=ar, being r the radial coordinate for which the RW metric is diagonal. For constant exponent alpha=alpha{sub 0}=0 it is retrieved the isotropic McVittie (McV) metric and for alpha=alpha{sub 0}=1 it is retrieved the locally anisotropic Cosmological-Schwarzschild (SCS) metric, both already discussed in the literature. However it is shown that only for constant exponent alpha=alpha{sub 0}>1 exists an event horizon at the SC radius r{sub 1}=2GM/c{sup 2} and only for alpha=alpha{sub 0}>=3 space-time is singularity free for this value of the radius. These bounds exclude the previous existing metrics, for which the SC radius is a naked extended singularity. In addition it is shown that for alpha=alpha{sub 0}>5 space-time is approximately Ricci flat in a neighborhood of the event horizon such that the SC metric is a good approximation in this neighborhood. It is further shown that to strictly maintain the SC mass-pole at the origin r{sub 1}=0 without the presence of more severe singularities it is required a radial coordinate-dependent correction to the exponent alpha(r{sub 1})=alpha{sub 0}+alpha{sub 1}2GM/(c{sup 2}r{sub 1}) with a negative coefficient alpha{sub 1}<0. The energy-momentum density, pressures and equation of state are discussed.

  2. Self-Expanding, Tough Biodegradable Elastomers for Wound Stasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    the civilian setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self- expanding polyurethane foam...setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self-expanding polyurethane foam significantly...care in accor- dance with the Guide of the Care and Use of Laboratory Ani- mals (Health, 2011 #17). 2.2. Instrumentation and monitoring All swine (n

  3. Twin screw two-phase expanders in large chiller units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I.K.; Stosic, N.; Aldis, C.A.; Kovacevic, A. [City Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the feasibility of the use of a twin screw expander as a throttle valve replacement in a 500 ton chiller. The aim was to produce a demonstration unit with an overall machine adiabatic efficiency of not less that 70%. The efficiency target was effectively met but further analytical work is needed to predict mass flow rates reliably and hence the exact machine size required when refrigerant enters the expander as subcooled liquid. (Author)

  4. [Seldinger modified technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cuenca, Francisco; Linares Escudero, Joaquín; Romo García, Raquel; Cubo Amaya, Manuel; Climent Villanueva, Magdalena; Santos Sarria, Remedios

    2008-12-01

    The authors describe the procedure to insert central blood vessel catheters through peripheral blood vessel catheters using the Seldinger modified technique since critically ill patients service at the Carlos Haya Regional University Hospital in Malaga cares for a high number of patients who need to have canalized a central blood vessel catheter to maximize the treatment they receive. In many cases it is not possible to insert a DRUM type central blood vessel catheter due to an insufficient blood vessel caliber and then the nursing team at this hospital opts to carry out a procedure to canalize a central blood vessel using the Seldinger modified technique. This report was presented at the III National Social-Sanitary Nursing Congress.

  5. Modified Newton's rings: II

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitanya, T Sai; Krishna, V Sai; Anandh, B Shankar; Umesh, K S

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier work (Shankar kumar Jha, A Vyas, O S K S Sastri, Rajkumar Jain & K S Umesh, 'Determination of wavelength of laser light using Modified Newton's rings setup', Physics Education, vol. 22, no.3, 195-202(2005)) reported by our group, a version of Newton's rings experiment called Modified Newton's rings was proposed. The present work is an extension of this work. Here, a general formula for wavelength has been derived, applicable for a plane of observation at any distance. A relation between the focal length and the radius curvature is also derived for a plano-convex lens which is essentially used as a concave mirror. Tracker, a video analysis software, freely downloadable from the net, is employed to analyze the fringes captured using a CCD camera. Two beams which give rise to interference fringes in conventional Newton's rings and in the present setup are clearly distinguished.

  6. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  7. Modified Faraday cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  8. Unsteady Viscous Flow over an Expanding Stretching Cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方铁钢; 章骥; 钟永芳; 陶华

    2011-01-01

    We study the viscous How over an expanding stretching cylinder. The solution is exact to the Navier-Stokes equations. The stretching velocity of the cylinder is proportional to the axial distance from the origin and decreases with time. There exists a unique solution for the How with all the studied values of Reynolds number and the unsteadiness parameter. Reversal Hows exist for an expanding stretching cylinder. The velocity decays faster for a larger Reynolds number and a more rapidly expanding cylinder.%We study the viscous flow over an expanding stretching cylinder.The solution is exact to the Navier-Stokes equations.The stretching velocity of the cylinder is proportional to the axial distance from the origin and decreases with time.There exists a unique solution for the flow with all the studied values of Reynolds number and the unsteadiness parameter.Reversal flows exist for an expanding stretching cylinder.The velocity decays faster for a larger Reynolds number and a more rapidly expanding cylinder.

  9. RNA-modifying enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2003-02-01

    A bewildering number of post-transcriptional modifications are introduced into cellular RNAs by enzymes that are often conserved among archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. The modifications range from those with well-understood functions, such as tRNA aminoacylation, to widespread but more mysterious ones, such as pseudouridylation. Recent structure determinations have included two types of RNA nucleobase modifying enzyme: pseudouridine synthases and tRNA guanine transglycosylases.

  10. Gas Emissivity of a Modified Cellulose Mix at the Temperature of 900°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawieja Z.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study of gas emissivity and the volumetric gas flow rate from a patented modified cellulose mix used in production of disposable sand casting moulds. The modified cellulose mix with such additives as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite and microspheres was used as the study material. The results for gas emissivity and the gas flow rate for the modified cellulose mix were compared with the gas emissivity of the commercial material used in gating systems in disposable sand casting moulds. The results have shown that the modified cellulose mix is characterized by a lower gas emissivity by as much as 50% and lower gas flow rate per unit mass during the process of thermal degradation at the temperature of 900°C, compared to the commercial mix. It was also noted that the amount of microspheres considerably affected the amount of gas produced.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma Cu Surface Modified Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiangyu; TANG Bin; FAN Ailan; MA Yong; TIAN Linhai

    2012-01-01

    Cu modified layer was prepared on the surface of AISI304 stainless steel by plasma surface alloying technique.The effects of processing parameters on the thickness,surface topography,microstructure and chemical composition of Cu modified layer were characterized using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The experimental results show that the surface modified layer is a duplex layer (deposited + diffused layer) with thickness of about 26 μm under the optimum process parameters.The modified layer is mainly composed of a mixture of Cu and expanded austenite phase.The ball-on-disk results show that the modified layer possesses low friction coefficients (0.25) and excellent wear resistance (wear volume 0.005× 109 μm3).The Cu modified layer is very effective in killing the bacteria S.aureus.Meanwhile,no viable S.aureus is found after 3 h (100% killed) by contact with the Cu alloyed surface.

  12. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos Chaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similarfashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is doneby replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vectorpotential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vectoranalysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHDequations.

  13. Modified Lattice Landau Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Von Smekal, L; Sternbeck, A; Williams, A G

    2007-01-01

    We propose a modified lattice Landau gauge based on stereographically projecting the link variables on the circle S^1 -> R for compact U(1) or the 3-sphere S^3 -> R^3 for SU(2) before imposing the Landau gauge condition. This can reduce the number of Gribov copies exponentially and solves the Gribov problem in compact U(1) where it is a lattice artifact. Applied to the maximal Abelian subgroup this might be just enough to avoid the perfect cancellation amongst the Gribov copies in a lattice BRST formulation for SU(N), and thus to avoid the Neuberger 0/0 problem. The continuum limit of the Landau gauge remains unchanged.

  14. Modified Slash Lindley Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Reyes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new distribution, called the modified slash Lindley distribution, which can be seen as an extension of the Lindley distribution. We show that this new distribution provides more flexibility in terms of kurtosis and skewness than the Lindley distribution. We derive moments and some basic properties for the new distribution. Moment estimators and maximum likelihood estimators are calculated using numerical procedures. We carry out a simulation study for the maximum likelihood estimators. A fit of the proposed model indicates good performance when compared with other less flexible models.

  15. Modified harmony search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  16. The Modified Magnetohydrodynamical Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EvangelosChaliasos

    2003-01-01

    After finding the really self-consistent electromagnetic equations for a plasma, we proceed in a similar fashion to find how the magnetohydrodynamical equations have to be modified accordingly. Substantially this is done by replacing the "Lorentz" force equation by the correct (in our case) force equation. Formally we have to use the vector potential instead of the magnetic field intensity. The appearance of the formulae presented is the one of classical vector analysis. We thus find a set of eight equations in eight unknowns, as previously known concerning the traditional MHD equations.

  17. Self-expanding/shrinking structures by 4D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to create adaptive structures capable of self-expanding and self-shrinking by means of four-dimensional printing technology. An actuator unit is designed and fabricated directly by printing fibers of shape memory polymers (SMPs) in flexible beams with different arrangements. Experiments are conducted to determine thermo-mechanical material properties of the fabricated part revealing that the printing process introduced a strong anisotropy into the printed parts. The feasibility of the actuator unit with self-expanding and self-shrinking features is demonstrated experimentally. A phenomenological constitutive model together with analytical closed-form solutions are developed to replicate thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMPs. Governing equations of equilibrium are developed for printed structures based on the non-linear Green-Lagrange strain tensor and solved implementing a finite element method along with an iterative incremental Newton-Raphson scheme. The material-structural model is then applied to digitally design and print SMP adaptive lattices in planar and tubular shapes comprising a periodic arrangement of SMP actuator units that expand and then recover their original shape automatically. Numerical and experimental results reveal that the proposed planar lattice as meta-materials can be employed for plane actuators with self-expanding/shrinking features or as structural switches providing two different dynamic characteristics. It is also shown that the proposed tubular lattice with a self-expanding/shrinking mechanism can serve as tubular stents and grippers for bio-medical or piping applications.

  18. Strength analysis of expandable tubulars for well applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, A.C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, C.E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Netto, T.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Solid expandable tube technology has many advantages when compared to conventional wells. The expansion of tubes in situ allows developing reserves in many of the challenging scenarios found in oil industry, as pre-salt layer, HPHT wells, deep reservoirs, or ultra-deep water. Besides, this procedure has good compatibility with directional and horizontal wells and facilitates side-tracks operations. Although the expansion of tubes is very attractive, a better understanding of its influence on the tube mechanical strength is necessary. In this work, experimental tests and numerical analyses were performed in order to determine the effect of parameters such as diameter-to-thickness ratio and expansion rate on the collapse resistance of expandable tubes. An experimental apparatus was designed and built to reproduce full-scale tube expansion. Three 2 meter long specimens were expanded 10% their original diameters and subjected to hydrostatic pressure inside a vessel until collapse. Three non-expanded tubes were also tested for comparison. At the same time, non-linear numerical models were developed using the finite element method. After calibration, they were used to further analyze the mechanical behavior of solid expandable tubes and the influence of expansion on its resistance against collapse. (author)

  19. Expanded tenses in the old English orosius a syntactic strengthening*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The present chapter reports the investigation into certain aspects of the periphrastic construction to be +present participle (e.g. NE: "he is teaching"; OE. "he is laerende" viewed as an example of a syntactic strengthening. The construc­ tion is usually referred to as "continuous tenses/form" or "progressive tenses/form", whereas Nickel (1966 uses "expanded form". Coming closest to this latter term, the "expanded tenses" employed here seems a convenient label for two reasons: a  the use of expanded tenses is not restricted to the expression of verbal aspect (Aspekt or mode of verbal action (Aktionsart, which is implied by the use of either the term "continuous  tenses/form" or the term "progressive tenses/form"; b  the expanded tenses are integrated into the English tense system, in the sense that they can be substituted  with the respective non-expanded tenses without any change in the syntax of the clause, e.g.

  20. Theoretically Founded Optimization of Auctioneer's Revenues in Expanding Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jonathan; Shehory, Onn

    The expanding auction is a multi-unit auction which provides the auctioneer with control over the outcome of the auction by means of dynamically adding items for sale. Previous research on the expanding auction has provided a numeric method to calculate a strategy that optimizes the auctioneer's revenue. In this paper, we analyze various theoretical properties of the expanding auction, and compare it to VCG, a multi-unit auction protocol known in the art. We examine the effects of errors in the auctioneer's estimation of the buyers' maximal bidding values and prove a theoretical bound on the ratio between the revenue yielded by the Informed Decision Strategy (IDS) and the post-optimal strategy. We also analyze the relationship between the auction step and the optimal revenue and introduce a method of computing this optimizing step. We further compare the revenues yielded by the use of IDS with an expanding auction to those of the VCG mechanism and determine the conditions under which the former outperforms the latter. Our work provides new insight into the properties of the expanding auction. It further provides theoretically founded means for optimizing the revenue of auctioneer.

  1. Theoretical investigation of flash vaporisation in a screw expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuthevan, Hanushan; Brümmer, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In the present study flash vaporisation of liquid injection in a twin screw expander for a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC) is examined theoretically. The TFC process comprises a pressure increase in the working fluid, followed by heating the liquid close to boiling point. The hot liquid is injected into the working chamber of a screw expander. During this process the pressure of the liquid drops below the saturation pressure, while the temperature of the liquid remains virtually constant. Hence the liquid is superheated and in a metastable state. The liquid jet seeks to achieve a stable state in thermodynamic equilibrium and is therefore partially vaporised. This effect is referred to as flash vaporisation. Accordingly, a two-phase mixture, consisting of vapour and liquid, exists in the working chamber. Thermodynamic simulations were carried out using water as the working fluid for representative screw expander geometry. The simulations presented are performed from two different aspects during the filling process of a screw expander. The first case is the vaporisation of the injected liquid in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, whereby the two-phase mixture is treated entirely as a compressible and homogeneous gas. The second case considers flashing efficiency. It describes the quantity of flashed vapour and consists of a liquid and vapour domain. Both models are compared and analysed with respect to the operational behaviour of a screw expander.

  2. Numerical simulation of a twin screw expander for performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papes, Iva; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing use of twin screw expanders in waste heat recovery applications, the performance prediction of these machines plays an important role. This paper presents a mathematical model for calculating the performance of a twin screw expander. From the mass and energy conservation laws, differential equations are derived which are then solved together with the appropriate Equation of State in the instantaneous control volumes. Different flow processes that occur inside the screw expander such as filling (accompanied by a substantial pressure loss) and leakage flows through the clearances are accounted for in the model. The mathematical model employs all geometrical parameters such as chamber volume, suction and leakage areas. With R245fa as working fluid, the Aungier Redlich-Kwong Equation of State has been used in order to include real gas effects. To calculate the mass flow rates through the leakage paths formed inside the screw expander, flow coefficients are considered as constant and they are derived from 3D Computational Fluid Dynamic calculations at given working conditions and applied to all other working conditions. The outcome of the mathematical model is the P-V indicator diagram which is compared to CFD results of the same twin screw expander. Since CFD calculations require significant computational time, developed mathematical model can be used for the faster performance prediction.

  3. Non-ergodicity for $C^{1}$ Expanding Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Quas, A N

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the question of existence and uniqueness of absolutely continuous invariant measures for expanding $C^1$ maps of the circle. This is a question which arises naturally from results which are known in the case of expanding $C^k$ maps of the circle where $k\\geq 2$, or even $C^{1+\\epsilon}$ expanding maps of the circle. In these cases, it is known that there exists a unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measure by the so-called `Folklore Theorem'. It follows that this measure is ergodic. It has been shown however that for $C^1$ maps there need not be any such measure. However, this leaves the question of whether there can be more than one such measure for $C^1$ expanding maps of the circle. This is the subject of this paper, and in it, we show that there exists a $C^1$ expanding map of the circle which has more than one absolutely continuous invariant probability measure.

  4. The technique of sand control with expandable screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P. [Petrochina, Liaohe (China). Liaohe Oilfield Co.

    2009-07-01

    Sand production in heavy oil reservoirs can limit the normal production of oil wells. In this study, expandable screens were used as a sand control mechanism by filtering the sand as it entered the wellbore. The screen systems consists of an expandable outer housing, an expandable base pipe and a filtering layer. The screen expands radially through an expandable cone and presses into the casing well. Axial tension is used to shrink the screens radially through a fishing anchor in order to remove them from the well. The lack of a sand ring between the screen and the casing increases the flow area of the oil and reduces flow resistance caused by fine silt blockages. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the expansion and shrinkage properties of the screens. A field test conducted at a well located in the Liaohe oilfield in China demonstrated that good sand control results can be obtained without the need for pump checking. It was concluded that the sand control method is easy to use and provides good sand control results in large open flow areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. The use of thermally expandable microcapsules for increasing the toughness and heal structural adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Sato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of thermally expandable microcapsules (TEMs on mode I fracture toughness of structural adhesives were investigated. The single-edge-notch bending (SENB test was used. Firstly, a standard toughness test was performed on adhesives with microcapsules. Secondly, since TEMs start their expansion at approximately 60ºC, the next specimens were fatigue tested expecting a local heating in the notch leading to the desired expansion before being statically loaded for fracture toughness determination. Thirdly, a manual local heating at 90ºC was applied in the notch before the fracture static test. The experimental results were successfully cross-checked through a numerical analysis using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM. The major conclusion is that fracture toughness of the modified adhesives increased as the mass fraction of the TEMs increased.

  6. Emergence of unstable modes in an expanding domain for energy-conserving wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, K.J.H. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States)], E-mail: kevrekid@math.umas.edu; Frantzeskakis, D.J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Bishop, A.R. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-01-28

    Motivated by recent work on instabilities in expanding domains in reaction-diffusion settings, we propose an analog of such mechanisms in energy-conserving wave equations. In particular, we consider a nonlinear Schroedinger equation in a finite domain and show how the expansion or contraction of the domain, under appropriate conditions, can destabilize its originally stable solutions through the modulational instability mechanism. Using both real and Fourier space diagnostics, we monitor and control the crossing of the instability threshold and, hence, the activation of the instability. We also consider how the manifestation of this mechanism is modified in a spatially inhomogeneous setting, namely in the presence of an external parabolic potential, which is relevant to trapped Bose-Einstein condensates.

  7. ANT: Software for Generating and Evaluating Degenerate Codons for Natural and Expanded Genetic Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, Martin K M; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-08-21

    The Ambiguous Nucleotide Tool (ANT) is a desktop application that generates and evaluates degenerate codons. Degenerate codons are used to represent DNA positions that have multiple possible nucleotide alternatives. This is useful for protein engineering and directed evolution, where primers specified with degenerate codons are used as a basis for generating libraries of protein sequences. ANT is intuitive and can be used in a graphical user interface or by interacting with the code through a defined application programming interface. ANT comes with full support for nonstandard, user-defined, or expanded genetic codes (translation tables), which is important because synthetic biology is being applied to an ever widening range of natural and engineered organisms. The Python source code for ANT is freely distributed so that it may be used without restriction, modified, and incorporated in other software or custom data pipelines.

  8. Graviton creation by small scale factor oscillations in an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiappacasse, Enrico D.; Ford, L. H.

    2016-10-01

    We treat quantum creation of gravitons by small scale factor oscillations around the average of an expanding universe. Such oscillations can arise in standard general relativity due to oscillations of a homogeneous, minimally coupled scalar field. They can also arise in modified gravity theories with a term proportional to the square of the Ricci scalar in the gravitational action. The graviton wave equation is different in the two cases, leading to somewhat different creation rates. Both cases are treated using a perturbative method due to Birrell and Davies, involving an expansion in a conformal coupling parameter to calculate the number density and energy density of the created gravitons. Cosmological constraints on the present graviton energy density and the dimensionless amplitude of the oscillations are discussed. We also discuss decoherence of quantum systems produced by the spacetime geometry fluctuations due to such a graviton bath.

  9. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-08-26

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the -1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded repeats with more than 35 consecutive CAG codons. An atypical +1 shift site, UUC C at the 5' end of CAG repeats, which has some resemblance to the influenza A virus shift site, triggers the +1 frameshifting and is enhanced by the increased propensity of the expanded CAG repeats to form a stem-loop structure. The +1 trans-frame-encoded product can directly influence the aggregation of the parental Htt exon 1.

  10. Sea Level Enigmatic Rising - New Perspectives from an Expanding Globe

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    In the expanding Earth framework it is possible to find additional phenomena that could contribute in a proper way to the water balance and general tectonic eustatism involved in the sea lever rising. Recent compilations seems to leave unexplained up to 12 cm/century of sea rising, and possible solutions invoking a polar ice shells melting near to the upper limit of the error bars reveal in conflict with the consequent expected decreasing of the Earth angular velocity. It is shown that taking into account possible effects of an expanding Earth, the problem can be initiated towards an appropriate solution, at least as regards the just orders of magnitude. Major effects on sea-level could come from ongoing relaxation of curvature variations that are peculiar for an expanding globe.

  11. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion in cleft patients resulting from the use of two different expanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Daniel Santos Fonseca; Cardinal, Lucas; Bartolomeo, Flávia Uchôa Costa; Palomo, Juan Martin; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Andrade, Ildeu; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in cleft patients using two types of expanders. Methods: Twenty unilateral cleft lip and palate patients were randomly divided into two groups, according to the type of expander used: (I) modified Hyrax and (II) inverted Mini-Hyrax. A pretreatment cone-beam computed tomographic image (T0) was taken as part of the initial orthodontic records and three months after RME, for bone graft planning (T1). Results: In general, there was no significant difference among groups (p > 0.05). Both showed a significant transverse maxillary expansion (p 0.05). There was greater dental crown than apical expansion. Maxillary posterior expansion tended to be larger than anterior opening (p 0.05). Conclusions: The appliances tested are effective in the transverse expansion of the maxilla. However, these appliances should be better indicated to cleft cases also presenting posterior transverse discrepancy, since there was greater expansion in the posterior maxillary region than in the anterior one. PMID:27683832

  12. Note: Expanding the bandwidth of the ultra-low current amplifier using an artificial negative capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Kai, E-mail: kaixie@mail.xidian.edu.cn; Liu, Yan; Li, XiaoPing [School of Aerospace Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Guo, Lixin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Zhang, Hanlu [School of Communication & Information Engineering, Xi’an University of Posts & Telecommunication, Xi’an 710121 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The bandwidth and low noise characteristics are often contradictory in ultra-low current amplifier, because an inevitable parasitic capacitance is paralleled with the high value feedback resistor. In order to expand the amplifier’s bandwidth, a novel approach was proposed by introducing an artificial negative capacitor to cancel the parasitic capacitance. The theory of the negative capacitance and the performance of the improved amplifier circuit with the negative capacitor are presented in this manuscript. The test was conducted by modifying an ultra-low current amplifier with a trans-impedance gain of 50 GΩ. The results show that the maximum bandwidth was expanded from 18.7 Hz to 3.3 kHz with more than 150 times of increase when the parasitic capacitance (∼0.17 pF) was cancelled. Meanwhile, the rise time decreased from 18.7 ms to 0.26 ms with no overshot. Any desired bandwidth or rise time within these ranges can be obtained by adjusting the ratio of cancellation of the parasitic and negative capacitance. This approach is especially suitable for the demand of rapid response to weak current, such as transient ion-beam detector, mass spectrometry analysis, and fast scanning microscope.

  13. Uniformly expanding vacuum: A possible interpretation of the dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Yuan, Fang-Fang

    2016-06-01

    Following the spirit of the equivalence principle, we take a step further to recognize the free fall of the observer as a method to eliminate causes that would lead the perceived vacuum to change its original state. Thus, it is expected that the vacuum should be in a rigid Minkowski state or be uniformly expanding. By carefully investigating the impact on measurement caused by the expansion, we clarify the exact meaning of the uniformly expanding vacuum and find that this proposal may be able to explain the current observations of an accelerating universe.

  14. Supercooling of rapidly expanding quark-gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Zabrodin, E E; Csernai, László P; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W

    1998-01-01

    We reexamine the scenario of homogeneous nucleation of the quark-gluon plasma produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. A generalization of the standard nucleation theory to rapidly expanding system is proposed. The nucleation rate is derived via the new scaling parameter $\\lambda_Z$. It is shown that the size distribution of hadronic clusters plays an important role in the dynamics of the phase transition. The longitudinally expanding system is supercooled to about 3-6%, then it is reheated, and the hadronization is completed within 6-10 fm/c, i.e. 5-10 times faster than it was estimated earlier, in a strongly nonequilibrium way.

  15. Chronic expanding hematoma of thorax extended to the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hitoshi; Baba, Hiromitsu; Ondo, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of chronic expanding hematoma of thorax extended to the neck. An 83-year-old man with a history of Lucite ball plombage and thoracoplasty of bilateral thorax was admitted with numbness of left upper extremity. In 6 months, left supraclavicular fossa was gradually bulged like tumor. The lesion was diagnosed as chronic expanding hematoma. Surgically, Lucite balls were removed with surrounding hematoma debris and fluid, and neck hematoma, which was slightly communicated to the thorax, was extirpated. We discussed the genesis of this hematoma and its extension to the neck.

  16. Expanding and nonexpanding conformal wormholes, in scalar-tensor theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Melis Ulu; Yilmaz, Ihsan

    2015-06-01

    We study spherically symmetric spacetime with anisotropic fluid in the scalar-tensor theory of gravity based on Lyra geometry. We suggest two different solutions of field equations for the theory by using Casimir effect. Obtained static and nonstatic solutions are similar to nonexpanding Lorentzian wormhole and expanding FRW-type wormhole, respectively. Furthermore, we study singularities of obtained solutions. We emphasize whether the expanding and nonexpanding wormholes conform with Big Rip or Big Crunch scenarios. Also, physical and geometrical properties of the solutions have been discussed.

  17. Sound absorption study of raw and expanded particulate vermiculites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašina, Martin; Plachá, Daniela; Mikeska, Marcel; Hružík, Lumír; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2016-12-01

    Expanded and raw vermiculite minerals were studied for their ability to absorb sound. Phase and structural characterization of the investigated vermiculites was found similar for both types, while morphology and surface properties vary. Sound waves reflect in wedge-like structure and get minimized, and later are absorbed totally. We found that thanks to porous character of expanded vermiculite the principle of absorption of sound into layered vermiculite morphology is analogous to principle of sound minimization in "anechoic chambers." It was found in this study that the best sound damping properties of the investigated vermiculites were in general obtained at higher powder bed heights and higher excitation frequencies.

  18. Pre-expanded Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Sharon E; Webster, Nicholas D; Wong, Stacy; Saint-Cyr, Michel H

    2017-01-01

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap can be used to cover large defects of the proximal lower extremity, abdominal wall, perineum, vulva, and buttock. Pre-expanding DIEP flaps cause a possible delay phenomenon improving vascularity, decrease donor site morbidity, and increase the area that can be covered. Pre-expansion requires staged procedures, has risk of extrusion and infection, causes temporary contour deformity during the expansion process, and requires a longer course. Pre-expanded DIEP flaps can be a useful flap with proper patient selection and planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A beam expander facility for studying x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.

    1992-01-01

    The detailed study of the performance of full scale x-ray optics often requires the illumination of large areas. This paper describes a beam expander facility at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It combines monochromatization and beam expansion in one dimension. The beam expansion...... is obtained from an extremely asymmetric reflection in a large single crystal of Si. An expansion of a factor of 50 was obtained in one dimension. The expanded beam of ~85 mm is limited only by the crystal size. The facility is installed in a 12-m-long hutch. A specific application, in which a high throughput...

  20. On the Propagation of Light in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Heymann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The equation of the propagation of light in an expanding Universe is derived based on the definition of comoving distances. A numerical method is proposed to solve this equation jointly with the Friedmann equation. As the equation of the propagation of light in an expanding Universe defines a horizon of the visible Universe, this puts a constraint on cosmological models in order to be consistent with an upper limit for redshifts observed from galaxies. This puzzle is challenging current expansionist cosmological models.

  1. 3D CFD analysis of a twin screw expander

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacevic, A.; S Rane

    2013-01-01

    Twin screw machines can be used as expanders for variety of applications. This paper describes how the performance of an oil free twin screw air expander of 3/5 lobe configuration was estimated by use of full 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) applying a procedure similar to that used for screw compressors. The grid generator SCORG© was employed for pre-processing of the moving domains between the rotors while the stationary grids for the ports were derived from a commercial grid generator...

  2. Pre-expanded Intercostal Perforator Super-Thin Skin Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunjun; Luo, Yong; Lu, Feng; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Gao, Jianhua; Jiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces pre-expanded super-thin intercostal perforator flaps, particularly the flap that has a perforator from the first to second intercostal spaces. The key techniques, advantages and disadvantages, and complications and management of this flap are described. At present, the thinnest possible flap is achieved by thinning the pre-expanded flap that has a perforator from the first to second intercostal spaces. It is used to reconstruct large defects on the face and neck, thus restoring function and cosmetic appearance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy Emission by Quantum Systems in an Expanding FRW Metric

    CERN Document Server

    Sheehan, D P

    2004-01-01

    Bound quantum mechanical systems not expanding with the comoving frame of an expanding, flat FRW metric are found to release energy at a rate linearly proportional to the local Hubble constant ($H_{o}$) and the systems' binding energy ($E_{b}$); {\\em i.e.}, $\\dot{E} = H_{o} E_{b}$. Three exemplary quantum systems are examined. For systems with early cosmological condensation times | notably hadrons | time-integrated energy release could have been significant and could account for an appreciable fraction of the dark matter inventory.

  4. Synthesis of Modified Methylaluminoxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Bo-chao; Zhao Xu-tao; Yin Yuan-qi; Wei Shao-yi

    2004-01-01

    Methylaluminoxane (MAO) is one of the most important cocatalysts of metallocene catalysts. The yield and activity of MAO is low when using Al2(SO4)3 nH2O and other inorganic hydrates to synthesize methylaluminoxane. The repeatability of this reaction is not good. The product cost is very high because one of the raw materials (Trimethylaluminium, TMA) to prepare MAO is very expensive. In addition, on standing, MAO toluene solution tends to gel. Gelled MAO can not be used to prepare supported metallocene catalyets.With the development of gas phase and slurry polymerization of olefine by metallocene catalysts,the application of supported metallocene catalysts becomes more and more important.This paper relates to the use of trimethylaluminium (TMA), tri-isobutylaluminium(TIBA) and silica gel containing from about 4 to about 22 percent by weight absorbed water to synthesize modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO). This method, which integrates synthesis and supporting of MMAO, simplify the preparing process of metallocene catalysts. By using this method, the yield and activity of modified methylaluminoxane is higher than using Al2(SO4)3 nH2O and other inorganic hydrates, and what is more, not only the product cost is lowered, but also gelled MAO is avoided. In addition, the repeatability of this reaction is much better because TIBA is stabler than TMA.Synthesis of Modified MAO: A one liter three neck flask equipped with a magnetic stirring bar and a constant pressure funnel was charged with 250ml of dried and degassed toluene. 60g of undehydrated silica gel (Davison 955) which contains 12 weight percent absorbed water was added into the flask. The resulting mixture was stirred at -10℃ for 30 minutes. Thereafter 90ml of trimethylaluminum/toluene solution (2.0M) was dropped slowly into the flask in 60 minutes. The resulting mixture was allowed to react under stirring at -10℃ for 1hours, then at 0℃ for 1 hours,then at ambient temperature for 1 hours and finally at 40

  5. Modified Clipped LMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfizad Mojtaba

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new algorithm is proposed for updating the weights of an adaptive filter. The proposed algorithm is a modification of an existing method, namely, the clipped LMS, and uses a three-level quantization ( scheme that involves the threshold clipping of the input signals in the filter weight update formula. Mathematical analysis shows the convergence of the filter weights to the optimum Wiener filter weights. Also, it can be proved that the proposed modified clipped LMS (MCLMS algorithm has better tracking than the LMS algorithm. In addition, this algorithm has reduced computational complexity relative to the unmodified one. By using a suitable threshold, it is possible to increase the tracking capability of the MCLMS algorithm compared to the LMS algorithm, but this causes slower convergence. Computer simulations confirm the mathematical analysis presented.

  6. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  7. Dental Extrusion with Orthodontic Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report Describing a Modified Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fidos Horliana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012. We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23 by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich.

  8. Aortic annulus eccentricity before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Comparison of balloon-expandable and self-expanding prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika, E-mail: annika.schuhbaeck@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Weingartner, Christina [Department of Cardiology, University of Gießen, Giessen (Germany); Arnold, Martin; Schmid, Jasmin; Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Rixe, Johannes; Nef, Holger [Department of Cardiology, University of Gießen, Giessen (Germany); Schneider, Christian [Department of Radiology, University of Gießen, Giessen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [Department of Radiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Ensminger, Stephan [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Feyrer, Richard; Weyand, Michael [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Achenbach, Stephan [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses is influenced by aortic valve calcification. • Balloon-expandable prostheses are more circular as compared to self-expanding prostheses. • The impact of post-implant geometry on valve function needs to be investigated. - Abstract: Introduction: The geometry of the aortic annulus and implanted transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis might influence valve function. We investigated the influence of valve type and aortic valve calcification on post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (mean age 82 ± 6 years) underwent computed tomography before and after TAVI. Aortic annulus diameters were determined. Influence of prosthesis type and degree of aortic valve calcification on post-implant eccentricity were analysed. Results: Aortic annulus eccentricity was reduced in patients after TAVI (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.08 ± 0.06, p < 0.0001). Post-TAVI eccentricity was significantly lower in 65 patients following implantation of a balloon-expandable prosthesis as compared to 15 patients who received a self-expanding prosthesis (0.06 ± 0.05 vs. 0.15 ± 0.07, p < 0.0001), even though the extent of aortic valve calcification was not different. After TAVI, patients with a higher calcium amount retained a significantly higher eccentricity compared to patients with lower amounts of calcium. Conclusions: Patients undergoing TAVI with a balloon-expandable prosthesis show a more circular shape of the implanted prosthesis as compared to patients with a self-expanding prosthesis. Eccentricity of the deployed prosthesis is affected by the extent of aortic valve calcification.

  9. Hubble Diagram Test of Expanding and Static Cosmological Models: The Case for a Slowly Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo A. Marosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.

  10. EXPANDED PERLITE, EXPANDED VERMICULITE AND MICROSPHERES AS FILLERS IN NEW GENERATION PAPER PULP MIXTURES USED FOR CONTACT WITH LIQUID METAL

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Zawieja; Jacek Sawicki

    2015-01-01

    Liquid metal when filling sand casting mould while pouring it out from ladle at the first moment comes across the sprue/gate system of the mould the purpose of which is to transfer liquid metal and feed the mould recess. The materials presently used for the elements of the sprue/gate systems are based on ceramics or the mixtures based on paper pulp. In this study the use of alternative mineral additions such as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite, and microspheres as the fillers to paper p...

  11. An Expanded Model of Faculty Vitality in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankoski, Mary E.; Palmer, Megan M.; Laird, Thomas F. Nelson; Ribera, Amy K.; Bogdewic, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Many faculty in today's academic medical centers face high levels of stress and low career satisfaction. Understanding faculty vitality is critically important for the health of our academic medical centers, yet the concept is ill-defined and lacking a comprehensive model. Expanding on previous research that examines vital faculty in higher…

  12. 2010 Impacts: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Since 1969, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) has improved the diets and food-related behaviors of program participants. Each year EFNEP enrolls more than half a million new program participants. In 2010, EFNEP reached 137,814 adults and 463,530 youth directly and nearly 400,000 family members indirectly. This paper…

  13. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, poor health, and limited physical activity are major health concerns. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) improves the health and well-being of limited resource families and youth. Additionally, EFNEP leads to public savings. Research shows that better health is associated with reduced health care costs, less…

  14. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, C.C.; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F.; Schiffman, E.L.; Alstergren, P.; Anderson, G.C.; De Leeuw, R.; Jensen, R.; Michelotti, A.; Ohrbach, R.; Petersson, A.; List, T.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for

  15. Dynamical 3-Space: Black Holes in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothall D. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Black holes are usually studied without including effects of the expanding universe. However in some recent studies black holes have been embedded in an expanding universe, in order to determine the interplay, if any, of these two dynamical processes. Dynamical 3-space theory contains time independent solutions for black holes, which are spatial in-flows, and separately the time dependent Hubble expansion. This theory has explained numerous puzzles in observational astrophysics and contains 3 constants; G, - which from experimental data turns out to be the fine structure constant, and - which is a small but nonzero distance, possibly a Planck-type length. The Hubble expansion in the dynamical 3-space theory cannot be “switched o”, forcing the study, first, of isolated black holes coexisting with the expanding universe. It is shown that a time dependent black hole and expanding universe solution exists. The nature and implications of these solutions are discussed as they evolve over time. A dynamical network of black holes and induced linking cosmic filaments forming bubble structures is discussed, as a consequence of dynamical 3-space undergoing a dynamical breakdown of homogeneity and isotropy, even in the absence of baryonic matter.

  16. Expanding the Spanish Classroom: The "Art" in Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Erin M.

    2016-01-01

    Supplementing the foreign language curriculum with the incorporation of art museum visits has benefits for students, faculty, the campus art gallery, and the institution. Such a collaborative program serves to expand the classroom and complement instruction by providing learners with a new space to engage in authentic practice in the target…

  17. Expanding Schooling Opportunities for 4-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Edwin; Lindahl, Mikael; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Webbink, Dinand

    2010-01-01

    We use a novel quasi-experimental strategy to estimate the effect of expanding early schooling enrollment possibilities on early achievement. It exploits two features of the school system in The Netherlands. The first is rolling admissions; children are allowed to start school immediately after their 4th birthday instead of at the beginning of the…

  18. Expanding the Role of Connectionism in SLA Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how connectionism might expand its role in second language acquisition (SLA) theory by showing how some symbolic models of bilingual and second language lexical memory can be reduced to a biologically realistic (i.e., neurally plausible) connectionist model. This integration or hybridization of the two models follows the…

  19. Validation of the Chinese Expanded Euthanasia Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the validation of the Chinese version of an expanded 31-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale. A 4-stage validation process included a pilot survey of 119 college students and a randomized household survey with 618 adults in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor structure of the scale, which can therefore be…

  20. Validation of the Chinese Expanded Euthanasia Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the validation of the Chinese version of an expanded 31-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale. A 4-stage validation process included a pilot survey of 119 college students and a randomized household survey with 618 adults in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor structure of the scale, which can therefore be…

  1. Expanding Gerontology Enrollments: Successful Results of an Innovative Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Haley, William E.; Hyer, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    As state budget allocations for higher education decrease, "specialty" programs such as gerontology must continually demonstrate their productivity. State and private universities increasingly rely on student credit hours (SCH) or tuition generated, which is making it difficult for many gerontology programs to expand. The School of Aging Studies…

  2. THE HAMILTONIAN STRUCTURE OF TWO INTEGRABLE EXPANDING MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Bin; Dong Huanhe; Li Zhu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,an extended loop algebra is constructed from which an isospectral problem established.It follows that the integrable couplings of the Tu hierarchy and M-AKNS-KN hierarchy are obtained.and their Hamilton structures are presented by the quadratic-form identity.Moreover,we guarantee that the expanding model we obtained are also Liouville integrable.

  3. Enrichment in Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caven, Meghan; Checkoway, Amy; Gamse, Beth; Luck, Rachel; Wu, Sally

    2012-01-01

    This brief highlights key information about enrichment activities, which represent one of the main components of the Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) initiative. Over time, the ELT initiative has supported over two dozen schools across the Commonwealth. A comprehensive evaluation of the ELT initiative found that implementation of the…

  4. Collaborative Planning in Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT). Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caven, Meghan; Checkoway, Amy; Gamse, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) initiative is designed to improve academic outcomes by increasing the amount of learning time for students. Schools are expected to provide opportunities to teachers for collaborative planning and professional development as well as add time to the school day or year for instructional and enrichment…

  5. Expanding Gerontology Enrollments: Successful Results of an Innovative Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Haley, William E.; Hyer, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    As state budget allocations for higher education decrease, "specialty" programs such as gerontology must continually demonstrate their productivity. State and private universities increasingly rely on student credit hours (SCH) or tuition generated, which is making it difficult for many gerontology programs to expand. The School of Aging Studies…

  6. Fire Resistance of Concrete Constructions with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes briefly a series of full-scale tests made as documentation for extending the field of application of the reduced cross section method from the structural codes to constructions based on expanded clay aggregate. As a special result the tests verify that slabs with a short...

  7. Role of self expandable stents in management of colorectalcancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Acute malignant colorectal obstruction is a complicationof colorectal cancer that can occur in 7%-29% of patients. Self-expanding metallic stent placement formalignant colorectal obstruction has gained popularity asa safe and effective procedure for relieving obstruction.This technique can be used in the palliation of malignantcolorectal obstruction, as a bridge to elective surgery forresectable colorectal cancers, palliation of extracolonicmalignant obstruction, and for nonmalignant etiologiessuch as anastomotic strictures, Crohn's disease, radiationtherapy, and diverticular diseases. Self-expandingmetallic stent has its own advantages and disadvantagesover the surgery in these indications. During the insertionof the self-expanding metallic stent, and in the followup,short term and long term morbidities should be keptin mind. The most important complications of the stentsare perforation, stent obstruction, stent migration, andbleeding. Additionally, given the high risk of perforation,if a patient is treated or being consideredfortreatmentwithantiangiogenic agents such as bevacizumab, it isnot recommended to use self-expanding metallic stentas a palliative treatment for obstruction. Therefore, thereis a need for careful clinical evaluation for each patientwho is a candidate for this procedure. The purpose ofthis review was to evaluate self-expanding metallic stentin the management of the obstruction of the colon dueto the colorectal and extracolonic obstruction.

  8. Expanding the Role of Connectionism in SLA Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how connectionism might expand its role in second language acquisition (SLA) theory by showing how some symbolic models of bilingual and second language lexical memory can be reduced to a biologically realistic (i.e., neurally plausible) connectionist model. This integration or hybridization of the two models follows the…

  9. Expandable bioresorbable endovascular stent. I. Fabrication and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shih-Horng; Chao, Robert Y N; Landau, Charles L; Nelson, Kevin D; Timmons, Richard B; Meidell, Robert S; Eberhart, Robert C

    2003-06-01

    A bioresorbable, expandable poly(L-lactic acid) stent has been designed, based on a linear, continuous coil array principle, by which multiple furled lobes convert to a single lobe upon balloon expansion, without heating. Stent strength and compliance are sufficient to permit deployment by a conventional balloon angioplasty catheter. Several multiple lobe configurations were investigated, with expansion ratios ranging from 1.4 to 1.9 and expanded diameters ranging from 2.3 to 4.7 mm. Compression resistance of the expanded stent is dependent on fiber coil density and fiber ply. A range sufficient for endovascular service was obtained, with less than 4% elastic recoil in six day saline incubation studies. Surface plasma treatment with di(ethylene glycol) vinyl ether significantly reduced platelet adhesion in a 1 h porcine arteriovenous shunt model. Patency was maintained in one week implant studies in the porcine common femoral artery. However, a strong inflammatory response, and significant reduction of the vascular lumen were observed following two weeks implantation. The design principles and fabrication techniques for this bioresorbable stent are sufficiently versatile that a broad range of applications can be addressed. Much work remains to be done, including long-term evaluation of the inflammatory response, and of polymer degradation. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of expandable biodegradable stent design and deployment by conventional means.

  10. Interpreting and Expanding Confucius' Golden Mean through Neutrosophic Tetrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. There are many similarities between The Golden Mean and Neutrosophy. Chinese and international scholars need to toil towards expanding and developing The Golden Mean, towards its "modernization" and "globalization".

  11. Expanding the Vision of Self: Why the Arts Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Linda F.

    2013-01-01

    In this reflective essay, Linda F. Nathan, the founding headmaster of the Boston Arts Academy and currently the executive director of Center for Arts in Education at Boston Arts Academy, shares a story about how one student, Ronald, expands his vision of self through his engagement with the arts. In presenting this reflection on Ronald's…

  12. Diaspora, Migration, and Globalization: Expanding the Discourse of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how notions of diaspora, migration, and globalization intersect to inform identities and social realities of those who leave their homeland and resettle in other nations. It calls for expanding the discourse of adult education to incorporate critical studies of the diaspora to make visible the inequality and imbalance of…

  13. Time Impact of Expanded Process Control Procedures (EPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    than the Organizational maintenance. Depot maintenance occurs in the manufacturer’s specialized shops . This type of work is generally the most...EXPANDED PROCESS CONTROL PROCEDURES (EPCP) by Jeremy C. Joseph June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Gary O. Langford Second Reader: Diana I. Angelis...

  14. Targeting China's Newly Rich Western Luxury Brands to Expand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Western fashion brands have been considering China as a market for cheap raw materials and labor for several centuries.However,in recent months,China's booming economy has attracted the fashion industry.Many high-profit fashion brands said they intend to expand business in China.

  15. Expanding Hipolito-Delgado and Lee's Empowerment Theory: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, Carlos; D'Andrea, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hipolito-Delgado and Lee's article entitled "Empowerment Theory for the Professional School Counselor: A Manifesto for What Really Matters" represents an important contribution to the school counseling literature for two reasons: (1) It helps to expand a growing knowledge base related to the work school counselors can do to foster the…

  16. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  17. Expanding the mirror : vicarious activity for actions, emotions, and sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    We often empathically share the states of others. The discovery of 'mirror neurons' suggested a neural mechanism for monkeys to share the actions of others. Here we expand this view by showing that mirror neurons for actions not only exist in the premotor cortex or in monkeys and that vicarious acti

  18. Lattice expansion of carbon-stabilized expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The lattice parameter of expanded austenite was determined as a function of the content of interstitially dissolved carbon in homogeneous, carburized thin stainless steel foils. For the first time this expansion of the face-centered cubic lattice is determined on unstrained austenite. It is found...

  19. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  20. Response to "Expanding Access to Learning with Mobile Digital Devices"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Jen

    2017-01-01

    In his article "Expanding Access to Learning with Mobile Digital Devices" (EJ1150752), Jeff Carter recommended a balanced perspective when measuring the potential of mobile learning to redefine teaching and learning for adults with basic skills needs. In response to Carter's article, the author makes some recommendations that she thinks…

  1. How to expand the corpus of spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华

    2015-01-01

    With the speeding up of economic globalization, English as a global language status is becoming more and more manifest.This article from the spoken corpus concept is introduced, combined with the students' oral English learning methods, guide the students in learning spoken English in different ways to find the effective way to expand the spoken language corpora.

  2. Expanding the Black Woman's Horizon: Picking From a Higher Bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding the Black Woman's Horizon: Picking From a Higher Bush Motif in Zora ... While bringing up Janie, Nanny overprotects her and shields her from the ... In her quest, Janie discovers that it is not comfort or money that brings about love ...

  3. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F; Schiffman, E L; Alstergren, P; Anderson, G C; de Leeuw, R; Jensen, R; Michelotti, A; Ohrbach, R; Petersson, A; List, T

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. The expanded TMDs taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalise and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria.

  4. Reflections on Using Blogs to Expand In-Class Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsua, Hui-Yin

    2008-01-01

    Originally, blogs served as personal journaling tools. Recently, blogs have facilitated the formation of online communities and have thus expanded to more extensive uses in education. Little has been learned about using blogs as a collaboration tool in educational contexts. In this article, the authors share their experiences with using blogs to…

  5. CSU Standard for the CLSI Expanded Title Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen; And Others

    The revised system specifications described in this document were adopted by the 19 California State University and College (CSUC) libraries for a second test version of the CLSI "Expanded Title Record" public access online catalog at California State University at Chico. Should this pilot demonstration of the data format prove…

  6. CSUC Standard for the CLSI Expanded Title Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Barbara; And Others

    The system specifications described have been adopted by the 19 California State University and Colleges Libraries for use with the CL Systems "Expanded Title Record" format. It is anticipated that these specifications will be tested at California State University, Chico, beginning midyear 1981. Should this pilot demonstration prove…

  7. Diaspora, Migration, and Globalization: Expanding the Discourse of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how notions of diaspora, migration, and globalization intersect to inform identities and social realities of those who leave their homeland and resettle in other nations. It calls for expanding the discourse of adult education to incorporate critical studies of the diaspora to make visible the inequality and imbalance of…

  8. New expanded bed adsorbents for the recovery of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Olander, M. A.; Sondergaard, M.;

    2000-01-01

    A 20-40 mum pellicular high density (similar to3.7 g cm(-3)) expanded bed material has been designed for the capture of DNA and other large macromolecules. Anion exchangers fashioned out of these supports exhibited dramatically enhanced DNA binding capacities over commercial anion exchange...

  9. How to expand the corpus of spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华

    2015-01-01

    With the speeding up of economic globalization, English as a global language status is becoming more and more manifest.This article from the spoken corpus concept is introduced, combined with the students’ oral English learning methods, guide the students in learning spoken English in different ways to find the effective way to expand the spoken language corpora.

  10. Expanding the Vision of Self: Why the Arts Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Linda F.

    2013-01-01

    In this reflective essay, Linda F. Nathan, the founding headmaster of the Boston Arts Academy and currently the executive director of Center for Arts in Education at Boston Arts Academy, shares a story about how one student, Ronald, expands his vision of self through his engagement with the arts. In presenting this reflection on Ronald's…

  11. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  12. Educated Japanese English: Expanding Oral/Aural Core Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Having established the world's first undergraduate college of world Englishes, and in an "Expanding-Circle" setting, we have created the pilot environment for a new type of ELT curriculum. We must address the creation of a curriculum that is pervasively informed by the philosophy of world Englishes at both a macro and micro level. Certain…

  13. CSUC Standard for the CLSI Expanded Title Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Barbara; And Others

    The system specifications described have been adopted by the 19 California State University and Colleges Libraries for use with the CL Systems "Expanded Title Record" format. It is anticipated that these specifications will be tested at California State University, Chico, beginning midyear 1981. Should this pilot demonstration prove…

  14. CSU Standard for the CLSI Expanded Title Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen; And Others

    The revised system specifications described in this document were adopted by the 19 California State University and College (CSUC) libraries for a second test version of the CLSI "Expanded Title Record" public access online catalog at California State University at Chico. Should this pilot demonstration of the data format prove…

  15. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

  16. Expanding the mirror : vicarious activity for actions, emotions, and sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    We often empathically share the states of others. The discovery of 'mirror neurons' suggested a neural mechanism for monkeys to share the actions of others. Here we expand this view by showing that mirror neurons for actions not only exist in the premotor cortex or in monkeys and that vicarious

  17. Expanding Possibilities through Metaphor: Breaking Biases to Improve Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirka, Carol C.; Corrigall, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that an exercise using metaphors to overcome cognitive biases helped students to proactively imagine and prepare for an expanded set of potential crises. The exercise complements traditional textbook approaches to crisis management and incorporates creativity skill building in a realistic context. Learning outcomes…

  18. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F

    2014-01-01

    criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included...

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ALTERNATIVES TO EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report represents the second demonstration of cleaner technologies to support the goals of the 33/50 Program under the EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-821848. The report presents assessment results of alternative packaging materials which could potentially replace expanded...

  20. Expanded retroauricular skin and fascial flap in congenital microtia reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingguo; Quan, Yuzhu; Su, Yuanda; Shi, Lei; Xie, Yangchun; Liu, Xinhai

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the application of expanding retroauricular skin fascia flap, and autogenous costal cartilage for congenital microtia reconstruction. Microtia reconstruction was generally completed in 3 surgical stages. In the first surgical stage, a 50 or 80 mL kidney-shaped tissue expander was inserted subcutaneously in the retroauricular mastoid region. Inflation of saline volume increased up to 60 to 80 mL, and skin flap was expanded for 2 to 3 months postoperatively. In the second surgical stage, removal of tissue expander, formation of retroauricular skin flap, elevation of retroauricular fascia flap, and pedicles of both flaps in remnant ear side were performed. Costal cartilage was harvested from ipsilateral side chest to the ear for reconstruction. The 3D ear framework was sculpted with stabilization of structure, contour and erection. Simultaneously, intermediate full thickness skin graft of 4 x 8 cm was obtained from previous incision site from where costal cartilage was harvested. Cartilage ear framework was anchored between skin flap and fascia flap, and fixed it symmetrically to the opposite normal ear, inferior portion of the ear framework was wrapped by remnant ear lobule, expanded skin flap covered the anterior portion of the framework, fascial flap was draped to the posterior side of framework and helical rim, then fascial flap was surfaced by intermediate full thickness skin graft. Suction drain was inserted and coated between skin flap and framework, drain was removed fifth postoperative day. Tragus construction and conchal excavation with skin graft was performed in the third stage of microtia reconstruction. Between October 2000 and October 2007, 426 cases were diagnosed as unilateral microtia patients and 22 cases were bilateral microtia patients. Therefore, 448 microtia ears were treated with tissue expander and autogenous costal cartilage. In 262 cases, structure of the helix, tragus, conchal excavation

  1. Expanding 3D geometry for enhanced on-chip microbubble production and single step formation of liposome modified microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Sally A; Abou-Saleh, Radwa H; McLaughlan, James R; Ingram, Nicola; Johnson, Benjamin R G; Critchley, Kevin; Freear, Steven; Evans, J Anthony; Markham, Alexander F; Coletta, P Louise; Evans, Stephen D

    2012-11-01

    Micron sized, lipid stabilized bubbles of gas are of interest as contrast agents for ultra-sound (US) imaging and increasingly as delivery vehicles for targeted, triggered, therapeutic delivery. Microfluidics provides a reproducible means for microbubble production and surface functionalisation. In this study, microbubbles are generated on chip using flow-focussing microfluidic devices that combine streams of gas and liquid through a nozzle a few microns wide and then subjecting the two phases to a downstream pressure drop. While microfluidics has successfully demonstrated the generation of monodisperse bubble populations, these approaches inherently produce low bubble counts. We introduce a new micro-spray flow regime that generates consistently high bubble concentrations that are more clinically relevant compared to traditional monodisperse bubble populations. Final bubble concentrations produced by the micro-spray regime were up to 10(10) bubbles mL(-1). The technique is shown to be highly reproducible and by using multiplexed chip arrays, the time taken to produce one millilitre of sample containing 10(10) bubbles mL(-1) was ∼10 min. Further, we also demonstrate that it is possible to attach liposomes, loaded with quantum dots (QDs) or fluorescein, in a single step during MBs formation.

  2. Correlation of inter-locus polyglutamine toxicity with CAG•CTG triplet repeat expandability and flanking genomic DNA GC content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm E Nestor

    Full Text Available Dynamic expansions of toxic polyglutamine (polyQ-encoding CAG repeats in ubiquitously expressed, but otherwise unrelated, genes cause a number of late-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington disease and the spinocerebellar ataxias. As polyQ toxicity in these disorders increases with repeat length, the intergenerational expansion of unstable CAG repeats leads to anticipation, an earlier age-at-onset in successive generations. Crucially, disease associated alleles are also somatically unstable and continue to expand throughout the lifetime of the individual. Interestingly, the inherited polyQ length mediating a specific age-at-onset of symptoms varies markedly between disorders. It is widely assumed that these inter-locus differences in polyQ toxicity are mediated by protein context effects. Previously, we demonstrated that the tendency of expanded CAG•CTG repeats to undergo further intergenerational expansion (their 'expandability' also differs between disorders and these effects are strongly correlated with the GC content of the genomic flanking DNA. Here we show that the inter-locus toxicity of the expanded polyQ tracts of these disorders also correlates with both the expandability of the underlying CAG repeat and the GC content of the genomic DNA flanking sequences. Inter-locus polyQ toxicity does not correlate with properties of the mRNA or protein sequences, with polyQ location within the gene or protein, or steady state transcript levels in the brain. These data suggest that the observed inter-locus differences in polyQ toxicity are not mediated solely by protein context effects, but that genomic context is also important, an effect that may be mediated by modifying the rate at which somatic expansion of the DNA delivers proteins to their cytotoxic state.

  3. The Expanding Polity: Theorizing the Links between Expanded Higher Education and the New Politics of the Post-1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David H.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the expansion of higher education worldwide has had important effects in restructuring the political system of affluent democracies. A large literature has developed that describes how democracy has been "downsized" (e.g., lower voting rates). This, I argue, is one impact of expanded higher education. But there is…

  4. The Potential for Health Monitoring in Expandable Space Modules: The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nathan D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2017-01-01

    Expandable modules for use in space and on the Moon or Mars offer a great opportunity for volume and mass savings in future space exploration missions. This type of module can be compressed into a relatively small shape on the ground, allowing them to fit into space vehicles with a smaller cargo/fairing size than a traditional solid, metallic structure based module would allow. In April 2016, the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) was berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). BEAM is the first human-rated expandable habitat/module to be deployed and crewed in space. BEAM is a NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. BEAM is intended to stay attached to ISS for an operational period of 2 years to help advance the technology readiness for future expandable modules. BEAM has been instrumented with a suite of space flight certified sensors systems which will help characterize the module's performance for thermal, radiation shielding and impact monitoring against potential Micro Meteoroid/Orbital Debris (MM/OD) providing fundamental information on the BEAM environment for potential health monitoring requirements and capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of how the sensors/instrumentation systems were developed, tested, installed and an overview of the current sensor system operations. It will also discuss how the MM/OD impact detection system referred to as the Distributed Impact Detection System (DIDS) data is being processed and reviewed on the ground by the principle investigators.

  5. The modified Atkins diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L

    2008-11-01

    In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50-90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed.

  6. Computational Evaluation of Nucleotide Insertion Opposite Expanded and Widened DNA by the Translesion Synthesis Polymerase Dpo4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Laura; Wilson, Katie A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2016-06-23

    Expanded (x) and widened (y) deoxyribose nucleic acids (DNA) have an extra benzene ring incorporated either horizontally (xDNA) or vertically (yDNA) between a natural pyrimidine base and the deoxyribose, or between the 5- and 6-membered rings of a natural purine. Far-reaching applications for (x,y)DNA include nucleic acid probes and extending the natural genetic code. Since modified nucleobases must encode information that can be passed to the next generation in order to be a useful extension of the genetic code, the ability of translesion (bypass) polymerases to replicate modified bases is an active area of research. The common model bypass polymerase DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) has been previously shown to successfully replicate and extend past a single modified nucleobase on a template DNA strand. In the current study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to evaluate the accommodation of expanded/widened nucleobases in the Dpo4 active site, providing the first structural information on the replication of (x,y)DNA. Our results indicate that the Dpo4 catalytic (palm) domain is not significantly impacted by the (x,y)DNA bases. Instead, the template strand is displaced to accommodate the increased C1'-C1' base-pair distance. The structural insights unveiled in the present work not only increase our fundamental understanding of Dpo4 replication, but also reveal the process by which Dpo4 replicates (x,y)DNA, and thereby will contribute to the optimization of high fidelity and efficient polymerases for the replication of modified nucleobases.

  7. The modified equation approach to the stability and accuracy analysis of finite-difference methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warming, R. F.; Hyett, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    The stability and accuracy of finite-difference approximations to simple linear partial differential equations are analyzed by studying the modified partial differential equation. Aside from round-off error, the modified equation represents the actual partial differential equation solved when a numerical solution is computed using a finite-difference equation. The modified equation is derived by first expanding each term of a difference scheme in a Taylor series and then eliminating time derivatives higher than first order by certain algebraic manipulations. The connection between 'heuristic' stability theory based on the modified equation approach and the von Neumann (Fourier) method is established. In addition to the determination of necessary and sufficient conditions for computational stability, a truncated version of the modified equation can be used to gain insight into the nature of both dissipative and dispersive errors.

  8. MODIFIED LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To furtherly reduce the subxiphoid port site pain,improve the cosmetic result and patient satisfaction,and increase the safety for patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy by advanced laparoscopic knotting skill.Methods:Among our 1500 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy since 1991,120 cases of modified laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) were performed with three 5-mm ports and one 10-mm port(for laparoscope and sepcien withdrawn).There were 25 male and 95 female patients with an average age of 55 years (24~77years).The indications for MLC included polypoid lesions of gallbladder (21),simple cholecystitis(3),cholecystolithiasisi with chronic cholecystitis(84),with acute suppurative cholecystitis(7),with atrophic cholecystitis(5).Results:There were 5 patients underwent combined laparoscopic appendectomy(3),fenestration of hepatic cyst(1),and drainge for liver abscess(1).The average operative time for MLC was 55 minutes(30~150min),blood loss was 10ml(3~50ml),and postoperative stay was 3 days(1~5days).There were no conversion from MLC to either LC or open surgery,without mortality.Complications were limited to two patients(1.7%).One was retained common bile duct stone and another was port site bleeding after operation.They were treated by transduodenal endoscopic stone retrieval and simple suture ligation,respecrtively.Conclusions:The advantages of MLC conducted mainly by advanced laparoscopic knotting techniques were no more laparoscope (either 2-mm or 5-mm)needed,no sacrifice of good illumination and laproscopic image.Most of all,its costeffective and operative safety were all improved furtherly.

  9. On a modified electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, H R

    2012-09-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.

  10. An algorithm for expanding the TNM staging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dechang; Hueman, Matthew T; Henson, Donald E; Schwartz, Arnold M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new method to expand the tumor, lymph node, metastasis (TNM) staging system using a clustering algorithm. Cases of breast cancer were used for demonstration. An unsupervised ensemble-learning algorithm was used to create dendrograms. Cutting the dendrograms produced prognostic systems. Prognostic systems contained groups of patients with similar outcomes. The prognostic systems based on tumor size and lymph node status recapitulated the general structure of the TNM for breast cancer. The prognostic systems based on tumor size, lymph node status, histologic grade and estrogen receptor status revealed a more detailed stratification of patients when grade and estrogen receptor status were added. Prognostic systems from cutting the dendrogram have the potential to improve and expand the TNM.

  11. Expanding Earth and Static Universe: Two Papers of 1935

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The German-born astronomer Jacob K. E. Halm (1866-1944) wrote in 1935 two papers on quite different subjects, one an astrophysically based argument for the expanding Earth and the other a no less original attempt to explain the galactic redshifts on the basis of a static universe. Of course, Halm was wrong in both cases. The second of the papers is reproduced in toto and compared to other early attempts to avoid the expansion of the universe by means of "tired light" explanations of the redshifts. Although often referred to in the literature on the expanding Earth, the content of Halm's first paper is not well known. This article also provides a brief account of Halm's life and scientific career, which included important studies of the solar spectrum (the "limb effect") and the first version of the mass-luminosity relation for stars.

  12. ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BIODEGRADABLE CHITOSAN/EXPANDED PERLITE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çabuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chitosan (CS/expanded perlite (EP composites with different chitosan fractions (10%, 20% and 50% were prepared by absorbing chitosan into porous networks of expanded perlite, as a new hybrid smart electrorheological (ER material. Structural and morphological characterizations of the composites were carried out by FTIR and SEM-EDS techniques. Also, apparent density, particle size, and conductivity of the CS/EP composites were determined. Finally, the effects of electric field strength (E, shear rate, shear stress, and temperature onto ER behavior of the CS/EP/silicone oil system were investigated. The CS/EP/SO ER fluid system showed reversible electrorheological activity when subjected to external electric field strength by showing shear thinning non-Newtonian viscoelastic behavior. The yield stress value reached to 1250 Pa under E = 3 kV/mm for CS/EP3 composite.

  13. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) - ISS Inflatable Module Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Munday, Steve; Valle, Gerard D.

    2014-01-01

    INNOVATION: BEAM is a pathway project demonstrating the design, fabrication, test, certification, integration, operation, on-orbit performance, and disposal of the first ever man-rated space inflatable structure. The groundwork laid through the BEAM project will support developing and launching a larger inflatable space structure with even greater mass per volume (M/V) advantages need for longer space missions. OVERVIEW: Inflatable structures have been shown to have much lower mass per volume ratios (M/V) when compared with conventional space structures. BEAM is an expandable structure, launched in a packed state, and then expanded once on orbit. It is a temporary experimental module to be used for gathering structural, thermal, and radiation data while on orbit. BEAM will be launched on Space X-8, be extracted from the dragon trunk, and will attach to ISS at Node 3- Aft. BEAM performance will be monitored over a two-year period and then BEAM will be jettison using the SSRMS.

  14. Neutron Generation and Kinetic Energy of Expanding Laser Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong-Sheng; WANG Nai-Yan; DUAN Xiao-Jiao; LAN Xiao-Fei; TAN Zhi-Xin; TANG Xiu-Zhang; HE Ye-Xi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the kinetic energy of expanding plasma of a solid target heated by a ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulse and the efficiency of energy coupling between the ultra-intense laser pulse and the solid target, in order to increase the utilization ratio of laser energy and to raise the neutron generation farther. Some new ideas about improving the energy utilization by head-on collisions between the expanding plasmas are proposed. The significance is the raise of generation of shorter duration neutron, of the order of picoseconds, which allows for an increase of energy resolution in time-of-flight experiments and also for the investigation of the dynamics of nuclear processes with high temporal resolution.

  15. Opportunities for synthetic biology in antibiotics: expanding glycopeptide chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Maulik N; Wright, Gerard D

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology offers a new path for the exploitation and improvement of natural products to address the growing crisis in antibiotic resistance. All antibiotics in clinical use are facing eventual obsolesce as a result of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms, yet there are few new drug leads forthcoming from the pharmaceutical sector. Natural products of microbial origin have proven over the past 70 years to be the wellspring of antimicrobial drugs. Harnessing synthetic biology thinking and strategies can provide new molecules and expand chemical diversity of known antibiotic scaffolds to provide much needed new drug leads. The glycopeptide antibiotics offer paradigmatic scaffolds suitable for such an approach. We review these strategies here using the glycopeptides as an example and demonstrate how synthetic biology can expand antibiotic chemical diversity to help address the growing resistance crisis.

  16. Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Albareti, F D; de la Cruz-Dombriz, A

    2012-01-01

    We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from...

  17. Basic Study on Engine with Scroll Compressor and Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Nishida, Mitsuhiro

    Scroll compressors are becoming popular in air conditioning and refrigeration. This is primarily due to their higher efficiency and low noise/vibration characteristics. The scroll principle can be applied also to the steam expander and the Brayton cycle engine,as shown in the past literature. The Otto cycle spark-ignition engine with a scroll compressor and expander is studied in this report. The principle and basic structure of the scroll engine are explained,and the engine characteristic are calculated based on the idealized cycles and processes. A prototype model has been proposed and constructed. The rotary type engine has always had a problem with sealing. The scroll engine might overcome this shortcoming with its much lower rubbing speed compared to its previous counterparts,and is therefore worth investigating.

  18. Design of Modern Reactors for Synthesis of Thermally Expanded Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strativnov, Eugene V.

    2015-05-01

    One of the most progressive trends in the development of modern science and technology is the creation of energy-efficient technologies for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Nanolayered graphite (thermally exfoliated graphite) is one of the key important nanomaterials of carbon origin. Due to its unique properties (chemical and thermal stability, ability to form without a binder, elasticity, etc.), it can be used as an effective absorber of organic substances and a material for seal manufacturing for such important industries as gas transportation and automobile. Thermally expanded graphite is a promising material for the hydrogen and nuclear energy industries. The development of thermally expanded graphite production is resisted by high specific energy consumption during its manufacturing and by some technological difficulties. Therefore, the creation of energy-efficient technology for its production is very promising.

  19. Expanded microchannel heat exchanger: design, fabrication and preliminary experimental test

    CERN Document Server

    Denkenberger, David C; Pearce, Joshua M; Zhai, John; 10.1177/0957650912442781

    2012-01-01

    This paper first reviews non-traditional heat exchanger geometry, laser welding, practical issues with microchannel heat exchangers, and high effectiveness heat exchangers. Existing microchannel heat exchangers have low material costs, but high manufacturing costs. This paper presents a new expanded microchannel heat exchanger design and accompanying continuous manufacturing technique for potential low-cost production. Polymer heat exchangers have the potential for high effectiveness. The paper discusses one possible joining method - a new type of laser welding named "forward conduction welding," used to fabricate the prototype. The expanded heat exchanger has the potential to have counter-flow, cross-flow, or parallel-flow configurations, be used for all types of fluids, and be made of polymers, metals, or polymer-ceramic precursors. The cost and ineffectiveness reduction may be an order of magnitude or more, saving a large fraction of primary energy. The measured effectiveness of the prototype with 28 micro...

  20. Design of Modern Reactors for Synthesis of Thermally Expanded Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strativnov, Eugene V

    2015-12-01

    One of the most progressive trends in the development of modern science and technology is the creation of energy-efficient technologies for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Nanolayered graphite (thermally exfoliated graphite) is one of the key important nanomaterials of carbon origin. Due to its unique properties (chemical and thermal stability, ability to form without a binder, elasticity, etc.), it can be used as an effective absorber of organic substances and a material for seal manufacturing for such important industries as gas transportation and automobile. Thermally expanded graphite is a promising material for the hydrogen and nuclear energy industries. The development of thermally expanded graphite production is resisted by high specific energy consumption during its manufacturing and by some technological difficulties. Therefore, the creation of energy-efficient technology for its production is very promising.

  1. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogeneous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Einstein's fundamental equation also allowed dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Geroges Lemaitre, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaitre's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often repeated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  2. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  3. Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo (tm) Sandcontrol Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff A. Spray

    2007-09-30

    Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo{trademark} Sandscreen Technology was a successfully executed design-by-analysis through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a two-part progression of concept development and manufacturing activities. The first part, conceptual development activities, discusses novel specifications creation and non-linear analytical design generation. The second part, manufacturing, contains achievement related information for detailed-design, fabrication, mechanical testing, and field demonstration activities.

  4. Insulation materials. Cellulose fiber and expanded polystyrene insulations

    OpenAIRE

    Viladot Bel, Cèlia

    2017-01-01

    The main role of thermal insulation materials in a building envelope are to prevent heat loss and provide thermal comfort for a building's interior. The factor that characterizes an insulation material's effectiveness is its thermal conductivity λ (measured in W/mK). The lower a material's thermal conductivity, the more effective it is as an insulator. Traditional insulation materials include glass fibre, stone wool, expanded polystyrene, and polyurethane foam. While these materials are effic...

  5. Measuring opportunities to expand ambulatory surgery in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, S; Helyar, C

    1993-07-01

    Enhancement of comparative ambulatory care information reporting systems will expand the ability of health care managers to assess accurately the opportunities and relative benefits and costs of substituting ambulatory care for traditional inpatient services without jeopardizing the five basic principles of Canada's health care system: universality, accessibility, portability, comprehensiveness, and public administration. In the long run, this will improve Canada's ability to provide high-quality and cost-effective health care within the constrained resources now available.

  6. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), pa...

  7. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza; Teresa López-Lara; Jaime Horta-Rangel; Carlos López-Cajún; Eduardo Rojas-González; García-Rodríguez, F. J.; Jorge Adue

    2013-01-01

    Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses), it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, whic...

  8. Toy Model for Eternal Expanding Universe Driven by Quintessence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高长军; 沈有根

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations of microwave background and type Ⅰa supernovae (SNe Ia) suggest a space-flat and accelerated expansion Universe. On the other hand, observations of supernovae 1997ff reveal that the Universe has undergone a decelerating-accelerating process. Combining these two classes of observations, we present an eternal expanding Universe toy model driven by quintessence. In this picture, the Universe undergoes an endless sequence of accelerating-decelerating cycles.

  9. India’s Strategic Defense Transformation: Expanding Global Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    duct Joint Military Exercise in India,” Channel NewsAsia , December 16, 2008, available from www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singapore localnews/view...INDIA’S STRATEGIC DEFENSE TRANSFORMATION: EXPANDING GLOBAL RELATIONSHIPS Brian K. Hedrick November 2009 The views expressed in this report are those...controversial perspectives in the interest of furthering debate on key issues. This report is cleared for public release; distribution is unlimited

  10. Tamponade by an expanding left ventricular pseudoaneurysm: A unique presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Ong, Ping; Kutty, Ramesh; Abu-Omar, Yasir

    2015-10-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture secondary to myocardial infarction is an uncommon but catastrophic event requiring emergency surgery. We describe a unique presentation of left ventricular free wall rupture as delayed tamponade caused by a gradually expanding pseudoaneurysm compressing the left atrium, leading to pulmonary congestion that required increasing respiratory support to maintain oxygenation, and necessitated emergency surgery. We discuss the options available to treat pseudoaneurysms due to left ventricular free wall rupture.

  11. A spectral gap for transer operators of piecewise expanding maps

    CERN Document Server

    Thomine, Damien

    2010-01-01

    We provide a simplified proof of the existence, under some assumptions, of a spectral gap for the Perron-Frobenius operator of piecewise uniformly expanding maps on Riemannian manifolds when acting on some Sobolev spaces. Its consequences include, among others, the existence of invariant physical measures, and an exponential decay of correlations for suitable observables. These features are then adapted to different function spaces (functions with bounded variation or bounded oscillation), so as to give a new insight of - and generalize - earlier results.

  12. Preservation of controllability-observability in expanded systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bakule, Lubomir; Rodellar Benedé, José; Rossell Garriga, Josep Maria; Rubio Díaz, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    The result contributed by the article is that controllability-observability of an original continuous-time LTI dynamic system can always be simultaneously preserved in expanded systems within the inclusion principle when using block structured complementary matrices. This new structure offers more degrees of freedom for the selection of specific complementary matrices than well known used cases, such as aggregations and restrictions, which enable such preservation only in certain special case...

  13. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) augmentation of deep nasolabial creases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K M; Dyer, W K

    1999-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (Gore-Tex; W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) for augmentation of deep nasolabial creases. Retrospective chart review with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up. Private practice ambulatory surgery center. One hundred consecutive patients (average age, 49 years) undergoing expanded PTFE augmentation of the nasolabial crease. A standardized, reproducible rating scale assessed preoperative crease severity. Clinical effectiveness was determined by the numerical degree of improvement in crease severity rating after surgery, and by the number of procedures required to achieve the desired aesthetic results. Patients initially had grade 1 (14.5%), grade 2 (54.0%), grade 3 (20.0%), or grade 4 (11.5%) crease severity ratings. On average, patients with grade 1 creases required 1.17 total augmentation procedures, those with grade 2 required 1.60, those with grade 3 required 1.93, and those with grade 4 required 1.86. On average, with each augmentation, patients with grade 1 improved 0.61 relative severity points; those with grade 2, 0.85; those with grade 3, 1.29; and those with grade 4, 1.28. Nine patients developed late postoperative sequelae. Four creases (2.0%) displayed an unnatural mounded appearance because of superficial expanded PTFE placement. All 4 creases underwent elective removal of a single superficial PTFE strip, with resultant return of aesthetically correct crease augmentation. Five creases (2.5%) developed implant site infections; in all 5 cases, the involved strips were removed and the infection was resolved with a 10-day course of oral antibiotics. Expanded PTFE augmentation presents a safe, effective method for softening deep nasolabial creases. Patients with more severe creases are likely to show more improvement with each augmentation, but are also more likely to require multiple procedures to achieve the desired aesthetic result.

  14. A Simple Model for Simulation of Armature Expanding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨显俊; 董志伟

    2004-01-01

    We propose a scheme to simulate the dynamic process of the armature expansion of explosive magnetic flux compression generators. Values of the deflective angle and the velocity of expanding the innermost radius of copper cylinder (or armature) caused by explosives detonation are calculated, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated results show that there may be some dynamic processes that exist during explosive detonation.

  15. Smoothness of invariant density for expanding transformations in higher dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Adl-Zarabi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Ω be a bounded region in ℝn and let ={Pi}i=1m be a partition of Ω into a finite number of closed subsets having piecewise C2 boundaries of finite (n−1-dimensional measure. Let τ:Ω→Ω be an expanding transformation on where, τi:τ|Pi, and τi∈CM, m≥2. We show that the τ-invariant density h∈CM−2.

  16. Expanding chemistry's horizon with continuous-flow reactors - part II

    OpenAIRE

    Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Continuous-flow micro- and mesofluidic reactors come with inherent properties that can be advantageously utilized for expanding the horizon of synthetic organic chemistry. Accurate control over local process parameters, even under extreme conditions, inherent safety, production homogeneity and seamless scale-up are amongst the most important assets of continuous-flow chemistry. Besides, flow chemistry enables the design of efficient multistep processes with significantly reduced footprints. I...

  17. Craniosynostosis and syndactyly: expanding the 11q-- chromosomal deletion phenotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Lippe, B M; Sparkes, R. S.; Fass, B; Neidengard, L

    1980-01-01

    A patient with a partial deletion (q23 leads to qter) of the long arm of chromosome 11 presented with craniosynostosis and syndactyly. These characteristics, which have not been previously reported with 11q--, expand the phenotype of this syndrome and emphasise the need for chromosome analysis with banding techniques in multiple congenital anomaly syndromes, even if the patient could be classified as having a non-chromosomal syndrome.

  18. The Hubble party balloon and the expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Rosi, T.; Oss, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that the metaphor of the inflated balloon used to describe expanding space-time according to the Hubble law can be transformed into a simple laboratory experiment. We obtain, in terms of measured recession speeds and distances of ink dots drawn on a party balloon, easy renditions of various cosmological models, such as the static one and the Einstein-De Sitter universe.

  19. Expanding the bioluminescent toolkit for in vivo imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Paley, Miranda Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is among the most dynamic imaging modalities for visualizing whole cells and gene expression patterns in vivo. This technique captures light emission from the luciferase-catalyzed oxidation of small molecule luciferins with highly sensitive CCD cameras. While powerful, current options for multiplexed BLI in mice are limited by the number of luciferase/luciferin pairs found in nature. Our lab aims to expand the bioluminescent toolkit by pairing mutant luciferases ...

  20. Systematic Shared Value in Finance: Expanding Porter's Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rocchi; Ignacio Ferrero

    2014-01-01

    The publication of Michael Porter and Mark Kramer's Creating Shared Value (Harvard Business Review, 2011) challenges both the academic literature on corporate social responsibility as well as business practice. Porter and Kramer argue that there is a better way of integrating social goals within business practice, without distracting a firm from its primary purpose of achieving profit. This paper aims to expand Porter and Kramer's approach and to apply the shared value model to the financial ...

  1. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists – an Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professionalpractice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australianpharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-countermedications. This review aims to identify Australian studiesinvolving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing.Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacistprescribing were identified and considered in the context ofits implementation internationally. Australian studies havemainly focused on the attitudes of community and hospitalpharmacists towards such an expansion. Studies evaluatingthe views of Australian consumers and pharmacy clients werealso considered. The available Australian literature indicatedsupport from pharmacists and pharmacy clients for anexpanded pharmacist prescribing role, with preference fordoctors retaining a primary role in diagnosis. Australianpharmacists and pharmacy client’s views were also inagreement in terms of other key issues surrounding expandedpharmacist prescribing. These included the nature of anexpanded prescribing model, the need for additional trainingfor pharmacists and the potential for pharmacy clients gainingimproved medication access, which could be achieved withinan expanded role that pharmacists could provide. Currentevidence from studies conducted in Australia providesvaluable insight to relevant policymakers on the issue ofpharmacist prescribing in order to move the agenda ofpharmacist prescribing forwards.

  2. Strain rate dependency and fragmentation pattern of expanding warheads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John F MOXNES; Anne K PRYTZ; yvind FRYLAND; Stian SKRIUDALEN; Steinar BRVE; Gard DEGRDSTUEN

    2015-01-01

    For the characterization of the behaviors of a metal material in events like expanding warheads, it is necessary to know its strength and ductility at high strain rates, around 104e105/s. The flyer plate impact testing produces the uniform stress and strain rates but the testing is expensive. The Taylor test is relatively inexpensive but produces non-uniform stress and strain fields, and the results are not so easily inferred for material modeling. In the split-Hopkinson bar (SHB), which may be used in compression, tension and torsion testing, the strain rates never exceeds 103/s. In the present work, we use the expanding ring test where the strain rate is 104e105/s. A streak camera is used to examine the expanding ring velocity, and a water tank is used to collect the fragments. The experimental results are compared with the numerical simulations using the hydrocodes AUTODYN, IMPETUS Afea and a regularized smooth particle (RSPH) software. The number of fragments increases with the increase in the expansion velocity of the rings. The number of fragments is similar to the experimental results. The RSPH software shows much the same results as the AUTODYN where the Lagrangian solver is used for the ring. The IMPETUS Afea solver shows a somewhat different fragmentation characteristic due to the node splitting algorithm that induces pronounced tensile splitting.

  3. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    CERN Document Server

    Velikovich, A L; Taylor, B D; Giuliani, J L; Zalesak, S T; Iwamoto, Y

    2016-01-01

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Y. Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [H. Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); M. Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic...

  4. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  5. INSTRUMENTED MICROSCRATCH TESTS USAGE FOR STUDY OF EXPANDED AUSTENITE PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis Sato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion resistance and poor mechanical properties are both characteristics of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel. Nitrogen supersaturated expanded austenite, or S-phase, promotes surface hardening of the alloy without the formation of undesirable that can reduce passivation properties. Mechanical characterization of this layer using instrumented microscratch tests gives an important set of empirical data useful for comprehension and modeling of tribological phenomena occurring in mechanical system. This work presents results from a series of instrumented microscratch tests performed on Low Temperature Plasma Nitrided (LTPN AISI 316 stainless steel samples with an expanded austenite layer. The specimens were produced by 20 h active screen plasma nitriding treatment, done in direct current reactor at 400°C in an atmosphere containing three parts of nitrogen for one part of hydrogen (3N2 :1H2 . The reduced friction coefficient (< 0,1 between the indenter and the expanded austenite layer observed in the initial stage of scratch test and the absence of adhesive failure along the test are also discussed.

  6. Long-term consequences of observing an expanding cosmological civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, S Jay

    2016-01-01

    Suppose that advanced civilizations, separated by a cosmological distance and time, wish to maximize their access to cosmic resources by rapidly expanding into the universe. What sort of boundary forms between their expanding domains, and how does the presence of one limit the ambitions of another? We describe a general case for any expansion speed, separation distance, and time. We then specialize to the main question of interest. How are the future prospects for a young and ambitious civilization altered if they can observe the presence of another at a cosmological distance? We treat cases involving the observation of one or two expanding domains. In the single-observation case, we find that almost any plausible detection will be limiting to some extent. Also, practical technological limits to expansion speed (well below the speed of light) play an interesting role. If a domain is visible at the time one embarks on expansion, there exists an optimum value for the "practical speed limit," and if the speed li...

  7. Quantification assays for total and polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Macdonald

    Full Text Available The expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene, which produces huntingtin protein with an expanded polyglutamine tract, is the cause of Huntington's disease (HD. Recent studies have reported that RNAi suppression of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin (mutant HTT in HD animal models can ameliorate disease phenotypes. A key requirement for such preclinical studies, as well as eventual clinical trials, aimed to reduce mutant HTT exposure is a robust method to measure HTT protein levels in select tissues. We have developed several sensitive and selective assays that measure either total human HTT or polyglutamine-expanded human HTT proteins on the electrochemiluminescence Meso Scale Discovery detection platform with an increased dynamic range over other methods. In addition, we have developed an assay to detect endogenous mouse and rat HTT proteins in pre-clinical models of HD to monitor effects on the wild type protein of both allele selective and non-selective interventions. We demonstrate the application of these assays to measure HTT protein in several HD in vitro cellular and in vivo animal model systems as well as in HD patient biosamples. Furthermore, we used purified recombinant HTT proteins as standards to quantitate the absolute amount of HTT protein in such biosamples.

  8. Strain rate dependency and fragmentation pattern of expanding warheads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Moxnes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For the characterization of the behaviors of a metal material in events like expanding warheads, it is necessary to know its strength and ductility at high strain rates, around 104–105/s. The flyer plate impact testing produces the uniform stress and strain rates but the testing is expensive. The Taylor test is relatively inexpensive but produces non-uniform stress and strain fields, and the results are not so easily inferred for material modeling. In the split-Hopkinson bar (SHB, which may be used in compression, tension and torsion testing, the strain rates never exceeds 103/s. In the present work, we use the expanding ring test where the strain rate is 104–105/s. A streak camera is used to examine the expanding ring velocity, and a water tank is used to collect the fragments. The experimental results are compared with the numerical simulations using the hydrocodes AUTODYN, IMPETUS Afea and a regularized smooth particle (RSPH software. The number of fragments increases with the increase in the expansion velocity of the rings. The number of fragments is similar to the experimental results. The RSPH software shows much the same results as the AUTODYN where the Lagrangian solver is used for the ring. The IMPETUS Afea solver shows a somewhat different fragmentation characteristic due to the node splitting algorithm that induces pronounced tensile splitting.

  9. On Dark Energy and Matter of the Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available At present the expanding universe is observed to be dominated by the not fully under- stood concepts of dark energy and matter, in a conceived almost flat Euclidian geometry. As one of the possible efforts to understand the global behaviour of the expanding uni- verse, the present paper attempts to explain these concepts in terms of the pressure force and gravity of a spherical photon gas cloud of zero point energy, in a flat geometry. A difficult point of the conventional theory concerns the frequency distribution of the zero point energy oscillations which leads to the unacceptable result of an infinite total en- ergy per unit volume. A modification of this distribution is therefore proposed which results in finite energy density. A corresponding equilibrium state is investigated, as well as small dynamic deviations from it, to form a basis for a model of the expanding universe. Provided that the crucial points of the present approach hold true, the model satisfies the requirements of cosmic linear dimensions, results in an estimated accelera- tion of the expansion being of the order of the observed one, presents a possible solution of the coincidence problem of dark energy and matter, and provides one of the possible explanations of the observed excess of high-energy electrons and positrons in recent balloon and satellite experiments.

  10. Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Taylor, B. D. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Iwamoto, Y. [Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime Pref. 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.

  11. Polypropylenes foam consisting of thermally expandable microcapsule as blowing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoung, Sun Kyung; Hwang, Ye Jin; Lee, Hyun Wook; Kwak, Sung Bok; Han, In-Soo; Ha, Jin Uk

    2016-03-01

    The structure of thermally expandable microcapsule (TEMs) is consisted of a thermoplastic shell which is filled with liquid hydrocarbon at core. The shell of TEMs becomes soft when the temperature is higher than boiling temperature of liquid hydrocarbon. The shell of TEMs is expanded under the high temperature because the inner pressure of TEMs is increased by vaporization of hydrocarbon core. Therefore, the TEMs are applicable for blowing agents and light weight fillers. In this research, we fabricated the polypropylene (PP) foam by using the TEMs and chemical blowing agents and compared to their physical properties. The density of the specimen was decreased when the contents of chemical blowing agents and TEMs were increased. In addition, the mechanical properties (i.e. tensile strength and impact strength) of specimens were deteriorated with increasing amount of chemical blowing agents and TEMs. However, PP foam produced with TEMs showed higher impact strength than the one with the chemical blowing agent. In order to clarify the dependence of impact strength of PP foam as the blowing agent, the morphology difference of the PP foams was investigated. Expanding properties of PP foams produced with TEMs was changed with TEMs content of PP foams. Processing conditions also influenced the mechanical properties of PP foam containing TEMs.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-09-18

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China's major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans.

  13. On nonlinear evolution of low-frequency Alfvén waves in weakly-expanding solar wind plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariyuki, Y. [Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, 3190 Toyama City, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    A multi-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation for Alfvén waves in weakly-expanding solar wind plasmas is derived by using the reductive perturbation method. The expansion of solar wind plasma parcels is modeled by an expanding box model, which includes the accelerating expansion. It is shown that the resultant equation agrees with the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin prediction of the low-frequency Alfvén waves in the linear limit. In the cold and one-dimensional limit, a modified derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation is obtained. Direct numerical simulations are carried out to discuss the effect of the expansion on the modulational instability of monochromatic Alfvén waves and the propagation of Alfvén solitons. By using the instantaneous frequency, it is quantitatively shown that as far as the expansion rate is much smaller than wave frequencies, effects of the expansion are almost adiabatic. It is also confirmed that while shapes of Alfvén solitons temporally change due to the expansion, some of them can stably propagate after their collision in weakly-expanding plasmas.

  14. EUS-Guided Antegrade Transhepatic Placement of a Self-Expandable Metal Stent in Hepatico-Jejunal Anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson LA Artifon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Context To demonstrate an EUS-guided biliary drainage in patient with gastrointestinal tract modified surgically. Case report An EUS guided access to the left intra hepatic duct, followed by an antegrade passage of a partially self-expandable metal stent that was removed by using an enteroscope, in one patient with hepatico-jejunal anastomosis. There were no early or delayed complications and the procedure was effective in relieving jaundice until the self-expandable metal stent was removed, 3 months later. A cholangiogram was obtained via enteroscopy, after removal of self-expandable metal stent, and found to be normal. The patient had an uneventful evaluation afterwards. Conclusion The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. EUS-guided biliary drainage is feasible when performed by professionals with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy and advanced echo-endoscopy and should be performed currently under rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

  15. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  16. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents.

  17. A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rick L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Magnetic flux compression generators rely on the expansion of thin ductile shells to generate magnetic fields. These thin shells are filled with high explosives, which when detonated, cause the shell to expand to over 200% strain at strain-rates on the order of 104 s-1. Experimental data indicate the development and growth of multiple plastic instabilities which appear in a quasi-periodic pattern on the surfaces of the shells. These quasi-periodic instabilities are connected by localized zones of intense shear that are oriented approximately 45° from the outward radial direction. The quasi-periodic instabilities continue to develop and eventually become through-cracks, causing the shell to fragment. A viscoplastic constitutive model is formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion and provide insight into the development of plastic instabilities. The formulation of the viscoplastic constitutive model includes the effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence in the expanding shell. This model uses the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. The constitutive model includes the modifications proposed by Tvergaard and the plastic strain controlled nucleation introduced by Neeleman. The constitutive model is implemented as a user material subroutine into ABAQUS/Explicit, which is a commercially available nonlinear explicit dynamic finite element program. A cylindrical shell is modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. Two experiments were conducted involving plane wave detonated, explosively filled, copper cylinders. Instability, displacement, and velocity data were recorded using a fast framing camera and a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Good agreement is shown between the numerical results and experimental data. An additional explosively bulged cylinder experiment was also performed and a photomicrograph of an

  18. A viscoplastic model of expanding cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, R.L.

    1998-04-01

    Magnetic flux compression generators rely on the expansion of thin ductile shells to generate magnetic fields. These thin shells are filled with high explosives, which when detonated, cause the shell to expand to over 200% strain at strain-rates on the order of 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}. Experimental data indicate the development and growth of multiple plastic instabilities which appear in a quasi-periodic pattern on the surfaces of the shells. These quasi-periodic instabilities are connected by localized zones of intense shear that are oriented approximately 45{degree} from the outward radial direction. The quasi-periodic instabilities continue to develop and eventually become through-cracks, causing the shell to fragment. A viscoplastic constitutive model is formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion and provide insight into the development of plastic instabilities. The formulation of the viscoplastic constitutive model includes the effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence in the expanding shell. This model uses the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. The constitutive model includes the modifications proposed by Tvergaard and the plastic strain controlled nucleation introduced by Neeleman. The constitutive model is implemented as a user material subroutine into ABAQUS/Explicit, which is a commercially available nonlinear explicit dynamic finite element program. A cylindrical shell is modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. Two experiments were conducted involving plane wave detonated, explosively filled, copper cylinders. Instability, displacement, and velocity data were recorded using a fast framing camera and a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Good agreement is shown between the numerical results and experimental data. An additional explosively bulged cylinder experiment was also performed and a photomicrograph of

  19. The Prdm family: expanding roles in stem cells and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Tobias; Moore, Adrian W

    2012-07-01

    Members of the Prdm family are characterized by an N-terminal PR domain that is related to the SET methyltransferase domain, and multiple zinc fingers that mediate sequence-specific DNA binding and protein-protein interactions. Prdm factors either act as direct histone methyltransferases or recruit a suite of histone-modifying enzymes to target promoters. In this way, they function in many developmental contexts to drive and maintain cell state transitions and to modify the activity of developmental signalling pathways. Here, we provide an overview of the structure and function of Prdm family members and discuss the roles played by these proteins in stem cells and throughout development.

  20. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  1. Transcatheter closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in an elderly patient with the Gianturco-Grifka vascular occlusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befeler, B; Justiniano, A; Zahn, E

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports the unusual case of a 76-year-old woman who was discovered to have a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus following uneventful mitral valve replacement, utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. The shunt was successfully eliminated using a new transcatheter device, thereby obviating the need for further surgery. The patient did not have calcification within the ductus, making diagnosis prior to surgery more difficult.

  2. Intravenous administration of auto serum-expanded autologous mesenchymal stem cells in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honmou, Osamu; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Matsunaga, Takuya; Niitsu, Yoshiro; Ishiai, Sumio; Onodera, Rie; Waxman, Stephen G; Kocsis, Jeffery D

    2011-06-01

    Transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells has been shown to reduce infarct size and improve functional outcome in animal models of stroke. Here, we report a study designed to assess feasibility and safety of transplantation of autologous human mesenchymal stem cells expanded in autologous human serum in stroke patients. We report an unblinded study on 12 patients with ischaemic grey matter, white matter and mixed lesions, in contrast to a prior study on autologous mesenchymal stem cells expanded in foetal calf serum that focused on grey matter lesions. Cells cultured in human serum expanded more rapidly than in foetal calf serum, reducing cell preparation time and risk of transmissible disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalomyelitis. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells were delivered intravenously 36-133 days post-stroke. All patients had magnetic resonance angiography to identify vascular lesions, and magnetic resonance imaging prior to cell infusion and at intervals up to 1 year after. Magnetic resonance perfusion-imaging and 3D-tractography were carried out in some patients. Neurological status was scored using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. We did not observe any central nervous system tumours, abnormal cell growths or neurological deterioration, and there was no evidence for venous thromboembolism, systemic malignancy or systemic infection in any of the patients following stem cell infusion. The median daily rate of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale change was 0.36 during the first week post-infusion, compared with a median daily rate of change of 0.04 from the first day of testing to immediately before infusion. Daily rates of change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores during longer post-infusion intervals that more closely matched the interval between initial scoring and cell infusion also showed an increase following cell infusion. Mean lesion volume as assessed by magnetic

  3. Expanding Access to Pro-Poor Energy Services in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleri, Ewah Otu; Ugwu, Okechukwu; Onuvae, Precious

    2012-10-15

    Nigeria experiences a remarkable paradox -- the abundance of energy resources and widespread energy poverty. Only about 40% of the population has access to the country’s grid electricity. About 72% of the population depends on traditional fuelwood for cooking. Despite this, government financing of energy services that benefits majority of Nigeria’s population has been grossly inadequate. Private sector investments and donor support have not fared better. This paper examines the current level of energy poverty in Nigeria. It analyses the level of government, private sector and donor funding for energy services that benefit the poor. It further reviews international best practices in expanding access for pro poor energy services. The paper finds a significant decline in political interest for expanding electricity services to rural areas. Even though ambitious policy reforms have commenced, agreed programmes are not implemented effectively. Not only are investments in rural electrification in decline, there is no history of annual budgeting for cooking energy programmes. The paper recommends a number of action points for expanding access to energy services that benefit the poor. These include the development and launching of a new national rural electrification strategy; establishment of a national cooking energy programme; and the development of clear policy incentives to support private sector investment in energy services for the poor. It calls on the Nigerian Central Bank of Nigeria to set aside 10% of the existing power intervention fund for pro poor energy financing; and the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission to establish a clear framework for the utilization of the Consumer Assistance Fund. Other recommendations include the use of a proportion of the Ecological Fund to finance cooking energy; establishment of a donor’s platform on pro poor energy; and the mobilization of civil society in providing community-level energy services.

  4. Ambipolar ion acceleration in an expanding magnetic nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmier, Benjamin W; Carter, Mark D; Cassady, Leonard D; Chancery, William J; Diaz, Franklin R Chang; Glover, Tim W; Ilin, Andrew V; McCaskill, Greg E; Olsen, Chris S; Squire, Jared P [Ad Astra Rocket Company, 141 W. Bay Area Blvd, Webster, TX (United States); Bering, Edgar A III [Department of Physics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, 617 Science and Research Building 1, Houston, TX (United States); Hershkowitz, Noah [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The helicon plasma stage in the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR (registered)) VX-200i device was used to characterize an axial plasma potential profile within an expanding magnetic nozzle region of the laboratory based device. The ion acceleration mechanism is identified as an ambipolar electric field produced by an electron pressure gradient, resulting in a local axial ion speed of Mach 4 downstream of the magnetic nozzle. A 20 eV argon ion kinetic energy was measured in the helicon source, which had a peak magnetic field strength of 0.17 T. The helicon plasma source was operated with 25 mg s{sup -1} argon propellant and 30 kW of RF power. The maximum measured values of plasma density and electron temperature within the exhaust plume were 1 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} and 9 eV, respectively. The measured plasma density is nearly an order of magnitude larger than previously reported steady-state helicon plasma sources. The exhaust plume also exhibits a 95% to 100% ionization fraction. The size scale and spatial location of the plasma potential structure in the expanding magnetic nozzle region appear to follow the size scale and spatial location of the expanding magnetic field. The thickness of the potential structure was found to be 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} {lambda}{sub De} depending on the local electron temperature in the magnetic nozzle, many orders of magnitude larger than typical laboratory double layer structures. The background plasma density and neutral argon pressure were 10{sup 15} m{sup -3} and 2 x 10{sup -5} Torr, respectively, in a 150 m{sup 3} vacuum chamber during operation of the helicon plasma source. The agreement between the measured plasma potential and plasma potential that was calculated from an ambipolar ion acceleration analysis over the bulk of the axial distance where the potential drop was located is a strong confirmation of the ambipolar acceleration process.

  5. Expanding the dimensions of hyperspectral imagery to improve target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Mark Z.

    2016-10-01

    On-going research to improve hyperspectral target detection generally focuses on statistical detector performance, reduction of background or environmental contributions to at-sensor radiance, dimension reduction and many other mathematical or physical techniques. These efforts are all aimed at improving target identification in a single scene or data cube. This focus on single scene performance is driven directly by the airborne collection concept of operations (CONOPS) of a single pass per target location. Today's pushbroom and whiskbroom sensors easily achieve single passes and single collects over a target location. If multiple passes are flown for multiple collects on the same location, the time scale for revisit is several minutes. Emerging gimbaled hyperspectral imagers have the capability to collect multiple scans over the same target location in a time scale of seconds. The ability to scan the same location from slightly different collection geometries below the time scale of significant solar and atmospheric change forces us to reexamine the methods for target detection via the fundamental radiance equation. By expanding the radiance equation in the spatial and temporal dimensions, data from multiple hyperspectral images is used simultaneously for determining at-sensor radiance and surface leaving radiance with the ultimate goal of improving target detection. This research reexamines the fundamental radiance equation for multiple scan collection geometries expanding both the spatial and temporal domains. In addition, our assumptions for determining at-sensor radiance are revisited in light of the increased dimensionality. The expanded radiance equation is then applied to data collected by a gimbaled long wave infrared hyperspectral imager. Initial results and future work are discussed.

  6. Self-expandable nitinol stent placement in homocysteinemic porcine aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Gil França

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare aortic intimal thickening of normal and hyperhomocysteinemic pigs (induced with a methionine-rich diet following placement of a self-expanding nitinol stent. METHODS: Eighteen Macau pigs were used. They were older than eight weeks in age and had an average weight of 30 kg. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups. The first, Group C (control, was fed a regular diet, and the second group, Group M, was fed a methionine-rich diet for 30 days to induce hyperhomocysteinemia. The self-expandable nitinol stents were 25mm in length and 8 mm in diameter after expansion. Blood samples were collected to measure total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and homocysteine concentrations. All animals were subjected to angiography. Thirty days after the procedure, the animals were sacrificed, and the abdominal aorta was removed for histological and digital morphometry analysis. RESULTS: Under microscopic evaluation, the intima was significantly thicker in Group C than in Group M. When groups were compared by digital morphometric analysis, intimal thickening of the vessel wall was higher in Group C than in Group M. There was no significant change in total cholesterol, triglycerides or HDL concentrations in either group. In group C the levels of plasma homocysteine ranged from 14,40 to 16,73µmol/l; in Group M, plasma homocysteine levels ranged from 17.47 to 59.80 µmol/l after 30 days of a methionine-rich diet. CONCLUSION: Compared to normal pigs, less intimal hyperplasia was observed in the abdominal aortas of hyperhomocysteinemic pigs thirty days after the insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent.

  7. WORD ORIGIN HELPS EXPAND LEARNERS’ VOCABULARY A VOCABULARY TEACHING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Word origin (motivation deals with the connection between name and sense, explaining how a word originated. With the knowledge of how words are originated, learners can grasp a word easier and thus expand their vocabulary more quickly. The introduction to word origin (motivation by teachers can also help the learners gain interest in the process of learning and learn more about the cultural and historical background of the English-speaking countries. This paper tries to clarify this method of teaching from four aspects: onomatopoeia, word formation, cultural and historical background and cognitive linguistics.

  8. Using opioid receptors to expand the chemogenetic and optogenetic toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez-Werno, Diane M; Kenny, Paul J

    2015-05-20

    In this issue of Neuron, innovative new modifications to opioid receptors are used to expand the tools available to modulate neuronal activity. Vardy et al. (2015) describe a new "DREADD" chemogenetic tool based on the inhibitory κ opioid receptor (KORD) that can be used in conjunction with already-available DREADDs. Siuda et al. (2015) report the development of "opto-MOR," a light-activatable μ opioid receptor (MOR) chimera that can be used to better understand the complexities of MOR signaling.

  9. Mutation at Expanding Front of Self-Replicating Colloidal Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    We construct a scheme for self-replicating square clusters of particles in two spatial dimensions, and validate it with computer simulations in a finite-temperature heat bath. We find that the self-replication reactions propagate through the bath in the form of Fisher waves. Our model reflects existing colloidal systems, but is simple enough to allow simulation of many generations and thereby the first study of evolutionary dynamics in an artificial system. By introducing spatially localized mutations in the replication rules, we show that the mutated cluster population can survive and spread with the expanding front in circular sectors of the colony.

  10. Expanded radio art as PhD practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radio After Radio: Redefining Radio Art in the Light of New Media Technology through Expanded Practice is the title of my PhD practice based research. This paper focuses on the extended boundaries of radio art, considering how radio art might be defined in relation to sound art, music, and media art. Mapping the shifting parameters of radio art in the digital era has prompted a consideration of how radio can be seen to be moving from being a predominantly shared "live" event to one consumed "...

  11. Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-01-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology. PMID:19395354

  12. Expanding General Relativity's Space by S-Denying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabounski, Dmitri; Smarandache, Florentins; Borissova, Larissa

    2016-05-01

    Applying the S-denying procedure to signature conditions in a four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space - i.e. changing one (or even all) of the conditions to be partially true and partially false. Obtaining five kinds of expanded space-time for General Relativity. Kind I permits the space-time to be in collapse. Kind II permits the space-time to change its own signature. Kind III has peculiarities, linked to the third signature condition. Kind IV permits regions where the metric fully degenerates: there may be non-quantum teleportation, and a home for virtual photons. Kind V is common for kinds I, II, III, and IV.

  13. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  14. Hydrodynamization and transient modes of expanding plasma in kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michal P; Spalinski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We study the transition to hydrodynamics in a weakly-coupled model of quark-gluon plasma given by kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. Our studies uncover qualitative similarities to the results on hydrodynamization in strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we demonstrate that the gradient expansion in this model has vanishing radius of convergence. The asymptotic character of the hydrodynamic gradient expansion is crucial for the recently discovered applicability of hydrodynamics at large gradients. Furthermore, the analysis of the resurgent properties of the series provides, quite remarkably, indication for the existence of a novel transient, damped oscillatory mode of expanding plasmas in kinetic theory.

  15. Sharing and expanding academic and practitioner knowledge in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartunek, Jean; Trullen, Jordi; Bonet, Eduard; Sauquet, Alfonso

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to expand understanding of academic-practitioner knowledge-sharing in the service of enhanced knowledge creation in health care. To this end, we describe the tacit and explicit knowledge of academics and practitioners and how this knowledge exists within their communities of practice. We also discuss benefits of, difficulties with, and some underlying dynamics of academic-practitioner knowledge-sharing. We then propose what might be done, based on appreciation of these dynamics, to foster joint knowledge-sharing and knowledge creation. We illustrate our arguments with examples from health care settings.

  16. A generalized SHGI integrable hierarchy and its expanding integrable model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yu-Feng

    2004-01-01

    An anti-symmetric loop algebra A2 is constructed. It follows that an integrable system is obtained by use of Tu's scheme. The eminent feature of this integrable system is that it is reduced to a generalized Schrodinger equation, the well-known heat-conduction equation and a Gerdjkov-Ivanov (GI) equation. Therefore, we call it a generalized SHGI hierarchy. Next, a new high-dimensional subalgebra G of the loop algebra A2 is constructed. As its application, a new expanding integrable system with six potential functions is engendered.

  17. Code-Expanded Random Access for Machine-Type Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Thomsen, Henning; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2012-01-01

    a novel approach that is able to sustain a wide random access load range, while preserving the physical layer unchanged and incurring minor changes in the medium access control layer. The proposed scheme increases the amount of available contention resources, without resorting to the increase of system...... of an increased number of MTC users. We present the framework and analysis of the proposed code-expanded random access method and show that our approach supports load regions that are beyond the reach of current systems....

  18. Creation and evolution of particle numberasymmetry in an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Morozumi, Takuya; Adam, Apriadi Salim; Takata, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a model which may generate particle number asymmetry in an expanding Universe. The model includes CP violating and particle number violating interactions. The model consists of a real scalar field and a complex scalar field. Starting with an initial condition specified by a density matrix, we show how the asymmetry is created through the interaction and how it evolves at later time. We compute the asymmetry using non-equilibrium quantum field theory and as a first test of the model, we study how the asymmetry evolves in the flat limit.

  19. Tissue Expander Capsule for Abdominal Wall in Autologous Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Scholze Webster, MD, PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adjuvant treatment planning can change after breast cancer resection and definitive pathological examination. Radiation therapy is often chosen as a supplementary treatment. Rectus abdominis–based muscle flaps are one of the main choices when breast reconstruction plans must be changed from implant-based to autologous methods. We herein report a case in which the patient’s own tissue expander capsule was used to repair an abdominal wall defect after muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction.

  20. Enhanced Anion Transport Using Some Expanded Porphyrins as Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    step, an acid catalyzed 1: 1 Schiff - base condensation between I ,8-diaminoanthracene 4 and 2,5-bis((3-ethylS_-formyl-4- methy’lpyrrol-2-yl) methyl... Schiff base "expanded porphyrin," 1, which when diprotonated effectively binds chloride anion in the solid state.8- 10 In addition, we present the results...parent, 1, is shown in Scheme 1. It involves, as the critical step, the acid catalyzed 1:1 Schiff - base condensation between 1.8-diaminoanthracene 49

  1. Mutation at Expanding Front of Self-Replicating Colloidal Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Zeravcic, Zorana; Brenner, Michael P.

    2016-12-01

    We construct a scheme for self-replicating square clusters of particles in two spatial dimensions, and validate it with computer simulations in a finite-temperature heat bath. We find that the self-replication reactions propagate through the bath in the form of Fisher waves. Our model reflects existing colloidal systems, but is simple enough to allow simulation of many generations and thereby the first study of evolutionary dynamics in an artificial system. By introducing spatially localized mutations in the replication rules, we show that the mutated cluster population can survive and spread with the expanding front in circular sectors of the colony.

  2. Expanded Ion Energy Distribution Measurements on MST RFP Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jerry; Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.

    2016-10-01

    The Compact Neutral Particle Analyzer (CNPA) is a low energy (0.34 - 5.2 keV), high energy resolution (25 channels) neutral particle analyzer for ion energy distribution and temperature measurements on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). In MST plasmas during neutral beam injection, deuterium ions are known to have energies out to 40 keV. A retarding potential was built, installed, and calibrated to allow CNPA measurements to explore this region with high energy resolution, expanding ion energy distribution measurements, allowing us to better understand the dynamics of the bulk and fast ion populations during global magnetic reconnection events. Work supported by US DOE and NSF.

  3. NCCN guidelines for survivorship expanded to address two common conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, Elizabeth; Urba, Susan G

    2014-05-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Survivorship include a new section on cancer-associated cognitive impairment and an expanded section on adult cancer pain that more completely addresses chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. These additions to the guidelines are the result of increasing awareness that long-term cancer survivors struggle with many late effects. Both the assessment and the management of cognitive impairment still lack a strong evidence-based foundation. The management of peripheral neuropathy, including the use of anti-depressants and opioids, often in combination, is backed by data primarily derived from clinical trials performed for various types of peripheral neuropathy.

  4. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  5. Gravitational Clustering of Galaxies in an Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naseer Iqbal; Farooq Ahmad; M. S. Khan

    2006-12-01

    We inquire the phenomena of clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe from a theoretical point of view on the basis of thermodynamics and correlation functions. The partial differential equation is developed both for the point mass and extended mass structures of a two-point correlation function by using thermodynamic equations in combination with the equation of state taking gravitational interaction between particles into consideration. The unique solution physically satisfies a set of boundary conditions for correlated systems and provides a new insight into the gravitational clustering problem.

  6. Avoiding Intellectual Stagnation: The Starship as an Expander of Minds

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar exploration will advance human knowledge and culture in multiple ways. Scientifically, it will advance our understanding of the interstellar medium, stellar astrophysics, planetary science and astrobiology. In addition, significant societal and cultural benefits will result from a programme of interstellar exploration and colonisation. Most important will be the cultural stimuli resulting from expanding the horizons of human experience, and increased opportunities for the spread and diversification of life and culture through the Galaxy. Ultimately, a programme of interstellar exploration may be the only way for human (and post-human) societies to avoid the intellectual stagnation predicted for the "end of history".

  7. The chiral magnetic wave in an expanding QCD fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of the chiral anomaly, the hydrodynamics of hot QCD matter coupled to QED allows for a long-wavelength mode of chiral charge density, the chiral magnetic wave (CMW), that provides for a mechanism of electric charge separation along the direction of an external magnetic field. Here, we investigate the efficiency of this mechanism for values of the time-dependent magnetic field and of the energy density attained in the hot QCD matter of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. To this end, we derive the CMW equations of motion for expanding systems by treating the CMW as a charge perturbation on top of an expanding Bjorken-type background field in the limit of small chemical potential. Both, approximate analytical and full numerical solutions to these equations of motion indicate that for the lifetime and thermodynamic conditions of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, the efficiency of CMW-induced electric charge separation decreases with increasing center of mass energy and that the effec...

  8. Chiral magnetic wave in an expanding QCD fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Seyed Farid; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-02-01

    As a consequence of the chiral anomaly, the hydrodynamics of hot quantum chromodynamics (QCD) matter coupled to quantum electrodynamics allows for a long-wavelength mode of chiral charge density, the chiral magnetic wave (CMW), that provides for a mechanism of electric charge separation along the direction of an external magnetic field. Here, we investigate the efficiency of this mechanism for values of the time-dependent magnetic field and of the energy density attained in the hot QCD matter of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. To this end, we derive the CMW equations of motion for expanding systems by treating the CMW as a charge perturbation on top of an expanding Bjorken-type background field in the limit μ /T ≪1 . Both, approximate analytical and full numerical solutions to these equations of motion, indicate that for the lifetime and thermodynamic conditions of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the efficiency of CMW-induced electric charge separation decreases with increasing center-of-mass energy and that the effect is numerically very small. We note, however, that if sizable oriented asymmetries in the axial charge distribution (that are not induced by the CMW) are present in the early fluid dynamic evolution, then the mechanism of CMW-induced electric charge separation can be much more efficient.

  9. Evolutionary histories of expanded peptidase families in Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Lopes Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni is one of the three main causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a major health problem with a vast socio-economic impact. Recent advances in the proteomic analysis of schistosomes have revealed that peptidases are the main virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this context, evolutionary studies can be applied to identify peptidase families that have been expanded in genomes over time in response to different selection pressures. Using a phylogenomic approach, we searched for expanded endopeptidase families in the S. mansoni predicted proteome with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of such enzymes as potential therapeutic targets. We found three endopeptidase families that comprise leishmanolysins (metallopeptidase M8 family, cercarial elastases (serine peptidase S1 family and cathepsin D proteins (aspartic peptidase A1 family. Our results suggest that the Schistosoma members of these families originated from successive gene duplication events in the parasite lineage after its diversification from other metazoans. Overall, critical residues are conserved among the duplicated genes/proteins. Furthermore, each protein family displays a distinct evolutionary history. Altogether, this work provides an evolutionary view of three S. mansoni peptidase families, which allows for a deeper understanding of the genomic complexity and lineage-specific adaptations potentially related to the parasitic lifestyle.

  10. A Model of Foam Density Prediction for Expanded Perlite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifuzzaman Md

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sets of variables associated with expanded perlite particle consolidation in foam manufacturing were analyzed to develop a model for predicting perlite foam density. The consolidation of perlite particles based on the flotation method and compaction involves numerous variables leading to the final perlite foam density. The variables include binder content, compaction ratio, perlite particle size, various perlite particle densities and porosities, and various volumes of perlite at different stages of process. The developed model was found to be useful not only for prediction of foam density but also for optimization between compaction ratio and binder content to achieve a desired density. Experimental verification was conducted using a range of foam densities (0.15 – 0.5 g/cm3 produced with a range of compaction ratios (1.5 – 3.5, a range of sodium silicate contents (0.05 – 0.35 g/ml in dilution, a range of expanded perlite particle sizes (1 – 4 mm, and various perlite densities (such as skeletal, material, bulk, and envelope densities. A close agreement between predictions and experimental results was found.

  11. Droplet evolution in expanding flow of warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Armijo, Julien; 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.051507

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple, self-consistent kinetic model for the evolution of a mixture of droplets and vapor expanding adiabatically in vacuum after rapid, almost isochoric heating. We study the evolution of the two-phase fluid at intermediate times between the molecular and the hydrodynamic scales, focusing on out-of-equilibrium and surface effects. We use the van der Waals equation of state as a test bed to implement our model and study the phenomenology of the upcoming second neutralized drift compression experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that uses ion beams for target heating.We find an approximate expression for the temperature difference between the droplets and the expanding gas and we check it with numerical calculations. The formula provides a useful criterion to distinguish the thermalized and nonthermalized regimes of expansion. In the thermalized case, the liquid fraction grows in a proportion that we estimate analytically, whereas, in case of too rapid expansion, a s...

  12. Delamanid expanded access novel treatment of drug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustomjee R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roxana Rustomjee,1 Alimuddin Zumla2,31South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, UK; 3NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University College Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains a global emergency and is one of the most common infectious disease causes of death in developing countries. Current treatment regimens for multi-drug resistant TB are associated with low treatment success rates, are toxic, and require long duration of treatment. The need for shorter and more effective treatment regimens is urgent. Delamanid (Deltyba, or formerly known as OPC-67683 is a new dihydro-imidazooxazole anti-TB drug active against resistant forms of pulmonary TB. Delamanid kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis by inhibiting the synthesis of mycolic acids required for cell wall synthesis. Whilst delamanid has been included in the WHO Model List of Essential Medicine by the World Health Organization Expert Committee on Selection and Use of Essential Medicines and in international guidance for the treatment of multi-drug resistant TB since April 2014, its access in countries with the greatest need, has proven challenging. This review provides an update on currently available clinical safety and efficacy data on delamanid and offers a discussion on research priorities and recommendations for expedited, expanded access.Keywords: delamanid, tuberculosis, drug resistance, MDR-TB, expanded access

  13. Freeform optical design of an XY-zoom beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    Laser sources have become indispensable for industrial materials processing applications. These applications are accompanied with a variety of different demands and requirements on the delivered laser irradiance distributions. With a high spatial uniformity, top-hat beams provide benefits for applications like surface heat treatment or welding, in which it is desirable to uniformly illuminate a target surface. Some applications might not only favor a specific beam irradiance distribution but can benefit additionally from time-varying distributions. In this work, we present the analytic design of an XY-zoom beam expander based on movable freeform optics that allows to simultaneously vary the magnification in x- and y-direction, respectively. This optical functionality is not new; what is new is the idea that axially moving freeform lenses are used to achieve such an optical functionality by optimally exploiting the additional degrees of freedom that freeform surfaces offer. The developed analytic solution is fully described by very few initial parameters and does allow an increasingly accurate calculation of four freeform lenses described by high order XY Taylor polynomial surfaces. Moreover, this solution approach can be adapted to cope with additional optical surfaces and/or lens groups to further enhance the overall optical performance. In comparison with (existing) combinations of rotated cylindrically symmetric zoom beam expanders, such a freeform system consists of less optical elements and provides a much more compact solution, yet achieving excellent overall optical performance throughout the full range of zoom positions.

  14. PD-1 blockade expands intratumoral T memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Antoni; Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Zaretsky, Jesse; Frederiksen, Juliet; Cornish, Andrew; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Kivork, Christine; Siebert, Janet; Kaplan-Lefko, Paula; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Glaspy, John A.; Tumeh, Paul C.; Chodon, Thinle; Pe’er, Dana; Comin-Anduix, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Tumor responses to PD-1 blockade therapy are mediated by T cells, which we characterized in 102 tumor biopsies obtained from 53 patients treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody to PD-1. Biopsies were dissociated and single cell infiltrates were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry using two computational approaches to resolve the leukocyte phenotypes at the single cell level. There was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of T cells in patients who responded to therapy. The frequency of intratumoral B cells and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (moMDSCs) significantly increased in patients’ biopsies taken on treatment. The percentage of cells with a T regulatory phenotype, monocytes, and NK cells did not change while on PD-1 blockade therapy. CD8+ T memory cells were the most prominent phenotype that expanded intratumorally on therapy. However, the frequency of CD4+ T effector memory cells significantly decreased on treatment, whereas CD4+ T effector cells significantly increased in nonresponding tumors on therapy. In peripheral blood, an unusual population of blood cells expressing CD56 were detected in two patients with regressing melanoma. In conclusion, PD-1 blockade increases the frequency of T cells, B cells, and MDSCs in tumors, with the CD8+ T effector memory subset being the major T-cell phenotype expanded in patients with a response to therapy. PMID:26787823

  15. The expanding regulatory universe of p53 in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesler, Andrew; Zhang, Ning; Ju, Jingfang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppresser gene TP53 is one of the most frequently deleted or mutated genes in gastrointestinal cancers. As a transcription factor, p53 regulates a number of important protein coding genes to control cell cycle, cell death, DNA damage/repair, stemness, differentiation and other key cellular functions. In addition, p53 is also able to activate the expression of a number of small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) through direct binding to the promoter region of these miRNAs.  Many miRNAs have been identified to be potential tumor suppressors by regulating key effecter target mRNAs. Our understanding of the regulatory network of p53 has recently expanded to include long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Like miRNA, lncRNAs have been found to play important roles in cancer biology.  With our increased understanding of the important functions of these non-coding RNAs and their relationship with p53, we are gaining exciting new insights into the biology and function of cells in response to various growth environment changes. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the ever expanding involvement of non-coding RNAs in the p53 regulatory network and its implications for our understanding of gastrointestinal cancer.

  16. Rare diseases research: expanding collaborative translational research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groft, Stephen C

    2013-07-01

    Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of $3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases.

  17. Expanding the role for psychology in addressing environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research needs to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or "place-based" approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human well-being, and relevance to other disciplines and to society.

  18. A Study of Flexible Composites for Expandable Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Payload volume for launch vehicles is a critical constraint that impacts spacecraft design. Deployment mechanisms, such as those used for solar arrays and antennas, are approaches that have successfully accommodated this constraint, however, providing pressurized volumes that can be packaged compactly at launch and expanded in space is still a challenge. One approach that has been under development for many years is to utilize softgoods - woven fabric for straps, cloth, and with appropriate coatings, bladders - to provide this expandable pressure vessel capability. The mechanics of woven structure is complicated by a response that is nonlinear and often nonrepeatable due to the discrete nature of the woven fiber architecture. This complexity reduces engineering confidence to reliably design and certify these structures, which increases costs due to increased requirements for system testing. The present study explores flexible composite materials systems as an alternative to the heritage softgoods approach. Materials were obtained from vendors who utilize flexible composites for non-aerospace products to determine some initial physical and mechanical properties of the materials. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed to obtain the stress-strain response of the flexible composites and the failure behavior. A failure criterion was developed from the data, and a space habitat application was used to provide an estimate of the relative performance of flexible composites compared to the heritage softgoods approach. Initial results are promising with a 25% mass savings estimated for the flexible composite solution.

  19. Controlled Shrinkage of Expanded Glass Particles in Metal Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Al-Sahlani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix syntactic foams have been fabricated via counter-gravity infiltration of a packed bed of recycled expanded glass particles (EG with A356 aluminum alloy. Particle shrinkage was studied and has been utilized to increase the particles’ strength and tailor the mechanical properties of the expanded glass/metal syntactic foam (EG-MSF. The crushing strength of particles could be doubled by shrinking them for 20 min at 700 °C. Owing to the low density of EG (0.20–0.26 g/cm3, the resulting foam exhibits a low density (1.03–1.19 g/cm3 that increases slightly due to particle shrinkage. Chemical and physical analyses of EG particles and the resulting foams were conducted. Furthermore, metal syntactic foam samples were tested in uni-axial compression tests. The stress-strain curves obtained exhibit three distinct regions: elastic deformation followed by a stress plateau and densification commencing at 70–80% macroscopic strain. Particle shrinkage increased the mechanical strength of the foam samples and their average plateau stress increased from 15.5 MPa to 26.7 MPa.

  20. Controlled Shrinkage of Expanded Glass Particles in Metal Syntactic Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sahlani, Kadhim; Taherishargh, Mehdi; Kisi, Erich; Fiedler, Thomas

    2017-09-13

    Metal matrix syntactic foams have been fabricated via counter-gravity infiltration of a packed bed of recycled expanded glass particles (EG) with A356 aluminum alloy. Particle shrinkage was studied and has been utilized to increase the particles' strength and tailor the mechanical properties of the expanded glass/metal syntactic foam (EG-MSF). The crushing strength of particles could be doubled by shrinking them for 20 min at 700 °C. Owing to the low density of EG (0.20-0.26 g/cm³), the resulting foam exhibits a low density (1.03-1.19 g/cm³) that increases slightly due to particle shrinkage. Chemical and physical analyses of EG particles and the resulting foams were conducted. Furthermore, metal syntactic foam samples were tested in uni-axial compression tests. The stress-strain curves obtained exhibit three distinct regions: elastic deformation followed by a stress plateau and densification commencing at 70-80% macroscopic strain. Particle shrinkage increased the mechanical strength of the foam samples and their average plateau stress increased from 15.5 MPa to 26.7 MPa.

  1. Graviton Creation by Small Scale Factor Oscillations in an Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schiappacasse, Enrico D

    2016-01-01

    We treat quantum creation of gravitons by small scale factor oscillations around the average of an expanding universe. Such oscillations are predicted both by modified gravity theories with a term proportional to the square of the Ricci scalar in the gravitational action, and by semiclassical gravity in which a renormalized expectation value of a quantum matter stress tensor is the source of gravity. A perturbative method due to Birrell and Davies involving an expansion in a conformal coupling parameter is used to calculate the number density and energy density of the created gravitons. Cosmological constraints on the present graviton energy density are discussed, which indicate an upper bound of the order of $4\\%$ of the total mass-energy density of the universe. This constraint leads to an upper bound on the dimensionless amplitude of the oscillations. We also discuss decoherence of quantum systems produced by the spacetime geometry fluctuations due to such a graviton bath, and find a lower bound on the dec...

  2. Depletion of Cognate Charged Transfer RNA Causes Translational Frameshifting within the Expanded CAG Stretch in Huntingtin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Girstmair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD, a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG-encoded polyglutamine (polyQ repeat in huntingtin (Htt, displays a highly heterogeneous etiopathology and disease onset. Here, we show that the translation of expanded CAG repeats in mutant Htt exon 1 leads to a depletion of charged glutaminyl-transfer RNA (tRNAGln-CUG that pairs exclusively to the CAG codon. This results in translational frameshifting and the generation of various transframe-encoded species that differently modulate the conformational switch to nucleate fibrillization of the parental polyQ protein. Intriguingly, the frameshifting frequency varies strongly among different cell lines and is higher in cells with intrinsically lower concentrations of tRNAGln-CUG. The concentration of tRNAGln-CUG also differs among different brain areas in the mouse. We propose that translational frameshifting may act as a significant disease modifier that contributes to the cell-selective neurotoxicity and disease course heterogeneity of HD on both cellular and individual levels.

  3. Depletion of cognate charged transfer RNA causes translational frameshifting within the expanded CAG stretch in huntingtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girstmair, Hannah; Saffert, Paul; Rode, Sascha; Czech, Andreas; Holland, Gudrun; Bannert, Norbert; Ignatova, Zoya

    2013-01-31

    Huntington disease (HD), a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG-encoded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat in huntingtin (Htt), displays a highly heterogeneous etiopathology and disease onset. Here, we show that the translation of expanded CAG repeats in mutant Htt exon 1 leads to a depletion of charged glutaminyl-transfer RNA (tRNA)(Gln-CUG) that pairs exclusively to the CAG codon. This results in translational frameshifting and the generation of various transframe-encoded species that differently modulate the conformational switch to nucleate fibrillization of the parental polyQ protein. Intriguingly, the frameshifting frequency varies strongly among different cell lines and is higher in cells with intrinsically lower concentrations of tRNA(Gln-CUG). The concentration of tRNA(Gln-CUG) also differs among different brain areas in the mouse. We propose that translational frameshifting may act as a significant disease modifier that contributes to the cell-selective neurotoxicity and disease course heterogeneity of HD on both cellular and individual levels.

  4. The expanded triangular Kitaev–Heisenberg model in the full parameter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Xiaoyan, E-mail: yaoxiaoyan@gmail.com

    2014-06-13

    The classical Kitaev–Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice is investigated by simulation in its full parameter space together with the next-nearest neighboring Heisenberg interaction or the single-ion anisotropy. The variation of the system is demonstrated directly by the joint density of states (DOS) depending on energy and magnetization obtained from Wang–Landau algorithm. The Metropolis Monte Carlo simulation and the zero-temperature Glauber dynamics are performed to show the internal energy, the correlation functions and spin configurations at zero temperature. It is revealed that two types of DOS (U and inverse U) divide the whole parameter range into two main parts with antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic features respectively. In the parameter range of U type DOS, the mixed frustration from the triangular geometry and the Kitaev interaction produces rich phases, which are influenced in different ways by the next-nearest neighboring Heisenberg interaction and the single-ion anisotropy. - Highlights: • The expanded triangular Kitaev–Heisenberg model is investigated by simulation. • The density of states is shown in the full parameter space. • Rich low-temperature phases are induced by the mixed frustration. • The next nearest-neighboring Heisenberg interaction influences the phases. • The single-ion anisotropy modifies the shape of the density of states.

  5. Characterization of a Low Shrinkage Dental Composite Containing Bismethylene Spiroorthocarbonate Expanding Monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Liu, Wenjia; Hao, Zhichao; Wu, Xiangnan; Yin, Jian; Panjiyar, Anil; Liu, Xiaoqing; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel dental composite based on the unsaturated bismethylene spiroorthocarbonate expanding monomer 3,9-dimethylene-1,3,5,7-tetraoxa-spiro[5,5]undecane (BMSOC) and bisphenol-S-bis(3-meth acrylate-2-hydroxypropyl)ether (BisS-GMA) was prepared. CQ (camphorquinone) of 1 wt % and DMAEMA (2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) of 2 wt % were used in a photoinitiation system to initiate the copolymerization of the matrix resins. Distilled water contact angle measurements were performed for the wettability measurement. Degree of conversion, volumetric shrinkage, contraction stress and compressive strength were measured using Fourier Transformation Infrared-FTIR spectroscopy, the AccuVol and a universal testing machine, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the resin composites modified by bismethylene spiroorthocarbonate and BisS-GMA showed a low volumetric shrinkage at 1.25% and a higher contact angle. The lower contraction stress, higher degree of conversion and compressive strength of the novel dental composites were also observed. PMID:24518683

  6. Characterization of a Low Shrinkage Dental Composite Containing Bismethylene Spiroorthocarbonate Expanding Monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel dental composite based on the unsaturated bismethylene spiroorthocarbonate expanding monomer 3,9-dimethylene-1,3,5,7-tetraoxa-spiro[5,5]undecane (BMSOC and bisphenol-S-bis(3-meth acrylate-2-hydroxypropylether (BisS-GMA was prepared. CQ (camphorquinone of 1 wt % and DMAEMA (2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate of 2 wt % were used in a photoinitiation system to initiate the copolymerization of the matrix resins. Distilled water contact angle measurements were performed for the wettability measurement. Degree of conversion, volumetric shrinkage, contraction stress and compressive strength were measured using Fourier Transformation Infrared-FTIR spectroscopy, the AccuVol and a universal testing machine, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the resin composites modified by bismethylene spiroorthocarbonate and BisS-GMA showed a low volumetric shrinkage at 1.25% and a higher contact angle. The lower contraction stress, higher degree of conversion and compressive strength of the novel dental composites were also observed.

  7. Disability weight for each level of the Expanded Disability Status Scale in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Joong-Yang; Hong, Keun-Sik; Kim, Ho Jin; Kim, Su-Hyun; Min, Ju-Hong; Kim, Nam-Hee; Ahn, Suk-Won; Park, Min Su; An, Jae-Young; Kim, Byung-Jo; Kim, Woojun

    2014-08-01

    The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is the most widely employed ordinal disability scale in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, how far apart the individual EDSS levels are along the disability spectrum has not been formally quantified. The objective of this paper is to generate refined disability weights (DWs) for each of the ordinal EDSS levels. We performed the person trade-off (PTO) procedure to derive DWs of five representative EDSS categories (2, 4, 6, 7 and 9), and DWs of the remaining EDSS categories were assigned by linear interpolation. The modified Delphi process was used to achieve consensus among raters. DWs were 0.021 for EDSS 2, 0.199 for EDSS 4, 0.313 for EDSS 6, 0.617 for EDSS 7, and 0.926 for EDSS 9. Panel members achieved a high degree of consensus for each DW, as indicated by low coefficients of variation. Our DWs confirmed that EDSS is an ordinal scale with highly variable intervals. The availability of DW for each EDSS level allows direct comparison of each MS outcome state with other health states and provides a foundation for the estimation of the disability-adjusted life-years lost of individual patients. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. A Range-Expanding Shrub Species Alters Plant Phenological Response to Experimental Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Christopher W; Cleland, Elsa E

    2015-01-01

    Shifts in plant species phenology (the timing of life-history events such as flowering) have been observed worldwide in concert with rising global temperatures. While most species display earlier phenology with warming, there is large variation among, and even within, species in phenological sensitivity to rising temperatures. Other indirect effects of climate change, such as shifting species composition and altered species interactions, may also be contributing to shifting plant phenology. Here, we describe how experimental warming and the presence of a range-expanding species, sagebrush (Artemisia rothrockii), interact to influence the flowering phenology (day of first and peak flowering) and production (number of flowers) of an alpine cushion plant, Trifolium andersonii, in California's White Mountains. Both first flowering and peak flowering were strongly accelerated by warming, but not when sagebrush was present. Warming significantly increased flower production of T. andersonii, but less so in the presence of sagebrush. A shading treatment delayed phenology and lowered flower production, suggesting that shading may be the mechanism by which sagebrush presence delayed flowering of the understory species. This study demonstrates that species interactions can modify phenological responses to climate change, and suggests that indirect effects of rising temperatures arising from shifting species ranges and altered species interactions may even exceed the direct effects of rising temperatures on phenology.

  9. A Range-Expanding Shrub Species Alters Plant Phenological Response to Experimental Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Kopp

    Full Text Available Shifts in plant species phenology (the timing of life-history events such as flowering have been observed worldwide in concert with rising global temperatures. While most species display earlier phenology with warming, there is large variation among, and even within, species in phenological sensitivity to rising temperatures. Other indirect effects of climate change, such as shifting species composition and altered species interactions, may also be contributing to shifting plant phenology. Here, we describe how experimental warming and the presence of a range-expanding species, sagebrush (Artemisia rothrockii, interact to influence the flowering phenology (day of first and peak flowering and production (number of flowers of an alpine cushion plant, Trifolium andersonii, in California's White Mountains. Both first flowering and peak flowering were strongly accelerated by warming, but not when sagebrush was present. Warming significantly increased flower production of T. andersonii, but less so in the presence of sagebrush. A shading treatment delayed phenology and lowered flower production, suggesting that shading may be the mechanism by which sagebrush presence delayed flowering of the understory species. This study demonstrates that species interactions can modify phenological responses to climate change, and suggests that indirect effects of rising temperatures arising from shifting species ranges and altered species interactions may even exceed the direct effects of rising temperatures on phenology.

  10. The evolution of carrying capacity in constrained and expanding tumour cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlee, Philip; Anderson, Alexander R A

    2015-08-12

    Cancer cells are known to modify their micro-environment such that it can sustain a larger population, or, in ecological terms, they construct a niche which increases the carrying capacity of the population. It has however been argued that niche construction, which benefits all cells in the tumour, would be selected against since cheaters could reap the benefits without paying the cost. We have investigated the impact of niche specificity on tumour evolution using an individual based model of breast tumour growth, in which the carrying capacity of each cell consists of two components: an intrinsic, subclone-specific part and a contribution from all neighbouring cells. Analysis of the model shows that the ability of a mutant to invade a resident population depends strongly on the specificity. When specificity is low selection is mostly on growth rate, while high specificity shifts selection towards increased carrying capacity. Further, we show that the long-term evolution of the system can be predicted using adaptive dynamics. By comparing the results from a spatially structured versus well-mixed population we show that spatial structure restores selection for carrying capacity even at zero specificity, which poses a solution to the niche construction dilemma. Lastly, we show that an expanding population exhibits spatially variable selection pressure, where cells at the leading edge exhibit higher growth rate and lower carrying capacity than those at the centre of the tumour.

  11. An expanding job description for Blimp-1/PRDM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikoff, Elizabeth K; Morgan, Marc A; Robertson, Elizabeth J

    2009-08-01

    The master transcriptional regulator Blimp-1/PRDM1 contains an N-terminal PR/SET domain and five C2H2 zinc fingers located near its C-terminus that mediate DNA binding, nuclear import and recruitment of histone modifying enzymes. These activities account for its ability to control cell-fate decisions in the embryo and govern tissue homeostasis in multiple cell types in the adult organism. New experiments demonstrate an increasing degree of complexity associated with Blimp-1/PRDM1 target site selection and its associations with epigenetic modifiers. Our current understanding of how this single unique species within the family of structurally similar PRDM proteins regulates gene expression patterns and governs developmental programmes in different cell lineages is discussed.

  12. Implant materials modified by colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zboromirska-Wnukiewicz Beata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in general medicine led to the development of biomaterials. Implant material should be characterized by a high biocompatibility to the tissue and appropriate functionality, i.e. to have high mechanical and electrical strength and be stable in an electrolyte environment – these are the most important properties of bioceramic materials. Considerations of biomaterials design embrace also electrical properties occurring on the implant-body fluid interface and consequently the electrokinetic potential, which can be altered by modifying the surface of the implant. In this work, the surface of the implants was modified to decrease the risk of infection by using metal colloids. Nanocolloids were obtained using different chemical and electrical methods. It was found that the colloids obtained by physical and electrical methods are more stable than colloids obtained by chemical route. In this work the surface of modified corundum implants was investigated. The implant modified by nanosilver, obtained by electrical method was selected. The in vivo research on animals was carried out. Clinical observations showed that the implants with modified surface could be applied to wounds caused by atherosclerotic skeleton, for curing the chronic and bacterial inflammations as well as for skeletal reconstruction surgery.

  13. Feasibility of Seeding Primordial Perturbations in a Decelerated Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Piao, Y S

    2006-01-01

    The scalar field with the modified dispersion relation under certain conditions may seed the primordial perturbations during a decelerated expansion. In this note we examine whether and how these perturbations can be responsible for the structure formation of observable universe. We find that there seems slightly difficult in matching the requirements of observable cosmology, i.e. obtain simultaneously the scale invariant spectrum of primordial perturbations and enough "efolding number", in a simple case. We discuss possible solutions to this problem.

  14. EXPANDED PERLITE, EXPANDED VERMICULITE AND MICROSPHERES AS FILLERS IN NEW GENERATION PAPER PULP MIXTURES USED FOR CONTACT WITH LIQUID METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Zawieja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metal when filling sand casting mould while pouring it out from ladle at the first moment comes across the sprue/gate system of the mould the purpose of which is to transfer liquid metal and feed the mould recess. The materials presently used for the elements of the sprue/gate systems are based on ceramics or the mixtures based on paper pulp. In this study the use of alternative mineral additions such as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite, and microspheres as the fillers to paper pulp acquired from waste-paper for the use for the elements of mould sprue/gate systems or also other applications for the contact with liquid metal are presented. Experimental mould tube shapes made on the basis of the paper pulp based mixture patented by the authors were poured over with liquid metal. For the comparison, ceramic shapes and commercially available cellulose shapes were investigated in the same way. In order to compare the crystallization processes, a measurement of the cooling off liquid metal was carried out for all the analysed tube samples. From the so obtained metal samples metallographic microsections were made to compare cast iron microstructures. The results obtained from the investigations carried out have shown that the patented paper pulp based mixture may well be applied as an alternative material used for the elements of the sprue/gate systems for disposable sand moulds.

  15. Our first experience with cervical expandable cage for vertebral body reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral body reconstruction after corpectomy using expandable cage has become a common surgical procedure especially at thoracic level. The recent published papers describe the successful use of expandable cages for cervical vertebral body reconstruction. In this paper we present our first experience with expandable cervical cage in the reconstruction of the cervical spine in a patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM

  16. Expanded Access Programme: looking for a common definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudicello, Antonella; Alberghini, Lucia; Benini, Giulia; Mosconi, Paola

    2016-01-12

    Therapeutic use of an unauthorised drug (or of an authorised drug for an unauthorised indication) for patients with a life-threating disease is permitted outside a clinical trial as an Expanded Access Programme (EAP).The regulations regarding EAPs is not the same all over the world. For example, the recommendation of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in EU countries also includes within EAPs patients who have been treated in a clinical trial and who wish to continue the treatment. Nevertheless, the patients treated in a clinical trial could have the option of continuing treatment for an extended period in an Open-label Extension study, aimed to generate long-term data on efficacy, safety, tolerability and administration.The aims of this paper - based on the difficulties and incoherence encountered by an Italian Ethic Committee (EC) during the authorisation process of EAPs - are: understanding the origin of this misclassification by analysing differences and similarities among USA, European and Italian regulations concerning EAPs; and showing difficulties in classifying international study protocols as a consequence of the lack of harmonisation of definitions.We performed a critical review of the current USA, European and Italian regulations and we analysed some practical cases by retrieving protocols from Clinicaltrials.gov and the Italian Clinical Trials Registry (OsSC) containing in the title the keywords 'Expanded Access Programme', "'Expanded Access', 'Open-label Extension study' or 'Early Access'.We observed that the Food and Drug Administration ( FDA) definition of EAP is very clear while the EMA definition is similar to that of an Open-label Extension study. This lack of a clear definition generates misclassification and it is possible to find an EAP with an efficacy or safety endpoint; or an EAP managed as a clinical trial; or an EAP classified in Clinical Trials Registries as a phase II, III or IV clinical trial.The internationalisation of the studies

  17. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; C. R. K. Reddy

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate—or more abundant and more nutritional—biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasi...

  18. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: Exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bénédicte eCharrier; Elodie eRolland; Vishal eGupta; Radhakrishna Chennur Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate — or more abundant and more nutritional — biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest f...

  19. Time, space, and disorder in the expanding proteome universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minde, David-Paul; Dunker, A Keith; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-02-01

    Proteins are highly dynamic entities. Their myriad functions require specific structures, but proteins' dynamic nature ranges all the way from the local mobility of their amino acid constituents to mobility within and well beyond single cells. A truly comprehensive view of the dynamic structural proteome includes: (i) alternative sequences, (ii) alternative conformations, (iii) alternative interactions with a range of biomolecules, (iv) cellular localizations, (v) alternative behaviors in different cell types. While these aspects have traditionally been explored one protein at a time, we highlight recently emerging global approaches that accelerate comprehensive insights into these facets of the dynamic nature of protein structure. Computational tools that integrate and expand on multiple orthogonal data types promise to enable the transition from a disjointed list of static snapshots to a structurally explicit understanding of the dynamics of cellular mechanisms.

  20. Decay of the Weyl curvature in expanding black hole cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Schlue, Volker

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a partial proof of the non-linear stability of the expanding region of Schwarzschild de Sitter cosmologies. We show that under dynamically realistic assumptions the conformal Weyl curvature decays towards null infinity. Our assumptions are consistent with the expectation that a dynamical solution to Einstein's equations with positive cosmological constant does not converge globally to a member of the Kerr de Sitter family. In particular in this problem the geometry of null infinity is a priori unknown. One expects this result to form an essential part of a global existence proof for the cosmological region, which - along with the precise asymptotics of these solutions - is the subject of a subsequent paper.

  1. Experimental Study and Design of Balloon expandable Endovascular Stent Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue-xuan; YI Hong; NI Zhong-hua

    2005-01-01

    The application background and experimental research overview of medical endovascular stent are presented. Based on the analytical comparison of the current research achievements, the life cycle of medical endovascular stent is pointed out and the characteristics of stent expansion in the life cycle are emphasized on.The experimental scheme of in vitro stent expansion based on the machine vision technology in LabVIEW is presented. The selection and usage of the chosen component devices and design of measurement program for experiment are expatiated. A special drug-loading stent was expanded on the assembled platform of selected equipments and experimental results were analyzed. The experimental scheme presented in the paper provides powerful experimental support for the optimization of stent design and computer simulation of stent expansion by the finite element analysis.

  2. Metabolic Engineering for Expanding the Substrate Range of Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    Economically viable biotechnology processes must be characterized by a favorable ratio between the production costs and the product market price. In the bioproduction of bulk chemicals, costs must be minimized so that the process is competitive relative to petroleum-based production. The substrate costs must thus be reduced by employing inexpensive carbon sources, such as industrial wastes. Unfortunately, the most convenient microorganisms for a bioconversion are typically unable to degrade such substrates. Fortunately, the discovery of new enzymes together with advances in synthetic biology has moved metabolic engineering forward, expanding substrate ranges. Here we review the latest advances made using the industrial yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, which can exploit various carbon sources to produce biofuels and chemicals.

  3. Shear behavior of sand-expanded polystyrene beads lightweight fills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓安; 肖杨

    2008-01-01

    Through direct shear and triaxial compression tests, effects of expanded polystyrene (EPS) mass ratios in sand-EPS mixtures and stress status on materials’ shear behavior were investigated. Hyperbolic curves were used to fit relationship between shear stress and shear displacement. The shear behavior is marginally associated with the EPS ratios and normal/confining stresses. Increases of EPS ratios and decreases of normal/confining stresses result in shear strength decreases. The shapes of Mohr-Coulomb’s envelope include linear and piecewise linear types, which are basically determined by the EPS ratio. Such difference is thought related to the embedding or apparent cohesion effect under relatively high EPS ratio conditions. Shear strength parameters can be used for further modeling and design purposes.

  4. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  5. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  6. Constraining an Expanding Locally Anisotropic metric from the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P Castelo

    2012-01-01

    It is discussed the possibility of a fine-tuneable contribution to the two way Doppler acceleration either towards, either outwards the Sun for heliocentric distances above 20 AU by considering a background described by an Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) metric. This metric encodes both the standard local Schwarzschild gravitational effects and the cosmological Universe expansion effects allowing simultaneously to fine-tune other gravitational effects at intermediate scales, which may be tentatively interpreted as a covariant parameterization of either cold dark matter either gravitational interaction corrections. Are derived bounds for the ELA metric functional parameter by considering the bounds on the deviation from standard General Relativity imposed by the current updated limits for the Pioneer anomaly, taking in consideration both the natural outgassing and on-board radiation pressure, resulting in an average Doppler acceleration outwards the Sun of a_p = +0.4^{+2.1}_{-2.0} x 10^{-10} (m/s^2). It is...

  7. Expanding the metabolic engineering toolbox with directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatemarco, Joseph; Hill, Andrew; Alper, Hal S

    2013-12-01

    Cellular systems can be engineered into factories that produce high-value chemicals from renewable feedstock. Such an approach requires an expanded toolbox for metabolic engineering. Recently, protein engineering and directed evolution strategies have started to play a growing and critical role within metabolic engineering. This review focuses on the various ways in which directed evolution can be applied in conjunction with metabolic engineering to improve product yields. Specifically, we discuss the application of directed evolution on both catalytic and non-catalytic traits of enzymes, on regulatory elements, and on whole genomes in a metabolic engineering context. We demonstrate how the goals of metabolic pathway engineering can be achieved in part through evolving cellular parts as opposed to traditional approaches that rely on gene overexpression and deletion. Finally, we discuss the current limitations in screening technology that hinder the full implementation of a metabolic pathway-directed evolution approach.

  8. Medical humanities and philosophy: is the universe expanding or contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, William E

    2007-12-01

    The question of whether the universe is expanding or contracting serves as a model for current questions facing the medical humanities. The medical humanities might aptly be described as a metamedical multiverse encompassing many separate universes of discourse, the most prominent of which is probably bioethics. Bioethics, however, is increasingly developing into a new interdisciplinary discipline, and threatens to engulf the other medical humanities, robbing them of their own distinctive contributions to metamedicine. The philosophy of medicine considered as a distinct field of study has suffered as a result. Indeed, consensus on whether the philosophy of medicine even constitutes a legitimate field of study is lacking. This paper presents an argument for the importance of a broad conception of the philosophy of medicine and the central role it should play in organizing and interpreting the various fields of study that make up the metamedical multiverse.

  9. Dilepton from Passage of Jets Through Spherical Expanding QGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Ping; Xi, Qin

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the large mass dileptons production from the jet-dilepton conversion in spherical expanding quark-gluon plasma at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. The jet-dilepton production exceeds the thermal and Drell-Yan dilepton production in the large mass region of 4.5 GeVQGP leads to a rapid cooling of the fire ball and suppression of the jet-dilepton conversion. The suppression is also evident at intermediate and large mass at LHC energies. The energy loss of the jet-dilepton conversion is concerned. Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of the Education Department of Yunnan Province of China under Grant No. 2012Y274, and Science Foundation of Dianxi Science and Technology Normal University under Grant No. LCSZL2013004

  10. Selection of nanoparticles using CO.sub.2-expanded liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher B; McLeod, Marshall Chandler; Anand, Madhu

    2013-02-19

    A method for size selection of nanostructures comprising utilizing a gas-expanded liquids (GEL) and controlled pressure to precipitate desired size populations of nanostructures, e.g., monodisperse. The GEL can comprise CO.sub.2 antisolvent and an organic solvent. The method can be carried out in an apparatus comprising a first open vessel configured to allow movement of a liquid/particle solution to specific desired locations within the vessel, a second pressure vessel, a location controller for controlling location of the particles and solution within the first vessel, a inlet for addition of antisolvent to the first vessel, and a device for measuring the amount of antisolvent added. Also disclosed is a method for forming nanoparticle thin films comprising utilizing a GEL containing a substrate, pressurizing the solution to precipitate and deposit nanoparticles onto the substrate, removing the solvent thereby leaving a thin nanoparticle film, removing the solvent and antisolvent, and drying the film.

  11. Nonthermal radiation from relativistic electrons accelerated at spherically expanding shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons accelerated at spherically expanding shocks with low Mach numbers and the ensuing spectral signatures imprinted in radio synchrotron emission. Time-dependent simulations of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of electrons in the test-particle limit have been performed for spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for typical shocks in the intracluster medium. The electron and radiation spectra at the shock location can be described properly by the test-particle DSA predictions with the instantaneous shock parameters. However, the volume integrated spectra of both electrons and radiation deviate significantly from the test-particle power-laws, because the shock compression ratio and the flux of injected electrons at the shock gradually decrease as the shock slows down in time. So one needs to be cautious about interpreting observed radio spectra of evolving shocks by simple DSA models in the test-particle regime.

  12. China Expands Import Equipment of Marine Oil Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The oil price has been soaring continuously while the oil consumption in China has been increasingly rising, China is expanding the import of marine petroleum exploitation equipment greatly to produce more oil from oceans. According to the statistics from Tianjin Port, one of the largest international trade ports in China, 39 generating electricity sets for offshore oil exploitation have been imported and passed through the custom formalities in the first 7 months this year.The total value of them is US$ 4.407 million, an increase of 44.4% compared to the corresponding period last year, in addition, this port has also imported other offshore exploration and development equipment valued at US$ 120 million. Most of them are from the US with a value of US$ 57.25 million, anincrease of 54.9% over last year.

  13. Fast Equilibration of Hadrons in an Expanding Fireball

    CERN Document Server

    Noronha-Hostler, J; Shovkovy, I A

    2007-01-01

    Due to long chemical equilibration times within standard hadronic reactions during the hadron gas phase in relativistic heavy ion collisions it has been suggested that the hadrons are "born" into equilibrium after the quark gluon plasma phase. Here we develop a dynamical scheme in which possible Hagedorn states contribute to fast chemical equilibration times of baryon anti-baryon pairs (as well as kaon anti-kaon pairs) inside a hadron gas and just below the critical temperature. Within this scheme, we use master equations and derive various analytical estimates for the chemical equilibration times. Applying a Bjorken picture to the expanding fireball, the kaons and baryons as well as the bath of pions and Hagedorn resonances can indeed quickly chemically equilibrate for both an initial overpopulation or underpopulation of Hagedorn resonances. Moreover, a comparison of our results to $(B+\\bar{B})/\\pi^{+}$ and $K/\\pi^{+}$ ratios at RHIC, indeed, shows a close match.

  14. Instability induced pressure isotropization in a longitudinally expanding system

    CERN Document Server

    Dusling, Kevin; Gelis, François; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-01-01

    In two previous works [arXiv:1009.4363,arXiv:1107.0668], we studied the time evolution of a system of real scalar fields with quartic coupling which shares important features with the Color Glass Condensate description of heavy ion collisions. Our primary objective was to understand how such a system, when initialized with a non-perturbatively large classical field configuration, reaches thermal equilibrium. An essential goal of these works was to highlight the role played by the quantum fluctuations. However, these studies considered only a system confined within a box of fixed volume. In the present paper, we extend this work to a system that expands in the longitudinal direction thereby more closely mimicking a heavy ion collision. We conclude that the microscopic processes that drive the system towards equilibrium are able to keep up with the expansion of the system; the pressure tensor becomes isotropic despite the anisotropic expansion.

  15. Water extraction on Mars for an expanding human colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, M; Franz, B; Baker, T; Howe, S

    2015-11-01

    In-situ water extraction is necessary for an extended human presence on Mars. This study looks at the water requirements of an expanding human colony on Mars and the general systems needed to supply that water from the martian atmosphere and regolith. The proposed combination of systems in order to supply the necessary water includes a system similar to Honeybee Robotics' Mobile In-Situ Water Extractor (MISWE) that uses convection, a system similar to MISWE but that directs microwave energy down a borehole, a greenhouse or hothouse type system, and a system similar to the Mars Atmospheric Resource Recovery System (MARRS). It is demonstrated that a large water extraction system that can take advantage of large deposits of water ice at site specific locations is necessary to keep up with the demands of a growing colony.

  16. Kinetic theory of a longitudinally expanding system of scalar particles

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, Thomas; Jeon, Sangyong; Moore, Guy; Wu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A simple kinematical argument suggests that the classical approximation may be inadequate to describe the evolution of a system with an anisotropic particle distribution. In order to verify this quantitatively, we study the Boltzmann equation for a longitudinally expanding system of scalar particles interacting with a $\\phi^4$ coupling, that mimics the kinematics of a heavy ion collision at very high energy. We consider only elastic $2\\to 2$ scatterings, and we allow the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in overpopulated situations by solving the coupled equations for the particle distribution and the particle density in the zero mode. For generic CGC-like initial conditions with a large occupation number and a moderate coupling, the solutions of the full Boltzmann equation do not follow a classical attractor behavior.

  17. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  18. Travelling waves in the expanding spatially homogeneous space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, George

    2014-01-01

    Some classes of the so called "travelling wave" solutions of Einstein and Einstein - Maxwell equations in General Relativity and of dynamical equations for massless bosonic fields in string gravity in four and higher dimensions are presented. Similarly to the well known pp-waves, these travelling wave solutions may depend on arbitrary functions of a null coordinate which determine the arbitrary profiles and polarizations of the waves. However, in contrast with pp-waves, these waves do not admit the null Killing vector fields and can exist in some curved (expanding and spatially homogeneous) background space-times, where these waves propagate in certain directions without any scattering. Mathematically, some of these classes of solutions arise as the fixed points of Kramer-Neugebauer transformations for hyperbolic integrable reductions of the mentioned above field equations, or, in the other cases, -- after imposing of the ansatz that these waves do not change the part of spatial metric transversal to the dire...

  19. Expanding Medicare and employer plans to achieve universal health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K

    1991-05-15

    This article presents a proposal for expanding Medicare and employer-based health insurance plans to achieve universal health insurance. Under this proposed health care financing system, employees would provide basic health insurance coverage to workers and dependents, or pay a payroll tax contribution toward the cost of their coverage under Medicare. States would have the option of buying all Medicaid beneficiaries and other poor individuals into Medicare by paying the Medicare premiums and cost sharing. Other uninsured individuals would be automatically covered by Medicare. Employer plans would incorporate Medicare's provider payment methods. This proposal would result in incremental federal governmental outlays on the order of $25 billion annually. These new federal budgetary costs would be met through a combination of premiums, employer payroll tax, income tax, and general tax revenues. The principal advantage of this plan is that it draws on the strengths of the current system while simplifying the benefit and provider payment structure and instituting innovations to promote efficiency.

  20. Quantum thermodynamics for a model of an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Nana; Fuentes, Ivette; Vedral, Vlatko; Modi, Kavan; Bruschi, David Edward

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamical properties of quantum fields in curved spacetime. Our approach is to consider quantum fields in curved spacetime as a quantum system undergoing an out-of-equilibrium transformation. The non-equilibrium features are studied by using a formalism which has been developed to derive fluctuation relations and emergent irreversible features beyond the linear response regime. We apply these ideas to an expanding universe scenario, therefore avoiding assumptions on the relation between entropy and quantum matter. We provide a fluctuation theorem which allows us to understand particle production due to the expansion of the universe as an entropic increase. Our results pave the way towards a different understanding of the thermodynamics of relativistic and quantum systems in our universe.

  1. Photophysical Properties on Mobius and Antiaromatic Expanded Porphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    expanded porphyrins containing more than four pyrrole rings have emerged as  a promising class of molecules  for  applications   in near‐infrared  (NIR...rectangular‐like  shaped  [26]hexaphyrin quantitatively gave  thienyl‐fused  [28]hexaphyrin 2  by  thermal  fusion reaction. There is also the...protonation  of  iminic   pyrrole  and  intermolecular  hydrogen  bonding  between  macrocycle, counter‐anions, and acid molecules. Then, intrinsic

  2. Frequency-Dependent Selection at Rough Expanding Fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhr, Jan-Timm

    2015-01-01

    Microbial colonies are experimental model systems for studying the colonization of new territory by biological species through range expansion. We study a generalization of the two-species Eden model, which incorporates local frequency-dependent selection, in order to analyze how social interactions between two species influence surface roughness of growing microbial colonies. The model includes several classical scenarios from game theory. We then concentrate on an expanding public goods game, where either cooperators or defectors take over the front depending on the system parameters. We analyze in detail the critical behavior of the nonequilibrium phase transition between global cooperation and defection and thereby identify a new universality class of phase transitions dealing with absorbing states. At the transition, the number of boundaries separating sectors decays with a novel power law in time and their superdiffusive motion crosses over from Eden scaling to a nearly ballistic regime. In parallel, th...

  3. A Few Expanding Integrable Models, Hamiltonian Structures and Constrained Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Two kinds of higher-dimensional Lie algebras and their loop algebras are introduced, for which a few expanding integrable models including the coupling integrable couplings of the Broer-Kaup (BK) hierarchy and the dispersive long wave (DLW) hierarchy as well as the TB hierarchy are obtained.From the reductions of the coupling integrable couplings, the corresponding coupled integrable couplings of the BK equation, the DLW equation, and the TB equation are obtained, respectively.Especially, the coupling integrable coupling of the TB equation reduces to a few integrable couplings of the well-known mKdV equation.The Hamiltonian structures of the coupling integrable couplings of the three kinds of soliton hierarchies are worked out, respectively, by employing the variational identity.Finally,we decompose the BK hierarchy of evolution equations into x-constrained flows and tn-constrained flows whose adjoint representations and the Lax pairs are given.

  4. Thermal Measurements on Polymeric Epoxy-Expandable Graphite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Asante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion measurements, such as heat release rate, critical flux, time-to-ignition, ignition temperature, thermal inertia, and kinematics—activation energy as well as preexponential factor—on epoxy polymer (Prime™ 20LV with expandable graphite (EG inorganic filler of different weight percentage composites, are conducted using the Dual Cone Calorimeter, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and Linseis (Germany THB100 Transient Hot Bridge thermal conductivity analyser. The results indicate that increasing the amount of EG in polymer composite leads to reduction in the critical flux, the time-to-ignition, the ignition temperature, the thermal inertia, the average thermal conductivity, and the activation energy (from 159.1 ± 2.3 to 145.9 ± 3.1 kJ/mol for neat epoxy to 3 wt.% EG-epoxy of the composite samples. There is, however, an increase in the heat of gasification with increasing EG content.

  5. Expanding entrepreneurship opportunities through local governance: the case of Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pounder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the government and local governance structures of Barbados, arguing that local governance should be leveraged to expand entrepreneurship opportunities at the community level. It examines the links between local governance and entrepreneurship, and proposes a framework aimed at strengthening the relationship between Barbados’ newly formed constituency councils and its government institutions supporting entrepreneurship. The research concludes that there are many inefficiencies in the interaction between government agencies and constituency councils, which the proposed framework is a first step toward remedying.  The research suggests that local governance is a complex issue worldwide. More specifically in Barbados, even though the role of the constituency councils is defined, there are weak formal arrangements which undermine the processes and activities to support community entrepreneurship. The proposed framework highlighted in the research is a first step in formalising a way forward for entrepreneurship in the community. 

  6. METADATA EXPANDED SEMANTICALLY BASED RESOURCE SEARCH IN EDUCATION GRID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid increase of educational resources, how to search for necessary educational resource quickly is one of most important issues. Educational resources have the characters of distribution and heterogeneity, which are the same as the characters of Grid resources. Therefore, the technology of Grid resources search was adopted to implement the educational resources search. Motivated by the insufficiency of currently resources search methods based on metadata, a method of extracting semantic relations between words constituting metadata is proposed. We mainly focus on acquiring synonymy, hyponymy, hypernymy and parataxis relations. In our schema, we extract texts related to metadata that will be expanded from text spatial through text extraction templates. Next, metadata will be obtained through metadata extraction templates. Finally, we compute semantic similarity to eliminate false relations and construct a semantic expansion knowledge base. The proposed method in this paper has been applied on the education grid.

  7. Geometrical aspects of the interaction between expanding clouds and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Spineanu, F

    2015-01-01

    This work is intended to be a contribution to the study of the morphology of the rising convective columns, for a better representation of the processes of entrainment and detrainment. We examine technical methods for the description of the interface of expanding clouds and reveal the role of \\emph{fingering} instability which increases the effective length of the periphery of the cloud. Assuming Laplacian growth we give a detailed derivation of the time-dependent conformal transformation that solves the equation of the \\emph{fingering} instability. For the phase of slower expansion, the evolution of complex poles with a dynamics largely controlled by the Hilbert operator (acting on the function that represents the interface position) leads to \\emph{cusp} singularities but smooths out the smaller scale perturbations. We review the arguments that the rising column cannot preserve its integrity (seen as compacity in any horizontal section), because of the penetrative downdrafts or the incomplete repulsion of th...

  8. FORMATION BY IRRADIATION OF AN EXPANDED, CELLULAR, POLYMERIC BODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesby, A.; Ross, M.

    1958-12-01

    The treatment of polymeric esters of methacrylic acid having a softening polnt above 40 icient laborato C to form an expanded cellular mass with a smooth skin is discussed. The disclosed method comprises the steps of subjecting the body at a temperature below the softenpoint to a dose of at least 5 x lO/sup 6/ roentgen of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 source until its average molecular weight is reduced to a value within the range of 3 x lO/sup 5/ to 10/sup 4/, and heating at a temperature within the range of 0 to lO icient laborato C above its softening point to effect expansion.

  9. Research on Complex Refraction Indices of Expanded Graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆正伟; 李晓霞; 赵纪金

    2011-01-01

    The expanded graphite (EG) with a low density and better extinction performance can be used in military as passive jamming material in IR and MMW bands. Its complex refractive index is a significant parameter for the extinction property. This paper presents a method to calculate the complex refractive index of EG. The reflection spectra of EG pellets were measured in the 0. 24 - 2.6 μm and 2.5 - 25 μm bands, respectively. Based on the measurement results, the complex refractive index of EG in 5 - 10 μm band was calculated by using Kramers-Kronig(K-K) relation and Bruggeman effective medium theory, and then the errors were analyzed. The results indicate that it is feasible to calculate the complex refractive index of EG based on its IR reflection spectra data.

  10. An expanded genomic representation of the phylum cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Rochelle M; Skennerton, Connor T; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Imelfort, Michael; Paech, Samuel J; Dennis, Paul G; Steen, Jason A; Parks, Donovan H; Tyson, Gene W; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Molecular surveys of aphotic habitats have indicated the presence of major uncultured lineages phylogenetically classified as members of the Cyanobacteria. One of these lineages has recently been proposed as a nonphotosynthetic sister phylum to the Cyanobacteria, the Melainabacteria, based on recovery of population genomes from human gut and groundwater samples. Here, we expand the phylogenomic representation of the Melainabacteria through sequencing of six diverse population genomes from gut and bioreactor samples supporting the inference that this lineage is nonphotosynthetic, but not the assertion that they are strictly fermentative. We propose that the Melainabacteria is a class within the phylogenetically defined Cyanobacteria based on robust monophyly and shared ancestral traits with photosynthetic representatives. Our findings are consistent with theories that photosynthesis occurred late in the Cyanobacteria and involved extensive lateral gene transfer and extends the recognized functionality of members of this phylum.

  11. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage.

  12. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jamesina J; Crans, Wayne J

    2003-12-01

    Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were placed in a variety of habitats to investigate their potential as an egg-collection device for container-dwelling Aedes and Ochlerotatus species. Eggs from Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus, Oc. hendersoni, and Aedes albopictus were collected with EPS floats. The float provides an inexpensive, low-maintenance alternative to the Centers for Disease Control ovitrap for sampling container-dwelling mosquito species that are important vectors of disease. Eggs collected on the floats have many potential applications, including use in routine population surveillance; detection of Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and other container-dwelling species in new areas; species distribution studies; natural transovarial transmission studies; ovipositional studies; collection of local field populations for insecticide resistance assays; assessment of adulticiding efficacy; and establishment of new laboratory colonies.

  13. The expanding universe of Sherlockian fandom and archival collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jerome Johnson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1887, in sometimes cosmic fashion, nearly every medium and format has been used in sharing the original 60 Sherlock Holmes adventures along with their pastiche and parodying offspring. Such creative energy is evidence of a literary big bang, and an expanding universe of creative possibilities, many of them now born digital or residing on digital platforms. We trace older and newer Sherlockian enthusiasms; their points of entry; the creative manifestations of these fandoms over time and through various media; and the emerging challenges and opportunities presented to library and archival professionals by the explosive growth of creative works, especially those produced during the last decade. Curatorial actions involving acquisition, preservation, description, and user discovery of these materials are considered alongside the relationship building necessary between curator and fan in acquiring evolving, dynamic new Sherlockian expressions and insights.

  14. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  15. Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandula Borjigin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs. The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP; this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.

  16. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  17. Advantages of expanded universal carrier screening: what is at stake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hout, Sanne; Holtkamp, Kim Ca; Henneman, Lidewij; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J

    2016-01-01

    Expanded universal carrier screening (EUCS) entails a twofold expansion of long-standing (preconception) carrier screening programmes: it not only allows the simultaneous screening of a large list of diseases ('expanded'), but also refers to a pan-ethnic screening offer ('universal'). Advocates mention three main moral advantages of EUCS as compared with traditional (targeted and/or ancestry-based) forms of carrier screening: EUCS will (1) maximise opportunities for autonomous reproductive choice by informing prospective parents about a much wider array of reproductive risks; (2) provide equity of access to carrier testing services; (3) reduce the risk of stigmatisation. This empirical ethics study aims to widen this account and provide a balanced picture of the potential pros and cons of EUCS. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 health (policy) professionals and representatives of patient organisations about their views on carrier screening including a possible EUCS scenario. Stakeholders acknowledged the potential benefits of EUCS, but also expressed five main moral concerns: (1) Does EUCS respond to an urgent problem or population need? (2) Is it possible to offer couples both understandable and sufficient information about EUCS? (3) How will societal views on 'reproductive responsibility' change as a result of EUCS? (4) Will EUCS lead to a lower level of care for high-risk populations? (5) Will EUCS reinforce disability-based stigmatisation? While having the potential to overcome some moral limits inherent in traditional carrier screening, EUCS comes with moral challenges of its own. More research is needed to (further) anticipate the ethical and practical consequences of EUCS.

  18. Preliminary characterization of an expanding flow of siloxane vapor MDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A.; Cozzi, F.; Cammi, G.; Zocca, M.; Gaetani, P.; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.

    2017-03-01

    The early experimental results on the characterization of expanding flows of siloxane vapor MDM (C8H24O2Si3, octamethyltrisiloxane) are presented. The measurements were performed on the Test Rig for Organic VApors (TROVA) at the CREA Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. The TROVA test-rig was built in order to investigate the non-ideal compressible-fluid behavior of typical expanding flows occurring within organic Rankine cycles (ORC) turbine passages. The test rig implements a batch Rankine cycle where a planar converging-diverging nozzle replaces the turbine and represents a test section. Investigations related to both fields of non-ideal compressible-fluid dynamics fundamentals and turbomachinery are allowed. The nozzle can be operated with different working fluids and operating conditions aiming at measuring independently the pressure, the temperature and the velocity field and thus providing data to verify the thermo-fluid dynamic models adopted to predict the behavior of these flows. The limiting values of pressure and temperature are 50 bar and 400 °C respectively. The early measurements are performed along the nozzle axis, where an isentropic process is expected to occur. In particular, the results reported here refer to the nozzle operated in adapted conditions using the siloxane vapor MDM as working fluid in thermodynamic regions where mild to medium non-ideal compressible-fluid effects are present. Both total temperature and total pressure of the nozzle are measured upstream of the test section, while static pressure are measured along the nozzle axis. Schlieren visualizations are also carried out in order to complement the pressure measurement with information about the 2D density gradient field. The Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique is planned to be used in the future for velocity measurements. The measured flow field has also been interpreted by resorting to the quasi-one-dimensional theory and two dimensional CFD viscous calculation. In both cases

  19. Development and applications of the Expanded Equivalent Fluid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Bharath Kumar

    Ocean acoustics is the study of sound in the oceans. Electromagnetic waves attenuate rapidly in the water medium. Sound is the best means to transmit information underwater. Computational numerical simulations play an important role in ocean acoustics. Simulations of acoustic propagation in the oceans are challenging due to the complexities involved in the ocean environment. Different methods have been developed to simulate underwater sound propagation. The Parabolic-Equation (PE) method is the best choice in several ocean acoustic problems. In shallow water acoustic experiments, sound loses some of its energy when it interacts with the bottom. An equivalent fluid technique was developed by Zhang and Tindle (ZT) to model sound propagation which is affected by shear in the sea bottom. The reflection coefficient of a soft solid seabed with a low shear speed can be well approximated by replacing the seafloor with a Complex-Density (CD) equivalent fluid of suitably chosen parameters. This is called an equivalent fluid approximation. The ZT method works well in cases where low grazing angles are relevant. This technique was expanded to also perform well in cases where higher grazing angle intervals are relevant. This method is called the Expanded Equivalent Fluid (EEF) method. The EEF method gives an effective CD, rho' = rho'r + irho'i, and an effective sound speed in the bottom, c'p, when a set of bottom parameters (density rho, sound speed in the bottom cp, and shear speed cs) are given as input. The performance of the EEF method has been investigated in several different ocean acoustic environments. Far-field simulations for an array of airgun sources were performed using the CD equivalent fluid parameters. Another application of the EEF method in the geoacoustic inversion process to find an estimate of the elastic bottom parameters of the seafloor was explored. PE broadband simulations were performed to model shear-affected, bottom-interacting sound.

  20. In vitro selection with artificial expanded genetic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefah, Kwame; Yang, Zunyi; Bradley, Kevin M; Hoshika, Shuichi; Jiménez, Elizabeth; Zhang, Liqin; Zhu, Guizhi; Shanker, Savita; Yu, Fahong; Turek, Diane; Tan, Weihong; Benner, Steven A

    2014-01-28

    Artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGISs) are unnatural forms of DNA that increase the number of independently replicating nucleotide building blocks. To do this, AEGIS pairs are joined by different arrangements of hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups, all while retaining their Watson-Crick geometries. We report here a unique case where AEGIS DNA has been used to execute a systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) experiment. This AEGIS-SELEX was designed to create AEGIS oligonucleotides that bind to a line of breast cancer cells. AEGIS-SELEX delivered an AEGIS aptamer (ZAP-2012) built from six different kinds of nucleotides (the standard G, A, C, and T, and the AEGIS nonstandard P and Z nucleotides, the last having a nitro functionality not found in standard DNA). ZAP-2012 has a dissociation constant of 30 nM against these cells. The affinity is diminished or lost when Z or P (or both) is replaced by standard nucleotides and compares well with affinities of standard GACT aptamers selected against cell lines using standard SELEX. The success of AEGIS-SELEX relies on various innovations, including (i) the ability to synthesize GACTZP libraries, (ii) polymerases that PCR amplify GACTZP DNA with little loss of the AEGIS nonstandard nucleotides, and (iii) technologies to deep sequence GACTZP DNA survivors. These results take the next step toward expanding the power and utility of SELEX and offer an AEGIS-SELEX that could possibly generate receptors, ligands, and catalysts having sequence diversities nearer to that displayed by proteins.