WorldWideScience

Sample records for modified critical state

  1. Levitation force on a permanent magnet over a superconducting plane: Modified critical-state model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.J.

    1997-01-01

    The authors consider a model system of a permanent magnet above a semi-infinite superconductor. They introduce a modified critical-state model, and carry out derivations of the levitation force acting on the magnet. A key feature of the modification allows the current density to be less than the critical value. The theoretical results show an exponential relationship between the force and the distance. Analytical expressions are developed for permanent magnets in the form of a point dipole, a tip of a magnetic force microscope, and a cylindrical magnet. In the latter case, the exponential relationship has been observed in numerous experiments but without previous interpretation

  2. A Modified Critical State Two-surface Plasticity Model for Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Hededal, O.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This paper provides background information and documentation for the implementation of a robust plasticity model as a user-subroutine in the commercial finite difference code, FLAC3D by Itasca. The plasticity model presented is equal to the 3 dimensional critical state two-surface plasticity model...... volumetric and stress-strain behaviour under monotonic and cyclic loading and thereby related observations like accumulation of pore pressure, cyclic mobility and cyclic liquefaction. The plasticity model is implemented with an integration scheme based on the general return mapping algorithm. The integration...... scheme faces convergence difficulties, primarily at very low mean effective stresses. The convergence problems are addressed by suitable correction strategies designed to add robustness, stability and efficiency to the integration scheme. An outline of all model parameters is given with suggestions...

  3. A critical evaluation of fasted state simulating gastric fluid (FaSSGF) that contains sodium lauryl sulfate and proposal of a modified recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburub, Aktham; Risley, Donald S; Mishra, Dinesh

    2008-01-22

    The aim of this work is to evaluate one of the most commonly used fasted state simulating gastric fluids (FaSSGFs), which contains sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (FaSSGF(SLS)), and propose a more appropriate surfactant concentration. Surface tension studies clearly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SLS in the relevant media (a media whose pH and sodium chloride concentration are representative of physiological conditions) is significantly lower (p<0.05) than 8.67 mM, which is the SLS concentration in FaSSGF(SLS). The CMC of SLS in the relevant media was determined to be 1.75 mM. Based on this a modified recipe is proposed in which the concentration of SLS is sufficient to achieve a surface tension similar to that in vivo without causing artificial micellar solubilization. Solubility, intrinsic dissolution, and GastroPlus modeling studies are presented to support and give rationale for the modified recipe. In addition, a comparison between the modified recipe and other FaSSGFs reported in the literature is made.

  4. Critical Education, Critical Pedagogies, Marxist Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jean Ann; Morris, Doug; Gounari, Panayota; Agostinone-Wilson, Faith

    2015-01-01

    As critical pedagogy becomes more mainstream on the educational landscape in the United States, it is important to revisit the original tenets of critical pedagogy and explore their current manifestations. Since the beginning of "criticalism" from the theoretical/foundational work of the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory,…

  5. A Modified Microfinance Model Proposed for the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon H Bernstein

    2014-07-01

    While the goal in the traditional model in developing markets is the elimination of poverty, we show how those critical conditions help to explain the lack of success in the United States.  We propose a modified model whose goal is the creation of an entrepreneurial venture or improving the performance of an existing small enterprise.

  6. Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated. PMID:24757417

  7. Genetically modified trees: State and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Marina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified trees are the result of modern plant breeding. Its introduction into the environment for experimental purposes or wider cultivation is defined differently from country to country. Public opinion is divided! Conducted research are part of the activities within the COST Action FP0905 „Biosafety of forest transgenic trees”, which aims to collect information and define the scientific attitude on genetically modified trees as a basis for future European Union (EU policy in this field. The collected information refer to eight countries: four EU member states (Italy, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria and four countries in the process of pre-accession (Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. A comparative analysis involved the state of forest resources (area of forest land and forest cover, forestry legislation, legislation relating to genetically modified organisms and the general public attitude on this issue. The collected information provide a good basis for understanding this issue in order to define a clear scientific attitude as a recommendation. [Acknowledgements. The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the COST Action FP0905 „Biosafety of forest transgenic trees” for assigned STSM and financial support, also special thanks to the Host institution (Tuscany Region - Directorate General in Florence for kind cooperation. The performed research was partially conducted within the Project „Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia“ TP 31041

  8. Approximation to estimation of critical state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orso, Jose A.; Rosario, Universidad Nacional

    2011-01-01

    The position of the control rod for the critical state of the nuclear reactor depends on several factors; including, but not limited to the temperature and configuration of the fuel elements inside the core. Therefore, the position can not be known in advance. In this paper theoretical estimations are developed to obtain an equation that allows calculating the position of the control rod for the critical state (approximation to critical) of the nuclear reactor RA-4; and will be used to create a software performing the estimation by entering the count rate of the reactor pulse channel and the length obtained from the control rod (in cm). For the final estimation of the approximation to critical state, a function obtained experimentally indicating control rods reactivity according to the function of their position is used, work is done mathematically to obtain a linear function, which gets the length of the control rod, which has to be removed to get the reactor in critical position. (author) [es

  9. Dynamic Hazards In Critical Infrastructure Of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors are interested in some aspects of a development project entitled “The methodology of risk assessment for the purposes of crisis management system RP (ID 193751”. The project funded by the National Research and Development Centre under the Competition 3/2012 (security and defense. As part of the project the following items were reviewed and analyzed: materials related to the Government Security Centre, already completed and available products of the project ID 193751, and literature relating to, among other things, crisis management, critical infrastructure, business continuity, security, and threats. The basic emphasis of the article is focused on the resource-critical infrastructure interpretation of the state, whereby the state is perceived as a complex administrative structure in which, on the basis of external and internal interactions of resources, the risk of threats measurement is done.

  10. Bulkhead Door – Critical Evacuation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flizikowski Józef

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is a preliminary to a modification concept of the sliding watertight bulkhead door used on ships and vessels. Hydraulic or electro-hydraulic drives used to move these doors require complicated and extended pressure installations with large amounts of hydraulic fluid. Well-known operational drawbacks of these installations include high level of noise and possibility of various leaks in the hydraulic system. Being the first in a series, the present article describes and analyses critical states which can take place during evacuation of people through openings in the watertight bulkhead doors on seagoing ships and vessels.

  11. Modified method of perturbed stationary states. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    The reaction coordinate approach of Mittleman is used to generalize the method of Perturbed Stationary States. A reaction coordinate is defined for each state in the scattering expansion in terms of parameters which depend on the internuclear separation. These are to be determined from a variational principle described by Demkov. The variational result agrees with that of Bates and McCarroll in the limit of separated atoms, but is generally different elsewhere. The theory is formulated for many-electron systems, and the construction of the scattering expansion is discussed for simple one-, two-, and three-electron systsm. The scattering expansion and the Lagrangian for the radial scattering functions are given in detail for a heteronuclear one-electron system. 2 figures

  12. Thermo-mechanical constitutive modeling of unsaturated clays based on the critical state concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tourchi, Saeed; Hamidi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    A thermo-mechanical constitutive model for unsaturated clays is constructed based on the existing model for saturated clays originally proposed by the authors. The saturated clays model was formulated in the framework of critical state soil mechanics and modified Cam-clay model. The existing model has been generalized to simulate the experimentally observed behavior of unsaturated clays by introducing Bishop's stress and suction as independent stress parameters and modifying the hardening rul...

  13. Fresh and Hardened State of Polymer Modified Concrete and Mortars – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukimat Nurul Nadrah Aqilah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer modified concrete or mortar is an alternative to the advancement of long serving civil engineering material - mortar and concrete. The excellence and promising benefits of modified composites have led to numerous progressive studies of its application. This paper presented a critical review from previous research on the polymer modified concrete and mortar. Both fresh and hardened state behaviours were reviewed as they are important for the development of excellent engineering material. Most of the applications of polymer modified concrete and mortar can be seen in diverse types of polymer such as latex, epoxy and emulsion. The utilization of each type of polymers resulted in different characteristics of composite concrete or mortar. Such applications have contributed to the improvement in terms of workability and mechanical strength, especially at higher grade of composite strength of concrete material.

  14. Modifying Dialogical Strategy in Asynchronous Critical Discussions for Cross-Strait Chinese Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Yiching Chiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this global era, critical thinking has become crucial for educators and learners. The purpose of this research was to explore how modifying a dialogical strategy in asynchronous online discussion forums impacted Chinese learners’ critical thinking. Due to the Chinese cultural impact of social harmony, the majority of learners tend to maintain silent and avoid critical discussions in instructional settings. The author deployed an affectively supportive model in a modified dialogical strategy to structure Chinese EFL learners’ asynchronous critical postings by probing and questioning while requiring labeling of each cross-referencing posting as Agree/Disagree/Challenge/New Perspective. The participants were two cohorts of similar cultural background but under different political systems in China and Taiwan, here engaged together in cultural interactions. This study employed two research methods: standardized critical thinking tests, and focus groups. Findings reveal that learners in both cohorts indicated some improvement in their critical thinking skills. Nevertheless, there remain affective and cultural issues. Future studies are thus recommended to further investigate the potential of an adaptive model to engage critical discussions with English native speakers and optimize critical thinking for Chinese learners in an EFL environment.

  15. A Critical Examination of the Process of Modifying the Curriculum of Alternative Secondary Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study, "A Critical Examination of the Process of Modifying the Curriculum of Alternative Secondary Educational Programs," was done with the use of action research to study (a) whether students currently participating in a continuation school believe their educational and career needs are presently being met; (b) the types of career…

  16. Training of Students’ Critical Thinking Skills through the implementation of a Modified Free Inquiry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, S. A.; Susantini, E.; Agustini, R.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed at training students’ critical thinking skills through the implementation of a modified free inquiry learning model. The subjects of this research were 21 students of Mathematics Semester II. Using One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design, the data were analyzed descriptively using N-gain indicator. The results indicate that the modified free inquiry learning model was effective to train students’ critical thinking skills. The increase in the students’ critical thinking skills viewed from the value of N-Gain has a range of values with the categories of medium and high with a score between 0,25-0,95. Overall, the change in N-Gain score of each student and each indicator of critical thinking skills is as increasing with a moderate category. The increase of N-Gain value is resulted from the fact that the students were directly involved in organizing their learning process. These criteria indicate that the modified free inquiry learning model can be used to train students’ critical thinking skills on photosynthesis and cellular respiration materials. The results of this research are expected to be nationally implemented to familiarize students with andragogy learning style which places the students as the subjects of learning.

  17. Modified Van der Waals equation and law of corresponding states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Changming; Zhu, Yongkai

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the Van der Waals equation is a modification of the ideal gas law, yet it can be used to describe both gas and liquid, and some important messages can be obtained from this state equation. However, the Van der Waals equation is not a precise state equation, and it does not give a good description of the law of corresponding states. In this paper, we expand the Van der Waals equation into its Taylor's series form, and then modify the fourth order expansion by changing the constant Virial coefficients into their analogous ones. Via this way, a more precise result about the law of corresponding states has been obtained, and the law of corresponding states can then be expressed as: in terms of the reduced variables, all fluids should obey the same equation with the analogous Virial coefficients. In addition, the system of 3 He with quantum effects has also been taken into consideration with our modified Van der Waals equation, and it is found that, for a normal system without quantum effect, the modification on ideal gas law from the Van der Waals equation is more significant than the real case, however, for a system with quantum effect, this modification is less significant than the real case, thus a factor is introduced in this paper to weaken or strengthen the modification of the Van der Waals equation, respectively.

  18. Self-organizing of critical state in granulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, S.L.; Savitskaya, N.E.

    2000-01-01

    Critical state in granulated superconductors was studied on the basis of two mathematical models - the system of differential equations for calibration and invariant difference of phases and a simplified model describing the system of associated images and equivalent to the standard models to study self-organizing criticality. The critical state of granulated superconductors in all studied cases was shown to be self-organized. Besides, it is shown that the applied models are practically equivalent ones, that is they both show similar critical behavior and lead to coincidence of noncritical phenomena. For the first time one showed that the occurrence of self-organized critically within the system of nonlinear differential equations and its equivalence to self-organized critically in the standard models [ru

  19. Steady state and transient critical heat flux examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabados, L.

    1978-02-01

    In steady state conditions within the P.W.R. parameter range the critical heat flux correlations based on local parameters reproduce the experimental data with less deviations than those based on system parameters. The transient experiments were restricted for the case of power transients. A data processing method for critical heat flux measurements has been developed and the applicability of quasi steady state calculation has been verified. (D.P.)

  20. Coherent light squeezing states within a modified microring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J.; Pornsuwancharoen, N.; Youplao, P.; Aziz, M. S.; Amiri, I. S.; Chaiwong, K.; Chiangga, S.; Singh, G.; Yupapin, P.

    2018-06-01

    We have proposed the simple method of the squeezed light generation in the modified microring resonator, which is known as the microring conjugate mirror (MCM). When the monochromatic light is input into the MCM, the general form of the squeezed coherent states for a quantum harmonic oscillator can be generated by controlling the additional two side rings, which are the phase modulators. By using the graphical method called the Optiwave program, the coherent squeezed states of coherent light within an MCM can be obtained and interpreted as the amplitude, phase, quadrature and photon number-squeezed states. This method has shown potentials for microring related device design, which can be used before practical applications.

  1. Coherent light squeezing states within a modified microring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed the simple method of the squeezed light generation in the modified microring resonator, which is known as the microring conjugate mirror (MCM. When the monochromatic light is input into the MCM, the general form of the squeezed coherent states for a quantum harmonic oscillator can be generated by controlling the additional two side rings, which are the phase modulators. By using the graphical method called the Optiwave program, the coherent squeezed states of coherent light within an MCM can be obtained and interpreted as the amplitude, phase, quadrature and photon number-squeezed states. This method has shown potentials for microring related device design, which can be used before practical applications.

  2. The exponential critical state of high-Tc ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, H.; Rinderer, L.

    1994-01-01

    The critical current in high-Tc materials is strongly reduced by a magnetic field. We studied this dependency for tubular YBCO samples. We find an exponential drop as the field is increased from zero up to some tens of oersted. This behavior was already observed by others, however little work has been done in this direction. We define what we call the ''exponential critical state'' of HTSC and compare the prediction for the magnetization with experimental data. Furthermore, the ''Kim critical state'' is obtained as the small field limit. (orig.)

  3. Criticality monitoring with digital systems and solid state neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhoite, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    A commercially available system for criticality monitoring combines the well established technology of digital radiation monitoring with state-of-the art detector systems capable of detecting criticality excursions of varying length and intensity with a high degree of confidence. The field microcomputer servicing the detector clusters contains hardware and software to acquire detector information in both the digital count rate and bit sensing modes supported by the criticality detectors. In both cases special criticality logic in the field microcomputer is used to determine the validity of the criticality event. The solid-state neutron detector consists of a 6 LiF wafer coupled to a diffused-junction charged particle detector. Alpha particles resulting from (n,α) interactions within the lithium wafer produce a pulsed signal corresponding to neutron intensity. Special detector circuitry causes the setting of a criticality bit recognizable by the microcomputer should neutron field intensities either exceed a hardware selectable frequency or saturate the detector resulting in a high current condition. These two modes of criticality sensing, in combination with the standard method of comparing an operator selectable alarm setpoint with the detector count rate, results in a criticality system capable of effective operation under the most demanding criticality monitoring conditions

  4. Renal Denervation to Modify Hypertension and the Heart Failure State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming; Kim, Luke K; Swaminathan, Rajesh V; Feldman, Dmitriy N

    2017-07-01

    Sympathetic overactivation of renal afferent and efferent nerves have been implicated in the development and maintenance of several cardiovascular disease states, including resistant hypertension and heart failure with both reduced and preserved systolic function. With the development of minimally invasive catheter-based techniques, percutaneous renal denervation has become a safe and effective method of attenuating sympathetic overactivation. Percutaneous renal denervation, therefore, has the potential to modify and treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. Although future randomized controlled studies are needed to definitively prove its efficacy, renal denervation has the potential to change the way we view and treat cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ground state analysis of magnetic nanographene molecules with modified edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorjizadeh, Narjes; Ota, Norio; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graphene molecules can become ferromagnetic by edge modifications. ► Dihydrogenation of one zigzag edge of rectangular flakes make them ferromagnetic. ► Triangular flakes become high-spin state by dehydrogenization of one zigzag edge. - Abstract: We study spin states of edge modified nanographene molecules with rectangular and triangular shapes by first principle calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree–Fock (HF) methods with Møller–Plesset (MP) correlation energy correction at different levels. Anthracene (C 14 H 10 ) and phenalenyl (C 13 H 9 ), which contain three benzene rings combined in two different ways, can be considered as fragments of a graphene sheet. Carbon-based ferromagnetic materials are of great interest both in fundamental science and technological potential in organic spintronics devices. We show that non-magnetic rectangular molecules such as C 14 H 10 can become ferromagnetic with high-spin state as the ground state by dihydrogenization of one of the zigzag edges, while triangular molecules such as C 13 H 9 become ferromagnetic with high-spin state by dehydrogenization of one of the zigzag edges

  6. Self-organized Criticality in a Modified Evolution Model on Generalized Barabasi-Albert Scale-Free Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Wang Gang; Chen Tianlun

    2007-01-01

    A modified evolution model of self-organized criticality on generalized Barabasi-Albert (GBA) scale-free networks is investigated. In our model, we find that spatial and temporal correlations exhibit critical behaviors. More importantly, these critical behaviors change with the parameter b, which weights the distance in comparison with the degree in the GBA network evolution.

  7. Determination of Burst Pressure of API Steel Pipes using Stress Modified Critical Strain Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alang, N A; Razak, N A; Sulaiman, A S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which can be used to determine the burst pressure of defective steel pipes using non-linear finite element (FE) analysis. The technique uses stress modified critical strain (SMCS) failure criterion to study the effect of gouge defects on maximum working pressure of API X65 steel pipes. The procedures in determining the model parameters using 3-D, homogeneous isotropic elastic-plastic material model with large deformation finite element analyses from notched tensile bars were systematically discussed. The relationship between burst pressure and gouge depth was proposed. The burst pressure estimated then was compared to experimental data from the literature for validation showing overall good agreements.

  8. Critical-state model for the determination of critical currents in disk-shaped superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on the flux trapping and shielding capabilities of a flat strip of Nb-Ti/Cu composite material. A circular piece of material from the strip was tested in a uniform field directed perpendicularly to the surface of the sample. Profiles of the normal component of the field along the sample diameter were measured. The critical-state model was adapted for this geometry and proved capable of reproducing the measured field profiles. Model curves agreed well with experimental field profiles generated when the full sample was in the critical state, when only a portion of the sample was in the critical state, and when profiles were obtained after the direction of the rate change of the magnetic field was reversed. The adaption of the critical-state model to disk geometry provides a possible method either to derive values of the critical current from measurements of field profiles above thin flat samples, or to predict the trapping and shielding behavior of such samples if the critical current is already known. This method of determining critical currents does not require that samples be formed into narrow strips or wires, as is required for direct measurements of J/sub c/, or into tubes or cylinders, as is usually required for magnetization-type measurements. Only a relatively small approximately circular piece of material is needed. The method relies on induced currents, so there is no need to pass large currents into the sample. The field-profile measurements are easily performed with expensive Hall probes and do not require detection of the resistive transition of the superconductor

  9. STATE AND ECONOMY IN BOURGEOISIES ECONOMIC THEORIES: A CRITICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Hernández-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of state-economy relationship has been present throughout the history of bourgeois economic thought. In the bourgeois liberal tradition the distinction between civil society and state has been presented as total and necessary, reserving to the first one the monopoly of economic activity, based on the principle of self-regulating market. From Keynes bourgeois economists were divided into two sides, one side those who still deny the state capacity to intervene right in the economy, and the other those who recognize the need for their participation. This paper proposes a critical approach to the major bourgeois theoretical positions on the relationship state-economy. 

  10. Energy dependence of critical state of single-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkova, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Equations of critical states of the single-component systems: Psub(cr)(/Psub(o)=(Tsub(cr)/Tsub(o))x0.73, Tsub(cr)=K(Tsub(boil))sup(1.116) and Hsub(cr)(/Hsub(B)=Tsub(sr)/Tsub(B))sup(1.48) where Tsub(B)=1K, Hsub(B)-2 kcal/g-at, K-dimension factor are presented. It is shown that the revealed dependence Hsub(cr)=H(Tsub(cr)) is an energy boundary of a liquid-vapour phase state of the single-component systems beyond limits of which difference between liquid and vapour phases vanishes in increasing the system energy content. The given equations of state are true for all the single-component systems and permit to consider physicomechanical properties of substances in dynamic state depending on external conditions. Critical temperatures and dependences for elements from the most fusible He to infusible W and Re have been calculated

  11. Critical assessment of digital PCR for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeke, Tigst; Dobnik, David

    2018-07-01

    The number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on the market is steadily increasing. Because of regulation of cultivation and trade of GMOs in several countries, there is pressure for their accurate detection and quantification. Today, DNA-based approaches are more popular for this purpose than protein-based methods, and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is still the gold standard in GMO analytics. However, digital PCR (dPCR) offers several advantages over qPCR, making this new technique appealing also for GMO analysis. This critical review focuses on the use of dPCR for the purpose of GMO quantification and addresses parameters which are important for achieving accurate and reliable results, such as the quality and purity of DNA and reaction optimization. Three critical factors are explored and discussed in more depth: correct classification of partitions as positive, correctly determined partition volume, and dilution factor. This review could serve as a guide for all laboratories implementing dPCR. Most of the parameters discussed are applicable to fields other than purely GMO testing. Graphical abstract There are generally three different options for absolute quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) using digital PCR: droplet- or chamber-based and droplets in chambers. All have in common the distribution of reaction mixture into several partitions, which are all subjected to PCR and scored at the end-point as positive or negative. Based on these results GMO content can be calculated.

  12. Dielectric Properties of Polyether Sulfone/Bismaleimide Resin Composite Based on Nanolumina Modified by Super-Critical Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufei; Li, Zhichao; Teng, Chengjun; Li, Fangliang; Han, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Nano-alumina was chemically modified with super-critical ethanol enabling a surface active coating. Modified nano-alumina was incorporated in polymer blends based on thermoplastic polyether sulfone and thermosetting bismaleimide resin to produce novel nanocomposites designated as SCE-Al2O3/PES-MBAE. In the SCE-Al2O3/PES-MBAE nano-composites, the matrix was originally formed from 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane bismaleimide (MBMI) using the diluents of 3,3'-diallyl bisphenol A (BBA) and bisphenol-A diallyl ether (BBE), while polyether sulfone (PES) was used as toughening agent along with super-critically modified nano-alumina (SCE-Al2O3) as filler material. The content of SCE-Al2O3 was varied from 0 wt.% to 6 wt.%. The nano-composites were characterized for their morphological, spectroscopic and dielectric properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that ethanol molecules had adhered to the surface of the nano-Al2O3 in super-critical state. A reaction between MBMI and allyl compound occurred and SCE-Al2O3 was doped into the polymer matrix. Volume resistivity of the composite initially increased and then decreased. The modification due to SCE-Al2O3 could overcome the undesirable impact of PES by using a bare minimum level of SCE-Al2O3. The dielectric constant ( ɛ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as in the case of volume resistivity were initially increased and then decreased with the content of SCE-Al2O3 in the composite. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dielectric strength of SCE-Al2O3 (4 wt.%)/PES (5 wt.%)-MBAE nano-composite were 3.53 (100 Hz), 1.52 × 10-3 (100 Hz) and 15.66 kV/mm, respectively, which indicated that the dielectric properties of the composite fulfilled the basic requirements of electrical and insulating material. It was evident from the morphological analysis that the SCE-Al2O3 was evenly dispersed at the nanoscale; for example, the size of SCE-Al2O3 in SCE-Al2O3 (4 wt.%)/PES (5 wt.%)-MBAE measured less than 50 nm.

  13. Critical state transformation in hard superconductors resulting from thermomagnetic avalanches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanenko, V.V.; Kuchuk, E.I.; Rusakov, V.F.; Abaloszewa, I.; Nabialek, A.; Perez-Rodriguez, F.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of magnetic flux dynamics in finite superconductors, obtained using integral and local measurements methods, are presented. Local methods were aimed at clarifying the role of demagnetizing factor in dynamic formation of a complex magnetic structure of the critical state of hard superconductors. To understand the reasons for cardinal restructuring of the induction, we further analyzed the literature data of flux dynamics visualization during avalanches, obtained by magneto-optical methods. New features in the behavior of the magnetic flux during and after the avalanche were discovered. Two stages of the formation of the induction structures in the avalanche area were established, i.e. of homogeneous and heterogeneous filling with the magnetic flux. The mechanism of the inversion of the induction profile was considered. Oscillations in the speed of the front of the magnetic flux were revealed. Transformation of the critical state near the edge of the sample was analyzed. The role of thermal effects and of de-magnetizing factor in the dissipative flux dynamics was shown. Generalized information allowed, in the framework of the Bean concept, to present a model the transformation of the picture of the induction of the critical state and of the superconducting currents of a finite superconductor as a result of flux avalanches for two regimes - of screening and trapping of the magnetic flux.

  14. Critical state in the Y-Ba-Cu-O ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, A.N.; Grishin, A.M.; Korenivskii, V.N.; Ulyanov, A.N.; Khokhlov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the temperature and field dependences of the Y-Ba-Cu-O ceramics susceptibility studied both experimentally and theoretically. These dependence have been used to reconstruct the temperature dependence of the critical current (j c (T) = j c (O)(1 - T/T c1 ) 3/2 , J c (O) = 340 A/cm 2 , T c1 = 94.6 K) and the distribution of the granules with respect to the superconducting transition temperature (with the maximum at T c2 = 95.3 K and ΔT = 1.1 K). Within the critical state concept diamagnetic response of the granular superconductors at fundamental and multiple frequencies has been calculated. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experimentally obtained susceptibility dependences and explain the different dependences of the diamagnetic response on the magnitude of the d.c. field and the amplitude of a.c. field

  15. Magmas near the critical degassing pressure drive volcanic unrest towards a critical state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Paonita, Antonio; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Costa, Antonio; Caliro, Stefano; De Martino, Prospero; Acocella, Valerio; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean

    2016-01-01

    During the reawaking of a volcano, magmas migrating through the shallow crust have to pass through hydrothermal fluids and rocks. The resulting magma–hydrothermal interactions are still poorly understood, which impairs the ability to interpret volcano monitoring signals and perform hazard assessments. Here we use the results of physical and volatile saturation models to demonstrate that magmatic volatiles released by decompressing magmas at a critical degassing pressure (CDP) can drive volcanic unrest towards a critical state. We show that, at the CDP, the abrupt and voluminous release of H2O-rich magmatic gases can heat hydrothermal fluids and rocks, triggering an accelerating deformation that can ultimately culminate in rock failure and eruption. We propose that magma could be approaching the CDP at Campi Flegrei, a volcano in the metropolitan area of Naples, one of the most densely inhabited areas in the world, and where accelerating deformation and heating are currently being observed. PMID:27996976

  16. 75 FR 41891 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 1205-8] Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Change in date for transmitting final recommendations to the President. SUMMARY: The...

  17. Identification of critical residues of the serotype modifying O-acetyltransferase of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanweer Farzaana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thirteen serotypes of Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri have been recognised, all of which are capable of causing bacillary dysentery or shigellosis. With the emergence of the newer S. flexneri serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has only become more challenging. One of the factors responsible for the generation of serotype diversity is an LPS O-antigen modifying, integral membrane protein known as O-acetyltransferase or Oac. Oac functions by adding an acetyl group to a specific O-antigen sugar, thus changing the antigenic signature of the parent S. flexneri strain. Oac is a membrane protein, consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components. Oac bears homology to several known and predicted acetyltransferases with most homology existing in the N-terminal transmembrane (TM regions. Results In this study, the conserved motifs in the TM regions and in hydrophilic loops of S. flexneri Oac were targeted for mutagenesis with the aim of identifying the amino acid residues essential for the function of Oac. We previously identified three critical arginines–R73, R75 and R76 in the cytoplasmic loop 3 of Oac. Re-establishing that these arginines are critical, in this study we suggest a catalytic role for R73 and a structural role for R75 and R76 in O-acetylation. Serine-glycine motifs (SG 52–53, GS 138–139 and SYG 274–276, phenylalanine-proline motifs (FP 78–79 and FPV 282–84 and a tryptophan-threonine motif (WT141-142 found in TM segments and residues RK 110–111, GR 269–270 and D333 found in hydrophilic loops were also found to be critical to Oac function. Conclusions By studying the effect of the mutations on Oac’s function and assembly, an insight into the possible roles played by the chosen amino acids in Oac was gained. The transmembrane serine-glycine motifs and hydrophilic residues (RK 110–111, GR 269–270 and D333 were shown to have an affect on Oac assembly which suggests a structural role

  18. Critically Tapered Wedges and Critical State Soil Mechanics: Porosity-based Pressure Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Saffer, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    We predict pore pressure from porosity measurements at ODP Sites 1174 and 808 in the Nankai Accretionary prism, offshore Japan. For a range of friction angles (5-30 degrees), we estimate that the pore pressure ratio (λ*) ranges from 0.5 to 0.8: the pore pressure supports 50% to 80% of the overburden. Higher friction angles result in higher pressures. For the majority of the scenarios, pressures within the prism parallel the lithostat and are greater than the pressures beneath it. Our results support previous qualitative interpretations at Nankai and elsewhere suggesting that lower porosity above the décollement than below reflects higher mean effective stress there. By coupling a critical state soil model (Modified Cam Clay), which describes porosity as a function of mean and deviator stress, with a stress model that considers the difference in stress states above and below the décollement, we quantitatively show that the prism porosities record significant overpressure despite their lower porosity. As the soil is consumed by the advancing prism, changes in both mean and shear stress drive overpressure generation. Even in the extreme case where only change in mean stress is considered (a vertical end cap model), significant overpressures are generated. The high pressures we predict require an effective friction coefficient (µb') at the décollement of 0.023-0.038. Assuming that the pore pressure at the décollement lies between the values we report for the wedge and the underthrusting sediments, these effective friction coefficients correspond to intrinsic friction coefficients of µb= 0.08-0.38 (f = 4.6 - 21°). These values are comparable to friction coefficients of 0.1-0.4 reported for clay-dominated fault zones in a wide range of settings. By coupling the critical wedge model with an appropriate constitutive model, we present a systematic approach to predict pressure in thrust systems.

  19. Solving the critical state using flux line properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2014-01-01

    A method of solving the critical state in superconductors using the vector potential and commercial software (FlexPDE) is described. It avoids both time dependence and power law resistivity. It uses a material parameter which describes how far flux lines move before most become unpinned. This allows small oscillations and minor hysteresis loops to be modelled. The theory is applied to the problem of demagnetisation in bulks due to crossed fields. It may explain why experimental results do not agree with theory. The theory can be extended to coils, and two and three dimensions. This requires the introduction of a scalar potential V o . This is not the usual scalar potential, which is due to electrostatic charges as the field is run up, but the integral of this value at the final field after charges have dissipated. (paper)

  20. Ground State Energy of the Modified Nambu-Goto String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek

    We calculate, using zeta function regularization method, semiclassical energy of the Nambu-Goto string supplemented with the boundary, Gauss-Bonnet term in the action and discuss the tachyonic ground state problem.

  1. Ground state energy of the modified Nambu-Goto string

    OpenAIRE

    Hadasz, Leszek

    1997-01-01

    We calculate, using zeta function regularization method, semiclassical energy of the Nambu-Goto string supplemented with the boundary, Gauss-Bonnet term in the action and discuss the tachyonic ground state problem.

  2. Association of modified NUTRIC score with 28-day mortality in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Henry, Jeyakumar; Ong, Venetia; Leong, Claudia Shu-Fen; Teh, Ai Ling; van Dam, Rob M; Kowitlawakul, Yanika

    2017-08-01

    For patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), nutritional risk assessment is often difficult. Traditional scoring systems cannot be used for patients who are sedated or unconscious since they are unable to provide information on their history of food intake and weight loss. We aim to validate the NUTRIC (NUTrition RIsk in Critically ill) score, an ICU-specific nutrition risk assessment tool in Asian patients. This was an observational study in the medical ICU of a university-affiliated tertiary hospital. We included all adult patients (≥18years) admitted between October 2013 and September 2014 who stayed for more than 24 hours in the ICU. Components of the modified NUTRIC (mNUTRIC) score, demographic details, body mass index (BMI), use of mechanical ventilation (MV), vasopressor drugs, and renal replacement therapy (RRT) were obtained from the ICU database. For patients on MV (maximum 12 days), we calculated the energy intake and nutritional adequacy (energy received ÷ energy recommended) from enteral or parenteral feeding data. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used with 28-day mortality as the outcome of interest. 401 patients (62% male, mean age 60.0 ± 16.3 years, mean BMI 23.9 ± 6.2 kg/m 2 ) were included. In the univariate analysis, BMI, mNUTRIC score, MV, vasopressor drug, and RRT were associated with 28-day mortality. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, mNUTRIC score (Odds ratio, OR 1.48, Confidence Interval, CI 1.25-1.74, p Nutritional adequacy was assessed in a subgroup of 273 (68%) patients who received MV for at least 48 hours. Median (IQR) nutritional adequacy was 0.44 (0.15-0.70). In patients with high mNUTRIC score (5-9), higher nutritional adequacy was associated with a lower predicted 28-day mortality; this was not observed in patients with low mNUTRIC (0-4) score (effect modification, p interaction nutritional adequacy may reduce the 28-day mortality in patients with a high mNUTRIC score. Copyright © 2016

  3. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  4. 75 FR 18882 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations For Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Secretary of the Treasury for Tax, Trade, and Tariff Policy, Treasury asked that the Commission conduct an... Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States AGENCY: United States International Trade... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, pursuant to section 1205 of the Omnibus Trade and...

  5. Characteristics of States' Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards in 2008. Synthesis Report 72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Cormier, Damien

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, Federal No Child Left Behind regulations were finalized that provided states with additional flexibility for assessing some students with disabilities. The regulations allowed states to offer another assessment option, alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). States are not required to have…

  6. 9 CFR 77.11 - Modified accredited States or zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ogemaw Counties that are north of the southernmost boundary of the Huron National Forest and the Au Sable State Forest. (2) Those portions of the Minnesota Counties of Lake of the Woods, Roseau, Marshall, and... of the diagnosis. The management plan must include provisions for immediate investigation of...

  7. Modified Augmented Renal Clearance Score Predicts Rapid Piperacillin and Tazobactam Clearance in Critically Ill Surgery and Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    collision; VAP , ventilator-associated pneumonia. TABLE 2. PK Parameter Estimates for Free Piperacillin and Tazobactam in Patients Stratified by ARC Score...SOFA score are typically generated during routine care of the most severely ill patients . Positive screening test results (high ARC scores) can be...Modified Augmented Renal Clearance score predicts rapid piperacillin and tazobactam clearance in critically ill surgery and trauma patients Kevin S

  8. On the self-organized critical state of Vesuvio volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, G.; Mazzarella, A.; Palumbo, A.

    1996-01-01

    The catalogue of volcanic earthquakes recorded at Vesuvio (1972-1993) is shown to be complete for events with magnitude enclosed between 1.8 and 3.0. Such a result is converted in significant fractal laws (power laws) relating the distribution of earthquakes to the distribution of energy release, seismic moment, size of fractured zone and linear dimension of faults. The application of the Cantor dust model to time sequence of Vesuvio seismic and eruptive events allows the determination of significant time-clustering fractal structures. In particular, the Vesuvio eruptive activity shows a double-regime process with a stronger clustering on short-time scales than on long-time scales. The complexity of the Vesuvio system does not depend on the number of geological, geophysical and geochemical factors that govern it, but mainly on the number of their interconnections, on the intensity of such linkages and on the feed-back processes. So, all the identified fractal features are taken as evidence that the Vesuvio system is in a self-organized critical state i.e., in a marginally stable state in which a small perturbation can start a chain reaction that can lead to catastrophe. After the catatrophe, the system regulates itself and begins a new cycle, not necessarily periodic, that will end with a successive catastrophe. The variations of the fractal dimension and of the specific scale ranges, in which the fractal behaviour is found to hold, serve as possible volcanic predictors reflecting changes of the same volcanic process.

  9. Antichiral Edge States in a Modified Haldane Nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomés, E.; Franz, M.

    2018-02-01

    Topological phases of fermions in two dimensions are often characterized by chiral edge states. By definition, these propagate in opposite directions at the two parallel edges when the sample geometry is that of a rectangular strip. We introduce here a model which exhibits what we call "antichiral" edge modes. These propagate in the same direction at both parallel edges of the strip and are compensated by counterpropagating modes that reside in the bulk. General arguments and numerical simulations show that backscattering is suppressed even when strong disorder is present in the system. We propose a feasible experimental realization of a system showing such antichiral edge modes in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers.

  10. Liquid 4He: Modified LOCV ground-state energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjetne, B.; Ostgaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    The ground-state energetics of liquid 4 He is studied in a constrained variational approach, where the significance of neglecting terms beyond second order in the cluster expansion is estimated in a crude way. An adjustment to the conditions of healing on the two-body correlation function excludes from the global average field the effects of pairwise clustering to higher orders. To this end, open-quotes virtualclose quotes particles beyond nearest neighbors are included in the average correlation volume. Results within the scope of such modifications are consistent with GFMC and QDMC calculations, falling within the range -7.25 ± 0.05 K when recent interaction models are used

  11. A comparison of critical care research funding and the financial burden of critical illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Craig M; Wunsch, Hannah; Fink, Mitchell P; Linde-Zwirble, Walter T; Olsen, Keith M; Sommers, Marilyn S; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Tchorz, Kathryn M; Angus, Derek C; Deutschman, Clifford S

    2012-04-01

    To estimate federal dollars spent on critical care research, the cost of providing critical care, and to determine whether the percentage of federal research dollars spent on critical care research is commensurate with the financial burden of critical care. The National Institutes of Health Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects database was queried to identify funded grants whose title or abstract contained a key word potentially related to critical care. Each grant identified was analyzed by two reviewers (three if the analysis was discordant) to subjectively determine whether it was definitely, possibly, or definitely not related to critical care. Hospital and total costs of critical care were estimated from the Premier Database, state discharge data, and Medicare data. To estimate healthcare expenditures associated with caring for critically ill patients, total costs were calculated as the combination of hospitalization costs that included critical illness as well as additional costs in the year after hospital discharge. Of 19,257 grants funded by the National Institutes of Health, 332 (1.7%) were definitely related to critical care and a maximum of 1212 (6.3%) grants were possibly related to critical care. Between 17.4% and 39.0% of total hospital costs were spent on critical care, and a total of between $121 and $263 billion was estimated to be spent on patients who required intensive care. This represents 5.2% to 11.2%, respectively, of total U.S. healthcare spending. The proportion of research dollars spent on critical care is lower than the percentage of healthcare expenditures related to critical illness.

  12. Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgarnie, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

  13. Genetically modified foods: A critical review of their promise and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “genetic modified organisms (GMO” has become a controversial topic as its benefits for both food producers and consumers are companied by potential biomedical risks and environmental side effects. Increasing concerns from the public about GMO, particularly in the form of genetic modified (GM foods, are aimed at the short- and long-lasting health problems that may result from this advanced biotechnology. Complex studies are being carried out around the world independently to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of GM foods. In this paper, we attempt to summarize up-to-date knowledge about the benefits and potential problems of GM food. We also introduce some recent technological developments in GM foods and their impact in the field.

  14. Thermo-mechanical constitutive modeling of unsaturated clays based on the critical state concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Tourchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-mechanical constitutive model for unsaturated clays is constructed based on the existing model for saturated clays originally proposed by the authors. The saturated clays model was formulated in the framework of critical state soil mechanics and modified Cam-clay model. The existing model has been generalized to simulate the experimentally observed behavior of unsaturated clays by introducing Bishop's stress and suction as independent stress parameters and modifying the hardening rule and yield criterion to take into account the role of suction. Also, according to previous studies, an increase in temperature causes a reduction in specific volume. A reduction in suction (wetting for a given confining stress may induce an irreversible volumetric compression (collapse. Thus an increase in suction (drying raises a specific volume i.e. the movement of normal consolidation line (NCL to higher values of void ratio. However, some experimental data confirm the assumption that this reduction is dependent on the stress level of soil element. A generalized approach considering the effect of stress level on the magnitude of clays thermal dependency in compression plane is proposed in this study. The number of modeling parameters is kept to a minimum, and they all have clear physical interpretations, to facilitate the usefulness of model for practical applications. A step-by-step procedure used for parameter calibration is also described. The model is finally evaluated using a comprehensive set of experimental data for the thermo-mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils.

  15. Selective detection and quantification of modified DNA with solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Autumn T; Zahid, Osama K; Ruzicka, Jan A; Taylor, Ethan W; Hall, Adam R

    2014-10-08

    We demonstrate a solid-state nanopore assay for the unambiguous discrimination and quantification of modified DNA. Individual streptavidin proteins are employed as high-affinity tags for DNA containing a single biotin moiety. We establish that the rate of translocation events corresponds directly to relative concentration of protein-DNA complexes and use the selectivity of our approach to quantify modified oligonucleotides from among a background of unmodified DNA in solution.

  16. Potential Improvements of Supercritical Recompression CO2 Brayton Cycle Coupled with KALIMER-600 by Modifying Critical Point of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; No, Hee Cheon

    2010-01-01

    Most of the existing designs of a Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have a Rankine cycle as an electric power generation cycle. This has the risk of a sodium water reaction. To prevent any hazards from a sodium water reaction, an indirect Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) as the working fluids for a SFR is an alternative approach to improve the current SFR design. The supercritical Brayton cycle is defined as a cycle with operating conditions above the critical point and the main compressor inlet condition located slightly above the critical point of working fluid. This is because the main advantage of the cycle comes from significantly decreased compressor work just above the critical point due to high density near boundary between supercritical state and subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. In other words, the critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the minimum temperature of a thermodynamic cycle can increase the efficiency and the minimum temperature can be decreased by shifting the critical point of CO 2 as mixed with other gases. In this paper, potential enhancement of S-CO 2 cycle coupled with KALIMER-600, which has been developed at KAERI, was investigated using a developed cycle code with a gas mixture property program

  17. Ground state solutions for asymptotically periodic Schrodinger equations with critical growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the Nehari manifold and the concentration compactness principle, we study the existence of ground state solutions for asymptotically periodic Schrodinger equations with critical growth.

  18. A New Critical State Model for Geomechanical Behavior of Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. S.; Xing, P.; Rutqvist, J.; Seol, Y.; Choi, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Methane hydrate bearing sands behave like sands once the hydrate has dissociated, but could exhibit a substantial increase in the shear strength, stiffness and dilatancy as the degree of hydrate saturation increases. A new critical state model was developed that incorporates the spatially mobilized plane (SMP) concept, which has been proven effective in modeling mechanical behavior of sands. While this new model was built on the basic constructs of the critical state model, important enhancements were introduced. The model adopted the t-stress concept, which defined the normal and shear stress on the SMP, in describing the plastic behavior of the soil. In this connection the versatile Matsuoka-Nakai yield criterion was also employed, which defined the general three dimensional yield behavior. The resulting constitutive law was associated in the t-stress space, but became non-associated in the conventional p-q stress space as it should be for sands. The model also introduced a generalized degree of hydrate saturation concept that was modified from the pioneering work of the Cambridge group. The model gives stress change when the sands are subjected to straining, and/or to hydrate saturation changes. The performance of the model has been found satisfactory using data from laboratory triaxial tests on reconstituted samples and core samples taken from Nankai Trough, Japan. The model has been implemented into FLAC3D. A coupling example with the multiphase flow code, TOUGH+, is presented which simulates the mechanical behavior of a sample when the surrounding temperature has been raised, and the hydrate undergoes state change and no longer resides in the stability zone.

  19. Critical appraisal of the guidelines for the management of ankylosing spondylitis: disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Enrique R; Clegg, Daniel O; Lisse, Jeffrey R

    2012-05-01

    Surprisingly, little data are available for the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in ankylosing spondylitis. Sulfasalazine has been the best studied. Efficacy data for individual agents (including pamidronate) and combinations of agents are detailed in this review. Intriguingly, these agents continue to be used with some frequency, even in the absence of efficacy data. To answer these questions, additional systematic studies of these agents in ankylosing spondylitis are needed and will likely need to be done by interested collaborative groups such as SPARTAN.

  20. Comparison of COD, R6, and J-contour integral methods of defect assessment, modified to give critical flaw sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdekin, F.M.; Turner, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study of the application of different elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to the calculation of critical defect sizes in pressure vessels showed widely varying results. The present authors have investigated in detail the reasons for the variations resulting from the use of the CEGB R6, COD design curve, and J-design curve methods to the particular pressure vessel problems. To obtain reasonable agreement between the three methods for the calculation of critical flaw sizes in high stress gradient situations, the published COD method in PD6493 has to be modified to remove its inherent safety factor, and to allow for stress gradients, and a consistent treatment for gross yielding/collapse has to be adopted for all three methods. (author)

  1. Application of the modified neutron source multiplication method for a measurement of sub-criticality in AGN-201K reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Hyun Kim

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of sub-criticality is a challenging and required task in nuclear industry both for nuclear criticality safety and physics test in nuclear power plant. A relatively new method named as Modified Neutron Source Multiplication Method (MNSM) was proposed in Japan. This method is an improvement of traditional Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) Method, in which three correction factors are applied additionally. In this study, MNSM was tested in calculation of rod worth using an educational reactor in Kyung Hee University, AGN-201K. For this study, a revised nuclear data library and a neutron transport code system TRANSX-PARTISN were used for the calculation of correction factors for various control rod positions and source locations. Experiments were designed and performed to enhance errors in NSM from the location effects of source and detectors. MNSM can correct these effects but current results showed not much correction effects. (author)

  2. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matos

    Full Text Available The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable.

  3. On the applicability of the critical state model to the description of electromagnetic properties of high-Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L.M.; Il' in, N.V.; Voloshin, I.F. (All-Russian Electrical Engineering Inst., Moscow (Russia)); Makarov, N.M.; Yampol' skii, V.A. (Inst. for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukr. Acad. Sci., Karkov (Ukraine)); Perez Rodriguez, F. (Inst. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Puebla, Rue (Mexico)); Snyder, R.L. (New York State Coll. of Ceramics, Alfred Univ. (United States))

    1993-02-20

    The frequency dependence of the surface impedance of superconductors have been studied experimentally and theoretically in the radio frequency range. Its essential deviation was found from the linear law predicted by the usual critical state model. The character of this deviation depends qualitatively on the amplitude of the radio wave. We have established the frequency limits of applicability of the traditional critical state model. Results obtained print out an explanation in the frame of the modified model where we take into account the contribution of a dissipative term to the screening current. The value of this is connected with the V-I plot of the superconductor, so it is possible to obtain information about the V-I characteristics by the contactless method. (orig.).

  4. Rapid and reliable healing of critical size bone defects with genetically modified sheep muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Ferreira, E; Porter, R M; Glatt, V; Schinhan, M; Shen, Z; Randolph, M A; Kirker-Head, C A; Wehling, C; Vrahas, M S; Evans, C H; Wells, J W

    2015-09-21

    Large segmental defects in bone fail to heal and remain a clinical problem. Muscle is highly osteogenic, and preliminary data suggest that autologous muscle tissue expressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) efficiently heals critical size defects in rats. Translation into possible human clinical trials requires, inter alia, demonstration of efficacy in a large animal, such as the sheep. Scale-up is fraught with numerous biological, anatomical, mechanical and structural variables, which cannot be addressed systematically because of cost and other practical issues. For this reason, we developed a translational model enabling us to isolate the biological question of whether sheep muscle, transduced with adenovirus expressing BMP-2, could heal critical size defects in vivo. Initial experiments in athymic rats noted strong healing in only about one-third of animals because of unexpected immune responses to sheep antigens. For this reason, subsequent experiments were performed with Fischer rats under transient immunosuppression. Such experiments confirmed remarkably rapid and reliable healing of the defects in all rats, with bridging by 2 weeks and remodelling as early as 3-4 weeks, despite BMP-2 production only in nanogram quantities and persisting for only 1-3 weeks. By 8 weeks the healed defects contained well-organised new bone with advanced neo-cortication and abundant marrow. Bone mineral content and mechanical strength were close to normal values. These data demonstrate the utility of this model when adapting this technology for bone healing in sheep, as a prelude to human clinical trials.

  5. Interpretation of Piezocones in Silt, Using Cavity Expansion and Critical State Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Randolph, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    was simulated using cylindrical cavity expansion in conjunction with a plasticity model formulated within the framework of critical state soil mechanics. The results readily explain the low cone tip resistance measured in silt sediments; this is a derived effect of the silt having a large slope of the critical...... state line, resulting in rather weak and compressible behaviour at high mean effective stresses....

  6. Security improvement by using a modified coherent state for quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.J.; Zhu, Luobei; Ou, Z.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Weak coherent states as a photon source for quantum cryptography have a limit in secure data rate and transmission distance because of the presence of multiphoton events and loss in transmission line. Two-photon events in a coherent state can be taken out by a two-photon interference scheme. We investigate the security issue of utilizing this modified coherent state in quantum cryptography. A 4-dB improvement in the secure data rate or a nearly twofold increase in transmission distance over the coherent state are found. With a recently proposed and improved encoding strategy, further improvement is possible

  7. Saturated properties prediction in critical region by a quartic equation of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A diverse substance library containing extensive PVT data for 77 pure components was used to critically evaluate the performance of a quartic equation of state and other four famous cubic equations of state in critical region. The quartic EOS studied in this work was found to significantly superior to the others in both vapor pressure prediction and saturated volume prediction in vicinity of critical point.

  8. A critical evaluation of the enhancement of mechanical properties of epoxy modified using CNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedsole, Robert W.; Park, Cheol; Bogert, Philip B.; Tippur, Hareesh V.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely shown in the literature to improve mechanical properties of epoxy, such as tensile strength, elastic modulus, strain to failure, and fracture toughness. These improvements in nanocomposite properties have been attributed to the extraordinary properties of the nanotubes, as well as the quality of their dispersion within and adhesion to the epoxy matrix. However, many authors have also struggled to show significant mechanical improvements using similar methodologies and despite, in some cases, showing qualitative improvements in dispersion with optical microscopy. These authors have frequently resorted to other methods for improving the mechanical properties of CNT/epoxy, such as electrically aligning CNTs, using different types of CNTs, or modifying the stoichiometry. The current work examines many different dispersion techniques, types of CNTs, types of epoxies, curing cycles, and other variables in an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of neat epoxy with CNTs. Despite seeing significant changes in the microscopy, no significant improvements in tensile or fracture properties have been attributed to CNTs in this work.

  9. Fast Preparation of Critical Ground States Using Superluminal Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Kartiek; Bhatt, R. N.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a spatiotemporal quench protocol that allows for the fast preparation of ground states of gapless models with Lorentz invariance. Assuming the system initially resides in the ground state of a corresponding massive model, we show that a superluminally moving "front" that locally quenches the mass, leaves behind it (in space) a state arbitrarily close to the ground state of the gapless model. Importantly, our protocol takes time O (L ) to produce the ground state of a system of size ˜Ld (d spatial dimensions), while a fully adiabatic protocol requires time ˜O (L2) to produce a state with exponential accuracy in L . The physics of the dynamical problem can be understood in terms of relativistic rarefaction of excitations generated by the mass front. We provide proof of concept by solving the proposed quench exactly for a system of free bosons in arbitrary dimensions, and for free fermions in d =1 . We discuss the role of interactions and UV effects on the free-theory idealization, before numerically illustrating the usefulness of the approach via simulations on the quantum Heisenberg spin chain.

  10. Linear discrete-time state space realization of a modified quadruple tank system with state estimation using Kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd. Azam, Sazuan Nazrah

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we used the modified quadruple tank system that represents a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system as an example to present the realization of a linear discrete-time state space model and to obtain the state estimation using Kalman filter in a methodical mannered. First, an existing...... part of the Kalman filter is used to estimates the current state, based on the model and the measurements. The static and dynamic Kalman filter is compared and all results is demonstrated through simulations....

  11. State infant mortality: an ecologic study to determine modifiable risks and adjusted infant mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David A; Mackley, Amy; Locke, Robert G; Stefano, John L; Kroelinger, Charlan

    2009-05-01

    To determine factors contributing to state infant mortality rates (IMR) and develop an adjusted IMR in the United States for 2001 and 2002. Ecologic study of factors contributing to state IMR. State IMR for 2001 and 2002 were obtained from the United States linked death and birth certificate data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Factors investigated using multivariable linear regression included state racial demographics, ethnicity, state population, median income, education, teen birth rate, proportion of obesity, smoking during pregnancy, diabetes, hypertension, cesarean delivery, prenatal care, health insurance, self-report of mental illness, and number of in-vitro fertilization procedures. Final risk adjusted IMR's were standardized and states were compared with the United States adjusted rates. Models for IMR in individual states in 2001 (r2 = 0.66, P < 0.01) and 2002 (r2 = 0.81, P < 0.01) were tested. African-American race, teen birth rate, and smoking during pregnancy remained independently associated with state infant mortality rates for 2001 and 2002. Ninety five percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated around the regression lines to model the expected IMR. After adjustment, some states maintained a consistent IMR; for instance, Vermont and New Hampshire remained low, while Delaware and Louisiana remained high. However, other states such as Mississippi, which have traditionally high infant mortality rates, remained within the expected 95% CI for IMR after adjustment indicating confounding affected the initial unadjusted rates. Non-modifiable demographic variables, including the percentage of non-Hispanic African-American and Hispanic populations of the state are major factors contributing to individual variation in state IMR. Race and ethnicity may confound or modify the IMR in states that shifted inside or outside the 95% CI following adjustment. Other factors including smoking during pregnancy and teen birth rate, which are

  12. Exponential critical-state model for magnetization of hard superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.; Sanchez, A.; Munoz, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    We have calculated the initial magnetization curves and hysteresis loops for hard type-II superconductors based on the exponential-law model, J c (H i ) =k exp(-|H i |/H 0 ), where k and H 0 are constants. After discussing the general behavior of penetrated supercurrents in an infinitely long column specimen, we define a general cross-sectional shape based on two equal circles of radius a, which can be rendered into a circle, a rectangle, or many other shapes. With increasing parameter p (=ka/H 0 ), the computed M-H curves show obvious differences with those computed from Kim's model and approach the results of a simple infinitely narrow square pulse J c (H i ). For high-T c superconductors, our results can be applied to the study of the magnetic properties and the critical-current density of single crystals, as well as to the determination of the intergranular critical-current density from magnetic measurements

  13. RESEARCH OF THE STRESS STATE OF A MODIFIED IN-SITU CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rudenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article focuses on investigation of the stress state of a modified in-situ concrete of natural hardening. Methodology. To achieve the aim, the research of the microstructure of the modified cement matrix of concrete, as well as the mechanism of structure formation of modified concrete with natural hardening was conducted; the methods for reliable evaluation of concrete strength were defined. Findings. The development of internal stresses affects the properties of concretedifferently. With an increase in temperature-shrinkage deformations in time and, thus, with increasing structural stresses in the cement sheath around the grains of the filler two opposite processes may develop: zone of plastic flow or cracking. Originality. It was established that the structural features complex of the modified concrete when the load transfer leads to the formation of extensive zones of prefracture which is able to absorb a significant amount of elastic strain energy that provides the design deformation properties of the concrete for special purposes. Ideas about the definition of the criteria of cracking modified concrete, hardening under natural conditions had further development. Practical value. The resulting equations allow to solve the problem about the minimum level of structural stress in monolithic concrete in a saturated large placeholder, as well as to assess the influence of structural stresses on the properties of concrete. In normal concrete with a relatively thin cement sheath at temperature-shrinkage deformations, high tangential and low radial tension occur. In vivo, this stress is higher as a result of higher values of Δε(τ, which is not observed in the modified concrete. In the modified concretes only tangential stresses are the greatest danger to structures. The change of shrinkage stress with time is straightforward. The total temperature-shrinkage deformations have a sawtooth graph. For modified concrete the amplitude is 48

  14. The Critical Role of Teacher Incentives in the Northeast States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, David

    This paper discusses a variety of incentives that can make a difference in attracting and retaining high quality teachers. These incentives include salaries, retirement benefits, working conditions, quality of life, tenure and seniority rights, and sick leave. The states in the Northeast vary considerably in their ability to attract quality…

  15. Critical Electronic Data Loss Perceptions of United States Military Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Tod J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Military has become increasingly dependent upon technology to meet its mission objectives with a consequence being greater dependence on civilian defense contractors to provide specialized services in support of high-tech mission requirements. Modern military defense contractors have also become dependent upon reliable and secure…

  16. Critical diversity: Divided or united states of social coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengsen Zhang

    Full Text Available Much of our knowledge of coordination comes from studies of simple, dyadic systems or systems containing large numbers of components. The huge gap 'in between' is seldom addressed, empirically or theoretically. We introduce a new paradigm to study the coordination dynamics of such intermediate-sized ensembles with the goal of identifying key mechanisms of interaction. Rhythmic coordination was studied in ensembles of eight people, with differences in movement frequency ('diversity' manipulated within the ensemble. Quantitative change in diversity led to qualitative changes in coordination, a critical value separating régimes of integration and segregation between groups. Metastable and multifrequency coordination between participants enabled communication across segregated groups within the ensemble, without destroying overall order. These novel findings reveal key factors underlying coordination in ensemble sizes previously considered too complicated or 'messy' for systematic study and supply future theoretical/computational models with new empirical checkpoints.

  17. Critical states and thermomagnetic instabilities in three-dimensional nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamegai, T., E-mail: tamegai@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Mine, A.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Miyano, S.; Pyon, S. [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Mawatari, Y.; Nagasawa, S.; Hidaka, M. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Critical state field profiles and thermomagnetic instabilities are studied in three-dimensional nanostructured superconductors. • We find that the critical state field profiles in bi-layer systems are not simple superpositions of critical states in the two layers. • We also studied flux avalanches in shifted strip arrays with layer numbers up to six. • Various forms of avalanches either perpendicular or parallel to the strip are observed when the overlap between layers is large. • We find that introduction of asymmetry to shifted strip arrays affects the shape of flux avalanches sensitively. - Abstract: Critical state field profiles and thermomagnetic instabilities are studied in two kinds of three-dimensional nanostructured superconductors. We find that the critical state field profiles in some simple bi-layer systems are not simple superpositions of critical states in the two layers. Competition between the divergence of the local field at the edges of the film and the shielding by the neighboring layer makes novel critical state field profiles. We also studied flux avalanches in shifted strip arrays (SSAs) with layer numbers up to six. Various forms of avalanches either perpendicular or parallel to the strip are observed when the overlap between strips in neighboring layers is large. We also find that introduction of asymmetry in various forms to SSA affects the shape of flux avalanches sensitively.

  18. The United States Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Critical Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Psychoanalysis Professor Stephen Soldz, stated “ the problems identified with CSF are legion. It is time for the Army to step back from uncritically...Frederick J. Gellert Department of Command, Leadership and Management Project Adviser This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the ...organization and at every level within the Army, MRTs serve as the principal advisor to the leadership regarding CSF and as a resource for Soldiers

  19. Numerical investigations on contactless methods for measuring critical current density in HTS: application of modified constitutive-relation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Itoh, T.; Ikuno, S.

    2011-01-01

    A fast method is proposed for calculating the shielding current density in an HTS. The J-E constitutive relation is modified so as not to change the solution. A numerical code is developed on the basis of the proposed method. The permanent magnet method is successfully simulated by means of the code. A fast method has been proposed for calculating the shielding current density in a high-temperature superconducting thin film. An initial-boundary-value problem of the shielding current density cannot be always solved by means of the Runge-Kutta method even when an adaptive step-size control algorithm is incorporated to the method. In order to suppress an overflow in the algorithm, the J-E constitutive relation is modified so that its solution may satisfy the original constitutive relation. A numerical code for analyzing the shielding current density has been developed on the basis of this method and, as an application of the code, the permanent magnet method for measuring the critical current density has been investigated numerically.

  20. Blood tranfusion in critically ill patients: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Auler Junior, Jose Otávio Costa; Santos, Luciana; Galas, Filomena

    2007-08-01

    Anemia is one of the most common abnormal findings in critically ill patients, and many of these patients will receive a blood transfusion during their intensive care unit stay. However, the determinants of exactly which patients do receive transfusions remains to be defined and have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Concerns and doubts have emerged regarding the benefits and safety of blood transfusion, in part due to the lack of evidence of better outcomes resulting from randomized studies and in part related to the observations that transfusion may increase the risk of infection. As a result of these concerns and of several studies suggesting better or similar outcomes with a lower transfusion trigger, there has been a general tendency to decrease the transfusion threshold from the classic 10 g/dL to lower values. In this review, we focus on some of the key studies providing insight into current transfusion practices and fueling the current debate on the ideal transfusion trigger.

  1. Genetically modified foods in China and the United States: A primer of regulation and intellectual property protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Yuen-Ting Wong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a basic and personal necessity to human. Safety of food is a prime factor to consider apart from nutrition, quality and cost. Genetically modified (GM foods first came on the market in 1994. Yet safety, transparency and traceability of GM foods are still under hot debate. Nonetheless, the market of GM foods is huge and attractive. Regulatory affairs and intellectual property (IP are two critical factors affecting the development and commercial success of a food product. This article will take a look at the GM food technology and regulatory framework for GM foods in China and the United States. This article will also discuss the unique patent issues and non-patent IP tools for safeguarding the technology in these two countries.

  2. Modified Korteweg-deVries soliton evolution at critical density of negative ions in an inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dhananjay K.; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2007-01-01

    Soliton propagation at critical density of negative ions is studied for weakly inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma having positive ions, negative ions, and electrons. A general phase velocity relation is obtained and possible modes are studied for different cases involving different constituents of the plasma. Two types of modes (fast and slow) are found to propagate for the equal mass of the positive and negative ions. However, a limit on the obliqueness of magnetic field is obtained for the propagation of slow mode. For both types of modes, a variable coefficient modified Korteweg-deVries equation with an additional term arisen due to the density gradient is realized, which admits solutions for compressive solitons and rarefactive solitons of the same amplitudes at critical negative ion density. The propagation characteristics of these solitons are studied under the effect of densities of ions, magnetic field, and its obliqueness. The amplitudes of fast and slow wave solitons show their opposite behavior with the negative ion concentration, which is consistent with the variation of phase velocities with the negative ion density

  3. Success of Family Company: Critical Evidence from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Petlina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of the paper is to define the point of family company’s success. The object of research is family business as an economical phenomenon. There is a double subject of this study: firstly, to find out the main resources, from which information about successful companies can be detected and, secondly, to analyze one big family company as case study for identification its key success factors. Methodology/methods: The article was prepared on the basis of general theoretical scientific methods, in particular analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, generalizations, deduction and methods of expert estimates. In the first phase secondary research of scientific literature and electronic resources about the paper topic was conducted. On the base of that result, the primary research was conduct, which is based on analysis of family company E. & J. Gallo Winery. Based on the received information, the key success factors were identified. The sources of the research are internet web-pages of the company, articles about company in famous Czech business magazines and scientific journals form Emerald database, reports of company and financial data from Amadeus database and The Global Family Business Index. Scientific aim: The aim of scientific research is to improve the understanding of family company’s success from the perspective of difficulties faced by family company. Findings: The results of this study allowed the finding of a main point for the family company’s success based on review of key sources about successful family companies. In addition, activity of E. & J. Gallo Winery was analyzed as the case study for critical evidence that phenomenon. Conclusions: This study has contributed to the theoretical body of family business research providing an important first step to gaining insights into the family company’s success and its key factors which influence effective functioning of family company.

  4. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  5. Solid state track recorder measurements in the poolside critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fission rate measurements using solid state track recorders (SSTR) have been performed at the PCA. A schematic representation of a cross-section of the PCA is shown. Fission rates were measured in the pressure vessel simulator at the T/4, T/2 and 3T/4 positions and in the void box (VB). SSTR measurements were carried out with 232 Th, 235 U (bare and cadmium covered), 238 U and 237 Np fissionable deposits. Midplane only measurements were carried out for 235 U and 237 Np, while 5 axial locations at 1/4T and 1/2T and 3 axial locations at 3/4T and in the VB were sampled for 232 Th and 238 U. The HEDL SSTR fission rate measurements reported herein for both configurations together with NBS and CEN/SCK fission chamber measurements will be used to establish absolute and relative fission reaction rates, and ratios for the PCA pressure vessel Benchmark Facility

  6. Modified bag models for the quark–gluon plasma equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begun, V.V.; Gorenstein, M.I.; Mogilevsky, O.A.

    2011-01-01

    The modified versions of the bag model equation of state (EoS) are considered. They are constructed to satisfy the main qualitative features observed for the quark–gluon plasma EoS in the lattice QCD calculations. A quantitative comparison with the lattice results at high temperatures T are done in the SU(3) gluodynamics and in the full QCD with dynamical quarks. Our analysis advocates a negative value of the bag constant B. (author)

  7. Self-organization of the critical state in Josephson lattices and granulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    A number of models of a Josephson medium and granulated superconductors are studied. It is shown that an important parameter is the quantity V∼j c a 3 /Φ 0 , where j c is the Josephson-current density, a is the granule size, and Φ 0 is the quantum of flux. In the limit V>>1 the continuum approximation is inapplicable. In this case the Josephson medium is transformed into a system in which pinning is realized on elementary loops that incorporate Josephson junctions. Here, nonlinear properties of these junctions obtain. The equations obtained for the currents of the Josephson lattice are identical to the standard formulation in the problem of self-organized criticality, while in granulated superconductors a problem of self-organized criticality with a different symmetry arises-a problem not of sites, but of loop. From the point of view of the critical state in granulated superconductors the concept of self-organized criticality radically changes the entire customary picture. The usual equations of the critical state describe only the average values of the magnetic field in the hydrodynamic approximation. However, it follows from the concept of self-organized criticality that the critical state has an extremely complicated structure, much more complicated than that which follows from the equation of the critical state. In particular, the fluctuations of various quantities in the critical state are much stronger than the ordinary statistical fluctuations, since there are large-scale fluctuations of the currents and fields, with a power-law (scaling) behavior that extends up to scales of the order of the size of the system, as in a turbulent medium. On the other hand, the basic equations in it reflect all the features of pinning - hysteresis and threshold behavior. Therefore, the self-organization of the critical state of a superconductor is a natural realization of this extremely general problem. 15 refs., 4 figs

  8. Reverse engineering of modified genes by Bayesian network analysis defines molecular determinants critical to the development of glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W Kunkle

    Full Text Available In this study we have identified key genes that are critical in development of astrocytic tumors. Meta-analysis of microarray studies which compared normal tissue to astrocytoma revealed a set of 646 differentially expressed genes in the majority of astrocytoma. Reverse engineering of these 646 genes using Bayesian network analysis produced a gene network for each grade of astrocytoma (Grade I-IV, and 'key genes' within each grade were identified. Genes found to be most influential to development of the highest grade of astrocytoma, Glioblastoma multiforme were: COL4A1, EGFR, BTF3, MPP2, RAB31, CDK4, CD99, ANXA2, TOP2A, and SERBP1. All of these genes were up-regulated, except MPP2 (down regulated. These 10 genes were able to predict tumor status with 96-100% confidence when using logistic regression, cross validation, and the support vector machine analysis. Markov genes interact with NFkβ, ERK, MAPK, VEGF, growth hormone and collagen to produce a network whose top biological functions are cancer, neurological disease, and cellular movement. Three of the 10 genes - EGFR, COL4A1, and CDK4, in particular, seemed to be potential 'hubs of activity'. Modified expression of these 10 Markov Blanket genes increases lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to the normal population. The glioblastoma risk estimates were dramatically increased with joint effects of 4 or more than 4 Markov Blanket genes. Joint interaction effects of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 Markov Blanket genes produced 9, 13, 20.9, 26.7, 52.8, 53.2, 78.1 or 85.9%, respectively, increase in lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to normal population. In summary, it appears that modified expression of several 'key genes' may be required for the development of glioblastoma. Further studies are needed to validate these 'key genes' as useful tools for early detection and novel therapeutic options for these tumors.

  9. Completely mixed state is a critical point for three-qubit entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaryan, Sayatnova, E-mail: sayat@mail.yerphi.am [Department of Theoretical Physics, A. Alikhanyan National Laboratory, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2011-06-06

    Pure three-qubit states have five algebraically independent and one algebraically dependent polynomial invariants under local unitary transformations and an arbitrary entanglement measure is a function of these six invariants. It is shown that if the reduced density operator of a some qubit is a multiple of the unit operator, than the geometric entanglement measure of the pure three-qubit state is absolutely independent of the polynomial invariants and is a constant for such tripartite states. Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure of entanglement. -- Highlights: → Geometric measure of pure three-qubits is expressed in terms of polynomial invariants. → When one Bloch vector is zero the measure is independent of the remaining invariants. → Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure. → The existence of the critical points is an inherent feature of the entanglement.

  10. Completely mixed state is a critical point for three-qubit entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaryan, Sayatnova

    2011-01-01

    Pure three-qubit states have five algebraically independent and one algebraically dependent polynomial invariants under local unitary transformations and an arbitrary entanglement measure is a function of these six invariants. It is shown that if the reduced density operator of a some qubit is a multiple of the unit operator, than the geometric entanglement measure of the pure three-qubit state is absolutely independent of the polynomial invariants and is a constant for such tripartite states. Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure of entanglement. -- Highlights: → Geometric measure of pure three-qubits is expressed in terms of polynomial invariants. → When one Bloch vector is zero the measure is independent of the remaining invariants. → Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure. → The existence of the critical points is an inherent feature of the entanglement.

  11. A framework for modeling information propagation of biological systems at critical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng; Yang, Fang

    2016-03-01

    We explore the dynamics of information propagation at the critical state of a biologically inspired system by an individual-based computer model. "Quorum response", a type of social interaction which has been recognized taxonomically in animal groups, is applied as the sole interaction rule among individuals. In the model, we assume a truncated Gaussian distribution to depict the distribution of the individuals' vigilance level. Each individual can assume either a naïve state or an alarmed one and only switches from the former state to the latter one. If an individual has turned into an alarmed state, it stays in the state during the process of information propagation. Initially, each individual is set to be at the naïve state and information is tapped into the system by perturbing an individual at the boundaries (alerting it to the alarmed state). The system evolves as individuals turn into the alarmed state, according to the quorum response rules, consecutively. We find that by fine-tuning the parameters of the mean and the standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution, the system is poised at a critical state. We present the phase diagrams to exhibit that the parameter space is divided into a super-critical and a sub-critical zone, in which the dynamics of information propagation varies largely. We then investigate the effects of the individuals' mobility on the critical state, and allow a proportion of randomly chosen individuals to exchange their positions at each time step. We find that mobility breaks down criticality of the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pressure-induced magneto-structural transition in iron via a modified solid-state nudged elastic band method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-03-01

    Materials under pressure may exhibit critical electronic and structural transitions that affect equation of states, as known for superconductors and the magneto-structural transformations of iron with both geophysical and planetary implications. While experiments often use constant-pressure (diamond-anvil cell, DAC) measurements, many theoretical results address a constant-volume transitions, which avoid issues with magnetic collapse but cannot be directly compared to experiment. We establish a modified solid-state nudge elastic band (MSS-NEB) method to handle magnetic systems that may exhibit moment (and volume) collapse during transformation. We apply it to the pressure-induced transformation in iron between the low-pressure body-centered cubic (bcc) and the high-pressure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phases, find the bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure and a transitional pathway, and compare to shock and DAC experiments. We use methods developed with support by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-03ER46026 and DE-AC02-07CH11358). Ames Laboratory is operated for the DOE by Iowa State University under contract DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  13. The use of a modified pairwise comparison method in evaluating critical success factors for community-based rural homestay programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Tourism industry has become the highlighted sector which has amazingly increased the national income level. Despite the tourism industry being one of the highest income generating sectors, Homestay Programme as a Community-Based Tourism (CBT) product in Malaysia does not absorbed much of the incoming wealth. Homestay Programme refers to a programme in a community where a tourist stays together with a host family and experiences the everyday way of life of the family in both direct and indirect manner. There are over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia which mostly are located in rural areas, but only a few excel and enjoying the fruit of the booming industry. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Community-Based Rural Homestay Programme in Malaysia. A modified pairwise method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  14. Distributed State Estimation Using a Modified Partitioned Moving Horizon Strategy for Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tengpeng; Foo, Yi Shyh Eddy; Ling, K V; Chen, Xuebing

    2017-10-11

    In this paper, a distributed state estimation method based on moving horizon estimation (MHE) is proposed for the large-scale power system state estimation. The proposed method partitions the power systems into several local areas with non-overlapping states. Unlike the centralized approach where all measurements are sent to a processing center, the proposed method distributes the state estimation task to the local processing centers where local measurements are collected. Inspired by the partitioned moving horizon estimation (PMHE) algorithm, each local area solves a smaller optimization problem to estimate its own local states by using local measurements and estimated results from its neighboring areas. In contrast with PMHE, the error from the process model is ignored in our method. The proposed modified PMHE (mPMHE) approach can also take constraints on states into account during the optimization process such that the influence of the outliers can be further mitigated. Simulation results on the IEEE 14-bus and 118-bus systems verify that our method achieves comparable state estimation accuracy but with a significant reduction in the overall computation load.

  15. Labeling of genetically modified food: closer to reality in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2013-01-01

    Within the broader context of several related biotech developments, including the proliferation of GM food in American grocery stories, the recent decision by Whole Foods Market, Inc. to require the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) organism products sold in its stores by 2018, and the development of GM animals for consumption, this essay asks whether the United States is inching towards a policy of mandatory GM food labeling. The analysis highlights aspects of the biotechnology policy debate in the United States and European Union, and traces public opinion as well as grassroots and legislative efforts aimed at GM food labeling. Findings show that activities at the federal level do not suggest any major regulatory changes regarding labeling in the near future; however, a growing number of individual states are considering GM food labeling legislation and political momentum in favor of labeling has picked up in recent years. Voluntary labeling by food companies may also become increasingly common.

  16. Force Transmission Modes of Non-Cohesive and Cohesive Materials at the Critical State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Peng

    2017-08-31

    This paper investigates the force transmission modes, mainly described by probability density distributions, in non-cohesive dry and cohesive wet granular materials by discrete element modeling. The critical state force transmission patterns are focused on with the contact model effect being analyzed. By shearing relatively dense and loose dry specimens to the critical state in the conventional triaxial loading path, it is observed that there is a unique critical state force transmission mode. There is a universe critical state force distribution pattern for both the normal contact forces and tangential contact forces. Furthermore, it is found that using either the linear Hooke or the non-linear Hertz model does not affect the universe force transmission mode, and it is only related to the grain size distribution. Wet granular materials are also simulated by incorporating a water bridge model. Dense and loose wet granular materials are tested, and the critical state behavior for the wet material is also observed. The critical state strength and void ratio of wet granular materials are higher than those of a non-cohesive material. The critical state inter-particle distribution is altered from that of a non-cohesive material with higher probability in relatively weak forces. Grains in non-cohesive materials are under compressive stresses, and their principal directions are mainly in the axial loading direction. However, for cohesive wet granular materials, some particles are in tension, and the tensile stresses are in the horizontal direction on which the confinement is applied. The additional confinement by the tensile stress explains the macro strength and dilatancy increase in wet samples.

  17. Enthalpy-based equation of state for highly porous materials employing modified soft sphere fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bishnupriya; Menon, S. V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Enthalpy-based equation of state based on a modified soft sphere model for the fluid phase, which includes vaporization and ionization effects, is formulated for highly porous materials. Earlier developments and applications of enthalpy-based approach had not accounted for the fact that shocked states of materials with high porosity (e.g., porosity more than two for Cu) are in the expanded fluid region. We supplement the well known soft sphere model with a generalized Lennard-Jones formula for the zero temperature isotherm, with parameters determined from cohesive energy, specific volume and bulk modulus of the solid at normal condition. Specific heats at constant pressure, ionic and electronic enthalpy parameters and thermal excitation effects are calculated using the modified approach and used in the enthalpy-based equation of state. We also incorporate energy loss from the shock due to expansion of shocked material in calculating porous Hugoniot. Results obtained for Cu, even up to initial porosities ten, show good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Reverse Engineering of Modified Genes by Bayesian Network Analysis Defines Molecular Determinants Critical to the Development of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Brian W.; Yoo, Changwon; Roy, Deodutta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have identified key genes that are critical in development of astrocytic tumors. Meta-analysis of microarray studies which compared normal tissue to astrocytoma revealed a set of 646 differentially expressed genes in the majority of astrocytoma. Reverse engineering of these 646 genes using Bayesian network analysis produced a gene network for each grade of astrocytoma (Grade I–IV), and ‘key genes’ within each grade were identified. Genes found to be most influential to development of the highest grade of astrocytoma, Glioblastoma multiforme were: COL4A1, EGFR, BTF3, MPP2, RAB31, CDK4, CD99, ANXA2, TOP2A, and SERBP1. All of these genes were up-regulated, except MPP2 (down regulated). These 10 genes were able to predict tumor status with 96–100% confidence when using logistic regression, cross validation, and the support vector machine analysis. Markov genes interact with NFkβ, ERK, MAPK, VEGF, growth hormone and collagen to produce a network whose top biological functions are cancer, neurological disease, and cellular movement. Three of the 10 genes - EGFR, COL4A1, and CDK4, in particular, seemed to be potential ‘hubs of activity’. Modified expression of these 10 Markov Blanket genes increases lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to the normal population. The glioblastoma risk estimates were dramatically increased with joint effects of 4 or more than 4 Markov Blanket genes. Joint interaction effects of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 Markov Blanket genes produced 9, 13, 20.9, 26.7, 52.8, 53.2, 78.1 or 85.9%, respectively, increase in lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to normal population. In summary, it appears that modified expression of several ‘key genes’ may be required for the development of glioblastoma. Further studies are needed to validate these ‘key genes’ as useful tools for early detection and novel therapeutic options for these tumors. PMID:23737970

  19. Electric field obtained from an elliptic critical-state model for anisotropic type-II superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Salazar, C., E-mail: cromeros@ifuap.buap.mx; Hernández-Flores, O.A.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • An anisotropic critical state model that incorporates a non-zero electric field is proposed. • The critical current density is driven by the electric field. • To determinate the magnetic properties is not required a material law for the electric field magnitude. - Abstract: The conventional elliptic critical-state models (ECSM) establish that the electric field vector is zero when it flows a critical current density in a type-II superconductor. This proposal incorporates a finite electric field on the ECSM to study samples with anisotropic-current-carrying capacity. Our theoretical scheme has the advantage of being able to dispense of a material law which drives the electric field magnitude, however, it does not consider the magnetic history of the superconductor.

  20. Scaled parametric equation of state for steam in the critical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.A.; Sengers, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    The anomalous thermodynamic behavior of fluids near the critical point can be described in terms of scaling laws. In recent years a parametric equation of state, the so-called Linear Model, has been proposed that satisfies the scaling laws and contains only a small number of adjustable parameters. It is shown that the Linear Model yields a satisfactory representation of the experimental P-V-T data for steam in the critical region. (29 references)

  1. Self-organized criticality occurs in non-conservative neuronal networks during `up' states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Daniel; Mihalas, Stefan; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Niebur, Ernst

    2010-10-01

    During sleep, under anaesthesia and in vitro, cortical neurons in sensory, motor, association and executive areas fluctuate between so-called up and down states, which are characterized by distinct membrane potentials and spike rates. Another phenomenon observed in preparations similar to those that exhibit up and down states-such as anaesthetized rats, brain slices and cultures devoid of sensory input, as well as awake monkey cortex-is self-organized criticality (SOC). SOC is characterized by activity `avalanches' with a branching parameter near unity and size distribution that obeys a power law with a critical exponent of about -3/2. Recent work has demonstrated SOC in conservative neuronal network models, but critical behaviour breaks down when biologically realistic `leaky' neurons are introduced. Here, we report robust SOC behaviour in networks of non-conservative leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with short-term synaptic depression. We show analytically and numerically that these networks typically have two stable activity levels, corresponding to up and down states, that the networks switch spontaneously between these states and that up states are critical and down states are subcritical.

  2. Critical constants and acentric factors for long-chain alkanes suitable for corresponding states applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Dimitrios, Tassios

    1997-01-01

    Several methods for the estimation of the critical temperature T-c, the critical pressure P-c, and the acentric factor omega for long-chain n-alkanes are reviewed and evaluated for the prediction of vapor pressures using Corresponding States (CS) methods, like the Lee-Kesler equation and the cubic....... Anselme, Correlation of the critical properties of alkanes and alkanols, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 56 (1990) 153-169; W. Hu, J. Lovland and P. Vonka. Generalized vapor pressure equations for n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, and 1-alkanols, Presented at the 11th Int. Congress of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Equipment...

  3. Methodologies and applications for critical infrastructure protection: State-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, Jose M.; Correa, Gabriel J.; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This work provides an update of the state-of-the-art on energy security relating to critical infrastructure protection. For this purpose, this survey is based upon the conceptual view of OECD countries, and specifically in accordance with EU Directive 114/08/EC on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures, and on the 2009 US National Infrastructure Protection Plan. The review discusses the different definitions of energy security, critical infrastructure and key resources, and shows some of the experie'nces in countries considered as international reference on the subject, including some information-sharing issues. In addition, the paper carries out a complete review of current methodologies, software applications and modelling techniques around critical infrastructure protection in accordance with their functionality in a risk management framework. The study of threats and vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure systems shows two important trends in methodologies and modelling. A first trend relates to the identification of methods, techniques, tools and diagrams to describe the current state of infrastructure. The other trend accomplishes a dynamic behaviour of the infrastructure systems by means of simulation techniques including systems dynamics, Monte Carlo simulation, multi-agent systems, etc. - Highlights: → We examine critical infrastructure protection experiences, systems and applications. → Some international experiences are reviewed, including EU EPCIP Plan and the US NIPP programme. → We discuss current methodologies and applications on critical infrastructure protection, with emphasis in electric networks.

  4. Ischemia-modified albumin levels in the prediction of acute critical neurological findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Daş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA levels in patients with carbon monoxide (CO poisoning were higher compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. In addition, the study sought to determine if there was a correlation between serum IMA levels and carboxyhemoglobin (COHB levels and other critical neurological findings (CNFs. In this prospective study, the IMA levels of 100 patients with CO poisoning and 50 control individuals were compared. In addition, the IMA and COHB levels were analyzed according to absence or presence CNFs in patients with CO poisoning. The levels of IMA (mg/dL on admittance, and during the 1st hour and 3rd hour, in patients with CO poisoning (49.90 ± 35.43, 30.21 ± 14.81, and 21.87 ± 6.03 were significantly higher, compared with the control individuals (17.30 ± 2.88. The levels of IMA in the 6th hour were not higher compared with control individuals. The levels of IMA on admittance, and during the 1st hour, 3rd hour, and 6th hour, and COHB (% levels in patients who had CNFs were higher compared with IMA levels and COHB levels in patients who had no CNFs (p < 0.001. However, when the multivariate model was created, it was observed that IMA level on admittance was a poor indicator for prediction of CNFs (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.08. We therefore concluded that serum IMA levels could be helpful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning. However, we believe that IMA levels cannot be used to predict which patients will develop CNFs due to CO poisoning.

  5. Examining Cognitive Status of Elderly Iranians: Farsi Version of the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaeipour, Manouchehr; Andrew, Melissa K

    2013-02-27

    The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) is an expanded and modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Research demonstrates that the reliability, validity, specificity, and sensitivity of the 3MS are superior to that of the MMSE in detecting cognitive impairment. The Farsi version of the 3MS (F-3MS) was examined as a screening tool for dementia among elderly Iranians. The F-3MS and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) were administered to 58 patients with dementia and 145 control subjects with normal cognition, aged 60 to 85 years. The difference between groups on the mean total scores of the F-3MS was statistically significant (dementia = 60.65 ± 9.89, control = 80.73 ± 8.26; df = 201, t = 14.75, p validity of the F-3MS. The F-3MS can be used as a valid and reliable measure for dementia screening among elderly Iranians.

  6. Critical opalescence and the true dielectric state in a Coulomb system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    To study the critical opalescence effect in a two-component Coulomb system consisting of single-type electrons and nuclei, we consider the limit relations for static structure factors and analyze the singularities of the dielectric permittivity. We show that the critical opalescence effect can be observed not only at the critical point corresponding to the gas-liquid phase transition but also near the true dielectric state with zero static conductivity. With the available experimental data taken into account, we assume that the true dielectric state is the limit state of the liquid-liquid phase transition accompanied by sharp variations in the electrical conduction of the substances. We find that if the thermodynamic parameters correspond to the true dielectric state, then the critical opalescence effect can arise in the case where the squared fluctuation in the total number of electrons and nuclei in a two-component Coulomb system becomes infinite, as this occurs at the critical point corresponding to the gas-liquid phase transition.

  7. Isotropic-nematic transition in shear flow: State selection, coexistence, phase transitions, and critical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Peter D.; Goldbart, Paul M.

    1992-10-01

    Macroscopic fluid motion can have dramatic consequences near the isotropic-nematic transition in fluids of nematogens. We explore some of these consequences using both deterministic and stochastic descriptions involving coupled hydrodynamic equations of motion for the nematic order parameter and fluid velocity fields. By analyzing the deterministic equations of motion we identify the locally stable states of homogeneous nematic order and strain rate, thus determining the homogeneous nonequilibrium steady states which the fluid may adopt. By examining inhomogeneous steady states we construct the analog of a first-order phase boundary, i.e., a line in the nonequilibrium phase diagram spanned by temperature and applied stress, at which nonequilibrium states may coexist, and which terminates in a nonequilibrium analog of a critical point. From an analysis of the nematic order-parameter discontinuity across the coexistence line, along with properties of the interface between homogeneous states, we extract the analog of classical equilibrium critical behavior near the nonequilibrium critical point. We develop a theory of fluctuations about biaxial nonequilibrium steady states by augmenting the deterministic description with noise terms, to simulate the effect of thermal fluctuations. We use this description to discuss the scattering of polarized light by order-parameter fluctuations near the nonequilibrium critical point and also in weak shear flow near the equilibrium phase transition. We find that fluids of nematogens near an appropriate temperature and strain rate exhibit the analog of critical opalescence, the intensity of which is sensitive to the polarizations of the incident and scattered light, and to the precise form of the critical mode.

  8. Estimation of the sub-criticality of the sodium-cooled fast reactor Monju using the modified neutron source multiplication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, G.; Van Rooijen, W. F. G.; Shimazu, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Neutron Source Method (MNSM) is applied to the Monju reactor. This static method to estimate sub-criticality has already given good results on commercial Pressurized Water Reactors. The MNSM consists both in the extraction of the fundamental mode seen by a detector to avoid the effect of higher modes near sources, and the correction of flux distortion effects due to control rod movement. Among Monju's particularities that have a big influence on MNSM factors are: the presence of two californium sources and the position of the detector which is located far from the core outside of the reactor vessel. The importance of spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions which have increased during the shutdown period of 15 years will also be discussed. The relative position of detectors and sources deeply affect the correction factors in some regions. In order to evaluate the detector count rate, an analytical propagation has been conducted from the reactor vessel. For two subcritical states, an estimation of the reactivity has been made and compared to experimental data obtained in the restart experiments at Monju (2010). (authors)

  9. On the stability of critical state in hard superconductors with nonhomogeneous temperature profile

    CERN Document Server

    Tajlanov, N A

    2002-01-01

    One studied the problem on thermal and magnetic breaking of critical state in hard superconductors. One assumes that initial distribution of temperature and of electrical field is very nonhomogeneous one. In quasi-stationary approximation one determined the limit of occurrence of thermal and magnetic instability in a superconductor. The derived integral criterion is shown to take account of the effect of each segment of a superconductor on the threshold of occurrence of critical state instability on contrast to similar criterion for homogeneous temperature profile

  10. Unique rheological behavior of chitosan-modified nanoclay at highly hydrated state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Songmiao; Liu, Linshu; Huang, Qingrong; Yam, Kit L

    2009-04-30

    This work attempts to explore the dynamic and steady-state rheological properties of chitosan modified clay (CMCs) at highly hydrated state. CMCs with different initial chitosan/clay weight ratios (s) were prepared from pre-exfoliated clay via electrostatic adsorption process. Thermogravimetric analysis and optical microscopy were used to determine the adsorbed content of chitosan (m) in CMCs and the microstructure of CMCs at highly hydrated state, respectively. Dynamic rheological results indicate that both stress-strain behavior and moduli of CMCs exhibit strong dependence on m. Shear-thinning behavior for all of CMCs is observed and further confirmed by steady-state shear test. Interestingly, two unique transitions, denoted as a small peak region of the shear viscosity for CMCs with m > 2.1% and a sharp drop region of the shear viscosity for CMCs with m

  11. Dynamic conductivity modified by impurity resonant states in doping three-dimensional Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Chen; Zheng, Shi-Han; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Li, Jun; Yang, Mou

    2018-04-01

    The impurity effect is studied in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals in the framework of a T-matrix method to consider the multiple scattering events of Dirac electrons off impurities. It has been found that a strong impurity potential can significantly restructure the energy dispersion and the density of states of Dirac electrons. An impurity-induced resonant state emerges and significantly modifies the pristine optical response. It is shown that the impurity state disturbs the common longitudinal optical conductivity by creating either an optical conductivity peak or double absorption jumps, depending on the relative position of the impurity band and the Fermi level. More importantly, these conductivity features appear in the forbidden region between the Drude and interband transition, completely or partially filling the Pauli block region of optical response. The underlying physics is that the appearance of resonance states as well as the broadening of the bands leads to a more complicated selection rule for the optical transitions, making it possible to excite new electron-hole pairs in the forbidden region. These features in optical conductivity provide valuable information to understand the impurity behaviors in 3D Dirac materials.

  12. dc Resistivity of Quantum Critical, Charge Density Wave States from Gauge-Gravity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Areán, Daniel; Goutéraux, Blaise; Musso, Daniele

    2018-04-01

    In contrast to metals with weak disorder, the resistivity of weakly pinned charge density waves (CDWs) is not controlled by irrelevant processes relaxing momentum. Instead, the leading contribution is governed by incoherent, diffusive processes which do not drag momentum and can be evaluated in the clean limit. We compute analytically the dc resistivity for a family of holographic charge density wave quantum critical phases and discuss its temperature scaling. Depending on the critical exponents, the ground state can be conducting or insulating. We connect our results to dc electrical transport in underdoped cuprate high Tc superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the possible relevance of unstable, semilocally critical CDW states to the strange metallic region.

  13. dc Resistivity of Quantum Critical, Charge Density Wave States from Gauge-Gravity Duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Areán, Daniel; Goutéraux, Blaise; Musso, Daniele

    2018-04-27

    In contrast to metals with weak disorder, the resistivity of weakly pinned charge density waves (CDWs) is not controlled by irrelevant processes relaxing momentum. Instead, the leading contribution is governed by incoherent, diffusive processes which do not drag momentum and can be evaluated in the clean limit. We compute analytically the dc resistivity for a family of holographic charge density wave quantum critical phases and discuss its temperature scaling. Depending on the critical exponents, the ground state can be conducting or insulating. We connect our results to dc electrical transport in underdoped cuprate high T_{c} superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the possible relevance of unstable, semilocally critical CDW states to the strange metallic region.

  14. Detecting critical state before phase transition of complex biological systems by hidden Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Liu, Rui; Li, Yongjun; Chen, Luonan

    2016-07-15

    Identifying the critical state or pre-transition state just before the occurrence of a phase transition is a challenging task, because the state of the system may show little apparent change before this critical transition during the gradual parameter variations. Such dynamics of phase transition is generally composed of three stages, i.e. before-transition state, pre-transition state and after-transition state, which can be considered as three different Markov processes. By exploring the rich dynamical information provided by high-throughput data, we present a novel computational method, i.e. hidden Markov model (HMM) based approach, to detect the switching point of the two Markov processes from the before-transition state (a stationary Markov process) to the pre-transition state (a time-varying Markov process), thereby identifying the pre-transition state or early-warning signals of the phase transition. To validate the effectiveness, we apply this method to detect the signals of the imminent phase transitions of complex systems based on the simulated datasets, and further identify the pre-transition states as well as their critical modules for three real datasets, i.e. the acute lung injury triggered by phosgene inhalation, MCF-7 human breast cancer caused by heregulin and HCV-induced dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. Both functional and pathway enrichment analyses validate the computational results. The source code and some supporting files are available at https://github.com/rabbitpei/HMM_based-method lnchen@sibs.ac.cn or liyj@scut.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Critical Concerns for Oral Communication Education in the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard

    2011-01-01

    An examination of oral communication education in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K.) identified four critical concerns: (1) Today's college students are not getting adequate oral communication education; (2) Oral communication education is being relegated to a "module" in another discipline-specific course; (3) When an…

  16. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  17. Critical area planting in the United States of America | G | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of vegetation on disturbed or critical areas of the United States of America has long been evident. A wide range of climatic, soil and environmental conditions has resulted in a search for suitable grass species and methods for their establishment. Plant material centres have done considerable work in ...

  18. Critical rationalism and the state of unawareness in managers¿ theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faran, D.; Faran, D.; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay highlights the state of unawareness to which the theories held by managers are susceptible. The essay opens up the question whether the critical rationalist approach, which specifically addresses the unawareness problem in science, is indeed inadequate for organizations as commonly

  19. Racism as Policy: A Critical Race Analysis of Education Reforms in the United States and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillborn, David

    2014-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) views education as one of the principal means by which white supremacy is maintained and presented as normal in society. The article applies CRT to two real-world case studies: changes to education statutes in the state of Arizona (USA) and the introduction of a new measure of educational success in England, the English…

  20. Critical Reflections of Action Research Used for Professional Development in a Middle Eastern Gulf State

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Alyson

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and critically reflects on an action research project used for professional development purposes in a Middle Eastern Gulf State. The aim of the project was to improve professional development experiences for a group of in-service teacher educators, who were English as Second Language advisers. The initial discussion…

  1. The Development of Critical Thinking Skills for Elementary Education Majors at Castleton State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Robert F.

    The document describes a practicum which developed a unit on critical thinking that applied Jerome Bruner's discovery-learning method and also incorporated the unit within the curricular requirements of elementary education majors at Castleton State College in Vermont. It is presented in five sections and an appendix. Section I provides…

  2. A modified Stern-Gerlach experiment using a quantum two-state magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghigh, Ramin G.; Green, Michael D.; West, Christopher J.

    2018-06-01

    The Stern-Gerlach experiment has played an important role in our understanding of quantum behavior. We propose and analyze a modified version of this experiment where the magnetic field of the detector is in a quantum superposition, which may be experimentally realized using a superconducting flux qubit. We show that if incident spin-1/2 particles couple with the two-state magnetic field, a discrete target distribution results that resembles the distribution in the classical Stern-Gerlach experiment. As an application of the general result, we compute the distribution for a Gaussian waveform of the incident fermion. This analysis allows us to demonstrate theoretically: (1) the quantization of the intrinsic angular momentum of a spin-1/2 particle, and (2) a correlation between EPR pairs leading to nonlocality, without necessarily collapsing the particle's spin wavefunction.

  3. Experimental methods to validate measures of emotional state and readiness for duty in critical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Louise Marie

    2007-01-01

    A recent report on criticality accidents in nuclear facilities indicates that human error played a major role in a significant number of incidents with serious consequences and that some of these human errors may be related to the emotional state of the individual. A pre-shift test to detect a deleterious emotional state could reduce the occurrence of such errors in critical operations. The effectiveness of pre-shift testing is a challenge because of the need to gather predictive data in a relatively short test period and the potential occurrence of learning effects due to a requirement for frequent testing. This report reviews the different types of reliability and validity methods and testing and statistical analysis procedures to validate measures of emotional state. The ultimate value of a validation study depends upon the percentage of human errors in critical operations that are due to the emotional state of the individual. A review of the literature to identify the most promising predictors of emotional state for this application is highly recommended

  4. Quantum Critical Quasiparticle Scattering within the Superconducting State of CeCoIn_{5}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Johnpierre; Tanatar, M A; Reid, J-Ph; Shakeripour, H; Petrovic, C; Taillefer, Louis

    2016-07-01

    The thermal conductivity κ of the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn_{5} was measured in the normal and superconducting states as a function of temperature T and magnetic field H, for a current and field parallel to the [100] direction. Inside the superconducting state, when the field is lower than the upper critical field H_{c2}, κ/T is found to increase as T→0, just as in a metal and in contrast to the behavior of all known superconductors. This is due to unpaired electrons on part of the Fermi surface, which dominate the transport above a certain field. The evolution of κ/T with field reveals that the electron-electron scattering (or transport mass m^{⋆}) of those unpaired electrons diverges as H→H_{c2} from below, in the same way that it does in the normal state as H→H_{c2} from above. This shows that the unpaired electrons sense the proximity of the field-tuned quantum critical point of CeCoIn_{5} at H^{⋆}=H_{c2} even from inside the superconducting state. The fact that the quantum critical scattering of the unpaired electrons is much weaker than the average scattering of all electrons in the normal state reveals a k-space correlation between the strength of pairing and the strength of scattering, pointing to a common mechanism, presumably antiferromagnetic fluctuations.

  5. Evaluation of cognitive load and emotional states during multidisciplinary critical care simulation sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Swapnil; Jacques, Theresa; Deshpande, Kush; Pusapati, Raju; Meguerdichian, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    The simulation in critical care setting involves a heterogeneous group of participants with varied background and experience. Measuring the impacts of simulation on emotional state and cognitive load in this setting is not often performed. The feasibility of such measurement in the critical care setting needs further exploration. Medical and nursing staff with varying levels of experience from a tertiary intensive care unit participated in a standardised clinical simulation scenario. The emotional state of each participant was assessed before and after completion of the scenario using a validated eight-item scale containing bipolar oppositional descriptors of emotion. The cognitive load of each participant was assessed after the completion of the scenario using a validated subjective rating tool. A total of 103 medical and nursing staff participated in the study. The participants felt more relaxed (-0.28±1.15 vs 0.14±1, Pcognitive load for all participants was 6.67±1.41. There was no significant difference in the cognitive loads among medical staff versus nursing staff (6.61±2.3 vs 6.62±1.7; P>0.05). A well-designed complex high fidelity critical care simulation scenario can be evaluated to identify the relative cognitive load of the participants' experience and their emotional state. The movement of learners emotionally from a more negative state to a positive state suggests that simulation can be an effective tool for improved knowledge transfer and offers more opportunity for dynamic thinking.

  6. Response of hard superconductors to crossed magnetic fields: elliptic critical-state model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Salazar, C.; Perez-Rodriguez, F

    2004-05-01

    The behavior of hard superconductors subjected to crossed magnetic fields is theoretically investigated by employing an elliptic critical-state model. Here the anisotropy is induced by flux-line cutting. The model reproduces successfully the collapse of the magnetic moment under the action of a sweeping magnetic field, applied perpendicularly to a dc field, for diamagnetic and paramagnetic initial states. Besides, it explains the transition from the diamagnetic state to the paramagnetic one when the magnitudes of the crossed magnetic fields are of the same order.

  7. Microtraps for neutral atoms using superconducting structures in the critical state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, A.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J.-M.; Nogues, G.; Lupascu, A.; Haroche, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently demonstrated superconducting atom chips provide a platform for trapping atoms and coupling them to solid-state quantum systems. Controlling these devices requires a full understanding of the supercurrent distribution in the trapping structures. For type-II superconductors, this distribution is hysteretic in the critical state due to the partial penetration of the magnetic field in the thin superconducting film through pinned vortices. We report here an experimental observation of this memory effect. Our results are in good agreement with the predictions of the Bean model of the critical state without adjustable parameters. The memory effect allows to write and store permanent currents in micron-sized superconducting structures and paves the way toward engineered trapping potentials.

  8. Critical thinking, self-esteem, and state anxiety of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Wafika A; Halabi, Jehad

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed at exploring the existing predominant critical thinking disposition(s) of baccalaureate nursing students and the relationship among their critical thinking (CT), self-esteem (SE), and state anxiety (SA). Cross-sectional correlational design was utilized to achieve the said aim. A voluntary convenient sample consisted of first year (n=105) and fourth year (n=60) nursing students. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection after their translation to Arabic language and test for validity and reliability. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results showed that both groups overall CT was marginal indicating no serious deficiency, their SE was average, and their SA was relatively high; they reported analyticity, open-mindedness, systematicity, inquisitiveness, and truth seeking as predominant critical thinking dispositions with no significant difference between them. However, the two groups were weak with significant difference on CT self-confidence (t=-2.053, df=136.904, p=.042) with beginning students reporting poorer level of CT self-confidence. Significant correlation results showed that critical thinking is positively correlated with SE, negatively correlated with SA, and SE is negatively correlated with SA; however, all correlations were actually quite low.

  9. Modified Peng-Robinson Equation of State for Pure and Mixture Refrigerants with R-32,R-125 and R-134a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ll, Jin; Sato, Haruki; Watanabe, Koichi

    On the basis of critically-evaluated thermodynamic property data among those recently published, a new Peng-Robinson equation of state for the HFC refrigerants,R-32,R-125 and R-134a,has be end eveloped so as to represent the VLE properties in the vapor-liquid coexisting phase at temperatures 223K-323K. In accord with a challenge to correlate the binary and/or ternary interatction parameters as functions of temperature, we have also applied the present modified Peng-Robinson equation of state to the promising alternative HFC refrigerant mixtures, i.e., R-32/125,R-32/134a and R-32/125/134a systems. The developed equation of state improves significantly its effectiveness for practical engineering property calculations at refrigerantion and air-conditioning industries in comparison with conventional Peng-Robinson equation.

  10. The magnetic flux dynamics in the critical state of one-dimensional discrete superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, S.L.; Nakin, A.V.; Savitskaya, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    We give a theoretical description of avalanche-like dynamics of magnetic flux in the critical state of discrete superconductors using a one-dimensional model of a multijunction SQUID. We show that the system under consideration demonstrates the self-organized criticality. The avalanches of vortices manifest themselves as jumps of the total magnetic flux in the sample. The sizes of these jumps have a power-law distribution. We argue that similarities in the behavior of discrete and usual type-II superconductors allows to extend our results for description of avalanche-like dynamics in type-II superconductors with strong pinning

  11. Multiple critical points and liquid-liquid equilibria from the van der Waals like equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemenko, Sergey; Lozovsky, Taras; Mazur, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The principal aim of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the phase diagram of water via the van der Waals like equations of state (EoSs) which are considered as superpositions of repulsive and attractive forces. We test more extensively the modified van der Waals EoS (MVDW) proposed by Skibinski et al (2004 Phys. Rev. E 69 061206) and refine this model by introducing instead of the classical van der Waals repulsive term a very accurate hard sphere EoS over the entire stable and metastable regions (Liu 2006 Preprint cond-mat/0605392). It was detected that the simplest form of MVDW EoS displays a complex phase behavior, including three critical points, and identifies four fluid phases (gas, low density liquid (LDL), high density liquid (HDL), and very high density liquid (VHDL)). Moreover the experimentally observed (Mallamace et al 2007 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104 18387) anomalous behavior of the density of water in the deeply supercooled region (a density minimum) is reproduced by the MWDW EoS. An improvement of the repulsive part does not change the topological picture of the phase behavior of water in the wide range of thermodynamic variables. The new parameters set for second and third critical points are recognized by thorough analysis of experimental data for the loci of thermodynamic response function extrema

  12. Geotechnical properties of deep-ocean sediments: a critical state approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, E.W.L.

    1988-11-01

    The possible disposal of high-level radioactive waste using the sediments of the deep-ocean floor as repositories has initiated research to establish an understanding of the fundamental behaviour of deep-ocean sediments. The work described in this thesis consisted of a series of triaxial stress path tests using microcomputer controlled hydraulic triaxial cells to investigate the strength and stress-strain behaviour for mainly anisotropically (K o ) consolidated 'undisturbed' (tubed) and reconstituted specimens of deep-ocean sediments taken from two study areas in the North Atlantic Ocean. The test results have been analysed within the framework of critical state soil mechanics to investigate sediment characteristics such as the state boundary surface, drained and undrained strength and stress-strain behaviour. While marked anisotropic behaviour is found in a number of respects, the results indicate that analysis in a critical state framework is as valid as for terrestrial sediments. Differences in behaviour between tubed and reconstituted specimens have been observed and the effect of the presence of carbonate has been investigated. An attempt has been made to develop an elasto-plastic constitutive K o model based on critical state concepts. This model has been found to agree reasonably well with experimental data for kaolin and deep-ocean sediments. (author)

  13. 10-minute delayed recall from the modified mini-mental state test predicts Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Scott A; Lee, Ae Young; Zarow, Chris; Teng, Evelyn L; Chui, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of two delayed recall scores from the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) test with consensus clinical diagnosis to differentiate cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus non-AD pathologies. At a memory disorders clinic, 117 cognitively impaired patients were administered a baseline 3MS test and received a contemporaneous consensus clinical diagnosis. Their brains were examined after death about 5 years later. Using logistic regression with forward selection to predict pathologically defined AD versus non-AD, 10-min delayed recall entered first (p = 0.001), followed by clinical diagnosis (p = 0.02); 1-min delayed recall did not enter. 10-min delayed recall scores ≤4 (score range = 0-9) were 87% sensitive and 47% specific in predicting AD pathology; consensus clinical diagnosis was 82% sensitive and 45% specific. For the 57 patients whose initial Mini-Mental State Examination scores were ≥19 (the median), 3MS 10-min delayed recall scores ≤4 showed some loss of sensitivity (80%) but a substantial gain in specificity (77%). In conclusion, 10-min delayed recall score on the brief 3MS test distinguished between AD versus non-AD pathology about 5 years before death at least as well as consensus clinical diagnosis that requires much more comprehensive information and complex deliberation.

  14. A universal indicator of critical state transitions in noisy complex networked systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junhao; Hu, Yanqing; Chen, Guanrong; Zhou, Tianshou

    2017-02-23

    Critical transition, a phenomenon that a system shifts suddenly from one state to another, occurs in many real-world complex networks. We propose an analytical framework for exactly predicting the critical transition in a complex networked system subjected to noise effects. Our prediction is based on the characteristic return time of a simple one-dimensional system derived from the original higher-dimensional system. This characteristic time, which can be easily calculated using network data, allows us to systematically separate the respective roles of dynamics, noise and topology of the underlying networked system. We find that the noise can either prevent or enhance critical transitions, playing a key role in compensating the network structural defect which suffers from either internal failures or environmental changes, or both. Our analysis of realistic or artificial examples reveals that the characteristic return time is an effective indicator for forecasting the sudden deterioration of complex networks.

  15. Bursting and critical layer frequencies in minimal turbulent dynamics and connections to exact coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Sung; Shekar, Ashwin; Graham, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of the turbulent near-wall region is known to be dominated by coherent structures. These near-wall coherent structures are observed to burst in a very intermittent fashion, exporting turbulent kinetic energy to the rest of the flow. In addition, they are closely related to invariant solutions known as exact coherent states (ECS), some of which display nonlinear critical layer dynamics (motions that are highly localized around the surface on which the streamwise velocity matches the wave speed of ECS). The present work aims to investigate temporal coherence in minimal channel flow relevant to turbulent bursting and critical layer dynamics and its connection to the instability of ECS. It is seen that the minimal channel turbulence displays frequencies very close to those displayed by an ECS family recently identified in the channel flow geometry. The frequencies of these ECS are determined by critical layer structures and thus might be described as "critical layer frequencies." While the bursting frequency is predominant near the wall, the ECS frequencies (critical layer frequencies) become predominant over the bursting frequency at larger distances from the wall, and increasingly so as Reynolds number increases. Turbulent bursts are classified into strong and relatively weak classes with respect to an intermittent approach to a lower branch ECS. This temporally intermittent approach is closely related to an intermittent low drag event, called hibernating turbulence, found in minimal and large domains. The relationship between the strong burst and the instability of the lower branch ECS is further discussed in state space. The state-space dynamics of strong bursts is very similar to that of the unstable manifolds of the lower branch ECS. In particular, strong bursting processes are always preceded by hibernation events. This precursor dynamics to strong turbulence may aid in development of more effective control schemes by a way of anticipating dynamics

  16. Stochastic Oscillation in Self-Organized Critical States of Small Systems: Sensitive Resting State in Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Ouyang, Guang; Guang, Jing; Zhang, Mingsha; Wong, K Y Michael; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-01-08

    Self-organized critical states (SOCs) and stochastic oscillations (SOs) are simultaneously observed in neural systems, which appears to be theoretically contradictory since SOCs are characterized by scale-free avalanche sizes but oscillations indicate typical scales. Here, we show that SOs can emerge in SOCs of small size systems due to temporal correlation between large avalanches at the finite-size cutoff, resulting from the accumulation-release process in SOCs. In contrast, the critical branching process without accumulation-release dynamics cannot exhibit oscillations. The reconciliation of SOCs and SOs is demonstrated both in the sandpile model and robustly in biologically plausible neuronal networks. The oscillations can be suppressed if external inputs eliminate the prominent slow accumulation process, providing a potential explanation of the widely studied Berger effect or event-related desynchronization in neural response. The features of neural oscillations and suppression are confirmed during task processing in monkey eye-movement experiments. Our results suggest that finite-size, columnar neural circuits may play an important role in generating neural oscillations around the critical states, potentially enabling functional advantages of both SOCs and oscillations for sensitive response to transient stimuli.

  17. Critical biological parameters modulate affinity as a determinant of function in T-cell receptor gene-modified T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Timothy T; Wang, Yuan; Foley, Kendra C; Murray, David C; Scurti, Gina M; Simms, Patricia E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Hellman, Lance M; Baker, Brian M; Nishimura, Michael I

    2017-11-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR)-pMHC affinity has been generally accepted to be the most important factor dictating antigen recognition in gene-modified T-cells. As such, there is great interest in optimizing TCR-based immunotherapies by enhancing TCR affinity to augment the therapeutic benefit of TCR gene-modified T-cells in cancer patients. However, recent clinical trials using affinity-enhanced TCRs in adoptive cell transfer (ACT) have observed unintended and serious adverse events, including death, attributed to unpredicted off-tumor or off-target cross-reactivity. It is critical to re-evaluate the importance of other biophysical, structural, or cellular factors that drive the reactivity of TCR gene-modified T-cells. Using a model for altered antigen recognition, we determined how TCR-pMHC affinity influenced the reactivity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) TCR gene-modified T-cells against a panel of naturally occurring HCV peptides and HCV-expressing tumor targets. The impact of other factors, such as TCR-pMHC stabilization and signaling contributions by the CD8 co-receptor, as well as antigen and TCR density were also evaluated. We found that changes in TCR-pMHC affinity did not always predict or dictate IFNγ release or degranulation by TCR gene-modified T-cells, suggesting that less emphasis might need to be placed on TCR-pMHC affinity as a means of predicting or augmenting the therapeutic potential of TCR gene-modified T-cells used in ACT. A more complete understanding of antigen recognition by gene-modified T-cells and a more rational approach to improve the design and implementation of novel TCR-based immunotherapies is necessary to enhance efficacy and maximize safety in patients.

  18. Numerical solutions to the critical state in a magnet-high temperature superconductor interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Alonso, D; Coombs, T A; Campbell, A M [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to simulate the electromagnetic behaviour of devices containing high temperature superconductors in axially symmetric problems. The numerical method is built within the finite element method. The electromagnetic properties of HTSCs are described through the critical-state model. Measurements of the axial force between a permanent magnet and a melt-textured YBCO puck are obtained in order to validate the method. This simple system is modelled so that the proposed method obtains the current distribution and electromagnetic fields in the HTSC. The forces in the interaction between the magnet and the HTSC puck can then be calculated. A comparison between experimental and simulation results shows good matching. The simplification of using the critical-state model and ignoring flux creep in this type of configuration is also explored.

  19. Steady-state critical loads of acidity for forest soils in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada where sulphur (S and nitrogen (N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. One region of concern is southern British Columbia, specifically the Georgia Basin, where emissions are expected to increase owing to the expansion of industry and urban centres (Vancouver and Victoria. In the current study, weathering rates and critical loads of acidity (S and N for forest soils were estimated at nineteen sites located within the Georgia Basin. A base cation to aluminium ratio of 10 was selected as the critical chemical criterion associated with ecosystem damage. The majority of the sites (58% had low base cation weathering rates (≤50 meq m–2 y–1 based on the PROFILE model. Accordingly, mean critical load for the study sites, estimated using the steady-state mass balance model, ranged between 129–168 meq m–2 y–1. Annual average total (wet and dry S and N deposition during the period 2005–2006 (estimated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, exceeded critical load at five–nine of the study sites (mean exceedance = 32–46 meq m–2 y–1. The high-elevation (>1000 m study sites had shallow, acid sensitive, soils with low weathering rates; however, critical loads were predominantly exceeded at sites close to Vancouver under higher modelled deposition loads. The extent of exceedance is similar to other industrial regions in western and eastern Canada.

  20. Borders amidst power, State and mass media, from a critical theory standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortiz Marín

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the power, from the glance of the Critical Theory that it allows to understand the woven complex that links the relations of power to most of the human activities. This paper also approaches to the State as a regulating element of the different forces from institutional character, that they operate in its interior like structures of power and the function as that the massive mass media in the complexity of the modern societies act.

  1. Anti-Atheist Bias in the United States: Testing Two Critical Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Lawton K; Heesacker, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Decades of opinion polling and empirical investigations have clearly demonstrated a pervasive anti-atheist prejudice in the United States. However, much of this scholarship relies on two critical and largely unaddressed assumptions: (a) that when people report negative attitudes toward atheists, they do so because they are reacting specifically to their lack of belief in God; and (b) that survey questions asking about attitudes toward atheists as a group yield reliable information about biase...

  2. Critical examination of logical formulations in quantum theory. Statistical inference and Hilbertian distance between quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjisawas, Nicolas.

    1982-01-01

    After a critical study of the logical quantum mechanics formulations of Jauch and Piron, classical and quantum versions of statistical inference are studied. In order to do this, the significance of the Jaynes and Kulback principles (maximum likelihood, least squares principles) is revealed from the theorems established. In the quantum mechanics inference problem, a ''distance'' between states is defined. This concept is used to solve the quantum equivalent of the classical problem studied by Kulback. The ''projection postulate'' proposition is subsequently deduced [fr

  3. Analysis of critical state response in thin films by AC susceptibility measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Youssef, A.; Švindrych, Z.; Hadač, J.; Janů, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2008), s. 1589-1592 ISSN 1051-8223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0942 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : AC susceptibility * critical state * harmonics * thin film * axial magnetic-field * superconductor disks * cylinders Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2008

  4. Critical angles for fission fragment registrations in some solid state track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, A D; Bahromi, I I; Beresina, N V [AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; and others

    1980-03-01

    In studies of the registration efficiency of various solid state track detectors (polycarbonate, polyethyleneterephthalate, cellulose nitrate and muscovite) the detectors were irradiated with spontaneous fission fragments from /sup 252/Cf and with fission fragments from /sup 235/U separated according to mass and energy. Experimental details are given. Critical angles for the registration of fission fragments in the various detectors are given for specified energies and masses.

  5. Illustration of the thermodynamical method of research into a critical state through the Rainford-Edwards model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatova, Je.D.; Snegyir'ov, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamical method for studing a critical state is illustrated by the example of critical behavior of metallic cerium in the frameworks of the improved Rainford-Edwards model. Thermodynamical stability of the model is investigated, and behavior of the whole complex of thermodynamical characteristics of the system is analyzed. It is concluded that the model has the first type of critical behaviour

  6. Critical behaviour of continuous phase transitions with infinitely many absorbing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Dayin; Wang Lieyan; Chen Ting

    2006-01-01

    A lattice gas model is proposed for the A 2 + 2B 2 → 2B 2 A reaction system with particle diffusion. In the model, A 2 dissociates in the random dimer-filling mechanism and B 2 dissociation is in the end-on dimer-filling mechanism. A reactive window appears and the system exhibits a continuous phase transition from a reactive state to a covered state with infinitely many absorbing states. When the diffusion of particle A and AB is included, there are still infinitely many absorbing states for the continuous phase transition, but it is found that the critical behaviour changes from the directed percolation (DP) class to the pair contact process with diffusion (PCPD) class

  7. A Critical Assessment of Methods for Analysis of Social Welfare Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops: a Literature Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Demont, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a review of existing literature on economic and environmental costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM) crops focusing on methodological issues arising from this literature. Particular attention is given to the production function framework commonly used to quantify costs and

  8. Amine modified polyethylenes, prepared in near critical propane, as adhesion promoting agents in multilayered HDPE/PET films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, de J.M.; Scheltus, M.; Koning, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    High d. polyethylene (HDPE) grafted with 0.13, 0.40 and 1.04 wt% maleic anhydride (abbreviation PEMA) was modified with an excess of a variety of diamines in near crit. propane. The resulting amic acid groups were quant. imidized to the corresponding imide (PEMI) in the melt. Increasing the

  9. Effects of nitrogen deposition and empirical nitrogen critical loads for ecoregions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Goodale, C.L.; Geiser, L.H.; Driscoll, C.T.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.L.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K.C.; Dennis, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a significant increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and atmospheric deposition. This N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. One approach for quantifying the deposition of pollution that would be harmful to ecosystems is the determination of critical loads. A critical load is defined as the input of a pollutant below which no detrimental ecological effects occur over the long-term according to present knowledge. The objectives of this project were to synthesize current research relating atmospheric N deposition to effects on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in the United States, and to estimate associated empirical N critical loads. The receptors considered included freshwater diatoms, mycorrhizal fungi, lichens, bryophytes, herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees. Ecosystem impacts included: (1) biogeochemical responses and (2) individual species, population, and community responses. Biogeochemical responses included increased N mineralization and nitrification (and N availability for plant and microbial uptake), increased gaseous N losses (ammonia volatilization, nitric and nitrous oxide from nitrification and denitrification), and increased N leaching. Individual species, population, and community responses included increased tissue N, physiological and nutrient imbalances, increased growth, altered root : shoot ratios, increased susceptibility to secondary stresses, altered fire regime, shifts in competitive interactions and community composition, changes in species richness and other measures of biodiversity, and increases in invasive species. The range of critical loads for nutrient N reported for U.S. ecoregions, inland surface waters, and freshwater wetlands is 1-39 kg N.ha -1.yr -1, spanning the range of N deposition observed over most of the country. The empirical critical loads for N tend to

  10. Polyaniline-Modified Oriented Graphene Hydrogel Film as the Free-Standing Electrode for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pengcheng; Liu, Huckleberry C; Yi, Chao; Wang, Kai; Gong, Xiong

    2015-11-04

    In this study, we report polyaniline (PANI)-modified oriented graphene hydrogel (OGH) films as the free-standing electrode for flexible solid-state supercapacitors (SCs). The OGH films are prepared by a facile filtration method using chemically converted graphene sheets and then introduced to PANI on the surface of OGH films by in situ chemical polymerization. The PANI-modified OGH films possess high flexibility, high electrical conductivity, and mechanical robustness. The flexible solid-state SCs based on the PANI-modified OGH films exhibit a specific capacitance of 530 F/g, keeping 80% of its original value up to 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at the current density of 10 A/g. Remarkably, the flexible solid-state SCs maintain ∼100% capacitance retention bent at 180° for 250 cycles. Moreover, the flexible solid-state SCs are further demonstrated to be able to light up a red-light-emitting diode. These results indicate that the flexible solid-state SCs based on PANI-modified OGH films as the free-standing electrode have potential applications as energy-storage devices.

  11. Q-PYTHIA: a medium-modified implementation of final state radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, Néstor; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2009-10-01

    We present a Monte Carlo implementation, within PYTHIA, of medium-induced gluon radiation in the final state branching process. Medium effects are introduced through an additive term in the splitting functions computed in the multiple-soft scattering approximation. The observable effects of this modification are studied for different quantities as fragmentation functions and the hump-backed plateau, and transverse momentum and angular distributions. The anticipated increase of intra-jet multiplicities, energy loss of the leading particle and jet broadening are observed as well as modifications of naive expectations based solely on analytical calculations. This shows the adequacy of a Monte Carlo simulator for jet analyses. Effects of hadronization are found to wash out medium effects in the soft region, while the main features remain. To show the performance of the implementation and the feasibility of our approach in realistic experimental situations we provide some examples: fragmentation functions, nuclear suppression factors, jet shapes and jet multiplicities. The package containing the modified routines is available for public use. This code, which is not an official PYTHIA release, is called Q-PYTHIA. We also include a short manual to perform the simulations of jet quenching.

  12. Genetically modified organisms in the United States: implementation, concerns, and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeschger, Max P; Silva, Catherine E

    2007-01-01

    We examine the state of biotechnology with respect to genetically modified (GM) organisms in agriculture. Our focus is on the USA, where there has been significant progress and implementation but where, to date, the matter has drawn little attention. GM organisms are the result of lateral gene transfers, the transfer of genes from one species to another, or sometimes, from one kingdom to another. The introduction of foreign genes makes some people very uncomfortable, and a small group of activists have grave concerns about the technology. Attempts by activists to build concern in the general public have garnered little attention; however, the producers of GM organisms have responded to their concerns and established extensive testing programs to be applied to each candidate organism that is produced. In the meantime, GM varieties of corn, cotton, soybean and rapeseed have been put into agricultural production and are now extensively planted. These crops, and the other, newer GM crops, have produced no problems and have pioneered a silent agricultural revolution in the USA.

  13. Solid state NMR and LVSEM studies on the hardening of latex modified tile mortar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottstegge, J.; Arnold, M.; Herschke, L.; Glasser, G.; Wilhelm, M.; Spiess, H.W.; Hergeth, W.D.

    2005-01-01

    Construction mortars contain a broad variety of both inorganic and organic additives beside the cement powder. Here we present a study of tile mortar systems based on portland cement, quartz, methyl cellulose and different latex additives. As known, the methyl cellulose stabilizes the freshly prepared cement paste, the latex additive enhances final hydrophobicity, flexibility and adhesion. Measurements were performed by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) to probe the influence of the latex additives on the hydration, hardening and the final tile mortar properties. While solid state NMR enables monitoring of the bulk composition, scanning electron microscopy affords visualization of particles and textures with respect to their shape and the distribution of the different phases. Within the alkaline cement paste, the poly(vinyl acetate) (VAc)-based latex dispersions stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were found to be relatively stable against hydrolysis. The influence of the combined organic additives methyl cellulose, poly(vinyl alcohol) and latexes stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) on the final silicate structure of the cement hydration products is small. But even small amounts of additives result in an increased ratio of ettringite to monosulfate within the final hydrated tile mortar as monitored by 27 Al NMR. The latex was found to be adsorbed to the inorganic surfaces, acting as glue to the inorganic components. For similar latex water interfaces built up by poly(vinyl alcohol), a variation in the latex polymer composition results in modified organic textures. In addition to the networks of the inorganic cement and of the latex, there is a weak network build up by thin polymer fibers, most probably originating from poly(vinyl alcohol). Besides the weak network, polymer fibers form well-ordered textures covering inorganic crystals such as portlandite

  14. Correlations of zero-entropy critical states in the XXZ model: integrability and Luttinger theory far from the ground state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vlijm, I. S. Eliëns, J. -S. Caux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumping a finite energy density into a quantum system typically leads to `melted' states characterized by exponentially-decaying correlations, as is the case for finite-temperature equilibrium situations. An important exception to this rule are states which, while being at high energy, maintain a low entropy. Such states can interestingly still display features of quantum criticality, especially in one dimension. Here, we consider high-energy states in anisotropic Heisenberg quantum spin chains obtained by splitting the ground state's magnon Fermi sea into separate pieces. Using methods based on integrability, we provide a detailed study of static and dynamical spin-spin correlations. These carry distinctive signatures of the Fermi sea splittings, which would be observable in eventual experimental realizations. Going further, we employ a multi-component Tomonaga-Luttinger model in order to predict the asymptotics of static correlations. For this effective field theory, we fix all universal exponents from energetics, and all non-universal correlation prefactors using finite-size scaling of matrix elements. The correlations obtained directly from integrability and those emerging from the Luttinger field theory description are shown to be in extremely good correspondence, as expected, for the large distance asymptotics, but surprisingly also for the short distance behavior. Finally, we discuss the description of dynamical correlations from a mobile impurity model, and clarify the relation of the effective field theory parameters to the Bethe Ansatz solution.

  15. Critic: a new program for the topological analysis of solid-state electron densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Blanco, M. A.; Pendás, A. Martín; Luaña, Víctor

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce CRITIC, a new program for the topological analysis of the electron densities of crystalline solids. Two different versions of the code are provided, one adapted to the LAPW (Linear Augmented Plane Wave) density calculated by the WIEN2K package and the other to the ab initio Perturbed Ion ( aiPI) density calculated with the PI7 code. Using the converged ground state densities, CRITIC can locate their critical points, determine atomic basins and integrate properties within them, and generate several graphical representations which include topological atomic basins and primary bundles, contour maps of ρ and ∇ρ, vector maps of ∇ρ, chemical graphs, etc. Program summaryProgram title: CRITIC Catalogue identifier: AECB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPL, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 206 843 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 648 065 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 and 90 Computer: Any computer capable of compiling Fortran Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux Classification: 7.3 Nature of problem: Topological analysis of the electron density in periodic solids. Solution method: The automatic localization of the electron density critical points is based on a recursive partitioning of the Wigner-Seitz cell into tetrahedra followed by a Newton search from significant points on each tetrahedra. Plotting of and integration on the atomic basins is currently based on a new implementation of Keith's promega algorithm. Running time: Variable, depending on the task. From seconds to a few minutes for the localization of critical points. Hours to days for the determination of the atomic basins shape and properties. Times correspond to a typical 2007 PC.

  16. Novel optimization strategy for tannase production through a modified solid-state fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changzheng; Zhang, Feng; Li, Lijun; Jiang, Zhedong; Ni, Hui; Xiao, Anfeng

    2018-01-01

    High amounts of insoluble substrates exist in the traditional solid-state fermentation (SSF) system. The presence of these substrates complicates the determination of microbial biomass. Thus, enzyme activity is used as the sole index for the optimization of the traditional SSF system, and the relationship between microbial growth and enzyme synthesis is always ignored. This study was conducted to address this deficiency. All soluble nutrients from tea stalk were extracted using water. The aqueous extract was then mixed with polyurethane sponge to establish a modified SSF system, which was then used to conduct tannase production. With this system, biomass, enzyme activity, and enzyme productivity could be measured rationally and accurately. Thus, the association between biomass and enzyme activity could be easily identified, and the shortcomings of traditional SSF could be addressed. Different carbon and nitrogen sources exerted different effects on microbial growth and enzyme production. Single-factor experiments showed that glucose and yeast extract greatly improved microbial biomass accumulation and that tannin and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 efficiently promoted enzyme productivity. Then, these four factors were optimized through response surface methodology. Tannase activity reached 19.22 U/gds when the added amounts of tannin, glucose, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and yeast extract were 7.49, 8.11, 9.26, and 2.25%, respectively. Tannase activity under the optimized process conditions was 6.36 times higher than that under the initial process conditions. The optimized parameters were directly applied to the traditional tea stalk SSF system. Tannase activity reached 245 U/gds, which is 2.9 times higher than our previously reported value. In this study, a modified SSF system was established to address the shortcomings of the traditional SSF system. Analysis revealed that enzymatic activity and microbial biomass are closely related, and different carbon and nitrogen sources have different

  17. Micro-structure, Mechanical Properties and Dielectric Properties of Bisphenol A Allyl Compound-Bismaleimide Modified by Super-Critical Silica and Polyethersulfone Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufei; Wang, Botao; Li, Fangliang; Teng, Chengjun

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A allyl compound-bismaleimide (MBAE) composite modified by SCE-SiO2 and polyethersulfone (PES) resin has been prepared and researched. SCE-SiO2 was modified by super-critical ethanol and PES thermoplastic resin used as modifiers. The composite was prepared via the hot melting method. The FT-IR measurements indicated that ethanol molecular had adsorbed on the nano-SiO2 surface. SEM images showed that the composite had a multiphase structure, PES and SCE-SiO2 existed as a dispersed phase, and the interaction of the three phases affected each other, such that the bending fracture behavior transformed from brittle fracture to ductile fracture, and the modifiers of SCE-SiO2 and PES resin could improve the mechanical properties. The impact and the bending strength of the composite was 16.5 kJ/mm2 and 150.4 MPa, improved by 68.3% and 56.7% compared with those of the MBAE matrix, respectively, when the content of SCE-SiO2 was 2 wt.% and PES 5 wt.%. The dielectric constant ( ɛ) of the composites was less than 3.9 and decreased with increasing frequency, and the dielectric loss was less than 9 × 10-3 for frequencies between 102 Hz and 105 Hz. These properties could meet the requirement of insulating material.

  18. Feasibility of a multiple-choice mini mental state examination for chronically critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguélez, Marta; Merlani, Paolo; Gigon, Fabienne; Verdon, Mélanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Ricou, Bara

    2014-08-01

    Following treatment in an ICU, up to 70% of chronically critically ill patients present neurocognitive impairment that can have negative effects on their quality of life, daily activities, and return to work. The Mini Mental State Examination is a simple, widely used tool for neurocognitive assessment. Although of interest when evaluating ICU patients, the current version is restricted to patients who are able to speak. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a visual, multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination for ICU patients who are unable to speak. The multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination and the standard Mini Mental State Examination were compared across three different speaking populations. The interrater and intrarater reliabilities of the multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination were tested on both intubated and tracheostomized ICU patients. Mixed 36-bed ICU and neuropsychology department in a university hospital. Twenty-six healthy volunteers, 20 neurological patients, 46 ICU patients able to speak, and 30 intubated or tracheostomized ICU patients. None. Multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination results correlated satisfactorily with standard Mini Mental State Examination results in all three speaking groups: healthy volunteers: intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.43 (95% CI, -0.18 to 0.62); neurology patients: 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95); and ICU patients able to speak: 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70-0.92). The interrater and intrarater reliabilities were good (0.95 [0.87-0.98] and 0.94 [0.31-0.99], respectively). In all populations, a Bland-Altman analysis showed systematically higher scores using the multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination. Administration of the multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination to ICU patients was straightforward and produced exploitable results comparable to those of the standard Mini Mental State Examination. It should be of interest for the assessment and monitoring of the neurocognitive

  19. The state of Danish nursing ethnographic research: flowering, nurtured or malnurtured - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Martinsen, Bente; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2018-03-01

    Nursing was established in Denmark as a scholarly tradition in the late nineteen eighties, and ethnography was a preferred method. No critical review has yet summarised accomplishments and gaps and pointing at directions for the future methodological development and research herein. This review critically examines the current state of the use of ethnographic methodology in the body of knowledge from Danish nursing scholars. We performed a systematic literature search in relevant databases from 2003 to 2016. The studies included were critically appraised by all authors for methodological robustness using the ten-item instrument QARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. Two hundred and eight studies met our inclusion criteria and 45 papers were included; the critical appraisal gave evidence of studies with certain robustness, except for the first question concerning the congruity between the papers philosophical perspective and methodology and the seventh question concerning reflections about the influence of the researcher on the study and vice versa. In most studies (n = 34), study aims and arguments for selecting ethnographic research are presented. Additionally, method sections in many studies illustrated that ethnographical methodology is nurtured by references such as Hammersley and Atkinson or Spradley. Evidence exists that Danish nursing scholars' body of knowledge nurtures the ethnographic methodology mainly by the same few authors; however, whether this is an expression of a deliberate strategy or malnutrition in the form of lack of knowledge of other methodological options appears yet unanswered. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. Effects and empirical critical loads of Nitrogen for ecoregions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Fenn, Mark E.; Goodale, Christine L.; Geiser, Linda H.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Allen, Edith B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, Roland; Bowman, William D.; Clark, C M; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, Frank S; Greaver, Tara L.; Hall, Sharon J; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Liu, Lingli; Lynch, Jason A.; Nadelhoffer, Knute J; Perakis, Steven; Stoddard, John L; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Dennis, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has increased nitrogen (N) deposition to a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. We synthesized current research relating atmospheric N deposition to effects on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in the United States, and estimated associated empirical critical loads of N for several receptors: freshwater diatoms, mycorrhizal fungi, lichens, bryophytes, herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees. Biogeochemical responses included increased N mineralization and nitrification, increased gaseous N losses, and increased N leaching. Individual species, population, and community responses included increased tissue N, physiological and nutrient imbalances, increased growth, altered root-shoot ratios, increased susceptibility to secondary stresses, altered fire regime, shifts in competitive interactions and community composition, changes in species richness and other measures of biodiversity, and increases in invasive species. The range of critical loads of nutrient N reported for U.S. ecoregions, inland surface waters, and freshwater wetlands is 1–39 kg N ha−1 yr−1, spanning the range of N deposition observed over most of the country. The empirical critical loads of N tend to increase in the following sequence: diatoms, lichens and bryophytes, mycorrhizal fungi, herbaceous plants and shrubs, trees.

  1. Extension of modified RAND to multiphase flash specifications based on state functions other than (T,P)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Duncan; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Yan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The recently proposed modified RAND formulation is extended from isothermal multiphase flash to several other state function based flash specifications. The obtained general formulation is applicable to chemical equilibrium although this study is focused on flash with only phase equilibrium. It i...

  2. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2008. Synthesis Report 71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rogers, Christopher; Cormier, Damien; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    Federal regulations (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a) provide states with the flexibility to offer an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). This assessment option is for a small group of students with disabilities who can make significant progress, but may not reach grade-level achievement within the…

  3. Stress evaluation of metallic material under steady state based on nonlinear critically refracted longitudinal wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hanling; Zhang, Yuhua; Mao, Hanying; Li, Xinxin; Huang, Zhenfeng

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the study of applying the nonlinear ultrasonic wave to evaluate the stress state of metallic materials under steady state. The pre-stress loading method is applied to guarantee components with steady stress. Three kinds of nonlinear ultrasonic experiments based on critically refracted longitudinal wave are conducted on components which the critically refracted longitudinal wave propagates along x, x1 and x2 direction. Experimental results indicate the second and third order relative nonlinear coefficients monotonically increase with stress, and the normalized relationship is consistent with simplified dislocation models, which indicates the experimental result is logical. The combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is proposed, and three stress evaluation models at x direction are established based on three ultrasonic nonlinear parameters, which the estimation error is below 5%. Then two stress detection models at x1 and x2 direction are built based on combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter, the stress synthesis method is applied to calculate the magnitude and direction of principal stress. The results show the prediction error is within 5% and the angle deviation is within 1.5°. Therefore the nonlinear ultrasonic technique based on LCR wave could be applied to nondestructively evaluate the stress of metallic materials under steady state which the magnitude and direction are included.

  4. Treatment patterns in disease-modifying therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Machaon M; Johnson, Barbara H; Wenten, Madé; Watson, Crystal

    2013-10-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) whose disease activity is inadequately controlled with a platform therapy (interferon beta or glatiramer acetate [GA]) may switch to another platform therapy or escalate therapy to natalizumab or fingolimod, which were approved in the US in 2006 and 2010, respectively. The objective of this study was to describe treatment patterns in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States who were followed for 2 years after initiating a disease-modifying therapy (DMT). A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to examine treatment patterns of initial DMT use (on initial therapy for 2 years with and without gaps of ≥ 60 days, medication switching, and discontinuation) among patients with MS who initiated a platform therapy (interferon-β or glatiramer acetate) or natalizumab between January 1, 2007, and September 30, 2009; the first DMT claim was the index. Eligible patients were identified in the MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases based on continuous enrollment for 6 months before (preindex period) and 24 months after their index date, with a diagnosis of MS and no claim for a previous DMT in the 6-month preindex period. Demographics at index and clinical characteristics during the preindex period were also analyzed. A total of 6181 MS patients were included, with 5735 (92.8%) starting on platform therapy. Natalizumab initiators were more likely to stay on index therapy (32.3% vs 16.9%, P treatment gaps of ≥ 60 days (44.8% vs 55.3%, P treatment (13.9% vs 19.1%, P = 0.007) and took longer to switch (400.9 days vs 330.7 days, P treatment gaps, and switch less than platform initiators in the 2 years after treatment initiation. Switching between platform therapies is common despite evidence that MS patients on platform therapy may benefit from switching to natalizumab. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Demonstration of criticality safety for the modified TN-REG and TN-BRP transport/storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Fox, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    An inability to model the structural performance of borated steel baskets under accident conditions forced the specially designed TN-BRP and TN-REG casks to be modified for half-loaded shipments. This paper discusses the approach used to demonstrate that the half-loaded casks would remain safely subcritical even if no credit were taken for the borated basket. Normal and accident configurations were analyzed with the KENO V.a code. The strategy conceived and the analyses performed to demonstrate an acceptable margin of safety are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Evaluation of equations of state for simultaneous representation of phase equilibrium and critical phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto Coelho Muniz Vinhal, Andre; Yan, Wei; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    of the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). We obtained new parameters for methanol and alkanes from n-hexane to n-decane. The comparison with the original parameters showed that this procedure is important for associating compounds, since for inert species the equation reduces to the Soave......-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EoS. The application of the rescaled parameters improved the critical point representation of pure fluids at the expense of the saturated liquid phase volume description. In the case of binary mixtures containing methanol and n-alkanes, the association model with the new parameters satisfactorily...

  7. Plasticity of ductile metallic glasses: a self-organized critical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B A; Yu, H B; Jiao, W; Bai, H Y; Zhao, D Q; Wang, W H

    2010-07-16

    We report a close correlation between the dynamic behavior of serrated flow and the plasticity in metallic glasses (MGs) and show that the plastic deformation of ductile MGs can evolve into a self-organized critical state characterized by the power-law distribution of shear avalanches. A stick-slip model considering the interaction of multiple shear bands is presented to reveal complex scale-free intermittent shear-band motions in ductile MGs and quantitatively reproduce the experimental observations. Our studies have implications for understanding the precise plastic deformation mechanism of MGs.

  8. Malthus’s theory on population as a basis for criticism of the interventionist state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Going by ideological debates concerning (unjustifiable state intervention, protection of individual liberty, and the question of state's role, this article analyses Malthus's theory on population. It states a thesis that theory on population leads Malthus toward the idea of a minimal state and represents a basis for criticism of an interventionist state and its paternalistic role. The article consists of an introduction, four sections and a conclusion. The introduction cites goals of the work and gives basic notes on Malthus's theory on population and its socio-historical context. Special consideration is paid on reasons that lead to desertion of his ideas with a special focus on changes within liberal ideology, that lead to dissociation from classical liberalism and a merging of liberalism with socialism. The first part examines basic principles of Malthus's theory on population - primarily the idea that the population multiply faster than the food supply, and that population, when unchecked, increases in geometrical ratio, while subsistence increases only in arithmetical ratio. Afterwards, this Malthus's idea is linked to the status of the poor, and is concluded that the state intervention is useless, being that the troubles this part of the population faces are a consequence of their own actions. Therefore, the role of the state should not be care for the poor. In the second part positive and preventive checks to population are examined. Preventive checks are further analyzed because Malthus gives them more importance. The third, central part, is dedicated to Malthus's criticism of the Poor Laws and, within it, his opposition to the state's intervention is further analyzed. According to Malthus, laws that are passed in order to improve the status of the poor have an opposite effect. Even though their aim is to decrease poverty, they increase it. Their tendency is to lead to an increase in population, without the simultaneous increase in food

  9. Burst wait time simulation of CALIBAN reactor at delayed super-critical state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, P.; Authier, N.; Richard, B.; Grivot, P.; Casoli, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the past, the super prompt critical wait time probability distribution was measured on CALIBAN fast burst reactor [4]. Afterwards, these experiments were simulated with a very good agreement by solving the non-extinction probability equation [5]. Recently, the burst wait time probability distribution has been measured at CEA-Valduc on CALIBAN at different delayed super-critical states [6]. However, in the delayed super-critical case the non-extinction probability does not give access to the wait time distribution. In this case it is necessary to compute the time dependent evolution of the full neutron count number probability distribution. In this paper we present the point model deterministic method used to calculate the probability distribution of the wait time before a prescribed count level taking into account prompt neutrons and delayed neutron precursors. This method is based on the solution of the time dependent adjoint Kolmogorov master equations for the number of detections using the generating function methodology [8,9,10] and inverse discrete Fourier transforms. The obtained results are then compared to the measurements and Monte-Carlo calculations based on the algorithm presented in [7]. (authors)

  10. Burst wait time simulation of CALIBAN reactor at delayed super-critical state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91297 Arpajon (France); Authier, N.; Richard, B.; Grivot, P.; Casoli, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2012-07-01

    In the past, the super prompt critical wait time probability distribution was measured on CALIBAN fast burst reactor [4]. Afterwards, these experiments were simulated with a very good agreement by solving the non-extinction probability equation [5]. Recently, the burst wait time probability distribution has been measured at CEA-Valduc on CALIBAN at different delayed super-critical states [6]. However, in the delayed super-critical case the non-extinction probability does not give access to the wait time distribution. In this case it is necessary to compute the time dependent evolution of the full neutron count number probability distribution. In this paper we present the point model deterministic method used to calculate the probability distribution of the wait time before a prescribed count level taking into account prompt neutrons and delayed neutron precursors. This method is based on the solution of the time dependent adjoint Kolmogorov master equations for the number of detections using the generating function methodology [8,9,10] and inverse discrete Fourier transforms. The obtained results are then compared to the measurements and Monte-Carlo calculations based on the algorithm presented in [7]. (authors)

  11. Edge states in the climate system: exploring global instabilities and critical transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Bódai, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Multistability is a ubiquitous feature in systems of geophysical relevance and provides key challenges for our ability to predict a system’s response to perturbations. Near critical transitions small causes can lead to large effects and—for all practical purposes—irreversible changes in the properties of the system. As is well known, the Earth climate is multistable: present astronomical and astrophysical conditions support two stable regimes, the warm climate we live in, and a snowball climate characterized by global glaciation. We first provide an overview of methods and ideas relevant for studying the climate response to forcings and focus on the properties of critical transitions in the context of both stochastic and deterministic dynamics, and assess strengths and weaknesses of simplified approaches to the problem. Following an idea developed by Eckhardt and collaborators for the investigation of multistable turbulent fluid dynamical systems, we study the global instability giving rise to the snowball/warm multistability in the climate system by identifying the climatic edge state, a saddle embedded in the boundary between the two basins of attraction of the stable climates. The edge state attracts initial conditions belonging to such a boundary and, while being defined by the deterministic dynamics, is the gate facilitating noise-induced transitions between competing attractors. We use a simplified yet Earth-like intermediate complexity climate model constructed by coupling a primitive equations model of the atmosphere with a simple diffusive ocean. We refer to the climatic edge states as Melancholia states and provide an extensive analysis of their features. We study their dynamics, their symmetry properties, and we follow a complex set of bifurcations. We find situations where the Melancholia state has chaotic dynamics. In these cases, we have that the basin boundary between the two basins of attraction is a strange geometric set with a nearly zero

  12. Successful importation of cytarabine into the United States during a critical national drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnisett-Dritz, Dee

    2012-08-15

    The importation of cytarabine into the United States during a critical national drug shortage is described. In March 2011, the hospital pharmacy team at an acute care hospital was struggling to supply cytarabine for four specific patients, all of whom needed critical maintenance therapy after induction. Cytarabine was not available from any source in the United States, and the team had no realistic projected release dates for back orders. Idis UK, a pharmaceutical distributor, was asked to identify available drug and eventually found an unrestricted source of cytarabine in Switzerland. Once available drug was identified, a price quote for the supply amount was written for our consideration. This was inspected carefully to ensure that the drug, strength, dosage form, and any other ingredients listed were indeed what were expected. The pharmacy department worked with the hospital's department of finance and accounting to submit the necessary financial paperwork. Payment was electronically sent to the distributor before the drug was shipped. Before the order for cytarabine was placed, the associated risks and benefits were assessed. The patients provided consent to treatment with the unapproved product. Acceptance of the price quote and instructions to order the drug were e-mailed to the distributor. The necessary documentation was completed and included with the shipment. The importation process, from initial inquiries to delivery, took 21 days. The importation of cytarabine amid a drug shortage required a complex process that involved the efforts of an overseas distributor, the cooperation of multiple health professionals, and meticulous attention to detail.

  13. Scaled equation of state parameters for gases in the critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengers, J. M. H. L.; Greer, W. L.; Sengers, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    In the light of recent theoretical developments, the paper presents an accurate characterization of anomalous thermodynamic behavior of xenon, helium 4, helium 3, carbon dioxide, steam and oxygen in the critical region. This behavior is associated with long range fluctuations in the system and the physical properties depend primarily on a single variable, namely, the correlation length. A description of the thermodynamic behavior of fluids in terms of scaling laws is formulated, and the two successfully used scaled equations of state (NBS equation and Linear Model parametric equation) are compared. Methods for fitting both equations to experimental equation of state data are developed and formulated, and the optimum fit for each of the two scaled equations of the above gases are presented and the results are compared. By extending the experimental data for the above one-component fluids to partially miscible binary liquids, superfluid liquid helium, ferromagnets and solids exhibiting order-disorder transitions, the principle of universality is concluded. Finally by using this principle, the critical regions for nine additional fluids are described.

  14. 76 FR 68271 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... the Convention and do not run counter to the national economic interest of the United States. I have... United States obligations under the Convention and do not run counter to the national economic interest of the United States. 7. On June 6, 2003, the United States and Chile entered into the United States...

  15. Planned home birth in the United States and professionalism: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Levene, Malcolm I; Brent, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Planned home birth has been considered by some to be consistent with professional responsibility in patient care. This article critically assesses the ethical and scientific justification for this view and shows it to be unjustified. We critically assess recent statements by professional associations of obstetricians, one that sanctions and one that endorses planned home birth. We base our critical appraisal on the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the ethical concept of medicine from the Scottish and English Enlightenments of the 18th century. Our critical assessment supports the following conclusions. Because of its significantly increased, preventable perinatal risks, planned home birth in the United States is not clinically or ethically benign. Attending planned home birth, no matter one's training or experience, is not acting in a professional capacity, because this role preventably results in clinically unnecessary and therefore clinically unacceptable perinatal risk. It is therefore not consistent with the ethical concept of medicine as a profession for any attendant to planned home birth to represent himself or herself as a "professional." Obstetric healthcare associations should neither sanction nor endorse planned home birth. Instead, these associations should recommend against planned home birth. Obstetric healthcare professionals should respond to expressions of interest in planned home birth by pregnant women by informing them that it incurs significantly increased, preventable perinatal risks, by recommending strongly against planned home birth, and by recommending strongly for planned hospital birth. Obstetric healthcare professionals should routinely provide excellent obstetric care to all women transferred to the hospital from a planned home birth.The professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics requires obstetricians to address and remedy legitimate dissatisfaction with some hospital settings and

  16. Modified fluctuation-dissipation theorem for general non-stationary states and application to the Glauber–Ising chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verley, Gatien; Lacoste, David; Chétrite, Raphaël

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general derivation of a modified fluctuation-dissipation theorem (MFDT) valid near an arbitrary non-stationary state for a system obeying Markovian dynamics. We show that the method for deriving modified fluctuation-dissipation theorems near non-equilibrium stationary states used by Prost et al (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 090601) is generalizable to non-stationary states. This result follows from both standard linear response theory and from a transient fluctuation theorem, analogous to the Hatano–Sasa relation. We show that this modified fluctuation-dissipation theorem can be interpreted at the trajectory level using the notion of stochastic trajectory entropy, in a way which is similar to what has been done recently in the case of the MFDT near non-equilibrium steady states (NESS). We illustrate this framework with two solvable examples: the first example corresponds to a Brownian particle in a harmonic trap subjected to a quench of temperature and to a time-dependent stiffness; the second example is a classic model of coarsening systems, namely the 1D Ising model with Glauber dynamics

  17. Powder keg divisions in the critical state regime: transition from continuous to explosive percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zongzheng; Tordesillas, Antoinette

    2017-06-01

    The underlying microstructure and dynamics of a dense granular material as it evolves towards the "critical state", a limit state in which the system deforms with an essentially constant volume and stress ratio, remains widely debated in the micromechanics of granular media community. Strain localization, a common mechanism in the large strain regime, further complicates the characterization of this limit state. Here we revisit the evolution to this limit state within the framework of modern percolation theory. Attention is paid to motion transfer: in this context, percolation translates to the emergence of a large-scale connectivity in graphs that embody information on individual grain displacements. We construct each graph G(r) by connecting nodes, representing the grains, within a distance r in the displacement-state-space. As r increases, we observe a percolation transition on G(r). The size of the jump discontinuity increases in the lead up to failure, indicating that the nature of percolation transition changes from continuous to explosive. We attribute this to the emergence of collective motion, which manifests in increasingly isolated communities in G(r). At the limit state, where the jump discontinuity is highest and invariant across the different unjamming cycles (drops in stress ratio), G(r) encapsulates multiple kinematically distinct communities that are mediated by nodes corresponding to those grains in the shear band. This finding casts light on the dual and opposing roles of the shear band: a mechanism that creates powder keg divisions in the sample, while simultaneously acting as a mechanical link that transfers motion through such subdivisions moving in relative rigid-body motion.

  18. Role of Side-Chain Molecular Features in Tuning Lower Critical Solution Temperatures (LCSTs) of Oligoethylene Glycol Modified Polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharakhanian, Eric G; Deming, Timothy J

    2016-07-07

    A series of thermoresponsive polypeptides has been synthesized using a methodology that allowed facile adjustment of side-chain functional groups. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) properties of these polymers in water were then evaluated relative to systematic molecular modifications in their side-chains. It was found that in addition to the number of ethylene glycol repeats in the side-chains, terminal and linker groups also have substantial and predictable effects on cloud point temperatures (Tcp). In particular, we found that the structure of these polypeptides allowed for inclusion of polar hydroxyl groups, which significantly increased their hydrophilicity and decreased the need to use long oligoethylene glycol repeats to obtain LCSTs. The thioether linkages in these polypeptides were found to provide an additional structural feature for reversible switching of both polypeptide conformation and thermoresponsive properties.

  19. Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack: Critical National Infrastructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, Jr., John S; Gjelde, Earl; Graham, William R; Hermann, Robert J; Kluepfel, Henry M; Lawson, Richard L; Soper, Gordon K; Wood, Lowell L; Woodard, Joan B

    2008-01-01

    ...) attack on our critical national infrastructures. An earlier report, Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP), Volume 1: Executive Report (2004...

  20. Powder keg divisions in the critical state regime: transition from continuous to explosive percolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zongzheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying microstructure and dynamics of a dense granular material as it evolves towards the “critical state”, a limit state in which the system deforms with an essentially constant volume and stress ratio, remains widely debated in the micromechanics of granular media community. Strain localization, a common mechanism in the large strain regime, further complicates the characterization of this limit state. Here we revisit the evolution to this limit state within the framework of modern percolation theory. Attention is paid to motion transfer: in this context, percolation translates to the emergence of a large-scale connectivity in graphs that embody information on individual grain displacements. We construct each graph G(r by connecting nodes, representing the grains, within a distance r in the displacement-state-space. As r increases, we observe a percolation transition on G(r. The size of the jump discontinuity increases in the lead up to failure, indicating that the nature of percolation transition changes from continuous to explosive. We attribute this to the emergence of collective motion, which manifests in increasingly isolated communities in G(r. At the limit state, where the jump discontinuity is highest and invariant across the different unjamming cycles (drops in stress ratio, G(r encapsulates multiple kinematically distinct communities that are mediated by nodes corresponding to those grains in the shear band. This finding casts light on the dual and opposing roles of the shear band: a mechanism that creates powder keg divisions in the sample, while simultaneously acting as a mechanical link that transfers motion through such subdivisions moving in relative rigid-body motion.

  1. Critical evaluation of measured line positions of 14N16O in X2П state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakshina, O. N.; Borkov, Yu. G.

    2018-04-01

    All available line positions for unresolved and resolved Λ-doublets of the 14N16O molecule in the X2 П state were collected from the literature and tested using the RITZ computer code. These data have been critically analysed and used to obtain the most complete set of 1789 experimental energy levels of unresolved Λ-doublets covering the 0-35,866 cm-1 interval. A set of 425 experimental energy levels of resolved Λ-doublets covering the 0-5957 cm-1 interval for two states 2П1/2 and 2П3/2 also have been obtained. These levels together with calculated correlation matrix can be used to generate the precise list of transitions with confidence intervals. Comparisons with the HITRAN as well as with Amiot calculations are discussed. The systematic shift between experimental energy levels of unresolved Λ-doublets and those calculated by Amiot for 2П3/2 state was found. The same systematic shift for transitions frequencies of unresolved Λ-doublets in forbidden subbands 2П1/2↔2П3/2 is also established in the HITRAN database. Comparison of the RITZ energy levels with calculated energy levels by Wong at al. was also done. It was found, that experimental RITZ energy levels for resolved Λ-doublets of 14N16O coincide with those calculated by Wong at al. within experimental uncertainties.

  2. Cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release in the fasted and fed state in elderly healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Krauwinkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The effect of food on the cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release (MR) capsules 0.4 mg in elderly subjects was assessed both after single and multiple dosing. Methods: Thirty-six elderly (age greater than or equal to 60 years) male volunteers were recruited and after a

  3. 75 FR 75695 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 1205-8 (Addendum)] Certain Footwear.... 1205-8, Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... addition of new tariff lines applicable to the subject footwear. DATES: December 22, 2010: Deadline for...

  4. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) in public catering services: a modified method, combined to bacteriologic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P

    1992-01-01

    During 1990 and 1991 the Veterinary and Public Health Services of USL 35 of Ravenna carried out a research programme aimed at the control of food-borne diseases in the sector of public catering services, in collaboration with the Public Health Laboratory (Presidio Multizonale di Prevenzione). The objectives were: obtaining sure information about health hazards in public catering services; checking structural characteristics and equipment of workrooms in restaurants, hotels and refectories; verifying food preparation and preservation methods; promoting health education to increase employees' awareness of hygiene-related problems. The first objective, evaluation of the level of the control of the workrooms exerted on the food contamination hazard by pathogenic or potentially pathogenic organisms, was carried out by allotting specific scores to several characteristics of laboratories or workers' habits, as suggested by the "Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point" (HACCP) method for butcher's shops and fish markets. Five hundred ninety-eight public catering service units have been inspected in restaurants, hotels, school-refectories, factories, hospitals and social houses; 2,097 bacteriological examinations by agar-contact plates and swabs were carried out; 118 preserved-food temperatures were measured, especially in deep-frozen and cooked food; 70 food specimens were tested to search for Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus and measure Total Aerobic Mesophilic Weight. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli was also tested.

  5. Synthesis of methyl esters from relevant palm products in near-critical methanol with modified-zirconia catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosiripojana, N; Kiatkittipong, W; Sutthisripok, W; Assabumrungrat, S

    2010-11-01

    The transesterification and esterification of palm products i.e. crude palm oil (CPO), refined palm oil (RPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) under near-critical methanol in the presence of synthesized SO(4)-ZrO(2), WO(3)-ZrO(2) and TiO(2)-ZrO(2) (with various sulfur- and tungsten loadings, Ti/Zr ratios, and calcination temperatures) were studied. Among them, the reaction of RPO with 20%WO(3)-ZrO(2) (calcined at 800 degrees C) enhanced the highest fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield with greatest stability after several reaction cycles; furthermore, it required shorter time, lower temperature and less amount of methanol compared to the reactions without catalyst. These benefits were related to the high acid-site density and tetragonal phase formation of synthesized WO(3)-ZrO(2). For further improvement, the addition of toluene as co-solvent considerably reduced the requirement of methanol to maximize FAME yield, while the addition of molecular sieve along with catalyst significantly increased FAME yield from PFAD and CPO due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Criticality Analysis of the U-H2O Subcritical Assembly Modified for Rand D of the High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarip; Tri-Wulan-Tjiptono; Tegas-Sutondo

    2000-01-01

    A criticality analysis of the natural uranium - light water sub-criticalassembly available at the P3TM-BATAN Yogyakarta, converted into a naturaluranium - graphite system has been performed. The purpose of this study is toprovide the research facility on the basic static and kinetics studies forthe high temperature reactor (HTR) in which the HTR fuel system is underdevelopment at the P3TM. For the purpose of this study, a neutroniccalculation was performed using WIMSD/4 code, to determine the neutronmultiplication factor for various fuel configurations of the sub-criticalassemblies. The results show that the effective neutron multiplication factor(k ef ) for U-Be-H 2 O and U-Be-He systems are 1.0474 and 1.4666 respectively,while for the graphite moderated systems with coolants of H 2 O or He(U-C-H 2 O and U-C-He) systems, the corresponding k ef are 0.787 and 0.4211respectively. The results conclude that the modification of U-H 2 O toU-C-H 2 O system, in accordance with neutronic is quite feasible, safe, cheapand practical, and in addition, the treatment of H 2 O is relatively easy.(author)

  7. Density of Ni-Al Alloys in Liquid and Solid-Liquid Coexistence State Measured by a Modified Pycnometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Feng XIAO; Zushu LI; Zainan TAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of Ni-Al alloys in both liquid state and solid-liquid coexistence state was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It was found that the density of NI-Al alloys decreases with increasing temperature and Al concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Al binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and Al concentration. The partial molar volume of Al in NI-Al binary alloy was calculated approximately. The molar volume of liquid NI-Al alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear molar volume.

  8. Moderating Influence of Critical Psychological States on Work Engagement and Personal Outcomes in the Telecom Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations want their employees to be engaged with their work, exhibiting proactive behavior, initiative, and responsibility for personal development. Existing literature has a dearth of studies that evaluate all the three key variables that lead to optimal employee performance—critical psychological states (CPSs, work engagement, and personal outcomes. The present study attempts to fill that gap by linking the variable CPSs (which measures experienced meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results with the other two. The study surveyed 359 sales personnel in the Indian telecom industry and adopted standardized, valid, and reliable instruments to measure their work engagement, CPSs, and personal outcomes. Analysis was done using structural equation modeling (SEM. Findings indicated that CPSs significantly moderate the relationship between personal outcomes and work engagement.

  9. Normal-state Nernst effect of a high-critical-temperature superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, S.; Ausloos, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the data of Clayhold et al. for the Nernst effect in the normal state of a high critical superconductor, i.e., Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ . This requested to derive a kinetic expression for the Nernst effect, an expression able to take into account inelastic scattering and magnetic-field dependence. This was done along a relaxation time formalism for the solution of the Boltzmann equation but leaving a background term which can be calculated by the most appropriate method. The final calculation leads to the evaluation of the background term resulting from the thermoelectric field-free effect. In order to do this we have considered a model of Livanov and Sergeev. The Nernst effect is explained by a simple two band model for electrons and holes with different mobilities. The resulting fit to the experimental data looks rather convincing. Several predictions are made thereafter. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Professional Training in Software Engineering: A Critical Need in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Waldrow

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The software is related to almost every aspect of daily life: manufacturing, banking, travel, communications, defense, medicine, research, government, education, entertainment, law ... Is an essential part of military systems and is used in all civilian sectors, including safety and mission critical. Moreover, the complexity of many of these systems has increased exponentially in recent decades and the software has become an essential component for all of them. Unfortunately, the "systems of higher education", in almost all countries have not kept pace with these changes. The current science and engineering programs, both undergraduate and graduate, they need to incorporate more training in Software Engineering. It is especially true in areas such as aerospace engineering, because these systems are highly dependent on computer, information, communications and software. This article presents an analysis of the current situation of the United States in what has to do with software engineering training that receive and require the aerospace engineers.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DISTURBANCE TORQUE INFLUENCE ON CRITICAL STATE IN ROTATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumił CHILIŃSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently most of existing means of transport contains different types of rotational systems. In many cases the dynamics of such rotors substantially can influence exploitation of the whole vehicle. Moreover, in order to minimize mass of the whole object modern construction materials are applied. This causes that the dynamic phenomena may be fundamental of exploitation. The paper presents preliminary analysis of disturbance torque influence on critical state in rotational system. The consideration assumed simple physical object in the form of heavy disk embedded on weightless, elastic shaft. The shaft was supported on two bearings. In particular chapters of paper, path leading from proposition of physical model, by solution of it, to qualitative conclusions about considered object and torque disturbances influence of motion of this system, was presented. In introduction, outline of considered problem and potential opportunities of it, were demonstrated. In the next chapter, physical and mathematical model of the analysed object, was described. Next and also the last but one chapter gives a detailed discussion of mathematical model in the form of nonlinear ordinary differential equations proposed earlier. The first part of the chapter presents the possibility to solve such a problem, then it shows the simplifications which are used. Furthermore, the influence of used simplifications on the shape of analysed problem was demonstrated. Additionally, the possibility of equations solution presented in the paper was discussed. Moreover, the series of interesting properties of analysed system of equations has been shown based on founded approximate solutions. The whole paper was summarized with plans for future work and synthetic conclusions concerning the innovative control method of critical states.

  12. The Influence of State Policies on Critical Infrastructure Resilience: An Approach for Analyzing Transportation and Capital Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, Jessica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gevondyan, Erna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ford, Janet [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marks, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    During times of crisis, communities and regions rely heavily on critical infrastructure systems to support their emergency management response and recovery activities. Therefore, the resilience of critical infrastructure systems to crises is a pivotal factor to a community’s overall resilience. Critical infrastructure resilience can be influenced by many factors, including State policies – which are not always uniform in their structure or application across the United States – were identified by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as an area of particular interest with respect to their the influence on the resilience of critical infrastructure systems. This study focuses on developing an analytical methodology to assess links between policy and resilience, and applies that methodology to critical infrastructure in the Transportation Systems Sector. Specifically, this study seeks to identify potentially influential linkages between State transportation capital funding policies and the resilience of bridges located on roadways that are under the management of public agencies. This study yielded notable methodological outcomes, including the general capability of the analytical methodology to yield – in the case of some States – significant results connecting State policies with critical infrastructure resilience, with the suggestion that further refinement of the methodology may be beneficial.

  13. Assessing Children's Anxiety Using the Modified Short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Talking Mats: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preoperative anxiety complicates treatment and requires assessment by nurses in children. Children, with or without disability, are helped when pictures are used to support communication. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of the modified short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI using a modified Talking Mats method in children undergoing day surgeries. Method. A modified short STAI with pictorial support along the lines of the Talking Mats method was pre- and postoperatively administered to 42 typically developing children aged three to nine years. The parents assessed the children’s anxiety, simultaneously and independently, by scoring the short STAI by proxy. Results. The modified short STAI showed moderate internal consistency and good construct validity in the age group seven to nine years. Conclusions. The results of this study support the use of the instrument for self-reports in children aged seven to nine years. Future research will explore the possibilities of also using this instrument for children with cognitive and communicative difficulties.

  14. Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Model-based Development of Safety-critical Functions and ISO 26262 Work Products using modified EAST-ADL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Sari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train, in future even more by autonomous driving, leads to complexity in designing system, software and safety architecture. ISO 26262 aims to reduce the complexity and to approve the traceability of the different safety activities. This paper presents an approach about model-based development of system, software and safety architecture using Electronics Architecture and Software Technology – Architecture Description Language (EAST-ADL, being in line with the relevant standard ISO 26262. In particular, we briefly discuss how the main safety related activities, such as hazard analysis and risk assessment, developing functional and technical safety concepts and performing safety analysis can be performed model-based and how the activities can be related with system and software development. The state-of-art is also provided and compared with the proposed approach.

  16. The critical role of extreme heat for maize production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B.; Hammer, Graeme L.; McLean, Greg; Messina, Carlos; Roberts, Michael J.; Schlenker, Wolfram

    2013-05-01

    Statistical studies of rainfed maize yields in the United States and elsewhere have indicated two clear features: a strong negative yield response to accumulation of temperatures above 30°C (or extreme degree days (EDD)), and a relatively weak response to seasonal rainfall. Here we show that the process-based Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) is able to reproduce both of these relationships in the Midwestern United States and provide insight into underlying mechanisms. The predominant effects of EDD in APSIM are associated with increased vapour pressure deficit, which contributes to water stress in two ways: by increasing demand for soil water to sustain a given rate of carbon assimilation, and by reducing future supply of soil water by raising transpiration rates. APSIM computes daily water stress as the ratio of water supply to demand, and during the critical month of July this ratio is three times more responsive to 2°C warming than to a 20% precipitation reduction. The results suggest a relatively minor role for direct heat stress on reproductive organs at present temperatures in this region. Effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration efficiency should reduce yield sensitivity to EDD in the coming decades, but at most by 25%.

  17. Cell-State Transitions Regulated by SLUG Are Critical for Tissue Regeneration and Tumor Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations in stem cell activity and differentiation can lead to developmental defects and cancer. We use an approach involving a quantitative model of cell-state transitions in vitro to gain insights into how SLUG/SNAI2, a key developmental transcription factor, modulates mammary epithelial stem cell activity and differentiation in vivo. In the absence of SLUG, stem cells fail to transition into basal progenitor cells, while existing basal progenitor cells undergo luminal differentiation; together, these changes result in abnormal mammary architecture and defects in tissue function. Furthermore, we show that in the absence of SLUG, mammary stem cell activity necessary for tissue regeneration and cancer initiation is lost. Mechanistically, SLUG regulates differentiation and cellular plasticity by recruiting the chromatin modifier lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1 to promoters of lineage-specific genes to repress transcription. Together, these results demonstrate that SLUG plays a dual role in repressing luminal epithelial differentiation while unlocking stem cell transitions necessary for tumorigenesis.

  18. Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming H.; Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by 13C and 31P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced...... by enzyme-assisted catalytic branching with branching enzyme (BE) or combined BE and β-amylase (BB) catalyzed exo-hydrolysis. Carbons of the glycosidic α-1,6 linkages required high hydration rates before adopting uniform chemical shifts indicating solid-state disorder and poor water accessibility...... regions was only observed in NA starch. Moreover phosphorous was observed in a minor pH-insensitive form and as major phosphate in hydrated GEL and BE starches....

  19. Visualizing Angiogenesis by Multiphoton Microscopy In Vivo in Genetically Modified 3D-PLGA/nHAp Scaffold for Calvarial Critical Bone Defect Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jahr, Holger; Zheng, Wei; Ren, Pei-Gen

    2017-09-07

    The reconstruction of critically sized bone defects remains a serious clinical problem because of poor angiogenesis within tissue-engineered scaffolds during repair, which gives rise to a lack of sufficient blood supply and causes necrosis of the new tissues. Rapid vascularization is a vital prerequisite for new tissue survival and integration with existing host tissue. The de novo generation of vasculature in scaffolds is one of the most important steps in making bone regeneration more efficient, allowing repairing tissue to grow into a scaffold. To tackle this problem, the genetic modification of a biomaterial scaffold is used to accelerate angiogenesis and osteogenesis. However, visualizing and tracking in vivo blood vessel formation in real-time and in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds or new bone tissue is still an obstacle for bone tissue engineering. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a novel bio-imaging modality that can acquire volumetric data from biological structures in a high-resolution and minimally-invasive manner. The objective of this study was to visualize angiogenesis with multiphoton microscopy in vivo in a genetically modified 3D-PLGA/nHAp scaffold for calvarial critical bone defect repair. PLGA/nHAp scaffolds were functionalized for the sustained delivery of a growth factor pdgf-b gene carrying lentiviral vectors (LV-pdgfb) in order to facilitate angiogenesis and to enhance bone regeneration. In a scaffold-implanted calvarial critical bone defect mouse model, the blood vessel areas (BVAs) in PHp scaffolds were significantly higher than in PH scaffolds. Additionally, the expression of pdgf-b and angiogenesis-related genes, vWF and VEGFR2, increased correspondingly. MicroCT analysis indicated that the new bone formation in the PHp group dramatically improved compared to the other groups. To our knowledge, this is the first time multiphoton microscopy was used in bone tissue-engineering to investigate angiogenesis in a 3D bio-degradable scaffold in

  20. Critical Vulnerability: Defending the Decisive Point of United States Computer Networked Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Virden, Roy

    2003-01-01

    .... The military's use of computer networked information systems is thus a critical strength. These systems are then critical vulnerabilities because they may lack adequate protection and are open to enemy attack...

  1. Synthesis of CaTiO3:Pr persistent phosphors by a modified solid-state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shengyu; Chen Donghua; Tang Wanjun; Peng Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Using tetra-n-butyl titanate and calcium nitrate as raw materials, the praseodymium-doped calcium titanates have been synthesized via a modified solid-state reaction. The decomposition process of the precursor, crystallization, and particle sizes of CaTiO 3 :Pr have been investigated by using thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TG-DTG curves and X-ray diffraction analysis indicate that crystalline calcium titanate has been synthesized at calcining temperature of 600 deg. C for 2 h. Photoluminescence and decay curves show that the sample obtained at the sintering temperature of 900 deg. C exhibited the optimal luminous property

  2. ac loss and dc critical current densities of Nb3Sn tapes by the solid state diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Klamut, C.; Bussiere, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of metallurgical processing on 60 Hz ac losses and dc critical currents in Nb 3 Sn tapes fabricated by the solid state diffusion technique were investigated. An addition of Al to the Cu--Sn alloy for the matrix resulted in large reduction in the ac losses of Nb 3 Sn tapes, but the highest linear critical current densities were observed in Nb 3 Sn tapes produced with a Nb-1 wt percent Zr core in a Cu-13 wt percent Sn matrix. Values of the losses and the critical currents in these tapes can meet the present requirements for the ac superconducting power cables

  3. Modified Inverse First Order Reliability Method (I-FORM) for Predicting Extreme Sea States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-09-01

    Environmental contours describing extreme sea states are generated as the input for numerical or physical model simulation s as a part of the stand ard current practice for designing marine structure s to survive extreme sea states. Such environmental contours are characterized by combinations of significant wave height ( ) and energy period ( ) values calculated for a given recurrence interval using a set of data based on hindcast simulations or buoy observations over a sufficient period of record. The use of the inverse first - order reliability method (IFORM) i s standard design practice for generating environmental contours. In this paper, the traditional appli cation of the IFORM to generating environmental contours representing extreme sea states is described in detail and its merits and drawbacks are assessed. The application of additional methods for analyzing sea state data including the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data under consideration is proposed. A reexamination of the components of the IFORM application to the problem at hand including the use of new distribution fitting techniques are shown to contribute to the development of more accurate a nd reasonable representations of extreme sea states for use in survivability analysis for marine struc tures. Keywords: In verse FORM, Principal Component Analysis , Environmental Contours, Extreme Sea State Characteri zation, Wave Energy Converters

  4. Solid state characterization and rheological properties of native and modified Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Odeniyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the suitability of native, pregelatinized and carboxymethylated Vigna subterranean (Bambara nut starches for pharmaceutical applications, through their characterization by means of physicochemical, rheological, thermal, morphological and instrumental spectroscopic methods. The native starch was extracted from Bambara nut, after which it was used to prepare both pregelatinized and carboxymethylated forms. Microscopy revealed increased in granular size on modification. Both pregelatinized and carboxymethylated Bambara starches had better flow properties and swellability compared to the native starch. Native Bambara starch had greater tendency to retrogradation, was more sensitive to heat and heat change, these were alleviated by both pregelatinization and carboxymethylation. DSC confirmed that carboxymethylated Bambara starch was the most thermally stable starch. Presence of functional groups and crystallinity were established by FTIR and XRD, respectively. Native and modified Bambara starches can be used as locally and readily available alternative excipients in pharmaceutical formulations.

  5. Anti-Atheist Bias in the United States: Testing Two Critical Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton K Swan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Decades of opinion polling and empirical investigations have clearly demonstrated a pervasive anti-atheist prejudice in the United States. However, much of this scholarship relies on two critical and largely unaddressed assumptions: (a that when people report negative attitudes toward atheists, they do so because they are reacting specifically to their lack of belief in God; and (b that survey questions asking about attitudes toward atheists as a group yield reliable information about biases against individual atheist targets. To test these assumptions, an online survey asked a probability-based random sample of American adults (N = 618 to evaluate a fellow research participant (“Jordan”. Jordan garnered significantly more negative evaluations when identified as an atheist than when described as religious or when religiosity was not mentioned. This effect did not differ as a function of labeling (“atheist” versus “no belief in God”, or the amount of individuating information provided about Jordan. These data suggest that both assumptions are tenable: nonbelief—rather than extraneous connotations of the word “atheist”—seems to underlie the effect, and participants exhibited a marked bias even when confronted with an otherwise attractive individual.

  6. The Resource Hazards Model for the Critical Infrastructure of the State Emergency Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the relevant factors related to the construction of a resource model which is designed to be useful in the management processes of the operation of critical infrastructure (CI for state emergencies. The genesis of the research lay in the perceived need for effective protection of multidimensional CI methodologies, and it was influenced by the nature of the physical characteristics of the available resources. It was necessary to establish a clear structure and well defined objectives and to assess the functional and structural resources required, as well as the potential relational susceptibilities deriving from a number of possible threats and the possible seriousness of a specific range of incidents and their possible consequences. The interdependence of CI stocks is shown by the use of tables of resource classes. The dynamics of the interaction of CI resources are modeled by examining how using clusters of potential risks can at any given time create a class of compounds related to susceptibilities and threats to the resources. As a result, the model can be used to conduct multi-dimensional risk calculations for crisis management CI resource configurations.

  7. 40 CFR 3.1000 - How does a state, tribe, or local government revise or modify its authorized program to allow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? 3.1000 Section 3.1000... government revise or modify its authorized program to allow electronic reporting? (a) A state, tribe, or local government that receives or plans to begin receiving electronic documents in lieu of paper...

  8. Landau-like theory for universality of critical exponents in quasistationary states of isolated mean-field systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shun; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y

    2015-06-01

    An external force dynamically drives an isolated mean-field Hamiltonian system to a long-lasting quasistationary state, whose lifetime increases with population of the system. For second order phase transitions in quasistationary states, two nonclassical critical exponents have been reported individually by using a linear and a nonlinear response theories in a toy model. We provide a simple way to compute the critical exponents all at once, which is an analog of the Landau theory. The present theory extends the universality class of the nonclassical exponents to spatially periodic one-dimensional systems and shows that the exponents satisfy a classical scaling relation inevitably by using a key scaling of momentum.

  9. Critical state and magnetization loss in multifilamentary superconducting wire solved through the commercial finite element code ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinon, S.; Fabbricatore, P.; Gömöry, F.

    2010-11-01

    The commercially available finite element code ANSYS has been adapted to solve the critical state of single strips and multifilamentary tapes. We studied a special algorithm which approaches the critical state by an iterative adjustment of the material resistivity. Then, we proved its validity by comparing the results obtained for a thin strip to the Brand theory for the transport current and magnetization cases. Also, the challenging calculation of the magnetization loss of a real multifilamentary BSCCO tape showed the usefulness of our method. Finally, we developed several methods to enhance the speed of convergence, making the proposed process quite competitive in the existing survey of ac losses simulations.

  10. A Modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of R152a (1,1-difluoroethane)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outcalt, Stephanie L.; McLinden, Mark O.

    1996-03-01

    A modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (MBWR) equation of state has been developed for R152a (1,1-difluoroethane). The correlation is based on a selection of available experimental thermodynamic property data. Single-phase pressure-volume-temperature (PVT), heat capacity, and sound speed data, as well as second virial coefficient, vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and saturated vapor density data, were used with multi-property linear least-squares fitting to determine the 32 adjustable coefficients of the MBWR equation. Ancillary equations representing the vapor pressure, saturated liquid and saturated vapor densities, and the ideal gas heat capacity were determined. Coefficients for the equation of state and the ancillary equations are given. Experimental data used in this work covered temperatures from 162 K to 453 K and pressures to 35 MPa. The MBWR equation established in this work may be used to predict thermodynamic properties of R152a from the triple-point temperature of 154.56 K to 500 K and for pressures up to 60 MPa except in the immediate vicinity of the critical point.

  11. The United States foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program: Proposal to modify the program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS), adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. The policy was slated to expire in May 2009. However, in October 2003, a petition requesting a program extension was delivered to the United States Secretary of Energy from a group of research reactor operators from foreign countries. In April 2004, the Secretary directed DOE undertake an analysis, as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to consider potential extension of the Program. On December 1, 2004, a Federal Register Notice was issued approving the program extension. This paper discusses the findings from the NEPA analysis and the potential changes in the program that may result from implementation of the proposed changes. (author)

  12. Modified method of perturbed stationary states. II. Semiclassical and low-velocity quantal approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    For one-electron heteropolar systems, the wave-theoretic Lagrangian of Paper I 2 is simplified in two distinct approximations. The first is semiclassical; the second is quantal, for velocities below those for which the semiclassical treatment is reliable. For each approximation, unitarity and detailed balancing are discussed. Then, the variational method as described by Demkov is used to determine the coupled equations for the radial functions and the Euler-Lagrange equations for the translational factors which are part of the theory. Specific semiclassical formulae for the translational factors are given in a many-state approximation. Low-velocity quantal formulae are obtained in a one-state approximation. The one-state results of both approximations agree with an earlier determination by Riley. 14 references

  13. Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2013-03-01

    Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The critical state stability in textured Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabialek, A.; Niewczas, M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of parameters such as temperature, density of the critical current j c , sample dimensions and heat exchange conditions on the critical state stability has been studied in thin samples of textured Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (BSCCO) superconductor, in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the wide surface of the samples. The results show that stability of the superconductor against flux jumps increases with decreasing sample thickness. A composite-like sample consisting of two superconducting slabs glued together exhibits critical state stability as a bulk sample of the same thickness while it is less stable against flux jumping than the unit slab. The field of the first flux jump H fj1 decreases with increasing magnetic field sweep rate. For a given temperature there exists a critical sweep rate below which flux jumps vanish. These observations are interpreted in terms of the current distribution in thin superconducting samples characterized by a strong demagnetizing factor. The results are compared with a model developed for samples characterized by negligible demagnetizing effects. The critical state stability in BSCCO has been discussed in terms of the diffusion of heat and of the magnetic flux within the superconductor and the influence of heat exchange on these conditions

  15. FEATURES OF THE STATE REGULATION OF THE PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PRODUCTS IN THE WORLD AND IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Bashuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the regulation of the use, consumption, and trade of genetically modified organisms in different countries of the world, as well as in Ukraine. The definition of international approaches to risk assessment of genetically modified products is of particular importance for international trade. Methodology. The study is based on data from different sources, beginning with the first mention of genetically modified organisms, ending with the latest received data from different countries. Purpose. Show how different countries refer differently to the production of genetically modified products, differently perceive it and are guided by different principles. Find ways to solve the problems associated with the introduction of GMOs in Ukraine and compare them with other countries. Results. The study showed that developed countries have developed clear rules for the production, labelling, consumption, and trade of products containing GMOs. Also, the bodies and structures responsible for compliance with all these rules are defined and a large number of legislative acts has been adopted, which cannot be said of Ukraine. In Ukraine, this is a large gap because “on paper” also seems that there are some rules according to GMOs but they are not clear, consistent, and they are not followed due to their observance, as these powers are entrusted to a large number of structures. Due to imperfect legislation and lack of funds, products that are imported are not tested for GMOs content, there are no studies on the safety of their consumption and cultivation, the reliability of information on labels is not followed. Practical implications. In Ukraine, in order to ensure the proper level of state regulation, protection, and use of genetically modified products obtained with the help of modern biotechnologies, it is necessary to adhere strictly to the fulfilment of the main criteria: 1 adoption and further improvement of

  16. STEADY STATE MODELING OF THE MINIMUM CRITICAL CORE OF THE TRANSIENT REACTOR TEST FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony L. Alberti; Todd S. Palmer; Javier Ortensi; Mark D. DeHart

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of next generation reactor systems and new fuel designs, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has identified the need for the resumption of transient testing of nuclear fuels. The DOE has decided that the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is best suited for future testing. TREAT is a thermal neutron spectrum, air-cooled, nuclear test facility that is designed to test nuclear fuels in transient scenarios. These specific scenarios range from simple temperature transients to full fuel melt accidents. DOE has expressed a desire to develop a simulation capability that will accurately model the experiments before they are irradiated at the facility. It is the aim for this capability to have an emphasis on effective and safe operation while minimizing experimental time and cost. The multi physics platform MOOSE has been selected as the framework for this project. The goals for this work are to identify the fundamental neutronics properties of TREAT and to develop an accurate steady state model for future multiphysics transient simulations. In order to minimize computational cost, the effect of spatial homogenization and angular discretization are investigated. It was found that significant anisotropy is present in TREAT assemblies and to capture this effect, explicit modeling of cooling channels and inter-element gaps is necessary. For this modeling scheme, single element calculations at 293 K gave power distributions with a root mean square difference of 0.076% from those of reference SERPENT calculations. The minimum critical core configuration with identical gap and channel treatment at 293 K resulted in a root mean square, total core, radial power distribution 2.423% different than those of reference SERPENT solutions.

  17. Thin-film superconducting rings in the critical state: the mixed boundary value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Roberto; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we describe the critical state of a thin superconducting ring (and of a perfectly conducting ring as a limiting case) as a mixed boundary value problem. The disc is characterized by a three-part boundary division of the positive real axis, so this work is an extension of the procedure used in a previous work of ours for describing superconducting discs and strips, which are characterized by a two-part boundary division of the real axis. Here, we present the mathematical tools to solve this kind of problems—the Erdélyi-Kober operators—in a frame that can be immediately used. Contrary to the two-part problems considered in our previous work, three-part problems do not generally have analytical solutions and the numerical work takes on a significant heaviness. Nevertheless, this work is remunerated by three clear advantages: firstly, all the cases are afforded in the same way, without the necessity of any brilliant invention or ability; secondly, in the case of superconducting rings, the penetration of the magnetic field in the internal/external rims is a result of the method itself and does not have to be imposed, as it is commonly done with other methods presented in the literature; thirdly, the method can be extended to investigate even more complex cases (four-part problems). In this paper, we consider the cases of rings in uniform field and with transport current, with or without flux trapping in the hole and the case without net current, corresponding to a cut ring (washer), as used in some SQUID applications.

  18. The effects of three absorption-modifying critical excipients on the in vivo intestinal absorption of six model compounds in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Dahlgren; Carl, Roos; Pernilla, Johansson; Christer, Tannergren; Anders, Lundqvist; Peter, Langguth; Markus, Sjöblom; Erik, Sjögren; Hans, Lennernäs

    2018-05-11

    Pharmaceutical excipients that may affect gastrointestinal (GI) drug absorption are called critical pharmaceutical excipients (CPEs), or absorption-modifying excipients (AMEs) if they act by altering the integrity of the intestinal epithelial cell membrane. Some of these excipients increase intestinal permeability, and subsequently the absorption and bioavailability of the drug. This could have implications for both the assessment of bioequivalence and the efficacy of the absorption-enhancing drug delivery system. The absorption-enhancing effects of AMEs/CPEs with different mechanisms (chitosan, sodium caprate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) have previously been evaluated in the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model. However, it remains unclear whether these SPIP data are predictive in a more in vivo like model. The same excipients were in this study evaluated in rat and dog intraintestinal bolus models. SDS and chitosan did exert an absorption-enhancing effect in both bolus models, but the effect was substantially lower than those observed in the rat SPIP model. This illustrates the complexity of the AME/CPE effects, and indicates that additional GI physiological factors need to be considered in their evaluation. We therefore recommend that AME/CPE evaluations obtained in transit-independent, preclinical permeability models (e.g. Ussing, SPIP) should be verified in animal models better able to predict in vivo relevant GI effects, at multiple excipient concentrations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Pathological Corporate Governance Deficiencies in South Africa's State-Owned Companies: A Critical Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, states use state-owned companies (SOCs or public corporations to provide public goods, limit private and foreign control of the domestic economy, generate public funds for the fiscus, increase service delivery and encourage economic development and industrialisation. Particularly given its unique socio-political and economic dynamics, a country such as South Africa clearly needs this type of strategic enterprise. Yet, that does not mean that everything at our SOCs is as it should be. The beleaguered South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC has recently seen the resignation of board members, shareholder interference in its operational affairs, and a high turnover of chief accounting officers and other executive management members. Due to non-performance, it has also received several cash injections from its shareholder to enable it to continue to deliver its services. In addition, the shareholder minister took it upon herself to amend the SABC's memorandum of incorporation, conferring upon herself the authority to appoint, suspend or even dismiss key executive members. South African Airways (SAA, in turn, has had seven CEOs in less than four years, has had to be bailed out at a cost of R550 million, and has in addition been granted a R5 billion guarantee by the shareholder for a restructuring exercise. Other SOCs such as Eskom, the Post Office and Telkom have also experienced high board and executive management turnover, perennial underperformance necessitating regular bailouts, and challenges regarding the division of power between their boards and the various shareholder ministers. Another issue that seems to plague South Africa's SOCs is the appointment of board members and executive officials with questionable qualifications. By critically examining the corporate governance challenges besetting the SABC, SAA and Eskom in particular, this article seeks to explore the root causes of the corporate governance deficiencies of SOCs

  20. Estimates of critical acid loads and exceedances for forest soils across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty; Erika C. Cohen; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Timothy J. Sullivan; Harbin Li

    2007-01-01

    Concern regarding the impacts of continued nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ecosystem health has prompted the development of critical acid load assessments for forest soils. A critical acid load is a quantitative estimate of exposure to one or more pollutants at or above which harmful acidification-related effects on sensitive elements of the environment occur. A...

  1. Flickering gives early warning signals of a critical transition to a eutrophic lake state : Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, R.; Dearing, J.; Langdon, P.G.; Zhang, E.; Yang, X.; Dakos, V.; Scheffer, M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a recognized need to anticipate tipping points, or critical transitions, in social–ecological systems1, 2. Studies of mathematical3, 4, 5 and experimental6, 7, 8, 9 systems have shown that systems may ‘wobble’ before a critical transition. Such early warning signals10 may be due to the

  2. Power, Meaning, and Identity: Critical Sociology of Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the main theories, developments, and literature of critically-oriented sociology. Pays particular attention to the politics of meaning including critical discourse analysis, identity politics, racial formation, and political economy and the labor process. Concludes with a discussion of the tensions between postmodern and…

  3. What's My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What constitutes an effective Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) protection program for Massachusetts This study evaluates existing literature regarding CIKR to extrapolate an infrastructure protection role for Massachusetts. By reviewing historical events and government strategies regarding infrastructure protection, Chapters I and II will provide scope and context for issues surrounding critical infrastructure. Chapter ...

  4. A study on the criticality search of transuranium recycling BWR core by adjusting supplied fuel composition in equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    There have been some difficulties in carrying out an extensive evaluation of the equilibrium state of Light Water Reactor (LWR) recycling operations keeping their fixed criticality condition using conventional design codes because of the complexity of their calculation model for practical fuel and core design and because of a large amount of calculation time. This study presents an efficient approach to secure the criticality in an equilibrium cycle by adjusting a supplied fuel composition. The criticality search is performed by the use of fuel importance obtained from the equation adjoint to a continuously fuel supplied core burnup equation. Using this method, some numerical analyses were carried out in order to evaluate the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel composition of equilibrium Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) cores satisfying the criticality requirement. The results showed the comprehensive and quantitative characteristics on the equilibrium cores confining transuraniums for different MOX fuel loading fractions and irradiating conditions

  5. A study on the criticality search of transuranium recycling BWR core by adjusting supplied fuel composition in equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    There have been some difficulties in carrying out an extensive evaluation of the equilibrium state of Light Water Reactor (LWR) recycling operations keeping their fixed criticality condition using conventional design codes, because of the complexity of their calculational model for practical fuel and core design and because of a large amount of calculation time. This study presents an efficient approach to secure the criticality in an equilibrium cycle by adjusting a supplied fuel composition. The criticality search is performed by the use of fuel importance obtained from the equilibrium adjoint to a continuously fuel supplied core burnup equation. Using this method, some numerical analyses were carried out in order to evaluate the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel composition of equilibrium Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) cores satisfying the criticality requirement. The results showed the comprehensive and quantitative characteristics on the equilibrium cores confining transuranium for different MOX fuel loading fractions and irradiating conditions. (author)

  6. A state-of-the-art report on two-phase critical flow modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Joon; Jang, Won Pyo; Kim, Dong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    This report reviews and analyses two-phase, critical flow models. The purposes of the report are (1) to make a knowledge base for the full understanding and best-estimate of two-phase, critical flow, (2) to analyse the model development trend and to derive the direction of further studies. A wide range of critical flow models are reviewed. Each model, in general, predicts critical flow well only within specified conditions. The critical flow models of best-estimate codes are special process model included in the hydrodynamic model. The results of calculations depend on the nodalization, discharge coefficient, and other user`s options. The following topics are recommended for continuing studies: improvement of two-fluid model, development of multidimensional model, data base setup and model error evaluation, and generalization of discharge coefficients. 24 figs., 5 tabs., 80 refs. (Author).

  7. A state-of-the-art report on two-phase critical flow modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Joon; Jang, Won Pyo; Kim, Dong Soo

    1993-09-01

    This report reviews and analyses two-phase, critical flow models. The purposes of the report are (1) to make a knowledge base for the full understanding and best-estimate of two-phase, critical flow, (2) to analyse the model development trend and to derive the direction of further studies. A wide range of critical flow models are reviewed. Each model, in general, predicts critical flow well only within specified conditions. The critical flow models of best-estimate codes are special process model included in the hydrodynamic model. The results of calculations depend on the nodalization, discharge coefficient, and other user's options. The following topics are recommended for continuing studies: improvement of two-fluid model, development of multidimensional model, data base setup and model error evaluation, and generalization of discharge coefficients. 24 figs., 5 tabs., 80 refs. (Author)

  8. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Hamaie

    Full Text Available Expressed emotion (EE, especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients', and caregivers' variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP. The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years. We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers' depression, and patients' symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers' and patients' mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient's specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient's general symptoms.

  9. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  10. /SIGMA PHI/-tocopherol: modifier of the phase state of the lipid bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrypin, V.I.; Bratkcovskaya, L.B.; Erin, A.N.; Kagan, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper determines the action of low (near-physiological) concentrations of alpha-tocopherol on the character of the gel-liquid crystal transition in a lipid bilayer containing free fatty acids. Fifty mM of K + -phosphate buffer was made up in D 2 O and kept for several hours to enable substitution of H 1 by D 2, after which the buffer was dried and redissolved in D 2 O. The graphs of temperature dependence of relative signal intensity of protons of methylene groups in liposomes of different composition are presented. It is shown that the stabilizing action of alpha-tocopherol on the phase state of the lipid bilayer of membranes is one of the mechanisms by which the recently demonstrated ability of alpha-tocopherol to protect biological membranes against the injurious action of free fatty acids, through the formation of complexes of alpha-tocopherol with fatty acides, may be effected

  11. Critical current, pinning and resistive state of superconducting single-crystal niobium with different types of defect structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolenko, V.I.; Starodubov, Ya.D.

    2005-01-01

    Critical current pinning and resistive state of single crystal niobium of texture orientation are studied for different structural states obtained by rolling at 20 K by 42% and polishing the surface layers. It is found that the heterogeneous structures typical of the strained sample even after its thinning down to approx 10% display a lower current-carrying capability due to an increase of the thermomagnetic instability within the fragmented structure sections in the near-surface layers. For a homogeneous defect structure of the sample core with the density of equilibrium distributed dislocations of 1.3 centre dot 10 11 cm -2 , a correlation between the normal current density and the critical current density in the resistive state is found, in agreement with the concepts of flux creep due to the scatter of local values of J c

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and solid-state NMR investigation of organically modified bentonites and their composites with LDPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsacchi, Silvia; Sudhakaran, Umayal; Geppi, Marco; Ricci, Lucia; Liuzzo, Vincenzo; Ruggeri, Giacomo

    2013-07-23

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites show remarkably improved properties (mechanical properties, as well as decreased gas permeability and flammability, etc.) with respect to their microscale counterparts and pristine polymers. Due to the substantially apolar character of most of the organic polymers, natural occurring hydrophilic clays are modified into organophilic clays with consequent increase of the polymer/clay compatibility. Different strategies have been developed for the preparation of nanocomposites with improved properties, especially aimed at achieving the best dispersion of clay platelets in the polymer matrix. In this paper we present the preparation and characterization of polymer/clay nanocomposites composed of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and natural clay, montmorillonite-containing bentonite. Two different forms of the clay have been considered: the first, a commercial organophilic bentonite (Nanofil 15), obtained by exchanging the natural cations with dimethyldioctadecylammonium (2C18) cations, and the second, obtained by performing a grafting reaction of an alkoxysilane containing a polymerizable group, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TSPM), onto Nanofil 15. Both the clays and LDPE/clay nanocomposites were characterized by thermal, FT-IR, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The samples were also investigated by means of (29)Si, (13)C, and (1)H solid-state NMR, obtaining information on the structural properties of the modified clays. Moreover, by exploiting the effect of bentonite paramagnetic (Fe(3+)) ions on proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1's), useful information about the extent of the polymer-clay dispersion and their interfacial interactions could be obtained.

  13. Some remarks concerning the equation of state near a critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The thermodynamical scaling hypothesis is referred to in terms of SLsub(2,R) representations. The Josephson-Schofield proposal to avoid non-analyticity on the critical isotherm is shown to conflict with the Lebowitz-Penrose theorem in the one-phase region. One proposes to uniformize the critical region using e.g. Beltrami's equations and derives from the implicit function theorem a simple relation between the exponents (β, delta)

  14. Perceived barriers to the regionalization of adult critical care in the United States: a qualitative preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenfeld Gordon D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regionalization of adult critical care services may improve outcomes for critically ill patients. We sought to develop a framework for understanding clinician attitudes toward regionalization and potential barriers to developing a tiered, regionalized system of care in the United States. Methods We performed a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of critical care stakeholders in the United States, including physicians, nurses and hospital administrators. Stakeholders were identified from a stratified-random sample of United States general medical and surgical hospitals. Key barriers and potential solutions were identified by performing content analysis of the interview transcriptions. Results We interviewed 30 stakeholders from 24 different hospitals, representing a broad range of hospital locations and sizes. Key barriers to regionalization included personal and economic strain on families, loss of autonomy on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, loss of revenue on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, the potential to worsen outcomes at small hospitals by limiting services, and the potential to overwhelm large hospitals. Improving communication between destination and source hospitals, provider education, instituting voluntary objective criteria to become a designated referral center, and mechanisms to feed back patients and revenue to source hospitals were identified as potential solutions to some of these barriers. Conclusion Regionalization efforts will be met with significant conceptual and structural barriers. These data provide a foundation for future research and can be used to inform policy decisions regarding the design and implementation of a regionalized system of critical care.

  15. A chemically modified [alpha]-amylase with a molten-globule state has entropically driven enhanced thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail; Poljak, Anne; De Francisci, Davide; Guerriero, Gea; Pilak, Oliver; Burg, Dominic; Raftery, Mark J.; Parkin, Don M.; Trewhella, Jill; Cavicchioli, Ricardo (Sydney); (New South)

    2010-11-15

    The thermostability properties of TAA were investigated by chemically modifying carboxyl groups on the surface of the enzyme with AMEs. The TAA{sub MOD} exhibited a 200% improvement in starch-hydrolyzing productivity at 60 C. By studying the kinetic, thermodynamic and biophysical properties, we found that TAA{sub MOD} had formed a thermostable, MG state, in which the unfolding of the tertiary structure preceded that of the secondary structure by at least 20 C. The X-ray crystal structure of TAA{sub MOD} revealed no new permanent interactions (electrostatic or other) resulting from the modification. By deriving thermodynamic activation parameters of TAA{sub MOD}, we rationalised that thermostabilisation have been caused by a decrease in the entropy of the transition state, rather than being enthalpically driven. Far-UV CD shows that the origin of decreased entropy may have arisen from a higher helical content of TAA{sub MOD}. This study provides new insight into the intriguing properties of an MG state resulting from the chemical modification of TAA.

  16. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is More Predictive of Memory Abilities Than the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these 2 cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (ie, delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after 1 year. Both the MMSE and the mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r's of .41 and .62, respectively) and at 1 year (r's of .36 and .50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R (2) = .45, P similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Crystallizing Vanadium Pentoxide Nanostructures in the Solid-State Using Modified Block Copolymer and Chitosan Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the synthesis of V2O5 nanostructured materials using macromolecular PS-co-4-PVP·(VCl3y and chitosan·(VCl3y complexes is presented. It is demonstrated that various coordination degrees of the metal into the polymeric chain specifically influence the product formation after pyrolysis. PS-co-4-PVP·(VCl3y and chitosan·(VCl3y complexes were prepared by simple coordination reaction of VCl3 with the respective polymer in molar ratios 1 : 1, 1 : 5, and 1 : 10 metal/polymer and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and TGA/DSC analysis. Solid-state thermolysis of these precursors at several temperatures under air results in nanostructured V2O5 using all precursors. The size and shape of the nanostructured V2O5 depend on the nature of the polymer. For the chitosan·(VCl3y precursors sub-10 nm nanocrystals are formed. The calcination process, involved in the preparation method, produces V2O5 with photoluminescence in the visible light region, suggesting the possible application in oxygen sensing devices.

  18. Anomalous enhancement of the lower critical field deep in the superconducting state of LaRu4As12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraszek, J.; Bochenek, Ł.; Wawryk, R.; Henkie, Z.; Konczykowski, M.; Cichorek, T.

    2018-05-01

    LaRu4As12 with the critical temperature Tc = 10.4 K displays several features which point at a non-singlet superconducting order parameter, although the bcc crystal structure of the filled skutterudites does not favour the emergence of multiple energy gaps. LaRu4As12 displays an unexpected enhancement of the lower critical field deep in superconducting state which can be attributed to the existence of two superconducting gaps. At T = 0.4 K, the local magnetization measurements were performed utilizing miniaturized Hall sensors.

  19. State Response to Contemporary Urban Movements in Turkey : A Critical Overview of State Entrepreneurialism and Authoritarian Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eraydin, A.; Tasa-Kok, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper grapples with the state's response to contemporary urban movements. In light of recent debates on the changing nature of urban movements, it presents an overview of the responses of states in different modes of regulation, ranging from a Keynesian regime to sequential stages of

  20. Prandial states modify the reactivity of the gustatory cortex using gustatory evoked potentials in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eJACQUIN-PIQUES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies evaluated the role of satiety on cortical taste area activity and highlighted decreased activation in the orbito-frontal cortex when food was eaten until satiation. The modulation of orbito-frontal neurons (secondary taste area by ad libitum food intake has been associated with the pleasantness of the food’s flavor. The insula and frontal operculum (primary taste area are also involved in reward processing. The aim was to compare human gustatory evoked potentials (GEP recorded in the primary and secondary gustatory cortices in a fasted state with those after food intake. Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in this observational study. In each of two sessions, two GEP recordings were performed (at 11:00 am and 1:30 pm in response to sucrose gustatory stimulation, and a sucrose-gustatory threshold was determined. During one session, a standard lunch was provided between the two GEP recordings. During the other session, subjects had nothing to eat. Hunger sensation, wanting, liking and the perception of the solution’s intensity were evaluated with visual analogue scales. GEP latencies measured in the Pz (p<0.001, Cz (p<0.01, Fz (p<0.001 recordings (primary taste area were longer after lunch than in the pre-prandial condition. Fp1 and Fp2 latencies (secondary taste area tended to be longer after lunch, but the difference was not significant. No difference was observed for the sucrose-gustatory threshold regardless of the session and time. Modifications in the primary taste area activity during the post-prandial period occurred regardless of the nature of the food eaten and could represent the activity of the frontal operculum and insula, which was recently shown to be modulated by gut signals (GLP-1, CCK, ghrelin, or insulin through vagal afferent neurons or metabolic changes of the internal milieu after nutrient absorption. This trial was registered at clinicalstrials.gov as NCT

  1. Association of US State Implementation of Newborn Screening Policies for Critical Congenital Heart Disease With Early Infant Cardiac Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouk, Rahi; Grosse, Scott D; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Oster, Matthew E

    2017-12-05

    In 2011, critical congenital heart disease was added to the US Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns, but whether state implementation of screening policies has been associated with infant death rates is unknown. To assess whether there was an association between implementation of state newborn screening policies for critical congenital heart disease and infant death rates. Observational study with group-level analyses. A difference-in-differences analysis was conducted using the National Center for Health Statistics' period linked birth/infant death data set files for 2007-2013 for 26 546 503 US births through June 30, 2013, aggregated by month and state of birth. State policies were classified as mandatory or nonmandatory (including voluntary policies and mandates that were not yet implemented). As of June 1, 2013, 8 states had implemented mandatory screening policies, 5 states had voluntary screening policies, and 9 states had adopted but not yet implemented mandates. Numbers of early infant deaths (between 24 hours and 6 months of age) coded for critical congenital heart disease or other/unspecified congenital cardiac causes for each state-month birth cohort. Between 2007 and 2013, there were 2734 deaths due to critical congenital heart disease and 3967 deaths due to other/unspecified causes. Critical congenital heart disease death rates in states with mandatory screening policies were 8.0 (95% CI, 5.4-10.6) per 100 000 births (n = 37) in 2007 and 6.4 (95% CI, 2.9-9.9) per 100 000 births (n = 13) in 2013 (for births by the end of July); for other/unspecified cardiac causes, death rates were 11.7 (95% CI, 8.6-14.8) per 100 000 births in 2007 (n = 54) and 10.3 (95% CI, 5.9-14.8) per 100 000 births (n = 21) in 2013. Early infant deaths from critical congenital heart disease through December 31, 2013, decreased by 33.4% (95% CI, 10.6%-50.3%), with an absolute decline of 3.9 (95% CI, 3.6-4.1) deaths per 100 000 births after

  2. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Onsite and Electric Backup Capabilities at Critical Infrastructure Facilities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Julia A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallace, Kelly E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kudo, Terence Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The following analysis, conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Risk and Infrastructure Science Center (RISC), details an analysis of electric power backup of national critical infrastructure as captured through the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Program (ECIP) Initiative. Between January 1, 2011, and September 2014, 3,174 ECIP facility surveys have been conducted. This study focused first on backup capabilities by infrastructure type and then expanded to infrastructure type by census region.

  4. Effect of mixing state on criticality safety evaluation in MOX powder and additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Criticality safety analyses are discussed in which MOX powder and additive (e.g. zinc-stearate) are mixed in a powder treatment process of MOX fuel fabrication. The multiplication factor k eff is largely affected by how they are mixed, i.e., how the density and volume change with the mixing. In general, k eff increases when MOX powder is mixed with zinc-stearate. However, plutonium content and density of MOX powder make a difference in the k eff 's changes. Especially, MOX powder with a higher plutonium content and a higher density is not always unsafe in terms of criticality if it is mixed with zinc-stearate. (author)

  5. What’s My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Marsh Commission. The GMU research program was developed with Congressional funding, the results of which have produced numerous research papers ...acknowledging that not all attacks or accidents can be prevented, turn to criticality as a crutch —pouring more and more resources into all

  6. The English in Public Elementary Schools Program of a Mexican State: A Critical, Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales Escudero, Moises Damian; Reyes Cruz, Maria del Rosario; Loyo, Griselda Murrieta

    2012-01-01

    The quality of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) instruction in elementary schools worldwide is an issue of concern for language policy and planning (LPP) scholars, as are examinations of power and ideologies operating in policy creation and implementation. This critical, exploratory study blends these two strands of inquiry by examining…

  7. Critical tunnel currents and dissipation of Quantum-Hall bilayers in the excitonic condensate state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y; Huang, X; Yarar, E; Dietsche, W; Tiemann, L; Schmult, S; Klitzing, K v

    2011-01-01

    Transport and tunneling is studied in the regime of the excitonic condensate at total filling factor one using the counterflow geometry. At small currents the coupling between the layers is large making the two layers virtually electrically inseparable. Above a critical current the tunneling becomes negligible. An onset of dissipation in the longitudinal transport is observed in the same current range.

  8. Analytical realization of finite-size scaling for Anderson localization. Does the band of critical states exist for d > 2?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I. M.

    2006-01-01

    An analytical realization is suggested for the finite-size scaling algorithm based on the consideration of auxiliary quasi-1D systems. Comparison of the obtained analytical results with the results of numerical calculations indicates that the Anderson transition point splits into the band of critical states. This conclusion is supported by direct numerical evidence (Edwards, Thouless, 1972; Last, Thouless, 1974; Schreiber, 1985). The possibility of restoring the conventional picture still exists but requires a radical reinterpretation of the raw numerical data

  9. Theory of Correlated Pairs of Electrons Oscillating in Resonant Quantum States to Reach the Critical Temperature in a Metal

    OpenAIRE

    Aroche, Raúl Riera; Rosas-Cabrera, Rodrigo Arturo; Burgos, Rodrigo Arturo Rosas; Betancourt-Riera, René; Betancourt-Riera, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The formation of Correlated Electron Pairs Oscillating around the Fermi level in Resonant Quantum States (CEPO-RQS), when a metal is cooled to its critical temperature T=Tc, is studied. The necessary conditions for the existence of CEPO-RQS are analyzed. The participation of electron-electron interaction screened by an electron dielectric constant of the form proposed by Thomas Fermi is considered and a physical meaning for the electron-phonon-electron interaction in the formation of the CEPO...

  10. Principals' Management of Conflicts in Public Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Critical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examined principals' management of conflicts in public secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a descriptive survey, the study population comprised all the 281 public secondary schools in the State. Out of this population, a sample of 80 schools was drawn while 340 respondents (80 principals and 260 teachers) were selected through…

  11. Study of near-critical states of liquid-vapor phase transition of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelyanov, A N; Shakhray, D V; Golyshev, A A

    2015-01-01

    Study of thermodynamic parameters of magnesium in the near-critical point region of the liquid-vapor phase transition and in the region of metal-nonmetal transition was carried out. Measurements of the electrical resistance of magnesium after shock compression and expansion into gas (helium) environment in the process of isobaric heating was carried out. Heating of the magnesium surface by heat transfer with hot helium was performed. The registered electrical resistance of expanded magnesium was about 10 4 -10 5 times lower than the electrical resistance of the magnesium under normal condition at the density less than the density of the critical point. Thus, metal-nonmetal transition was found in magnesium. (paper)

  12. Mobile Learning Projects - a critical analysis of the state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Frohberg, D; Göth, C; Schwabe, G

    2009-01-01

    A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This paper provides a critical analysis of Mobile Learning projects published before the end of 2007. The review uses a Mobile Learning framework to evaluate and categorize 102 Mobile Learning projects, and to briefly introduce exemplary projects for each category. All projects were analysed with the criteria: context, tools, control, communication, subject and objective. Although a significant number of projects hav...

  13. State of reaction on news media for JCO criticality accident on abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    The criticality accident, which occurred in JCO Tokai on September 30th 1999, was the first accident accompanied with serious radiation exposure to persons at Japanese nuclear facilities. As an evacuation order for local residents was issued, it caused uneasiness to the public. It also gave great impact to the foreign countries. In this report we have investigated the reactions in such countries, as U.S., France, Germany and U.K. by means of news media like TV, newspapers and magazines. Finding are as follows: They were all surprised to know the cause of the accident, which was by improper procedure of JCO workers. Because they couldn't imagine that such an accident might happen in such a high-tech country as Japan. The Japanese regulator was criticized for their insufficient criticality facility surveillance. There arose some questions for Japanese nuclear reliabilities. Because of the delayed announcement of the accident by Japanese public sector, anti-nuclear groups, like Greenpeace, NCI, etc., have a chance to carry on their campaign. The information from Japanese public sector was not enough to satisfy the foreign news media. We concluded that it is also necessary to develop effective information dissemination to overseas in case of a nuclear accident. (author)

  14. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CRITICAL STATE OF THIN-WALLED STRUCTURE WITH Z-PROFILE CROSS SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Różyło

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was the thin-walled profile with Z-shaped cross section made of the carbon-epoxy composite. Material model was prepared based on the implemented orthotropic properties. The purpose of study was to determine the value of the critical load at which buckling occurs, the form of buckling and operating characteristics in critical condition. In order to achieve this numerical analysis were carried out. Additionally, the effects of the modification in arrangement of layers of the laminate to the stability and strength of thin-walled composite structures was presented. Numerical studies were carried out using commercial simulation software - ABAQUS®. Within the FEM research, both forms of buckling and the associated critical load, dependent on the configuration the layers of the composite were achieved. Analysis of the obtained results, allowed the evaluation of the structure's work in relation to the level of energy consumption or rigidity estimation. In the paper only numerical simulations of the critical state were conducted.

  15. Critical gravitational collapse with angular momentum. II. Soft equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Carsten; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2018-03-01

    We study critical phenomena in the collapse of rotating ultrarelativistic perfect fluids, in which the pressure P is related to the total energy density ρ by P =κ ρ , where κ is a constant. We generalize earlier results for radiation fluids with κ =1 /3 to other values of κ , focusing on κ power-law scalings of the black-hole mass. We do see systematic effects in the black-hole angular momentum, but it is not clear yet if these are due to the predicted nontrivial scaling functions, or to nonlinear effects at sufficiently large initial angular momentum (which we do not account for in our theoretical model).

  16. Social Inclusion Through Para sport: A Critical Reflection on the Current State of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Swartz, Leslie

    2018-05-01

    Medicine has played an integral role in both the inception and development of the Paralympic Games. Sports physicians are well positioned to continue to influence the development of the paralympic movement and to help focus the movement on its agenda to promote social inclusion. This article looks critically at some of the key challenges that the paralympic movement faces in its quest to promote social inclusion, and considers the role of sports medicine in this process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulation of macrophage activation state protects tissue from necrosis during critical limb ischemia in thrombospondin-1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bréchot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages, key regulators of healing/regeneration processes, strongly infiltrate ischemic tissues from patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI. However pro-inflammatory markers correlate with disease progression and risk of amputation, suggesting that modulating macrophage activation state might be beneficial. We previously reported that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 is highly expressed in ischemic tissues during CLI in humans. TSP-1 is a matricellular protein that displays well-known angiostatic properties in cancer, and regulates inflammation in vivo and macrophages properties in vitro. We therefore sought to investigate its function in a mouse model of CLI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a genetic model of tsp-1(-/- mice subjected to femoral artery excision, we report that tsp-1(-/- mice were clinically and histologically protected from necrosis compared to controls. Tissue protection was associated with increased postischemic angiogenesis and muscle regeneration. We next showed that macrophages present in ischemic tissues exhibited distinct phenotypes in tsp-1(-/- and wt mice. A strong reduction of necrotic myofibers phagocytosis was observed in tsp-1(-/- mice. We next demonstrated that phagocytosis of muscle cell debris is a potent pro-inflammatory signal for macrophages in vitro. Consistently with these findings, macrophages that infiltrated ischemic tissues exhibited a reduced postischemic pro-inflammatory activation state in tsp-1(-/- mice, characterized by a reduced Ly-6C expression and a less pro-inflammatory cytokine expression profile. Finally, we showed that monocyte depletion reversed clinical and histological protection from necrosis observed in tsp-1(-/- mice, thereby demonstrating that macrophages mediated tissue protection in these mice. CONCLUSION: This study defines targeting postischemic macrophage activation state as a new potential therapeutic approach to protect tissues from necrosis and promote tissue

  18. Public-Private Partnerships: Critical to Combatting the Next Pandemic Influenza in the State of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................1 Significance of the Study...Health Organization 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In September of 1918, Soldiers at an army base near Boston suddenly began to die. Doctors found...sector Emergency Mangement professionals to know how to capture costs associated with these events, whether training or actual emergency. State officials

  19. Critical state flow rules for CFD simulations of wet granular flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarze, R.; Gladkyy, A.; Luding, Stefan; E. Onate M. Bischoff, E. Ramm; P. Wriggers,

    2013-01-01

    First rheological investigation results of weakly wet granular media are presented. The materials have been examined experimentally and numerically in well- defined shear configurations in steady state, in the intermediate flow regime. For the experiments, a Searl-type ring shear cell with rotating

  20. A Critical Approach to Discipline of Human Geography as an Apparatus for State Hegemony in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Nurettin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the hegemony of political power on the discipline of human geography in Turkey. Throughout the history of the country, human geography curricula have been aligned with the nationalist and hegemonic power politics of state authorities instead of being guided by universal norms, thus ignoring Turkey's sociopolitical and cultural…

  1. Critical Postcolonial Dance Pedagogy: The Relevance of West African Dance Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Banks, Ojeya

    2010-01-01

    This dance ethnography examines work conducted by the Dambe Project--a nonprofit organization that specializes in African performing arts education and mentorship. The study focuses on the implications of the organization's dance pedagogy in light of its postcolonial context and the importance of West African dance education in the United States.…

  2. Viewing brain processes as Critical State Transitions across levels of organization: Neural events in Cognition and Consciousness, and general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated.

  3. The effect of strongly anisotropic scattering on the critical size of a slab in one-speed neutron transport theory: Modified UN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The criticality problem for one-speed neutrons in homogeneous slab is investigated. • A combination of forward–backward and linear anisotropy is used. • The effect of the strongly anisotropic scattering on the critical size is analyzed. - Abstract: The criticality problem for one-speed neutrons in a uniform finite slab is studied in the case of a combination of forward and backward scattering with linearly anisotropic scattering using U N method based on the Chebyshev polynomials of second kind. The effect of the linear anisotropy on the critical thickness of the slab is investigated. The critical slab thicknesses are calculated by using Marshak boundary condition for various values of the anisotropy parameters and they are presented in the tables. In comparison to the results obtained by other methods, the results of this study are in compatible with the former ones

  4. Structure, process, and annual ICU mortality across 69 centers: United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkley, William; Martin, Greg S; Brown, Samuel M; Chang, Steven Y; Dabbagh, Ousama; Fremont, Richard D; Girard, Timothy D; Rice, Todd W; Howell, Michael D; Johnson, Steven B; O'Brien, James; Park, Pauline K; Pastores, Stephen M; Patil, Namrata T; Pietropaoli, Anthony P; Putman, Maryann; Rotello, Leo; Siner, Jonathan; Sajid, Sahul; Murphy, David J; Sevransky, Jonathan E

    2014-02-01

    Hospital-level variations in structure and process may affect clinical outcomes in ICUs. We sought to characterize the organizational structure, processes of care, use of protocols, and standardized outcomes in a large sample of U.S. ICUs. We surveyed 69 ICUs about organization, size, volume, staffing, processes of care, use of protocols, and annual ICU mortality. ICUs participating in the United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study. Sixty-nine intensivists completed the survey. We characterized structure and process variables across ICUs, investigated relationships between these variables and annual ICU mortality, and adjusted for illness severity using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II. Ninety-four ICU directors were invited to participate in the study and 69 ICUs (73%) were enrolled, of which 25 (36%) were medical, 24 (35%) were surgical, and 20 (29%) were of mixed type, and 64 (93%) were located in teaching hospitals with a median number of five trainees per ICU. Average annual ICU mortality was 10.8%, average Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 19.3, 58% were closed units, and 41% had a 24-hour in-house intensivist. In multivariable linear regression adjusted for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and multiple ICU structure and process factors, annual ICU mortality was lower in surgical ICUs than in medical ICUs (5.6% lower [95% CI, 2.4-8.8%]) or mixed ICUs (4.5% lower [95% CI, 0.4-8.7%]). We also found a lower annual ICU mortality among ICUs that had a daily plan of care review (5.8% lower [95% CI, 1.6-10.0%]) and a lower bed-to-nurse ratio (1.8% lower when the ratio decreased from 2:1 to 1.5:1 [95% CI, 0.25-3.4%]). In contrast, 24-hour intensivist coverage (p = 0.89) and closed ICU status (p = 0.16) were not associated with a lower annual ICU mortality. In a sample of 69 ICUs, a daily plan of care review and a lower bed-to-nurse ratio were both associated with a

  5. Effect of dynamic mixing of collectivized and localized states on the critical temperature of super conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, E.V.; Ovchinnikov, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    A model of d(f) metals with localized levels immersed in the conduction is considered. When the transition energy Ω between the configurations dsup(n+1) and dsup(n) is close to the Fermi energy μ, the metal becomes unstable with respect to formation of bound states between the conduction electrons and d(f) ions. As a result, a gap 2Δsub(m) appears in the conduction band, and the density of states at the edge of the gap is much greater than the initial density. Consequently, Cooper pairing under such conditions may result in superconductivity with a high transition temprature Tsub(s). The conditions on the electron spectrum parameters are obtained and the region of interaction constants lambdasub(m) and lambdasub(s) is found for which the gap ΔSUb(m) and the superconducting gap Δsub(s) can exist simultaneously

  6. Technology Certification for Critical Infrastructure Protection: Current procedures in EU and EEA States

    OpenAIRE

    LEWIS Adam

    2014-01-01

    Within Europe, there is a very high level of knowledge and experience in product and facility certification necessary or useful for CIP. The European Union New Legislative Framework has helped to drive the development of the sector, because of the important role given to “notified bodies”: organisations selected by the Member States to carry out assessments of conformity with harmonized standards. There are many highly-competent certification bodies, including some world-leaders, and accredit...

  7. Critical study of type II supernovae: equations of state and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The relevance of relativistic gravitation and of the properties of nuclear matter at high density to supernova explosions is examined in detail. The existing empirical knowledge on the nuclear equation of state at densities greater than saturation, extracted from analysis of heavy ion collisions and from the breathing mode in heavy nuclei, is also considered. Particulars of the prompt explosions recently obtained theoretically by Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana are presented. 40 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  8. The Pandemic Pendulum: A Critical Analysis of Federal and State Preparedness for a Pandemic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    of employee illness and absenteeism , coupled with the closely meshed and interdependent systems of trade and commerce.18 WHO also proclaimed it...outbreak of Ebola, a naturally occurring pathogen with no known cure .20 The manifestation of Pandemic Influenza in Indonesia and Ebola in Congo are but...event of significant and sustained absenteeism ? (Transportation) Does the state anticipate need for supplementation of local government

  9. Critical study of type II supernovae: equations of state and general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The relevance of relativistic gravitation and of the properties of nuclear matter at high density to supernova explosions is examined in detail. The existing empirical knowledge on the nuclear equation of state at densities greater than saturation, extracted from analysis of heavy ion collisions and from the breathing mode in heavy nuclei, is also considered. Particulars of the prompt explosions recently obtained theoretically by Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana are presented. 40 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Access to healthcare for undocumented migrants in France: a critical examination of State Medical Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Jean-Marie; Azzedine, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    In France in 2012, of the total population of 65.2 million, 8.7 % were migrants. After being the third principal host country, France is now the 6th highest host country in the OECD. Since the 1980's numerous Acts have been passed by parliament on immigration issues. In 2000 the Universal Health Cover (Couverture Maladie Universelle) was created as health coverage for all residents of France. At the same time the State Medical Assistance (Aide Médicale de l'Etat) was created as health protection for undocumented migrants. Since the creation of this scheme, it has been the object of many political debates which call it into question, on account of its cost, perceived fraud, and the legitimacy of a social protection for undocumented migrants. Recently, access to State Medical Assistance has been made difficult by introducing conditions of residence and financial contributions. After a reports' analysis on institutional, associative, research studies and European recommendations, we note that all reports converge on the necessity of health protection for undocumented migrants. The major reasons are humanitarian, respect of European and International conventions, for public health, and financial. Moreover, fraud allegations have proved to be unfounded. Finally, State Medical Assistance is underused: in 2014 data from Médecins du Monde shows that only 10.2 % of undocumented migrant patients in their health facilities have access to this scheme. We conclude that the political debate concerning the State Medical Assistance should be about its under-utilisation, its improvement, its merger with the Universal Health Cover, and not its elimination. Moreover, the current debates regarding this scheme stigmatize this population, which is already precarious, making it more difficult for migrants to access healthcare, and generally, weaken national social cohesion.

  11. Particle acceleration in solar active regions being in the state of self-organized criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Loukas

    We review the recent observational results on flare initiation and particle acceleration in solar active regions. Elaborating a statistical approach to describe the spatiotemporally intermittent electric field structures formed inside a flaring solar active region, we investigate the efficiency of such structures in accelerating charged particles (electrons and protons). The large-scale magnetic configuration in the solar atmosphere responds to the strong turbulent flows that convey perturbations across the active region by initiating avalanche-type processes. The resulting unstable structures correspond to small-scale dissipation regions hosting strong electric fields. Previous research on particle acceleration in strongly turbulent plasmas provides a general framework for addressing such a problem. This framework combines various electromagnetic field configurations obtained by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) or cellular automata (CA) simulations, or by employing a statistical description of the field’s strength and configuration with test particle simulations. We work on data-driven 3D magnetic field extrapolations, based on a self-organized criticality models (SOC). A relativistic test-particle simulation traces each particle’s guiding center within these configurations. Using the simulated particle-energy distributions we test our results against observations, in the framework of the collisional thick target model (CTTM) of solar hard X-ray (HXR) emission and compare our results with the current observations.

  12. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  13. Critical Care Medicine and Infectious Diseases: An Emerging Combined Subspecialty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Sameer S; Rhee, Chanu; Fortna, Gregory S; O'Grady, Naomi P

    2015-08-15

    The recent rise in unfilled training positions among infectious diseases (ID) fellowship programs nationwide indicates that ID is declining as a career choice among internal medicine residency graduates. Supplementing ID training with training in critical care medicine (CCM) might be a way to regenerate interest in the specialty. Hands-on patient care and higher salaries are obvious attractions. High infection prevalence and antibiotic resistance in intensive care units, expanding immunosuppressed host populations, and public health crises such as the recent Ebola outbreak underscore the potential synergy of CCM-ID training. Most intensivists receive training in pulmonary medicine and only 1% of current board-certified intensivists are trained in ID. While still small, this cohort of CCM-ID certified physicians has continued to rise over the last 2 decades. ID and CCM program leadership nationwide must recognize these trends and the merits of the CCM-ID combination to facilitate creation of formal dual-training opportunities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Instability of the critical state in NdBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblischka, M.R.; Murakami, M.; Koishikawa, S.

    1999-01-01

    Instabilities of the critical state are observed in various NdBa2Cu3O7-delta single crystals by means of direct magneto-optic (MO) imaging while warming up flux states containing vortices of opposite polarity. Using the same samples as in the MO investigations, we observe for the first time......, and also in the orientations H-a parallel to c and H-a perpendicular to c. As a result, we find turbulence not only in a narrow window of temperatures (65 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 80 K), but also in a window of applied negative fields ranging between 30 and 80 mT....

  15. Mapping of parent hamiltonians from abelian and non-abelian quantum hall states to exact models of critical spin chains

    CERN Document Server

    Greiter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This monograph introduces an exact model for a critical spin chain with arbitrary spin S, which includes the Haldane--Shastry model as the special case S=1/2.  While spinons in the Haldane-Shastry model obey abelian half-fermi statistics, the spinons in the general model introduced here obey non-abelian statistics.  This manifests itself through topological choices for the fractional momentum spacings.  The general model is derived by mapping exact models of quantized Hall states onto spin chains.  The book begins with pedagogical review of all the relevant models including the non-abelian statistics in the Pfaffian Hall state, and is understandable to every student with a graduate course in quantum mechanics.

  16. Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior Close to a Quantum Critical Point in a Ferromagnetic State without Local Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Svanidze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantum critical point (QCP occurs upon chemical doping of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Sc_{3.1}In. Remarkable for a system with no local moments, the QCP is accompanied by non-Fermi liquid behavior, manifested in the logarithmic divergence of the specific heat both in the ferro-and the paramagnetic states, as well as linear temperature dependence of the low-temperature resistivity. With doping, critical scaling is observed close to the QCP, as the critical exponents δ, γ, and β have weak composition dependence, with δ nearly twice and β almost half of their respective mean-field values. The unusually large paramagnetic moment μ_{PM}∼1.3μ_{B}/F.U. is nearly composition independent. Evidence for strong spin fluctuations, accompanying the QCP at x_{c}=0.035±0.005, may be ascribed to the reduced dimensionality of Sc_{3.1}In, associated with the nearly one-dimensional Sc-In chains.

  17. Critical Success for Kelantinies Constraction Operate Outside Kelantan State in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnaser Omran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysia construction industry has been experiencing boom and bust conditions in the past few decades. For example, the construction industry suffered three business cycle downturns in 1976-1978, 1984-1988 and 1997-1999. Furthermore in 1998 the industry contracted sharply by 23 percent and finally moderated to a further contraction of 5.6% percent in 1999. However, the industry has shown a small growth of 1 percent in 2000. With the higher public and private investment especially in infrastructure projects, education, health, and social infrastructure, the construction industry is expected to have grown bye 5 percent in year 2001 and forecasted to grow by 4.3 percent in 2002. With the expected growth in the industry, this will enhance the number of contracting firm in the industry. The contracting firm, which is also known as the ‘builder’, is defined as a supplier of services whose scope of work and engagement is determined by the requirements of the client (user of services formalized in the form of a contract document. The client engages a contractor through a tendering process, to construct and to complete the project in accordance with certain design, specification and period of completion at an agreed price. Despite the Malaysian Economics growth, Kelantan still lags behind because of political reason. Governed by an avowedly Islamic party, party selslam Malaysia (PAS, the past has been unable to attract vital foreign direct investment. This has led to poor project development in the state compared to other states in Malaysia. In order to succeed, Kelantanies contractor are driven to get jobs outside Kalantan. The most popular state is Selangor to the intense development demand.

  18. Regulation profiles of e-cigarettes in the United States: a critical review with qualitative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Pluye, Pierre; Gore, Genevieve; Granikov, Vera; Filion, Kristian B; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2015-06-03

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been steadily increasing in popularity since their introduction to US markets in 2007. Debates surrounding the proper regulatory mechanisms needed to mitigate potential harms associated with their use have focused on youth access, their potential for nicotine addiction, and the renormalization of a smoking culture. The objective of this study was to describe the enacted and planned regulations addressing this novel public health concern in the US. We searched LexisNexis Academic under Federal Regulations and Registers, as well as State Administrative Codes and Registers. This same database was also used to find information about planned regulations in secondary sources. The search was restricted to US documents produced between January 1(st), 2004, and July 14(th), 2014. We found two planned regulations at the federal level, and 74 enacted and planned regulations in 44 states. We identified six state-based regulation types, including i) access, ii) usage, iii) marketing and advertisement, iv) packaging, v) taxation, and vi) licensure. These were further classified into 10 restriction subtypes: sales, sale to minors, use in indoor public places, use in limited venues, use by minors, licensure, marketing and advertising, packaging, and taxation. Most enacted restrictions aimed primarily to limit youth access, while few regulations enforced comprehensive restrictions on product use and availability. Current regulations targeting e-cigarettes in the US are varied in nature and scope. There is greater consensus surrounding youth protection (access by minors and/or use by minors, and/or use in limited venues), with little consensus on multi-level regulations, including comprehensive use bans in public spaces.

  19. Magnetic state controllable critical temperature in epitaxial Ho/Nb bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Gu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the magnetic properties of Ho thin films with different crystallinity (either epitaxial or non-epitaxial and investigate their proximity effects with Nb thin films. Magnetic measurements show that epitaxial Ho has large anisotropy in two different crystal directions in contrast to non-epitaxial Ho. Transport measurements show that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc of Nb thin films can be significantly suppressed at zero field by epitaxial Ho compared with non-epitaxial Ho. We also demonstrate a direct control over Tc by changing the magnetic states of the epitaxial Ho layer, and attribute the strong proximity effects to exchange interaction.

  20. A critical examination of developments in nursing doctoral education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaké Ketefian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Graduate nursing education in the United States is undergoing major transformations, as a result of factors both within nursing and in the larger society.OBJECTIVE: In this paper the authors examine the trends and factors that are influencing the changes, especially in doctoral education, for both nurse scientist and advanced practice preparation.CONCLUSION: The paper provides a background that serves as context, it gives an overview of the PhD and the DNP degrees, focusing on the recent changes and identifying the most compelling issues and concerns, ending with a series of recommendations.

  1. Chaotic state to self-organized critical state transition of serrated flow dynamics during brittle-to-ductile transition in metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y., E-mail: hybai@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, B. A. [Centre for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2016-02-07

    We study serrated flow dynamics during brittle-to-ductile transition induced by tuning the sample aspect ratio in a Zr-based metallic glass. The statistical analysis reveals that the serrated flow dynamics transforms from a chaotic state characterized by Gaussian-distribution serrations corresponding to stick-slip motion of randomly generated and uncorrelated single shear band and brittle behavior, into a self-organized critical state featured by intermittent scale-free distribution of shear avalanches corresponding to a collective motion of multiple shear bands and ductile behavior. The correlation found between serrated flow dynamics and plastic deformation might shed light on the plastic deformation dynamic and mechanism in metallic glasses.

  2. A critical assessment of theoretical methods for finding reaction pathways and transition states of surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimes, JirI; Michaelides, Angelos; Bowler, David R

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a variety of techniques for locating transition states on potential energy surfaces is evaluated within the density functional theory framework. Diffusion of a water molecule across NaCl(001) and HCl bond breaking on the same surface are treated as general test cases; the former is an example of a low barrier diffusion process and the latter an example of a relatively high barrier covalent bond rupture event. The methods considered include the nudged elastic band (NEB), Dewar, Healy and Stewart (DHS), dimer, constrained optimization (CO), activation-relaxation technique (ART) and one-side growing string (OGS) as well as novel combinations of the DHS with growing string (DHS + GS) and DHS plus climbing image (CI-DHS). A key conclusion to come from this study is that the NEB method is relatively fast, especially when just a single (climbing) image is used. Indeed, using more images represents an unnecessary computational burden for our set of processes. The dimer method exhibits variable performance; being poor for the water diffusion processes, which have small activation energies, but much more efficient for the HCl bond breaking process which has a higher barrier. When only a poor initial guess of the transition state geometry is available, the CI-DHS scheme is one of the most efficient techniques considered. And as a means to quickly establish an approximate minimum energy pathway the DHS + GS scheme offers some potential.

  3. Critically ill children during the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Adrienne G; Vaughn, Frances; Sullivan, Ryan; Rubinson, Lewis; Thompson, B Taylor; Yoon, Grace; Smoot, Elizabeth; Rice, Todd W; Loftis, Laura L; Helfaer, Mark; Doctor, Allan; Paden, Matthew; Flori, Heidi; Babbitt, Christopher; Graciano, Ana Lia; Gedeit, Rainer; Sanders, Ronald C; Giuliano, John S; Zimmerman, Jerry; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2011-12-01

    The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) virus continues to circulate worldwide. Determining the roles of chronic conditions and bacterial coinfection in mortality is difficult because of the limited data for children with pH1N1-related critical illness. We identified children (<21 years old) with confirmed or probable pH1N1 admitted to 35 US PICUs from April 15, 2009, through April 15, 2010. We collected data on demographics, baseline health, laboratory results, treatments, and outcomes. Of 838 children with pH1N1 admitted to a PICU, the median age was 6 years, 58% were male, 70% had ≥1 chronic health condition, and 88.2% received oseltamivir (5.8% started before PICU admission). Most patients had respiratory failure with 564 (67.3%) receiving mechanical ventilation; 162 (19.3%) received vasopressors, and 75 (8.9%) died. Overall, 71 (8.5%) of the patients had a presumed diagnosis of early (within 72 hours after PICU admission) Staphylococcus aureus coinfection of the lung with 48% methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). In multivariable analyses, preexisting neurologic conditions or immunosuppression, encephalitis (1.7% of cases), myocarditis (1.4% of cases), early presumed MRSA lung coinfection, and female gender were mortality risk factors. Among 251 previously healthy children, only early presumed MRSA coinfection of the lung (relative risk: 8 [95% confidence interval: 3.1-20.6]; P < .0001) remained a mortality risk factor. Children with preexisting neurologic conditions and immune compromise were at increased risk of pH1N1-associated death after PICU admission. Secondary complications of pH1N1, including myocarditis, encephalitis, and clinical diagnosis of early presumed MRSA coinfection of the lung, were mortality risk factors.

  4. Critically Ill Children During the 2009–2010 Influenza Pandemic in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Frances; Sullivan, Ryan; Rubinson, Lewis; Thompson, B. Taylor; Yoon, Grace; Smoot, Elizabeth; Rice, Todd W.; Loftis, Laura L.; Helfaer, Mark; Doctor, Allan; Paden, Matthew; Flori, Heidi; Babbitt, Christopher; Graciano, Ana Lia; Gedeit, Rainer; Sanders, Ronald C.; Giuliano, John S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Uyeki, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) virus continues to circulate worldwide. Determining the roles of chronic conditions and bacterial coinfection in mortality is difficult because of the limited data for children with pH1N1-related critical illness. METHODS: We identified children (<21 years old) with confirmed or probable pH1N1 admitted to 35 US PICUs from April 15, 2009, through April 15, 2010. We collected data on demographics, baseline health, laboratory results, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 838 children with pH1N1 admitted to a PICU, the median age was 6 years, 58% were male, 70% had ≥1 chronic health condition, and 88.2% received oseltamivir (5.8% started before PICU admission). Most patients had respiratory failure with 564 (67.3%) receiving mechanical ventilation; 162 (19.3%) received vasopressors, and 75 (8.9%) died. Overall, 71 (8.5%) of the patients had a presumed diagnosis of early (within 72 hours after PICU admission) Staphylococcus aureus coinfection of the lung with 48% methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). In multivariable analyses, preexisting neurologic conditions or immunosuppression, encephalitis (1.7% of cases), myocarditis (1.4% of cases), early presumed MRSA lung coinfection, and female gender were mortality risk factors. Among 251 previously healthy children, only early presumed MRSA coinfection of the lung (relative risk: 8 [95% confidence interval: 3.1–20.6]; P < .0001) remained a mortality risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: Children with preexisting neurologic conditions and immune compromise were at increased risk of pH1N1-associated death after PICU admission. Secondary complications of pH1N1, including myocarditis, encephalitis, and clinical diagnosis of early presumed MRSA coinfection of the lung, were mortality risk factors. PMID:22065262

  5. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. This paper, presents example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. This approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. Presents the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO 2 , SO 2 , and O 3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. It is concluded that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. Pollutant data depicted in this analysis are limited to locationally specific data, and would be enhanced by utilizing spatial statistics, along with converging associated anthropogenic and climatological factors. Values used for critical levels were derived from current scientific knowledge. While not intended to be a definitive value, adjustments will occur as the scientific community gains new insight to pollutant/receptor relationships. We recommend future analysis to include a refinement of sensitive receptor data coverages and to report relative proportions of exceedances at varying grid scales. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. [Impact of quality improvement process upon the state of nutritional support in a critical care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, A; Ferraresi, E; Orsati, M; Palaoro, A; Chaparro, J; Alcántara, S; Amin, C; Feller, C; Di Leo, M E; Guillot, A; García, V

    2012-01-01

    In a preceding article the state of Nutritional support (NS) in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) was documented [Martinuzzi A et al. Estado del soporte nutricional en una unidad de Cuidados críticos. RNC 2011; 20: 5-17]. In this follow-up work we set to assess the impact of several organizational, recording and educational interventions upon the current state of NS processes. Interventions comprised presentation of the results of the audit conducted at the ICU before the institution's medical as well as paramedical personnel; their publication in a periodical, peer-reviewed journal; drafting and implementation of a protocol regulating NS schemes to be carried out at the ICU; and conduction of continuous education activities on Nutrition (such as "experts talks", interactive courses, and training in the implementation of the NS protocol). The state of NS processes documented after the interventions was compared with the results annotated in the preceding article. Study observation window ran between March the 1st, 2011 and May 31th, 2011, both included. Study series differed only regarding overall-mortality: Phase 1: 40.0% vs. Phase 2: 20.5%; Difference: 19.5%; Z = 1.927; two-tailed-p = 0.054. Interventions resulted in a higher fulfillment rate of the prescribed NS indication; an increase in the number of patients receiving ≥ 80% of prescribed energy; and a reduction in the number of NS lost days. Mortality was (numerically) lower in patients in which the prescribed NS scheme was fulfilled, NS was early initiated, and whom received ≥ 80% of prescribed energy. Adopted interventions had no effect upon average energy intakes: Phase 1: 574.7 ± 395.3 kcal/24 h⁻¹ vs. Phase 2: 591.1 ± 315.3 kcal/24 h⁻¹; two-tailed-p > 0.05. Educational, recording and organizational interventions might result in a better conduction of NS processes, and thus, in a lower mortality. Hemodynamic instability is still the most formidable obstacle for initiating and completing NS.

  7. Steady state characteristics of an adjustable hybrid gas bearing – Computational fluid dynamics, modified Reynolds equation and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    To include the effect of external pressurization in hybrid gas bearings an extra term is added to Reynolds Equation to accommodate the gas jet. Two cases are considered: cylindrical and annular flow profiles. Validation of theoretical results obtained using the modified version of Reynolds equation....... By introducing such coefficients into the modified Reynolds equation, good agreement with experiments is achieved in terms of journal equilibrium position and resulting aerodynamic forces....

  8. Automatic liquid handling for life science: a critical review of the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanwei; Yuan, Liang; Zheng, Yuan F; Chen, Weidong

    2012-06-01

    Liquid handling plays a pivotal role in life science laboratories. In experiments such as gene sequencing, protein crystallization, antibody testing, and drug screening, liquid biosamples frequently must be transferred between containers of varying sizes and/or dispensed onto substrates of varying types. The sample volumes are usually small, at the micro- or nanoliter level, and the number of transferred samples can be huge when investigating large-scope combinatorial conditions. Under these conditions, liquid handling by hand is tedious, time-consuming, and impractical. Consequently, there is a strong demand for automated liquid-handling methods such as sensor-integrated robotic systems. In this article, we survey the current state of the art in automatic liquid handling, including technologies developed by both industry and research institutions. We focus on methods for dealing with small volumes at high throughput and point out challenges for future advancements.

  9. Characterization of modified clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosad, J.; Jandl, J.; Woollins, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of clinoptilolite were modified using insoluble hexacyanoferrate from aqueous solution. The modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR and vibrational spectroscopy. The sorption properties of modified clinoptilolite were studied, too. Higher affinity for 137 Cs sorption in comparison with the natural clinoptilolite has been proved. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Manipulation of BDNF signaling modifies the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomal, Renata; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael M; Panizzutti, Rogerio

    2013-01-01

    Sensory experience powerfully shapes cortical sensory representations during an early developmental "critical period" of plasticity. In the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), the experience-dependent plasticity is exemplified by significant, long-lasting distortions in frequency representation after mere exposure to repetitive frequencies during the second week of life. In the visual system, the normal unfolding of critical period plasticity is strongly dependent on the elaboration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the establishment of inhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF signaling plays a role in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. Elvax resin implants filled with either a blocking antibody against BDNF or the BDNF protein were placed on the A1 of rat pups throughout the critical period window. These pups were then exposed to 7 kHz pure tone for 7 consecutive days and their frequency representations were mapped. BDNF blockade completely prevented the shaping of cortical tuning by experience and resulted in poor overall frequency tuning in A1. By contrast, BDNF infusion on the developing A1 amplified the effect of 7 kHz tone exposure compared to control. These results indicate that BDNF signaling participates in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in A1.

  11. Manipulation of BDNF signaling modifies the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Anomal

    Full Text Available Sensory experience powerfully shapes cortical sensory representations during an early developmental "critical period" of plasticity. In the rat primary auditory cortex (A1, the experience-dependent plasticity is exemplified by significant, long-lasting distortions in frequency representation after mere exposure to repetitive frequencies during the second week of life. In the visual system, the normal unfolding of critical period plasticity is strongly dependent on the elaboration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which promotes the establishment of inhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF signaling plays a role in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. Elvax resin implants filled with either a blocking antibody against BDNF or the BDNF protein were placed on the A1 of rat pups throughout the critical period window. These pups were then exposed to 7 kHz pure tone for 7 consecutive days and their frequency representations were mapped. BDNF blockade completely prevented the shaping of cortical tuning by experience and resulted in poor overall frequency tuning in A1. By contrast, BDNF infusion on the developing A1 amplified the effect of 7 kHz tone exposure compared to control. These results indicate that BDNF signaling participates in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in A1.

  12. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart Kößler

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  13. Mutual Recognition of Financial Penalties between the EU Member States. Critical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana Rusu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the special Romanian law, one of the forms of judicial assistance in criminal matters recognized in the relations between the EU member states is, among others, the one referringto the cooperation in applying the principle of mutual recognition of financial penalties. The European normative act that establishes the general cooperation norms in this matter is the Council’sDecision Frame 2005/214/JAI on February 24, 2005 on the application of the principle of mutual recognition of financial penalties. This European normative act has been transposed in the internallegislation through Law no.302/2004, according to the international judicial cooperation in criminal matters, with the subsequent amendments and completions, the latter being represented by Lawno.222/2008. The amendments and completions instituted by the abovementioned normative act establish the procedure of transmitting the decision, the procedures for recognition and execution ofsuch a decision by the competent Romanian judicial authorities, the grounds of non recognition and non execution, the definition of used terms, as well as other aspects referring to the recognition andexecution of such decisions. Commenting refers to a number of provisions in the law under both European and domestic in the special law, comments aimed in particular the replacement of terms ofrecognition or non-performance reasons, the procedure of identification of persons convicted when they are evade the enforcement of financial obligations and failure to transpose into national law of subsequent changes to European law.

  14. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart Kößler; Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press...

  15. A GIS Inventory of Critical Coastal Infrastructure Land Use in Caribbean Island Small Island Developing States: Classification and Criteria Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aversa, N.; Becker, A.; Bove, G.

    2017-12-01

    Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face significant natural hazard risks, as demonstrated by recent Hurricanes Jose, Irma, and Maria. Scientists project storms to become more intense and sea level rise to increase over the next century. As a result, the Inter-American Development Bank projections suggest that Caribbean nations could face climate-related losses in excess of $22 billion annually by 2050. Critical infrastructure that supports island economies, such as airports, seaports, cruise ports, and energy facilities, are typically located in the coastal zone with high exposure to natural hazards. Despite the increasing danger from climate driven natural hazards in coastal zones in the region, there is very little data available to identify how much land and associated infrastructure is at risk. This work focuses on the criteria and data standards developed for this new region-wide GIS database, which will then be used to formulate a risk assessment. Results will be integrated into a single, comprehensive source for data of lands identified as critical coastal infrastructure and used to address such questions as: How much of the Caribbean SIDS infrastructure lands are at risk from sea level rise? How might demand for such lands change in the future, based on historical trends? Answers to these questions will help decision makers understand how to prioritize resilience investment decisions in the coming decades.

  16. Conway's Game of Life is a near-critical metastable state in the multiverse of cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reia, Sandro M; Kinouchi, Osame

    2014-05-01

    Conway's cellular automaton Game of Life has been conjectured to be a critical (or quasicritical) dynamical system. This criticality is generally seen as a continuous order-disorder transition in cellular automata (CA) rule space. Life's mean-field return map predicts an absorbing vacuum phase (ρ = 0) and an active phase density, with ρ = 0.37, which contrasts with Life's absorbing states in a square lattice, which have a stationary density of ρ(2D) ≈ 0.03. Here, we study and classify mean-field maps for 6144 outer-totalistic CA and compare them with the corresponding behavior found in the square lattice. We show that the single-site mean-field approach gives qualitative (and even quantitative) predictions for most of them. The transition region in rule space seems to correspond to a nonequilibrium discontinuous absorbing phase transition instead of a continuous order-disorder one. We claim that Life is a quasicritical nucleation process where vacuum phase domains invade the alive phase. Therefore, Life is not at the "border of chaos," but thrives on the "border of extinction."

  17. Upper critical field and vortices in S/F bilayers exhibiting the quasi-onedimensional FFLO-like state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, Daniel; Hemmida, Mamoun; Kehrle, Jan; Zdravkov, Vladimir I.; Ullrich, Aladin; Obermeier, Guenther; Mueller, Claus; Loidl, Alois; Krug von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Morari, Roman [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Sidorenko, Anatolie S. [D. Ghitsu Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies ASM, Kishinev (Moldova, Republic of); Tagirov, Lenar [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Solid State Physics Department, Kazan Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of the upper critical field, B{sub c2}, in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) bilayers as a function of the F-layer thickness, d{sub F}, by resistance measurements. We extracted GL coherence lengths and estimated an effective thickness of the superconducting layer by evaluating the perpendicular coherence length at the 3D-2D crossover temperature in the parallel B{sub c2}. We found an unexpected non-monotonous behavior of the effective thickness as a function of d{sub F}. Moreover, we investigated the anisotropy of B{sub c2} by microwave absorption. The results show a deviation from Tinkham's prediction for thin films, which we attribute to the additional anisotropy induced by the quasi-1D FFLO-like state. Thus, we propose a new type of vortex, developing in the S/F bilayer in magnetic fields applied close to parallel.

  18. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods: Data on school vending machine access and student diet we...

  19. Individual stem value recovery of modified and conventional tree-length systems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda H. Lang; Shawn A. Baker; W. Dale Greene; Glen E. Murphy

    2010-01-01

    We compared value recovery of a modified treelength (MTL) logging system that measures product diameter and length using a Waratah 626 harvester head to that of a treelength (TL) system that estimates dimensions. A field test compared the actual value cut to the maximum potential value suggested by the log bucking optimization program Assessment of Value by Individual...

  20. Use of days of the week in a modified mini-mental state exam (M-MMSE) for detecting geriatric cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Irene; Hafiz, Razia; Cummings, Doyle M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with the standard MMSE and the Mini-Cog in patients ≥65 years old, stratified by education and literacy level. This cross-sectional exploratory study enrolled a convenience sample of 219 patients with a complaint of memory loss or a diagnosis of dementia from a geriatric outpatient clinic, nursing home, senior center, and university hospital. The MMSE was administered, and in addition to spelling and serial 7s backward, patients were asked to recite the days of the week backward with the intent to reduce educational bias. Scores on the modified MMSE were compared with scores of the MMSE and the Mini-Cog. Of the 219 patients, 157 were identified with cognitive impairment by the Mini-Cog. Using a cutoff of ≤23, the MMSE identified 118 patients and the modified MMSE identified 91 patients with cognitive impairment, and with a cutoff of ≤27 the MMSE identified 168 and the modified MMSE 149 patients. All cognitively intact subjects correctly recited the days of the week backward. Specificity of the modified MMSE was higher than the MMSE for most groups. The highest sensitivity and specificity (94% and 88%, respectively) as well as positive and negative predictive values (96% and 81%, respectively) were in patients with low levels of education for the modified MMSE using a cut off of ≤27. Using the days of the week in the MMSE among illiterate and semiliterate participants and with education less than high school, and using a cutoff of 27 of 30, correlates better with Mini-Cog for dementia screening, with fewer false positives.

  1. Application of the van der Waals equation of state to polymers .4. Correlation and prediction of lower critical solution temperatures for polymer solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, Ana Saraiva; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Harismiadis, Vassilis I.

    1996-01-01

    The van der Waals equation of state is used for the correlation and the prediction of the lower critical solution behavior or mixtures including a solvent and a polymer. The equation of state parameters for the polymer are estimated from experimental volumetric data at low pressures. The equation...

  2. Measured lifetimes of states in 197Au and a critical comparison with the weak-coupling core-excitation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, H.H.; Kennedy, D.L.; Linard, B.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The lifetimes of five excited states in 197 Au up to an excitation energy of 885 keV were measured by the recoil-distance method (RDM). These levels were populated by Coulomb excitation using both 90 MeV 20 Ne and 120 MeV 35 Cl ion beams. The experimentally determined spectroscopy of the low-lying levels 3/2 + (ground state) and 1/2 + , (3/2) + 2 , 5/2 + and 7/2 + at 77.3, 268.8, 278.9, and 547.5 keV excitation energy, respectively, has been critically compared with the detailed predictions of the de-Shalit weak-coupling core-excitation model. When the model is taken to represent the case of a dsub(3/2) proton hole coupled to a 198 Hg core, the model parameters obtained are in accord with the criteria implicit for weak core coupling and, at the same time, are in remarkably good agreement with virtually all measured E2 and M1 transition rates. (Auth.)

  3. Breeding Biology of Critically Endangered Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus at a Unique Site in Telangana State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth Manchiryala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Out of nine species of vultures, the population of three Gyps species, White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis, Slender-billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris and Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus has declined drastically by 99% over the past decade (Prakash, 1999. The Gyps vultures' population declined in India by 97% and by 92% in Pakistan (Virani, 2006, Prakash et al., 2012. Possibly the widespread usage of Diclofenac drug in the animal led to the rapid population decline for these Vultures (Green et al., 2004. The Long-billed Vulture G. indicus is a bald headed vulture with very broad wings and short tail feathers, having no sexual dimorphism. In Malabar hills region of India the breeding season of Long-billed Vultures was noted to be November to May where it breed mainly on cliffs (Edward, 1915. Presently, it is in the most critical category of endangerment, listed in Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act-1972 followed by IUCN, 2015 (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22729731/0. The Andhra Pradesh State Biodiversity Board, Hyderabad announced that vultures are already 'Extinct' in the state (Medicheti, 2013.

  4. Chaos, self-organized criticality, and SETAR nonlinearity: An analysis of purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., T2N 1N4 (Canada)]. E-mail: Serletis@ucalgary.ca; Shahmoradi, Asghar [Faculty of Economics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    This paper uses monthly observations for the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States over the recent flexible exchange rate period (from January 1, 1973 to August 1, 2004) to test purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States using unit root and stationarity tests. Moreover, given the apparent random walk behavior in the real exchange rate, various tests from dynamical systems theory, such as for example, the Nychka et al. [Nychka DW, Ellner S, Ronald GA, McCaffrey D. Finding chaos in noisy systems. J Roy Stat Soc B 1992;54:399-426] chaos test, the Li [Li W. Absence of 1/f spectra in Dow Jones average. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 1991;1:583-97] self-organized criticality test, and the Hansen [Hansen, B.E. Inference when a nuisance parameter is not identified under the null hypothesis. Econometrica 1996;64:413-30] threshold effects test are used to distinguish between stochastic and deterministic origin for the real exchange rate.

  5. Pressure and Stress Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism: A Critical State Soil Mechanics Porosity-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, Peter B.; Saffer, Demian M.

    2018-02-01

    We predict pressure and stress from porosity in the Nankai accretionary prism with a critical state soil model that describes porosity as a function of mean stress and maximum shear stress, and assumes Coulomb failure within the wedge and uniaxial burial beneath it. At Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1174 and 808, we find that pore pressure in the prism supports 70% to 90% of the overburden (λu = 0.7 to 0.9), for a range of assumed friction angles (5-30°). The prism pore pressure is equal to or greater than that in the underthrust sediments even though the porosity is lower within the prism. The high pore pressures lead to a mechanically weak wedge that supports low maximum shear stress, and this in turn requires very low basal traction to remain consistent with the observed narrowly tapered wedge geometry. We estimate the décollement friction coefficient (μb) to be 0.08-0.38 (ϕb' = 4.6°-21°). Our approach defines a pathway to predict pressure in a wide range of environments from readily observed quantities (e.g., porosity and seismic velocity). Pressure and stress control the form of the Earth's collisional continental margins and play a key role in its greatest earthquakes. However, heretofore, there has been no systematic approach to relate material state (e.g., porosity), pore pressure, and stress in these systems.

  6. Chaos, self-organized criticality, and SETAR nonlinearity: An analysis of purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Shahmoradi, Asghar

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses monthly observations for the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States over the recent flexible exchange rate period (from January 1, 1973 to August 1, 2004) to test purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States using unit root and stationarity tests. Moreover, given the apparent random walk behavior in the real exchange rate, various tests from dynamical systems theory, such as for example, the Nychka et al. [Nychka DW, Ellner S, Ronald GA, McCaffrey D. Finding chaos in noisy systems. J Roy Stat Soc B 1992;54:399-426] chaos test, the Li [Li W. Absence of 1/f spectra in Dow Jones average. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 1991;1:583-97] self-organized criticality test, and the Hansen [Hansen, B.E. Inference when a nuisance parameter is not identified under the null hypothesis. Econometrica 1996;64:413-30] threshold effects test are used to distinguish between stochastic and deterministic origin for the real exchange rate

  7. Mentoring and Succession of Administrators: Critical Issues in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Oladipo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the quality of outcome in Nigerian secondary schools is declining at an alarming rate due to shortage of required resources as well as leadership challenges. The challenges have been observed to be as a result of lack of mentoring which is not a common practice in school management in Nigeria. Consequently, this study investigated the extent to which mentoring as a strategy for administrators' succession plan impacts on the performance of their duties in public and private secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design and administered a 25-item self-constructed questionnaire on participants. A total of 530 participants were randomly selected from the population of 4,350 senior teachers. The Participants were drawn from 145 secondary schools (91 public and 54 registered private in Education District IV of Lagos State. The findings showed that mentoring has significant impact on administrators' succession planning and that succession planning does not significantly differ in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State. The study concluded that leadership development is a critical factor in secondary school effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, serving administrators as well as prospective administrators should be regularly evaluated to determine their training needs at different career stages. There should also be mentoring related policies to enhance the managerial skills, sense of competence and effectiveness of the prospective administrators.

  8. 77 FR 413 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States and for Other Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... national economic interest of the United States. I have determined that the modifications to the HTS... States obligations under the Convention and do not run counter to the national economic interest of the... Proclamation 8039 of July 27, 2006, implemented the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (USBFTA) with...

  9. Optimization of wheel-rail interface friction using top-of-rail friction modifiers: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Roshan; Dasaka, Satyanarayana Murty

    2018-05-01

    High Speed Railways and Dedicated Freight Corridors are the need of the day for fast and efficient transportation of the ever growing population and freight across long distances of travel. With the increase in speeds and axle loads carried by these trains, wearing out of rails and train wheel sections are a common issue, which is due to the increase in friction at the wheel-rail interfaces. For the cases where the wheel-rail interface friction is less than optimum, as in case of high speed trains with very low axle loads, wheel-slips are imminent and loss of traction occurs when the trains accelerate rapidly or brake all of a sudden. These vast variety of traction problems around the wheel-rail interface friction need to be mitigated carefully, so that the contact interface friction neither ascents too high to cause material wear and need for added locomotive power, nor be on the lower side to cause wheel-slips and loss of traction at high speeds. Top-of-rail friction modifiers are engineered surface coatings applied on top of rails, to maintain an optimum frictional contact between the train wheels and the rails. Extensive research works in the area of wheel-rail tribology have revealed that the optimum frictional coefficients at wheel-rail interfaces lie at a value of around 0.35. Application of top-of-rail (TOR) friction modifiers on rail surfaces add an extra layer of material coating on top of the rails, with a surface frictional coefficient of the desired range. This study reviews the common types of rail friction modifiers, the methods for their application, issues related with the application of friction modifiers, and a guideline on selection of the right class of coating material based on site specific requirements of the railway networks.

  10. Fragmented metastable states exist in an attractive bose-einstein condensate for atom numbers well above the critical number of the Gross-Pitaevskii theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Lorenz S; Streltsov, Alexej I; Alon, Ofir E

    2008-02-01

    It is well known that attractive condensates do not posses a stable ground state in three dimensions. The widely used Gross-Pitaevskii theory predicts the existence of metastable states up to some critical number N(cr)(GP) of atoms. It is demonstrated here that fragmented metastable states exist for atom numbers well above N(cr)(GP). The fragments are strongly overlapping in space. The results are obtained and analyzed analytically as well as numerically. The implications are discussed.

  11. Enhanced electrocaloric analysis and energy-storage performance of lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics for potential solid-state refrigeration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Fu; Huang, Xian-Xiong; Tang, Xin-Gui; Jiang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Biao; Lu, Sheng-Guo

    2018-01-10

    The unique properties and great variety of relaxer ferroelectrics make them highly attractive in energy-storage and solid-state refrigeration technologies. In this work, lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics are prepared and studied. The giant electrocaloric effect in lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics is revealed for the first time. Large refrigeration efficiency (27.4) and high adiabatic temperature change (1.67 K) are achieved by indirect analysis. Direct measurements of electrocaloric effect show that reversible adiabatic temperature change is also about 1.67 K, which exceeds many electrocaloric effect values in current direct measured electrocaloric studies. Both theoretical calculated and direct measured electrocaloric effects are in good agreements in high temperatures. Temperature and electric field related energy storage properties are also analyzed, maximum energy-storage density and energy-storage efficiency are about 0.31 J/cm 3 and 91.2%, respectively.

  12. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  13. Test Review: Watson, G., & Glaser, E. M. (2010), "Watson-Glaser™ II Critical Thinking Appraisal." Washington State University, Pullman, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternod, Latisha; French, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Watson-Glaser™ II Critical Thinking Appraisal (Watson-Glaser II; Watson & Glaser, 2010) is a revised version of the "Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal®" (Watson & Glaser, 1994). The Watson-Glaser II introduces a simplified model of critical thinking, consisting of three subdimensions: recognize assumptions, evaluate…

  14. Superconducting critical state of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8: two-dimensional effects at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Goffman, M.F.; Arribere, A.; Cruz, F. de la; Schneemeyer, L.F.

    1994-01-01

    The critical current in the c direction of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 is shown to increase with temperature in low temperature ZFC measurements. The results are consistent with a loss of the c direction long range phase correlation, induced by the temperature dependent critical current flowing in the ab planes. As a result of this and the loss of the long range correlation induced by thermal disorder, the low temperature electrical resistance of the ZFC critical state is finite at low temperatures, becomes zero and is finite again at higher temperature. (orig.)

  15. Superconducting critical state of Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8]: two-dimensional effects at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, E. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)); Goffman, M.F. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)); Arribere, A. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)); Cruz, F. de la (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)); Schneemeyer, L.F. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The critical current in the c direction of Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8] is shown to increase with temperature in low temperature ZFC measurements. The results are consistent with a loss of the c direction long range phase correlation, induced by the temperature dependent critical current flowing in the ab planes. As a result of this and the loss of the long range correlation induced by thermal disorder, the low temperature electrical resistance of the ZFC critical state is finite at low temperatures, becomes zero and is finite again at higher temperature. (orig.)

  16. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.). Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors. Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  17. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Taber

    Full Text Available Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1 estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2 determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors..Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11 and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05 if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76. However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  18. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.) Results Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference = -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors. Conclusion Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption. PMID:25083906

  19. Criticality Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  20. Membrane Separation Processes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture: State of the Art and Critical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaissaoui Bouchra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane processes have been initially seldom considered within a post-combustion carbon dioxide capture framework. More traditional processes, particularly gas-liquid absorption in chemical solvents, are often considered as the most appropriate solution for the first generation of technologies. In this paper, a critical state of the art of gas separation membranes for CO2 capture is proposed. In a first step, the key performances (selectivity, permeability of different membrane materials such as polymers, inorganic membranes, hybrid matrices and liquid membranes, including recently reported results, are reviewed. In a second step, the process design characteristics of a single stage membrane unit are studied. Purity and energy constraints are analysed as a function of operating conditions and membrane materials performances. The interest of multistage and hybrid systems, two domains which have not sufficiently investigated up to now, are finally discussed. The importance of technico-economical analyses is highlighted in order to better estimate the optimal role of membranes for CCS applications.

  1. Effective planning and management as critical factors in urban water supply and management in Umuahia and Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchegbu, Smart N.

    Plan and policy development usually define the course, goal, execution, success or failure of any public utilities initiative. Urban water supply is not an exception. Planning and management in public water supply systems often determine the quality of service the water supply authorities can render. This paper, therefore, addresses the issue of effective planning and management as critical determinants of urban water supply and management with respect to two Nigerian cities Umuahia and Aba both in Abia State. Appropriate sampling methods systematic sampling and cluster techniques were employed in order to collect data for the study. The collected data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The findings of the study indicate that planning and management indices such as funding, manpower, water storage tank capacity greatly influence the volume of water supplied in the study areas. Funding was identified as a major determinant of the efficiency of the water supply system. Therefore, the study advocates the need for sector reforms that would usher in private participants in the water sector both for improved funding and enhanced productivity.

  2. Determination of the equivalent intergranular void ratio - Application to the instability and the critical state of silty sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Trung-Kien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of mechanical response of natural Camargue silty sand. The analysis of test results used the equivalent intergranular void ratio instead of the global void ratio. The calculation of equivalent intergranular void ratio requires the determination of parameter b which represents, physically, the fraction of active fines participating on the chain forces network, hence the strength of the soil. A new formula for determining the parameter b by using an approach based on the coordination number distribution and probability calculation is proposed. The validation of the developed relationship was done through back-analysis of published datasets in literature on the effect of fines content on silty sand behavior. It is shown that the equivalent intergranular void ratio calculated with the b value obtained by the new formula is able to provide strong correlation to not only the critical state of but also the onset of instability of various silty sands, in different terms as peak deviator stress, peak stress ratio or cyclic resistance. Therefore, it is suggested that the use of the equivalent void ratio concept and the new b calculating formula is highly desirable in predicting of the silty sand behavior.

  3. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons' role in the first successful modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis performed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Yoh; Perez, Victor L; Parel, Jean-Marie; Alfonso, Eduardo; Falcinelli, Giancarlo; Falcinelli, Johnny; Marx, Robert E

    2011-06-01

    Corneal disease constitutes the second most common cause of blindness and often leads to corneal damage or scarring. Several corneal scarring is a complex and difficult condition for ophthalmologists to manage. In the most severe cases, the scarring is accompanied by excessive dryness and keratinization of the ocular surface. Certain etiologies, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, cicatricial pemphigoid, Lyell's syndrome, and chemical trauma to the surface of the eye, are responsible for the most severe cases. Traditional allogeneic corneal transplantation is not effective because of the significant scarring and dryness of the eye. To allow light and images to be focused on the retina, a keratoprosthesis is required to position a lens on the surface of the eye. One of the oldest and most effective types of keratoprosthesis, the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP), was first described and documented in 1963 by Strampelli and subsequently modified by Falcinelli et al. The modified OOKP (MOOKP) is a unique prosthesis consisting of a lens fabricated from a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cylinder and cemented to an autogenous graft composed of tooth and bone, traditionally termed the osteo-odonto lamina. In this context, lamina refers to a thin rectangular plate of tooth and bone (Fig 1). The MOOKP involves 4 procedures performed in 3 surgical stages. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interfacial Modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ina; French, Roger H.

    2018-03-19

    Our project objective in the first and only Budget Period was to demonstrate the potential of nm-scale organofunctional silane coatings as a method of extending the lifetime of PV materials and devices. Specifically, the target was to double the lifetime performance of a laminated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) cell under real-world and accelerated aging exposure conditions. Key findings are that modification of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films (materials used as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) top contacts) resulted in decreased degradation of optical and electrical properties under damp heat (DH) exposure compared to un-modified AZO. The most significant finding is that modification of the AZO top contact of full CIGS devices resulted in significantly improved properties under DH exposure compared to un-modified devices, by a factor of 4 after 1000 h. Results of this one-year project have demonstrated that surface functionalization is a viable pathway for extending the lifetime of state-of-the-art CIGS devices.

  5. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žel Jana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Results Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was

  6. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR--effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Stebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-08-14

    Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was chosen as the primary criterion by which to

  7. Critical points of DNA quantification by real-time PCR – effects of DNA extraction method and sample matrix on quantification of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Štebih, Dejan; Dreo, Tanja; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR is the technique of choice for nucleic acid quantification. In the field of detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) quantification of biotech products may be required to fulfil legislative requirements. However, successful quantification depends crucially on the quality of the sample DNA analyzed. Methods for GMO detection are generally validated on certified reference materials that are in the form of powdered grain material, while detection in routine laboratories must be performed on a wide variety of sample matrixes. Due to food processing, the DNA in sample matrixes can be present in low amounts and also degraded. In addition, molecules of plant origin or from other sources that affect PCR amplification of samples will influence the reliability of the quantification. Further, the wide variety of sample matrixes presents a challenge for detection laboratories. The extraction method must ensure high yield and quality of the DNA obtained and must be carefully selected, since even components of DNA extraction solutions can influence PCR reactions. GMO quantification is based on a standard curve, therefore similarity of PCR efficiency for the sample and standard reference material is a prerequisite for exact quantification. Little information on the performance of real-time PCR on samples of different matrixes is available. Results Five commonly used DNA extraction techniques were compared and their suitability for quantitative analysis was assessed. The effect of sample matrix on nucleic acid quantification was assessed by comparing 4 maize and 4 soybean matrixes. In addition 205 maize and soybean samples from routine analysis were analyzed for PCR efficiency to assess variability of PCR performance within each sample matrix. Together with the amount of DNA needed for reliable quantification, PCR efficiency is the crucial parameter determining the reliability of quantitative results, therefore it was chosen as the primary

  8. Critical race theory as a bridge in science training: the California State University, Northridge BUILD PODER program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetermoe, Carrie L; Chavira, Gabriela; Khachikian, Crist S; Boyns, David; Cabello, Beverly

    2017-01-01

    Unconscious bias and explicit forms of discrimination continue to pervade academic institutions. Multicultural and diversity training activities have not been sufficient in making structural and social changes leading to equity, therefore, a new form of critical consciousness is needed to train diverse scientists with new research questions, methods, and perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to describe Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD); Promoting Opportunities for Diversity in Education and Research (PODER), which is an undergraduate biomedical research training program based on transformative framework rooted in Critical Race Theory (CRT). By employing a CRT-informed curriculum and training in BUILD PODER, students are empowered not only to gain access but also to thrive in graduate programs and beyond. Poder means "power" or "to be able to" in Spanish. Essentially, we are "building power" using students' strengths and empowering them as learners. The new curriculum helps students understand institutional policies and practices that may prevent them from persisting in higher education, learn to become their own advocates, and successfully confront social barriers and instances of inequities and discrimination. To challenge these barriers and sustain campus changes in support of students, BUILD PODER works toward changing campus culture and research mentoring relationships. By joining with ongoing university structures such as the state university Graduation Initiative, we include CRT tenets into the campus dialogue and stimulate campus-wide discussions around institutional change. Strong ties with five community college partners also enrich BUILD PODER's student body and strengthen mentor diversity. Preliminary evaluation data suggest that BUILD PODER's program has enhanced the racial/ethnic consciousness of the campus community, is effective in encouraging more egalitarian and respectful faculty-student relationships, and is a rigorous

  9. State of art report for critical flow model to analyze a break flow in pressurizer of integral type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, D. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, J. P.; Kim, H. Y

    1999-03-01

    At a critical flow condition, the flow rate can't exceed a maximum value for given upstream conditions and the limited flow rate is called as a critical flow rate. The phenomena of critical flow occur at the discharge of a single phase gas or subcooled water through nozzles and pipes. Among the previous researches on critical flow, many accurate correlations on pressure, temperature and flow rate are represented for the single phase gas. However, for the two phase critical flow, the results of previous work showed that there was a large discrepancy between the analytical and experimental data and the data were in agreement for the limited thermodynamic conditions. Thus, further studies are required to enhance the two phase critical flow model. In the integral reactor, the critical flows of nitrogen gas and subcooled water are expected for the break of gas cylinder pipeline connected to the pressurizer. It requires that the inlet shape of the pipe and the nitrogen gas effect should be considered for the critical flow of integral reactor. The nitrogen gas exist in the pressurizer may affect the flow rate of primary coolant, which has been considered only for a few previous researches. Thus, the evaluation of the effect of the nitrogen on the critical flow gas should be preceded for the proper analysis of the critical flow in the integral reactor. In this report, not only the essences of previous work on critical flow were investigated and summarized but also the effect of nitrogen gas and the inlet shape of the pipe on the critical flow were also investigated. (author)

  10. State of art report for critical flow model to analyze a break flow in pressurizer of integral type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, D. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, J. P.; Kim, H. Y.

    1999-03-01

    At a critical flow condition, the flow rate can't exceed a maximum value for given upstream conditions and the limited flow rate is called as a critical flow rate. The phenomena of critical flow occur at the discharge of a single phase gas or subcooled water through nozzles and pipes. Among the previous researches on critical flow, many accurate correlations on pressure, temperature and flow rate are represented for the single phase gas. However, for the two phase critical flow, the results of previous work showed that there was a large discrepancy between the analytical and experimental data and the data were in agreement for the limited thermodynamic conditions. Thus, further studies are required to enhance the two phase critical flow model. In the integral reactor, the critical flows of nitrogen gas and subcooled water are expected for the break of gas cylinder pipeline connected to the pressurizer. It requires that the inlet shape of the pipe and the nitrogen gas effect should be considered for the critical flow of integral reactor. The nitrogen gas exist in the pressurizer may affect the flow rate of primary coolant, which has been considered only for a few previous researches. Thus, the evaluation of the effect of the nitrogen on the critical flow gas should be preceded for the proper analysis of the critical flow in the integral reactor. In this report, not only the essences of previous work on critical flow were investigated and summarized but also the effect of nitrogen gas and the inlet shape of the pipe on the critical flow were also investigated. (author)

  11. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1978, a ground breaking paper titled, "Feasibility of Rocket Propellant Production on Mars" by Ash, Dowler, and Varsi discussed how ascent propellants could be manufactured on the Mars surface from carbon dioxide collected from the atmosphere to reduce launch mass. Since then, the concept of making mission critical consumables such as propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables from local resources, commonly known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), for robotic and human missions to Mars has been studied many times. In the late 1990's, NASA initiated a series of Mars Human Design Reference Missions (DRMs), the first of which was released in 1997. These studies primarily focused on evaluating the impact of making propellants on Mars for crew ascent to Mars orbit, but creating large caches of life support consumables (water & oxygen) as a backup for regenerative life support systems for long-duration surface stays (>500 days) was also considered in Mars DRM 3.0. Until science data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter and subsequent robotic missions revealed that water may be widely accessable across the surface of Mars, prior Mars ISRU studies were limited to processing Mars atmospheric resources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and water vapor). In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study which considered water on Mars as a potential resource for the first time in a human mission architecture. While knowledge of both water resources on Mars and the hardware required to excavate and extract the water were very preliminary, the study concluded that a significant reduction in mass and significant enhancements to the mission architecture were possible if Mars water resources were utilized. Two subsequent Mars ISRU studies aimed at reexamining ISRU technologies, processing options, and advancements in the state-of-the-art since 2007 and to better understand the volume and packaging associated

  12. Characterization of phosphate sequestration by a lanthanum modified bentonite clay: A solid-state NMR, EXAFS and PXRD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Line; Lipton, Andrew S; Reitzel, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) sequestration by a lanthanum (La) exchanged clay mineral (La-Bentonite), which is extensively used in chemical lake restoration, was investigated on the molecular level using a combination of 31P and 139La solid state NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR), extended X-ray absorption spectroscopy...

  13. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2010. Synthesis Report 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.; Price, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation requires that all students participate in state accountability systems. Most students with disabilities participate in the regular assessment, with or without accommodations. Students with more significant cognitive disabilities participate in the Alternate Assessment based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). A few…

  14. The usefulness of the Korean version of modified Mini-Mental State Examination (K-mMMSE for dementia screening in community dwelling elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Ki-Hyun

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed whether the Korean version of modified Mini-Mental State Examination (K-mMMSE has improved performance as a screening test for cognitive impairment or dementia in a general population compared with the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE. Methods Screening interviews were conducted with people aged 65 and over in Noam-dong, Namwon-city, Jeonbuk province. There were 522 community participants, of whom 235 underwent clinical and neuropsychological examination for diagnosis of dementia and Cognitive Impairment No Dementia (CIND. Sensitivity, specificity and areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves for the K-mMMSE and the K-MMSE were the main outcome measures. Results Cronbach's alpha for the K-mMMSE was 0.91, compared with 0.84 for the K-MMSE. The areas under the ROC curves in identifying all levels of CIND or dementia were 0.91 for the K-mMMSE and 0.89 for the K-MMSE (P r = 0.89. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the K-mMMSE is more reliable and valid than the K-MMSE as a cognitive screen in a population based study of dementia. Considering the test characteristics, the K-MMSE and modified version are expected to be optimally used in clinical and epidemiologic fields.

  15. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Kößler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  16. Critical Loads of Acid Deposition for Wilderness Lakes in the Sierra Nevada (California) Estimated by the Steady-State Water Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn D. Shaw; Ricardo Cisneros; Donald Schweizer; James O. Sickman; Mark E. Fenn

    2014-01-01

    Major ion chemistry (2000-2009) from 208 lakes (342 sample dates and 600 samples) in class I and II wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada was used in the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC) model to estimate critical loads for acid deposition and investigate the current vulnerability of high elevation lakes to acid deposition. The majority of the lakes were dilute (...

  17. Development of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor Modified by Nano-Structured Polyaniline for Detecting the Plasticizer in Gaseous State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM modified by a film of nano-structured polyaniline (nano-PANI is developed as a gas sensor for detecting the presence of the plasticizer, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP in the ambient. Nano-PANI is prepared using a non-template method and the films are deposited using physical coating method. Scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the nano-PANI film. The sensor response towards DBP is tested in a sealed gas chamber. The QCM resonant frequency shift is measured due to the absorption of DBP with different concentration ranging from 0.04 to 1.2 ppm. The experiment results show that the variation of the frequency is a linear function of DBP concentration and the sensitivity up to 54 Hz/ppm could be achieved by using the researched nano-PANI on QCM. To investigate the selectivity, the potential interfering analytes such as acetone, ethanol, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are tested. And the mechanism hypothesis of the nano-PANI sensitive to the plasticizer is analyzed.

  18. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  19. A polarized Raman study of the relaxor and ferroelectric states of La-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Marssi, M.; Farhi, R.; Viehland, D.

    1997-01-01

    Lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics with La/Zr/Ti ratios of 6/40/60, 12/40/60, 5/65/35, and 9/65/35 have been studied by polarized Raman scattering. In the two former (tetragonal-type) compositions, selection rules were rather well defined and allowed an assignment of the Raman lines at lower temperature. These selection rules disappeared for 6/40/60 but remained for 12/40/60 even at higher temperatures. The behavior of the two latter (rhombohedral-type compositions) was quite different. No assignment of lines could be done. In addition, the spectra recorded in parallel and crossed polarizations were almost identical for 5/65/35 regardless of temperature. A very smeared paraelectric to ferroelectric transition was evidenced by Raman intensity measurements for this composition. On the contrary, selection rules were always present for the relaxor composition 9/65/35 which were similar to those for 12/40/60 and 6/40/60. This suggests that both tetragonal and rhombohedral-type local polar order is present for 9/65/35. The spectra of the field induced ferroelectric phase for 9/65/35 revealed no selection rules, similar to 5/65/35. This is attributed to the onset of only medium range ferroelectric order. Finally, Raman spectra recorded on powders of every composition did not reveal any selection rules, suggesting that intergranular effects might play a significant role in the behavior of these materials. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Status of the joint United States/Japanese criticality data development program for the Fast Breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Haire, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental program is described to accumulate the basic criticality data on uranium-plutonium aqueous solution systems, including pin and water systems. This experimental program, managed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, utilized existing critical experiment facilities. However, Japan at least for the near future, does not have a facility for conducting critical experiments where fissible solution can be treated and processed. Therefore, Japan has remoted the existing US experimental program as well as enlarged the program so that a close cooperative relationship may exist in this area. This paper is an update of a description of the program presented in September 1985. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Balanced scorecard in the State Forest Holding „State Forests” The proposal to modify the concept focused on sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Śnieżek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Making decisions in a dynamic environment requires from managers to operate with modern perfor-mance measurement tools. Having a development strategy becomes insufficient. It is important to make use of operational and strategic management accounting, developing on many levels. One of its tools is balanced scorecard, developed by R. Kaplan and D. Norton. It is a method of complex, multi-faceted performance measurement in the enterprise. It is a useful tool for describing, implementation and execu-tion of the company’s strategy. In order to develop a balanced scorecard it is necessary to create a clear mission and vision and a coherent framework for organization strategy. State Forests as a specific entity also needs efficient and effective management tools. In its strategy for the years 2014–2030 State Forests included the basic principles and measures of a balanced scorecard, which, like every tool, requires contin-uous monitoring and improvement.The aim of the article is to present proposals for modification of the existing concept of State Forests’ balanced scorecard, which will improve the usefulness of the information. The issue has been discussed in the context of pro-social activities of State Forests, in the conditions of globalization and sustainable de-velopment. The main research method used in the article in addition to literature studies is qualitative re-search based on case study.

  2. To beg, or not to beg? That is the question: mangabeys modify their production of requesting gestures in response to human's attentional states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Maille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although gestural communication is widespread in primates, few studies focused on the cognitive processes underlying gestures produced by monkeys. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study asked whether red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus trained to produce visually based requesting gestures modify their gestural behavior in response to human's attentional states. The experimenter held a food item and displayed five different attentional states that differed on the basis of body, head and gaze orientation; mangabeys had to request food by extending an arm toward the food item (begging gesture. Mangabeys were sensitive, at least to some extent, to the human's attentional state. They reacted to some postural cues of a human recipient: they gestured more and faster when both the body and the head of the experimenter were oriented toward them than when they were oriented away. However, they did not seem to use gaze cues to recognize an attentive human: monkeys begged at similar levels regardless of the experimenter's eyes state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that mangabeys lowered their production of begging gestures when these could not be perceived by the human who had to respond to it. This finding provides important evidence that acquired begging gestures of monkeys might be used intentionally.

  3. Ashkin-Teller criticality and weak first-order behavior of the phase transition to a fourfold degenerate state in two-dimensional frustrated Ising antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R. M.; Zhuo, W. Z.; Chen, J.; Qin, M. H.; Zeng, M.; Lu, X. B.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2017-07-01

    We study the thermal phase transition of the fourfold degenerate phases (the plaquette and single-stripe states) in the two-dimensional frustrated Ising model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice using Monte Carlo simulations. The critical Ashkin-Teller-like behavior is identified both in the plaquette phase region and the single-stripe phase region. The four-state Potts critical end points differentiating the continuous transitions from the first-order ones are estimated based on finite-size-scaling analyses. Furthermore, a similar behavior of the transition to the fourfold single-stripe phase is also observed in the anisotropic triangular Ising model. Thus, this work clearly demonstrates that the transitions to the fourfold degenerate states of two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnets exhibit similar transition behavior.

  4. Developing and operating time critical applications in clouds: the state of the art and the SWITCH approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.; Martin, P.; Wang, J.; Taal, A.; Jones, A.; Taylor, I.; Stankovski, V.; Garcia Vega, I.; Suciu, G.; Ulisses, A.; de Laat, C.

    2015-01-01

    Cloud environments can provide virtualized, elastic, controllable and high quality on-demand services for supporting complex distributed applications. However, the engineering methods and software tools used for developing, deploying and executing classical time critical applications do not, as yet,

  5. Nucleate pool boiling, film boiling and single-phase free convection at pressures up to the critical state. Part I: Integral heat transfer for horizontal copper cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenflo, Dieter; Baumhoegger, Elmar; Windmann, Thorsten; Herres, Gerhard [Institut fuer Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik, Universitaet Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Transcritical working cycles for refrigerants have led to increased interest in heat transfer near the Critical State. In general, experimental results for this region differ significantly from those far from it because some fluid properties vary much more there than at a greater distance. In this paper, measurements for two-phase and single-phase free convective heat transfer from an electrically heated copper tube with 25 mm O.D. to refrigerant R125 are discussed for fluid states very close to the Critical Point and far from it. It is shown that heat transfer for film boiling slightly below and for free convection slightly above the critical pressure is very similar. The new - and also previous - experimental data for nucleate boiling, film boiling, and single-phase free convection are compared with calculated results between atmospheric and critical pressure. It can be concluded that the Principle of Corresponding States in its simplest form is very well suited to transfer the results to other refrigerants. In Part II, particular attention will be given to a minimum superheat for nucleate boiling and a maximum superheat for film boiling and single-phase free convection within the circumferential variation of the isobaric wall superheat on the lower parts of the tube. (author)

  6. Self-organized dynamical complexity in human wakefulness and sleep: Different critical brain-activity feedback for conscious and unconscious states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Piarulli, Andrea; Gemignani, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity. Herein we study intermittent events, extracted from 29 night EEG recordings, including presleep wakefulness and all phases of sleep, where different levels of mentation and consciousness are present. We show that while critical avalanching is unchanged, at least qualitatively, intermittency and functional connectivity, present during conscious phases (wakefulness and REM sleep), break down during both shallow and deep non-REM sleep. We provide a theory for fragmentation-induced intermittency breakdown and suggest that the main difference between conscious and unconscious states resides in the backwards causation, namely on the constraints that the emerging properties at large scale induce to the lower scales. In particular, while in conscious states this backwards causation induces a critical slowing down, preserving spatiotemporal correlations, in dreamless sleep we see a self-organized maintenance of moduli working in parallel. Critical avalanches are still present, and establish transient auto-organization, whose enhanced fluctuations are able to trigger sleep-protecting mechanisms that reinstate parallel activity. The plausible role of critical avalanches in dreamless sleep is to provide a rapid recovery of consciousness, if stimuli are highly arousing.

  7. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Cook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs.

  8. Coexpression of Human α- and Circularly Permuted β-Globins Yields a Hemoglobin with Normal R State but Modified T State Properties†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundson, Anna L.; Taber, Alexandria M.; van der Walde, Adella; Lin, Danielle H.; Olson, John S.; Anthony-Cahill, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, a circularly permuted human β-globin (cpβ) has been coexpressed with human α-globin in bacterial cells and shown to associate to form α-cpβ hemoglobin in solution. Flash photolysis studies of α-cpβ show markedly biphasic CO and O2 kinetics with the amplitudes for the fast association phases being dominant due the presence of large amounts of high-affinity liganded hemoglobin dimers. Extensive dimerization of liganded but not deoxygenated α-cpβ was observed by gel chromatography. The rate constants for O2 and CO binding to the R state forms of α-cpβ are almost identical to those of native HbA (k′R(CO) ≈ 5.0 μM−1 s−1; k′R(O2) ≈ 50 μM−1 s−1), and the rate of O2 dissociation from fully oxygenated α-cpβ is also very similar to that observed for HbA (kR(O2) ≈ 21–28 s−1). When the equilibrium deoxyHb form of α-cpβ is reacted with CO in rapid mixing experiments, the observed time courses are monophasic and the observed bimolecular association rate constant is ∼1.0 μM−1 s−1, which is intermediate between the R state rate measured in partial photolysis experiments (∼5 μM−1 s−1) and that observed for T state deoxyHbA (k′T(CO) ≈ 0.1 to 0.2 μM−1 s−1). Thus the deoxygenated permutated β subunits generate an intermediate, higher affinity, deoxyHb quaternary state. This conclusion is supported by equilibrium oxygen binding measurements in which α-cpβ exhibits a P50 of ∼1.5 mmHg and a low n-value (∼1.3) at pH 7, 20 °C, compared to 8.5 mmHg and n ≈ 2.8 for native HbA under identical, dilute conditions. PMID:19397368

  9. Phase equilibria of carbon dioxide and methane gas-hydrates predicted with the modified analytical S-L-V equation of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Span Roland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Gas-hydrates (clathrates are non-stoichiometric crystallized solutions of gas molecules in the metastable water lattice. Two or more components are associated without ordinary chemical union but through complete enclosure of gas molecules in a framework of water molecules linked together by hydrogen bonds. The clathrates are important in the following applications: the pipeline blockage in natural gas industry, potential energy source in the form of natural hydrates present in ocean bottom, and the CO2 separation and storage. In this study, we have modified an analytical solid-liquid-vapor equation of state (EoS [A. Yokozeki, Fluid Phase Equil. 222–223 (2004] to improve its ability for modeling the phase equilibria of clathrates. The EoS can predict the formation conditions for CO2- and CH4-hydrates. It will be used as an initial estimate for a more complicated hydrate model based on the fundamental EoSs for fluid phases.

  10. Pareto design of state feedback tracking control of a biped robot via multiobjective PSO in comparison with sigma method and genetic algorithms: modified NSGAII and MATLAB's toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodabadi, M J; Taherkhorsandi, M; Bagheri, A

    2014-01-01

    An optimal robust state feedback tracking controller is introduced to control a biped robot. In the literature, the parameters of the controller are usually determined by a tedious trial and error process. To eliminate this process and design the parameters of the proposed controller, the multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, that is, the proposed method, modified NSGAII, Sigma method, and MATLAB's Toolbox MOGA, are employed in this study. Among the used evolutionary optimization algorithms to design the controller for biped robots, the proposed method operates better in the aspect of designing the controller since it provides ample opportunities for designers to choose the most appropriate point based upon the design criteria. Three points are chosen from the nondominated solutions of the obtained Pareto front based on two conflicting objective functions, that is, the normalized summation of angle errors and normalized summation of control effort. Obtained results elucidate the efficiency of the proposed controller in order to control a biped robot.

  11. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods & Teaching Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Vanessa S.; Tobin, Allan J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes instructional materials developed to address two major needs in biology education--how to form scientific opinions and providing a link between students and literature. Presents two essays, rats and potatoes and butterflies and corn, introduces students to article searching, reading peer-reviewed scientific studies, writing, critical…

  12. Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, S; Markus, H R; Matsumoto, H; Norasakkunkit, V

    1997-06-01

    A collective constructionist theory of the self proposes that many psychological processes, including enhancement of the self (pervasive in the United States) and criticism and subsequent improvement of the self (widespread in Japan), result from and support the very ways in which social acts and situations are collectively defined and subjectively experienced in the respective cultural contexts. In support of the theory, 2 studies showed, first, that American situations are relatively conducive to self-enhancement and American people are relatively likely to engage in self-enhancement and, second, that Japanese situations are relatively conducive to self-criticism and Japanese people are relatively likely to engage in self-criticism. Implications are discussed for the collective construction of psychological processes implicated in the self and, more generally, for the mutual constitution of culture and the self.

  13. Method for estimating critical properties of heavy compounds suitable for cubic equations of state and its application to the prediction of vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Ioannis, Smirlis; Iakovos, Yakoumis

    1997-01-01

    S. The proposed scheme employs a recent group-contribution method (Constantinou et al. Fluid Phase Equilib. 1995, 103 (1), 11) for estimating the acentric factor. The two critical properties are estimated via a generalized correlation for the ratio T-c/P-c (with the van der Waals surface area) and the cubic Eo...... pressures for several nonpolar and slightly polar heavy compounds with very satisfactory results, essentially independent of the experimental point used. Furthermore, the method yields critical properties for heavy alkanes (N-c > 20) and other compounds which are in very good agreement with recent available......Cubic equations of state (EoS) are often used for correlating and predicting phase equilibria. Before extending any EoS to mixtures, reliable vapor-pressure prediction is essential. This requires experimental, if possible, critical temperatures T-c, pressures P-c, and acentric factor omega...

  14. Contemporary treatment of patients with chronic total occlusion: critical appraisal of different state-of-the-art techniques and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Héctor M; Kukreja, Neville; Daemen, Joost; Tanimoto, Shuzou; van Mieghem, Carlos; Gonzalo, Nieves; van Weenen, Sander; van der Ent, Martin; Sianos, Georgios; de Feyter, Pim; Serruys, Patrick W

    2007-08-01

    To describe the contemporary approach of chronic total occlusion (CTO) treatment of patients at the Thoraxcenter, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Additionally, to make a critical appraisal of the performance of state-of-the-art CTO dedicated guidewires and devices in a prospective registry of patients. During 20 months, a total of 160 consecutive patients (165 CTOs) were enrolled. The mean age was 61.5+/-11.1 years and 83.6% were male. In 91.5% of the patients this was the first attempt to open the CTO and 93.8% were de novo. The overall success rate was 60.6%. A median of 1 guiding catheter was used per case (Range: 1 to 9) and a median of 4 guidewires (Range: 1 to 11; 13 different types). 74.5% patients required more than one guidewire/device for the treatment of the CTO. The guidewires that most frequently crossed the CTO were the following: PT Graphix intermediate 33.0%, Miracle 3 g 27.4% and Crosswire NT 25.5%. The only device tested as a first option for the treatment of the CTOs was the CROSSER. Overall, the CROSSER system was used in 23 (13.9%) patients with a success rate of 60.9%. The Point 9(R) X-80 Laser catheter was used in 10 (6.1%) patients with a success rate of 60%. Another 3 patients were treated with the Point 7(R) laser catheter. Both were used either to facilitate the crossing of the balloon, or to treat primarily in-stent restenosis occlusions. The SafeCross(R) System was used in 15 (9.1%) patients and the success rate in these patients was 46.7%. The most common strategy used in this registry was the use of an over-the-wire balloon in 81.5% of the cases. The parallel wire technique was used in 27.3% of the cases and in 12.7% was converted into a "see-saw" technique. When a large false lumen was created, re-entry into the true lumen was attempted in 21.2% of the cases, by means of IVUS guided approach and/or the use of stiffer guidewires, such as a Confianza guidewire. Retrograde recanalisation was attempted in 10 cases (6.1%), in three cases a

  15. Storying Teacher Education Policy: Critical Counternarratives of Curricular, Pedagogical, and Activist Responses to State-Mandated Teacher Performance Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Nick; Dover, Alison; Dotson, Erica K.; Agarwal-Rangath, Ruchi

    2018-01-01

    The rise of high-stakes, standardized, teacher performance assessments (TPAs) is central to the industry being created out of the regulation, policing, and evaluation of university-based teacher education In addition to reinforcing a narrow and counter-critical framework, TPAs can shift responsibility for the evaluation of teacher candidates from…

  16. The Current State of Arts Education in Iran: A Case Study in Two Elementary Schools Using Educational Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Ali; Farsi, Soheila

    2018-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the recently revised elementary curriculum for arts education in Iran. The study employed an educational criticism method and was conducted in two elementary schools. Data were collected by observation, semi-structured interviews and curriculum documents over a four-month period.…

  17. Prevention of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author) [es

  18. Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K

    2017-07-17

    Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS 2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].

  19. The Reflection of Social Values in Public School Reading Textbooks in the United States: A Critical Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the recently published Common Core State Standards Initiative, public school curriculum has once again come under scrutiny. While curriculum debates have taken place since the very beginnings of public schooling in the United States, too few have taken more than a passing notice of the textbooks that, in many cases, comprise the…

  20. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    . Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...

  1. [Effects of modified bazhen decoction in assistant with enteral nutrition on the growth hormone, the nutritional state, and the immune function in patients with gastric cancer after operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-xing; Li, Jian-ping

    2011-10-01

    To observe the effects of modified Bazhen Decoction (BZD) in assistant with enteral nutrition (EN) on the growth hormone, the nutritional state, and the immune function in patients with gastric cancer after operation. The prospective, random, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial was adopted. 88 patients receiving gastric cancer operation were randomly assigned to the parenteral nutrition group (Group A, 27 cases), the EN group (Group B, 30 cases), and the comprehensive group (Group C, BZD in assistant with EN, 31 cases). Isocaloric and isonitrogenous parenteral nutritional support was given to patients in Group A from the operation day to the ninth day. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous EN was given to patients in Group B and C from the second day of operation till the ninth day. 100 mL BZD was nasal fed to patients in Group C during the second day to the ninth day after operation. The levels of the growth hormone, immune indices such as IgA, IgG, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/CD8+, etc., and nutritional indices such as serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, etc. were detected in the three groups one day before operation, on the 1st day after operation, and on the tenth day after operation. The levels of IgA, IgG, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+, serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin decreased more than before operation in the three groups, with statistical difference (Pnutrition state and the immune function.

  2. Reduction of the allotropic transition temperature in nanocrystalline zirconium: Predicted by modified equation of state (MEOS) method and molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, Amin; Mokhtari, Esmail; Panjepour, Masoud; Aryanpour, Gholamreza

    2013-04-01

    The temperature at which polymorphic phase transformation occurs in nanocrystalline (NC) materials is different from that of coarse-grained specimens. This anomaly has been related to the role of grain boundary component in these materials and can be predicted by a dilated crystal model. In this study, based on this model, a modified equation of state (MEOS) method (instead of equation of state, EOS, method) is used to calculate the total Gibbs free energy of each phase (β-Zr or α-Zr) in NC Zr. Thereupon, the change in the total Gibbs free energy for β-Zr to α-Zr phase transformation (ΔGβ→α) via the grain size is calculated by this method. Similar to polymorphic transformation in other NC materials (Fe, Nb, Co, TiO2, Al2O3 and ZnS), it is found that the estimated transformation temperature in NC Zr (β→α) is reduced with decreasing grain size. Finally, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to confirm the theoretical results.

  3. Study of critical beta non-circular tokamak equilibria sustained in steady state by beam driven currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Naitou, H.

    1988-07-01

    A new MHD-equilibrium/current-drive analysis code was developed to analyse the high beta tokamak equilibria consistent with the beam driven current profiles. In this new code, the critical beta equilibrium, which is stable against the ballooning mode, the kink mode and the Mercier mode, is determined first using MHD equilibrium and stability analysis codes (EQLAUS/ERATO). Then, the current drive parameters and the plasma parameters, required to sustain this critical beta equilibrium, are determined by iterative calculations. The beam driven current profiles are evaluated by the Fokker-Planck calculations on individual flux surfaces, where the toroidal effects on the beam ion and plasma electron trajectories are considered. The pressure calculation takes into account the beam ion and fast alpha components. A peculiarity of our new method is that the obtained solution is not only consistent with the MHD equilibrium but also consistent with the critical beta limit conditions, in the current profile and the pressure profile. Using this new method, β ∼ 21 % bean and β ∼ 6 % D-type critical beta equilibria were scanned for various parameters; the major radius, magnetic field, temperature, injection energy, etc. It was found that the achievable Q value for the bean type was always about 30 % larger than for the D-type cases, where Q = fusion power/beam power. With strong beanness, Q ∼ 6 for DEMO type tokamaks (∼500 MWth) and Q ∼ 20 for power reactor size (4.5 GWth) are achievable. On the other hand, the Q value would not exceed sixteen for the D-type machines. (author)

  4. Trait anxiety but not state anxiety during critical Illness was associated with anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, M. I.; Cooke, M. L.; Macfarlane, B.; Aitken, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: \\ud To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness and symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge in survivors of intensive care treatment. \\ud \\ud Design: \\ud Longitudinal study. \\ud \\ud Setting: \\ud One closed mixed ICU in an adult tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. \\ud \\ud Patients: \\ud Participants (n = 141) were adults (≥ 8 yr), admitted to ICU for at least 24 hours, able to communicate either verbally or nonverbally, unde...

  5. Characterization and enhanced nonlinear optical limiting response in carbon nanodots dispersed in solid-state hybrid organically modified silica gel glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Zheng, Chan; Guo, Qiaohang; Huang, Dongdong; Wu, Xiukai; Chen, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Freely dispersed carbon nanodots (CNDs) were introduced into a 3-glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane modified silicate gel glass (i.e. an organically modified silica or ORMOSIL) by a highly efficient and simple sol-gel process, which could be easily extended to prepare functional molecules/nanoparticles solid state optoelectronic devices. Scanning electron microscope imaging, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, pore structure measurements, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface characteristics, structure, texture, and linear optical properties of the CND/SiO2 ORMOSIL gel glasses. Images and UV/Vis spectra confirmed the successful dispersion of CNDs in the ORMOSIL gel glass. The surface characteristics and pore structure of the host SiO2 matrix were markedly changed through the introduction of the CNDs. The linear optical properties of the guest CNDs were also affected by the sol-gel procedure. The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the CNDs were investigated by a nanosecond open-aperture Z-scan technique at 532 nm both in liquid and solid matrices. We found that the NLO response of the CNDs was considerably improved after their incorporation into the ORMOSIL gel glasses. Possible enhancement mechanisms were also explored. The nonlinear extinction coefficient gradually increased while the optical limiting (OL) threshold decreased as the CND doping level was increased. This result suggests that the NLO and OL properties of the composite gel glasses can be optimized by tuning the concentration of CNDs in the gel glass matrix. Our findings show that CND/SiO2 ORMOSIL gel glasses are promising candidates for optical limiters to protect sensitive instruments and human eyes from damage caused by high power lasers.

  6. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  7. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems

  8. Ascorbate oxidase-dependent changes in the redox state of the apoplast modulate gene transcript accumulation leading to modified hormone signaling and orchestration of defense processes in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignocchi, Cristina; Kiddle, Guy; Hernández, Iker; Foster, Simon J; Asensi, Amparo; Taybi, Tahar; Barnes, Jeremy; Foyer, Christine H

    2006-06-01

    The role of the redox state of the apoplast in hormone responses, signaling cascades, and gene expression was studied in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with modified cell wall-localized ascorbate oxidase (AO). High AO activity specifically decreased the ascorbic acid (AA) content of the apoplast and altered plant growth responses triggered by hormones. Auxin stimulated shoot growth only when the apoplastic AA pool was reduced in wild-type or AO antisense lines. Oxidation of apoplastic AA in AO sense lines was associated with loss of the auxin response, higher mitogen-activated protein kinase activities, and susceptibility to a virulent strain of the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The total leaf glutathione pool, the ratio of reduced glutathione to glutathione disulfide, and glutathione reductase activities were similar in the leaves of all lines. However, AO sense leaves exhibited significantly lower dehydroascorbate reductase and ascorbate peroxidase activities than wild-type and antisense leaves. The abundance of mRNAs encoding antioxidant enzymes was similar in all lines. However, the day/night rhythms in the abundance of transcripts encoding the three catalase isoforms were changed in response to the AA content of the apoplast. Other transcripts influenced by AO included photorespiratory genes and a plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel-associated gene. We conclude that the redox state of the apoplast modulates plant growth and defense responses by regulating signal transduction cascades and gene expression patterns. Hence, AO activity, which modulates the redox state of the apoplastic AA pool, strongly influences the responses of plant cells to external and internal stimuli.

  9. Unconventional critical state in YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films with a vortex-pin lattice fabricated by masked He+ ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, G.; Mletschnig, K. L.; Lang, W.; Dosmailov, M.; Bodea, M. A.; Pedarnig, J. D.

    2018-04-01

    Thin superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ films are patterned with a vortex-pin lattice consisting of columnar defect regions (CDs) with 180 nm diameter and 300 nm spacing. They are fabricated by irradiation with 75 keV He+ ions through a stencil mask. Peaks of the critical current reveal the commensurate trapping of vortices in domains near the edges of the sample. Upon ramping an external magnetic field, the positions of the critical current peaks are shifted from their equilibrium values to lower magnetic fields in virgin and to higher fields in field-saturated down-sweep curves, respectively. Based on previous theoretical predictions, this irreversibility is interpreted as a nonuniform, terrace-like critical state, in which individual domains are occupied by a constant number of vortices per pinning site. The magnetoresistance, probed at low current densities, is hysteretic and angle dependent and exhibits minima that correspond to the peaks of the critical current. The minima’s positions scale with the component of the magnetic field parallel to the axes of the CDs, as long as the tilted vortices can be accommodated within the CDs. This behavior, different from unirradiated films, confirms that the CDs dominate the pinning.

  10. Criticality handbook. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinicke, W.; Krug, H.; Thomas, W.; Weber, W.; Gmal, B.

    1985-12-01

    The GRS Criticality Handbook is intended as a source of information on criticality problems for the persons concerned in industry, authorities, or research laboratories. It is to serve as a guide allowing quick and appropriate evaluation of criticality problems during design or erection of nuclear installations. This present issue replaces the one published in 1979, presenting revised and new data in a modified construction, but within the framework of the proven basic structure of the Handbook. Some fundamental knowledge is required of criticality problems and the relevant terms and definitions of nuclear safety, in order to fully deploy the information given. Part 1 of the Handbook therefore first introduces terminology and definitions, followed by experimental methods and calculation models for criticality calculations. The next chapters deal with the function and efficiency of neutron reflectors and neutron absorbers, measuring methods for criticality monitoring, organisational safety measures, and criticality accidents and their subsequent analysis. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Probabilistic low-rank factorization accelerates tensor network simulations of critical quantum many-body ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Lucas; Tschirsich, Ferdinand; Keck, Maximilian; Plenio, Martin B.; Tamascelli, Dario; Montangero, Simone

    2018-01-01

    We provide evidence that randomized low-rank factorization is a powerful tool for the determination of the ground-state properties of low-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians through tensor network techniques. In particular, we show that randomized matrix factorization outperforms truncated singular value decomposition based on state-of-the-art deterministic routines in time-evolving block decimation (TEBD)- and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG)-style simulations, even when the system under study gets close to a phase transition: We report linear speedups in the bond or local dimension of up to 24 times in quasi-two-dimensional cylindrical systems.

  12. State of the Art of Language Learning Design Using Mobile Technology: Sample Apps and Some Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Elena; Read, Timothy; Underwood, Joshua; Obari, Hiroyuki; Cojocnean, Diana; Koyama, Toshiko; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Calle, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Talaván, Noa; Ávila-Cabrera, José; Ibañez, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, María; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Rodríguez, Pilar; Castrillo, María Dolores; Kétyi, Andras; Selwood, Jaime; Gaved, Mark; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, experiences from different research groups illustrate the state-of-the-art of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) in formal and non-formal education. These research samples represent recent and on-going progress made in the field of MALL at an international level and offer encouragement for practitioners who are…

  13. 78 FR 64327 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Bi-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... held at the Tri-County Fairgrounds, Home Economics Room, Sierra Street and Fair Drive, Bishop, CA 93514... contain features essential to the conservation of the DPS, should be included in the designation and why; (c) The features essential to the conservation of the Bi-State DPS as described in the Physical and...

  14. Trends in pesticide use on soybean, corn and cotton since the introduction of major genetically modified crops in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard H.; Capel, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUNDGenetically modified (GM) varieties of soybean, corn and cotton have largely replaced conventional varieties in the United States. The most widely used applications of GM technology have been the development of crops that are resistant to a specific broad-spectrum herbicide (primarily glyphosate) or that produce insecticidal compounds within the plant itself. With the widespread adoption of GM crops, a decline in the use of conventional pesticides was expected.RESULTSThere has been a reduction in the annual herbicide application rate to corn since the advent of GM crops, but the herbicide application rate is mostly unchanged for cotton. Herbicide use on soybean has increased. There has been a substantial reduction in the amount of insecticides used on both corn and cotton since the introduction of GM crops.CONCLUSIONSThe observed changes in pesticide use are likely to be the result of many factors, including the introduction of GM crops, regulatory restrictions on some conventional pesticides, introduction of new pesticide technologies and changes in farming practices. In order to help protect human and environmental health and to help agriculture plan for the future, more detailed and complete documentation on pesticide use is needed on a frequent and ongoing basis.

  15. Association Between Modifiable Risk Factors and Pharmaceutical Expenditures Among Adults With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the United States: 2012-2013 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Joseph A; Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Spatz, Erica S; Rana, Jamal S; Virani, Salim S; Blankstein, Ron; Younus, Adnan; Arrieta, Alejandro; Blaha, Michael J; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-06-09

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) causes most deaths in the United States and accounts for the highest healthcare spending. The association between the modifiable risk factors (MRFs) of ASCVD and pharmaceutical expenditures are largely unknown. We examined the association between MRFs and pharmaceutical expenditures among adults with ASCVD using the 2012 and 2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A 2-part model was used while accounting for the survey's complex design to obtain nationally representative results. All costs were adjusted to 2013 US dollars using the gross domestic product deflator. The annual total pharmaceutical expenditure among those with ASCVD was $71.6 billion, 33% of which was for medications for cardiovascular disease and 14% medications for diabetes mellitus. The adjusted relationship between MRFs and pharmaceutical expenditures showed significant marginal increase in average annual pharmaceutical expenditure associated with inadequate physical activity ($519 [95% confidence interval (CI), $12-918; P =0.011]), dyslipidemia ($631 [95% CI, $168-1094; P =0.008]), hypertension: ($1078 [95% CI, $697-1460; P expenditures among patients with established ASCVD regardless of non-ASCVD comorbidity. In-depth studies of the roles played by other factors in this association can help reduce medication-related expenditures among ASCVD patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Solid-state mAbs and ADCs subjected to heat-stress stability conditions can be covalently modified with buffer and excipient molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliere-Douglass, John F; Lewis, Patsy; Salas-Solano, Oscar; Jiang, Shan

    2015-02-01

    We report that a unique type of chemical modification occurs on lyophilized proteins. Freeze-dried mAbs and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) can be covalently modified with buffer and excipient molecules on the side chains of Glu, Asp, Thr, and Ser amino acids when subjected to temperature stress. The reaction occurs primarily via condensation of common buffers and excipients such as histidine, tris, trehalose and sucrose, with Glu and Asp carboxylates in the primary sequence of proteins. The reaction was also found to proceed through condensation of carboxylate containing buffers such as citrate, with Thr and Ser hydroxyls in the primary sequence of proteins. Based on the mass of the covalent adducts observed on mAbs and ADCs, it is apparent that the reaction produces water as a product and is thus favored in a low moisture environments such as a lyophilized protein cake. Herein, we present the evidence for the covalent modification of proteins drawn from case studies of in-depth characterization of heat-stressed mAbs and ADCs in the solid state. We also demonstrate how common charge variant assays such as imaged capillary isoelectric focusing and mass spectrometry can be used to monitor this specific class of protein modification. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Unconditional and Conditional Standards Using Cognitive Function Curves for the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses in Older Chinese Adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Feng, Lei; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Chong, Mei Sian; Lim, Wee Shiong; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Philip; Yap, Keng Bee; Ng, Tze Pin

    2015-09-01

    The conventional practice of assessing cognitive status and monitoring change over time in older adults using normative values of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) based on age bands is imprecise. Moreover, population-based normative data on changes in MMSE score over time are scarce and crude because they do not include age- and education-specific norms. This study aims to develop unconditional standards for assessing current cognitive status and conditional standards that take prior MMSE score into account for assessing longitudinal change, with percentile curves as smooth functions of age. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of a modified version of the MMSE for 2,026 older Chinese adults from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study, aged 55-84, in Singapore were used to estimate quantile regression coefficients and create unconditional standards and conditional standards. We presented MMSE percentile curves as a smooth function of age in education strata, for unconditional and conditional standards, based on quantile regression coefficient estimates. We found the 5th and 10th percentiles were more strongly associated with age and education than were higher percentiles. Model diagnostics demonstrated the accuracy of the standards. The development and use of unconditional and conditional standards should facilitate cognitive assessment in clinical practice and deserve further studies. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethnicity modifies the additive effects of anxiety and drug use disorders on suicidal ideation among black adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to test if ethnicity moderates the additive effects of lifetime psychiatric disorders on serious suicidal thoughts among a nationally representative sample of Black adults in the United States. Methods: For this study, we used data of 5,181 Black adults (3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Five lifetime psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, and drug abuse were considered as the independent variables. Lifetime serious suicidal ideation was considered as the dependent variable. Logistic regressions were used to determine if ethnicity modifies the effects of each psychiatric disorder on serious suicide ideation. Ethnicity was conceptualized as the possible moderator and socio-demographics (i.e., age, gender, education level, employment, marital status and country region were control variables. Results: Among African Americans, major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. Among Caribbean Blacks, major depressive disorder and drug abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. In the pooled sample, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and anxiety disorder and a marginally significant interaction between ethnicity and drug abuse. Conclusions: Based on our study, suicidality due to psychiatric disorders among Black adults in the United States may depend on ethnicity. General anxiety disorder seems to be a more important risk factor for suicidal ideation among African Americans while drug abuse may contribute more to the risk of suicidal thoughts among Caribbean Blacks.

  19. Critical Assessment of TD-DFT for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: I. Doublet-Doublet Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-01-12

    A benchmark set of 11 small radicals is set up to assess the performance of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for the excited states of open-shell systems. Both the unrestricted (U-TD-DFT) and spin-adapted (X-TD-DFT) formulations of TD-DFT are considered. For comparison, the well-established EOM-CCSD (equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) is also used. In total, 111 low-lying singly excited doublet states are accessed by all the three approaches. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as the benchmark, it is found that both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD perform well for those states dominated by singlet-coupled single excitations (SCSE) from closed-shell to open-shell, open-shell to vacant-shell, or closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals. However, for those states dominated by triplet-coupled single excitations (TCSE) from closed-shell to vacant-shell orbitals, both U-TD-DFT and EOM-CCSD fail miserably due to severe spin contaminations. In contrast, X-TD-DFT provides balanced descriptions of both SCSE and TCSE. As far as the functional dependence is concerned, it is found that, when the Hartree-Fock ground state does not suffer from the instability problem, both global hybrid (GH) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals perform grossly better than pure density functionals, especially for Rydberg and charge-transfer excitations. However, if the Hartree-Fock ground state is instable or nearly instable, GH and RSH tend to underestimate severely the excitation energies. The SAOP (statistically averaging of model orbital potentials) performs more uniformly than any other density functionals, although it generally overestimates the excitation energies of valence excitations. Not surprisingly, both EOM-CCSD and adiabatic TD-DFT are incapable of describing excited states with substantial double excitation characters.

  20. Comparison of IBM-2 calculations with X(5) critical point symmetry for low lying states in 128-140Nd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluer, I.; Olgun, D.; Inan, S.; Tuerkan, N.

    2006-01-01

    The X(5) would take place when moving continuously from the pure U(5) symmetry to the SU(3) symmetry and it implies a definite relations among the level energies and among the E2 transition strengths. It was recently shown that a signature of phase transition is observed in the chain of Sm, Mo and Nd isotopes, where 1 52Sm, 1 04Mo and 1 50Nd display the predicted features of the X(5) symmetry and mark therefore the critical point. However, more detailed studies and experiments are needed to get ideas about this signature. Without entering into detail we have firstly compared the results obtained in our previous study of 1 28- 1 40Nd with that of the limits in X(5) symmetry and then given a clear description about the validity of the Hamiltonian parameters used in the study. At the end, we have concluded that some of Nd isotopes display X(5) symmetry features

  1. Chemical and semisynthesis of modified histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play critical roles in the epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by directly altering the biophysical properties of chromatin or by recruiting effector proteins. The large number of PTMs and the inherent complexity in their population and signaling processes make it highly challenging to understand epigenetics-related processes. To address these challenges, accesses to homogeneously modified histones are obligatory. Over the last decade, synthetic protein chemists have been devising novel synthetic tools and applying state-of-the-art chemoselective ligation strategies to prepare precious materials useful in answering fundamental questions in this area. In this short review, we cover some of the recent breakthroughs in these directions in particular the synthesis and semi-synthesis of modified histones and their use to unravel the mysteries of epigenetics. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Modified SEAGULL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuehn, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Original version of program incorporated into program SRGULL (LEW-15093) for use on National Aero-Space Plane project, its duty being to model forebody, inlet, and nozzle portions of vehicle. However, real-gas chemistry effects in hypersonic flow fields limited accuracy of that version, because it assumed perfect-gas properties. As a result, SEAGULL modified according to real-gas equilibrium-chemistry methodology. This program analyzes two-dimensional, hypersonic flows of real gases. Modified version of SEAGULL maintains as much of original program as possible, and retains ability to execute original perfect-gas version.

  3. Phase Transition and Critical Values of a Nearest-Neighbor System with Uncountable Local State Space on Cayley Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnel, Benedikt; Külske, Christof; Botirov, Golibjon I.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor model on a Cayley tree of degree k ⩾ 2 with uncountable local state space [0,1] where the energy function depends on a parameter θ ∊[0, 1). We show that for 0 ⩽ θ ⩽ 5 3 k the model has a unique translation-invariant Gibbs measure. If 5 3 k < θ < 1 , there is a phase transition, in particular there are three translation-invariant Gibbs measures

  4. Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack: Critical National Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    electrically powered machinery. Butchering , cleaning, and packaging of poultry , pork, beef, fish, and other meat products also are typically...components. Egg farms and poultry farms typically sustain dense populations in carefully controlled environments using automated feeding, water- ing, and air...The United States is also a world leader in the production of meats, poultry , and fish. Of the world’s 183 nations, only a few are net exporters of

  5. Ethylene glycol modified 2-(2′-aminophenyl)benzothiazoles at the amino site: the excited-state N-H proton transfer reactions in aqueous solution, micelles and potential application in live-cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bo-Qing; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Yi-Jhen; Chao, Chi-Min; Liu, Kuan-Miao; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Yu-Wei; Chung, Kun-You; Tseng, Huan-Wei; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether and poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether modified 2-(2′-aminophenyl)benzothiazoles, namely ABT-P3EG, ABT-P7EG and ABT-P12EG varied by different chain length of poly(ethylene glycol) at the amino site, were synthesized to probe their photophysical and bio-imaging properties. In polar, aprotic solvents such as CH 2 Cl 2 ultrafast excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) takes place, resulting in a large Stokes shifted tautomer emission in the green-yellow (550 nm) region. In neutral water, ABT-P12EG forms micelles with diameters of 15  ±  3 nm under a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of ∼80 μM, in which the tautomer emission is greatly enhanced free from water perturbation. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that all ABT-PnEGs have negligible cytotoxicity against HeLa cells even at doses as high as 1 mM. Live-cell imaging experiments were also performed, the results indicate that all ABT-PnEGs are able to enter HeLa cells. While the two-photon excitation emission of ABT-P3EG in cells cytoplasm shows concentration independence and is dominated by the anion blue fluorescence, ABT-P7EG and ABT-P12EG exhibit prominent green tautomer emission at  >  CMC and in part penetrate to the nuclei, adding an additional advantage for the cell imaging. (paper)

  6. First-order chiral to non-chiral transition in the angular dependence of the upper critical induction of the Scharnberg–Klemm p-wave pair state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Gu, Q; Lörscher, C; Klemm, R A

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the temperature T and angular (θ, ϕ) dependencies of the upper critical induction B c2 (θ, ϕ, T) for parallel-spin superconductors with an axially symmetric p-wave pairing interaction pinned to the lattice and a dominant ellipsoidal Fermi surface (FS). For all FS anisotropies, the chiral Scharnberg–Klemm (SK) state B c2 (θ, ϕ, T) exceeds that of the chiral Anderson–Brinkman–Morel (ABM) state and exhibits a kink at θ = θ * (T, ϕ), indicative of a first-order transition from its chiral, nodal-direction behavior to its non-chiral, antinodal-direction behavior. Applicabilities to Sr 2 RuO 4 , UCoGe and the candidate topological superconductor Cu x Bi 2 Se 3 are discussed. (fast track communication)

  7. Rumble over jailhouse healthcare. As states broaden outsourcing to private vendors, critics question quality of care and cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth; Meyer, Harris

    2013-09-02

    The trend for states to outsource prison healthcare has met opposition from inmate advocates and legal aid groups. They fear quality of care will suffer, while others debate whether outsourcing care saves any money. Corizon, the largest U.S. private prison healthcare provider, says it definitely delivers savings. "We are the model because we've been doing capitated rates since we've been in business. Our cost per individual is significantly less than in the 'free world,' "says Corizon CEO Rich Hallworth.

  8. Chromium Oxidation State in Planetary Basalts: Oxygen Fugacity Indicator and Critical Variable for Cr-Spinel Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A. S.; Burger, P. V.; Le, Loan; Papike, J. J.; Jone, J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cr is a ubiquitous and relatively abundant minor element in basaltic, planetary magmas. At the reduced oxidation states (state of Cr in in silicate melts. Here we present a series of 1-bar gas mixing experiments performed with a Fe-rich basaltic melt in which have determined the Cr redox ratio of the melt at over a range of fO2 values by measuring this quantity in olivine with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). The measured Cr redox ratio of the olivine phenocrysts can be readily converted to the ratio present in the conjugate melt via the ratio of crystal-liquid partition coefficients for Cr3+ and Cr2+. We have applied these results to modeling Cr spinel stability and Cr redox ratios in a primitive, iron-rich martian basalt.

  9. Striatal and Tegmental Neurons Code Critical Signals for Temporal-Difference Learning of State Value in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chentao Wen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards. We recorded neuronal activities from the medial striatum or tegmentum in a freely behaving condition and examined how reward omission changed neuronal firing. To compare neuronal activities with the signals assumed in the TD method, we simulated the behavioral task in the form of a finite sequence composed of discrete steps of time. The three signals assumed in the simulated task were the prediction signal, the target signal for updating, and the TD-error signal. In both the medial striatum and tegmentum, the majority of recorded neurons were categorized into three types according to their fitness for three models, though these neurons tended to form a continuum spectrum without distinct differences in the firing rate. Specifically, two types of striatal neurons successfully mimicked the target signal and the prediction signal. A linear summation of these two types of striatum neurons was a good fit for the activity of one type of tegmental neurons mimicking the TD-error signal. The present study thus demonstrates that the striatum and tegmentum can convey the signals critically required for the TD method. Based on the theoretical and neurophysiological studies, together with tract-tracing data, we propose a novel model to explain how the convergence of signals represented in the striatum could lead to the computation of TD error in tegmental dopaminergic neurons.

  10. Lithologically controlled detachment strength and steady state since 10 Ma: Exploring the Alpine wedge using critical taper analysis combined with low-temperature thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagke, Christoph; Oncken, Onno; Ortner, Hugo; Cederbom, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Although evidence for weak detachments underlying foreland thrust belts exists, very little is known about the lateral variations in effective strength, as well as the geological nature of such variations. Using critical taper analysis, we show that a detailed and systematic measurement of surface slope of the Central European Alps reveals variations in strength along the detachment, based on the argument that the Alps are close to the critical state. We show that the basal detachment is very weak near the deformation front but strengthens towards the hinterland. These changes in detachment strength coincide with changes of detachment lithology in the hangingwall and footwall respectively, emphasizing the dominant role of weak shales. The very low strength values we find in shales in the frontal part of the alpine sole detachment are caused partly by slightly elevated pore pressures but may also require additional mechanisms of dynamic weakening. Using the constraints on the present day alpine taper, we investigate the change in taper through time. To this end, we produced new apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He data from the Alpine orogenic front, the Austrian Subalpine Molasse. We combine this data set with existing thermochronometry, and reconstruct the Central Alpine pro-wedge geometry at 10 Ma. We show that the taper of the Central Alps has not changed significantly and presumably remained close to kinematic and mass flux steady state since then. This indicates a feedback between ongoing shortening and erosion at low rates during the Late Neogene to present.

  11. Baricitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Conventional Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in United States and Rest of World: A Subset Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alvin F; Greenwald, Maria; Bradley, John D; Alam, Jahangir; Arora, Vipin; Kartman, Cynthia E

    2018-06-01

    This article evaluates the efficacy and safety of baricitinib 4 mg versus placebo in United States including Puerto Rico (US) and rest of the world (ROW) subpopulations using data pooled from RA-BEAM and RA-BUILD, which enrolled patients with moderate-to-severe adult-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In RA-BEAM, patients with an inadequate response (IR) to methotrexate, at least one X-ray erosion, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥ 6 mg/L were randomized to placebo or orally administered baricitinib 4 mg daily or subcutaneously administered adalimumab 40 mg every other week. In RA-BUILD, patients with an IR to at least one conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARD) and with hsCRP ≥ 3.6 mg/L were randomized to placebo or baricitinib 2 or 4 mg daily. Patients in both trials were biologic naive. In this post hoc analysis, data from both studies were pooled (714 baricitinib 4 mg-treated, 716 placebo-treated patients). Overall, 188 US and 1242 ROW patients were included. Subgroups differed in baseline characteristics including race, weight, age, time since RA diagnosis, current corticosteroid use, and previous csDMARD use. At weeks 12 and 24, baricitinib-treated patients had larger responses compared to placebo-treated patients for multiple efficacy outcomes: American College of Rheumatology 20/50/70 response, low disease activity, remission, Disease Activity Score 28-C-reactive protein, and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index. Overall, similar efficacy was observed in US and ROW subgroups with no notable safety differences between subgroups at weeks 12 or 24. Baricitinib 4 mg was efficacious compared to placebo in US and ROW subpopulations. Safety was similar between subgroups. Eli Lilly & Company and Incyte Corporation. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers, NCT01721057; NCT01710358.

  12. Performance of the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) in Assessing Specific Cognitive Function in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Tian, Xue; Xiong, Zu-Ying; Liao, Jin-Lan; Hao, Li; Liu, Gui-Ling; Ren, Ye-Ping; Wang, Qin; Duan, Li-Ping; Zheng, Zhao-Xia; Quan, Wen-Xiang; Dong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While Cognitive impairment (CI) has been identified as an independent risk factors for mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), it is inadequately assessed. We evaluated the applicability of the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) in assessing specific cognitive function and compared it to a detailed neuropsychological test battery as the reference standard. Methods In this multicentric cross-sectional study, we enrolled 445 clinically stable patients from five PD units, who were undergoing PD for at least 3 months. The 3MS was evaluated for general cognitive function. A detailed neuropsychological battery including domains of immediate memory, delayed memory, executive function, language, and visuospatial ability were evaluated as reference standards. Sensitivity and specificity of the 3MS was determined by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results The CI prevalence evaluated by 3MS was 23.6%. PD patients with CI performed worse in all cognitive domains. The 3MS correlated well with specific cognitive domains. However, 18.5%, 57.4%, 12.6%, 8.8%, and 41.2% of patients whom were idendified as normal by 3MS still showed executive dysfunction, immediate memory impairment, delayed memory impairment, and language-ability and visuospatial-ability impairment, respectively. The 3MS identified patients having specific cognitive dysfunction with varied extent of diagnostic value, with 0.50, 0.42, 0.35, 0.34, and 0.26 of Youden index in executive function, delayed memory, language ability, immediate memory, and visuospatial ability, respectively. Conclusions The 3MS is not a comprehensive instrument for major cognitive domains in PD patients. It could, however, be used for executive dysfunction and delayed memory impairment screening. PMID:27911914

  13. [Validity and Reliability Studies of Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE-E) For Turkish Illiterate Patients With Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan-Yıldız, Gülsen; Ur-Özçelik, Emel; Kolukısa, Mehmet; Işık, Ahmet Turan; Gürsoy, Esra; Kocaman, Gülşen; Çelebi, Arif

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE-E) for illiterate patients in a Turkish population with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 107 illiterate patients with Alzheimer's Disease (women: 65, men: 42) and 68 illiterate healthy volunteer subjects (women: 36, men: 32) were included in the study. MMSE-I and Geriatrics Depression Scale were performed on all subjects, Alzheimer patients were also administered Basic Activities of Daily Living (B- ADL). Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) was used to determine the severity of disease, while a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to analyze the cut-off scores of MMSE-I, and the positive/negative predictive values that were calculated for the optimal cut-off scores. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's coefficient . Additionally, correlations between total MMSE-I score and the CDR, B-ADL, and GDS scores were examined. The MMSE-I scores significantly and inversely correlated with CDR (-0.82, p=0.000) and B-ADL scores (-0.051, p=0.000). The optimal cut-off points of MMSE-I were 23/24, which yielded a sensitivity of 99.0% - %100.0, a specificity of 98.5% - 97.0%, and an AUC of 1.0/1.0, respectively. Reliability of the MMSE-I was high α = 0.70). The total MMSE-I score was able to differentiate the AD group from the control group.

  14. The enhancement of tolerance to salt and cold stresses by modifying the redox state and salicylic acid content via the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene in transgenic apple plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Jie; Sun, Hong; Dong, Qing-Long; Sun, Tian-Yu; Jin, Zhong-Xin; Hao, Yu-Jin; Yao, Yu-Xin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we characterized the role of an apple cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene (MdcyMDH) in the tolerance to salt and cold stresses and investigated its regulation mechanism in stress tolerance. The MdcyMDH transcript was induced by mild cold and salt treatments, and MdcyMDH-overexpressing apple plants possessed improved cold and salt tolerance compared to wild-type (WT) plants. A digital gene expression tag profiling analysis revealed that MdcyMDH overexpression largely altered some biological processes, including hormone signal transduction, photosynthesis, citrate cycle and oxidation-reduction. Further experiments verified that MdcyMDH overexpression modified the mitochondrial and chloroplast metabolisms and elevated the level of reducing power, primarily caused by increased ascorbate and glutathione, as well as the increased ratios of ascorbate/dehydroascorbate and glutathione/glutathione disulphide, under normal and especially stress conditions. Concurrently, the transgenic plants produced a high H2 O2 content, but a low O2·- production rate was observed compared to the WT plants. On the other hand, the transgenic plants accumulated more free and total salicylic acid (SA) than the WT plants under normal and stress conditions. Taken together, MdcyMDH conferred the transgenic apple plants a higher stress tolerance by producing more reductive redox states and increasing the SA level; MdcyMDH could serve as a target gene to genetically engineer salt- and cold-tolerant trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Critical Review of the State-of-the-Art in Autonomous Land Vehicle Systems and Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DURRNAT-WHYTE, HUGH

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the current state-of-the-art in Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV) systems and technology. Five functional technology areas are identified and addressed. For each a brief, subjective, preface is first provided which envisions the necessary technology for the deployment of an operational ALV system. Subsequently, a detailed literature review is provided to support and elaborate these views. It is further established how these five technology areas fit together as a functioning whole. The essential conclusion of this report is that the necessary sensors, algorithms and methods to develop and demonstrate an operationally viable all-terrain ALV already exist and could be readily deployed. A second conclusion is that the successful development of an operational ALV system will rely on an effective approach to systems engineering. In particular, a precise description of mission requirements and a clear definition of component functionality is essential

  16. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  17. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  18. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  19. Probability based load criteria for the design of nuclear structures: a critical review of the state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, M.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Wang, P.C.; Meyer, C.; Wen, Y.K.; Kao, S.; Shooman, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    Structures for nuclear power plant facilities must be designed to withstand safely and effectively all kinds of loads and load combinations that may be expected to occur during their lifetime. The traditional methods of structural design attempt to account for the inevitable variability in the loads, material strengths, in-service environments, and fabrication process, etc., through the use of safety factor, allowable stresses or load and resistance factors. These approaches may result in an unknown and nonuniform reliability because of the subjective manner in which the safety factors have been determined. The stochastic nature loads and the uncertainties in material properties dictate a probabilistic approach for a rational assessment of structural safety and performance. This report presents: an in-depth review of the state-of-the-art pertaining to probability-based analysis and design of civil engineering structures; basis for extending existing probability-based methods to seismic category I nuclear structures; and the availability of the pertinent data required to perform probabilistic analysis for seismic category I nuclear structures.

  20. Proceeding of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru; Hu Liqun; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2014-10-01

    The A3 Foresight Program titled by 'Critical Physics Issues Specific to Steady State Sustainment of High-Performance Plasmas', based on the scientific collaboration among China, Japan and Korea in the field of plasma physics, has been started from August 2012 under the auspice of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, Japan), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, Korea) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, China). The main purpose of this project is to enhance joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to several key physics issues on steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas. The fourth seminar on the A3 collaboration, as the fifth meeting of A3 program, took place in Kagoshima, Japan, 23-26 June 2014, which was hosted by National Institute for Fusion Science, to discuss achievement during past two years and to summarize intermediate report. New collaborative research was also encouraged as well as participation of young scientists. The topics include steady state sustainment of magnetic configuration, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles. This issue is the collection of 41 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 41 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. The unique karyotype of Henochilus wheatlandii, a critically endangered fish living in a fast-developing region in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla C Silva

    Full Text Available Henochilus wheatlandii, the only species of this genus, is critically endangered and was considered extinct for over a century. The rediscovery of this fish in 1996 made it possible to study its phylogenetic relationships with other species in the subfamily Bryconinae. The aim of this study was to characterise the karyotype of H. wheatlandii. Standard staining, C-positive heterochromatin and nucleolar organiser region (NOR banding, chromomycin A(3 staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes were conducted on nineteen specimens collected in the Santo Antonio River, a sub-basin of the Doce River in Ferros municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Henochilus wheatlandii shared the same diploid number and chromosome morphology as other species of Bryconinae. However, its heterochromatin distribution patterns, NOR localisation, and FISH patterns revealed a cytogenetic profile unique among Neotropical Bryconinae, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this threatened species.

  2. Relevance of transportation to correlations among criticality, physical means of propagation, and distribution of dengue fever cases in the state of Bahia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Hugo; Moret, Marcelo A; Barreto, Florisneide R; Araújo, Marcio Luis Valença; Jorge, Eduardo Manuel F; Nascimento Filho, Aloisio S; Miranda, Jose Garcia Vivas

    2018-03-15

    Dengue infection is a public health problem with a complex distribution. The physical means of propagation and the dynamics of diffusion of the disease between municipalities need to be analysed to direct efficient public policies to prevent dengue infection. The present study presents correlations of occurrences of reported cases of dengue infection among municipalities, self-organized criticality (SOC), and transportation between areas, identifying the municipalities that play an important role in the diffusion of dengue across the state of Bahia, Brazil. The significant correlation found between the correlation network and the SOC demonstrates that the pattern of intramunicipal diffusion of dengue is coupled to the pattern of synchronisation between the municipalities. Transportation emerges as influential in the dynamics of diffusion of epidemics by acting on the aforementioned variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Steady-state and transient studies on critical heat flux of a PWR 5 x 5 fuel element bundle with complex spacer wire geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulfs, H.; Katsaounis, A.; Kreubig, M.; Minden, C. von; Orlowski, R.

    1980-01-01

    The results will be described in exemplary presentations completely and concluding. The experimental examination of the steady state simularity of critical heat flux (CHF) in freon 12 and water at identical PWR-5 x 15-rod bundles will show that hot rod/hot channels position as well as CHF can be transformed from model to original fluid with good accuracy. The investigated mass flow and power transients (only in freon 12) point out a definite influence of initial and boundary conditions on CHF and CHF time delay at changing rates higher than 10 to 20%/s. On the contrary simulation of primary pump failure (LOFA) shows no or only small improvement in CHF behaviour while a coupled Scram prevents from reaching the boiling crisis. (orig.) [de

  4. Multiscale Framework for Assessing Critical Loads of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition for Aquatic Ecosystems in Wilderness Areas of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Clow, David; Saros, Jasmine; McMurray, Jill; Blett, Tamara; Sickman, James

    2017-04-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems in Wilderness areas of the western United States are impacted by current and historic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition associated with local and regional air pollution. Documented effects include elevated surface water nitrate concentrations, increased algal productivity, and changes in diatom species assemblages. A predictive framework was developed for sensitive high-elevation basins across the western United States at multiple spatial scales including the Rocky Mountain Region (Rockies), the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), and Yosemite (YOSE) and Sequoia & Kings Canyon (SEKI) National Parks. Spatial trends in critical loads of N deposition for nutrient enrichment of aquatic ecosystems were quantified and mapped using a geostatistical approach, with modeled N deposition, topography, vegetation, geology, and climate as potential explanatory variables. Multiple predictive models were created using various combinations of explanatory variables; this approach allowed for better quantification of uncertainty and identification of areas most sensitive to high atmospheric N deposition (> 3 kg N ha-1 yr-1). For multiple spatial scales, the lowest critical loads estimates (1.5 + 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1) correspond with areas of high N deposition and vary spatially ranging from less than 20% to over 40% of the study area for the Rockies, GYA, YOSE, and SEKI. These predictive models and maps identify sensitive aquatic ecosystems that may be impacted by excess atmospheric N deposition and can be used to help protect against future anthropogenic disturbance. The approach presented here may be transferable to other remote and protected high-elevation ecosystems at multiple spatial scales that are sensitive to adverse effects of pollutant loading in the US and around the world.

  5. Can the watershed non-point phosphorus pollution be interpreted by critical soil properties? A new insight of different soil P states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; Xiong, Junfeng

    2018-07-01

    The physicochemical properties of surface soil play a key role in the fate of watershed non-point source pollution. Special emphasis is needed to identify soil properties that are sensitive to both particulate P (PP) pollution and dissolved P (DP) pollution, which is essential for watershed environmental management. The Chaohu Lake basin, a typical eutrophic lake in China, was selected as the study site. The spatial features of the Non-point Source (NPS) PP loads and DP loads were calculated simultaneously based on the integration of sediment delivery distributed model (SEDD) and pollution loads (PLOAD) model. Then several critical physicochemical soil properties, especially various soil P compositions, were innovatively introduced to determine the response of the critical soil properties to NPS P pollution. The findings can be summarized: i) the mean PP load value of the different sub-basins was 5.87 kg, and PP pollution is regarded to be the primary NPS P pollution state, while the DP loads increased rapidly under the rapid urbanization process. ii) iron-bound phosphorus (Fe-P) and aluminum-bound phosphorus (Al-P) are the main components of available P and showed the most sensitive responses to NPS PP pollution, and the correlation coefficients were approximately 0.9. Otherwise, the residual phosphorus (Res-P) was selected as a sensitive soil P state that was significantly negatively correlated with the DP loads. iii) The DP and PP concentrations were represented differently when they were correlated with various soil properties, and the clay proportion was strongly negatively related to the PP loads. Meanwhile, there is a non-linear relationship between the DP loads and the critical soil properties, such as Fe and Total Nitrogen (TN) concentrations. Specifically, a strong inhibitory effect of TN concentration on the DP load was apparent in the Nanfei river (NF) and Paihe (PH) river basins where the R 2 reached 0.67, which contrasts with the relatively poor

  6. Estimation of (Cl-Mn) /Fe flux ratio at relativistic energies using steady-state leaky-box model modified for re accelerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, R.; Basu, B.; Bhattacharyya, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    The (Cl-Mn) /Fe flux ratio at the top of the atmosphere has been estimated from source composition. The authors have adopted the SSLB model modified for weak shocks to estimate the enhancement of (Cl-Mn) /Fe flux ratio due to re acceleration. The observed active detector results of Lezniak and Webber, Caldwell, Orth et al., Engelmann et al., and our passive detector results are fairly supported by the expected results from the SSLB model modified with re acceleration after Ferrando for energies ≤ 100 GeV / n

  7. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  8. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  9. Information theory explanation of the fluctuation theorem, maximum entropy production and self-organized criticality in non-equilibrium stationary states

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, R

    2003-01-01

    Jaynes' information theory formalism of statistical mechanics is applied to the stationary states of open, non-equilibrium systems. First, it is shown that the probability distribution p subGAMMA of the underlying microscopic phase space trajectories GAMMA over a time interval of length tau satisfies p subGAMMA propor to exp(tau sigma subGAMMA/2k sub B) where sigma subGAMMA is the time-averaged rate of entropy production of GAMMA. Three consequences of this result are then derived: (1) the fluctuation theorem, which describes the exponentially declining probability of deviations from the second law of thermodynamics as tau -> infinity; (2) the selection principle of maximum entropy production for non-equilibrium stationary states, empirical support for which has been found in studies of phenomena as diverse as the Earth's climate and crystal growth morphology; and (3) the emergence of self-organized criticality for flux-driven systems in the slowly-driven limit. The explanation of these results on general inf...

  10. Proceedings of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru; Hu Liqun; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2013-06-01

    The A3 Foresight Program titled by 'Critical Physics Issues Specific to Steady State Sustainment of High-Performance Plasmas', based on the scientific collaboration among China, Japan and Korea in the field of plasma physics, has been newly started from August 2012 under the auspice of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, Japan), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, Korea) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, China). A seminar on the A3 collaboration took place in Hotel Gozensui, Kushiro, Japan, 22-25 January 2013. This seminar was organized by National Institute for Fusion Science. One special talk and 36 oral talks were presented in the seminar including 13 Chinese, 14 Japanese and 9 Korean attendees. Steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas is a crucial issue for realizing a nuclear fusion reactor. This seminar was motivated along the issues. Results on fusion experiments and theory obtained through A3 foresight program during recent two years were discussed and summarized. Possible direction of future collaboration and further encouragement of scientific activity of younger scientists were also discussed in this seminar with future experimental plans in three countries. This issue is the collection of 29 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 29 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Criticality alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention is utilized, for example, to a reprocessing facility for storing and processing nuclear fuels and measures and controls the nuclear fuel assembly system so as not to exceed criticality. That is, a conventional criticality alarm device applies a predetermined processing to neutron fluxes generated from a nuclear fuel assembly system containing nuclear fuels and outputs an alarm. The device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux supply source for increasing and decreasing neutron fluxes periodically and supplying them to nuclear fuel assemblies, (2) a detector for detecting neutron fluxes in the nuclear fuel assemblies, (3) a critical state judging section for judging the critical state of the nuclear fuel assemblies based on the periodically changing signals obtained from the detector (2) and (4) an alarm section for outputting criticality alarms depending on the result of the judgement. The device of the present invention can accurately recognize the critical state of the nuclear fuel assembly system and can forecast reaching of the nuclear fuel assembly to criticality or prompt neutron critical state. (I.S.)

  12. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  13. Self organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1993-03-01

    Self organized criticality refers to the tendency of highly dissipative systems to drive themselves to a critical state. This has been proposed to explain why observed physics often displays a wide disparity of length and time scales. The phenomenon can be studied in simple cellular automaton models

  14. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  15. Determination of the quadrupole moment of the fission-isomeric state in 238U by a modified charge-plunger method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, J.; Goerlach, U.; Habs, D.; Just, M.; Metag, V.; Mosler, E.; Schukraft, J.; Singer, P.; Specht, H.J.; Ulfert, G.

    1978-01-01

    A modified version of the charge plunger method has been developed which, by utilizing electrostatic fields, renders possible the separation of low- and high-charge recoil ions over short flight distances. With this technique the quadrupole moment of the 200 ns fission isomer in 238 U has been determined to be (29 +- 3) b. The corresponding deformation of c/a = (1.8 +- 0.1) provides another quantitative proof for shape isomerism in the actinide region. (orig.) [de

  16. Critical point predication device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  17. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  18. Steady-state sulfur critical loads and exceedances for protection of aquatic ecosystems in the U.S. Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Todd C; Sullivan, Timothy J; Hessburg, Paul F; Reynolds, Keith M; Povak, Nicholas A; Cosby, Bernard J; Jackson, William; Salter, R Brion

    2014-12-15

    Atmospherically deposited sulfur (S) causes stream water acidification throughout the eastern U.S. Southern Appalachian Mountain (SAM) region. Acidification has been linked with reduced fitness and richness of aquatic species and changes to benthic communities. Maintaining acid-base chemistry that supports native biota depends largely on balancing acidic deposition with the natural resupply of base cations. Stream water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is maintained by base cations that mostly originate from weathering of surrounding lithologies. When ambient atmospheric S deposition exceeds the critical load (CL) an ecosystem can tolerate, stream water chemistry may become lethal to biota. This work links statistical predictions of ANC and base cation weathering for streams and watersheds of the SAM region with a steady-state model to estimate CLs and exceedances. Results showed that 20.1% of the total length of study region streams displayed ANC high elevation, and cool and moist forested conditions, the percentage of stream length in exceedance was highest for mountain wilderness areas and in national parks, and lowest for privately owned valley bottom land. Exceedance results were summarized by 12-digit hydrologic unit code (subwatershed) for use in developing management goals and policy objectives, and for long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementing the CASPiE course-based research experience at the United States Military Academy: Affective responses and effects on critical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anthony Michael

    The Center for Authentic Science Practices in Education (CASPiE) pioneered a course-based research experience approach to teaching chemistry laboratory courses. The method had previously been studied in a variety of institutional settings. Recently, the United States Military Academy at West Point decided to develop CASPiE-style modules for the introductory honors chemistry course. This research setting presents clean experimental-control comparisons and a group of faculty who were completely new to the method. Equipping students with authentic research experiences early in their education is important regardless of the institution. However, cadets at a military academy must make decisions relatively early (the outset of their second year) as to what their career trajectory will be as eventual officers. In the new CASPiE-based experience, cadets are given the opportunity to select from one of three different modules (analytical chemistry, toxicology, and chemical engineering) in which to participate during the course. These three modules represent subsections of an overall Army waste-to-energy research project. Cadets generate unique hypotheses, real data, and research posters towards the advancement of the project. Posters are then presented in a session. that includes an audience of project stakeholders, course instructors, and other academy faculty and staff. Here, I will present my research methods, evaluative procedures, and findings in the affective domain, critical thinking, and laboratory content comprehension.

  20. The use of performance improvement methods to enhance emergency department patient satisfaction in the United States: a critical review of the literature and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Cruz, Brian L; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2006-07-01

    The authors reviewed the evidence on performance improvement methods for increasing emergency department (ED) patient satisfaction to provide evidence-based suggestions for clinical practice. Data sources consisted of searches through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, Cochrane Library, and Emergency Medicine Abstracts and a manual search of references. Articles were included if they reported a performance improvement intervention targeting patient satisfaction in the ED setting. Articles on studies not conducted in the United States or that failed to provide enough details to allow critical evaluation of the study were excluded. Two authors used structured evaluation criteria to independently review each retained study. Nineteen articles met all selection criteria. Three studies found varying levels of support for multicomponent interventions, predominantly focused on implementation of clinical practice guidelines for specific presenting complaints and process redesign. Sixteen studies evaluated single-component interventions, with the following having at least one supportive study: using alternating patient assignment to provider teams rather than "zone"-based assignment, enhancing provider communication and customer service skills, incorporating information delivery interventions (e.g., pamphlets, video) that target patient expectations, using preformatted charts, and establishing ED-based observation units for specific conditions such as asthma and chest pain. There is modest evidence supporting a range of performance improvement interventions for improving ED patient satisfaction. Further work is needed before specific, evidence-based recommendations can be made regarding which process changes are most effective. Recommendations are made for improving the quality of performance improvement efforts in the ED setting.

  1. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  2. Critical Proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how w...

  3. A study of fluid alkali metals in the critical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the generalised van der Waals equation of state, Riedel's thermodynamic similarity parameter, a measure of the temperature dependence of vapour pressure in the critical region is determined for caesium, rubidium and potassium. This generalised equation differs from the known van der Waals equation of state by the modified expression for molecular pressure. The results of determination of Riedel's thermodynamic similarity parameter of caesium, rubidium and potassium are in good agreement with experimental data. Moreover, the given generalised van der Waals equation of state yields a better fit with experimental data on Riedel's thermodynamic similarity parameter for fluid alkali metals when compared with other correlations such as Van Ness and Abbott equation, Pitzer expansion, Pitzer acentric factor correlation, modified Rackett technique, Lee-Kesler vapour pressure relation and Clausius-Clayperon equation

  4. A study of fluid alkali metals in the critical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, R. [Department of Physics, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638 052, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: drrbala@yahoo.com

    2006-05-31

    On the basis of the generalised van der Waals equation of state, Riedel's thermodynamic similarity parameter, a measure of the temperature dependence of vapour pressure in the critical region is determined for caesium, rubidium and potassium. This generalised equation differs from the known van der Waals equation of state by the modified expression for molecular pressure. The results of determination of Riedel's thermodynamic similarity parameter of caesium, rubidium and potassium are in good agreement with experimental data. Moreover, the given generalised van der Waals equation of state yields a better fit with experimental data on Riedel's thermodynamic similarity parameter for fluid alkali metals when compared with other correlations such as Van Ness and Abbott equation, Pitzer expansion, Pitzer acentric factor correlation, modified Rackett technique, Lee-Kesler vapour pressure relation and Clausius-Clayperon equation.

  5. [The state of pediatric anesthesia in Japan: an analysis of the Japanese society of anesthesiologists survey of critical incidents in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irita, Kazuo; Tsuzaki, Koichi; Sawa, Tomohiro; Sanuki, Michiyoshi; Nakatsuka, Hideki; Makita, Koshi; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (JSA) survey of critical incidents in the operating room and other reports have shown that pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia are at an increased risk. Purpose was to examine the state of pediatric anesthesia in Japan. This might clarify the role of children's hospitals for pediatric anesthesia, and the relationship between critical incidents and volume of pediatric anesthetic procedures. The JSA has conducted annual surveys of critical incidents in the operating room by sending to and collecting confidential questionnaires from all JSA Certified Training Hospitals. From 1999 to 2003, 342,840 pediatric (0-5 yr) anesthetic procedures were registered. During this period, only 15 cardiac arrests and 3 deaths within 7 postoperative days totally attributable to anesthetic management were reported. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac arrests and deaths due to all etiologies. The hospitals were classified as children's hospitals, university hospitals, and other hospitals, and the incidence of cardiac arrest, the recovery rate from cardiac arrest without any sequelae, and the mortality rate were compared according to types of the hospitals. The relationship between death due to intraoperative critical incidents and the volume of pediatric anesthetic procedures was examined using data from the 2003 survey, the recovery rate of which was 85.7%. In 2003, 739 JSA Certified Training Hospitals responded to the survey: 7 children's hospitals, 109 university hospitals, and 623 other hospitals. Among these hospitals, 707 and 270 hospitals conducted pediatric and newborn (anesthesia, respectively. In 2003, 4,630 newborn, 17,890 infant (risks among the hospital groups, and the 95% confidential interval (CI) was shown. The Chi square test was used to compare the background of patients with cardiac arrest. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. In 2003, 95.7% and 36.5% of JSA Certified Training Hospitals which responded to the

  6. The critical ionization velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)

  7. Critical role in CXCR4 signaling and internalization of the polypeptide main chain in the amino terminus of SDF-1α probed by novel N-methylated synthetically and modularly modified chemokine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chang-Zhi; Tian, Shaomin; Choi, Won-Tak; Kumar, Santhosh; Liu, Dongxiang; Xu, Yan; Han, Xiaofeng; Huang, Ziwei; An, Jing

    2012-07-31

    The replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be profoundly inhibited by the natural ligands of two major HIV-1 coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a natural ligand of CXCR4. We have recently developed a synthetic biology approach of using synthetically and modularly modified (SMM)-chemokines to dissect various aspects of the structure-function relationship of chemokines and their receptors. Here, we used this approach to design novel SMM-SDF-1α analogues containing unnatural N-methylated residues in the amino terminus to investigate whether the polypeptide main chain amide bonds in the N-terminus of SDF-1α play a role in SDF-1α signaling via CXCR4 and/or receptor internalization. The results show that SDF-1α analogues with a modified N-methylated main chain at position 2, 3, or 5 retain significant CXCR4 binding and yet completely lose signaling activities. Furthermore, a representative N-methylated analogue has been shown to be incapable of causing CXCR4 internalization. These results suggest that the ability of SDF-1α to activate CXCR4 signaling and internalization is dependent upon the main chain amide bonds in the N-terminus of SDF-1α. This study demonstrates the feasibility and value of applying a synthetic biology approach to chemically engineer natural proteins and peptide ligands as probes of important biological functions that are not addressed by other biological techniques.

  8. A modified eco-efficiency framework and methodology for advancing the state of practice of sustainability analysis as applied to green infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M

    2017-09-01

    We propose a modified eco-efficiency (EE) framework and novel sustainability analysis methodology for green infrastructure (GI) practices used in water resource management. Green infrastructure practices such as rainwater harvesting (RWH), rain gardens, porous pavements, and green roofs are emerging as viable strategies for climate change adaptation. The modified framework includes 4 economic, 11 environmental, and 3 social indicators. Using 6 indicators from the framework, at least 1 from each dimension of sustainability, we demonstrate the methodology to analyze RWH designs. We use life cycle assessment and life cycle cost assessment to calculate the sustainability indicators of 20 design configurations as Decision Management Objectives (DMOs). Five DMOs emerged as relatively more sustainable along the EE analysis Tradeoff Line, and we used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a widely applied statistical approach, to quantify the modified EE measures as DMO sustainability scores. We also addressed the subjectivity and sensitivity analysis requirements of sustainability analysis, and we evaluated the performance of 10 weighting schemes that included classical DEA, equal weights, National Institute of Standards and Technology's stakeholder panel, Eco-Indicator 99, Sustainable Society Foundation's Sustainable Society Index, and 5 derived schemes. We improved upon classical DEA by applying the weighting schemes to identify sustainability scores that ranged from 0.18 to 1.0, avoiding the nonuniqueness problem and revealing the least to most sustainable DMOs. Our methodology provides a more comprehensive view of water resource management and is generally applicable to GI and industrial, environmental, and engineered systems to explore the sustainability space of alternative design configurations. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:821-831. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Integrated Environmental Assessment and

  9. Modified harmony search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  10. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...... supports the robustness of an LCA and increases trust in its results and conclusions. The focus of this chapter is on understanding what a critical review is, how the international standards define it, what its main elements are, and what reviewer qualifications are required. It is not the objective...... of this chapter to learn how to conduct a critical review, neither from a reviewer nor from a practitioner perspective. The foundation of this chapter and the basis for any critical review of LCA studies are the International Standards ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006 and ISO TS 14071:2014....

  11. Going Steady: Using multiple isotopes to test the steady-state assumption at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N.; Kirby, E.; Ma, L.; Bierman, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Regolith-mantled hillslopes are ubiquitous features of most temperate landscapes, and their morphology reflects the climatically, biologically, and tectonically mediated interplay between regolith production and downslope transport. Despite intensive research, few studies have quantified both of these mass fluxes in the same field site. Here, we exploit two isotopic systems to quantify regolith production and transport within the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO), in central Pennsylvania. We present an analysis of 131 meteoric 10Be measurements from regolith and bedrock to quantify rates of regolith transport, and compare these data with previously determined regolith production rates, measured using uranium-series isotopes. Regolith flux inferred from meteoric 10Be varies linearly with topographic gradient (determined from high-resolution LiDAR-based topography) along the upper portions of hillslopes in and adjacent to SSHO. However, regolith flux appears to depend on the product of gradient and regolith depth where regolith is thick, near the base of hillslopes. Meteoric 10Be inventories along 4 ridgetops within and adjacent to the SSHO indicate regolith residence times ranging from ~ 9 - 15 ky, similar to residence times inferred from U-series isotopes (6.7 × 3 ky - 15 × 8 ky). Similarly, the downslope flux of regolith (~ 500 - 1,000 m2/My) nearly balances production (850 × 22 m2/My - 960 × 530 m2/My). The combination of our results with U-series derived regolith production rates implies that regolith production and erosion rates along ridgecrests in the SSHO may be approaching steady state conditions over the Holocene.

  12. Positive and negative feedback in the earthquake cycIe: the role of pore fluids on states of criticality in the crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Sammonds

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluids exert a strong physical and chemical control on local processes of rock fracture and friction. For example they may accelerate fracture by stress corrosion reactions or the development of overpressure (a form of positive feedback, or retard fracture by time-dependent stress relaxation or dilatant hardening (negative feed-back, thereby introducing a variable degree of local force conservation into the process. In particular the valve action of dynamic faulting may be important in tuning the Earth to a metastable state of incipient failure on all scales over several cycles, similar to current models of Self-Organised Criticality (SOC as a paradigm for eartiquakes However laboratory results suggest that ordered fluctuations about this state may occur in a single cycle due to non conservative processes involving fluids which have the potential to be recognised, at least in the short term, in the scaling properties of earthquake statistics. Here we describe a 2-D cellular automaton which uses local rules of positive and negative feedback to model the effect of fluids on failure in a heterogeneous medium in a single earthquake cycle. The model successfully predicts the observed fractal distribution of fractures, with a negative correlation between the predicted seismic b-value and the local crack extension force G. Such a negative correlation is found in laboratory tests involving (a fluid-assisted crack growth in tension (b water-saturated compressional deformation, and (c in field results on an intermediate scale from hydraulic mining-induced seismicity all cases where G can be determined independently, and where the physical and chemical action of pore fluids is to varying degrees a controlled variable. For a finite local hardening mechanism (negative feedback, the model exhibits a systematic increase followed by a decrease in the seismic b-value as macroscopic failure is approached, similar to that found in water-saturated laboratory tests

  13. Specific emissions analysis for a combustion engine in dynamometer operation in relation to the thermal state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment systems in a modified NRSC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkisz Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have been present in motor vehicles for decades and have contributed to reducing their impact on the environment and people. Most of them for oxidation or reduction of harmful emissions of particulates and fumes require a certain temperature to be reached that changes with the exhaust temperature, i.e. the points of engine operation. The article describes the effect of oxidation reactor and particulate filter temperatures on specific emissions of gaseous compounds and particulate matter during the modified NRSC engine test. Before the first measurement cycle, the engine was idling, before the second measurement cycle, the exhaust system was heated with exhaust gases at full engine load until passive regeneration of the particle filter occurred (noticeable decrease in instantaneous particle concentration.

  14. How the redox state of tobacco 'Bel-W3' is modified in response to ozone and other environmental factors in a sub-tropical area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ana P.L.; Dafre, Marcelle; Rinaldi, Mirian C.S. [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.b [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This study intended to determine whether the redox state in plants of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' fluctuates in response to the environmental factors in a sub-tropical area contaminated by ozone (Sao Paulo, SE - Brazil) and which environmental factors are related to this fluctuation, discussing their biomonitoring efficiency. We comparatively evaluated the indicators of redox state (ascorbic acid, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and leaf injury in 17 field experiments performed in 2008. The redox state was explained by the combined effects of chronic levels of O{sub 3} and meteorological variables 4-6 days prior to the plant sampling. Moderate leaf injury was observed in most cases. The redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O{sub 3}. Its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. - Research highlights: Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' is potentially a bioindicator of O{sub 3} in the sub-tropics. However, it is unknown if its redox state would affect its bioindicator performance under sub-tropical environmental conditions. This study revealed that the redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O{sub 3}. Therefore, its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. However, the bioindicator efficiency N. tabacum 'Bel-W3' for biomonitoring O{sub 3} should be regionally modeled in the sub-tropics, based on both its redox state and on the flux of O{sub 3} through stomata, in response to the varying micro-meteorological conditions that govern both physiological processes. - The bioindicator efficiency of tobacco plants is not

  15. How the redox state of tobacco 'Bel-W3' is modified in response to ozone and other environmental factors in a sub-tropical area?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Ana P.L.; Dafre, Marcelle; Rinaldi, Mirian C.S.; Domingos, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This study intended to determine whether the redox state in plants of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' fluctuates in response to the environmental factors in a sub-tropical area contaminated by ozone (Sao Paulo, SE - Brazil) and which environmental factors are related to this fluctuation, discussing their biomonitoring efficiency. We comparatively evaluated the indicators of redox state (ascorbic acid, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and leaf injury in 17 field experiments performed in 2008. The redox state was explained by the combined effects of chronic levels of O 3 and meteorological variables 4-6 days prior to the plant sampling. Moderate leaf injury was observed in most cases. The redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O 3 . Its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. - Research highlights: → Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' is potentially a bioindicator of O 3 in the sub-tropics. → However, it is unknown if its redox state would affect its bioindicator performance under sub-tropical environmental conditions. → This study revealed that the redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O 3 . → Therefore, its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. → However, the bioindicator efficiency N. tabacum 'Bel-W3' for biomonitoring O 3 should be regionally modeled in the sub-tropics, based on both its redox state and on the flux of O 3 through stomata, in response to the varying micro-meteorological conditions that govern both physiological processes. - The bioindicator efficiency of tobacco plants is not restrained under chronic doses of O 3 in

  16. BUT IS IT SPEECH? MAKING CRITICAL SENSE OF THE DOMINANT CONSTITUTIONAL DISCOURSE ON PORNOGRAPHY, MORALITY AND HARM UNDER THE PERVASIVE INFLUENCE OF UNITED STATES FIRST AMENDMENT JURISPRUDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letetia van der Poll

    2012-08-01

    that “non-obscene” sexually explicit material has social value, as do esteemed works of literature and art. Secondly, the court assumes that all individuals have equal access to the means of expression and dissemination of ideas and thus fails to acknowledge substantive (and gendered structural inequalities. A closer inspection reveals that the Supreme Court’s justification of why freedom of expression is such a fundamental freedom in a constitutional democracy (and the reason that “non-obscene” sexually explicit material consequently enjoys constitutional protection is highly suspect, both intellectually and philosophically. And yet the South African Constitutional Court has explicitly recognised the same philosophical justification as the basis for free speech and expression. The Constitutional Court has, in fact, both supported and emphasised the idea that freedom of expression stands central to the concepts of democracy and political transformation through participation, and has expressly confirmed the association between freedom of expression and the political rights safeguarded under the Bill of Rights. Moreover, the Constitutional Court has also endorsed the conception of adult gender-specific sexually explicit material as a form of free expression. And yet by embracing a moralistic, libertarian model of free expression, the very ideal of a free, democratic and equal society, one in which women can live secure from the threat of harm, is put at risk. A moralistic, libertarian model is simply not capable of conceptualising sexually explicit material as a possible violation of women’s fundamental interests in equality, dignity and physical integrity.This article has a two-fold objective. The first is to critically examine the dominant discourse on adult gender-specific sexually explicit material emanating from United States jurisprudence (and its resonance in South African constitutional thought, and secondly, to assess whether this particular

  17. The charge state distribution of Be, C, Cl and Al ions at the Lund Pelletron accelerator with the recently modified terminal pumping in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiisk, Madis; Hellborg, Ragnar; Persson, Per; Faarinen, Mikko; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago terminal pumping for the gas stripper system at the 3 MV Lund Tandem Pelletron accelerator was installed and charge state distribution measurements using the new installation were reported. Since then, new modifications of the mechanical design of the stripper system have been made. The results of pressure profile measurements as well as the results of charge state distribution measurements in a N 2 and Ar gas stripper at different, new geometrical modifications of the stripper system using C, Be, Al and Cl ion beams are reported. A comparison between pressure profiles obtained for different geometries shows a clear improvement of the vacuum conditions outside the stripper housing for the smallest conductance pipes between the stripper system and the accelerator tubes. These improvements are also well reflected in the charge state distribution measurements, as a higher mean charge state is obtained under the same vacuum conditions in the accelerator tubes for the improved stripper system in comparison with the former mechanical design

  18. Application of a Crossover Equation of State to Describe Phase Equilibrium and Critical Properties of n-Alkanes and Methane/n-Alkane Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. C. M. Vinhal, Andre; Yan, Wei; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2018-01-01

    and the asymptotic one near the critical point. Although several crossover EOSs have been developed in the last decades their use in modeling industrial processes is rather limited. In this work, we use the crossover Soave–Redlich–Kwong (CSRK) to describe phase equilibrium and critical properties of pure n......-alkanes and methane/n-alkane binary mixtures and compare the results to two other modeling approaches of the SRK EOS. In the case of the pure fluids, CSRK gives an accurate overall description of the phase equilibrium and critical properties; nevertheless, a minor increase in the deviation of the saturation pressure...

  19. Source-jerk method for application on ADS neutronics study The ADS is stated for Accelerator Driven sub-critical System

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu Qing Fu; Li Yi; Xia Pu; Zheng Wu Qing; Zhu Guo Sheng

    2003-01-01

    The paper is concerned in the source-jerk method used to measure the sub-criticality, and the sub-critical experiment facility, which is used for the study on the neutronics of ADS, driven by external neutron source sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. The effects of the location of neutron source and material buffer where is at the location of the pipe of proton beam and target of fission-product dispersion on the sub-criticality of reactor are studied by source-jerk method

  20. Critical Arts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both formal and informal) in culture and social theory. CRITICAL ARTS aims to challenge and ... Book Review: Brian McNair, An Introduction to Political Communication (3rd edition), London: Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0415307082, 272pp. Phil Joffe ...

  1. Critical Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  2. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  3. Criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.

    1983-01-01

    When a sufficient quantity of fissile material is brought together a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction will be started in it and will continue until some change occurs in the fissile material to stop the chain reaction. The quantity of fissile material required is the 'Critical Mass'. This is not a fixed quantity even for a given type of fissile material but varies between quite wide limits depending on a number of factors. In a nuclear reactor the critical mass of fissile material is assembled under well-defined condition to produce a controllable chain reaction. The same materials have to be handled outside the reactor in all stages of fuel element manufacture, storage, transport and irradiated fuel reprocessing. At any stage it is possible (at least in principle) to assemble a critical mass and thus initiate an accidental and uncontrollable chain reaction. Avoiding this is what criticality safety is all about. A system is just critical when the rate of production of neutrons balances the rate of loss either by escape or by absorption. The factors affecting criticality are, therefore, those which effect neutron production and loss. The principal ones are:- type of nuclide and enrichment (or isotopic composition), moderation, reflection, concentration (density), shape and interaction. Each factor is considered in detail. (author)

  4. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.

    1995-01-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary projection of the Department's needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation

  5. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board`s Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary project of the Department`s needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation.

  6. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994--1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary project of the Department's needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation

  7. Spying on Fe ions and their role in modified aluminosilicates during the sorption of anions using solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobera, Libor; Abbrent, Sabina; Holcova, L.; Urbanová, Martina; Koloušek, D.; Doušová, B.; Brus, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 241, 15 March (2017), s. 115-122 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-24155S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13778S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : paramagnetic NMR shift * solid-state NMR * aluminosilicate Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering OBOR OECD: Civil engineering Impact factor: 3.615, year: 2016

  8. Possibilities of using the German Federal States' permanent soil monitoring program for the monitoring of potential effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschki, Andreas; Jänsch, Stephan; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Römbke, Jörg; Züghart, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    In the Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMO) into the environment, a monitoring of potential risks is prescribed after their deliberate release or placing on the market. Experience and data of already existing monitoring networks should be included. The present paper summarizes the major findings of a project funded by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Nutzungsmöglichkeiten der Boden-Dauerbeobachtung der Länder für das Monitoring der Umweltwirkungen gentechnisch veränderter Pflanzen. BfN Skripten, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 369, 2014). The full report in german language can be accessed on http://www.bfn.de and is available as Additional file 1. The aim of the project was to check if it is possible to use the German permanent soil monitoring program (PSM) for the monitoring of GMO. Soil organism communities are highly diverse and relevant with respect to the sustainability of soil functions. They are exposed to GMO material directly by feeding or indirectly through food chain interactions. Other impacts are possible due to their close association to soil particles. The PSM program can be considered as representative with regard to different soil types and ecoregions in Germany, but not for all habitat types relevant for soil organisms. Nevertheless, it is suitable as a basic grid for monitoring the potential effects of GMO on soil invertebrates. PSM sites should be used to derive reference values, i.e. range of abundance and presence of different relevant species of soil organisms. Based on these references, it is possible to derive threshold values to define the limit of acceptable change or impact. Therefore, a minimum set of sites and minimum set of standardized methods are needed, i.e. characterization of each site, sampling of selected soil organism groups, adequate adaptation of methods for the purpose of monitoring of potential effects of GMO. Finally, and probably most demanding, it is needed to develop

  9. The United States and the British Commonwealth in Korea, 1950-53: A Critical Study of the Origins of Joint Publication 3-16, Multinational Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    common Anglo - Saxon heritage with the United States. Furthermore, Canada and the United States shared national borders and interdependent economies...sought and received French military assistance through an alliance during the American War for Independence. The United States joined the Anglo -French...

  10. Lessons for Teaching Art Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Terry, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    This collection of lessons is meant to be a practical guide to help teachers engage children in art criticism. The lessons generally follow a similar format. Most suggest an age group but may be modified for use with younger or older students. Several authors suggest variations and extensions for lessons that include studio activities. A broad…

  11. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical ...

  12. Assessing Critical Thinking in Higher Education: Current State and Directions for Next-Generation Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-14-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Frankel, Lois; Roohr, Katrina Crotts

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is one of the most important skills deemed necessary for college graduates to become effective contributors in the global workforce. The first part of this article provides a comprehensive review of its definitions by major frameworks in higher education and the workforce, existing assessments and their psychometric qualities,…

  13. A review of the current state-of-the-art methodology for handling bias and uncertainty in performing criticality safety evaluations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.

    1994-10-01

    The methodology for handling bias and uncertainty when calculational methods are used in criticality safety evaluations (CSE's) is a rapidly evolving technology. The changes in the methodology are driven by a number of factors. One factor responsible for changes in the methodology for handling bias and uncertainty in CSE's within the overview of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is a shift in the overview function from a ''site'' perception to a more uniform or ''national'' perception. Other causes for change or improvement in the methodology for handling calculational bias and uncertainty are; (1) an increased demand for benchmark criticals data to expand the area (range) of applicability of existing data, (2) a demand for new data to supplement existing benchmark criticals data, (3) the increased reliance on (or need for) computational benchmarks which supplement (or replace) experimental measurements in critical assemblies, and (4) an increased demand for benchmark data applicable to the expanded range of conditions and configurations encountered in DOE site restoration and remediation

  14. Comparative Studies on Thermal, Mechanical, and Flame Retardant Properties of PBT Nanocomposites via Different Oxidation State Phosphorus-Containing Agents Modified Amino-CNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, San-E; Wang, Li-Li; Chen, Hao; Yang, Wei; Yuen, Anthony Chun-Yin; Chen, Timothy Bo-Yuan; Luo, Cheng; Bi, Wen-Mei; Hu, En-Zhu; Zhang, Jian; Si, Jing-Yu; Lu, Hong-Dian; Hu, Kun-Hong; Chan, Qing Nian; Yeoh, Guan Heng

    2018-01-26

    High-performance poly(1,4-butylene terephthalate) (PBT) nanocomposites have been developed via the consideration of phosphorus-containing agents and amino-carbon nanotube (A-CNT). One-pot functionalization method has been adopted to prepare functionalized CNTs via the reaction between A-CNT and different oxidation state phosphorus-containing agents, including chlorodiphenylphosphine (DPP-Cl), diphenylphosphinic chloride (DPP(O)-Cl), and diphenyl phosphoryl chloride (DPP(O₃)-Cl). These functionalized CNTs, DPP(O x )-A-CNTs ( x = 0, 1, 3), were, respectively, mixed with PBT to obtain the CNT-based polymer nanocomposites through a melt blending method. Scanning electron microscope observations demonstrated that DPP(O x )-A-CNT nanoadditives were homogeneously distributed within PBT matrix compared to A-CNT. The incorporation of DPP(O x )-A-CNT improved the thermal stability of PBT. Moreover, PBT/DPP(O₃)-A-CNT showed the highest crystallization temperature and tensile strength, due to the superior dispersion and interfacial interactions between DPP(O₃)-A-CNT and PBT. PBT/DPP(O)-A-CNT exhibited the best flame retardancy resulting from the excellent carbonization effect. The radicals generated from decomposed polymer were effectively trapped by DPP(O)-A-CNT, leading to the reduction of heat release rate, smoke production rate, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide release during cone calorimeter tests.

  15. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  16. NATIONAL PREPAREDNESS: Integration of Federal, State, Local, and Private Sector Efforts Is Critical to an Effective National Strategy for Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Federal, state, and local governments have a shared responsibility in preparing for catastrophic terrorist attacks, but the initial responsibility falls upon local governments and their organizations...

  17. Tuberculosis Therapy Modifies the Cytokine Profile, Maturation State, and Expression of Inhibitory Molecules on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4+ T-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil K Saharia

    Full Text Available Little is known about the expression of inhibitory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and programmed-death-1 (PD-1 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb-specific CD4 T-cells and how their expression is impacted by TB treatment.Cryopreserved PBMCs from HIV-TB co-infected and TB mono-infected patients with untreated and treated tuberculosis (TB disease were stimulated for six hours with PPD and stained. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we characterized the differentiation state, cytokine profile, and inhibitory molecule expression on PPD-specific CD4 T-cells.In our HIV-TB co-infected cohort, TB treatment increased the proportion of PPD-specific CD4 T-cells co-producing IFN-γ+IL-2+TNF-α+ and IFN-γ+IL-2+ (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.0002, respectively while decreasing the proportion of PPD-specific CD4 T-cells co-producing IFN-γ+MIP1-β+TNF-α+ and IFN-γ+MIP1-β+. The proportion of PPD-specific CD4 T-cells expressing an effector memory phenotype decreased (63.6% vs 51.6%, p = 0.0015 while the proportion expressing a central memory phenotype increased (7.8% vs. 21.7%, p = 0.001 following TB treatment. TB treatment reduced the proportion of PPD-specific CD4 T-cells expressing CTLA-4 (72.4% vs. 44.3%, p = 0.0005 and PD-1 (34.5% vs. 29.2%, p = 0.03. Similar trends were noted in our TB mono-infected cohort.TB treatment alters the functional profile of Mtb-specific CD4 T-cells reflecting shifts towards a less differentiated maturational profile and decreases PD-1 and CTLA-4 expression. These could serve as markers of reduced mycobacterial burden. Further study is warranted.

  18. Detection of dementia in primary care: comparison of the original and a modified Mini-Cog Assessment with the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenski, Gustav; Dorner, Thomas; Lawrence, Kitty; Psota, Georg; Rieder, Anita; Schwarz, Franz; Sepandj, Asita; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Strotzka, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Background Dementia is considered widely under-detected in primary care, and general practitioners (GPs) frequently ask for easy to use tools to assist in its early detection.Aim To determine the degree of correlation between the Mini-Cog Assessment (Mini-Cog) as performed by GPs and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).Design of study This was a prospective study (2005, 2006) comparing two cognitive screening instruments.Setting Ten general practices in Austria, with patients with a hitherto undiagnosed suspicion of dementia seen consecutively.Method Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs) of the Mini-Cog (applying both a colour-coded and the original rating method) were assessed for degree of correlation with the MMSE. In phase one GPs examined patients suspected of having dementia using the Mini-Cog; in phase two a neurologist retested them applying the MMSE, a clock-drawing test (CDT) and a routine clinical examination. A questionnaire on the practicability of the Mini-Cog was answered by GPs.Results Of the 107 patients who participated 86 completed the whole study protocol. The Mini-Cog, as performed by the ten GPs, displayed a sensitivity of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.98), a specificity of 0.58 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.71), a PPV of 0.47 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.61) and an NPV of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) as against the MMSE carried out by neurologists. The GPs judged the Mini-Cog useful and time saving.Conclusion The Mini-Cog has a high sensitivity and acceptable specificity in the general practice setting and has proved to be a practicable tool for the diagnosis of dementia in primary care.

  19. Criticality accident:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, Susana I.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

  20. Critical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, H.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown how to solve the master equation for a Markov process including a critical point by means of successive approximations in terms of a small parameter. A critical point occurs if, by adjusting an externally controlled quantity, the system shows a transition from normal monostable to bistable behaviour. The fundamental idea of the theory is to separate the master equation into its proper irreducible part and a corrective remainder. The irreducible or zeroth order stochastic approximation will be a relatively simple Fokker-Planck equation that contains the essential features of the process. Once the solution of this irreducible equation is known, the higher order corrections in the original master equation can be incorporated in a systematic manner. (Auth.)

  1. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  2. Critical behavior of a La0,7Sr0,3MnO3 crystal in the vicinity of its transition to ferromagnetic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, V.M.; Lozenko, A.F.; Ryabchenko, S.M.; Trotsenko, P.O.; Tovstolitkyin, O.Yi.; Pogoryilij, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetostatic properties of a La 0,7 Sr 0,3 MnO 3 single crystal have been studied in the vicinity of its critical temperature T c . A nonlinear temperature dependence of the inverse magnetic susceptibility which is characteristic of the Griffiths phase, has been found in the minimal measuring magnetic field at temperatures slightly above the temperature of ferromagnetic (FM) ordering. A conclusion was made that such a nonlinearity arises owing to the formation of magnetic polarons

  3. Inelastic proton scattering at 800 MeV to the 12C 15.11-MeV state: A search for nuclear critical opalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, M.; Glashausser, C.; Igo, G.; Cornelius, W.; Gazzaly, M.; Irom, F.; McClelland, J.; Moss, J.M.; Pauletta, G.; Thiessen, H.A.; Whitten, C.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross section for the reaction 12 C(p,p') 12 C* (15.11 MeV, 1 + , T=1) has been measured at 800 MeV; the range of the angular distribution corresponds to momentum transfers of 0.7--2.4 fm -1 [(1-3.3)m/sub π/]. The cross section decreases almost exponentially at large angles; no maximum is observed in the region where nuclear critical opalescence might be expected

  4. Experimental determination of PVT data, critical quantities and of the equation of state for sodium up to 2600 K and 500 bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, H.

    1984-01-01

    In the present thesis the PVT-data of fluid sodium are measured up to 2600 K and 500 bar and the vapor pressure curve is determined up to the critical point, which is found to be Tsub(c) = 2485 +- 15 K / Psub(c) = 248 +- 5 bar, rhosub(c) = 0.30 +- 0.05 g/cm 3 . The measured values are used to investigate the attractive forces of sodium theoretically. (BHO)

  5. Critical parameters and measurement methods for post closure monitoring: A review of the state of the art and recommendations for further studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.F.; Majer, E.L.; Tsang, C.F.

    1987-05-01

    Both NRC and EPA regulations require programs of post closure monitoring to detect substantial and detrimental deviations from expected performance. The unexpected in this case would involve anomalous stress changes that might rupture the canisters or changes in the hydrologic regime that might accelerate corrosion. In the event of leakage brought about by any means transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment could occur through unexpected changes in the hydrologic flow regime caused either by the long term effects of the thermal loading by the waste or by changes in regional stress or hydrology. Studies of performance confirmation have identified six parameters or conditions that should be monitored that are associated with the thermal, mechanical and hydrologic phenomena introduced by the waste heat: temperature, stress, displacement, pore pressure, groundwater velocity and permeability. Since it is the thermal load that continues to increase after decommissioning, and which continues to alter the stress field and the hydrological regime, these same six parameters remain the critical ones in post closure monitoring. At two of the repository sites fractures have been clearly shown to be critical in modelling and performance confirmation; at the tuff site fluid saturation is also a critical parameter and for all the sites estimates of the groundwater velocity through the site are very important. Changes in fracture properties, saturation and fluid flow are thus of continuing importance in post closure monitoring. 14 refs., 19 figs

  6. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  7. Critical energy of superconducting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    The stability of superconducting composites is studied in one-dimensional geometry and critical quench energies are calculated by solving for the steady state temperature profile which gives the minimum energy. The present calculations give lower values for the critical energy than previous estimates. The calculations are shown to be applicable to both direct cooled and impregnated conductors. Critical energies are also calculated including the effect of temperature dependence of conductor properties. (author)

  8. Los Alamos critical-mass data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, H.C.

    1975-11-01

    The original version of this report tabulates critical masses of simple systems, which have been measured through the year 1963. This revision adds data through October 1975, and modifies some of the old critical specifications that have been reevaluated. The old format and symbolism are retained to simplify reproduction

  9. A facile method to prepare "green" nano-phosphors with a large Stokes-shift and solid-state enhanced photophysical properties based on surface-modified gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C H; Huang, H Y; Talite, M J; Chou, W C; Yeh, J M; Yuan, C T

    2017-12-15

    Colloidal nano-materials, such as quantum dots (QDs) have been applied to light-conversion nano-phosphors due to their unique tunable emission. However, most of the QDs involve toxic elements and are synthesized in a hazardous solvent. In addition, conventional QD nano-phosphors with a small Stokes shift suffered from reabsorption losses and aggregation-induced quenching in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate a facile, matrix-free method to prepare eco-friendly nano-phosphors with a large Stokes shift based on aqueous thiolate-stabilized gold nanoclusters (GSH-AuNCs) with simple surface modifications. Our method is just to drop GSH-AuNCs solution on the aluminum foil and then surface-modified AuNCs (Al-GSH-AuNCs) can be spontaneously precipitated out of the aqueous solution. Compared with pristine GSH-AuNCs in solution, the Al-GSH-AuNCs exhibit enhanced solid-state PL quantum yields, lengthened PL lifetime, and spectral blue shift, which can be attributed to the aggregation-induced emission enhancement facilitated by surface modifications. Such surface-treatment induced aggregation of AuNCs can restrict the surface-ligand motion, leading to the enhancement of PL properties in the solid state. In addition, the Al-GSH-AuNCs nano-phosphors with a large Stokes shift can mitigate the aggregation-induced PL quenching and reabsorption losses, which would be potential candidates for "green" nano-phosphors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical Choices

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In these networks, states, international organizations, civil society, and the corporate .... Left to their own devices, markets sometimes fail to produce certain goods ... Maintaining the "structure" in structural informality — Networks must avoid ..... This examination is based on the case studies commissioned for this report.

  11. Critical Opalescence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    one has the liquid phase at high densities, the vapor phase at low densities and also the two phases coexisting at intermediate densities. The van der Waals equation of state has been very successful in describing the p VT thermodynamic behaviour of gases. The high temperature region T > > Tc corresponds to the.

  12. Dictionary criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Dictionary criticism is part of the lexicographical universe and reviewing of electronic and printed dictionaries is not an exercise in linguistics or in subject fields but an exercise in lexicography. It does not follow from this that dictionary reviews should not be based on a linguistic approach......, but that the linguistic approach is only one of several approaches to dictionary reviewing. Similarly, the linguistic and factual competences of reviewers should not be relegated to an insignificant position in the review process. Moreover, reviewers should define the object of their reviews, the dictionary, as a complex...... information tool with several components and in terms of significant lexicographical features: lexicographical functions, data and structures. This emphasises the fact that dictionaries are much more than mere vessels of linguistic categories, namely lexicographical tools that have been developed to fulfil...

  13. Tracking Students through Life: A Critical Structural Analysis of Academic Tracking of Mexican Immigrant Students in the United States and Korean Immigrant Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kathryn; Dymes, Laurie; Wiggan, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Students in the United States and Japan from high and middle socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds are afforded greater academic opportunities due to the systemic presence of hegemony in public schools (Darvin and Norton in "J Lang Identity Educ" 13(2):111-117, 2014). Minority and immigrant students, the majority coming from low SES, are more…

  14. Going against the flow: a critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India's national river linking programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Shilp; Kampman, Doeke A.; van der Zaag, Pieter; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water rich

  15. Disparities in health, poverty, incarceration, and social justice among racial groups in the United States: a critical review of evidence of close links with neoliberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Agbanu, Samuel Kwami; Miller, Reuben Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Problems of poverty, poor health, and incarceration are unevenly distributed among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. We argue that this is due, in part, to the ascendance of United States-style neoliberalism, a prevailing political and economic doctrine that shapes social policy, including public health and anti-poverty intervention strategies. Public health research most often associates inequalities in health outcomes, poverty, and incarceration with individual and cultural risk factors. Contextual links to structural inequality and the neoliberal doctrine animating state-sanctioned interventions are given less attention. The interrelationships among these are not clear in the extant literature. Less is known about public health and incarceration. Thus, the authors describe the linkages between neoliberalism, public health, and criminal justice outcomes. We suggest that neoliberalism exacerbates racial disparities in health, poverty, and incarceration in the United States. We conclude by calling for a new direction in public health research that advances a pro-poor public health agenda to improve the general well-being of disadvantaged groups.

  16. Critical Assessment of Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: II. Doublet-Quartet Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-06-14

    Compared with closed-shell systems, open-shell systems place three additional challenges to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for electronically excited states: (a) the spin-contamination problem is a serious issue; (b) the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel may be numerically instable; and (c) the single-determinant description of open-shell ground states readily becomes energetically instable. Confined to flip-up single excitations, the spin-contamination problem can largely be avoided by using the spin-flip TD-DFT (SF-TD-DFT) formalism, provided that a noncollinear XC kernel is employed. As for the numerical instabilities associated with such a kernel, only an ad hoc scheme has been proposed so far, viz., the ALDA0 kernel, which amounts to setting the divergent components (arising from density gradients and kinetic energy density) simply to zero. The ground-state instability problem can effectively be avoided by introducing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TD-DFT. Therefore, on a general basis, the SF-TDA/ALDA0 Ansatz is so far the only promising means within the TD-DFT framework for flip-up single excitations of open-shell systems. To assess systematically the performance of SF-TDA/ALDA0, in total 61 low-lying quartet excited states of the benchmark set of 11 small radicals [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2016, 12, 238] are investigated with various XC functionals. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as benchmark, it is found that the mean absolute errors of SF-TDA/ALDA0 with the SAOP (statistical averaging of model orbital potentials), global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals are in the range of 0.2-0.4 eV. This is in line not only with the typical accuracy of TD-DFT for singlet and triplet excited states of closed-shell systems but also with the gross accuracy of spin-adapted TD-DFT for spin-conserving excited states of open-shell systems.

  17. Critical analysis of the PETROBRAS monopoly end - particularities of the Bahia state, Brazil; Uma analise critica do fim do monopolio da PETROBRAS - particularidades para o Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Alexandre B.; Ribeiro, Bradson F. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural; Rocha, Georges S. [Centro Federal de Tecnologia da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Agencia Nacional de Petroleo - ANP - created in 1997 by the petroleum law has the role of regulating oil and natural gas industry activities in Brazil inciting the power self-sufficiency. The petroleum law states the end of petroleum exploration monopoly in Brazil performed by PETROBRAS. Between 1998 and 2004 ANP carried out six bid rounds in brazilian sedimentary basins offered to national and foreign companies. The exploratory activities in Bahia are resulting in commercial discoveries and positive impact to local economy. The petrochemical industry expects the startup of Manati field operation to supply repressed demand of natural gas as fuel and raw material. This article analyzes the legal and institutional processes and economics performances of these activities in Bahia's state. (author)

  18. Educators as Optimistic Futurists: A Critical Case Study Investigation into the Takeover of One Middle School in the Southwest United States

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    Advocates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) often champion a neoliberal agenda of privatization, deregulation, the mass firings of teachers and administrators, and takeovers of schools deemed to be "failing." School takeovers are sanctioned under the No Child Left Behind Act's Corrective Action measures, in which schools that have never made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) are subject to mass firings, restructuring measures, and any other action deemed appropriate at the state and...

  19. Calculation of NaCl, KCl and LiCl Salts Activity Coefficients in Polyethylene Glycol (PEG4000)-Water System Using Modified PHSC Equation of State, Extended Debye-Hückel Model and Pitzer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjani, Azam

    2016-07-01

    For biomolecules and cell particles purification and separation in biological engineering, besides the chromatography as mostly applied process, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are of the most favorable separation processes that are worth to be investigated in thermodynamic theoretically. In recent years, thermodynamic calculation of ATPS properties has attracted much attention due to their great applications in chemical industries such as separation processes. These phase calculations of ATPS have inherent complexity due to the presence of ions and polymers in aqueous solution. In this work, for target ternary systems of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000)-salt-water, thermodynamic investigation for constituent systems with three salts (NaCl, KCl and LiCl) has been carried out as PEG is the most favorable polymer in ATPS. The modified perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state (EOS), extended Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models were employed for calculation of activity coefficients for the considered systems. Four additional statistical parameters were considered to ensure the consistency of correlations and introduced as objective functions in the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results showed desirable agreement to the available experimental data, and the order of recommendation of studied models is PHSC EOS > extended Debye-Hückel > Pitzer. The concluding remark is that the all the employed models are reliable in such calculations and can be used for thermodynamic correlation/predictions; however, by using an ion-based parameter calculation method, the PHSC EOS reveals both reliability and universality of applications.

  20. Claire, a simulation and testing tool for critical softwares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassino, J.; Henry, J.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The CEA and IPSN (Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety) needs concerning the testing of critical softwares, have led to the development of the CLAIRE tool which is able to test the softwares without modification. This tool allows to graphically model the system and its environment and to include components into the model which observe and do not modify the behaviour of the system to be tested. The executable codes are integrated in the model. The tool uses target machine simulators (microprocessors). The technique used (the event simulation) allows to associate actions with events such as the execution of an instruction, the access to a variable etc.. The simulation results are exploited using graphic, states research and test cover measurement tools. In particular, this tool can give help to the evaluation of critical softwares with pre-existing components. (J.S.)

  1. A critical review of the risks to water resources from unconventional shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The rapid rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded the extraction of hydrocarbon resources in the U.S. The rise of shale gas development has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects from hydraulic fracturing. This paper provides a critical review of the potential risks that shale gas operations pose to water resources, with an emphasis on case studies mostly from the U.S. Four potential risks for water resources are identified: (1) the contamination of shallow aquifers with fugitive hydrocarbon gases (i.e., stray gas contamination), which can also potentially lead to the salinization of shallow groundwater through leaking natural gas wells and subsurface flow; (2) the contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and/or the disposal of inadequately treated shale gas wastewater; (3) the accumulation of toxic and radioactive elements in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) the overextraction of water resources for high-volume hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages or conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. Analysis of published data (through January 2014) reveals evidence for stray gas contamination, surface water impacts in areas of intensive shale gas development, and the accumulation of radium isotopes in some disposal and spill sites. The direct contamination of shallow groundwater from hydraulic fracturing fluids and deep formation waters by hydraulic fracturing itself, however, remains controversial.

  2. Wetting layer states in low density InAs/InGaAs quantum dots from sub-critical InAs coverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seravalli, L; Trevisi, G; Frigeri, P; Rossi, F; Buffagni, E; Ferrari, C

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the properties of wetting layers in InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) structures suitable for single photon emission; the mandatory low density of QDs is obtained by an molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach based on the deposition of sub-critical InAs coverages followed by post-growth annealing. Such a growth regime is fundamentally different from the Stranski–Krastanow (SK) one commonly used for the deposition of QDs. By fitting x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, ten-steps composition profiles were derived and used as inputs of model calculations of the two-dimensional quantum energy system: model results were validated by comparison with photoluminescence spectra. A strong reduction of In molar fraction in wetting layers in comparison with SK structures was found, causing a larger wavefunction delocalization for carriers that populate the wetting layer energy levels. Moreover, by considering the limits for strain relaxation when In x Ga 1−x As capping layers are used, we grew structures with the highest possible values of x to study the modifications of the energy system. When x = 0.20 the electron–heavy hole overlap is almost halved and the carriers' probability of being in the first nanometre of the wetting layer is reduced by 60%. These results will be useful for advanced design of QD nanostructures for single photon sources. (paper)

  3. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  4. Healthcare disparities in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-12-01

    To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.

  5. The influence of crystal anisotropy on the critical state stability and flux jump dynamics of a single crystal of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabiałek, A; Wiśniewski, A; Chabanenko, V V; Vasiliev, S V; Tsvetkov, T V; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2012-01-01

    We studied the critical state stability of a large cubic sample of single-crystalline La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4 for different sample orientations with respect to the external magnetic field as well as the dynamics of the flux jumps. It is shown that thermomagnetic avalanches develop under dynamic conditions, which are characterized by the magnetic diffusivity being significantly lower than the thermal case. In this case, the critical state stability depends strongly on the cooling conditions. We compared predictions from the isothermal model and from the model for a weakly cooled sample with experimental results. In both models, the field of the first flux jump decreases with increase of the sweep rate of the external magnetic field. We also investigated the influence of the external magnetic field on the dynamics of the following stages of the thermomagnetic avalanche. It is shown that the dynamics of the flux jumps is correlated with the magnetic diffusivity, which is proportional to the flux flow resistivity. (paper)

  6. An Attempt for an Emergent Scenario with Modified Chaplygin Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerji, Sudeshna; Chakraborty, Subenoy; Dutta, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    The present work is an attempt for emergent universe scenario with modified Chaplygin gas. The universe is chosen as spatially flat FRW space-time with modified Chaplygin gas as the only cosmic substratum. It is found that emergent scenario is possible for some specific (unrealistic) choice of the parameters in the equation of state for modified Chaplygin gas.

  7. Critical assessment of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the role of organic aerosols in the atmosphere, climate, and global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuzzi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of impressive advances in recent years, our present understanding of organic aerosol (OA composition, physical and chemical properties, sources and transformation characteristics is still rather limited, and their environmental effects remain highly uncertain. This paper discusses and prioritizes issues related to organic aerosols and their effects on atmospheric processes and climate, providing a basis for future activities in the field. Four main topical areas are addressed: i sources of OA; ii formation transformation and removal of OA; iii physical, chemical and mixing state of OA; iv atmospheric modelling of OA. Key questions and research priorities regarding these four areas are synthesized in this paper, and outstanding issues for future research are presented for each topical area. In addition, an effort is made to formulate a basic set of consistent and universally applicable terms and definitions for coherent description of atmospheric OA across different scales and disciplines.

  8. World Health Organization and the search for accountability: a critical analysis of the new framework of engagement with non-state actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hanna Rached

    Full Text Available The article probes the origins and content of the Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA of the World Health Organization (WHO, approved on May 28, 2016, at the 69th World Health Assembly, which established different rules of collaboration to four categories of actors: nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, private sector entities, philanthropic foundations, and academic institutions. Applying the findings of International Legal Theory and based on extensive documentary research, we sought to determine whether FENSA is an appropriate accountability mechanism according to four functions of accountability: constitutional, democratic, epistemic, and populist. The article concludes that there is a risk of the prevalence of the populist function at the expense of the accountability potential that could result from the better use of the other three accountability functions.

  9. World Health Organization and the search for accountability: a critical analysis of the new framework of engagement with non-state actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Danielle Hanna; Ventura, Deisy de Freitas Lima

    2017-07-03

    The article probes the origins and content of the Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA) of the World Health Organization (WHO), approved on May 28, 2016, at the 69th World Health Assembly, which established different rules of collaboration to four categories of actors: nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), private sector entities, philanthropic foundations, and academic institutions. Applying the findings of International Legal Theory and based on extensive documentary research, we sought to determine whether FENSA is an appropriate accountability mechanism according to four functions of accountability: constitutional, democratic, epistemic, and populist. The article concludes that there is a risk of the prevalence of the populist function at the expense of the accountability potential that could result from the better use of the other three accountability functions.

  10. Modified Allergens for Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitsuksanoa, Pattraporn; Głobińska, Anna; Jansen, Kirstin; van de Veen, Willem; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2018-02-16

    During the past few decades, modified allergens have been developed for use in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with the aim to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects. This review aims to provide an overview of the different types of modified allergens, their mechanism of action and their potential for improving AIT. In-depth research in the field of allergen modifications as well as the advance of recombinant DNA technology have paved the way for improved diagnosis and research on human allergic diseases. A wide range of structurally modified allergens has been generated including allergen peptides, chemically altered allergoids, adjuvant-coupled allergens, and nanoparticle-based allergy vaccines. These modified allergens show promise for the development of AIT regimens with improved safety and long-term efficacy. Certain modifications ensure reduced IgE reactivity and retained T cell reactivity, which facilities induction of immune tolerance to the allergen. To date, multiple clinical trials have been performed using modified allergens. Promising results were obtained for the modified cat, grass and birch pollen, and house dust mite allergens. The use of modified allergens holds promise for improving AIT efficacy and safety. There is however a need for larger clinical studies to reliably assess the added benefit for the patient of using modified allergens for AIT.

  11. Proceedings of the third meeting for A3 foresight program workshop on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Liqun; Morita, Shigeru; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2013-12-01

    To enhance close collaborations among scientists in three Asian countries (China, Japan and Korea), A3 foresight program on Plasma Physics was newly started from August 2012 under the auspice of JSPS (Japan), NRF (Korea) and NSFC (China). The main purpose of this project is to solve several key physics issues through joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to carry out multi-faceted and complementary physics researches. To summarize the progress and achievement in the first academic year under this A3 foresight program, this workshop was hosted by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and held in Beijing during 19-24 May, 2013. Collaborated research and communication with other A3 programs and bilateral programs, as well as participation of young scientists were encouraged in this workshop. The topics include steady state sustainment of magnetic configurations, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles. This issue is the collection of 40 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 40 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Proceeding of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Liqun; Morita, Shigeru; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2015-12-01

    To enhance close collaborations among scientists in three Asian countries (China, Japan and Korea), A3 foresight program on Plasma Physics was launched from August 2012 under the auspice of JSPS (Japan), NRF (Korea) and NSFC (China). The main purpose of this project is to solve several key physics issues through joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to carry out multi-faceted and complementary physics researches. To summarize the progress and achievement in the second academic year under this A3 foresight program, the 6th workshop hosted by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences was held in Nanning during 6-9 January, 2015. The research collaboration carried out by young scientists was also encouraged with participation of graduated students. The three topics of steady state sustainment of magnetic configurations, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles are mainly discussed in addition to relevant studies in small devices. This issue is the collection of 41 papers presented at the entitled meeting. The 39 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Blood tranfusion in critically ill patients: state of the art Transfusão de sangue em pacientes críticos: estado da arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludhmila Abrahão Hajjar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most common abnormal findings in critically ill patients, and many of these patients will receive a blood transfusion during their intensive care unit stay. However, the determinants of exactly which patients do receive transfusions remains to be defined and have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Concerns and doubts have emerged regarding the benefits and safety of blood transfusion, in part due to the lack of evidence of better outcomes resulting from randomized studies and in part related to the observations that transfusion may increase the risk of infection. As a result of these concerns and of several studies suggesting better or similar outcomes with a lower transfusion trigger, there has been a general tendency to decrease the transfusion threshold from the classic 10 g/dL to lower values. In this review, we focus on some of the key studies providing insight into current transfusion practices and fueling the current debate on the ideal transfusion trigger.A transfusão no paciente crítico vem sendo alvo de discussões recentes considerando seus reais benefícios na redução de morbi-mortalidade e os riscos associados ao procedimento. Nos últimos anos, alguns estudos controlados e randomizados tiveram como objetivo comparar desfechos clínicos entre pacientes que receberam transfusão de maneira mais liberal (hemoglobina alvo em torno de 9 g/dL e transfusão de maneira mais restritiva (hemoglobina em torno de 7 g/dL. Os resultados demonstram a não superioridade da estratégia liberal comparada com a restritiva. Além disso, em alguns subgrupos de pacientes menos graves ou de menor idade, a transfusão foi associada com piores desfechos clínicos. Os riscos da transfusão de sangue no paciente crítico incluem desde incidência maior de infecções bacterianas, infecções virais, imunodepressão, reações hemolíticas e lesões teciduais inflamatórias, dentre outros. Algumas estratégias v

  14. The critic as transvestite: the parody nature of literary criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pruneda Sentíes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a path in the analysis of literary criticism as an object of study. In order to convey this, this essay attempts to define literary criticism as a genre that parodies the literary text it aspires to examine. Mikhail Bakhtin’s analysis of the novelistic discourse is useful to establish a connection between parody and criticism. Although Bakhtin discusses the novel, I ascertain that his arguments may be applied to the description of criticism as a parodic-travestying genre. Secondly, this paper discusses Linda Hutcheon’s work, which states that parody is a repetition of the original text. According to Hutcheon, this repetition implies a critical distance with the parodied text, which marks difference rather than similarity.

  15. Comparison of methods for calculating thermodynamic properties of binary mixtures in the sub and super critical state: Lee-Kesler and cubic equations of state for binary mixtures containing either CO2 or H2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jyisy; Griffiths, Peter R.; Goodwin, Anthony R.H.

    2003-01-01

    The (ρ,T,p) and (vapor + liquid) equilibria for fluid mixtures containing either CO 2 or H 2 S have been determined from 13 equations of state. The estimated values have been compared with published experimental results. CO 2 and H 2 S were used to represent non-polar and polar fluids, respectively. The equations of state investigated were as follows: (a) the Lee-Kesler equation; (b) two equations that included new reference fluids for the Lee-Kesler method; (c) three so-called extended equations of state; and (d) seven cubic equations of state. After adjustment of the binary interaction parameters the predicted values differed from the experimental data by about 0.8% for CO 2 mixtures while for H 2 S mixtures the uncertainty was about ±2.8%. Somewhat larger errors, although still lower than ±5%, were obtained for co-existing phase densities; the Lee-Kesler method provided results of the highest accuracy. The cubic equations proposed by Schmidt and Wenzel and Valderrama provide the most reliable predictions of both single and co-existing phase densities. Comparison of the predicted (vapor + liquid) equilibrium with experiment shows that each of the seven cubic equations provides results of similar accuracy and all within ±6%

  16. Analysis of the test results for the two-phase critical flow with non-condensible gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. K.; Chung, C. H.; Park, H. S.; Min, K. H.; Choi, N. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. C.; Chang, M. H.

    2002-07-01

    The two-phase critical flow test was performed for simulating the pipe break accident of SMART reactor. The requirements of the critical flow test are 7∼20mm pipe break dia., 7∼12MPa stagnation pressure, 0∼60 .deg. C subcooling degree and 0∼0.5kg/s N 2 gas flow rate. The test section is sharp edged pipe type which has the dimension of I.D.=20, L=300mm and I.D.=10.9, L=1000mm. The test conditions are 4, 7, 10 MPa at stagnation pressure, 0, 20, 50 .deg. C of subcooling degree and 0.028∼0.39 kg/s of N 2 injection gas flowrate. The measured data at test section and other components in terms of pressure, temperature and flowrate were collected in DAS computer with maintaining the steady state conditions at least 60 seconds. From the test results, the critical characteristics of the break pipe were analysed and verified the capacity of the test facility. For the verification of the Modified Henry-Fauske model which can predict the two-phase critical flow with non-condensible gas, the code simulation using MARS which contains the option of the Modified Henry -Fauske model was performed. The simulation results of steady-state two-phase critical flow experiments show that they agree with the measured critical flow rates within 6% root-mean-square error

  17. Energy response study of modified CR-39 neutron personnel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathian, Deepa; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Nair, Sreejith S.; Sathian, V.; Mishra, Jitendra; Sen, Meghnath

    2018-01-01

    Personnel neutron dosimetry is an integral part of radiation protection. No single dosimeter provides the satisfactory energy response, sensitivity, angular dependence characteristics and accuracy necessary to meet the requirement of an ideal personnel neutron dosimeter. The response of a personnel neutron dosimeter is critically dependent upon the energy distribution of the neutron field. CR-39 personnel neutron dosimeters were typically calibrated in the standard neutron field of 252 Cf and 241 Am-Be in our laboratory, although actual neutron fields may vary from the calibration neutron spectrum. Recently the badge cassette of the personnel neutron dosimeter was changed due to frequent damage of the PVC badge used earlier. This paper discusses energy response of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector loaded in this modified badge cassette as per latest ISO recommendation

  18. State of the art of environmentally friendly sample preparation approaches for determination of PBDEs and metabolites in environmental and biological samples: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Paula; Lana, Nerina B; Ríos, Juan M; García-Reyes, Juan F; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2016-01-28

    Green chemistry principles for developing methodologies have gained attention in analytical chemistry in recent decades. A growing number of analytical techniques have been proposed for determination of organic persistent pollutants in environmental and biological samples. In this light, the current review aims to present state-of-the-art sample preparation approaches based on green analytical principles proposed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metabolites (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) in environmental and biological samples. Approaches to lower the solvent consumption and accelerate the extraction, such as pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction, are discussed in this review. Special attention is paid to miniaturized sample preparation methodologies and strategies proposed to reduce organic solvent consumption. Additionally, extraction techniques based on alternative solvents (surfactants, supercritical fluids, or ionic liquids) are also commented in this work, even though these are scarcely used for determination of PBDEs. In addition to liquid-based extraction techniques, solid-based analytical techniques are also addressed. The development of greener, faster and simpler sample preparation approaches has increased in recent years (2003-2013). Among green extraction techniques, those based on the liquid phase predominate over those based on the solid phase (71% vs. 29%, respectively). For solid samples, solvent assisted extraction techniques are preferred for leaching of PBDEs, and liquid phase microextraction techniques are mostly used for liquid samples. Likewise, green characteristics of the instrumental analysis used after the extraction and clean-up steps are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of a modified collocation method to the one dimensional, one group neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.

    1976-07-01

    A modified collocation method is used for solving the one group criticality problem for a uniform multiplying slab. The critical parameters and the angular fluxes for a number of slabs are displayed and compared with previously published values. (orig.) [de

  20. Critical Infrastructure Information Disclosure and Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moteff, John D; Stevens, Gina M

    2003-01-01

    Critical infrastructures have been defined as those systems and assets so vital to the United States that the incapacity of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on the United States...