Mohammadpur, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Rasoul
The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society.
Steward, W E
Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all
Hagevoort, G Robert; Douphrate, David I; Reynolds, Stephen J
As modern dairy operations around the world expand, farmers are increasingly reliant on greater automation and larger numbers of hired labor to milk cows and perform other essential farm tasks. Dairy farming is among the most dangerous occupations, with high rates of injury, illness, and employee turnover. Lower education levels, illiteracy, and limited language proficiency increase the possibility of injury or death associated with higher risk occupations such as dairy. Sustaining a healthy, productive workforce is a critical component of risk management; however, many owners and managers have not received formal training in employee management or occupational health and safety. Optimal dairy farming management should address milk production that is sustainable and responsible from the animal welfare, social, economic, and environmental perspectives. Each of these aspects is interdependent with each other and with a sustainable, healthy, productive workforce. Very few studies address the effectiveness of risk management in the dairy industry. Studies suggest that labor management practices are a potential competitive advantage for dairy farms, but the connection with efficiency, productivity, and profitability has not been clearly demonstrated. Transformational leadership has been associated with improved safety climate and reduced incidence of injury, whereas passive leadership styles have opposite effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of safety-specific transformational leadership among dairy owners and managers. A systematic approach to risk management should address worker health and safety as an integral component of production, food safety, and animal welfare. A successful program must address the cultural and linguistic barriers associated with immigrant workers.
In traditional models of knowledge translation in health care, the "expert" researcher disseminates empirical knowledge in a top-down manner to practitioners. Newer approaches extend our view of who needs to be involved in knowledge translation, what counts as evidence, and how knowledge exchange can be facilitated. Multisectoral participation and processes for collective synthesis of evidence increase the potential for the application of knowledge in practice and policy in ways that are mutually reinforcing and address structural inequities. The author examines the use of feminist consciousness-raising practices in virtual communities of practice as a viable framework for knowledge translation on complex health issues. Using the preliminary findings ofa study, she discusses how collective analysis in collaborative processes--which is at the heart of feminist action research--leads to engaged action by participants.
From its earliest days, the Fortran programming language has been designed with computing efficiency in mind. The latest standard, Fortran 2008, incorporates a host of modern features, including object-orientation, array operations, user-defined types, and provisions for parallel computing. This tut
This volume contains two additional features which enhance the value of Modern Power Station Practice as a whole: a cumulative subject index and a detailed list of tables of contents for the entire work. The cumulative index provides access to the vast body of information presented in the set, and also indicates at a glance the breadth and depth of the treatment through the use of inclusive page ranges for major topics. In order to allow the reader the greatest flexibility in using the index there are many cross-references. The entries themselves are qualified by up to two descriptive subheadi
Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom
There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making.
Martynenko, O V
The article is devoted to the study of scientific-and-practical researches carried out in the field of management, organization, and marketing of medical care provided to patients presenting with infections transmitted through sexual contacts. The conducted investigations proved to be of current concern as evidenced by the analysis of the relevant literature now available, based on which analysis major lines of further research have been outlined, that include problems of marketing, process, strategic management and planning of activities of the health system in the face of the impact of the external conditions and within the framework of the market economy existing in the country.
Kuijpers, H.M.E.P.; Pollmann, J.S.; Müller, J.M.; Steen, van der J.A.
Many students of memory assume that the practice of memory changed dramatically around 1800; this volume shows that there was much continuity as well as change. Premodern ways of negotiating memories of pain and loss, for instance, were indeed quite different to those in the modern West. Yet by exam
Simonelli, J M
This paper uses data gathered in a semi-arid, mountain region of the border state of Sonora, Mexico to illustrate that modernization and the importation of urban ideas and values can influence health status in unexpected ways. It traces the historic process of modernization in a rural municipio, relating this to social promises and economic cycles in Mexico. Modernization is seen to encompass life standard improvements and access to medical care; extension of road and transportation systems; and the widespread availability of information and education, as well as lifestyle changes required to incorporate these 'urban' influences. Reviewing the link between climate and health in arid lands, the paper notes that such modernization can be a well-meaning intrusion upon a set of cultural and social practices which had proved adaptive in dealing with climatic extremes. Initial modernization produces impressive declines in mortality and morbidity, as illustrated in an analysis of mortality figures and causes in relation to age cohorts and decades for the years 1955-1984. However, reductions in epidermic-related infant mortality are shown to be offset by increases in deaths due to trauma, chronic conditions and endemic disease. An analysis of morbidity for the year 1983-84 indicates that continuing high rates of infectious disease are related to conditions which result from increasingly defective modernization. To maintain technology, including water, electrical, and sewage systems, continual capital expenditure on both the public and private level is required. The economic crisis in Mexico is reducing available funds at a time when the community has adjusted its traditional lifestyle to incorporate technological improvements. In light of this, it is likely that inroads against infectious disease will not just continue to be stalemated, but could actually be reversed. This finding has implications for towns and villages on both sides of the Mexican-American border.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study pertaining to the practices and perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners on Traditional Medicine (TM was carried out from February 25 to April 4, 2008.The results of the study showed that almost all the practitioners in both systems expressed their willingness to collaborate among each other to promote the positive elements of TM. As traditional healing knowledge is still being handed over from one generation to the next, mainly through word of mouth, which will lead to distortion or a total demise of the original knowledge, this report indicates the urgency to document the same. Moreover, the report also implies the need for educating and training the practitioners of the two systems. More also has to be done to create a discussion forum for both modern and TM practitioners, to enable them to share their knowledge. Government support for promotion and development of TM should be considered as a goal to be seriously pursued. The government should also contribute by helping them financially and by arranging training and education for the improvement of the healthcare system given to the public.
. Some traditional medicines are available from well-established outlets like pharmacies, modern-day health-shops and allied-traditional healthcare professionals like the statutory recognised homeopaths, naturopaths, phytopaths and ethnopaths. These medicines have to adhere to a formal manufacturing and scientific foundation, while traditional healers rely on self-made, pre-modern and untested indigenous mixtures. This lack in differentiation and scientific foundation has clouded the true ownership of traditional health and medical products as viewed and understood under the definition Traditional African Medicines (TAM. This vagueness also obstructs the compilation of a profile of the incomes generated by the various role players in their practices and by manufacturing and selling of traditional medical and health products. The end result is a misrepresentation of sales statistics in South African literature on traditional healers and their self-made health products and untested mixtures. Conclusion The present-day statistics cited in literature of annual incomes of between R2 billion (R2,000 million and R3.4 billion (R3,400 million, roughly an average of R2.7 billion (R2,700 million, from the sales of traditional health products and mixtures by South African traditional healers, are false. What is more, South African literature generally reflects an erroneous classification of who the true manufacturers and sellers of traditional health and medical products are, and what “traditional medicines” really mean. This has led to an acceptance of South African traditional healers and their untested and risky health products and mixtures based on a misconception that they are the true manufacturers, sellers and owners of TAM. The most prominent role player in the manufacturing and selling of traditional medicines and the true income-generator seems to be the formal South African industry of complementary/-alternative medicines (CAM. This comprehensive, well-established and
Baliatsas, Christos; van Kamp, Irene; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Lebret, Erik; Yzermans, Joris
Objective The present study investigates the association of modern health worries (MHW) with self-reported as well as general practitioner (GP)-registered non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS), medication use, alternative therapy consultations, sleep quality and quality of life. The interrelation be
Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.
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The purpose of the article was to research necessary conditions for creating high — quality images which allow to display all features of pathological process on skin more complete and authentically. That is also an integral part of modern dermatology. The usage of photographic documentation is necessary to improve students’ training, for doctor’s practical activities using the experience of the clinic, creating medical literature, and it is a unique and valuable contribution to diagnostics of dermatological diseases.
Padfield, Nicolas; Haldrup, Michael; Hobye, Mads
We posit that modern fabrication and rapid prototyping practices can empower non-technical academic environments. For this to resonate with academic learning and research environments in a university context we must view FabLabs not only as machine parks but as creative environments, producing...... knowledge contributions in the form of processes, designs, artifacts and products. We must embrace thinking through the material, and embrace physical products as valid, accessible and assessable on an equal footing with traditional textual media. We describe two cases: workshops focused on exploration...... through the physical and digital media itself, without a traditional textual component....
Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of this article is to present that innovating in health care begins to become an imperative in present time. Innovating will enable the achievement of the highest quality health care results and the patients' satisfaction with the least amount of financial resources.Methods: The thorough literature review of multifaceted sources was conducted including: studies, books, monographies and peer – reviewed journals with the goal of achieving the clearer picture of today's modern challenges in the complex fi eld of health care innovation.Discussion: Theoretical and empirical studies clearly indicate that the innovation is one of the key factors in the competitiveness of the organization and its survival in the market. Developed countries of the world today are making significant efforts in order for innovation to become a national priority, with special emphasis placed on measuring innovation performance. Results of theoretical and practical studies show that in the future, treatment of the most diffi cult and complex diseases of our time, through the entirely new discoveries and results, derived from the process of innovation, will project entirely new positive forms and outcomes in the health care.Conclusion: There is no doubt that the humanity and medical science will through innovation succeed to win the battles against the majority of the most complex contemporary diseases. Malignant neoplasm of tomorrow, through the application of a new, innovative approaches to research, processes and treatments will become a chronic diseases. Among many, the particular problem in the process of innovation will represent the cost of research and development (R&D, production and the safety of prescription drugs.
There has been, to date, little discussion about the defining features and measures of wildlife health in the literature or legislation. Much wildlife health work focuses on the detection and response to infectious or parasitic diseases; this perspective has been reinforced by the focus of the One Health initiative on wildlife as sources of emerging infections. The definition of health as "the absence of disease" lags 70 yr behind modern concepts of human health and emerging concepts of wildlife health in terms of vulnerability, resilience, and sustainability. Policies, programs, and research that focus on the integration of wildlife health with natural resource conservation, ecosystem restoration, and public health need a working definition of health that recognizes the major threats to fish and wildlife are the result of many other drivers besides pathogens and parasites, including habitat loss, globalization of trade, land-use pressure, and climate change. A modern definition of wildlife health should emphasize that 1) health is the result of interacting biologic, social, and environmental determinants that interact to affect capacity to cope with change; 2) health cannot be measured solely by what is absent but rather by characteristics of the animals and their ecosystem that affect their vulnerability and resilience; and 3) wildlife health is not a biologic state but rather a dynamic social construct based on human expectations and knowledge.
Leão, Luís Henrique da Costa
Modern-day slave labor is one of the most pernicious and persistent social problems in Brazil. In the light of the need to implement a national occupational health policy, this paper discusses slave labor as a public health concern, highlighting possibilities for broadening strategies for vigilance and comprehensive care for this specific working population. Exploratory qualitative research was carried out based on the "social construction of reality" proposed by Lenoir, Berger and Luckmann. The investigation consisted of a theoretical review of modern-day slave labor on the national and international scene within the scope of the human, social and public health sciences and an analysis of social and political practices to tackle modern-day slave labor was conducted in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Semi-structured individual and group interviews with workers and representatives of social movements and public institutions were organized. The results reveal the theoretical and practical dimensions of slave labor and its relations with the health field and highlight the role and potential of public health in the enhancing of vigilance practices and health care of workers subjected to these chronic social conditions.
Quantum mechanics forms the foundation of all modern physics, including atomic, nuclear, and molecular physics, the physics of the elementary particles, condensed matter physics. Modern astrophysics also relies heavily on quantum mechanics. Quantum theory is needed to understand the basis for new materials, new devices, the nature of light coming from stars, the laws which govern the atomic nucleus, and the physics of biological systems. As a result the subject of this book is a required course for most physics graduate students. While there are many books on the subject, this book targets specifically graduate students and it is written with modern advances in various fields in mind. Many examples treated in the various chapters as well as the emphasis of the presentation in the book are designed from the perspective of such problems. For example, the book begins by putting the Schrodinger equation on a spatial discrete lattice and the continuum limit is also discussed, inspired by Hamiltonian lattice gauge ...
Majumdar, S K
The Greek physician of antiquity - Hippocrates (460-356 B.C.) is called the Father of Modern Medicine and the Hippocratic Oath to which doctors of modern medicine traditionally and formally express their allegiance, forms the basic foundation of medical ethics. The tradition of Western ethical philosophy began with the ancient Greeks. From Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and his immediate successors, Plato (427-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), there is a clear line of continuity, through Hellenistic period (from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) to the end of Ptolemic dynasty (30 B.C.) and the Roman annexation of Egypt - broadly post-Aristotelian and medieval thought to the present day. But the society has qualitatively and quantitatively changed since the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Society, today, is just a collection of discrete individuals, each with his or her own purposes and interests. Hence it has become almost imperative to apply the principle of autonomy to issues in the ethics of health care. The aim of this short essay is, therefore, an attempt to explore the relevance, if any, of Aristotelian ethical theory to the modern health care.
Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L; Hanneman, Kate; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Meyer, Elaine C; Brown, Stephen D
Modern radiology is at the forefront of technological progress in medicine, a position that often places unique challenges on its professional character. This article uses "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," a document published in 2002 and endorsed by several major radiology organizations, as a lens for exploring professional challenges in modern radiology. The three main tenets of the Charter emphasize patient welfare, patient autonomy, and the reduction of disparities in health care distribution. This article reviews the ways in which modern technology and financial structures potentially create stressors on professionalism in radiology, while highlighting the opportunities they provide for radiologists seeking to fulfill the professional goals articulated in the Charter. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and voice recognition systems have transformed the speed of radiology and enhanced the ability of radiologists to improve patient care but also have brought new tensions to the workplace. Although teleradiology may improve global access to radiologists, it may also promote the commoditization of radiology, which diminishes the professional stature of radiologists. Social media and patient portals provide radiologists with new forums for interacting with the public and patients, potentially promoting patient welfare. However, patient privacy and autonomy are important considerations. Finally, modern financial structures provide radiologists with both entrepreneurial opportunities as well as the temptation for unprofessional conduct. Each of these advances carries the potential for professional growth while testing the professional stature of radiology. By considering the risks and benefits of emerging technologies in the modern radiology world, radiologists can chart an ethical and professional future path.
MacNeil, David B
Students and others wishing to know more about the practical side of mathematics will find this volume a highly informative resource. Accessible explanations of important concepts feature worked examples and diagrams. 1963 edition.
Sewell, Ernestine P.
Although not all the problems of writing are solved by practice in letter writing, a review of the classical texts on "ars dictaminis"--letter writing--creates a strong argument for its increased use as an exercise in college composition classrooms. By incorporating the lessons of dictamen as a device for achieving rhetorical modes--narration,…
D G Podvoysky
Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the special features of modernist art as a complex sociocultural phenomenon. Aesthetic practices, characteristic for this period in art history, would be examined within the broad context of impacts and tendencies that constitute originality of Modernity and its social structures. The midpoints of conceptions of Modern Art by Clement Greenberg, Theodor W. Adorno and Umberto Eco are highlighted and analyzed.
Various modern aquaculture practices applied in fish production especially in Asia are reviewed. The vast Nigerian aquatic medium of numerous water bodies like rivers, streams, lakes reservoirs, flood plains, irrigation canals, coastal swamps offer great potentials for aquaculture production, if optimally utilized. Constraints to modernization of aquaculture in Nigeria among other factors are: 1) a serious shortage of trained manpower; 2) lack of knowledge on profitability of aquaculture as a...
A. A. Garganeeva
Full Text Available Position of nifedipine in modern cardiology practice is highlighted. Nifedipine usage for arterial hypertension therapy , including combined one, stroke prevention, treatment of hypertensive crisis and ischemic heart disease is considered. Advantages of nifedipine innovative formulations are presented. Possible usage of nifedipine in pulmonary hypertension as well as pregnancy is discussed specially.
Langer, Steve G
PACS and Digital Medicine: Essential Principles and Modern Practice. Y. Liu J. Wang CRC, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 2011. Hardcover, 367 pp. Price: $135.95. ISBN: 978-1-4200-83651. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
In the modern social background of strengthening the nation and its people, woman's health got the attention of Chinese and became one important part in the modernization progress of state and nation, they started the work of women's health education, publicized women's health knowledge and nursery methods through many ways and carried out midwifery education.In the name of "health", woman's body gradually be socialized and internationalized. Meanwhile, Chinese women also gradually got rid of their own discipline of the state and society, began to seek their own liberation, became one important part of China's modernization.
E. P. Butorina
Full Text Available The goal to simplify the Russian language for its practical use and the extension of Russian cultural influence was set in Peter the Great’s period. In his language policy Peter the Great preferred a functional criterion, insisting on the use of the Russian language variety, which would be understandable not by the elite only, so the Russian language regulation for business purposes has had a long-standing tradition. The article discusses the European practice of various languages standardization in modern business communication. To compare Russian business texts in Russia and abroad urban sites of Moscow, New York and Tallinn are analyzed. The data obtained suggest some hypotheses about peculiarities of business texts in modern Russian language space.
Abstract: The study investigates the field of haṭha yoga as it is described in the medieval Haṭhayogapradīpikā, a work on yoga composed in Sanskrit from the Nāth tradition. The study have then compared these practices, practitioners and the attitudes towards them, with interviews conducted in modern Varanasi, India. The focus in the assignment is the connection between haṭha yoga and tantric practices since tantra has been crucial in the forming of the early haṭha yoga and classical haṭha yo...
Camila Ferreira Vorkapic
Background: Many yoga texts make reference to the importance of mental health and the use of specific techniques in the treatment of mental disorders. Different concepts utilized in modern psychology may not come with contemporary ideas, instead, they seem to share a common root with ancient wisdom. Aims: The goal of this perspective article is to correlate modern techniques used in psychology and psychiatry with yogic practices, in the treatment of mental disorders. Materials and Metho...
Full Text Available The generalized information about directions of application of biomechanics technologies in modern sport is resulted. Some aspects of the use of biomechanics ergogenical tools of the moved delayed action in the system of preparation of athletes-jumpers are considered. Presents the possibility of using training complex «easy leading» for perfection of structure of motive actions of sportsmen, specialized in high jumps. The introduction of a vast arsenal of technical tools in practice the training process open new prospects associated with increased efficiency in the preparation of athletes.
Orloff, Michael A
This is the first open practical guide for Modern TRIZ technology of effective inventive thinking. Modern TRIZ makes possible creating the innovations and inventions with systematic methods supported with effective EASyTRIZ technology and software. Vang Venming, company owner, inventor, participant of a 2-day workshop for 1,000 students at the North-Eastern Forestry University, Harbin, China: Right here, at this Modern TRIZ workshop, I came up with a new idea which improves my own patent. This is simply fabulous! I would never have believed before that it is possible! Seung-Hyen Yoo, professor of Mechanical Engineering, AJOU University, Suwon, Republic of Korea: We have known TRIZ for more than 10 years, and have successfully used it in engineering consulting and student training. And we saw a new TRIZ at lectures and workshops delivered by Professor Orloff in the Republic of Korea before experts working for SAMSUNG and other companies, and before faculty and students of several universities. Heinrich Kochs, ...
El Taguri A
Full Text Available Health services have the functions to define community health problems, to identify unmet needs and survey the resources to meet them, to establish SMART objectives, and to project administrative actions to accomplish the purpose of proposed action programs. For maximum efficacy, health systems should rely on newer approaches of management as management-by-objectives, risk-management, and performance management with full and equal participation from professionals and consumers. The public should be well informed about their needs and what is expected from them to improve their health. Inefficient use of budget allocated to health services should be prevented by tools like performance management and clinical governance. Data processed to information and intelligence is needed to deal with changing disease patterns and to encourage policies that could manage with the complex feedback system of health. e-health solutions should be instituted to increase effectiveness and improve efficiency and informing human resources and populations. Suitable legislations should be introduced including those that ensure coordination between different sectors. Competent workforce should be given the opportunity to receive lifetime appropriate adequate training. External continuous evaluation using appropriate indicators is vital. Actions should be done both inside and outside the health sector to monitor changes and overcome constraints.
Kreps, G L
The systemic prejudices and biases that often limit the effectiveness of health care delivery are examined. How the inherent imbalance in control between consumers and providers of health care, based on the micropolitics of sharing relevant health information, perpetuates a system of marginalization and alienation within health care delivery systems is discussed. Communication barriers that often confront many stigmatized groups of health care consumers, such as the poor, people with AIDS, minorities, the ill elderly, and women, are identified. Such prejudicial treatment is framed within a cultural ideologies model, leading to identification of communication strategies for promoting justice in the modern health care system and enhancing the quality of health care delivery.
Stensland, S H; Sobal, J
Ballet dancers have been shown to have nutrition problems and poor dietary practices. We asked dance instructors and dance directors to distribute a questionnaire to dancers involved in three dance types. Of the 106 dancers who completed the questionnaire, 71% participated in ballet, 60% in jazz, and 74% in modern dance; 31% participated in all three types of dance. The body mass index was similar for all types of dancers. More than half (60%) of the dancers used vitamin and mineral supplements, and 18% of the females reported irregular menstruation. Wide ranges existed in intake of foods from each of four food groups, caffeine, and alcohol. Printed media (magazines and books) were the primary sources of nutrition information. Dietitians may encounter many types of dancers and should be aware that dancers involved in ballet and other types of dance may have dietary practices that could improve with nutrition education and counseling.
Wang, N; Yang, K
This report from the Second National Symposium on Population Theory and Science discusses seven issues facing China's 4 modernization goals. 1) Population reproduction corresponding to the reproduction of material means dominates the population growth pattern in a socialist society. Symposium delegates agree that human and material reproduction, as described by Friedrich Engels, must be better understood and managed since China's goals depend upon promoting material production and controlling population growth. 2) Population development relates most closely to economic development so the production development must be a prerequisite. In China however, population control has significant bearing on modernization. 3) China's population problems differ from those of problems in capitalist societies, since they can be solved, not through reforms, but through planning and self-adjustment between the reproduction and material production ratio. Population quality must also be improved, and manpower resources fully used. 4) Population policy should also address such issues as geographical distribution and migration. Family planning should shift to the "1 child per couple" practice to accomplish zero growth by the year 2000. The attendees strongly endorse family planning legislation and taxation on extra-quota children. 5) Population projections and analyses show that "1 child per couple" policy is essential to achieve the 4 modernization goals. Population planning requires a nationwide general census; computers used within a national population data network will provide statistics for policy making. 6) Delegates agree that much reseach is needed done on urban population structure, standards for defining urban population and city scope, and on standards for cities and towns. Population control policy for national minorities should be practiced in densely populated areas and in areas where national minorities are scattered among major nationalities, and China should employ
Patrick, Ralph; Tyroler, H. A.
An index of the modernization of Papago communities was developed to test whether social and cultural processes are involved in the determination of human health and whether rapid social change affects health. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Detroit, 1964. (FF)
Jun 1, 2004 ... improved versions of technology developed long ago, such as the ... health care system should it be applied; and at what cost? These questions .... Equipment maintenance starts with training users in correct operation, basic ...
Köteles, Ferenc; Simor, Péter; Czető, Márton; Sárog, Noémi; Szemerszky, Renáta
Modern health worries (MHWs) are widespread in modern societies. MHWs were connected to both negative and positive psychological characteristics in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the relationships among intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, MHWs, and psychological well-being. Members of the Hungarian Skeptic Society (N = 128), individuals committed to astrology (N = 601), and people from a non-representative community sample (N = 554) completed questionnaires assessing intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, modern health worries (MHWs), and psychological well-being. Astrologers showed higher levels of spirituality, intuitive-experiential thinking, and modern health worries than individuals from the community sample; and skeptics scored even lower than the latter group with respect to all three constructs. Within the community sample, medium level connections between measures of spirituality and the experiential thinking style, and weak to medium level correlations between spirituality and MHWs were found. The connection between MHWs and experiential thinking style was completely mediated by spirituality. Individuals with higher levels of spirituality are particularly vulnerable to overgeneralized messages on health related risks. Official communication of potential risks based on rational scientific reasoning is not appropriate to persuade them as it has no impact on the intuitive-experiential system.
O'Callaghan, Michael G
Health care professionals are in a unique position to identify and to assist victims of human trafficking. Human trafficking today occurs both domestically and globally. It manifests in many forms, including adult and child forced labor, involuntary domestic servitude, adult and child sexual slavery, involuntary servitude, debt bondage, and child soldiers. This article offers insight into modern human trafficking and ways health care professionals can be activists.
Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee; Runbold, Bruce
Although the cooperation between modern and traditional medicine (TM) is increasingly promoted in health care system of nationwide, there remains many barriers. In this study, we examined the barriers and possible ways of promoting cooperation between traditional healers and modern health system. Ethnographic method including participant observations, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and unobtrusive methods were employed for data collection. Sixty six key participants of six stakeholders participated in this study. There are many barriers existing in relation to promote the legal role of traditional healers. This is because modern and traditional healers recognise health legalities differently. Modern health professionals try to motivate and require traditional healers to meet their standards, whereas traditional healers face integration difficulties and resist those approaches; rather, they are concerning with preserving their own traditions. Their traditional health practices do not meet the "best practice" standards necessary for them to gain the trust of modern doctors. Importantly, the licensing issue is key barrier creating difficulties for traditional healers. However, traditional healers are recognised for their benefit role in health care if cooperated with modern health professions. To make cooperation possible, all stakeholders need to understand cultural beliefs of traditional healers relating to cooperation with modern medicine. Supporting power for promotion of cooperation at the community level is the key strategy to suit community needs and contexts. In addition, cooperation requires clarification of the responsibilities of all stakeholders at the local and central levels.
Wiist, W H; Sullivan, B M; St George, D M; Wayment, H A
A web survey of Buddhists' religious practices and beliefs, and health history and practices was conducted with 886 Buddhist respondents. Eighty-two percent were residents of the USA. Ninety-nine percent practiced Buddhist meditation and 70% had attended a formal retreat for intensive meditation practice. Eighty-six percent were converts to Buddhism and had been a Buddhist for a median of 9 years. Sixty-eight percent of respondents rated their health as very good or excellent. A one-point increase on a Buddhist Devoutness Index was associated with a 15% increase in the odds of being a non-smoker and an 11% increase in the odds of being in good to excellent health.
Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.
Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literatu...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study which has been conducted among 1864 heads of Turkmans households or their wives in the north-east of Iran in 1979 was to rind the type and frequency of health practices in a traditional society, and the relation between these practices and variables such as age sex, literacy use of mass media and spatial mobility. As the pilot study uncovered the scarcity of health installations such as hot bath, water supply, clinic, and hospital in the study area, therefore, two most common health practices-i.e. to take a bath and brush teeth-were studied in relation with aforementioned variables. Finding revealed that: 1 - Elders take more a bath and youths brush more their teeth, and in both groups males are at higher level than females. However, females brush their teeth more regular than males. 2- Both practices are being more performed by literates than illiterates. 3- Turkmans are in 1general fatalistic people. In this regard those who are more fatalistic usually take a bath once a year while in contrast less fatalistic individuals take it once a week. 4- In spite of very low level of health awareness among Turkmans, pains such as, headache and/or bellyache (pain in the stomach is a kind of illness from their point of view. However, such recognition did not affect their health practices. 5- Those who had some knowledge of pathogens (microbes, or supposed the fly is a diffuse of illness, were more concerned about their hygiene and took more care of it. 6- Use of mass media (radio was effective in introducing health practices among Turkmans. Radio listeners took a bath or brushed their teeth more regular than non-listeners.
Biscaia, André Rosa; Heleno, Liliana Correia Valente
The 2005 Portuguese primary health care (CSP) reform was one of the most successful reforms of the country's public services. The most relevant event was the establishment of Family Health Units (USF): voluntary and self-organized multidisciplinary teams that provide customized medical and nursing care to a group of people. Then, the remaining realms of CSP were reorganized with the establishment of Health Center Clusters (ACeS). Clinical governance was implemented aiming at achieving health gains by improving quality and participation and accountability of all. This paper aims to characterize the 2005 reform of Portuguese CSP with an analysis of its systemic and local realms. This is a case study of a CSP reform of a health system with documentary analysis and description of one of its facilities. This reform was Portuguese, modern and innovative. Portuguese by not breaking completely with the past, modern because it has adhered to technology and networking, and innovative because it broke with the traditional hierarchized model. It fulfilled the goal of a reform: it achieved improvements with greater satisfaction of all and health gains.
Full Text Available It has been found, that despite the improvement of the objective health indicators, people's subjective perception of health is that health indicators are getting worse (Barsky A.J., 1988, which is one of the reasons why a new term “modern health worries” is coming into use in medical literature (Petrie K.J., Wessely S., 2002. People are worried and scared of the effect of new high tech innovations (effect of cell phone radiation, environmental pollution, ozone layer depletion, etc., changes in manufacturing of food products (genetically modified food, food concentrates etc.. Nowadays, many people, being worried about their health, turn to new eating habits (veganism, defend themselves against various innovations in the health system (vaccination, etc. It could be defined as fear of consequences of scientific progress. The reason of fear is not only the misunderstanding of scientific innovations. Quite often, it is a belief in pseudoscientific theories (for example, “conspiracy” or belief in the paranormal phenomena (karma violations, disruption of the cosmic plan. In a part of cases protesters against vaccines and genetically modified food belong to new religious movements which are based on belief in the paranormal and magical thinking. Magical thinking predisposes to the negative attitude towards scientific assumptions and innovations, like a genetically modified food (Saher, 2006. Aim of study. To study the correlation between pseudoscientific assumptions, belief in the paranormal and modern health worries. This condition of modern health worries is becoming important for health care system. It causes the increase in the number of symptoms (Koteles et al., 2011, which, in its turn, increases the doctors' visit rate on one hand (Rief W et al., 2012, but, on the other hand, increases evasion to attend traditional medical care activities. Part of supporters of pseudoscientific beliefs experiences anxiety as to the bad food toxins
Full Text Available Interoception can be broadly defined as the sense of signals originating within the body. As such, interoception is critical for our sense of embodiment, motivation and well-being. And yet, despite its importance, interoception remains poorly understood within modern science. This paper reviews interdisciplinary perspectives on interoception, with the goal of presenting a unified perspective from diverse fields such as neuroscience, clinical practice, and contemplative studies. It is hoped that this integrative effort will advance our understanding of how interoception determines well-being, and identify the central challenges to such understanding. To this end, we introduce an expanded taxonomy of interoceptive processes, arguing that many of these processes can be understood through an emerging predictive coding model for mind-body integration. The model, which describes the tension between expected and felt body sensation, parallels contemplative theories, and implicates interoception in a variety of affective and psychosomatic disorders. We conclude that maladaptive construal of bodily sensations may lie at the heart of many contemporary maladies, and that contemplative practices may attenuate these interpretative biases, restoring a person’s sense of presence and agency in the world.
Lewis, Nancy S.
In 1993, William E. Doll, Jr., a professor at Louisiana State University, created a post-modern curriculum matrix. Instead of the old three Rs, reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic, the curriculum framework Doll envisioned is compromised of the four Rs: richness, recursion, relation, and rigor. The different categories of the four Rs are not mutually…
Singh, Debra Anne Kaur; Earnest, Jaya; Lample, May
Uganda has faced numerous challenges over the past 50 years from overcoming political conflict and civil unrest, to rapid population growth, to combating the HIV epidemic and ever-growing health needs. Women in Uganda have had a major role to play in the health of families and communities. The researchers' purpose in this study, undertaken in rural Uganda, was to a) identify a people-centered definition of development, b) compare it to the process of modernization, and c) investigate how these processes have changed the role women play in decision-making, in areas directly and indirectly related to their health and that of their families. Twenty-two men and women participated in focus group discussion and completed questionnaires. Based on our analysis of discussions it appears that both modernization and development have impacted health positively and negatively. Key themes distilled from interviews included that modernization has led to the breakdown of families; increased maternal responsibility for children; diminished land and economic resources; and an erosion of cultural values and practices that had previously provided stability for the society. In terms of development, women play an increasing role in decision-making processes in the household and are gaining increasing respect for their expertise in a number of areas, notably health care. We propose a movement of grassroots discourse on modernization. Development, and its effect on health, is necessary if the positive aspects of Ugandan culture and those of similar emerging societies are not to be lost (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966).
During colonial times, various British Indian educational institutions and practices, including writing pedagogies at these institutions, introduced modernity to British India. This essay explains the manner in which some students internalized modernity and in their writings used modernist beliefs and premises to critique some precolonial Indian…
Rieu, Le Tai
This paper discusses superstitious, folk, traditional, and modern medical practices of Vietnam. Concepts of illness, somatization, behavior labeling, diagnostic attempts, and attitudes toward treatment among Vietnamese are also reviewed. (APM)
Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Mpwapwa District in Central Zone of Tanzania between July to August, 2009 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards modern contraceptives among married women of reproductive age (15-49 years. Specific objectives of the study were to ascertain knowledge and attitude towards modern contraceptives, to determine the extent of use of modern contraceptives and identify factors associated with current use of modern contraceptive in the study population. Study design involved a crosssectional survey that involved 160 women randomly selected from eight villages with nearly equal number of respondents per village. Data from respondents were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Furthermore, eight Focus Groups Discussions (FGDs, with one FGD per village were also carried out to collect qualitative information. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program version 12 was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed using Content Analysis (CA. Results of this study revealed knowledge of modern contraceptives in a study population to be high. Furthermore, findings of this study indicated substantial proportion of respondents to have positive attitude towards modern contraceptives and hence more room for increasing modern contraceptive use in a study population. For example, half (50% of respondent that were aware of modern contraceptives thought that benefits of modern contraceptives outweigh negative effects and 42% agreed that they could recommend use of modern contraceptive to a friend. However, despite presence of positive attitude towards modern contraceptives by a good number of women in a study population, negative attitude of husband towards modern contraceptives can be one of the obstacles for the success of campaigns to increase modern contraceptive use in the study area. Two- third (65.8% of study participants indicated that their husband doesn’t approve
Kovalchuk, L I; Prokopchuk, Y V; Naydyonova, O V
The article presents the experience of postgraduate training of general practitioners--family medicine. Identified current trends, forms and methods of pedagogical innovations that enhance the quality of learning and mastering the practical skills of primary professionals providing care.
Full Text Available Purpose: to identify and outline the necessary conditions aimed at a healthy lifestyle, refusal of bad habits, providing health care of students at physical education classes. Material & Methods: theoretical and practical achievements of modern scientists, authors experience in conducting physical education classes; analysis of scientific literature on selected issues, systematization of received theoretical results and acquired sports and teaching experience, generalization of acquired scientific data to formulate conclusions of the article. Results: in solving the problem of defining the role of the designated teacher who seeks to convince students in healthy lifestyles. Conclusions: ensuring longevity in modern conditions of life requires public awareness about the need for healthy lifestyles and instilling in youth the love for the physical training and sports.
This text for the first or second year undergraduate in mathematics, logic, computer science, or social sciences, introduces the reader to logic, proofs, sets, and number theory. It also serves as an excellent independent study reference and resource for instructors. Adapted from Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Science and Cryptography © 2002 Birkhӓuser, this second edition provides a modern introduction to the foundations of logic, mathematics, and computers science, developing the theory that demonstrates construction of all mathematics and theoretical computer science from logic and set theory. The focus is on foundations, with specific statements of all the associated axioms and rules of logic and set theory, and provides complete details and derivations of formal proofs. Copious references to literature that document historical development is also provided. Answers are found to many questions that usually remain unanswered: Why is the truth table for logical implication so uni...
V. S. Nikiforov
Full Text Available Speckle-tracking echocardiography is promising modern technique for evaluation of structural and functional changes in the myocardium. It evaluates the indicator of global longitudinal myocardial deformation, which is more sensitive than ejection fraction to early changes of left ventricular contractility. The diagnostic capabilities of speckle tracking echocardiography are reflected in clinical recommendations and consensus statements of European Society of Cardiology (ESC, European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE. The aim of this paper is describe basic principles of speckle tracking echocardiography and clinical applications of this new technology. Attention is paid to the use of speckle tracking echocardiography in such heart pathologies as heart failure, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and amyloidosis of the heart, valvular heart disease, constrictive pericarditis and cancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity.
Kim, Syngcuk; Kratchman, Samuel
Endodontic surgery has now evolved into endodontic microsurgery. By using state-of-the-art equipment, instruments and materials that match biological concepts with clinical practice, we believe that microsurgical approaches produce predictable outcomes in the healing of lesions of endodontic origin. In this review we attempted to provide the most current concepts, techniques, instruments and materials with the aim of demonstrating how far we have come. Our ultimate goal is to assertively teach the future generation of graduate students and also train our colleagues to incorporate these techniques and concepts into everyday practice.
Conclusions: Practice of contraception is still a myth. There is a great need to strengthen the awareness among people by various programmes and the target group should be both males and females. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 674-677
Buehler, J A
An important element in American Indian cultures is a holistic view of wellness. Nurses attempting to provide holistic, culturally sensitive health services to American Indian clients must assess the cultural orientation of their clients and have culture-specific knowledge. A pilot qualitative study was conducted at the Crow Indian Reservation in south central Montana. Qualitative analysis of data identified categories of traditional contemporary health practices of Crow Indians. These categories are use of rituals/ceremonies, indigenous healers, and sacred objects. Five patterns of use of traditional health practices were also discovered. These are (a) initial use of traditional practices followed by modern health services, (b) initial use of modern health services followed by traditional practices, (c) simultaneous bicultural use, (d) traditional use only, and (e) modern use only.
Cartmell, Matthew P.
This is the second time that the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conference has come to the University of Glasgow and it is with great pleasure that I write this preface for the event in 2012. The remit of the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conferences is relatively broad and encompasses scientific and technological research in stress analysis, the mechanics of materials, applied dynamics, metrology and instrumentation, system identification, structural health monitoring, nondestructive evaluation, and vibration theory and analysis. Within these relatively traditional subject areas we also see burgeoning new themes emerging, in which new manufacturing technologies, energy harvesting, micro and nano-mechanic applications, biomechanics, and advanced modelling feature very strongly. The conference converges around six keynote addresses over the three days, each one being linked to a central theme for the conference. The first day opens on the morning of Wednesday 29 August 2012 with an address by Professor Walter Lacarbonara of the University of Rome on 'Nonlinear dynamics enabled design and control', in which ideas taken from nonlinear dynamics and once considered to be highly specialised are now informing the design and control of mechanical systems. This is followed by an afternoon address by Professor James R Barber of the University of Michigan on the topic of 'Frictional systems under periodic load - History-dependence, non-uniqueness, and energy dissipation', where fundamental mechanical issues are considered in the performance of loaded mechanical systems in which complicated friction mechanisms play an important role. The second day begins with a morning lecture by Professor Fabrice Pierron of Paris Tech entitled 'A novel photomechanical approach to dynamic testing of materials', and covering the testing of materials, an important theme which has long been central to this conference series. This is followed by the British
Friedman, Scott E; Baum, Neil
American healthcare has been shrouded in a cloak of negativity for too long. Many doctors are more pessimistic about the state of healthcare than they were even a few decades ago. In spite of extraordinary advances in the clinical aspects of healthcare, the business side of medicine has created a downward spiral in physician spirit, resulting in unnecessary stress, zapped energy, a rise in interpersonal conflict and, ultimately and as a byproduct of this negativity, reduced patient satisfaction. This downward spiral needs to be--and can be--stemmed. This article discuss how insights from the field of positive psychology and social neuroscience can help healthcare providers and their organizations flourish, in both their professional practices and personal lives.
Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health outcomes among ... sexual behaviour, outcomes and care-seeking among university students in ... to collect information on their reproductive health knowledge and behaviour.
Steno, Anne Mia
The purpose of the present article is to make a contribution to an understanding of what it means to be a witch in Denmark today. The article thus reviews the extent of magical circles in Denmark and highlights special characteristics of the modern witch. The magical practice of witches is elucid......The purpose of the present article is to make a contribution to an understanding of what it means to be a witch in Denmark today. The article thus reviews the extent of magical circles in Denmark and highlights special characteristics of the modern witch. The magical practice of witches...... practice are overlooked if the analysis does not include the above questions and approach, and it underlines the importance of physicality in the magical practice....
Across the United Kingdom (UK) large sums of money are being spent on healthcare modernisation programmes, which seek to embed Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) within clinical settings. On-line surveys carried out by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) in the last few years (2004-7) have demonstrated that the majority of nurses, midwives and health visitors welcome the idea of working in modern settings where ICT supports effective and efficient care. However, results also hig...
Dissemond, Joachim; Augustin, Matthias; Eming, Sabine A; Goerge, Tobias; Horn, Thomas; Karrer, Sigrid; Schumann, Hauke; Stücker, Markus
The treatment of patients with chronic wounds is becoming increasingly complex. It was therefore the aim of the members of the working group for wound healing (AGW) of the German Society of Dermatology (DDG) to report on the currently relevant aspects of non-interventional, topical wound treatment for daily practice. -Beside necessary procedures, such as wound cleansing and débridement, we describe commonly used wound dressings, their indications and practical use. Modern antiseptics, which are currently used in wound therapy, usually contain polyhexanide or octenidine. Physical methods, such as negative-pressure treatment, are also interesting options. It is always important to objectify and adequately treat pain symptoms which often affect these patients. Modern moist wound therapy may promote healing, reduce complications, and improve the quality of life in patients with chronic wounds. Together with the improvement of the underlying causes, modern wound therapy is an important aspect in the overall treatment regime for patients with chronic wounds.
Health consequences of electric lighting practices in the modern world: A report on the National Toxicology Program's workshop on shift work at night, artificial light at night, and circadian disruption.
Lunn, Ruth M; Blask, David E; Coogan, Andrew N; Figueiro, Mariana G; Gorman, Michael R; Hall, Janet E; Hansen, Johnni; Nelson, Randy J; Panda, Satchidananda; Smolensky, Michael H; Stevens, Richard G; Turek, Fred W; Vermeulen, Roel; Carreón, Tania; Caruso, Claire C; Lawson, Christina C; Thayer, Kristina A; Twery, Michael J; Ewens, Andrew D; Garner, Sanford C; Schwingl, Pamela J; Boyd, Windy A
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN. Because of the complexity of this topic, the National Toxicology Program convened an expert panel at a public workshop entitled "Shift Work at Night, Artificial Light at Night, and Circadian Disruption" to obtain input on conducting literature-based health hazard assessments and to identify data gaps and research needs. The Panel suggested describing light both as a direct effector of endogenous circadian clocks and rhythms and as an enabler of additional activities or behaviors that may lead to circadian disruption, such as night-shift work and atypical and inconsistent sleep-wake patterns that can lead to social jet lag. Future studies should more comprehensively characterize and measure the relevant light-related exposures and link these exposures to both time-independent biomarkers of circadian disruption and biomarkers of adverse health outcomes. This information should lead to improvements in human epidemiological and animal or in vitro models, more rigorous health hazard assessments, and intervention strategies to minimize the occurrence of adverse health outcomes due to these exposures. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Shaikh, Nida I; Maxfield, Amanda; Patil, Shailaja S; Cunningham, Solveig A
This study uses freelists to document perceptions of healthfulness, modernity, and availability of foods and beverages among adolescents ages 13-18 years (n = 26) in urbanizing India. Among the 10 foods and beverages adolescents perceived as "new," half were also seen as modern and unhealthy, 4 as traditional and unhealthy, and 3 as modern and healthy. Of those 10 "new" foods, 4 were reported as available only in supermarkets, 4 only in kiraana (local) stores, and 6 in both. Adolescents ascribed healthfulness and modernity to food and beverage items and were aware of their availability across stores.
Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…
This document provides some practical guidance on how utilities can define their own smart grid vision, identify priorities, and structure investment plans. While most of these strategic aspects apply to any area of the electricity grid, the document focuses on the segment of distribution. The guidance includes key building blocks that are needed to modernize the distribution grid and provides examples of grid modernization projects. Potential benefits that can be achieved (in monetary terms) for a given investment range are also discussed.The concept of the smart grid is relevant to any grid
Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli
OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640
This interpretive study sought to understand how intercultural health care to immigrants can be practically conceptualized in multicultural populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 Canadian health service informants, and 12 interviews were staged during 31 months with a multicultural coordinator in an Australian teaching hospital. Transcripts of 11 previously conducted group discussions with 34 staff members from this same Australian hospital were also included. Interpretation was based on these data as well as on the literature and the author's own experience. It was concluded that intercultural health care can be practically conceptualized as reflective health worker practice. Through this practice, responsive care can be situationally negotiated between the health worker and the client in a framework of jointly considered needs. For implementation, the barriers to negotiation must be addressed.
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.
Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...
Full Text Available This article is about Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, a surgeon and anatomist, prominent scientist and educator, founder of field surgery. He was the first to learn field surgery and military administration in practice. He was the first to use famous triage (the wounded were sorted according to the severity of injuries. N.I.Pirogov considered that well organized triage at dressing stations and temporary military hospitals is the main tool to provide proper care and to prevent harmful consequences. He organized training of medical nurses to help the wounded. He also published the work on the problems of pedagogy in which he proposed reforms of education system. The authors of the article have analyzed N.I.Pirogov`s works and showed their significance for modern social medicine and organization of Public Health.
Full Text Available This review article discusses the text Kanosa - Grameen Streechya Sharir ani Manatil Gupitancha, translated as ‘Lending an Ear to the Secrets of Body and Mind of the Rural Woman’ by Dr. Rani Bang. The original text provides detailed information on various life-cycle health experiences of women; illness categories (nosography; health practices; sexualities; diets and local life-worlds of health and bodily experiences based on the in depth discussions with local women. In the context of current trends and prevailing ideologies in the community health sector of India, our critical review highlights the significance of the approach adopted by Dr. Rani Bang in locating health as an integral part of culture.We seek to introduce important discussions in Bang’s text on ethnophysiology, local categories of diseases and their implications on modern community health interventions, as ell as the definitions of the normal, abnormal and pathological as provided by the local community. In light of these discussions, we examine certain characteristics of the modern Indian community health sector such as its inability to work with local epistemologies of health and illness and its philosophical reliance on Cartesian dualism and western notions of personhood. Certain features of community health such as complete separation of fertility and sexuality as well as the exclusively nutritional approach to dietary phenomena are also reviewed with reference to Kanosa and other significant literature.
Weldegerima, Berhanemeskel; Denekew, Alem
Inadequate family planning services are problematic in Ethiopia. Understanding determinants in contraceptive methods use may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve family planning outcomes. To assess determinants of preferences, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of modern contraception among women of reproductive age in Woreta town. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Woreta town, South Gondar zone, Ethiopia in April 2007. A multistage sampling procedure was carried out to interview 400 women in the study area. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Eighty-nine percent of respondents were aware of modern contraceptives. Among respondents, 88% knew of at least 2 methods, and 12% knew only 1 method. More than 90% of respondents reported positive attitudes toward modern contraceptive use. The major reasons for nonuse of modern contraceptive methods (MCMs) were being single and a desire for more children. Injectables were the most commonly preferred modern contraceptive (63.2%) followed by oral contraceptive pill (21.2%). Few women reported a preference for the use of condoms (9.5%) or implants (6.1%). Respondents reported at least modest knowledge of MCMs; however, the results suggest a need for improving accessibility and education among women in this section of Ethiopia.
Aronowitz, Robert; Deener, Andrew; Keene, Danya; Schnittker, Jason; Tach, Laura
Recent public health movements have invoked cultural change to improve health and reduce health disparities. We argue that these cultural discourses have sometimes justified and maintained health inequalities when those with power and authority designated their own social practices as legitimate and healthy while labeling the practices of marginalized groups as illegitimate or unhealthy. This "misrecognition," which creates seemingly objective knowledge without understanding historical and social conditions, sustains unequal power dynamics and obscures the fact that what is deemed legitimate and healthy can be temporally, geographically, and socially relative. We use examples from research across multiple disciplines to illustrate the potential consequences of cultural misrecognition, highlight instances in which culture was invoked in ways that overcame misrecognition, and discuss how cultural reflexivity can be used to improve health research and practice.
Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.
Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, “healthy mind in a healthy body” was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827
Kleisiaris, Christos F; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V
Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient's health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, "healthy mind in a healthy body" was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today.
Son of Dumitru Berindey architect, Ion D. Berindey studied architecture at the Beaux Arts School in Paris which he graduated in 1897. Back in Romania, Ion D. Berindey opened his own architectural office in a pioneering era of Romanian architecture. His architectural office is one of the first well organized and modern architectural practices created in Romania. Having a native artistic talent and a great power of work, he had also an undoubted organisational spirit and sought for perfection i...
Vandenberghe, Bart; Jacobs, Reinhilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Radiology Section, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)
A review of modern imaging techniques commonly used in dental practice and their clinical applications is presented. The current dental examinations consist of intraoral imaging with digital indirect and direct receptors, while extraoral imaging is divided into traditional tomographic/panoramic imaging and the more recently introduced cone beam computed tomography. Applications, limitations and current trends of these dental ''in-office'' radiographic techniques are discussed. (orig.)
Hanning, R M; Zlotkin, S H
The authors discuss a number of unconventional or faddist foods and eating practices and their health implications. Among the topics included are vegetarianism, Zen macrobiotic diets, fast foods, junk foods, megavitamins and their toxicity, health foods, fad diets in infancy, and elimination diets.
The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.
Hein, Laura C; Scharer, Kathleen M
This paper discusses the progression of developments in psychiatric-mental health nursing from the 1960s to the present. The 1960s were a time of shortage of psychiatric APRNs, with legislation expanding the availability of mental health services. We find ourselves in a similar time with 7 million new health insurance enrollees, because of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The expansion of health insurance coverage comes at a time when some colleges of nursing are closing master's programs in psychiatric-mental health, in lieu of the DNP mandate from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Is history repeating itself? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The philosophers of the Enlightenment formulated a set of new ideas and visions about access to knowledge and education for all citizens. The main discourse of modernity is linked to liberty, democracy and equality, but modernity is also an ambiguous project, characterized by an ongoing conflict between individual freedom and discipline. Modernity…
Carter, Stacy M; Kerridge, Ian; Sainsbury, Peter; Letts, Julie K
Public health ethics has emerged and grown as an independent discipline over the last decade. It involves using ethical theory and empirical analyses to determine and justify the right thing to do in public health. In this paper, we distinguish public health ethics from clinical ethics, research ethics, public health law and politics. We then discuss issues in public health ethics including: how to weigh up the benefits, harms and costs of intervening; how to ensure that public health interventions produce fair outcomes; the potential for public health to undermine or promote the rights of citizens; and the significance of being transparent and inclusive in public health interventions. We conclude that the explicit and systematic consideration of ethical issues will, and should, become central to every public health worker's daily practice.
Elouyse Fernandes Leitão
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.
Ariff, Kamil M; Beng, Khoo S
Understanding the sociocultural dimension of a patient's health beliefs is critical to a successful clinical encounter. Malaysia with its multi-ethnic population of Malay, Chinese and Indian still uses many forms of traditional health care in spite of a remarkably modern rural health service. The objective of this paper is discuss traditional health care in the context of some of the cultural aspects of health beliefs, perceptions and practices in the different ethnic groups of the author's rural family practices. This helps to promote communication and cooperation between doctors and patients, improves clinical diagnosis and management, avoids cultural blind spots and unnecessary medical testing and leads to better adherence to treatment by patients. Includes traditional practices of 'hot and cold', notions of Yin-Yang and Ayurveda, cultural healing, alternative medicine, cultural perception of body structures and cultural practices in the context of women's health. Modern and traditional medical systems are potentially complementary rather than antagonistic. Ethnic and cultural considerations can be integrated further into the modern health delivery system to improve care and health outcomes.
Chernikova Irina V.
Full Text Available In the paper the cognitive apparatus of the modern science is observed. An approach to cognition of complex, self-developing systems as an object of the modern science resulted in necessity of reasoning of their cognition specifics. The authors focus on the following questions: how historical, temporal and sociocultural parameters may be inserted to the epistemology; how the category of truth and objectivity of scientific knowledge may be rethought in light of understanding cognition as interpretative activity with the insertion of constructivist ideas? It is highlighted that evolutional constructivism and evolutional epistemology are the most adequate epistemological practices for cognition of complex, self-developing systems, explanation of the existence and evolutional processes.
Valentinuzzi, Max E; Leder, Ron S
The evolution and development of hospitals in their historical context are quickly reviewed in this column, starting first as simple shelters for the sick and indigent who were waiting essentially for death, and up to the relatively recent concept of true health centers where patients face a high probability of actual recovery and rehabilitation. Anesthesia, microbiology, asepsia, antibiotics, virology, radiology, transfusion, and different biomedical engineering technologies, as well as knowledge in other basic sciences, have led to the intensive care and emergency units that were introduced in the 1960s, which lead to the specialty of critical care medicine and positioning the patient as the center of care. These brief words anticipate what we develop below.
Chatters, L M
Research examining the relationships between religion and the health of individuals and populations has become increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Systematic programs of research investigate religious phenomena within the context of coherent theoretical and conceptual frameworks that describe the causes and consequences of religious involvement for health outcomes. Recent research has validated the multidimensional aspects of religious involvement and investigated how religious factors operate through various biobehavioral and psychosocial constructs to affect health status through proposed mechanisms that link religion and health. Methodological and analytical advances in the field permit the development of more complex models of religion's effects, in keeping with proposed theoretical explanations. Investigations of religion and health have ethical and practical implications that should be addressed by the lay public, health professionals, the research community, and the clergy. Future research directions point to promising new areas of investigation that could bridge the constructs of religion and health.
Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu
The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
Full Text Available Over the years, traditional anaesthesia record keeping system has been the backbone of anaesthesiology ever since its introduction in the 1890s by Dr. Harvey Cushing and Dr. Ernest A. Codman. Besides providing the important information regarding patients′ vital physiologic parameters, paper records had been a reliable source for various clinical research activities. The introduction of electronic monitoring gadgets and electronic record keeping systems has revolutionised the anaesthesiology practice to a large extent. Recently, the introduction of anaesthesia information management system (AIMS, which incorporates all the features of monitoring gadgets, such as electronic storage of large accurate data, quality assurance in anaesthesia, enhancing patient safety, ensuring legal protection, improved billing services and effecting an organisational change, is almost a revolution in modern-day anaesthesiology practice. The clinical research activities that are responsible for taking anaesthesiology discipline to higher peaks have also been boosted by the amalgamation of AIMS, enabling multicenter studies and sharing of clinical data. Barring few concerns in its installation, cost factors and functional aspects, the future of AIMS seems to be bright and will definitely prove to be a boon for modern-day anaesthesiology practice.
Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh
Over the years, traditional anaesthesia record keeping system has been the backbone of anaesthesiology ever since its introduction in the 1890s by Dr. Harvey Cushing and Dr. Ernest A. Codman. Besides providing the important information regarding patients’ vital physiologic parameters, paper records had been a reliable source for various clinical research activities. The introduction of electronic monitoring gadgets and electronic record keeping systems has revolutionised the anaesthesiology practice to a large extent. Recently, the introduction of anaesthesia information management system (AIMS), which incorporates all the features of monitoring gadgets, such as electronic storage of large accurate data, quality assurance in anaesthesia, enhancing patient safety, ensuring legal protection, improved billing services and effecting an organisational change, is almost a revolution in modern-day anaesthesiology practice. The clinical research activities that are responsible for taking anaesthesiology discipline to higher peaks have also been boosted by the amalgamation of AIMS, enabling multicenter studies and sharing of clinical data. Barring few concerns in its installation, cost factors and functional aspects, the future of AIMS seems to be bright and will definitely prove to be a boon for modern-day anaesthesiology practice. PMID:24963173
Suelen Brito Azevedo
Full Text Available Objective Evaluating the practice of nurses of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in child hearing health care. Method A normative assessment of structure and process, with 37 nurses in the Family Health Units, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco. The data collection instrument originated from the logical model of child hearing health care provided by nurses of the Family Health Strategy, and the matrix of indicators for evaluation of nursing practice. Results All the nurses identified the hearing developmental milestones. At least two risk factors were identified by 94.5% of the nurses, and 21.6% of them carried out educational activities. Conclusion The normative assessment was considered adequate despite existing limitations in the structure and process.
Full Text Available At the margins of modern medical practice, pushing the very limits of science, and indefatigably rendering the precincts of public discourse, still functional remnants of Christian civilization continue to provide care for the hopeless, perform healing sacraments for the incurable, and curate objects of votive devotion for the suffering and needy. These public services go largely unaccounted for, though they secure an ordered world, structure perception, and serve as ontological anchors. Lost in the vague, scientifically unrarified notions of spirituality that brace a general, undifferentiated worldwide metaphysical experience and disregard immense cultural, functional, geographic and performative distinctness, Catholic sacramental practices aimed at alleviating suffering and promoting healthy lifestyles are receiving only marginal mention in scientific literature(1, despite the fact that they make up daily reality in large parts of contemporary Europe and Latin America. Writing this editorial from the Northeast of Brazil, where traditional religious practice has sustained generations through the calamities of severe droughts, slavery, extreme poverty, high child mortality, failed political orders, and a harsh global economic reality, it is difficult to underestimate the power of sacramental experience to sustain a cultural identity. It was defined the concept of care of the sick in the context of the religious experience of the Northeast of Brazil which is historically relevant to health promotion. Until the emergence of national health care in the late nineteenth century, it was largely the order of the Franciscan friars that was charged with promoting healthy lives in the region. The Catholic concept of care that guided their efforts structures three procedural reality principles: the psychological reality of the transference to the person in one’s charge (care/caritas, the performative practice of religious sacrament such as the anointment
Sameer Bhaskar GOKHALE
Full Text Available Low patient adherence remains a major public health challenge globally and imposes a considerable economic burden on healthcare systems. It is critical to develop an effective intervention to improve patient adherence. Factors such as physician-patient relation, patient's health literacy, attitude, cultural variations, and patient’s involvement in decision making are responsible for improving adherence. Information technology has revolutionized almost all industries including healthcare but its use has not shown its full promise to boost adherence. Recent developments in smart phone market penetration, gamification, and easy to navigate user experience have made it possible for healthcare providers to effectively connect with patients using innovative ways enabled by technology. Leveraging on this fact, healthcare industry should be focusing on development and use of interactive health games. Indication-wise games can be developed in collaboration with physicians, academics, thought leaders and experienced media companies. In summary, gamification mayeffectively be used to improve patient adherence.
A Student's Guide to the Study, Practice, and Tools of Modern Mathematics provides an accessible introduction to the world of mathematics. It offers tips on how to study and write mathematics as well as how to use various mathematical tools, from LaTeX and Beamer to Mathematica® and Maple™ to MATLAB® and R. Along with a color insert, the text includes exercises and challenges to stimulate creativity and improve problem solving abilities.The first section of the book covers issues pertaining to studying mathematics. The authors explain how to write mathematical proofs and papers, how to perform
Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE
Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf
Losik T. N.
Full Text Available It is shown the row of the phenomena which negatively influence not only on a health man but also on his professional capacity: detraining of an organism through the lack of motive activity, tense emotional state of man in the process of his everyday work, negative influencing of environment and innovative technologies. The analysis of publications which examine influence of environment and innovative technologies on the state of health of man is presented. The system of organism is certain, feel like negative influence of environment and innovative technologies. It is set that an environment is indissolubly related to the man, which is the active object of nature.
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R
Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.
Burgmair, Wolfgang; Weber, Matthias M
By 1850 the reformation of institutional psychiatric care in Bavaria was given the highest priority by monarchy and administration. Cooperating with experts, especially the psychiatrist Karl August von Solbrig, they provided for new asylums to be established throughout Bavaria in a surprisingly short period of time. It was, however, only at personal intervention of King Max II. that the administrative and financial difficulties which had existed since the beginning of the 19th century could be overcome. The planning of asylums done by each administrative district of Bavaria vividly reflects rivalry as well as cooperation between all governmental and professional agencies involved. Modernization of psychiatry was publicly justified by referring to scientism, the need for a more progressive restructuring of administration, and the paternalistic care of the monarchy, whereas, from an administrative point of view, aspects of psychiatric treatment, like what kind of asylum would be best, were rather insignificant. The structures established by means of the alliance between state administration and psychiatric care under the rule of King Max II. had a lasting effect on the further development of Bavaria.
Suitable legislations should be introduced including those that ensure coordination between .... part could make counteractive changes in .... matters to develop strategies for risk regulation ... A vivid example is the return of diphtheria .... develop an evidence base on HRs for health. . The appropriate roles of the workforce,.
A. D. Kaprin
Full Text Available The personnel potential of the Russian health care system has been analyzed. The main issues and trends in the development of our personnel, the dynamics of human processes in health care organizations have been revealed. The correlation of modernization processes with quantitative and qualitative indicators of their personnel has been determined. The role of the personnel policy of the industry in the development of HR processes in the health system has been characterized.
Alter, J S
In this article I focus on the relationship between concepts of self and health in modern North India. Drawing on field research in a popular yoga society, I argue that yoga therapy, as practiced by the Bharatiya Yog Sansthan of Delhi, provides a reconceptualization of what can be meant by public health. Using studies that challenge both the essentialist and epistemological facticity of the self, I show how the discourse and practice of yoga is implicated in, and derived from, a complex search for self definition in terms of health; health which is conceived of as a public regimen that seeks to reconnect that which modernity has broken apart: mind and body.
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.
as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using......Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...
When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this 'treasury for health.' Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax 'family books,' this essay traces on the process through which early modern recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of early modern recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in early modern households.
This paper analyzes the multiplex composite function of agriculture comprehensively as follows.The first is political function:it can ensure the national food security;the second is economic function:it can promote agricultural competitiveness and increase farmers’ income;the third is social function:it can promote the construction of new socialist village;the fourth is ecological function:it can conserve the resources environment and guarantee sustainable development of agriculture.In terms of reference of international theory and the main innovative experience of domestic agricultural modernization practice,this paper points out the new approach for agricultural modernization practice in China,and puts forward institutional guarantee based on agricultural multiplex function as follows:we should gradually promote new land system taking land transfer as major content;we should establish rational transfer system of rural labour forces;we should establish virtuous circular agricultural financial credit system;we should hew to the innovation and promotion system of agricultural technology;we should establish strict the system of resources environment and ecological protection;we should establish the agricultural risk security system.
Fong, Harry H S
The integration of herbal medicine into modern medical practices including cancer treatments must take into account the interrelated issues of quality, safety, and efficacy. Quality is the paramount issue because it can affect the efficacy and/or safety of the herbal products being used. Current product quality ranges from very high to very low due to intrinsic, extrinsic, and regulatory factors. Intrinsically, species differences, organ specificity, diurnal and seasonal variations can affect the qualitative and quantitative accumulation of active chemical constituents in the source medicinal plants. Extrinsically, environmental factors; field collection methods such as cultivation, harvest, post-harvest transport and storage; manufacturing practices; inadvertent contamination and substitution; and intentional adulteration are contributing factors to the quality of herbal medicinal products. Source plant materials that are contaminated with microbes, microbial toxins, environmental pollutants, or heavy metals; or finished products that are adulterated with foreign toxic plants or synthetic pharmaceutical agents can lead to adverse events. Substandard source materials or finished products will yield therapeutically less effective agents. Herbal medicine quality can also be attributed to regulatory practices. In a number of countries, herbal medicines are unregulated, which has led to product quality differences. Product quality improvement may be achieved by implementing control measures from the point of medicinal plant procurement under good agricultural practices (GAPs) and the manufacture of the finished botanical products under good manufacturing practices (GMPs), plus post-marketing quality assurance surveillance. The lack of pharmacological and clinical data on the majority of herbal medicinal products is a major impediment to the integration of herbal medicines into conventional medical practices. For valid integration, pharmacological and especially
Akinlolu Tolulope Jegede
Conclusion: A large number of dentists practicing in the tertiary hospital had good oral health practices and good oral health knowledge. However, the proportion of dentists with good caries prevention practices was low.
This book describes a new, “e-Health” approach to stroke rehabilitation. The authors propose an alternative approach that combines state of the art ICT technologies ranging from Augmented and Virtual Reality gaming environments to latest advances in immersive user interfaces for delivering a mixed-reality training platform, along with advanced embedded micro sensing and computing devices exhibiting enhanced power autonomy by using the latest Bluetooth Smart communication interfaces and energy saving approaches. These technologies are integrated under the umbrella of an online Personal Health Record (PHR) services allowing for delivery of personalized, patient-centric medical services whether at home, in a clinic or on the move. Describes innovative ways for achieving mixed-reality gaming environments; Enhances immersive experience by combining virtual projections with user interfaces based on body motion analysis; Offers cost-effective body motion capture by hybridizing wearable sensor data; Utilizes e...
In starting this series of articles on distinguished women in nursing, medicine and the related healthcare professions, the choice of the first name is obvious. Florence Nightingale is, I suggest, the most famous female in the long history of medicine and is a name that is known and revered throughout the world. Most people--even those in 'the trade'--think of her as 'the lady with the lamp', the heroine who went out to the Crimean War and nursed the sick and wounded at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution was her continued work, long after the war, in nursing organisation and training, hospital planning, public and military health and her pioneering work in the efficient gathering of medical statistics.
Evidence-based health information is distinguished by the provision of an unbiased and trustworthy description of the current state of medical knowledge. It enables people to learn more about health and disease, and to make health-related decisions - on their own or together with others - reflecting their attitudes and lifestyle. To adequately serve this purpose, health information must be evidence-based. A working group from the German Network for Evidence-based Medicine (Deutsches Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin) has developed a first draft of good practice guidelines for health information (Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation) with the aim of providing support for authors and publishers of evidence-based health information. The group included researchers, patient representatives, journalists and developers of health information. The criteria for evidence-based health information were developed and agreed upon within this author group, and then made available for public comment. All submitted comments were documented and assessed regarding the need to revise or amend the draft. Changes were subsequently implemented following approval by the author group. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation calls for a transparent methodological approach in the development of health information. To achieve this, evidence-based information must be based on (a) a systematic literature search, (b) a justified selection of evidence, (c) unbiased reporting of relevant results, (d) appropriate factual and linguistic communication of uncertainties, (e) either avoidance of any direct recommendations or a strict division between the reporting of results and the derivation of recommendations, (f) the consideration of current evidence on the communication of figures, risks and probabilities, and (g) transparent information about the authors and publishers of the health information, including their funding sources. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation lists a total of 16 aspects to be addressed
E. G. Syryamkina
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the possibilities of formation ofnew approaches to the development of additional interdisciplinary competencies of university youth in modern conditions.Methods. The methods involve such theoretical methods as analysis of scientific literature and documents, generalization of empirical data.Results and scientific novelty. The article includes experience of many years in the sphere of development of students’ additional interdisciplinary competencies of the National Research Tomsk State University (TSU. The authors present cases of two TSU structural subdivisions: Center for Social and Professional Volunteering and Park of Social and Humanitarian Technologies. The effective educational technologies proposed by the authors are analysed. Transition from the theoretical (knowledge training of students to practically-oriented training is an actual trend today. A graduate of a modern university should have a broad vision, communication skills, desire for cooperation, self-development, creative application of gained knowledge and lifelong learning, in other words –the development of students’ additional interdisciplinary competencies. In this regard, the role of students’ extracurricular practical work in a university is increasing. This work requires organizational and educational support. The article gives description and analysis of effective educational forms of technologies for development of students’ additional interdisciplinary competencies within their extracurricular activities in the mentioned above structural units of the university.Practical significance. Higher educational establishments can use presented materials for improvement of an educational process.
A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators. (PMA)
A. D. Kaprin
Full Text Available Abstract:In the article they discuss the status and problems of modernization of doctors in the context of the implementation of the state policy in the national system of Russian health care. The author presents judgments about the role and certification of postgraduate training of physicians, the directions of the improvement of professional education of doctors.
Souza, Káren Mendes Jorge de; Seixas, Clarissa Terenzi; David, Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal; Costa, Aline Queiroz da
Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care. Analisar as percepções de alunos do curso de bacharelado em Enfermagem acerca das contribuições da Saúde Coletiva para o trabalho de enfermeiros no Sistema Único de Saúde. Estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada mediante a técnica da entrevista semidirigida com 15 alunos. O material de linguagem foi analisado segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo temático-categorial. Foram produzidas as categorias temáticas "Percepções acerca da Saúde Coletiva" e "Contribuição da Saúde Coletiva ao trabalho do enfermeiro no Sistema Único de Saúde". As percepções sobre a Saúde Coletiva são plurais, mas convergem para o reconhecimento desse campo como base de sustentação da formação de enfermeiros habilitados a trabalhar no SUS com competência técnica, autonomia e com foco na integralidade do cuidado em saúde.
Perrott, Bruce E
This article will examine a case study of an outpatient's clinic in an Australian public hospital with the objective of gaining a better understanding of the issues related to knowledge dynamics in communities of practice within a health care environment. This case study research approach was considered to provide a fine-grained approach recommended for improved understanding of nuances, detail, and the forces underlying the phenomena under observation. Focus on detail was an important attribute of this study notwithstanding possible shortcomings in not being able to externalize the research findings. Of the four modes of knowledge exchange observed to take place in this public hospital community of practice, Mode C (tacit to explicit) stands out as a key finding. Here, the release of each individual's tacit knowledge is forthcoming and free flowing given the established culture of trust in this clinic. The informal communication environment in the luminal space of their workplace corridor provided a conducive environment that enabled a free-flowing exchange of community knowledge. Health-care managers are increasingly required to guide the use and flow of knowledge within their organizations. The insights gained from this project will provide them with a better understanding of knowledge dynamics within a health-care community of practice, which is a microcosm of the larger organization.
Elena Viktorovna Frolova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of regional management - development of tourist at-tractiveness of Russian territories. The article discusses the concept of «tourist attractiveness», substantiates the author's position on its contents. Research methods include document analysis, opinion poll experts (heads of local authorities. On the basis of statistical and sociological data identified features and problems of tourism development in the Russian Federation in of objective and subjective indicators of the tourist infrastructure. Are determined dysfunction of modern ad-ministrative practices of tourism development in the Russian Federation, basic problems are revealed of realization program-target method of management in the modern state and regional policy. The article substantiates the concluded that the implementation of program-target method of tourist attractiveness associated with a number of shortcomings that limit their effectiveness. The authors identify the following main problems of implementation of the federal target program «Development of domestic tourism in the Russian Federation (2011-2018 years»: financial risks; declarative principle for selecting regions to participate in the federal program; target to achieve economic performance indicators, not to assess the long-term prospects of such aspects of the tourist attraction as the creation and / or development of unique tourist attraction, the image of the territory; high thresholds for co-financing of expenditure obligations for the implementation of the programs of regional budgets. On the basis of comparative analysis of the results of the survey population, and experts in the article highlights the main limitations of tourism development in the Russian Federation. The authors substantiates the need for the transformation of the state policy of direct intervention to indirect regulation model in tourism development. The article defines the main directions of
Pedersen, Robert Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Physical asset protection is the principal objective of many security and safeguard measures. One well-known means of asset protection is two-person control. This paper reviews literature regarding two-person control to gain insight into its origin, first demonstrated uses, and its presence in several modern industries. This literature review of two-person control is intended to benefit people and organizations with a desire to understand its origins and how the practice has evolved over time, as well as give some insight into the flexibility of this safeguarding technique. The literature review is focused in four main sections: (1) defining two-person control, (2) early history, (3) two-person control in modern industry, and (4) a theory on how two- person control entered modern industry. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank Jarret Lafleur and Scott Paap of Sandia National Laboratories, California's Systems Analysis & Engineering organization for the opportunity to work on this project. Jarret Lafleur provided very constructive and helpful feedback through all stages of the work. Amanda Thompson of the Sandia California Technical Library maintained a great spirit and always had a quick document turnaround that very much helped out this project's completion. Additionally, yet perhaps most importantly, the author would like to thank his wife and daughter, along with the rest of his family, for continued support over the years. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to one aspect in the field of management - the development of management science and practice in modern conditions. Object of analysis and evaluation are some fragmentary aspects of thesis on the architectonic concept and the new paradigm of management. The specific features in the development of management are outlined, and it is argued that the mechanical transfer into practice, without first carefully to be analyzed perceptions of reality, evaluated and adapted with clear formulations according to the specific and particular characteristics and needs of firms and national economy as a whole, would not have success. New horizons and requirements to architectonics of management are discussed with the presumption that this can trigger ideas and offer samples which could be implemented by creative thinking and unconventional acting managers. So they could implement the borrowed "outside" new paradigm of management and to meet the challenges of the XXI century. Finally, studies are presented and relevant conclusions are made about the guidelines for development of managerial education and science in perspective. It is argued that the requirements for the science and practice of management and managers are mainly directed towards flexibility; human capital development, incl. on the basis of a new, non-linear thinking and new technology, artificial intelligence, using a wide range of qualifications and options for career advancement; the creation, dissemination and use of knowledge; development of key competencies in the context of the provision.
Conte, Christopher; Chang, Carol S; Malcolm, Jan; Russo, Pamela G
In August of 2003, 23 institutions submitted proposals to build closer ties between state and local public health departments and schools of public health in response to a solicitation from the Association of Schools of Public Health supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This article describes the strategies proposed to build collaboration between public health academia and practice. Qualitative analysis discerned five principal approaches: the development of comprehensive planning processes; reform of the way practica are planned and implemented; the identification and nurturing of boundary-spanning individuals in academia and health agencies; the fostering of new approaches to joint research; and workforce development programs. Major themes that emerged included the importance of achieving a balance of power between academic and health department partners; the need to address cultural differences between institutions; a conviction that efforts at institutional change require both strong leadership and the cultivation of boundary spanners farther down the chain of command; and the idea that prospects for success may be improved if faculty and practitioners have tangible incentives to collaborate.
Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad; McDonald, Peter; Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat
Consanguineous marriage has been the culturally preferred form of marriage in Iran. This paper examines the extent to which education, urbanization and changes in modes of economic production have affected the incidence of consanguineous marriage and attitudes towards consanguineous marriages. The 2002 Iran Fertility Transition Survey conducted in the four provinces of Gilan, Sistan and Baluchistan, Yazd and West Azarbaijan provides information on the degree of relationship of marriage partners from around 6550 ever-married women aged 15-49. Attitudinal data were also obtained. Overall, the level of marriage to biological relatives ranged from 23% in Gilan to 78% in Sistan and Baluchistan. The paper finds that the practice of marriage to biological relatives has remained surprisingly resilient in the face of modernizing influences and that ethnicity, province and area of residence remain important determinants. On the other hand, attitudes have shifted towards marriage with a non-relative. Anthropological research would illuminate the processes of consanguineous marriage in Iran.
Alice E. Montague
Full Text Available Although young people aged 16 to 25 are particularly susceptible to mental ill-health, they are difficult to engage in ongoing treatment. Meanwhile, young people are more engaged with digital technologies than ever before, with the Internet and mobile technologies reaching ubiquity in young lives. Despite this, it is unclear from the literature how young people’s high technology use may be harnessed for the better management of youth mental health problems in face-to-face treatment. To explore young people’s opinions on how technology can be used for treatment engagement and as a complement to mental health treatment, a total of 21 participants aged 16 to 25 years were consulted in two focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, with consensus coding by two independent raters. Participants were positive about the integration of technology into youth mental health practice, but indicated that identifying the client’s preferred technology was the most reliable means of engagement. They reported already using technology as an informal complement to treatment, and asserted that formal technology integration must have a clear benefit to treatment while not replacing face-to-face time. Technology use to provide support beyond discharge and between sessions was suggested as a useful means for continuity of care and to prevent relapse. While various technologies were described as engaging, easy-to-access, informative, and empowering, their benefits are not yet being harnessed in youth health services to their full potential. More research is required to better understand how to best put technology into youth mental health practice.
Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J
Issue addressed Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations. Methods Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed. Results The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing. Conclusion The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings. So what? Alignment of evidence-informed and ethics-based practice is critical. Resources and information about ethics may be required to support practice and encourage dissemination of findings, including in the peer-reviewed literature. Investigating the role of community-based ethics boards may be valuable to bridging the ethics-evidence gap.
The Medical University of Plovdiv (MUP) has as its motto 'Committed to humanity". But what does humanity in modern medicine mean? Is it possible to practise a form of medicine that is without humanity? In the current article, it is argued that modern medicine is increasingly being practised in a de-personalised fashion, where the patient is understood not as a unique human individual, a person, but rather as a subject or an object and more in the manner of a complex biological machine. Medicine has, it is contended, become distracted from its duty to care, comfort and console as well as to ameliorate, attenuate and cure and that the rapid development of medicine's scientific knowledge is, paradoxically, principally causative. Signal occurrences in the 'patient as a person' movement are reviewed, together with the emergence of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) and patient-centered care (PCC) movements. The characteristics of a model of medicine evolving in response to medicine's current deficiencies--person-centered healthcare (PCH)--are noted and described. In seeking to apply science with humanism, via clinical judgement, within an ethical framework, it is contended that PCH will prove to be far more responsive to the needs of the individual patient and his/her personal circumstances than current models of practice, so that neither a reductive anatomico-pathological, disease-centric model of illness (EBM), nor an aggressive patient-directed, consumerist form of care (PCC) is allowed continued dominance within modern healthcare systems. In conclusion, it is argued that PCH will enable affordable advances in biomedicine and technology to be delivered to patients within a humanistic framework of clinical practice that recognises the patient as a person and which takes full account of his/her stories, values, preferences, goals, aspirations, fears, worries, hopes, cultural context and which responds to his/her psychological, emotional, spiritual and social necessities
Phelps, Charles; Madhavan, Guruprasad; Rappuoli, Rino; Levin, Scott; Shortliffe, Edward; Colwell, Rita
Scarce resources, especially in population health and public health practice, underlie the importance of strategic planning. Public health agencies' current planning and priority setting efforts are often narrow, at times opaque, and focused on single metrics such as cost-effectiveness. As demonstrated by SMART Vaccines, a decision support software system developed by the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, new approaches to strategic planning allow the formal incorporation of multiple stakeholder views and multicriteria decision making that surpass even those sophisticated cost-effectiveness analyses widely recommended and used for public health planning. Institutions of higher education can and should respond by building on modern strategic planning tools as they teach their students how to improve population health and public health practice. Strategic planning in population health and public health practice often uses single indicators of success or, when using multiple indicators, provides no mechanism for coherently combining the assessments. Cost-effectiveness analysis, the most complex strategic planning tool commonly applied in public health, uses only a single metric to evaluate programmatic choices, even though other factors often influence actual decisions. Our work employed a multicriteria systems analysis approach--specifically, multiattribute utility theory--to assist in strategic planning and priority setting in a particular area of health care (vaccines), thereby moving beyond the traditional cost-effectiveness analysis approach. (1) Multicriteria systems analysis provides more flexibility, transparency, and clarity in decision support for public health issues compared with cost-effectiveness analysis. (2) More sophisticated systems-level analyses will become increasingly important to public health as disease burdens increase and the resources to deal with them become scarcer. The teaching of strategic planning in public
Maternal Health Practices, Beliefs and Traditions in Southeast Madagascar. ... care practices and beliefs impacting on women's health seeking behaviours. ... their partners and family, increased engagement with traditional midwives and ...
Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women in Jos, Plateau State. ... and practices of proper domestic refuse handling and factors affecting same ... Conclusion: Health education intervention was found to be effective in ...
Gorter, A C; Sánchez, G; Pauw, J; Pérez, R M; Sandiford, P; Smith, G D
traditional treatments should be studied to evaluate their effectiveness and adapt them, to the extent possible, to "modern" medicine. Health services providers should become familiar with traditional nomenclature and beliefs in order to be able to communicate better with mothers and steer them away from harmful practices toward improved results in infant diarrheal disease prevention programs.
Although socioeconomic status is acknowledged to be an important determinant of modern health care utilisation, most analyses to date have failed to include traditional systems as alternative, or joint, providers of care. In developing countries, where pluralistic care systems are common, individuals are likely to be using multiple sources of health care, and the order in which systems are chosen is likely to vary according to income. This paper uses self-collected data from households in Ghana and econometric techniques (biprobit modelling and ordered logit) to show that rising income is associated with modern care use whilst decreasing income is associated with traditional care use. When utilisation is analysed in order, results show rising income to have a positive effect on choice of modern care as a first provider, whilst choosing it second, third or never is associated with decreasing income. The effects of income on utilisation patterns of traditional care are stronger: as income rises, utilisation of traditional care as a first choice decreases. Policy should incorporate traditional care into the general utilisation framework and recognise that strategies which increase income may encourage wider utilisation of modern over traditional care, whilst high levels of poverty will see continued use of traditional care.
Britikova E. A.
Full Text Available The article discusses the interpretation of the mechanisms of modernization of the American scientist - Samuel Huntington, which sees modernization as a complex process with a very uncertain result. As a representative of the multilinear approach, Samuel Huntington proves the uniqueness of the modernization paths of each individual national system
Ripoll, Ramon Mora; Casado, Isabel Quintana
The exploration of the possible strategies centered in positive emotions is a suggestion to investigate and probably useful to raise the efficiency of therapeutic interventions. Laughter and humor have been classified as part of the 24 personal strengths and are considered as one of the activities that encourage personal well-being, savoring, and promoting flow states. Laughter therapy, classified within alternative or complementary therapies in medicine, includes a group of techniques and therapeutic interventions aimed to achieve laughter experiences which result in health-related outcomes, both physiological and psychological. Recent advent of positive psychology has developed high interest and expectations in the benefits of adding positive techniques to laughter therapy (and to other mind-body therapies). Consequently with this modern approach positive laughter therapy was born, as add-on to conventional laughter therapy and positive psychology, with its contributions and limitations. Health professionals can exert an important role in order to disseminate overall benefits of "positive therapies" while applying them in real-world clinical settings, for both patients and themselves.
Career and practice intentions of health science students at three South African health science faculties. ... of healthcare services are significantly affected by the career choices of medical and other health science graduates. ... Article Metrics.
The industrialization and urbanization of Britain during the 19th century gave the medical profession something to think about. In particular, were the radical changes taking place in society responsible for the sudden rise in endemic and epidemic disease? This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) examines the reactions of two key figures in the history of British public health, James Philips Kay and Thomas Southwood Smith, to this question. Their outlooks typify the tendency of Victorian medical practitioners to construct economies of health that saw disease as a consequence of the violation of natural laws and cycles rather than as a product of industrial modernity.
Idalina Shiraishi Kakeshita
Full Text Available Living well but looking good. This health dichotomy is among the majors concerns in modern Western societies, especially for women. But what is "living well"? And what does it mean to "look good"? Are these concepts exclusionary or are they related in females' minds? In this paper, we sought to discuss such approaches by defining these terms, highlighting the current role of women within our society, and the importance of the body to Brazilian women. Moreover, the possible consequences on health of having a negative perception of the own body are raised, including its relation to physical activity.
Lanre-Abass Bolatito A
Full Text Available Abstract Poverty is often identified as a major barrier to human development. It is also a powerful brake on accelerated progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. Poverty is also a major cause of maternal mortality, as it prevents many women from getting proper and adequate medical attention due to their inability to afford good antenatal care. This Paper thus examines poverty as a threat to human existence, particularly women's health. It highlights the causes of maternal deaths in Nigeria by questioning the practice of medicine in this country, which falls short of the ethical principle of showing care. Since high levels of poverty limit access to quality health care and consequently human development, this paper suggests ways of reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria. It emphasizes the importance of care ethics, an ethical orientation that seeks to rectify the deficiencies of medical practice in Nigeria, notably the problem of poor reproductive health services. Care ethics as an ethical orientation, attends to the important aspects of our shared lives. It portrays the moral agent (in this context the physician as a self who is embedded in webs of relations with others (pregnant women. Also central to this ethical orientation is responsiveness in an interconnected network of needs, care and prevention of harm. This review concludes by stressing that many human relationships involve persons who are vulnerable, including pregnant women, dependent, ill and or frail, noting that the desirable moral response is that prescribed by care ethics, which thus has implications for the practice of medicine in Nigeria.
Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian
The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health.
Straker, Leon; Mathiassen, Svend Erik
Shifting workforce proportions to sedentary occupations and technology developments in traditionally physically demanding occupations have resulted in low physical workloads for many workers. Insufficient physical stress is known to have detrimental short- and long-term effects on health and physical capacity. It is argued herein that many modern workers are at risk of insufficient physical workload. Further, it is argued that the traditional physical ergonomics paradigm of reducing risk by reducing physical loads ('less is better') is not appropriate for many modern occupations. It is proposed that a new paradigm is required, where 'more can be better'. The potential for work to be seen as an arena for improving physical health and capability is discussed and the types of changes to work that may be required are outlined. The paper also discusses challenges and responsibilities presented by this new paradigm for ergonomists, employers, health and safety authorities and the community. The majority of workers in affluent communities now face the significant threat to health of insufficient physical workload. Ergonomics can design work to a prescription that can not only reduce injury risk but enhance health and capacity. However, this will require a change in paradigm.
Nathaniel Harding; Stephen Smith; John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman
The challenging characteristics of shale formations often require horizontal drilling to economically develop their potential. While every shale gas play is unique, there are several best practices for the proper planning and execution of a horizontal well. In planning a horizontal well, the optimal method and technology for building inclination and extending the lateral section must be determined. Properly specified logging-while-drilling tools are essential to keep the wellbore within the target formation. Planning must also focus on casing design. Doing so will help ensure stability and enable reliable and productive completions. Shales pose a challenge for these elements of well planning due to their thin strata and potentially low mechanical competence when foreign fluids are introduced. Once a plan is developed, executing it is even more important to prove a viable exploration program. Fast, efficient drilling with wellbore control and minimal torque and drag should be the priority. This may be achieved by focusing on fluid hydraulics and rheology and bottom hole assembly. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) will help fast drilling, well control and stability. If MPD can be combined with new generation rotary steerable systems that allow the drill string to maintain rotation, impressive efficiencies are possible. Modern drilling parameter analysis represents the newest opportunity for executing shale gas horizontal wells. A method for ROP analysis to improve operational parameters and equipment selection is also proposed.
Aničić Radosav M.
Full Text Available The reality of the modern world has become characteristic in many aspects even historically, due to a large number of almost insoluble contradictions of social-economic development most often accompanied by seriously warning retrograde processes, existential problems of a large part of the world population and other phenomena that are difficult to solve by using knowledge of contemporary science. Starting from this, as well as from a well known premise of the philosophy of science dating from the Plato age that "a thought arises from the opposite", it is possible to conclude that there have been few periods in recent human history so inspiring and at the same time so aggravating for the science as the period in which we are living. This paper deals with the following question: is the contemporary scientific thought and to what extent, capable of facing this challenge especially bearing in mind that it has been argued that, due to a general crisis of practice, science itself, as its reflective form, is also facing a crisis. The paper aims at critical reviewing of those attitudes and beliefs in which the essence of science and its interdependency upon the reality it studies are incomplete or inadequate.
Articles on Practical Cybernetics. Computer-Developed Computers; Heuristics and Modern Sciences; Linguistics and Practice; Cybernetics and Moral-Ethical Considerations; and Men and Machines at the Chessboard.
Berg, A. I.; And Others
Five articles which were selected from a Russian language book on cybernetics and then translated are presented here. They deal with the topics of: computer-developed computers, heuristics and modern sciences, linguistics and practice, cybernetics and moral-ethical considerations, and computer chess programs. (Author/JY)
Full Text Available The paper considers general approaches to the definition of the notion of anomia. It analyzes different aspects of the term's modern interpretation and discusses the main problems connected with the formation of the social context of the future teacher professional training for health protecting activities. The features of health protecting activity are exposed in the conditions of anomia. Certainly its influences on the social, psychical and physical health of young people. It is well-proven that introduction to maintenance of professional preparation of future teachers of presentations about anomia and its intercommunications with the different aspects of vital functions are necessity in connection with actualization of health protecting activity of teachers.
Fowler, Jim; Chevannes, Mel
Nursing is a growing area of higher education, in which an introduction to statistics is an essential component. There is currently a gap in the market for a 'user-friendly' book which is contextulised and targeted for nursing. Practical Statistics for Nursing and Health Care introduces statistical techniques in such a way that readers will easily grasp the fundamentals to enable them to gain the confidence and understanding to perform their own analysis. It also provides sufficient advice in areas such as clinical trials and epidemiology to enable the reader to critically appraise work published in journals such as the Lancet and British Medical Journal. * Covers all basic statistical concepts and tests * Is user-friendly - avoids excessive jargon * Includes relevant examples for nurses, including case studies and data sets * Provides information on further reading * Starts from first principles and progresses step by step * Includes 'advice on' sections for all of the tests described.
Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica
Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…
Johns, Timothy; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B
Simplification of human diets associated with increased accessibility of inexpensive agricultural commodities and erosion of agrobiodiversity leads to nutrient deficiencies and excess energy consumption. Non-communicable diseases are growing causes of death and disability worldwide. Successful food systems in transition effectively draw on locally-available foods, food variety and traditional food cultures. In practice this process involves empirical research, public policy, promotion and applied action in support of multi-sectoral, community-based strategies linking rural producers and urban consumers, subsistence and market economies, and traditional and modern food systems. Implementation of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute's Global Nutrition Strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa offers a useful case study. Relevant policy platforms, in which biodiversity conservation and nutrition are and should be linked, include the Millennium Development Goals, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Convention on Biological Diversity, Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines, Right to Adequate Food and UN Human Rights Commission's Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. The largely unexplored health benefits of cultivated and wild plants include micronutrient intake and functions related to energy density, glycaemic control, oxidative stress and immuno-stimulation. Research on the properties of neglected and underutilized species and local varieties deserves higher priority. In tests of the hypothesis that biodiversity is essential for dietary diversity and health, quantitative indicators of dietary and biological diversity can be combined with nutrition and health outcomes at the population level. That traditional systems once lost are hard to recreate underlines the imperative for timely documentation, compilation and dissemination of eroding knowledge of biodiversity and the use of food culture for promoting positive
Wu, Ting-Ting; Sung, Tien-Wen
In recent years, mobile device-assisted clinical education has become popular among nursing school students. The introduction of mobile devices saves manpower and reduces errors while enhancing nursing students' professional knowledge and skills. To respond to the demands of various learning strategies and to maintain existing systems of education, the concept of Cloud Learning is gradually being introduced to instructional environments. Cloud computing facilitates learning that is personalized, diverse, and virtual. This study involved assessing the advantages of mobile devices and Cloud Learning in a public health practice course, in which Google+ was used as the learning platform, integrating various application tools. Users could save and access data by using any wireless Internet device. The platform was student centered and based on resource sharing and collaborative learning. With the assistance of highly flexible and convenient technology, certain obstacles in traditional practice training can be resolved. Our findings showed that the students who adopted Google+ were learned more effectively compared with those who were limited to traditional learning systems. Most students and the nurse educator expressed a positive attitude toward and were satisfied with the innovative learning method.
Public mental health deals with mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and suicide, reducing mental health inequalities, and governance and organization of mental health service provision. The full impact of mental health is largely unrecognized within the public health sphere, despite the increasing burden of disease attributable to mental and behavioral disorders. Modern public mental health policies aim at improving psychosocial health by addressing determinants of mental health in all public policy areas. Stigmatization of mental disorders is a widespread phenomenon that constitutes a barrier for help-seeking and for the development of health care services, and is thus a core issue in public mental health actions. Lately, there has been heightened interest in the promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. Effective programmes have been developed for promoting mental health in everyday settings such as families, schools and workplaces. New evidence indicates that many mental disorders and suicides are preventable by public mental health interventions. Available evidence favours the population approach over high-risk approaches. Public mental health emphasizes the role of primary care in the provision of mental health services to the population. The convincing evidence base for population-based mental health interventions asks for actions for putting evidence into practice. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.
The World Health Organization's Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion has been influential in guiding the development of 'settings' based health promotion. Over the past decade, settings such as schools have flourished and there has been a considerable amount of academic literature produced, including theoretical papers, descriptive studies and evaluations. However, despite its central importance, the health-promoting general practice has received little attention. This paper discusses: the significance of this setting for health promotion; how a health promoting general practice can be created; effective health promotion approaches; the nursing contribution; and some challenges that need to be resolved. In order to become a health promoting general practice, the staff must undertake a commitment to fulfil the following conditions: create a healthy working environment; integrate health promotion into practice activities; and establish alliances with other relevant institutions and groups within the community. The health promoting general practice is the gold standard for health promotion. Settings that have developed have had the support of local, national and European networks. Similar assistance and advocacy will be needed in general practice. This paper recommends that a series of rigorously evaluated, high-quality pilot sites need to be established to identify and address potential difficulties, and to ensure that this innovative approach yields tangible health benefits for local communities. It also suggests that government support is critical to the future development of health promoting general practices. This will be needed both directly and in relation to the capacity and resourcing of public health in general.
Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Bech, Per
In recent years, much effort has been invested in the development of new instruments for assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). For many new instruments, modern psychometric methods, such as item response theory (IRT) models, have been used, either as supplemental to classical...... psychometric testing or as the primary methodological approach. We will use the term modern psychometric methods to refer to psychometric methods for multi-item scales that (1) examine the contribution of each item to the measurement properties of the overall scale and (2) recognize that items are categorical....... The models include Rasch models (Rasch 1980; Fischer and Molenaar 1995), other IRT models (Samejima 1969; van der Linden and Hambleton 1997), and factor analytic models for categorical data (Muthén 1984). “Modern” psychometric methods have actually a rather long history within psychiatric research (both...
Weslin, Anna T; Silva-Smith, Amy
Performing arts medicine is a growing health care profession specializing in the needs of performing artists. As part of the performing arts venue, the dancer, a combination of athlete and artist, presents with unique health care needs requiring a more collaborative and holistic health care program. Currently there are relatively few advanced practice nurses (APNs) who specialize in performing arts health care. APNs, with focus on collaborative and holistic health care, are ideally suited to join other health care professionals in developing and implementing comprehensive health care programs for the performing artist. This article focuses on the dancer as the client in an APN practice that specializes in performing arts health care.
Leung, Zee; Middleton, Dean; Morrison, Karen
There is a growing recognition that many public health issues are complex and can be best understood by examining the relationship between human health and the health of the ecosystems in which people live. Two approaches, One Health and Ecosystem Approaches to Health (EcoHealth), can help us to better understand these intricate and complex connections, and appear to hold great promise for tackling many modern public health dilemmas. Although both One Health and EcoHealth have garnered recognition from numerous health bodies in Canada and abroad, there is still a need to better understand how these approaches are shaping the practice of public health in Ontario.The purpose of this study was to characterize how public health actors in Ontario are influenced by the holistic principles which underlie One Health and EcoHealth, and to identify important lessons from their experiences. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants from the public health sphere in Ontario. Participants encompassed diverse perspectives including infectious disease, food systems, urban agriculture, and environmental health. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis to identify major themes and patterns. Four major themes emerged from the interviews: the importance of connecting human health with the environment; the role of governance in promoting these ideas; the value of partnerships and collaborations in public health practice; and the challenge of operationalizing holistic approaches to public health. Overall study participants were found to be heavily influenced by concepts couched in EcoHealth and One Health literature, despite a lack of familiarity with these fields. Although One Health and EcoHealth are lesser known approaches in the public health sphere, their holistic and systems-based principles were found to influence the thoughts, values and experiences of public health actors interviewed in this study. This
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing recognition that many public health issues are complex and can be best understood by examining the relationship between human health and the health of the ecosystems in which people live. Two approaches, One Health and Ecosystem Approaches to Health (EcoHealth, can help us to better understand these intricate and complex connections, and appear to hold great promise for tackling many modern public health dilemmas. Although both One Health and EcoHealth have garnered recognition from numerous health bodies in Canada and abroad, there is still a need to better understand how these approaches are shaping the practice of public health in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to characterize how public health actors in Ontario are influenced by the holistic principles which underlie One Health and EcoHealth, and to identify important lessons from their experiences. Methods Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants from the public health sphere in Ontario. Participants encompassed diverse perspectives including infectious disease, food systems, urban agriculture, and environmental health. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis to identify major themes and patterns. Results Four major themes emerged from the interviews: the importance of connecting human health with the environment; the role of governance in promoting these ideas; the value of partnerships and collaborations in public health practice; and the challenge of operationalizing holistic approaches to public health. Overall study participants were found to be heavily influenced by concepts couched in EcoHealth and One Health literature, despite a lack of familiarity with these fields. Conclusions Although One Health and EcoHealth are lesser known approaches in the public health sphere, their holistic and systems-based principles were found to influence the thoughts, values and
Swider, Susan M; Krothe, Joyce; Reyes, David; Cravetz, Michelle
This article describes the most recent efforts by the Quad Council of Public Health Nursing organizations to review and revise the competencies for PHN practice, and highlights the implications of these competencies for practice, education, and research. The Quad Council is a coalition of four nursing organizations with a focus on public health nursing and includes the Association of Community Health Nursing Educators; the Association of Public Health Nursing (known prior to July 1, 2012 as the Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing); the Public Health Nursing section of the American Public Health Association; and the Council on Economics and Practice of the American Nurses' Association. The Quad Council competencies are based on the Council on Linkages competencies for public health professionals and were designed to ensure that public health nursing fits in the domain of public health science and practice.
Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes; Arruda, José Maria; Barroso, Maria Auxiliadora Bessa; Lobato Tavares, Maria de Fátima; Ribeiro Campos, Nora Zamith; Zandonadil, Regina Celi Moreira Basílio; da Rocha, Rosa Maria; Parreira, Clélia Maria de Souza Ferreira; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Correa, Carlos Roberto Silveira; Serrano, Miguel Malo
This article focuses on health promotion (HP) outcomes, illustrated through evaluation of case studies and identification of strategies which have contributed to their success and sustainability. Evaluation research and practice in three distinct sceneries are discussed: (i) institutional and governmental agencies; (ii) communities in the "Manguinhos Complex" and Nova Iguaqu Municipality, and (iii) building of potentially healthy municipality networks. The effectiveness of a social program in a health promotion perspective was based in the "School for Parents" program, undertaken by the First Court of Childhood and Youth of Rio de Janeiro, between 2001 and 2004. The analysis was grounded in the monitoring of 48 parents in charge of children under 18, who were victims of abuse, violence or negligence, and social exclusion, most of all. The study's objectives were: illustrating the evidence of effectiveness of health promotion, discussing the concept of HP effectiveness under macro unfavorable conditions, and identifying strategies that foster sustainability of results. Institutional resources included a multi-professional staff, multidisciplinary approaches, participatory workshops, family case management, partnership with public and private institutions, and volunteer and civil society sponsorship of the families. Evaluation was based on social impact indicators, and psychosocial and contextual determinants. Evaluation methods included program monitoring and quantitative-qualitative methods, through a longitudinal evaluation of 3 years, including one year post program. The evaluation showed highly favorable results concerning "family integration', "quality of family relations" and "human rights mobilization". Unsatisfactory results such as "lack of access to formal employment" are likely related to structural factors and the need for new public policies in areas such as education, professional training, housing, and access to formal employment. The training process
Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe
As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.
Frenk, Julio; Ruelas, Enrique; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Magaña-Valladares, Laura; Gudiño-Cejudo, María Rosa
In this paper we discuss the recent efforts to modernize the School of Public Health of Mexico (ESPM). In the first part we analyze the conditions in which the ESPM operated at the beginning of the 1980s. In part two we describe the changes introduced in the ESPM between 1983 and 1986, up until its incorporation into the National Institute of Public Health (INSP). In part three we discuss the conceptual renovation which built the platform for the new academic programs introduced by the School between 1987 and 1995. In the fourth part we discuss the construction of the new facilities of INSP and the process of moving to the city of Cuernavaca. The main message of this paper is that the transformations witnessed by the ESPM in the final decades of the past century turned it into a true academic institution which uses research as the motor for training of human resources in public health.
Full Text Available A modern healthcare IoT platform with an intelligent medicine box along with sensors for health monitoring and diagnosis is proposed here. Health care services based on Internet of Things have great potential in medical field.In this paper,anintelligent home-based medicine box with wireless connectivity along with an android application (Health-iot that helps patients and doctors to be in a more close communication. The proposed platform has an intelligent medicine box that gives alerts for patients to take their medication at the right time. The box is wirelessly connected to internet to make timely updates about medicines which will be notified in the android application with in patient’s smartphone. The system automatically gives alarm so that the patient take the right medicine at the right time. And if there are any vital signs noticed SMS alerts are given to the predefined guardian.
Ricard, Nicole; Page, Claire; Laflamme, France
New professional legislation and reorganization of mental health services have had a significant influence on mental health nursing practice. Many nurses have demonstrated clinical leadership and have been able to adapt their services to the needs of the population specially in the primary health care setting. However, many believe that the role of nurses is not sufficiently known and optimally utilized in mental health services. In this article we take a critical look at the mental health nursing practice in Quebec and at the essential requirements for its development. This review aims to: 1) describe current trends in the changing roles and the modernization of mental health nursing practice in Quebec, 2) provide an overview of the development of advanced nursing practice and its impact on the quality of mental health services; 3) clarify the concept of advanced nursing practice and position its development in Quebec and 4) propose various strategies for optimizing the role of nurses and their complementarity with other professionals providing mental health services. This review presents innovative practices developed by nurses in the context of the restructuring of mental health services. For example, new nursing roles have been developed to improve the collaboration with general practitioners groups in primary care settings and facilitate the evaluation and monitoring of patient presenting medical and psychological problems. Another interesting innovation was set up by nurses in developing a new service to allow timely access to integrated care for patients with substance abuse and mental health problems. The various testimonies reported in this article illustrate the potential contribution of these nursing innovations in improving the mental health services in Quebec. Also, in few countries, the reform of mental health services has been a good time to recognize this potential. Thus, some countries have repositioned the role of mental health nurses and
Higgs, E; Melling, J
In this brief essay we argue that the best efforts of archivists, scholars, and practitioners within the National Health Service have not prevented the wholesale destruction of the bulk of patient records created during the twentieth century. This is a matter of vital concern not merely for historians of modern medicine. Important clinical work has frequently been undertaken on materials which have survived, usually by chance or by the foresight of physicians, matrons, and administrators. Even the significant fragments of historical documents which remain in the hands of the health authorities have been threatened by the continuing drive to reduce storage and maintenance costs within hospitals. Archivists and academics have struggled to address the problems of sampling, storage, and access which the enormous bulk of modern records present. In this essay we suggest that the first step must be to raise awareness amongst professionals and the public of the extent to which any future history of the medical services and of patient care will depend on a reasonable rate of survival of these records. The second step must be to confront the problem of resources and the inevitable task of selection which must form the foundations of any long-term policy of preservation. An initial survey of archival materials in Devon indicates that the records of community health care form a substantial and potentially invaluable research source for future historians, though their relevance has rarely been recognized within the academic community.
Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary
In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.
Teixeira, Marcus Zulian
Supported in the Hippocratic aphorism primum non nocere, the bioethical principle of non-maleficence pray that the medical act cause the least damage or injury to the health of the patient, leaving it to the doctor to assess the risks of a particular therapy through knowledge of possible adverse events of drugs. Among these, the rebound effect represents a common side effect to numerous classes of modern drugs, may cause serious and fatal disorders in patients. This review aims to clarify the health professionals on clinical and epidemiological aspects of rebound phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and bibliographic review was held in the PubMed database using the keywords 'rebound', 'withdrawal', 'paradoxical', 'acetylsalicylic acid', 'anti-inflammatory', 'bronchodilator', 'antidepressant', 'statin', 'proton pump inhibitor' and 'bisphosphonate'. The rebound effect occurs after discontinuation of numerous classes of drugs that act contrary to the disease disorders, exacerbating them at levels above those prior to treatment. Regardless of the disease, the drug and duration of treatment, the phenomenon manifests itself in a small proportion of susceptible individuals. However, it may cause serious and fatal adverse events should be considered a public health problem in view of the enormous consumption of drugs by population. Bringing together a growing and unquestionable body of evidence, the physician needs to have knowledge of the consequences of the rebound effect and how to minimize it, increasing safety in the management of modern drugs. On the other hand, this rebound can be used in a curative way, broadening the spectrum of the modern therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
McIntyre, Jody; Nelson Goff, Briana S
This study investigated the comprehensiveness of disaster mental health state plans and their adherence to published best practices in three states that experienced post-9/11 federally-declared disasters. There were 59 disaster mental health best practices used in this study to assess each state disaster mental plan's compliance with best practices; the states demonstrated a range of adherence to the best practices. This research may serve as a guide for those developing disaster mental health plans and encourage further considerations in disaster mental health response.
Full Text Available A normative base is considered on the problems of physical education, physical culture and independent work of students. An analysis is conducted scientifically-methodical and special literature on issue of research. Basic features and modern going are selected near independent work in health technologies of physical education of students. A concept «Independent work» is examined as activity of man and as a teaching method. A teaching method plugs in itself independent employments by physical exercises. During correct organization they can substantially increase motive activity of students.
Health Data Recording, Reporting and Utilization Practices Among Primary ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The study took place at the selected primary health centers located in six Local Government Areas in Enugu State Nigeria.
Walsh, Liz; Freshwater, Dawn
Prison health care is undergoing significant organisational change. This article highlights the potential for practice development in this setting, giving two examples of ongoing developments undertaken as part of a programme of research and development in mental health.
Probability theory is at the base of modern concepts of risk assessment in mental health. The aim of the current paper is to review the key developments in the early history of probability theory in order to enrich our understanding of current risk assessment practices.
Agutter, Paul S; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Majid; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ghabili, Kamyar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios
Premature burial (taphophobia) is an ancient fear, but it became especially common in 18th and 19th century Europe and may have a modern-day counterpart. Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question of why taphophobia became so prevalent in Europe during the early industrial revolution period. The medieval Persian case was attributed to hysterical paralysis (conversion). We discuss the relationship between hysterical paralysis and premature burial more generally and show that although understanding of conversion syndrome remains incomplete, modern knowledge and practices have limited the risk of any similar tragedy today. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.
Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand
of health, illness, and care-seeking. We suggest that the focus on lifestyle and behavioral change that dominates contemporary public health interventions should be complemented with a Weberian circumstantial approach. Acknowledging the situatedness of health and illness practices may enable us to help our...... patients gain access to, and benefit from, the health-care system....
Full Text Available The modern forms of organization are studied recreational health-building employments. Organization of employments in the clubs of fitness, visit of complex sporting buildings is presented. The analysis of publications in which authors examine the features of development of industry of fitness in market conditions is resulted. A questionnaire in which 1500 habitants of city took part in age 18-75 years is conducted. It is set that among polled most popular are clubs of fitness of middle level, where the cost of subscription is made by 20-50 dollars of the USA on a month. It is set that clubs of fitness visit mainly people of middle ages with the purpose of the complex making healthy, maintainance of beautiful physical form and attractive exterior. It is marked that to date clubs of fitness must be oriented mainly on health direction and to satisfy the psychological and social necessities of clients.
Havik, Philip Jan
Until the establishment of the "Commission for the study of and combat against sleeping sickness" (Missão de estudo e combate à doença do sono) in 1945, underfunded and understaffed health services had not been a priority for the colonial administration in Portuguese Guinea. The Commission not only implemented endemic disease control in the territory under the auspices of metropolitan institutions, but also provided preventive public healthcare to the local population. Its relative success in reducing the negative impact of Human African Trypanosomiasis turned the colony into an apparent model of tropical modernity. In the process, the local evolution of the disease was marginalized, despite the tacit but contested recognition by some health professionals of the role of popular healthcare.
Verna C Gibbs
The three surgical patient safety events,wrong site surgery,retained surgical items (RSI) and surgical fires are rare occurrences and thus their effects on the complex modern operating room (OR) are difficult to study.The likelihood of occurrence and the magnitude of risk for each of these surgical safety events are undefined.Many providers may never have a personal experience with one of these events and training and education on these topics are sparse.These circumstances lead to faulty thinking that a provider won't ever have an event or if one does occur the provider will intuitively know what to do.Surgeons are not preoccupied with failure and tend to usually consider good outcomes,which leads them to ignore or diminish the importance of implementing and following simple safety practices.These circumstances contribute to the persistent low level occurrence of these three events and to the difficulty in generating sufficient interest to resource solutions.Individual facilities rarely have the time or talent to understand these events and develop lasting solutions.More often than not,even the most well meaning internal review results in a new line to a policy and some rigorous enforcement mandate.This approach routinely fails and is another reason why these problems are so persistent.Vigilance actions alone have been unsuccessful so hospitals now have to take a systematic approach to implementing safer processes and providing the resources for surgeons and other stakeholders to optimize the OR environment.This article discusses standardized processes of care for mitigation of injury or outright prevention of wrong site surgery,RSI and surgical fires in an action-oriented framework illustrating the strategic elements important in each event and focusing on the responsibilities for each of the three major OR agents-anesthesiologists,surgeons and nurses.A Surgical Patient Safety Checklist is discussed that incorporates the necessary elements to bring these team
Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia
In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the recent efforts to modernize the School of Public Health of Mexico (ESPM. In the first part we analyze the conditions in which the ESPM operated at the beginning of the 1980s. In part two we describe the changes introduced in the ESPM between 1983 and 1986, up until its incorporation into the National Institute of Public Health (INSP. In part three we discuss the conceptual renovation which built the platform for the new academic programs introduced by the School between 1987 and 1995. In the fourth part we discuss the construction of the new facilities of INSP and the process of moving to the city of Cuernavaca. The main message of this paper is that the transformations witnessed by the ESPM in the final decades of the past century turned it into a true academic institution which uses research as the motor for training of human resources in public health.Kew words: School of Public Health of Mexico; training in public healthAutor de correspondencia: Dr. Octavio Gómez-Dantés. Genovevo de la O, 103 A, col. Santa María Ahuacatitlán. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Correo electrónico: email@example.com
Nov 11, 2009 ... Objective: To assess the oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices of the parents/ guardians of .... What is your view about having a full denture instead of .... parents/guardians did not practice preventive oral health for ...
Leung, Valerie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Cooper, Janet; Charlebois, Maureen
In 2010, a pan-Canadian study on the current state and benefits of provincial drug information systems (DIS) found that substantial benefits were being realized and that pharmacists perceived DIS to be a valuable tool in the evolving models of pharmacy practice. To understand changes in digital health and the impact on practice since that time, a survey of community pharmacists in Canada was conducted. In 2014, Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) and the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) invited community pharmacists to participate in a Web-based survey to understand their use and perceived benefits of digital health in practice. The survey was open from April 15 to May 12, 2014. Of the 447 survey responses, almost all used some form of digital health in practice. Those with access to DIS and provincial laboratory information systems (LIS) reported increased productivity and better quality of care. Those without access to these systems would overwhelmingly like access. There have been significant advances in digital health and community pharmacy practice over the past several years. In addition to digital health benefits in the areas of productivity and quality of care, pharmacists are also experiencing substantial benefits in areas related to recently expanded scope of practice activities such as ordering lab tests. Community pharmacists frequently use digital health in practice and recognize the benefits of these technologies. Digital health is, and will continue to be, a key enabler for practice transformation and improved quality of care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx.
Rogers, Wendy A
Public health plays an important, albeit often unnoticed, role in protecting and promoting the health of populations. The activities of public health are complex, performed by multiple professionals, and range from the innocuous to the intrusive. Ethical analyses in public health reflect some of this complexity and fragmentation, with no one approach able to capture the full range of ethical considerations raised by public health activities. There are however, good reasons why we should pursue such analyses. Providing a robust ethical framework for public health may promote the identity and function of public health, address some of the shortcomings of utilitarianism, and help to combat the threat that public health faces through lack of political will in many parts of the world. In this paper I argue that Alasdair MacIntyre's account of practices and virtues can make a valuable contribution to public health ethics. The first part of the paper argues that public health may properly be described as the type of practice that provides an arena for the exercise of virtues. This is followed by an analysis of the three virtues of honesty, courage and justice in public health practice. Using virtue theory captures morally important elements of public health and helps to maintain awareness of significant moral values in the practice of public health. Such awareness is crucial in maintaining and defending the integrity of public health.
Grossmeier, Jessica; Terry, Paul E; Cipriotti, Aldo; Burtaine, Jeffrey E
Program evaluation is generally recognized as a "best practice" activity for worksite health promotion programs. The importance of "best practice" worksite health promotion programming is increasing with the stakes anticipated by health care reform. Volvo's health promotion activities are used as an example of "best practice" programming with a particular focus on creating a dashboard of evaluation metrics that can meet the accountability needs of senior management. The role of a comprehensive evaluation framework using nine components is explored along with reasonable expectations for program outcomes. Finally, stakeholder utility from the evaluation approach is explored.
Camila da Silva Gonçalo; Nelson Filice de Barros
The World Health Organization recognizes the medical practices derived from the culture of each country, as Traditional Medicine, but all over the world, there has been no consensus about the denomination of these practices. InBrazil, the Ministry of Health recognizes the use of the following, as Complementary and Integrative Practices (CIP): Acupuncture, Homeopathy, Medicinal Plants/Phytotherapy, Thermal Water/Crenotherapy, Anthroposophic Medicine. Based on the therapies recognized by the Mi...
Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K
Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.
Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…
Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…
Abdul-Monim Batiha; Mohammed ALBashtawy
Background: Blood is fundamental to saving lives and is considered to be the force that sustains our bodies. Objective: To assess the attitudes and practices of health science students regarding blood donation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to assess the attitudes and practices of health science students regarding blood donation. 453 students (56.7% male) from the four health faculties (Pharmacy, Genetic engineering, Nursing, and Hospital administration) were surveyed...
Rosemary Ogonna Ibekwe; Perpetus Chudi Ibekwe
Reproductive health indices in most developing countries are still deplorable, less than a decade to the Millennium Development Goals. In Nigeria, as is the case in most developing countries, many factors combine to nurture reproductive ill-health and developmental backwardness. Some of these factors are harmful reproductive health practices such as, early marriages, violence against women, widowhood practices, and female genital mutilation. These are highlighted and suggestions made on how t...
Public health personnel are the first-line workers of preventive care and medical services. In the face of rapid social and demographic changes, empowerment and on-job training have become important approaches to enhance the function of nurses. Health centers act like the "peripheral nerves" of the government healthcare system, as they must both reflect the needs of community residents and fully implement government mandated services. While widely distributed, health centers face manpower shortages and disorderly information collection and distribution systems. Empowerment and on-job training programs can enhance public heath staff knowledge in order to cope with heavy workloads and shift toward multi-dimensional development. This paper examines the experience of the New Taipei City Public Health Bureau in conducting health center empowerment programs from four perspectives, including personal cultivation and organizational cultivation. It was found that public health staff self-recognition of professional values can also be further strengthened through alliances within the community, and that establishing personal relationships with patients by "treating patients as relatives" was effective in realizing health center objectives. This paper also reminds agency supervisors that staff training is a critical management task. Health authorities should thus introduce in a timely manner organizational management, on-job training, service reengineering, and other related corporate philosophies; facilitate staff empowerment; consolidate core professional knowledge; and construct intellectual and social capital that meets health unit needs in order to enhance health center competitiveness and public health staff knowledge.
Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Dahl, Hellen; Karlsson, Bengt; Arman, Maria
Practical wisdom, understood as knowing how to be or act in any present situation with clients, is believed to be an essential part of the knowledge needed to be a professional mental health worker. Exploring processes of adapting, extending knowledge and refining tacit knowledge grounded in mental health workers' experiences with being in practice may bring awareness of how mental health workers reflect, learn and practice professional 'artistry'. The aim of the article was to explore mental health workers' processes of development and learning as they appeared in focus groups intended to develop practical wisdom. The main research question was 'How might the processes of development and learning contribute to developing practical wisdom in the individual as well as in the practice culture?' The design was multi-stage focus groups, and the same participants met four times. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience guided the analysis. Eight experienced mental health workers representing four Norwegian municipalities participated. The research context was community-based mental health services. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Data Services, and procedures for informed consent were followed. Two examples of processes of re-evaluation of experience (Association, Integration, Validation, Appropriation and Outcomes and action) were explored. The health workers had developed knowledge in previous encounters with clients. In sharing practice experiences, this knowledge was expressed and developed, and also tested and validated against the aims of practice. Discussions led to adapted and extended knowledge, and as tacit knowledge was expressed it could be used actively. Learning to reflect, being ready to be provoked and learning to endure indecisiveness may be foundational in developing practical wisdom. Openness is demanding, and changing habits of mind is difficult. Reflection on, and confrontation with, set practices are
The American health care system is experiencing a period of unprecedented change. This paper identifies and discusses the major changes in patient care, research, control of the health care system, and medical education, and their implications for health sciences librarians. These changes have resulted in new demands for effective information delivery and a broader health sciences library clientele. There are both challenges and opportunities for health sciences librarians as they respond to ...
Working in Partnership, the Department of Health's report on the 1994 review of mental health nursing, implies that mental health nurses should develop anti-oppressive approaches to nursing practice. There is a notable absence of articles within the nursing literature which specifically address this issue. This is possibly because the historical and ideological issues which have informed the development of mental health nursing are complex and difficult to unravel. However, an integration of the theories of David Cooper and Frantz Fanon may provide an appropriate starting point for the development of a theory of anti-oppressive practice which addresses some of the issues specific to mental health nursing.
Radon, K; Nowak, D; Heinrich-Ramm, R; Szadkowski, D
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate possible acute and long-term respiratory health effects of work at different working places in the primary aluminum industry. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 78 potroom workers, 24 foundry workers, and 45 carbon-plant workers (n = 147, exposed group), and 56 control workers (watchmen, craftsmen, office workers, laboratory employees) of a modern German prebake aluminum plant. The survey consisted of pre- and postshift spirometric and urinary fluoride measurements. Potroom workers had significantly lower preshift results with regard to forced vital capacity (FVC, 99. 5% versus the 107.2% predicted; P < 0.05) and peak expiratory flow (PEF, 85.2% versus the 98.4% predicted; P < 0.01) as compared with controls. In a multiple regression model a small but significant negative correlation was found between postshift urinary fluoride concentrations and FVC, FEV(1), and PEF. Across-shift spirometric changes were observed only in FVC among carbon-plant workers (103.0 +/- 13.3% predicted preshift value versus 101.2 +/- 13.6% predicted postshift value; P < 0.05). The results suggest that lung function impairment in the modern primary aluminum industry may be only partly due to fluoride exposure and that working in aluminum carbon plants may cause acute lung function changes.
American Psychologist, 2013
Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…
Hersh, Lauren; Salzman, Brooke; Snyderman, Danielle
Health literacy includes a set of skills needed to make appropriate health decisions and successfully navigate the health care system. These skills include reading, writing, numeracy, communication, and, increasingly, the use of electronic technology. National data indicate that more than one-third of U.S. adults have limited health literacy, which contributes to poor health outcomes and affects patient safety, and health care access and quality. Although there are a number of tools that screen for limited health literacy, they are primarily used for research. Routinely screening patients for health literacy has not been shown to improve outcomes and is not recommended. Instead, multiple professional organizations recommend using universal health literacy precautions to provide understandable and accessible information to all patients, regardless of their literacy or education levels. This includes avoiding medical jargon, breaking down information or instructions into small concrete steps, limiting the focus of a visit to three key points or tasks, and assessing for comprehension. Additionally, printed information should be written at or below a fifth- to sixth-grade reading level. Visual aids, graphs, or pictures can enhance patient understanding, as can more concrete presentation of numerical information.
Colmenares, Germán Yépez
Between 1870 and 1877, under German Antonio Guzmán Blanco's first period of government, a set of measures was inaugurated with the intent of modernizing Venezuelan society, government, and the State. The city of Caracus was a prime setting in which to undertake a series of reformist works and measures meant to transform the capital into an urban space boasting features similar to Europe's major cities. Standing among the years' main developments are the pactice and teaching of medicine, measures seeking to improve public health conditions, and the express desire to use legal norms and resolutions to attack the principle diseases afflicting Caracas residents. The government and its circle of professional elites sought to set the stage to attract capital and European immigrants.
At the margins of modern medical practice, pushing the very limits of science, and indefatigably rendering the precincts of public discourse, still functional remnants of Christian civilization continue to provide care for the hopeless, perform healing sacraments for the incurable, and curate objects of votive devotion for the suffering and needy. These public services go largely unaccounted for, though they secure an ordered world, structure perception, and serve as ontological anchors. Lost...
Jørgensen, Rasmus; Edwards, Kasper
the use of SOPs. A CoP is a social community formed around a practice (e.g. ICU nursing) which induce a propensity to share experiences and thereby constitute knowledge sharing (Lave & Wenger 1991; Brown & Duguid 1991). CoP was conceived as a descriptive construct but has gained popularity and is found...... to improve practice performance, but knowledge about developing and measuring CoP is lacking (Ison et al. 2014). We propose a method to develop a CoP and the method is tested in a blood analysis unit at ‘Nordsjællands Hospital’ in Denmark. Design/methodology/approach The interventions were identified from...... current CoP research. Interventions were initiated just after baseline measurement. The following interventions took place: The practice was operationalized narrowly as employees performing a specific operational task. The practice was chosen due to a high frequency and recurring problems. A voluntary Co...
From today's point of view, the concepts of "miasma" and "contagion" appear to be two mutually exclusive perceptions of the spread of epidemic diseases, and quite a number of historians have tried to discuss the history of public health and epidemic diseases in terms of a progression from the miasmic to the contagionist concept. More detailed local studies, however, indicate how extremely misleading it may be to separate such medical concepts and ideas from their actual historical context. The article presented here, based on local studies in late medieval and early modern imperial towns in southern Germany, demonstrates to what extent the inhabitants of these towns had notions of both "miasma" and "contagion." Furthermore, a contextual analysis of language shows that they did not see a necessity to strictly distinguish between these different concepts relating to the spread of diseases. Tracing the meaning of "infection" and "contagion," we find that these terms were used in connection with various diseases, and that a change in the use of the expressions does not necessarily imply a change of the corresponding notion. Moreover, a coexistence of differing perceptions cannot--as some historians have suggested--be attributed to a divergence between the academic medicine and the popular ideas of that period. A survey of measures and actions in the public health sector indicates that a coexistence of--from our point of view--inconsistent concepts helped the authorities as well as the individuals to find means of defense and consolation during all those crises caused by epidemic diseases--crises that occurred very frequently in these towns during the late medieval and early modern periods. As the article demonstrates, the interaction during such crises reveals the continuity of ancient rituals and concepts as well as the adoption of new insights resulting from changes in the economical, political, scientific, religious, and social structures.
Johnson, Norine G.
Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…
Schultz, Sandra L.
This paper explores the health behaviors and health beliefs of Vietnamese, Cambodians, Laotians, (and the Chinese components of these populations), and the Mien and Hmong of Laos. Included is a description of the major medical systems in each country, local practitioners, and some of the uniquely recognized diseases and cures of each area.…
Torri, Maria Costanza
Over the past few years, intercultural health has become an emerging issue in health policy. Intercultural health is an approach in health that aims at reducing the gap between indigenous and western health systems, on the basis of mutual respect and equal recognition of these knowledge systems. This article questions the applicability of such a concept in the context of Chile. Here, conflicting interests between the Mapuche and the Chilean state are related to aspects of economic development, modernity processes, integration, intercultural relations, and indigenous rights and are deeply reflected also in projects for an intercultural health system. By analysing the experience of the intercultural practice of Makewe Hospital, this article argues that effective and equitable intercultural health practices will not take place unless there will be an integral valorisation of the Mapuche culture from a broader perspective.
Aston, Megan; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Edwards, Nancy; Young, Linda M
Citizen participation is heralded as a critical element of community health programs that emphasize empowerment and health promotion strategies. Although there is a growing body of research on public health nurses' primary health care practice, few studies have described how public health nurses foster citizen participation. This article presents findings from an interpretive qualitative study of public health nurses' perceptions of their role in fostering citizen participation in an eastern Canadian province at a time of significant health care restructuring. The findings from this study clearly profile public health nurses as integral to the practice of fostering citizen participation.
Dombrowski, Jill J; Snelling, Anastasia M; Kalicki, Michelle
Health promotion practice has evolved over the past four decades in response to the rising rates of chronic disease. The focus of health promotion is attaining wellness by managing modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, diet, or physical activity. Occupational health nurses are often asked to conduct worksite health promotion programs for individuals or groups, yet may be unfamiliar with evidence-based strategies. Occupational health nurses should lead interprofessional groups in designing and implementing worksite health promotion programs. This article introduces occupational health nurses to health promotion concepts and discusses evidence-based theories and planning models that can be easily introduced into practice.
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on advocacy opportunities provided by the anti-trafficking framework in a new political climate. Through the case study of the United Kingdom (UK Modern Slavery Act 2015 deliberations the article explores opportunities to use political interest in human trafficking to advocate labour rights and protections for vulnerable workers. The article explores how, largely cynical, political motivations for the debate on ‘modern slavery’ in the UK, provided an opportunity to reframe the anti-trafficking discourse in this context. Whilst migration control and labour market deregulation are key priorities for the UK government, the Modern Slavery Act process enabled advocates to highlight the impact of such measures on vulnerable, predominantly migrant, workers. It also ultimately served to persuade decision makers to make a connection between widespread labour abuses and severe labour exploitation. Through this case study the article argues for engagement with anti-trafficking frameworks to both highlight and harness the political rhetoric, and maximise the space provided for promoting the rights of vulnerable workers.
Noel, Dianne L
Many health care and academic centers have adopted Watson's Theory of Human Caring as their guiding principle; the theory is also used in other disciplines, such as library science. Human caring theory offers occupational health nurses as structure that not only defines a focus for practice, but also provides a basis for moral and philosophical practice analyses. In particular, nurses may find this theory useful in confirming the definition of "caring" and reconsidering what nursing is all about. More importantly, consideration and application of this theory may lead to research on its applicability to the field of occupational health nursing. This article presents the science and philosophy of human caring, specifically Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate how the theory could be used to evaluate occupational health nursing practice. To demonstrate its possible relevance as an occupational health nursing framework, an analysis of and comparison to existing occupational health nursing guidelines are detailed and discussed.
Full Text Available As attention to health literacy grows as an area for policy intervention, policy discourse continues to draw on skills deficit and patient compliance, buttressed by the dominant political discourse of individual responsibility. But for patients, the health domain is interwoven with linguistic challenges, significant affective issues, underlying cultural dimensions, political and economic exigencies, variable access to resources, and cognitive and situated complexity. From these perspectives, this article reports on findings of an ongoing study of health literacy demands in the Midlands region of the North Island of New Zealand, an area of high ethnic and socio-economic diversity. The study focuses on patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease - two chronic areas strongly associated with ‘failure to care’ and identifed as having reached epidemic proportions. It analyses work to date: health professionals’ conceptions of and responses to perceived patients’ health literacy needs, and health information documents for patients. Implications of the study support the need for improvement in language and literacy skills among patients, but also the recognition of complexity and a collective responsibility for effective health communication.
Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that public health practice raises ethical issues that require a different approach than traditional biomedical ethics. Several frameworks for public health ethics have been proposed, however, none of them provides a practice-oriented combination of the two necessary components: (1 A set of normative criteria based on an explicit ethical justification and (2 a structured methodological approach for applying the resulting normative criteria to concrete public health issues. Building on prior work in the field and integrating valuable elements of other approaches to public health ethics, we present a systematic ethical framework that shall guide professionals in planning, conducting, and evaluating public health interventions.Based on a coherentist model of ethical justification, the proposed framework contains (1 an explicit normative foundation with five substantive criteria and seven procedural conditions to guarantee a fair decision process, and (2 a six-step methodological approach for applying the criteria and conditions to the practice of public health and health policy. The framework explicitly ties together ethical analysis and empirical evidence, thus striving for evidence-based public health ethics. It shall provide normative guidance to those who analyze the ethical implications of public health practice including academic ethicists, health policy makers, health technology assessment bodies, and public health professionals.It will enable those who implement a public health intervention and those affected by it (i.e. the target population to critically assess whether and how the required ethical considerations have been taken into account. Thereby, the framework can contribute to assuring the quality of ethical analysis in public health. Whether the presented framework will be able to achieve its goals has to be determined by evaluating its practical application.
Camila Ferreira Vorkapic
Conclusions: Contemplative research found out that modern interventions in psychology might not come from modern concepts after all, but share great similarity with ancient yogic knowledge, giving us the opportunity to integrate the psychological wisdom of both East and West.
Sørensen, Mariann B.
included in various official visions papers and recommendations. The main question is pedagogical: How do practitioners in the health sector i.e. in nursing deal with these perspectives? The materials are the Danish Health Board´s program of rehabilitation and palliative care, data from a focus group study......The article concerns the issue: How to deal with the increasing challenges of communication in the health care sector? On the one hand, it focuses on how to include the patient’s and relatives´ perspectives. On the other hand, it focuses on the existential/spiritual perspective which is now...
... a bronchodilator) is a compound in the traditional Chinese herb ma huang ( ephedra * ). Researchers have found little ... Mind and Body Approaches for Health Problems Facing Military Personnel and Veterans 5 Myths About Popular Natural ...
Coleman, Clifford A; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L
Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in
Woodward, Thomas W
Martial arts are ancient forms of combat, modified for modern sport and exercise. Participation in the martial arts is increasing, particularly for youth. Martial arts provide health-promoting and meaningful exercise for millions of practitioners. Benefits from this practice include better overall health and balance, as well as an improved sense of psychological well being. They do not promote aggression and may be used as a treatment modality for youth who are at-risk for violence. This article provides an overview of martial arts for physicians who may evaluate such injuries in their practice. Physicians may wish to consider recommending martial arts to patients as a beneficial form of exercise. They are relatively safe compared to many other sports, and most martial arts injuries are comparatively minor. Risks can possibly be reduced by limiting exposure of inexperienced students, as well as using protective equipment, including mouthguards, eye/face protection, headgear, and padding.
Full Text Available The Protocol on Water and Health to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes entered into force in August 2005. It is jointly serviced by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The main aim of the Protocol is to protect human health and well-being by better water management, including the protection of water ecosystems, and by preventing, controlling and reducing water-related diseases. The Protocol recognises that engaging in intersectoral partnerships and increased coordination greatly enhances sustainable development. It is closely linked to the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs, more particularly, the Protocol offers a platform to go beyond MDG target 10, since its final objective is to grant access to drinking water and sanitation to everybody. The Protocol takes into account differences in health, environmental and economic conditions in the region, and gives State Parties the freedom to establish their priorities tailored to their specific situations. Moreover the Protocol displays innovative features of modern environmental law: It provides for the establishment of a mechanism for review of compliance of a non-confrontational, non-judicial and consultative nature which will significantly increase its effectiveness; It includes provisions for international cooperation and international support for national action to support its implementation. This article reviews the decisions taken by the Protocol's Parties at their first meeting in January 2007 which set the future direction of work and establish the institutional architecture of the Protocol.
Berkman, Barbara; And Others
Guidelines are presented for developing curricula that integrate health-specific content with traditional foundation content. Specific course content for practice in human behavior, social environment, organization, and policy sequences are proposed. (Author/MH)
Health education: Effect on knowledge and practice of workplace personal ... using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 and P-value of ... of participants (P < 0.001), whereas work experience had no effect (P = 0.285).
Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal, delivery and ... (THPs), i.e. herbalists, diviners and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on HIV, ... extend herbalists/diviners) play a significant role in pregnancy and postnatal ...
Oct 10, 2011 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. ... Background: Several behavioural studies have shown a direct ... and the oral health practices among 12 year-old children. ..... grooming behaviour, family and peer group pressure.
Ay, P; Hidiroglu, S; Topuzoglu, A; Ucar, M Solakoglu; Kose, O O; Save, D
To evaluate the health concerns and the perceived non-contraceptive benefits of modern contraceptive methods through utilizing qualitative methods. Six focus group discussions were carried out with a total of 53 married women in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Istanbul, Turkey. Women had a vague knowledge of the mechanism of menstruation. Some women believed that the uterus was filled with blood -- termed 'dirty blood' -- which should be eliminated during menstruation in order to stay healthy. For this reason, amenorrhoea was recognized as the important disadvantage of the progestin-only injectable contraceptives. While the participants mentioned fallacious and exaggerated side effects related to modern methods they did not recognize their non-contraceptive benefits. Most women gained the information concerning side effects through their social networks. Sometimes the information acquired was based on rumours that biased women against the modern contraceptives. Women outweighed the risks, some of which were fallacious and exaggerated, against the benefits of modern contraceptives. It is crucial to address health concerns of women and what they 'heard' from their peers during counselling sessions. Also the non-contraceptive health benefits of modern methods should be well emphasized. Since informal sources are prevalent, the effectiveness of peer education should be studied in this community.
Bernstad Saraiva Schott, Anna; Bissmont, Mimmi; la Cour Jansen, Jes
This book focuses on sustainable solid waste management in an urban context and gives an example of how a modern city can work with waste management for increased sustainability in close cooperation with the academy. The book describes challenges which the city is facing and presents a case on how these can be tackled based on several research and development projects performed in the City of Malmö over the last decade. In these projects, the city has worked as a test bed for new solutions, developed with and evaluated by the university. The projects and evaluations of the same have been devel
Mental health triage/duty services play a pivotal role in the current framework for mental health service delivery in Victoria and other states of Australia. Australia is not alone in its increasing reliance on mental health triage as a model of psychiatric service provision; at a global level, there appears to be an emerging trend to utilize mental health triage services staffed by nurses as a cost-effective means of providing mental health care to large populations. At present, nurses comprise the greater proportion of the mental health triage workforce in Victoria and, as such, are performing the majority of point-of-entry mental health assessment across the state. Although mental health triage/duty services have been operational for nearly a decade in some regional healthcare sectors of Victoria, there is little local or international research on the topic, and therefore a paucity of established theory to inform and guide mental health triage practice and professional development. The discussion in this paper draws on the findings and recommendations of PhD research into mental health triage nursing in Victoria, to raise discussion on the need to develop theoretical models to inform and guide nursing practice. The paper concludes by presenting a provisional model for mental health triage nursing practice.
Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne
Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty.
Tvedt, T.J. Jr. [Dow Chemical Co., Freeport, TX (United States); Holloway, R.T. [Holloway Associates, Islington, Ontario (Canada)
In 1979 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers first published Consensus on Operating Practices for the Control of Feedwater and Boiler Water Quality in Modern Industrial boilers. This document quickly became accepted throughout the world. However, as time went on, it became apparent that the document needed to be revised and expanded. For example, the use of equipment not addressed in the original document (such as waste heat recovery boilers and electrode boilers) became much more common. Furthermore, the original document never addressed issues such as steam purity. In 1994 the ASME Committee on Water and Steam in Thermal Power Systems reissued the Consensus document which included guidance on these and many other important feedwater and boiler water parameters. This paper will briefly contrast the new document with the original one, then discuss the content of the present document. Numerous examples will be used to illustrate the practices recommended by the ASME committee.
Aleksandr S. Sentsov
Full Text Available Objective to analyze the problems existing in the modern law enforcement practice related to the implementation of criminallegal norms stipulated in Article 291 and 2911 of the Russian Criminal Code hereinafter CC of RF to offer the authorsrsquo proposals for their solution including the improvement of these norms and their implementation practices in order to strengthen the bribery counteraction. Methods along with the general dialectic method of scientific cognition other general scientific methods were used induction deduction analysis and synthesis as well as specific scientific formallegal comparative legal sociological content analysis methods. Results on the basis of a critical analysis of the current edition of the regulations as stipulated in Articles 291 and 2911 of the Russian Criminal Code and the modern practice of their application solutions are proposed to several complex problems arising in the classification of these crimes. In particular it is proposed to change the disposition of part 1 of Article 2911 of the Criminal Code deleting the indication of the bribe size. Thenbspnecessity is shown to change part 5 of Article 2921 of the Russian Criminal Code reducing the maximal penalty. Scientific novelty in the work on the basis of the analysis of modern law enforcement practice typical mistakes are considered made by investigators and the courts in applying Article 291 and 2911 of the CC of RF and with this in mind suggestions and recommendations are proposed aimed at improving the efficiency of criminallegal impact on the mentioned crimes. Practical significance the opinions and findings of the authors formulated in the article can be useful in lawmaking activity in preparing relevant draft laws on amendments and additions in the CC of RF when adjusting individual interpretations contained in the decisions decrees of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation as well as in the activities of legal practitioners especially in the
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.
qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...
The private practice nurse can be confronted with patients living in situations of extreme poverty. During her home visits, she is sometimes reminded of the lack of prevention and the difficulties of accessing care. In her daily practice, she plays an important role faced with these inequalities in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Elena Petrovna Shevchenko
Full Text Available Studio theaters at which origins K. S. Stanislavsky and his disciples Y. B. Vakhtangov, М. А. Chekhov, V. E. Meyerhold played an important part in development of the Russian theater. Saratov was also marked as the city where during the third period of studio movement (the 80-90th years there were theaters studios. Nowadays the theater studio is distinguished from them at Balaganchik theater. Vakhtangov's rules are successfully realized by the director and actors of this theater studio. Vakhtangov's pedagogical experience, his rules of the organization and existence of studio, the birth of theater from studio, the principles of education and training of the actor are very modern today. This article is devoted to application of the creative principles of Vakhtangov at studio theater at the Saratov theater "Balaganchik".In conclusions is noted that the rules of the master, his way to organize performance become irreplaceable for the modern artist, which try to understand and transform the reality through creativity. Creative rules of Vakhtangov are successfully realized in creative activity of theater studio at the Saratov theater "Balaganchik".
Sørensen, Mariann B.
The article concerns the issue: How to deal with the increasing challenges of communication in the health care sector? On the one hand, it focuses on how to include the patient’s and relatives´ perspectives. On the other hand, it focuses on the existential/spiritual perspective which is now...
Innate cognitive capacities are orchestrated by cultural practices to produce high-level cognitive processes. In human activities, examples of this phenomenon range from everyday inferences about space and time to the most sophisticated reasoning in scientific laboratories. A case is examined in which chimpanzees enter into cultural practices with humans (in experiments) in ways that appear to enable them to engage in symbol-mediated thought. Combining the cultural practices perspective with the theories of embodied cognition and enactment suggests that the chimpanzees' behaviour is actually mediated by non-symbolic representations. The possibility that non-human primates can engage in cultural practices that give them the appearance of symbol-mediated thought opens new avenues for thinking about the coevolution of human culture and human brains.
Wolf, Eduardo E.
Outlines a multidisciplinary course which comprises fundamental, practical, and experimental aspects of heterogeneous catalysis. The course structure is a combination of lectures and demonstrations dealing with the use of spectroscopic techniques for surface analysis. (SK)
This is the second in a two-part unit on health promotion in sexual health. Part 1 outlined various theories and models on the issue. This part examines the factors that contribute towards successful health promotion, such as an effective communication style. It outlines how nurses can put health-promotion theory, competencies and guidance into practice.
Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C
Public health practice in the twenty-first century is in a state of significant flux. Several macro trends are impacting the current practice of governmental public health and will likely have effects for many years to come. These macro trends are described as forces of change, which are changes that affect the context in which the community and its public health system operate. This article focuses on seven such forces of change: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, and globalized travel. Following the description of each of these, this article then turns to possible approaches to measuring, tracking, and understanding the impact of these forces of change on public health practice, including the use of evidence-based public health, practice-based research, and policy surveillance. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Drennan, Vari M; Joseph, Judy
This paper reports on the perceptions of experienced health visitors working with refugee families in Inner London. Women who are refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom are more likely to experience depression than either non-refugee women or male asylum seekers. Health visitors provide a universal public health service to all women on the birth of a child, or with children aged under five, and as such are well placed to identify emotional and mental health problems of women who are refugees. Despite successive waves of refugees to the United Kingdom in the 20th century, there are no empirical studies of health visiting practice with this vulnerable group. There is also no body of evidence to inform the practice of health visitors new to working with asylum seekers and refugees. An exploratory study was undertaken in Inner London in 2001. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 13 health visitors experienced in working with women and families who are refugees. A range of structural challenges was identified that mediated against the development of a health-promoting relationship between health visitors and refugee women. With refugee families, who were living in temporary accommodation, health visitors were prioritizing basic needs that had to be addressed: in addition, they prioritized the needs of children before those of women. Health visitors were aware of the emotional needs of women and had strategies for addressing these with women in more settled circumstances. Health visitors considered themselves ill-prepared to deal with the complexities of working with women in these situations. This study identifies issues for further exploration, not least from the perspective of refugee women receiving health visiting services. Health visitors in countries receiving refugee women are framing their work with these women in ways that reflect Maslow's theory of a hierarchy of needs. This study suggests ways that public health
Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the
Ooms, Gorik; Latif, Laila A; Waris, Attiya; Brolan, Claire E; Hammonds, Rachel; Friedman, Eric A; Mulumba, Moses; Forman, Lisa
The present Millennium Development Goals are set to expire in 2015 and their next iteration is now being discussed within the international community. With regards to health, the World Health Organization proposes universal health coverage as a 'single overarching health goal' for the next iteration of the Millennium Development Goals.The present Millennium Development Goals have been criticised for being 'duplicative' or even 'competing alternatives' to international human rights law. The question then arises, if universal health coverage would indeed become the single overarching health goal, replacing the present health-related Millennium Development Goals, would that be more consistent with the right to health? The World Health Organization seems to have anticipated the question, as it labels universal health coverage as "by definition, a practical expression of the concern for health equity and the right to health".Rather than waiting for the negotiations to unfold, we thought it would be useful to verify this contention, using a comparative normative analysis. We found that--to be a practical expression of the right to health--at least one element is missing in present authoritative definitions of universal health coverage: a straightforward confirmation that international assistance is essential, not optional.But universal health coverage is a 'work in progress'. A recent proposal by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposed universal health coverage with a set of targets, including a target for international assistance, which would turn universal health coverage into a practical expression of the right to health care.
Stone, Jacqueline D; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Attoh, Prince; D'Abundo, Michelle; Gong, Tao
Leadership is a process by which an individual influences a group or individual to achieve a common goal, in this case health promotion for individuals with disabilities. (1) To examine the association between the transformational leadership behaviors of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) network professionals and their practice beliefs about health promotion activities, specifically cardiovascular fitness and healthy weight, for people with disabilities. (2) To determine if discipline and/or years of practice moderate the association between transformational leadership behaviors and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. There is a positive association between transformational leadership behaviors and health professionals practice beliefs regarding health promotion activities for persons with disabilities. A quantitative cross-sectional web-based survey design was used to determine the association between leadership behaviors and practices beliefs regarding health promotion for people with disabilities. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and an adapted version of the Role of Health Promotion in Physical Therapy Survey were used to measure leadership and practice beliefs, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the association of leadership behaviors with health promotion practice beliefs variables. Transformational leadership behaviors of the AUCD network professionals were positively associated with health promotion practice beliefs about cardiovascular fitness for people with disabilities. Years post licensure and discipline did not moderate the association between transformational leadership and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. Transformational leadership may facilitate health professionals' health promotion practices for people with disabilities. Further research and training in leadership is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Urban places and health equity are two of the most challenging concepts for 21st century environmental health. More people live in cities than at any other time in human history and health inequities are increasing. Health inequities are avoidable differences in the social, environmental and political conditions that shape morbidity and mortality, and disproportionately burden the poor, racial, ethnic and religious minorities and migrants. By linking urban place and health inequities, research and action brings into sharp relief the challenges of achieving urban environmental justice. This article briefly reviews the complex definitions of urban places and how they can shape health equity in cities. I suggest that a more relational or integrated approach to defining urban places and acting on health equity can complement other approaches and improve the ability of public health to meet 21st century challenges. I close with suggestions for research and practice that might focus environmental public health on healthy urban place making. The practices include community driven map making, Health in All Policies (HiAP, promoting urban ecosystem services for health, and participatory and integrated approaches to urban slum upgrading. I conclude that if the global community is serious about the sustainable development goals (SDGs, greater attention must be paid to understanding and acting to improve urban places, living conditions and the social and economic conditions that can promote health equity.
Urban places and health equity are two of the most challenging concepts for 21st century environmental health. More people live in cities than at any other time in human history and health inequities are increasing. Health inequities are avoidable differences in the social, environmental and political conditions that shape morbidity and mortality, and disproportionately burden the poor, racial, ethnic and religious minorities and migrants. By linking urban place and health inequities, research and action brings into sharp relief the challenges of achieving urban environmental justice. This article briefly reviews the complex definitions of urban places and how they can shape health equity in cities. I suggest that a more relational or integrated approach to defining urban places and acting on health equity can complement other approaches and improve the ability of public health to meet 21st century challenges. I close with suggestions for research and practice that might focus environmental public health on healthy urban place making. The practices include community driven map making, Health in All Policies (HiAP), promoting urban ecosystem services for health, and participatory and integrated approaches to urban slum upgrading. I conclude that if the global community is serious about the sustainable development goals (SDGs), greater attention must be paid to understanding and acting to improve urban places, living conditions and the social and economic conditions that can promote health equity.
Full Text Available We are delighted to present the maiden edition of the Journal of Public Health in Africa (JPHIA. Like most great innovations, the idea behind JPHIA was spontaneously conceived upon observing the precarious state of public health care delivery in the African continent. The JPHIA is set up as non-profit making open source that will compete with other world class journals. The strength of JPHIA is in the people behind the journal’s existence as well as the teeming interested readership. The journal will be published online and quarterly. No effort will be spared in ensuring that we publish high quality refereed materials despite our limited resources at this point.
Huffman, Melinda H
The increasing demand for health coaches and wellness coaches in worksite health promotion and the marketplace has resulted in a plethora of training programs with wide variations in coaching definitions, content, attributes, and eligibility of those who may train. It is in the interest of public awareness and safety that those in clinical practice take the lead in this discussion and offer a reasonable contrast and comparison focusing on the risks and responsibilities of health coaching in particular. With the endorsement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN), the National Society of Health Coaches, whose membership is primarily nurses, discusses the issue and states its position here.
DE Weger, E; Macinnes, D; Enser, J; Francis, S J; Jones, F W
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the evidence base regarding the use of video conferencing (VC), implementation issues, policies, procedures, technical requirements and VC etiquette. The paper is based on a literature review of VC within the mental health sector and the authors' experience in implementing VC. Six themes emerged from the literature review: applications of VC, VC assessments, treatment, training and supervision, practitioner anxiety, and VC administrative processes. The results of the review support the use of VC in mental health services. Guidelines for the implementation of VC are discussed, including the importance of staff and service user consultations, training in the use of VC, clear guidance for staff with regards to usage, confidentiality and data protection policies, and VC etiquette. Challenges that can arise when implementing VC in a mental health context are also discussed. Arguably, it is not the technology, but the cultural change it represents to staff which seems to be the most important factor regarding successful implementation.
Full Text Available In this paper, I use a social practices view of literacy to challenge dominant conceptions of health literacy. Health literacy is frequently defined as an abstract skill that can be measured through individual performance tests. The concept of health literacy as a skill neglects the contextual nature of reading and writing in health care settings. It risks ignoring the many ways in which patients access and comprehend health information, make sense of their experience and the resources they draw on. The paper presents findings from a study of forty five literacy and ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages students’ health-related reading and writing practices in the north-west of England. I suggest that health literacy needs to be understood as a situated social practice and that it is a shared resource frequently achieved collectively by groups of people, for example families. I conclude with some reflections on the implications of my research for adult education practice.
Paula Peixoto Messias
Full Text Available The present study reports the experience of an academic course during the practice of Nursing Psychiatric Nursing Course and Mental Health Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS in southern Bahia. The study is descriptive and participatory method. During practice, we carried out activities aimed at promoting the role of those involved. Such activities were craft workshops, beauty shop, video workshops, conversing, wheels of music, talks about coping with difficult situations and exercise a sense of positivity. Communication and listening therapy has permeated the whole process and the end of the period there was a home visit to the user and his family. I believe that with the activities carried out contributed to the improvement of health and the process of social reinsertion of CAPS. I hope with the information in this report, we enrich the acquis concerning the development of practices of care in mental health within the CAPS and encourage care practices that address the psychosocial rehabilitation of subjects.
Eklund, Marthe Lyngås; Ruud, Ireen; Grov, Ellen Karine
Background Positive effects of physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention, in treatment of mental illnesses are well documented. Mental health practice for nursing students highlights the important connection between physical activities and mental health. This study aims to examine the outcome from nursing students’ participation using The forest as a classroom. Students’ collaboration by problem solving, theoretical discussions and performance of activities in the forest serv...
Sibel CEVİZCİ; Önal, Ayşe Emel
With globalization, presenting service and product which have good quality and conformity with hygienic regulations, have become more important in health, pharmacy and food sectors. That’s why the quality control and documentation systems which are also considerable in terms of public health, were about to change. Today, lots of companies especially in health sector, prefer “Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)”- including a developed quality-hygiene control and documentation method - that they...
Rosemary Ogonna Ibekwe
Full Text Available Reproductive health indices in most developing countries are still deplorable, less than a decade to the Millennium Development Goals. In Nigeria, as is the case in most developing countries, many factors combine to nurture reproductive ill-health and developmental backwardness. Some of these factors are harmful reproductive health practices such as, early marriages, violence against women, widowhood practices, and female genital mutilation. These are highlighted and suggestions made on how to improve on them in line with the targets of the Millennium Development Goals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 139-144
Horikawa, Junko; Majima, Yukie; Ishihara, Itsuko
The "health education" course is an important part of the baccalaureate curriculum in nursing. It is essential to teach students effective health education in a client oriented way. In order to improve the quality and content of this course, we extracted students descriptions from records of 44 students who had carried out group health education during nursing practice for the occupational health nursing course. We then analyzed students written sentences on their views concerning health teaching. After sentence analysis, we categorized these concepts into groups and titled them. The results of clarification of categories showed that the most common student awareness was in regard to technical and instructional skills, such as precise and suitable language selection for laymen, and utilization of teaching devices or mediums, during implementation of health teaching(43.6%). Secondly, assessment of health needs for a certain working population(10.3%), and effective teaching types such as instructional participant volunteers and full participation(9.2%) were deemed important. Thirdly, identification of the role of the occupational nurse(7.7%), and lastly the necessity of evaluation(2.3%) were considered necessary. Over all, in this study we found that students were most concerned about the instructional skills during the presentation of health education. Also, these results suggest that development of contents in the "health education" course to reinforce students assessment and evaluative abilities should be incorporated into the course. Furthermore, faculties who teach a "health education" course should provide a large variety of teaching materials and creative instructional methods for the students.
Møller Pedersen, Kjeld; Andersen, John Sahl; Søndergård, Jens
General practice is the corner stone of Danish primary health care. General practitioners (GPs) are similar to family physicians in the United States. On average, all Danes have 6.9 contacts per year with their GP (in-person, telephone, or E-mail consultation). General practice is characterized...... education. The contract is (re)negotiated every 2 years. General practice is embedded in a universal tax-funded health care system in which GP and hospital services are free at the point of use. The current system has evolved over the past century and has shown an ability to adapt flexibly to new challenges....... Practice units are fairly small: close to 2 GPs per unit plus nurses and secretaries. The units are fully computerized, that is, with computer-based patient records and submission of prescriptions digitally to pharmacies etc. Over the past few years a decrease in solo practices has been seen...
Clark, Melinda; Quinonez, Rocio; Bowser, Jonathan; Silk, Hugh
Oral diseases are very prevalent across the lifespan and impact overall health, yet are largely preventable. The Smiles for Life (SFL) curriculum was created to educate healthcare providers about oral disease and support integration of oral health and primary care. This study examines SFL's influence on clinical practice and education. Surveys were sent to registered users of SFL. Users who self-identified as direct care providers (DCPs), or educators, were included in the analysis. Survey response rate was 18 percent, with 87 percent identifying as DCPs and 13 percent as educators. Across professions, 85 percent of DCPs reported SFL influencing their practice to some degree, with variance among profession type and experience. DCPs most commonly reported that SFL led them to improve how they conduct oral health activities, with 60 percent performing the activity more skillfully following completion of SFL. Fluoride varnish application was the most common practice behavior initiated, and caries risk assessments was the oral health activity affected to the greatest degree. A majority of educators (94 percent) reported that SFL led them to incorporate or enhance oral health in their teaching. SFL helped educators emphasize the importance of oral health, improved their ability to teach content, raised motivation, and reduced barriers to teaching oral health. Data supports that SFL is positively influencing oral health practice across professions, especially in areas of caries risk assessment and fluoride varnish application. SFL improves the frequency and quality with which DCPs and educators participate in oral health activities, and facilitates oral health inclusion in primary care. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Fratesi, Sarah E.; Vacher, H. L.
In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over…
Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Geirsdottir, Gudrun; Finnbogason, Gunnar E.
Describes changes in governance discourse and practices in Icelandic primary and secondary education in the late 1990s. Budget reform, curriculum changes, and school-based self-evaluation aimed at a greater financial and pedagogical accountability of school professionals, especially principals, has changed the role of principals and teachers in…
Kolachi, Nadir Ali
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to evaluate and investigate the most suitable model required for teaching business Management curriculum. The paper will report a new dimension of Business Management Teaching. For this purpose, a Practical teaching & Learning Model has been prepared and will be discussed through qualitative research…
Oliveira, Deíse Moura de; Deus, Nilzza Carlla Pereira de; Caçador, Beatriz Santana; Silva, Érika Andrade E; Garcia, Pauliana Pimentel Coelho; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa
to identify nurses' knowledge and practice in the framework of the Family Health Strategy program with regard to social participation in health. qualitative study which had the Family Health Units in a municipality of Minas Gerais as setting. Nine nurses participated in the study, and they were interviewed individually in July and August 2014. Data were collected and analyzed according to the content analysis technique and interpreted in the light of Paulo Freire's ontology and critical pedagogy. the analyzed statements showed that nurses bring along conceptual and behavioral inconsistencies which need to be equalized, so their knowledge and practice can mediate the challenging construction of participatory management in health. an improvement in nurses' training is suggested, both academically and professionally, aiming at strengthening their political role in the process of consolidation of social participation in the Brazilian Unified Health System.
Lezwijn, Jeanette; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria; van Woerkum, Cees
Health promotion has a strong tradition of using planning models based on an a priori set of goals and processes defined by professionals. Those rational models only partly fit with today's view and practice of health promotion, where programmes can be considered as processes because they are guided by principles such as community participation and intersectoral collaboration. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive view on approaches to planning in health promotion practice. To investigate these, Whittington's typology has been used. Whittington identifies four approaches to planning, i.e. classical, evolutionary, processual and systemic. In a retrospective multiple case study, we describe actual planning processes used in the development and implementation of a healthy ageing programme in three Dutch municipalities. These processes were described using data gathered by: interviews, participant observation and document analysis, and external auditing. Characteristics of the four planning approaches were used to interpret the data. The results show that, in practice, all forms of planning approaches were used, depending on the degree of complexity and dynamics of the context, the phase of the health promotion programme, and the time available. Our findings suggest that in the emergent practice of health promotion different approaches to planning are used. To make those planning approaches explicit and manageable for practice and science, discussion and reflection between stakeholders are essential.
Tandon, Radhika; Singh, Archita; Gupta, Noopur; Vanathi, M; Gupta, Vivek
The purpose of this study is to review the history and evolution of the National Eye Bank (NEB) and analyze the impact over the years and report the outcome of the invested resources. Review of archival material, records, project reports, policy and procedures' manuals, and publications was done. Descriptive and analytical processing of data obtained was undertaken. Parameters evaluated included total collection, transplantation, utilization rates of donor cornea, changing trends over time in terms of numbers and duration of recipients waiting, impactful research translated into changes in standard operating protocols, new facilities, and subsequent effects on numbers or quality assurance measures and overview of major achievements. Periodic situational analysis with contextual relevance and interpretation of outcomes was done pertaining to national goals and international standards. The NEB and cornea services have played a key leadership role in furthering the development of eye banking and corneal transplantation services. The contribution extends beyond routine patient care to education, training, generation of resources, advocacy, and policymaking. In quantifiable terms, the overall performance has steadily increased over the years. Major contributions include training of doctors, eye bank staff and corneal surgeons, introduction of innovative techniques for corneal transplantation, setting of national standards for eye banking and provision of preservation media, customized corneal, and ocular surface cell replacement therapy in collaboration with other departments and institutes. The eye banking and corneal transplantation facilities have evolved with time providing quality services, modernized as appropriate with updated knowledge and incorporating technological advances supported by the systematic evidence-based approach.
Calice, Ivana; Moens, Yves
Modern spirometry, like no other monitoring technique, allows insight into breath-to-breath respiratory mechanics. Spirometers continuously measure volume, airway pressure, and flow while calculating and continuously displaying respiratory system compliance and resistance in the form of loops. The aim of this case series is to show how observation of spirometric loops, similar to electrocardiogram or CO2 curve monitoring, can improve safety of anesthetic management in small animals. Spirometric monitoring cases described in this case series are based on use of the anaesthesia monitor Capnomac Ultima with a side stream spirometry sensor. The cases illustrate how recognition and understanding of spirometric loops allows for easy diagnosis of iatrogenic pneumothorax, incorrect ventilator settings, leaks in the system, kinked or partially obstructed endotracheal tube, and spontaneous breathing interfering with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. The case series demonstrates the potential of spirometry to improve the quality and safety of anesthetic management, and, hence, its use can be recommended during intermittent positive-pressure ventilation and procedures in which interference with ventilation can be expected.
Gollust, Sarah E.; Goold, Susan D.; Jacobson, Peter D.
Objectives. We sought to ascertain the types of ethical challenges public health practitioners face in practice and to identify approaches used to resolve such challenges. Methods. We conducted 45 semistructured interviews with public health practitioners across a range of occupations (e.g., health officers, medical directors, sanitarians, nurses) at 13 health departments in Michigan. Results. Through qualitative analysis, we identified 5 broad categories of ethical issues common across occupations and locations: (1) determining appropriate use of public health authority, (2) making decisions related to resource allocation, (3) negotiating political interference in public health practice, (4) ensuring standards of quality of care, and (5) questioning the role or scope of public health. Participants cited a variety of values guiding their decision-making that did not coalesce around core values often associated with public health, such as social justice or utilitarianism. Public health practitioners relied on consultations with colleagues to resolve challenges, infrequently using frameworks for decision-making. Conclusions. Public health practitioners showed a nuanced understanding of ethical issues and navigated ethical challenges with minimal formal assistance. Decision-making guides that are empirically informed and tailored for practitioners might have some value. PMID:19059850
Carrasco Z, Constanza; Pérez V, Cristhian; Torres A, Graciela; Fasce H, Eduardo
Medical Education, according to the constructivist education paradigm, puts students as the protagonists of the teaching and learning process. It demands changes in the practice of teaching. However, it is unclear whether this new model is coherent with the teachers ways to cope with learning. To analyze the relationship between teaching practices and learning strategies among teachers of health careers in Chilean universities. The Teaching Practices Questionnaire and Learning Strategies Inventory of Schmeck were applied to 200 teachers aged 24 to 72 years (64% females). Teachers use different types of teaching practices. They commonly use deep and elaborative learning strategies. A multiple regression analysis showed that learning strategies had a 13% predictive value to identify student-centered teaching, but they failed to predict teacher-centered teaching. Teaching practices and learning strategies of teachers are related. Teachers frequently select constructivist model strategies, using different teaching practices in their work.
Duyndam, J.; Korte, A.-M.; Poorthuis, Marcel
Sacrifice seems to belong to a religious context of the past. In Sacrifice in Modernity: Community, Ritual, Identity it is demonstrated how sacrificial themes remain an essential element in our post-modern society. The shaping of community, performing rituals and the search for identity, three main
Duyndam, J.; Korte, A.-M.; Poorthuis, Marcel
Sacrifice seems to belong to a religious context of the past. In Sacrifice in Modernity: Community, Ritual, Identity it is demonstrated how sacrificial themes remain an essential element in our post-modern society. The shaping of community, performing rituals and the search for identity, three main
Adam Burke; Nahin, Richard L.; Stussman, Barbara J.
Background Complementary health practices are an important element of health/healthcare seeking behavior among adults in the United States. Reasons for use include medical need, prevention and wellness promotion, and cultural relevance. Survey studies published over the past several decades have provided important information on the use of complementary health practices, such as acupuncture and yoga. A review of the literature, however, reveals an absence of studies looking specifically at wh...
Hwang, Richard N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Blomquist, Roger N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Leal, Luiz C. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de SÃ»rete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
The neutron resonance phenomena constitute one of the most fundamental subjects in nuclear physics as well as in reactor physics. It is the area where the concepts of nuclear interaction and the treatment of the neutronic balance in reactor fuel lattices become intertwined. The latter requires the detailed knowledge of resonance structures of many nuclides of practical interest to the development of nuclear energy. The most essential element in reactor physics is to provide an accurate account of the intricate balance between the neutrons produced by the fission process and neutrons lost due to the absorption process as well as those leaking out of the reactor system. The presence of resonance structures in many major nuclides obviously plays an important role in such processes. There has been a great deal of theoretical and practical interest in resonance reactions since Fermi’s discovery of resonance absorption of neutrons as they were slowed down in water. The resonance absorption became the center of attention when the question was raised as to the feasibility of the self-sustaining chain reaction in a natural uranium-fueled system. The threshold of the nuclear era was crossed almost eighty years ago when Fermi and Szilard observed that a substantial reduction in resonance absorption is possible if the uranium was made into the form of lumps instead of a homogeneous mixture with water. In the West, the first practical method for estimating the resonance escape probability in a reactor cell was pioneered by Wigner et al in early forties.
Full Text Available Professiography of work activity is an important part of a modern system of professional orientation. In the course of research aimed at developing hygienic bases of professiographic assessment of the major dental specialties and determining prospects for its use in the practice of modern preventive medicine it was found, that in the structure of psychophysiological functions, reflecting peculiarities of higher nervous activity of the organism and necessary for successful mastery of dental specialties, professionally-important functions should be considered such things as balance and mobility of nervous processes, strength of excitation and inhibition processes, speed of differentiated visual-motor reactions and endurance of the nervous system; in the structure of psychophysiological functions that reflect features of visual sensory system of the organism – the most important indicators are visual acuity, critical rate of fusion of light nictations, differentiated linear good eye, speed of visual perception and differential light sensitivity; in the structure of psychophysiological functions, reflecting features of somatosensory analyzer of the organism – the most important their characteristics are overall coordination, combined coordination of arm movements, coordination of arms under the control of vision and coordination of movements of the fingers.
Malfliet, Anneleen; Leysen, Laurence; Pas, Roselien; Kuppens, Kevin; Nijs, Jo; Van Wilgen, Paul; Huysmans, Eva; Goudman, Lisa; Ickmans, Kelly
In the last decade, evidence regarding chronic pain has developed exponentially. Numerous studies show that many chronic pain populations show specific neuroplastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous system. These changes are reflected in clinical manifestations, like a generalized hypersensitivity of the somatosensory system. Besides a hypersensitivity of bottom-up nociceptive transmission, there is also evidence for top-down facilitation of pain due to malfunctioning of the endogenous descending nociceptive modulatory systems. These and other aspects of modern pain neuroscience are starting to be applied within daily clinical practice. However, currently the application of this knowledge is mostly limited to the general adult population with musculoskeletal problems, while evidence is getting stronger that also in other chronic pain populations these neuroplastic processes may contribute to the occurrence and persistence of the pain problem. Therefore, this masterclass article aims at giving an overview of the current modern pain neuroscience knowledge and its potential application in post-cancer, paediatric and sports-related pain problems. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Tandon, Radhika; Singh, Archita; Gupta, Noopur; Vanathi, M; Gupta, Vivek
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the history and evolution of the National Eye Bank (NEB) and analyze the impact over the years and report the outcome of the invested resources. Methods: Review of archival material, records, project reports, policy and procedures' manuals, and publications was done. Descriptive and analytical processing of data obtained was undertaken. Parameters evaluated included total collection, transplantation, utilization rates of donor cornea, changing trends over time in terms of numbers and duration of recipients waiting, impactful research translated into changes in standard operating protocols, new facilities, and subsequent effects on numbers or quality assurance measures and overview of major achievements. Periodic situational analysis with contextual relevance and interpretation of outcomes was done pertaining to national goals and international standards. Results: The NEB and cornea services have played a key leadership role in furthering the development of eye banking and corneal transplantation services. The contribution extends beyond routine patient care to education, training, generation of resources, advocacy, and policymaking. In quantifiable terms, the overall performance has steadily increased over the years. Major contributions include training of doctors, eye bank staff and corneal surgeons, introduction of innovative techniques for corneal transplantation, setting of national standards for eye banking and provision of preservation media, customized corneal, and ocular surface cell replacement therapy in collaboration with other departments and institutes. Conclusion: The eye banking and corneal transplantation facilities have evolved with time providing quality services, modernized as appropriate with updated knowledge and incorporating technological advances supported by the systematic evidence-based approach. PMID:28345565
Full Text Available Abstract Public health research and practice is faced with three problems: 1 a focus on disease instead of health, 2 consideration of risk factor/disease relationships one at a time, and 3 attention to individuals with limited regard for the communities in which they live. We propose a framework for health-focused research and practice. This framework encompasses individual and community pathways to health while incorporating the dynamics of context and overall population vulnerability and resilience. Individual pathways to health may differ, but commonalities will exist. By understanding these commonalities, communities can work to support health-promoting pathways in addition to removing barriers. The perspective afforded by viewing health as a dynamic process instead of as a collection of risk factors and diseases expands the number of approaches to improving health globally. Using this approach, multidisciplinary research teams working with active community participants have the potential to reshape health and intervention sciences.
Aldossary, Ameera; Barriball, Louise; While, Alison
The health promotion practice of nurses working in Saudi Arabia is unidentified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived health promotion practice of staff nurses in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved by surveying the views of nurses (n = 614), doctors (n = 130) and patients (n = 322) in 10 hospitals located in the Eastern Province of the country using a self-report questionnaire. There was agreement that nurses had the necessary skills to promote health in general and had sufficient knowledge to promote health in the three specific areas explored: physical activity, smoking cessation and weight control. However, the findings also showed that the majority of participants wanted nurses to give priority to acute care over health promotion within the hospital setting and that patients dislike nurses asking about health-related behaviours when these are not directly relevant to their presenting health problems. Concerns were also raised about the language and cultural competency of a largely migrant nursing workforce to effectively communicate health promotion messages to patients. In view of the findings, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia need to consider providing appropriate training programmes for nurses to introduce the wider concept of their health promotion role. Health promotion protocols, strategies and standards to support nurses to more effectively implement health promotion with their routine practice are also required. It is suggested that, while reliance on a largely migrant workforce who do not speak Arabic continues, the potential benefits of a good quality interpretation service to improve nurse-patient communication should be considered.
users can choose. These options for health care allow the patient to choose a provider who offers NFP services. Autonomy , an integral principle of...cannot fulfill the promise of helping if ha or she intentionally harms the patient for any reason. c. Both autonomy and paternalism are superseded...or midwifery mentioned NFP as an option in some situations. Due to the sample size and number of APNs in the study, comparison statistics were not
Lanre-Abass Bolatito A
Abstract Poverty is often identified as a major barrier to human development. It is also a powerful brake on accelerated progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. Poverty is also a major cause of maternal mortality, as it prevents many women from getting proper and adequate medical attention due to their inability to afford good antenatal care. This Paper thus examines poverty as a threat to human existence, particularly women's health. It highlights the causes of maternal deaths in N...
McPake, Barbara; Russo, Giuliano; Hipgrave, David; Hort, Krishna; Campbell, James
Making progress towards universal health coverage (UHC) requires that health workers are adequate in numbers, prepared for their jobs and motivated to perform. In establishing the best ways to develop the health workforce, relatively little attention has been paid to the trends and implications of dual practice - concurrent employment in public and private sectors. We review recent research on dual practice for its potential to guide staffing policies in relation to UHC. Many studies describe the characteristics and correlates of dual practice and speculate about impacts, but there is very little evidence that is directly relevant to policy-makers. No studies have evaluated the impact of policies on the characteristics of dual practice or implications for UHC. We address this lack and call for case studies of policy interventions on dual practice in different contexts. Such research requires investment in better data collection and greater determination on the part of researchers, research funding bodies and national research councils to overcome the difficulties of researching sensitive topics of health systems functions.
Perkinson, James W
In keeping with the challenge of (African American) historian of religions Charles Long to develop a mode of postcolonial encounter that is a process of mutual hermeneusis, I am proposing in this article to think "race" in terms of "indigenous ritual." At the very least it is an effort to relativize the western scientific paradigm and the universalizing humanities discourses that have nestled close to that paradigm. It is not an attempt to repudiate such an episteme but, rather-to borrow a jazz term-to "swing" it, to put it in antiphonal and improvisational circulation. More specifically, this article will trace a thought experiment, probing the historical emergence of white supremacist practice as a kind of modernist embodiment of "witchcraft discourse," which functions-in the institutional grammar it has left on deposit in contemporary social practice and the "intention to consume" (the substance of others) that it "rationalizes"-very much like the "primitive superstitions" it seeks to name and repudiate in positing its own rationalizing superiority. In such an enterprise, witchcraft, I am arguing, can be "good to think with" as a mode of communicative action, signifying with a kind of "boomerang effect" in the intercultural space of rupture between the West and the rest.
H. L. Vacher
Full Text Available In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over all. Geological research has shifted emphasis over the study period, moving away from economic geology and petroleum geology, towards physics- and chemistry-based topics. The Apollo lunar landings had as much influence on the topics and practice of geological research as the much-cited plate-tectonics revolution. These results reflect the barely-tangible effects of the changes in vocabulary and habit of thought that have pervaded the substance of geology. Geological literature has increased in volume and specialization, resulting in a highly fragmentary literature. However, we infer that "big science," characterized by large amounts of funding, collaboration, and large logistical investments, makes use of this specialization and turns "twigging" into a phenomenon that enhances, rather than inhibits, the enterprise of research.
N. A. Samohvalov
Full Text Available In this article the author examines a number of foreign cases of practical realization of state youth policy for example the USA, Germany and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The choice of these cases is due to the fact that these countries have an extensive practice of state youth policy. The second factor in the choice of case studies is the fundamental difference between the political systems of countries and as a consequence of the institutional arrangements and the technological features of established models of state youth policy. And fi nally, the third factor is that these States represent different political and cultural traditions. These differences between the traditions have an impact on the diversity of the state youth policy (as the US are a classic example of Western «pluralist» system of youth policy; Germany – West European model of youth policy; Kazakhstan is a bright representative of an effective model of youth policy in the former Soviet Union. Special attention is given to General and specifi c features identified on the basis of comparative analysis, the study of foreign models of youth policy, as well as possible their application in the process of realization of the state youth policy of the Russian Federation.
Full Text Available Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as websites of USAID/DELIVER Project, Measure DHS and Federal Ministry of Health. The study revealed that a wide range of contraceptives are included in the essential drug list to be used in secondary facilities, while only a few ones are selected to be used in primary facilities which serve the majority of rural population. Forecasting is done using issue data from the central warehouse because facilities are not generating reliable consumption data. Inventory control is poor in rural facilities, and these facilities do not follow the established inventory control guidelines. The study therefore demonstrates that the current essential drug list should be reviewed in order to include injectables for use in primary facilities, strengthen the current forecasting, data reporting and inventory control system.
Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Gastaldo, Denise
The article examines core elements of the national and international discussion on the required integration between research, policy and practice in public health, and provides input for this integration. Some conceptual barriers and other barriers at different spheres that interfere with the desired integration are discussed. Evidence has shown that research, policy and practice in health are not continuous, homogenous areas but rather involve different levels and actors. Their processes develop in different grounds supported by a variety of actions, paradigms and interests that are not conflict-free. Thus, this integration is a major challenge given its complexity and multiplicity of objective and subjective aspects.
Riahi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Alireza
Role of air transport in the development and expansion of world trade leading to economic growth of different countries is undeniable. Continuing the world's trade sustainability without expansion of aerospace is next to impossible. Based on enormous expenses for design, manufacturing and maintenance of different aerospace structures, correct and timely diagnosis of defects in those structures to provide for maximum safety has the highest importance. Amid all this, manufacturers of commercial and even military aircrafts are after production of less expensive, lighter, higher fuel economy and nonetheless, higher safety. As such, two events has prevailed in the aerospace industries: (1) Utilization of composites for the fuselage as well as other airplane parts, (2) using modern manufacturing methods. Arrival of two these points have created the need for upgrading of the present systems as well as innovating newer methods in diagnosing and detection of defects in aerospace structures. Despite applicability of nondestructive testing (NDT) methods in aerospace for decades, due to some limitations in the defect detection's certainty, particularly for composite material and complex geometries, shadow of doubt has fallen on maintaining complete confidence in using NDT. These days, two principal approach are ahead to tackle the above mentioned problems. First, approach for the short range is the creative and combinational mean to increase the reliability of NDT and for the long run, innovation of new methods on the basis of structural health monitoring (SHM) is in order. This has led to new philosophy in the maintenance area and in some instances; field of design has also been affected by it.
Super, David A
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) transformed U.S. public law in crucial ways extending far beyond health care. As important as were the doctrinal shifts wrought by National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the ACA's structural changes to public law likely will prove far more important should they become entrenched. The struggle over the ACA has triggered the kind of "constitutional moment" that has largely replaced Article V's formal amendment procedure since the Prohibition fiasco. The Court participates in this process, but the definitive and enduring character of these constitutional moments' outcomes springs from broad popular engagement. Despite the Court's ruling and the outcome of the 2012 elections, the battle over whether to implement or shelve the ACA will continue unabated, both federally and in the states, until We the People render a clear decision. Whether the ACA survives or fails will determine the basic principles that guide the development of federalism, social insurance, tax policy, and privatization for decades to come. In each of these areas, the New Deal bequeathed us a delicate accommodation between traditionalist social values and modernizing norms of economic efficiency and interest group liberalism. This balance has come under increasing stress, with individual laws rejecting tradition far more emphatically than the New Deal did. But absent broad popular engagement, no definitive new principles could be established. The ACA's entrenchment would elevate technocratic norms across public law, the first change of our fundamental law since the civil rights revolution. The ACA's failure would rejuvenate individualistic, moralistic, pre-New Deal norms and allow opponents to attempt a counterrevolution against technocracy.
Full Text Available Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator’s teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women’s health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem.
M. O. Orlova
Full Text Available Since the late XX - early XXI century social anthropologists in the Amazon Basin have been increasingly focusing not only on the functioning of ethnomedicine in the indigenous cultures as such but also on the transformations of healing traditions. Caused by intercultural contacts, these transformations have intensified in the course of the above-mentioned period and have been associated with formation of large number of neo-shamanic centers practicing ceremonies with plant hallucinogens and oriented mostly towards ethno-tourists from the industrialized Western countries. The author uses her field research data collected in the neo-shamanic centers that combine healing techniques and therapeutic approaches of ethnomedical traditions of the Peruvian Amazon Basin indigenous populations with modern Western biomedicine and psychotherapy techniques. The article presents comparative analysis of the neo-shamanic practices at healing centers and traditional shamanic (curanderos’ practices in the Amazon Basin. A number of innovations in those activities that facilitate patient-healer mutual understanding and create conditions for therapeutic effects are pointed out. These innovations include participation of certified Western physicians and psychologists in the diagnostics and counseling of patients and use of Western group psychotherapy techniques elements by neo-shamans - in particular, a larger share of verbal communication in comparison with traditional healing practices. The author’s research substantiates the notion that efficient patient-healer contacts are based on mastering worldview elements of the communication partner by both interaction parties as well as on interpretation by intermediaries representing Western culture who are initiated into the Amazon curanderismo tradition.
Jones, David J; Wieman, Carl E
We present a study of active learning pedagogies in an upper division physics course. This work was guided by the principle of deliberate practice for the development of expertise, and this principle was used in the design of the materials and the orchestration of the classroom activities of the students. We present our process for efficiently converting a traditional lecture course based on instructor notes into activities for such a course with active learning methods. Ninety percent of the same material was covered and scores on common exam problems showed a 15 % improvement with an effect size greater than 1 after the transformation. We observe that the improvement and the associated effect size is sustained after handing off the materials to a second instructor. Because the improvement on exam questions was independent of specific problem topics and because the material tested was so mathematically advanced and broad (including linear algebra, Fourier Transforms, partial differential equations, vector ca...
Hughes, Ifan G
This hands-on guide is primarily intended to be used in undergraduate laboratories in the physical sciences and engineering. It assumes no prior knowledge of statistics. It introduces the necessary concepts where needed, with key points illustrated with worked examples and graphic illustrations. In contrast to traditional mathematical treatments it uses a combination of spreadsheet and calculus-based approaches, suitable as a quick and easy on-the-spot reference. The emphasisthroughout is on practical strategies to be adopted in the laboratory. Error analysis is introduced at a level accessible to school leavers, and carried through to research level. Error calculation and propagation is presented though a series of rules-of-thumb, look-up tables and approaches amenable to computer analysis. The general approach uses the chi-square statistic extensively. Particular attention is given to hypothesis testing and extraction of parameters and their uncertainties by fitting mathematical models to experimental data....
de Micheli, Alfredo
Since the most ancient times, hospital constructions and progresses in the clinical practice advanced pari passu. We can find exampless of this statement in Greek regions as well as in Greek citie overseas. Thus, during the renaissance, great figures ot that time converged in Italy: The genius Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472), a humanist and innovator of architecture. Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) and his contemporany artists performed anatomical dissection to perfect their art by studying the human body. Anatomical studies flourished at the University of Padua, driven by the Flemish Master. Based on the rigorous study of the anatomical substrate, the studies on the function of the already known organic structures excelled in the xvii century. That century started with the revelation of the major blood circulation by the British physician William Harvey, alumni of the University of Padua, and continued with the description of the minior or pulmonary circulation by ancient or contemporany authors and of the peripheral connections between the arterial and the venous system (Marcelo Malpighi, 1661). All these researchers, and others, were membres of the University of Padua, were the beneficial influence of the teachings of Galileo persisted. In the following centuries, together with the embryological and normal anatomy, the pathological anatomy, systematized by G.B. Morgani, became the cornerstone of the clinical practice. The model of the ancient hospitals evolved to ward the National Institutes of Health in Mexico fostered by Dr. Ignacio Chávez.
马克思主义现代化理论是一座蕴藏丰富的宝库。它在中国的实践正表现出强大生命力。以邓小平为代表的中国共产党人创立的社会主义现代化道路，开创了20世纪现代化理论与实践的新篇章。中国社会主义现代化建设的经验，决定着21世纪中国复兴的历史命运；中国社会主义现代化建设的光明前景，是对世界现代化进程的巨大贡献。在这一伟大实践中，不断推动关于现代化的理论研究和创新，是马克思主义理论工作者的责任。%Marxist modernization theory is a great treasure house,whose vigorous vitality is vividly shown in China’s modernization practice.The creation of a new socialist modernization way by the Chinese Communist Party with the central representation of Comrade Deng Xiaoping has turned a new page in the twentieth-century modernization theory and practice.China’s experiences in socialist modernization play a decisive role in her reassance in the twenty-first century,and her promising future in socialist modernization is in itself a great contribution to the world-wide modernization process.During the course of this great practice, it is the duty of all those working on Marxist theory to push forward the research and creation of modernization theory.
Weaver, Sallie J; Salas, Eduardo; King, Heidi B
Evaluation and measurement are the building blocks of effective skill development, transfer of training, maintenance and sustainment of effective team performance, and continuous improvement. Evaluation efforts have varied in their methods, time frame, measures, and design. On the basis of the existing body of work, 12 best practice principles were extrapolated from the science of evaluation and measurement into the practice of team training evaluation. Team training evaluation refers to efforts dedicated to enumerating the impact of training (1) across multiple dimensions, (2) across multiple settings, and (3) over time. Evaluations of efforts to optimize teamwork are often afterthoughts in an industry that is grounded in evidence-based practice. The best practices regarding team training evaluation are provided as practical reminders and guidance for continuing to build a balanced and robust body of evidence regarding the impact of team training in health care. THE 12 BEST PRACTICES: The best practices are organized around three phases of training: planning, implementation, and follow-up. Rooted in the science of team training evaluation and performance measurement, they range from Best Practice 1: Before designing training, start backwards: think about traditional frameworks for evaluation in reverse to Best Practice 7: Consider organizational, team, or other factors that may help (or hinder) the effects of training and then to Best Practice 12: Report evaluation results in a meaningful way, both internally and externally. Although the 12 best practices may be perceived as intuitive, they are intended to serve as reminders that the notion of evidence-based practice applies to quality improvement initiatives such as team training and team development as equally as it does to clinical intervention and improvement efforts.
Chaabène, H.; Franchini, E.; Tourny, C.; Chamari, K.; Coquart, J.
Objective The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of karate practice level (national vs international level) and sex (women vs men) on physiological and perceptual responses in three modern karate training modalities (tactical-technical (TT), technical-development (TD), and randori). Method The study included 18 karatekas participating in an eight-session training camp of four TT, two TD, and two randori. During each session, the percentage of maximal heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [La-], and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed. Results The main results showed that the percentage of maximal HR was significantly higher in women than in men regardless of practice level or training modality (70.3 ± 4.1 vs 66.2 ± 6.3, respectively). Moreover, [La-] and RPE were significantly lower in international-level karatekas compared with their national-level counterparts whatever the sex or training modality ([La-] = 11.4 ± 2.6 vs 8.3 ± 2.4 mmol · L-1 and RPE = 3.6 ± 1.2 vs 4.3 ± 1.5, respectively). Last, physiological and perceptual responses were significantly higher during randori in comparison with TT and TD for both sexes. Conclusion The combination of [La-] and RPE thus seems to be a good indicator for discriminating between national- and international-level karatekas, and randori seems to be an effective means to reproduce official karate sparring. PMID:25177098
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of karate practice level (national vs international level and sex (women vs men on physiological and perceptual responses in three modern karate training modalities (tactical-technical (TT, technical-development (TD, and randori. Method: The study included 18 karatekas participating in an eight-session training camp of four TT, two TD, and two randori. During each session, the percentage of maximal heart rate (HR, blood lactate concentration [La-], and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were assessed. Results: The main results showed that the percentage of maximal HR was significantly higher in women than in men regardless of practice level or training modality (70.3 ± 4.1 vs 66.2 ± 6.3, respectively. Moreover, [La-] and RPE were significantly lower in international-level karatekas compared with their national-level counterparts whatever the sex or training modality ([La-] = 11.4 ± 2.6 vs 8.3 ± 2.4 mmol · L-1 and RPE = 3.6 ± 1.2 vs 4.3 ± 1.5, respectively. Last, physiological and perceptual responses were significantly higher during randori in comparison with TT and TD for both sexes. Conclusion: The combination of [La-] and RPE thus seems to be a good indicator for discriminating between national- and international-level karatekas, and randori seems to be an effective means to reproduce official karate sparring.
Jones, David J.; Madison, Kirk W.; Wieman, Carl E.
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We present a study of active learning pedagogies in an upper-division physics course. This work was guided by the principle of deliberate practice for the development of expertise, and this principle was used in the design of the materials and the orchestration of the classroom activities of the students. We present our process for efficiently converting a traditional lecture course based on instructor notes into activities for such a course with active learning methods. Ninety percent of the same material was covered and scores on common exam problems showed a 15% improvement with an effect size greater than 1 after the transformation. We observe that the improvement and the associated effect size is sustained after handing off the materials to a second instructor. Because the improvement on exam questions was independent of specific problem topics and because the material tested was so mathematically advanced and broad (including linear algebra, Fourier transforms, partial differential equations, and vector calculus), we expect the transformation process could be applied to most upper-division physics courses having a similar mathematical base.
David J. Jones
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] We present a study of active learning pedagogies in an upper-division physics course. This work was guided by the principle of deliberate practice for the development of expertise, and this principle was used in the design of the materials and the orchestration of the classroom activities of the students. We present our process for efficiently converting a traditional lecture course based on instructor notes into activities for such a course with active learning methods. Ninety percent of the same material was covered and scores on common exam problems showed a 15% improvement with an effect size greater than 1 after the transformation. We observe that the improvement and the associated effect size is sustained after handing off the materials to a second instructor. Because the improvement on exam questions was independent of specific problem topics and because the material tested was so mathematically advanced and broad (including linear algebra, Fourier transforms, partial differential equations, and vector calculus, we expect the transformation process could be applied to most upper-division physics courses having a similar mathematical base.
Van Hoover, Cheri; Holt, Lisa
Historically, midwives held an important role in society as cradle-to-grave practitioners who eased individuals, families, and communities through difficult transitions across the life span. In the United States, during the first half of the 20th century, physicians assumed care for people during birth and death, moving these elements of the human experience from homes into the hospital setting. These changes in practice resulted in a dehumanization of birth and death experiences and led to detachment from what it means to be human among members of society. There is a current movement across the United States to incorporate palliative care and hospice care into both the home setting and the inpatient setting. Through their education and training, certified nurse-midwives/certified midwives (CNMs/CMs) are well equipped to serve as hospice and palliative care clinicians. Current midwives, skilled in assisting women and families through the transition of pregnancy to motherhood, can use their education and skills to help individuals and their families through the transition from life to death. The similarities between these states of the human experience (pregnancy to birth and terminal illness to death) allow for a fluidity between these experiences from the midwife perspective. The many parallels between these 2 elements of the human condition include stress, anxiety, and pain. Training in holistic approaches to symptom management and supporting individuals through difficult experiences (eg, birth) gives midwives a unique perspective that is readily translatable to assist individuals and families through the passage between life and death.
Møller Pedersen, Kjeld; Andersen, John Sahl; Søndergaard, Jens
education. The contract is (re)negotiated every 2 years. General practice is embedded in a universal tax-funded health care system in which GP and hospital services are free at the point of use. The current system has evolved over the past century and has shown an ability to adapt flexibly to new challenges...
Pain, Simon Watson
A practical guide to environmental, safety, and occupational health audits. It allows organizations and business to avoid expensive external auditors and retain the knowledge and learning 'in-house'. It allows any competent manager or safety/environmental officer to undertake in-house audits in a competent and reproducible fashion.
Akubue, B. N.; Anikweze, G. U.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the health care practices for medical textiles in government hospitals Enugu State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the availability and maintenance of medical textiles in government hospitals in Enugu State, Nigeria. A sample of 1200 hospital personnel were studied. One thousand two hundred…
McKibbon, K. Ann; And Others
Discussion of evidence-based medicine (EBM) focuses on information tools to facilitate the practice of EBM that were developed, evaluated, and made more accessible by the McMaster University (Canada) Faculty of Health Sciences. Highlights include users' guides to medical literature, strategies for improving MEDLINE searches, new journals, and…
Asaolu, Ibitola O; Okafor, Chioma T; Ehiri, Jennifer C; Dreifuss, Heather M; Ehiri, John E
Women's empowerment is hypothesized as a predictor of reproductive health outcomes. It is believed that empowered girls and women are more likely to delay marriage, plan their pregnancies, receive prenatal care, and have their childbirth attended by a skilled health provider. The objective of this study was to assess the association between women's empowerment and use of modern contraception among a representative sample of Nigerian women. This study used the 2003, 2008, and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data. The analytic sample was restricted to 35,633 women who expressed no desire to have children within 2 years following each survey, were undecided about timing for children, and who reported no desire for more children. Measures of women's empowerment included their ability to partake in decisions pertaining to their healthcare, large household purchases, and visit to their family or relatives. Multivariable regression models adjusting for respondent's age at first birth, religion, education, wealth status, number of children, and geopolitical region were used to measure the association between empowerment and use of modern contraceptives. The proportion of women who participated in decisions to visit their relatives increased from 42.5% in 2003 to 50.6% in 2013. The prevalence of women involved in decision-making related to large household purchases increased from 24.3% in 2003 to 41.1% in 2013, while the proportion of those who partook in decision related to their health care increased from 28.4% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2013. Use of modern contraception was positively associated with women's participation in decisions related to large household purchases [2008: adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01-1.31] and (2013; aOR = 1.60; 1.40-1.83), health care [2008: (aOR = 1.20; 1.04-1.39) and (2013; aOR = 1.39; 1.22-1.59)], and visiting family or relatives [2013; aOR = 1.58; 1.36-1.83]. The prevalence of modern contraceptive use
Skarholt, Kari; Blix, Elisabeth H; Sandsund, Mariann; Andersen, Thale K
The aim of this article is to address health promoting leadership; what do leaders actually do to promote health at work? Leadership practice plays a crucial role in the workplace and greatly affects the working environment and working conditions. Through a theoretical and empirical approach, we seek to find characteristics/patterns of health promoting leadership. The definition of health promoting leadership is a democratic and supportive leadership style, where leaders seek to motivate and inspire their employees. The study in this article is based on qualitative research methods. We have investigated and compared leadership practice in four different organizations/industries in Norway: construction, oil and gas, health care and cleaning. These organizations and professions are quite different, and thus leadership must be understood and developed within its context. However, we found some generic characteristics of health promoting leadership: hands-on, accessible, supportive, inclusive and democratic. Current literature only rarely addresses how leadership affects health promotion at work. Consequently, more knowledge is needed about how leaders really succeed in creating healthy workplaces and healthy employees.
Burris, Scott; Hitchcock, Laura; Ibrahim, Jennifer; Penn, Matthew; Ramanathan, Tara
Governments use statutes, regulations, and policies, often in innovative ways, to promote health and safety. Organizations outside government, from private schools to major corporations, create rules on matters as diverse as tobacco use and paid sick leave. Very little of this activity is systematically tracked. Even as the rest of the health system is working to build, share, and use a wide range of health and social data, legal information largely remains trapped in text files and pdfs, excluded from the universe of usable data. This article makes the case for the practice of policy surveillance to help end the anomalous treatment of law in public health research and practice. Policy surveillance is the systematic, scientific collection and analysis of laws of public health significance. It meets several important needs. Scientific collection and coding of important laws and policies creates data suitable for use in rigorous evaluation studies. Policy surveillance addresses the chronic lack of readily accessible, nonpartisan information about status and trends in health legislation and policy. It provides the opportunity to build policy capacity in the public health workforce. We trace its emergence over the past fifty years, show its value, and identify major challenges ahead. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.
Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea
Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.
Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.
Miller, Louise C; Devaney, Susan W; Kelly, Glenda L; Kuehn, Alice F
Attrition in the public health nursing work force combined with a lack of faculty to teach public health prompted development of a "long-distance" learning project. Practicing associate degree nurses enrolled in an online course in population-based practice worked with experienced public health nurse "e-mentors." Student-mentor pairs worked through course assignments, shared public health nursing experiences, and problem-solved real-time public health issues. Nursing faculty served as coordinators for student learning and mentor support. Over 3 years, 38 student-mentor pairs participated in the project. Students reported they valued the expertise and guidance of their mentors. Likewise, mentors gained confidence in their practice and abilities to mentor. Issues related to distance learning and e-mentoring centered around use of technology and adequate time to communicate with one another. E-mentoring is a viable strategy to connect nurses to a learning, sharing environment while crossing the barriers of distance, agency isolation, and busy schedules.
Whitney, Wanda; Dutcher, Gale A.; Keselman, Alla
Objective: Convincing evidence of the effectiveness of health information outreach projects is essential to ensure their continuity. This paper reviews the current state of health information outreach evaluation, characterizes strengths and weaknesses in projects' ability to measure their impact, and assesses enablers of and barriers to projects' success. It also relates the projects' characteristics to evaluation practices. The paper then makes recommendations for strengthening evaluation. Methods: Upon conducting a literature search, the authors identified thirty-three articles describing consumer health information outreach programs, published between 2000 and 2010. We then analyzed the outreach projects with respect to their goals and characteristics, evaluation methods and measures, and reported outcomes. Results: The results uncovered great variation in the quality of evaluation methods, outcome measures, and reporting. Outcome measures did not always match project objectives; few quantitative measures employed pretests or reported statistical significance; and institutional change was not measured in a structured way. While papers reported successful outcomes, greater rigor in measuring and documenting outcomes would be helpful. Conclusion: Planning outcome evaluation carefully and conducting research into mediators between health information and behavior will strengthen the ability to identify best practices and develop a theoretical framework and practical guidance for health information outreach. PMID:23646029
Makenzius, Marlene; Wamala, Sarah
We evaluated the Swedish National Public Health Policy to determine its impact on public health priorities and practice at regional and local levels between 2004 and 2013. We conducted a survey by questionnaire in February 2013 among Swedish county councils/regions (n=19/21), and municipalities (n=219/290). The National Public Health Policy facilitated systematic public health practice, particularly for planning, for high priority concerns, including conditions during childhood and adolescence, physical activity, and tobacco prevention. Respondents expressed need for a comprehensive monitoring system with comparable indicators nationwide and explicit measurable objectives. To ensure effective monitoring and follow-up, the measurable outcomes need direct relevance to decision making and high-priority public health issues addressing Sweden's "overarching public health goal" - to create societal conditions for good health on equal terms for the entire population.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A
Rapidly rising health care costs over the decades have prompted the application of business practices to medicine with goals of improving the efficiency, restraining expenses, and increasing quality. Average health insurance premiums and individual contributions for family coverage have increased approximately 120% from 1999 to 2008. Health care spending in the United States is stated to exceed 4 times the national defense, despite the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The U.S. health care system has been blamed for inefficiencies, excessive administrative expenses, inflated prices, inappropriate waste, and fraud and abuse. While many people lack health insurance, others who do have health insurance allegedly receive care ranging from superb to inexcusable. In criticism of health care in the United States and the focus on savings, methodologists, policy makers, and the public in general seem to ignore the major disadvantages of other global health care systems and the previous experiences of the United States to reform health care. Health care reform is back with the Obama administration with great expectations. It is also believed that for the first time since 1993, momentum is building for policies that would move the United States towards universal health insurance. President Obama has made health care a central part of his domestic agenda, with spending and investments in Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and proposed 2010 budget. It is the consensus now that since we have a fiscal emergency, Washington is willing to deal with the health care crisis. Many of the groups long opposed to reform, appear to be coming together to accept a major health care reform. Reducing costs is always at the center of any health care debate in the United States. These have been focused on waste, fraud, and abuse; administrative costs; improving the quality with health technology information dissemination; and excessive
Weiss, Marjorie D
Strategically leveraging health and safety initiatives with sustainability and stewardship helps organizations improve profitability and positively impact team member and customer attachment to the organization. Collective efficacy enhances the triple bottom line: healthy people, healthy planet, and healthy profits. The HS(3)™ Best Practice Exchanges group demonstrated that collective efficacy can leverage the social cohesion, communication channels, and activities within workplaces to promote a healthy, sustainable work culture. This in turn (1) protects the health and safety of workers, (2) preserves the natural environment, and (3) increases attachment to the organization. Community-based participatory research using the Attach21 survey assessed the progress of these companies in their efforts to integrate health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship. Monthly Best Practice Exchanges promoted collective efficacy by providing support, encouragement, and motivation to share and adopt new ideas.
Dubé, Laurette; Labban, Alice; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Heslop, Gabriela; Ma, Yu; Paquet, Catherine
Building greater reciprocity between traditional and modern food systems and better convergence of human and economic development outcomes may enable the production and consumption of accessible, affordable, and appealing nutritious food for all. Information being key to such transformations, this roadmap paper offers a strategy that capitalizes on Big Data and advanced analytics, setting the foundation for an integrative intersectoral knowledge platform to better inform and monitor behavioral change and ecosystem transformation. Building upon the four P's of marketing (product, price, promotion, placement), we examine digital commercial marketing data through the lenses of the four A's of food security (availability, accessibility, affordability, appeal) using advanced consumer choice analytics for archetypal traditional (fresh fruits and vegetables) and modern (soft drinks) product categories. We demonstrate that business practices typically associated with the latter also have an important, if not more important, impact on purchases of the former category. Implications and limitations of the approach are discussed. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
It has been identified that if public health interventions do not account for what it means to be human, they are likely to fail. The aim of this article is to introduce humanization theory and to show how it can be applied to health-promoting practice. Health promotion can feature humanizing and dehumanizing elements, and these appear to impact on how people may (or may not) engage with interventions. The primary prevention of skin cancer in young people is an illustration of this. The practice implications of applying humanization theory to health promotion are potentially vast and complex; however, it is proposed that considering the dimensions of humanization may be a useful activity to inform the early stages of health-promotion intervention designs. Furthermore, developing the qualitative research evidence base about peoples' experiences of humanizing dimensions of health promotion would also be a valuable step towards ensuring that interventions account for the 'human dimension'. Applying humanization theory to the specific example of skin cancer prevention in young people has been a new venture but based on work so far, suggestions for humanizing principles for skin cancer prevention would need to be inclusive of the needs of young people, to support them and to involve them in research and intervention development.
Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia; Schrecker, Ted
In recent decades, public health policy and practice have been increasingly challenged by globalization, even as global financing for health has increased dramatically. This article discusses globalization and its health challenges from a vantage of political science, emphasizing increased global flows (of pathogens, information, trade, finance, and people) as driving, and driven by, global market integration. This integration requires a shift in public health thinking from a singular focus on international health (the higher disease burden in poor countries) to a more nuanced analysis of global health (in which health risks in both poor and rich countries are seen as having inherently global causes and consequences). Several globalization-related pathways to health exist, two key ones of which are described: globalized diseases and economic vulnerabilities. The article concludes with a call for national governments, especially those of wealthier nations, to take greater account of global health and its social determinants in all their foreign policies.
dos Santos Barreto, Simone; Castro, Luciana
Comprehensive health care is still a challenge for all who participate in the transformation of undergraduate education and health care practices. Among health professionals, speech and language pathologists are also invited to reflect on these questions. The aim of this study was to investigate some aspects of the undergraduate education and health care practices of speech and language pathologists (graduates of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) working in public health units. A descriptive cross study was carried out with ten subjects who responded to a questionnaire and were interviewed. The transcribed data were analyzed based on their content and the frequency of the answers. The results showed that most of the interviewed professionals considered the traineeships as one of the most important experiences of the undergraduate course, had extracurricular experience in public health services, attended specialization courses, and worked in more than one public health unit. Also, the study found that individual therapy was the main activity carried out in the public health services by the professionals. The study identified relevant points to be discussed about undergraduate education and public health care practices for these health professionals.
Atkinson, Sarah; Ayers, Andrew
The practices of health care in late modernity are informed by competing visions of the ideal human and the nature of care. Western societies typically characterise the ideal human as independent and self-reliant. The resultant welfare systems provide temporary havens away from the everyday, competitive spaces of capitalist societies, termed here the enclave model. Social scientists problematise this model on several grounds: the construction of pathologised and medicalised body forms; the neglect of caring practices that are gendered, invisible and primarily private; the de-politicisation of caring practices. Policy calls reject reference to care and its associations with dependency, make visible and value informal care work or invoke a caring citizenship as a policy goal not just a means. Into this field of contested notions of care enters a well-documented rise in access to, and consultation through, the internet in everyday lives for a vast range of issues. Health care encountered online reflects a similar range in form as that encountered offline and much that is innovative, whilst clearly of benefit, does nothing to challenge the existing dominance of the enclave model of social care. However, certain groups of sites create spaces through which participants can both express and extract caring relationships that are otherwise unforthcoming. The paper argues that these sites afford the potential to develop an alternative model of caring, to reframe questions of how to care about distant others and to demonstrate the centrality of caring relations to human life.
Full Text Available Review of Henry S. Turner, The English Renaissance Stage. Geometry, Poetics, and the Practical Spatial Arts 1580-1630, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006, reimpr. 2010, 326 pp. ISBN: 978-0-19-959545-7 y Tim Fitzpatrick, Playwright, Space and Place in Early Modern Performance, Ashgate, Franham, 2011, 314 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4094-2827-5.
Otto, Hans-Uwe; Polutta, Andreas; Ziegler, Holger
This article refers sympathetically to the thoughtful debates and positions in the "Research on Social Work Practice" ("RSWP"; Special Issue, July, 2008 issue) on "What Works? Modernizing the Knowledge-Base of Social Work." It highlights the need for empirical efficacy and effectiveness research in social work and appreciates empirical rigor…
Lifestyle practices and the health promoting environment of hospital nurses This paper examined the lifestyle practices of hospital nurses and the impact of specific interventions in the hospital environment. The perception of nurse as health promoter and as carer of AIDS patients was also examined. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data at two different time periods. The sample represented 729 nurses (at pre- and post-time periods), both qualified and student nurses. Qualified nurses reported the highest stress levels while student nurses reported more negative lifestyle practices such as smoking, alcohol consumption and drug use. A greater number of current smokers (29%) consumed alcohol and used drugs than non-smokers. The impact of intervention strategies around compliance with smoking policy and work-site walk routes reduced exposure to passive smoking at work for qualified nurses and increased exercise participation for both groups of nurses. Workplace was identified as the main source of stress which included relationships at work and demands of the job. Hospital nurses experiencing high work stress were more likely to use professional support and personal coping (discuss problems with friends\\/family, have a good cry and eat more) than others. Nurses believed in the importance of health promotion as part of their work; however, qualified nurses felt more confident and gave more health related information than student nurses. Student nurses perceived a lower risk of contacting AIDS through work and a higher concern\\/worry in caring for AIDS patients than qualified nurses.
Fortenberry, J Dennis
Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health includes policy, practice and research but to sufficiently connect academic research, practice and public health policy appears to be difficult. Collaboration between policy, practice and research is imperative to obtaining more solid evidence in public health. However, the three domains do not easily work together because they emanate from three more or less independent 'niches'. Work cycles of each niche have the same successive steps: problem recognition, approach formulation, implementation, and evaluation, but are differently worked out. So far, the research has focused on agenda-setting which belongs to the first step, as expressed by Kingdon, and on the use of academic knowledge in policy makers' decision-making processes which belongs to the fourth step, as elaborated by Weiss. In addition, there are more steps in the policy-making process where exchange is needed. Method A qualitative descriptive research was conducted by literature search. We analyzed the four steps of the policy, practice and research work cycles. Next, we interpreted the main conflicting aspects as disconnections for each step. Results There are some conspicuous differences that strengthen the niche character of each domain and hamper integration and collaboration. Disconnections ranged from formulating priorities in problem statements to power roles, appraisal of evidence, work attitudes, work pace, transparency of goals, evaluation and continuation strategies and public accountability. Creating awareness of these disconnections may result in more compatibility between researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Conclusion We provide an analysis that can be used by public health services-related researchers, practitioners and policy makers to be aware of the risk for disconnections. A synthesis of the social, practical and scientific relevance of public health problems should be the starting point for a dialogue that seeks to
The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together.
Ogboghodo, Esohe Olivia; Omuemu, Vivian Ossaidiom; Odijie, Oisedebame; Odaman, Ofure Jennifer
Introduction Vaccination has caused a dramatic reduction in the threat of diseases that were once widespread and often times fatal. The efficient practice of cold chain management is therefore key to ensuring that the benefits of vaccination are sustained. The objective of this study is to assess the practice of cold chain management among health workers in primary health care facilities in Benin City, Edo State. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed in this study. The study population consisted of registered nurses, auxiliary nurses and community health extension workers in primary health care facilities in Benin City, Edo State. The tool for data collection was pre-tested, structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis between socio-demographic variables and practice of cold chain management was done. Binary logistic regression was also done to determine significant predictors of practice of cold chain management. The level of significance was set at p cold chain management. Significant determinants of practice of cold chain management were cold chain management training (p = 0.004), presence of functional refrigerators (p = 0.016), NPI supervision (p cold chain management among respondents was fair. All stakeholders should ensure they work collectively towards ensuring that favorable environments which would improve the practice among health workers are put in place. PMID:28761610
Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Sleigh, Adrian
Transnational food retailers expanded to middle-income countries over recent decades responding to supply (liberalized foreign investment) and demand (rising incomes, urbanization, female workforce participation, and time poverty). Control in new markets diffuses along three axes: socio-economic (rich to poor), geographic (urban to rural), and product category (processed foods to fresh foods). We used a mixed method approach to study the progression of modern retail in Thailand on these three axes and consumer preferences for food retailing. In Thailand modern retail controls half the food sales but traditional fresh markets remain important. Quantitative questionnaires administered to members of a large national cohort study revealed around half of respondents were primarily traditional shoppers and half either utilized modern and traditional formats equally or primarily shopped at supermarkets. Fresh foods were mainly purchased at traditional retail formats and dry packaged foods at supermarkets. Qualitative interviews found price and quality of produce and availability of culturally important products to be significant reasons for continued support of fresh markets. Our results show socio-economic and geographic diffusion is already advanced with most respondents having access to and utilizing modern retail. Control of the fresh food sector by transnationals faces barriers in Thailand and may remain elusive. The short to mid-term outcome may be a bifurcated food system with modern and traditional retail each retaining market share, but fresh markets longer term survival may require government assistance as supermarkets become more established. Fresh markets supply affordable, healthy foods, and livelihoods for poorer Thais and are repositories of Thai food culture and social networks. If they survive they will confer cultural, social, economic, and health benefits.
Full Text Available The AMA Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS has been the cornerstone of preventive care for teenagers since its publication in 1994. Despite this, there has been little documentation of their implementation in the family medicine literature. This article gives an overview of a family practice–based adolescent preventive health program based on GAPS recommendations, and reports on compliance, feasibility and health issues. A Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC program targeted all adolescent patients aged 12—18 years in two Israeli family practices. 321 teenagers were invited to participate. Every 7th and 10th grader was invited for a preventive health visit with the family physician and nurse. The visits included a medical evaluation, screening and counseling regarding health issues recommended by GAPS, and counseling regarding personal health concerns. Parents were also invited to meet with the staff. 184 (57% of the adolescents invited for health visits attended. The overall visit time was 47 minutes, including 12 minutes for a questionnaire and 35 minutes with providers. Common biomedical problems included overweight, acne and dysmenorrhea. Health risk behaviors and psychosocial problems included cigarette or alcohol use, dieting, infrequent/never seat belt use, and feeling depressed. 78% wanted to discuss at least one personal health issue. 27% were invited for follow-up visits. Only 3% of the parents came for visits. A community-oriented approach facilitates bringing adolescents for preventive health visits. Many previously undetected health issues, particularly psychosocial and behavioral, are revealed during these visits. A concerns checklist aids in addressing personal health concerns.
Kim A. Kayunze
Full Text Available The practice of one health approaches in human and animal health programmes is influenced by type and scope of bridges and barriers for partnerships. It was thus essential to evaluate the nature and scope of collaborative arrangements among human, animal, and wildlife health experts in dealing with health challenges which demand inter-sectoral partnership. The nature of collaborative arrangement was assessed, and the respective bridges and barriers over a period of 12 months (July 20011 to June 2012 were identified. The specific objectives were to: (1 determine the proportion of health experts who had collaborated with other experts of disciplines different from theirs, (2 rank the general bridges for and barriers against collaboration according to the views of the health experts, and (3 find the actual bridges for and barriers against collaboration among the health experts interviewed. It was found that 27.0% of animal health officers interviewed had collaborated with medical officers while 12.4% of the medical officers interviewed had collaborated with animal health experts. Only 6.7% of the wildlife officers had collaborated with animal health experts. The main bridges for collaboration were instruction by upper level leaders, zoonotic diseases of serious impacts, and availability of funding. The main barriers for collaboration were lack of knowledge about animal/human health issues, lack of networks for collaboration, and lack of plans to collaborate. This thus calls for the need to curb barriers in order to enhance inter-sectoral collaboration for more effective management of risks attributable to infectious diseases of humans and animals.
William Osler's description of the ideal physician remains the dominant character-ideal for modern physicians. He believed that the personality traits that resulted from a belief in ascetic Protestantism, what has been called the Puritan temper, were essential in the practice of medicine. However, this idealism has been weakened by modern psychological theories which view idealism as an illness. In a culture oriented to health, rather than virtue, as an ultimate ideal, physicians can help develop a science of limits.
Vicente, Roser; Castillejo, Joan
Within the health sector, the aim of the PPP model is to improve management efficiency and innovation in health care services while it also helps to accelerate the modernization of national health systems. Gesaworld's experience in Brazil, including the modernization of the hospital network of the São Paulo Prefecture, has contributed to improvements in the health of the population by offering better health care facilities. The scope of the project, which is based on the legal model of an administrative concession contract, includes sustainability criteria as part of the project.
Min Xu; Shi-Xue Li
Objective:To study the public health Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs)in the US, the European Union, the UK and Australia, and summarize the good practice for the improvement of National Health Emergency Response Command Center in Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission.Methods:Literature review was conducted to explore the EOCs of selected countries.Results:The study focused on EOC function, organizational structure, human resources and information management. The selected EOCs had the basic EOC functions of coordinating and commanding as well as the public health related functions such as monitoring the situation, risk assessment, and epidemiological briefings. The organizational structures of the EOCs were standardized, scalable and flexible. Incident Command System was the widely applied organizational structure with a strong preference. The EOCs were managed by a unit of emergency management during routine time and surge staff were engaged upon emergencies. The selected EOCs had clear information management framework including information collection, assessment and dissemination.Conclusions:The performance of National Health Emergency Response Command Center can be improved by learning from the good practice of the selected EOCs, including setting clear functions, standardizing the organizational structure, enhancing the human resource capacity and strengthening information management.
Souza, Marcy J
Zoonoses make up approximately ¾ of today’s emerging infectious diseases; many of these zoonoses come from exotic pets and wildlife. Recent outbreaks in humans associated with nondomestic animals include Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Ebola virus, salmonellosis, and monkeypox. Expanding human populations, increased exotic pet ownership and changes in climate may contribute to increased incidence of zoonoses. Education and preventive medicine practices can be applied by veterinarians and other health professionals to reduce the risk of contracting a zoonotic disease. The health of humans, animals, and the environment must be treated as a whole to prevent the transmission of zoonoses.
Bottorff Joan L
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.
Fasola, G.; Macerelli, M.; A. Follador; Rihawi, K; Aprile, G; V. Della Mea
The adoption and implementation of information technology are dramatically remodeling healthcare services all over the world, resulting in an unstoppable and sometimes overwhelming process. After the introduction of the main elements of electronic health records and a description of what every cancer-care professional should be familiar with, we present a narrative review focusing on the current use of computerized clinical information and decision systems in oncology practice. Following a de...
Al-Amoud, Maysoon M.
Objectives: (1) To study the patterns of breastfeeding of last children, duration, factors and reasons for it. (2) To study the factors affecting breastfeeding among mothers who are breastfeeding and the reasons for continuing or failure to continue, at the primary health care centers (PHC) in Riyadh. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing 1000 questionnaires in 10 PHC centers. The breastfeeding practices were categorized on WHO terms. Results: Most of the studied last ...
Gale, J; Marshall-Lucette, S
Recovery-oriented practice, an approach aligned towards the service user perspective, has dominated the mental health care arena. Numerous studies have explored service users' accounts of the purpose, meaning and importance of 'recovery'; however, far less is known about healthcare staff confidence in its application to care delivery. A self-efficacy questionnaire and content analysis of nursing course documents were used to investigate a cohort of community mental health nurses' recovery-oriented practice and to determine the extent to which the current continuing professional development curriculum met their educational needs in this regard. Twenty-three community mental health nurses completed a self-efficacy questionnaire and 28 course documents were analysed. The findings revealed high levels of nurses' confidence in their understanding and ability to apply the recovery model and low levels of confidence were found in areas of social inclusion. The content analysis found only one course document that used the whole term 'recovery model'. The findings suggest a gap in the nurses' perceived ability and confidence in recovery-oriented practice with what is taught academically. Hence, nursing education needs to be more explicitly focused on the recovery model and its application to care delivery.
Kuntsevich, Viktoriya; Bushell, William C; Theise, Neil D
Mechanisms underlying the modulating effects of yogic cognitive-behavioral practices (eg, meditation, yoga asanas, pranayama breathing, caloric restriction) on human physiology can be classified into 4 transduction pathways: humoral factors, nervous system activity, cell trafficking, and bioelectromagnetism. Here we give examples of these transduction pathways and how, through them, yogic practices might optimize health, delay aging, and ameliorate chronic illness and stress from disability. We also recognize that most studies of these mechanisms remain embedded in a reductionist paradigm, investigating small numbers of elements of only 1 or 2 pathways. Moreover, often, subjects are not long-term practitioners, but recently trained. The models generated from such data are, in turn, often limited, top-down, without the explanatory power to describe beneficial effects of long-term practice or to provide foundations for comparing one practice to another. More flexible and useful models require a systems-biology approach to gathering and analysis of data. Such a paradigm is needed to fully appreciate the deeper mechanisms underlying the ability of yogic practice to optimize health, delay aging, and speed efficient recovery from injury or disease. In this regard, 3 different, not necessarily competing, hypotheses are presented to guide design of future investigations, namely, that yogic practices may: (1) promote restoration of physiologic setpoints to normal after derangements secondary to disease or injury, (2) promote homeostatic negative feedback loops over nonhomeostatic positive feedback loops in molecular and cellular interactions, and (3) quench abnormal "noise" in cellular and molecular signaling networks arising from environmental or internal stresses.
Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W
Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.
Turner, John; Hayward, Rhodri; Angel, Katherine; Fulford, Bill; Hall, John; Millard, Chris; Thomson, Mathew
Writing the recent history of mental health services requires a conscious departure from the historiographical tropes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which have emphasised the experience of those identified (and legally defined) as lunatics and the social, cultural, political, medical and institutional context of their treatment. A historical narrative structured around rights (to health and liberty) is now complicated by the rise of new organising categories such as 'costs', 'risks', 'needs' and 'values'. This paper, drawing on insights from a series of witness seminars attended by historians, clinicians and policymakers, proposes a programme of research to place modern mental health services in England and Wales in a richer historical context. Historians should recognise the fragmentation of the concepts of mental illness and mental health need, acknowledge the relationship between critiques of psychiatry and developments in other intellectual spheres, place the experience of the service user in the context of wider socio-economic and political change, understand the impacts of the social perception of 'risk' and of moral panic on mental health policy, relate the politics of mental health policy and resources to the general determinants of institutional change in British central and local government, and explore the sociological and institutional complexity of the evolving mental health professions and their relationships with each other and with their clients. While this is no small challenge, it is perhaps the only way to avoid the perpetuation of 'single-issue mythologies' in describing and accounting for change.
Araújo, Maria Rizoneide Negreiros; Assunção, Raquel Silva
This article discusses practices developed by the community health agency in the Family Health Program of Divinópolis--MG reporting on practices in the fields of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, taking as main reference the principles established at the 1st International Health Promotion Conference, which took place in Canada in 1986. Field research was carried out by questionnaire, direct observation of work and open interviews with community health agencies. A qualitative approach was chosen in which the concepts and statements of the subjects were dealt with in the light of historical and dialectical materialism, and the organization and analysis of the discourses according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject. We conclude that the community health agency performs actions recommended by the Ministry of Health, and that its health promoting actions are confined to the creation of environments favorable to health, actions in the home. It works more widely in disease prevention, in individual actions, health education for the community and for groups at risk, and controlling infectious disease and parasites such as dengue and worms. Its focus of attention is predominantly the individual and not the family.
Full Text Available Background: No organized school oral health program is existent in India. Aim: The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and efficacy of an economical school oral health promotional intervention with educational and preventive components. Settings and Design: School oral health promotional intervention carried out in one of the randomly selected school and evaluated through short duration prospective model. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 children with an age range of 10-12 years with no previous history of dental intervention were enrolled. Interventions comprised of oral health education (delivered through lecture and demonstrations by an undergraduate dental student and topical antibacterial therapy (fluoride varnish and povidone iodine. Outcomes consisted of Knowledge and practices (KAP regarding oral health, clinical oral health related parameters such as plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI and caries activity as per Modified Snyder′s test. These were reported at baseline, 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination by a calibrated examiner. Statistical Analysis: McNemar Bowker′s test, Student′s t-test, Pearson Chi-square tests were used. Results: Highly significant (P < 0.001 improvements in KAP scores, PI scores, GI scores and caries activity were reported at 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination. Conclusion: This small economical school oral health program positively influenced oral health related practices and parameters of oral health such as oral cleanliness, gingival health and caries activity.
To arrive at an expert consensus in relation to health promotion and health education constructs as they apply to nursing practice, education and policy. Nursing has often been maligned and criticized, both inside and outside of the profession, for its ability to understand and conduct effective health promotion and health education-related activities. In the absence of an expert-based consensus, nurses may find it difficult to progress beyond the current situation. In the absence of any previously published nursing-related consensus research, this study seeks to fill that knowledge-gap. A two-round Delphi technique via email correspondence. A first-round qualitative questionnaire used open-ended questions for defining health promotion and health education. This was both in general terms and as participants believed these concepts related to the clinical, theoretical (academic/educational) and the policy (political) setting in nursing. Line-by-line qualitative content and thematic analysis of the first-round data generated 13 specific categories. These categories contained 134 statement items. The second-round questionnaire comprised the identified 134 statements. Using a five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) participants scored and rated their level of agreement/disagreement against the listed items. Data from the second-round was descriptively analysed according to distribution and central tendency measures. An expert consensus was reached on 65 of the original 134 statements. While some minor contradiction was demonstrated, strong consensus emerged around the issues of defining health promotion and health education and the emergence of a wider health promotion and health education role for nursing. No consensus was reached on only one of the 13 identified topic categories - that of 'nurses working with other disciplines and agencies in a health education and health promotion role.' This study provides a hitherto
Grumbach, Kevin; Bodenheimer, Thomas
In health care settings, individuals from different disciplines come together to care for patients. Although these groups of health care personnel are generally called teams, they need to earn true team status by demonstrating teamwork. Developing health care teams requires attention to 2 central questions: who is on the team and how do team members work together? This article chiefly focuses on the second question. Cohesive health care teams have 5 key characteristics: clear goals with measurable outcomes, clinical and administrative systems, division of labor, training of all team members, and effective communication. Two organizations are described that demonstrate these components: a private primary care practice in Bangor, Me, and Kaiser Permanente's Georgia region primary care sites. Research on patient care teams suggests that teams with greater cohesiveness are associated with better clinical outcome measures and higher patient satisfaction. In addition, medical settings in which physicians and nonphysician professionals work together as teams can demonstrate improved patient outcomes. A number of barriers to team formation exist, chiefly related to the challenges of human relationships and personalities. Taking small steps toward team development may improve the work environment in primary care practices.
Full Text Available It was defined the indexes of physical development and physical health of 29 first-class children of general school. On the basis of conducted anthropometric, psychometric and statistical researches were decline indexes of physical development and physical health of pupils of schools of western region in comparing to schools of central Ukraine. In practical activity of future specialist of human health were used methods that can be used with a diagnostic purpose and for organization of health work at school.
The focus of this review is on driving neuroplasticity in a positive direction using evidence-based interventions that also have the potential to improve general health. One goal is to provide an overview of the many ways new neuroscience can inform treatment protocols to empower and motivate clients to make the lifestyle choices that could help build brain power and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyle changes that have also been associated with simultaneously enhancing vigorous longevity, health, happiness, and wellness. Another goal is to explore the use of a focus in clinical practice on helping clients appreciate this new evidence and use evolving neuroscience in establishing individualized goals, designing strategies for achieving them and increasing treatment compliance. The timing is urgent for such interventions with goals of enhancing brain health across the lifespan and improving statistics on dementia worldwide.
Fida K. Dankar
Full Text Available Differential privacy has gained a lot of attention in recent years as a general model for the protection of personal information when used and disclosed for secondary purposes. It has also been proposed as an appropriate model for protecting health data. In this paper we review the current literature on differential privacy and highlight important general limitations to the model and the proposed mechanisms. We then examine some practical challenges to the application of differential privacy to health data. The most severe limitation is the theoretical nature of the privacy parameter epsilon. It has implications on our ability to quantify the level of anonymization that would be guaranteed to patients, as well as assessing responsibilities when a privacy breach occurs. The review concludes by identifying the areas that researchers and practitioners need to address to increase the adoption of differential privacy for health data.
Ouden, D.J. den; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; IJzermans, C.J.
Objective: To study the health problems presented to general practitioners by disaster survivors who received specialized ambulatory mental health care. Design: (Longitudinal) case-control study based on general practitioners' electronic medical records. Setting: General practice and a mental health
Rashed Soud Quftan Aladwan
Full Text Available The article describes the peculiarities of bone mass peak formation. In research 108 students were plugged in age 19-23 years. There are presented the method of prophylaxis of osteopenia/osteoporosis in students - the optimisation of life style on the base of modern health techniques. The following experimental complex program of the physical rehabilitation. There are given results of studies of the bone tissue structural - functional state of 108 students depending on age, sex and specialization. There is studied the connection between the indices of density and morpho-functional conditions of students.
Akpabio, Idongesit I; Edet, Olaide B; Etifit, Rita E; Robinson-Bassey, Grace C
The proportion of women who patronized traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or modern health care practitioners (MHCPs) was compared, including reasons for their choices. A comparative design was adopted to study 300 respondents selected through a multistage systematic random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a validated 21-item structured questionnaire. We observed that 75 (25%) patronized and 80 (27%) preferred TBAs, and 206 (69%) patronized and 220 (75%) preferred MHCPs, while 19 (6%) patronized both. The view that TBAs prayed before conducting deliveries was supported by a majority 75 (94%) of the respondents who preferred them. Factors associated with preference for TBAs should be addressed.
Burke, Adam; Nahin, Richard L; Stussman, Barbara J
Complementary health practices are an important element of health/healthcare seeking behavior among adults in the United States. Reasons for use include medical need, prevention and wellness promotion, and cultural relevance. Survey studies published over the past several decades have provided important information on the use of complementary health practices, such as acupuncture and yoga. A review of the literature, however, reveals an absence of studies looking specifically at who does not use these approaches, and why not. To explore this issue two samples were created using data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement. Of particular interest was the relationship between lack of health knowledge, as a reason for non-use, and key independent variables. The first sample was comprised of individuals who had never used any of four common complementary health practices -- acupuncture, chiropractic, natural products, and yoga. The second was a subset of those same non-users who had also reported low back pain, the most frequently cited health concern related to use of complementary therapies. A hypothesized association between lack of health knowledge, lower educational attainment, and other key socioeconomic indicators was supported in the findings. Although it was hypothesized that low back pain would be associated with greater information seeking, regardless of level of education, that hypothesis was not supported. Lack of knowledge was found to affect utilization of common complementary health practices, regardless of the potentially motivating presence of back pain. Disparities in the utilization of complementary medicine, related to educational attainment and other socioeconomic factors, may negatively affect quality of care for many Americans. Creative approaches are needed to help reduce inequities in understanding and improve access to care for underserved populations.
Full Text Available Complementary health practices are an important element of health/healthcare seeking behavior among adults in the United States. Reasons for use include medical need, prevention and wellness promotion, and cultural relevance. Survey studies published over the past several decades have provided important information on the use of complementary health practices, such as acupuncture and yoga. A review of the literature, however, reveals an absence of studies looking specifically at who does not use these approaches, and why not.To explore this issue two samples were created using data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement. Of particular interest was the relationship between lack of health knowledge, as a reason for non-use, and key independent variables. The first sample was comprised of individuals who had never used any of four common complementary health practices -- acupuncture, chiropractic, natural products, and yoga. The second was a subset of those same non-users who had also reported low back pain, the most frequently cited health concern related to use of complementary therapies.A hypothesized association between lack of health knowledge, lower educational attainment, and other key socioeconomic indicators was supported in the findings. Although it was hypothesized that low back pain would be associated with greater information seeking, regardless of level of education, that hypothesis was not supported.Lack of knowledge was found to affect utilization of common complementary health practices, regardless of the potentially motivating presence of back pain. Disparities in the utilization of complementary medicine, related to educational attainment and other socioeconomic factors, may negatively affect quality of care for many Americans. Creative approaches are needed to help reduce inequities in understanding and improve access to care for underserved populations.
The introduction of technically-advanced imaging systems in medicine carries with it potential health hazards, particularly from ionizing and nonionizing radiation exposure of human populations. This paper will discuss what we know and what we do not know about the health effects of low-level radiation, how the risks of radiation-induced health effects may be estimated, the sources of the scientific data, the dose-response models used, the uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess health risks from low-level radiation, and what the implications might be for radiation protection in medicine and public health policy.
Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A
OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting
Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor
Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result.
Brownson, Ross C; Allen, Peg; Jacob, Rebekah R; Harris, Jenine K; Duggan, Kathleen; Hipp, Pamela R; Erwin, Paul C
A better understanding of mis-implementation in public health (ending effective programs and policies or continuing ineffective ones) may provide important information for decision makers. The purpose of this study is to describe the frequency and patterns in mis-implementation of programs in state and local health departments in the U.S. A cross-sectional study of 944 public health practitioners was conducted. The sample included state (n=277) and local health department employees (n=398) and key partners from other agencies (n=269). Data were collected from October 2013 through June 2014 (analyzed in May through October 2014). Online survey questions focused on ending programs that should continue, continuing programs that should end, and reasons for endings. Among state health department employees, 36.5% reported that programs often or always end that should have continued, compared with 42.0% of respondents in local health departments and 38.3% of respondents working in other agencies. In contrast to ending programs that should have continued, 24.7% of state respondents reported programs often or always continuing when they should have ended, compared to 29.4% for local health departments and 25% of respondents working in other agencies. Certain reasons for program endings differed at the state versus local level (e.g., policy support, support from agency leadership), suggesting that actions to address mis-implementation are likely to vary. The current data suggest a need to focus on mis-implementation in public health practice in order to make the best use of scarce resources. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi
Wurmser, Teri; Bliss-Holtz, Jane
Strategic planning and joint leverage of the strengths inherent in the academic and practice arenas of nursing are imperative to confront the challenges facing the profession of nursing and its place within the healthcare team of the future. This article presents a description and discussion of the implementation of several academic-practice partnership initiatives by Meridian Health, a health system located in central New Jersey. Included in the strategies discussed are creation of a support program for nonprofessional employees to become registered nurses; active partnership in the development of an accelerated BSN program; construction of support systems and academic partnerships for staff participation in RN-to-BSN programs; construction of on-site clinical simulation laboratories to foster interprofessional learning; and the implementation of a new BSN program, the first and only generic BSN program in two counties of the state. Outcomes of these academic-practice partnerships also are presented, including number of participants; graduation and NCLEX-RN pass rates; MH nurse vacancy rates; and nurse retention rates after first employment.
Hardy, Sally; Jackson, Carrie; Webster, Jonathan; Manley, Kim
Over the past 20 years health care reform has influenced the development of advanced level practitioner roles and expectations. How advanced level practitioners work to survive the highly stimulating, yet sometimes overwhelming aspects of balancing high quality provision with political reform agendas, amidst economic constraint is considered. Transformational approaches (encompassing education and practice led service development) can provide, promote and 'provoke' a harnessing of complex issues workplace environment to produce creative solutions. Transformational Practice Development provides a structured, rigorous, systematic approach that practitioners, teams and health care consumers alike can utilise to achieve skills and attributes needed for successful innovation. The authors present case study materials from action orientated locally delivered Practice Development, as a complex strategic intervention approach to influence and promote advanced level practice expertise. Initiated through facilitation of transformational leadership, and resultant team based improvements, we present how strategic collaborative processes can harness work chaos and complexity to provide sustainable and productive workplace cultures of effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available With globalization, presenting service and product which have good quality and conformity with hygienic regulations, have become more important in health, pharmacy and food sectors. That’s why the quality control and documentation systems which are also considerable in terms of public health, were about to change. Today, lots of companies especially in health sector, prefer “Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP”- including a developed quality-hygiene control and documentation method - that they can easily adapt to their operation system. Food industry is the first application area and contains hygiene and quality management systems. In recent years, conscious of prevention of human health started to reflect on every stages of production of goods and services. In conclusion, GMP came into use in different sectors and demanded in international business trade as a reference. The aim of this review is to present some information about importance and concept of GMP to prevent of public health and to examine its use of areas in various sectors.
Carrico, Ruth M; Sorrells, Nikka; Westhusing, Kelly; Wiemken, Timothy
Recent studies have identified concerns with various elements of health care personnel immunization programs, including the handling and management of the vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess monitoring processes that support evaluation of the care of vaccines in health care settings. An 11-question survey instrument was developed for use in scripted telephone surveys. State health departments in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia were the target audience for the surveys. Data from a total of 47 states were obtained and analyzed. No states reported an existing monitoring process for evaluation of health care personnel immunization programs in their states. Our assessment indicates that vaccine evaluation processes for health care facilities are rare to nonexistent in the United States. Identifying existing practice gaps and resultant opportunities for improvements may be an important safety initiative that protects patients and health care personnel.
Oguntunji Abel O.
Full Text Available At present, duck production is in its infancy stage in Nigeria. Ducks are mostly reared extensively and concentrated in the hands of small-holder farmers. A survey on health management practices and reproductive performance of ducks was conducted in three south-west (Oyo, Osun and Lagos and one north central (Niger states in Nigeria. Primary data were obtained through structured questionnaires administered to 400(100 per state duck farmers and were analysed with descriptive statistics (percentage. Results on management of health-related challenges showed that 51.5% of respondents were practicing self-medication and majority in this category used ethno-veterinary medicines. Other measures adopted were neglect (12.25%, consumption of sick animals (10.50%, veterinary service (10.25%, among others. Reproductive performance estimates showed that about half (52.50% of the respondents indicated 5‒6 (24.75% and 7−8 (27.50% months as sexual maturity age of female ducks while the highest proportion (41.25% indicated 16−20 eggs as clutch size. Hatchability rate was very high; 52% of duck farmers indicated that hatching rate was above 80%. Adoption of improved management systems by duck farmers will be of immense contribution to the health management and reproductive performance of ducks in Nigeria.
Terence J Ryan
Full Text Available The meaning of terms Integrated and Integrative are described variously by an amalgam of latest scientific advances with ancient healing systems, of complementary medicine and biomedicine, and sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. It means seamless good quality care between hospital and primary care. They provoke approval mostly from patients and disapproval mostly from advocates of science and evidence-based medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology in Kasaragod, Kerala, India has championed a mix of Biomedicine, Yoga and herbals from Ayurvedic medicine, partly based on publications from the Department of Dermatology of the University of Oxford. In Oxford dermatology, acceptance of value of integrative medicine (IM is demonstrated, especially in wound healing and the skin′s blood supply. This has long featured in the university′s research program. A variety of approaches to the practice of medicine are illustrated with reference to Osler, Garrod, and Doll. IM is believed to underlie contemporarily best practice. Particular emphasis is given to the control of heat, pain, redness, and swelling, all manifestations of inflammation, and the importance of emotion as a stimulus or inhibitor carried by neural pathways. These may explain some unbelievable Asian practices and one of the many roles of Yoga. The concept of Integrative is expanded to include care of the earth and nutrition, the hazards of climate change, Gardens for Health, do (k no (w harm as a key to good practice.
This article discusses the cultural consequences of discourses and practices aimed at training subjects for a rational, informed choice in relation to risks, calculated on the basis of scientific knowledge. The epidemiological risk concept is a central element in this process, especially in the context of health practices. The article begins by briefly characterizing the epidemiological risk concept, emphasizing that as an abstract model, it reduces the complexity of the phenomena it studies. Grasping reality through this abstraction generates values and meanings. Canguilhem's reflection on the relations between science, technique, and life is further discussed from the perspective of deepening an understanding of the cultural consequences of this process, contributing to the transformation of classical concepts of individuality, autonomy, and sociability. Such vital themes as individuality, alterity, and the relationship with death are present (albeit disguised) in issues that involve the central nature of risk in the contemporary world.
Nine case studies divided over four disciplinary parts (urban design & planning, building techology, building physics, monument care) of the architectural profession are being analysed in the context of the encounter between modern European architecture and Afrtican architectural culture. Volume I:
Nine case studies divided over four disciplinary parts (urban design & planning, building techology, building physics, monument care) of the architectural profession are being analysed in the context of the encounter between modern European architecture and Afrtican architectural culture. Volume I:
Havnaer, Annika G; Greenberg, Paul B; Cockerham, Glenn C; Clark, Melissa A; Chomsky, Amy
To describe current cataract surgery practices within the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Veterans Health Administration hospitals in the U.S. Retrospective data analysis. An initial e-mail containing a link to an anonymous 32-question survey of cataract surgery practices was sent to participants in May 2016. Two reminder e-mails were sent to nonresponders 1 week and 2 weeks after the initial survey was sent; the remaining nonresponders were called twice over a 2-week period. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The response rate was 75% (67/89). Cataract surgeons routinely ordered preoperative testing in 29 (45%) of 65 sections and preoperative consultations in 26 (39%) of 66 sections. In 22 (33%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons administered intracameral antibiotics. In 61 (92%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons used toric intraocular lenses (IOLs). In 20 (30%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons used multifocal IOLs. Cataract surgeons in 6 (9%) of 66 sections performed femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. In 6 (9%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons performed immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Forty-nine (74%) ophthalmology chiefs reported a high level of satisfaction with Veterans Affairs ophthalmology. The survey results indicate that in cataract surgery in the VHA, routine preoperative testing is commonly performed and emerging practices, such as femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery, have limited roles. The results of this survey could benchmark future trends in U.S. cataract surgery practices, especially in teaching hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The analysis of the special scientific literature is conducted on issue health of economy for students, approaches and features of forming for the students of requirement in the healthy physically active way of life in the process of physical education. It is set that creation of environment, cooperant the physical and moral making healthy of students must become the strategic purpose of higher education. Also - to maintenance of health level, strengthening of health, forming of skills of healthy way of life. It is marked that education of culture of health is reduced negative action of external and internal средовых factors. The theoretical going is generalized near research of problem health of economy for the participants of educational process. Possible directions activity are rotined on realization health of saving technologies in the institute of higher. Essence, components, criteria and directions of development, is certain health of saving technologies in the process of teaching in the system of trade education. It is well-proven that development and realization of ideology and policy of economy of health of students, overcoming of crisis demographic situation, must be fixed in basis of activity of all of public organs of power. Main strategies of decision of problems of national development and safety of Ukraine are rotined, further effective socio-economic development of country.
Andersen, T F; Madsen, Mette; Jørgensen, J
as in collaboration with international teams, and the LPR is truly a valuable source of data for health sciences, especially in epidemiology, health services research and clinical research. Nearly complete registration of somatic hospital events in Denmark is combined with ideal conditions for longterm follow-up due...
The standard notion is that biomedicine and religious healing are two completely different practices in modern Western societies. In this article, this notion is questioned by comparing in the Netherlands one practice of religious healing, namely the ‘Services of salvation and healing’ of the Pentec
delays, Culture, Field and Capital, Democratic Republic Congo (DRC). Title: Risky health seeking practice, among pregnant women in rural Congo (DRC). Background Statement: Worldwide more than half a million women still die each year of pregnancy and childbirth related reasons. Most of these women live...... about 60 % of the women have a professional help at birth, and even fewer delivers in a health centre, which is far from the Unicef and WHO goal trying to combat high Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). In the southern and rural part of DRC, is a small well equipped and well staffed dispensary and maternity...... professional assistance for normal pregnancy and delivery; delay in reaching an adequate medical facility, which includes accessibility, availability and cost of transportation and conditions of roads; and delays in obtaining the care needed to manage the situation. Following that I have analysed...
Parker, R David
As political and social changes sweep the globe, there are opportunities to increase national security through innovative approaches. While traditional security methods such as defense forces and homeland security provide both pre-emptive and defensive protection, new methods could meet emerging challenges by responding to the political, financial, and social trends. One method is the integration of defense, medicine and public health. By assisting a nation by providing basic services, such as healthcare, collaborative efforts can increase stabilization in areas of unrest. Improved health outcomes leads to increased domestic security, which can create a ripple effect across a region. Assessment, uptake and sustainability by the host nation are critical for program success. The proposed methodology focuses on the use of primarily extant resources, such as programs used by Special Operations Forces and other health and defense programs. Additional components include evaluation, set objectives and mission collaborations. As the nexus between foreign affairs, security, and public health is increasingly validated through research and practice, standardized interventions should be developed to minimize overlapping expenditures, promote security and strengthen international relations.
Riggirozzi, Pia; Yeates, Nicola
Poverty reduction and health became central in the agendas of Southern regional organisations in the last two decades. Yet, little is known about how these organisations address poverty, inclusion and social inequality, and how Southern regional formations are engaging in power constellations, institutions, processes, interests and ideological positions within different spheres of governance. This article reviews academic literatures spanning global social policy, regional studies and diplomacy studies, and the state of knowledge and understanding of the ‘place’ of regional actors in health governance as a global political practice therein. It identifies theoretical and thematic points of connection between disparate literatures and how these can be bridged through research focusing on the social policies of regional organisations and regional integration processes. This framework hence locates the contributions of each of the research articles of this Special Issue of Global Social Policy on the regional dimension of health policy and diplomacy in relation to Southern Africa and South America. It also highlights the ways in which the articles bring new evidence about how social relations of welfare are being (re)made over larger scales and how regional actors may initiate new norms to improve health rights in international arenas engaging in new forms of ‘regional’ diplomacy. PMID:26635495
Roberts, Daniel S; Lin, Harrison W; Bhattacharyya, Neil
Characterize health care practice patterns for balance disorders in the elderly. Cross-sectional analysis of national health care survey. Balance disorder cases in patients aged ≥65 years were extracted from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Records were analyzed for health professionals seen, diagnostic testing ordered, diagnoses given, and treatments offered. Relationships between diagnostic success, imaging studies, and specialty providers seen were compared. Among 7.02 ± 0.22 million elderly persons reporting a balance problem, 50.0% (3.44 ± 0.16 million) saw a health professional, and 35.8% saw ≥3 providers; 59.6% of elderly patients reported a diagnosed cause for the balance problem. The most common causes were medication side effects (11.3%), inner ear infection (11.0%), heart disease (8.6%), and loose ear crystals (7.9%). Imaging studies had been obtained in 56.7% (2.00 ± 0.11 million cases). Among 24.3% of patients receiving some form of treatment, 61.7% had been taking prescription medication, most commonly diuretic agents (36.5%), anxiolytic agents (25.1%), and meclizine (21.4%). Seeing an otolaryngologist or neurologist was associated with a higher but similar rate of diagnostic imaging studies (70.1%, P = .029 and 78.5%, P balance disorder (61.5% with imaging vs. 56.9% without, P = .265). Despite a high prevalence of balance problems in the elderly, a significant proportion do not come to a clear diagnosis. There is a noteworthy rate of prescription medication utilization in this population. Given an increasingly aging population, attention needs to be given to balance problems in the elderly to optimize diagnosis and health care utilization. 2b. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Castlen, Joseph P; Cote, David J; Moojen, Wouter A.; Robe, Pierre A.; Balak, Naci; Brennum, Jannick; Ammirati, Mario; Mathiesen, Tiit; Broekman, Marike L.D.
Introduction Medicine is rapidly changing, both in the level of collective medical knowledge and in how it is being delivered. The increased presence of administrators in hospitals helps to facilitate these changes and ease administrative workloads on physicians; however, tensions sometimes form
Rothfuss, J; Adam, H
Social ethics of affirmative postmodernists are discussed in relation to recent German health care legislation. It could be shown that: 1. the health care legislation 1989 and 1993 only partially fulfills the postmodern call for "cultivation of individual responsibility", 2. both laws largely fail to enforce the principle of subsidiarity, and 3. postmodernist thinking is weak on the question of global strategies but strong In the area of individualism and subjectivity. We conclude that postmodern social ethics are useful to compensate areas largely neglected by recent German health care legislation, rather than that the legislation is an example of postmodern social ethics.
Laholt, Hilde; Guillemin, Marilys; Mcleod, Kim; Olsen, Randi Elisabeth; Lorem, Geir Fagerjord
We aimed to explore how using visual methods might improve or complicate the dynamics of the health dialogue between public health nurses (PHNs) and school pupils. This was done from the perspective of PHNs, specifically examining how they understood their role and practice as a PHN and the application of visual methods in this practice. The health dialogue is a method used by PHNs in school nursing in Norway. In this practice, there can be communicative barriers between pupils and PHNs. Investigating how PHNs understand their professional practice can lead to ways of addressing these communicative barriers, which can affect pupil satisfaction and achievement of health-related behaviours in the school context. Specifically, the use of visual methods by PHNs may address these communicative barriers. The research design was qualitative, using focus groups combined with visual methods. We conducted focus group interviews using a semi-structured discussion guide and visual methods with five groups of PHNs (n = 31) working in northern Norwegian school health services. The data were collected during January and February 2016. Discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and coded into themes and sub-themes using systematic text condensation and drawings were analysed using interpretive engagement, a method of visual analysis. Drawings and focus group discussions showed that PHNs perceived their professional practice as primarily a relational praxis. The PHNs used a variety of visual methods as part of the health dialogue with school pupils. This active use of visualization worked to build and strengthen relations when words were inadequate and served to enhance the flexible and relational practice employed by the PHNs. PHNs used different kinds of visualization methods to establish relations with school pupils, especially when verbalization by the pupils was difficult. PHNs were aware of both the benefits and challenges of using visualization with school pupils in
Ana Lúcia Abrahão
Full Text Available The study was focused on the identification of strategies of care focused on health promotion, used in the work of nurses in family health. It is a descriptive study in a qualitative approach performed in the health units in the city of Iguaba Grande, RJ, Brazil. As a result two categories emerged. The first one, ‘Tension in the area of the caregiver’ found that the work of professionals is guided in a permanent tension between the practice focused on the use of instruments from the biomedical model and actions to create a dialogical care. ‘Production of unique areas’ demonstrated that nurses value the unique needs of the health users. It is concluded that strategies of health promotion from the investigative experience incorporate elements of production of unique areas under tensions from the clinical model of attention, leading to a creative investment and creator of strategies in this setting of primary care.
Bested, Alison C; Logan, Alan C.; Selhub, Eva Michelle
Mental health disorders, depression in particular, have been described as a global epidemic. Research suggests that a variety of lifestyle and environmental changes may be driving at least some portion of the increased prevalence. One area of flourishing research involves the relationship between the intestinal microbiota (as well as the related functional integrity of the gastrointestinal tract) and mental health. In order to appreciate the recent scientific gains in this area, and its poten...
B. A. Alex-Hart
Full Text Available Problem statement: Hand washing with soap is an important means of preventing hospital acquired infections .However the rate of hand washing with soap and water is unacceptably low amongst health workers. Few studies on this subject have been done amongst health workers in Nigeria. The aims of this study were to explore perceptions, attitudes and hand washing practices amongst health workers in a tertiary health institution in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Approach: This was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out amongst randomly selected doctors and nurses in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. A simple questionnaire exploring perceptions, attitudes and self reported behavior was used. Information obtained included bio data, awareness information and practice. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 258 health workers (139 doctors and 119 nurses participated in this study. Male to female ratio was 1: 3.3. The rate of hand washing before and after interacting with patients were 9.3 and 51.2% respectively (χ2= 105.19, p-value=0.000. The rate of hand washing before and after simple procedures were 13.6 and 59.7% respectively (χ2 = 116.25, p-value = 0.000. Soapy water in a basin was most frequently (55.8% used for hand washing. Doctors were more likely than nurses to wash hands before interacting with patients (χ2 = 7.98, p-value = 0.005 and before simple procedures (χ2 = 4.29, p-value = 0.039. The rates of hand washing before meals and after defaecation were 69.0% and 58.1% respectively. Soap and running water were more frequently used after defecation (61.6% than before meals and snacks (46.5%.The greatest motivation for hand washing was fear of contracting disease, whilst constraints included lack of soap and water. Conclusion/Recommendations: Hand washing rates are low amongst health workers in Port Harcourt. There is need for regular education and re-education and provision of
Current federal and state reform initiatives address the significant cost savings of prevention and health promotion services and consider these... health promotion services these nurses provide. The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine and describe the personal health promoting lifestyle... promotion activities in professional nursing practice; and (3) examine and describe the professional health promotion practices of nurses within the inpatient
Full Text Available Background. Earlier studies presenting evidence that operational deployment negatively affects mental health outcomes among military personnel and veterans generally have lacked conclusiveness, largely because of cross-sectional or retrospective design. Purpose. To review longitudinal studies investigating mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed in recent conflicts. Methods. MEDLINE database was searched using relevant keywords and MESH terms. The US Millennium Cohort study website was used to obtain the list of relevant publications. Only prospective longitudinal cohort studies investigating mental health outcomes in deployed post Vietnam era military or veteran populations of developed countries were included. Results. Eighteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Adverse effects included the increased incidence of post-deployment PTSD and depression. Individuals with the lowest functional scores and those exposed to previous traumatic assault were particularly vulnerable to a new onset of PTSD after combat exposure. Factors influencing the incidence of post-deployment PTSD included depression symptoms present during deployment, the presence of stress reaction during combat exposure and reception of associated frontline treatment, and the number of negative life events experienced after the traumatic event. More mental health problems were reported in soldiers returning from Iraq on the second screening conducted several months after their return, compared with the first screening immediately upon their return. Some mental health symptoms (anxiety and depression improved between deployments, while others (PTSD and panic attacks did not improve. CONCLUSION. The results indicate that combat exposure, not deployment in general , had an adverse effect on mental health.
Engelhardt, H Tristram
The American Society for Bioethics and the Humanities (ASBH) issued its Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation just as it is becoming ever clearer that secular ethics is intractably plural and without foundations in any reality that is not a social-historical construction (ASBH Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation, 2nd edn. American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, Glenview, IL, 2011). Core Competencies fails to recognize that the ethics of health care ethics consultants is not ethics in the usual sense of a morally canonical ethics. Its ethics is the ethics established at law and in enforceable health care public policy in a particular jurisdiction. Its normativity is a legal normativity, so that the wrongness of violating this ethics is simply the legal penalties involved and the likelihood of their being imposed. That the ethics of ethics consultation is that ethics legally established accounts for the circumstance that the major role of hospital ethics consultants is as quasi-lawyers giving legal advice, aiding in risk management, and engaging in mediation. It also indicates why this collage of roles has succeeded so well. This article shows how moral philosophy as it was reborn in the 13th century West led to the ethics of modernity and then finally to the ethics of hospital ethics consultation. It provides a brief history of the emergence of an ethics that is after morality. Against this background, the significance of Core Competencies must be critically reconsidered.
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients.
This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients).
Meurk, Carla; Broom, Alex; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David
The proliferation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and women's high level of engagement with these practices, has presented sociology with a range of questions regarding gender, embodiment and identity work in the context of contemporary medical pluralism. The current study, drawing on 60 qualitative interviews with women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), examines how a group of Australian women negotiate CAM and biomedicine in a range of health and illness contexts. Selected from the mid-aged cohort of this national study, here we explore their accounts of engagement with CAM and biomedicine, unpacking their logics underpinning, and rhetorical practices surrounding, their therapeutic engagement. The results provide significant insight into: the importance of ideas about nature, holism and strengthening; perceptions of the harshness and softness of medicines for women's bodies; and, the relative importance of scientific proof vis-a-vis individual subjectivities. Ultimately, their accounts illustrate gendered and embodied strategies of strategic integration, and importantly, border crossing. We conclude that while women's engagement with CAM and biomedicine may be indeed be gendered in character, we suggest a rethinking of gender-based resistance (to biomedicine) or gender-alignment (to CAM) arguments; the notion of women as designers would more adequately capture the landscapes of contemporary medical pluralism.
Over the last several decades, consistent concerns have been raised about the quality of education and training provided to students in public health. In this article, we consider the implications of epidemiological transition-the decline of infectious diseases and rise of chronic diseases-for the types of education and training that would be most well suited for preparing students in health promotion to address the social and behavioral factors now associated with the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. As a result of this historic shift in disease etiology, the recommendation is to expand opportunities for applied experiential learning. Students need to become more adept at diagnosing the complex social, moral, and political dynamics that shape community priorities, perceptions of causes, and framing of health issues. The specific constellation of players, their history, relationships, and interpersonal dynamics are unique to each particular community setting, and hence, students need to become more sensitive to and proficient at picking up on the most significant influences and characteristics at work in the situation at hand. This type of "practical reasoning" stands in contrast to the perceived value of generalizable knowledge characteristic of models developed in the natural sciences. The ability to recognize and respond appropriately to the unique characteristics of a specific situation is best strengthened through extended practical experience.
Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S
There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools.
Williams, Val; Boyle, Geraldine; Jepson, Marcus; Swift, Paul; Williamson, Toby; Heslop, Pauline
This paper reports on data collected in 2011 from a national study about the operation of the best interests principle, a key feature of the Mental Capacity Act (MCA) 2005 for England and Wales. The objective was to provide a picture of current professional practices in best interests decision-making. Four contrasting sample sites were selected, in which National Health Service trusts, social care and other organisations were recruited to participate. A multimethod design was followed, including an online survey with 385 participants, followed by qualitative research through a telephone survey of 68 participants, and face-to-face semi-structured interviews following up 25 best interests cases, with different perspectives on the process in 12 of those cases. The current paper reports only on the qualitative findings. The findings indicate that the MCA was successful in providing a structure for these practitioners, and that the five principles of the MCA were in general adhered to. A variety of perceived risks led to best interests processes being undertaken, and a typical scenario was for a period of hospitalisation or ill health to trigger a best interests decision process about a social care and or a life decision. The study supported previous research in finding the notion of capacity the most difficult aspect of the MCA, and it provides evidence of some specific capacity assessment practices, including problematic ones relating to 'insight'. Best interests decisions were often made by consensus, with practitioners taking on different roles within the process. Meetings played a key part, but other ways of involving people lacking capacity and significant others were also important. It was recommended that the issues highlighted in this research could be clarified further in the Code of Practice, or within risk guidance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chudý, František; Slámová, Martina; Tomaštík, Julián; Kardoš, Miroslav; Tunák, Daniel; Saloň, Šimon
Slope deformations are risks limiting economic land use potential. A national database system keeps records of slope disturbances and deformations, however, it is important to update the information mainly from the point of view of practical territorial planning, especially in the high-risk areas presented in the study. The paper explains the possibilities of applying modern methods of mapping the microrelief of slope deformations of a lower extent (up to several hundreds of m2) and using not very well known contactless technologies, which could be applied in practice due to their low-cost and low-time consuming nature. In order to create a digital model of the microrelief used to carry out the measurements we applied the method of terrestrial photogrammetry, terrestrial scanning using Lenovo Phab 2Pro. It is the first device available for users that uses the Google Tango technology. So far there have been only prototypes of devices available for the developers only. The Tango technology consists of 3 partial technologies - "depth perception" (measuring the distance to objects, nowadays it uses mainly infrared radiation), "motion tracking" (tracking the position and motion of the device using embedded sensors) and "area learning" (simply learning the area, where the device looks for same objects within already existing 3D models and real space). Even though the technology utilisation is nowadays presented mainly in the field of augmented reality and navigation in the interior, there are already some applications for collecting the point clouds in real time, which can be used in a wide spectrum of applications in exterior, which was also applied in our research. Data acquired this way can be processed in readily available software products, what enabled a high degree of automation also in our case. After comparing with the reference point field that was measured using GNSS and electronic tachymeter, we reached accuracy of point position determination from a digital
Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas
While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework.
Opperman, Stephanie Baker
Mexican policymakers instituted community-based health programs in the 1940s and 1950s to encourage rural participation in state-sponsored health and economic development initiatives. The Tepalcatepec Commission (1947-1961) united previously independent government programs into a multi-tiered collaboration that addressed regional development through national, state, and local networks. While national policymakers and state officials designed plans to improve agricultural production, promote industrialization, utilize the area's natural resources, and expand communication channels, health workers established unprecedented relationships with indigenous community members by introducing the Commission's projects in culturally relevant ways. They used their on-the-ground experiences to learn local languages, customs, and beliefs, and incorporated these factors into their health education and disease treatment campaigns. The result serves as an example of short-term cooperative relationships between healthcare workers and indigenous groups that not only reduced the major health risks in the area, but also paved the way for collective economic development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Finland, Norway, and Sweden are leaders in promoting health through public policy action. Much of this has to do with the close correspondence between key health promotion concepts and elements of the Nordic welfare state that promote equity through universalist strategies and programs that provide citizens with economic and social security. The purpose of this article is to identify the threats to the Nordic welfare states related to immigration, economic globalization, and welfare state fatigue. Through a critical analysis of relevant literature and data this article provides evidence of the state of the Nordic welfare state and some of these challenges to the Nordic welfare state and its health promotion efforts. There is evidence of declining support for the unconditional Nordic welfare state, increases in income inequality and poverty, and a weakening of the programs and supports that have associated with the excellent health profile of the Nordic nations. This is especially the case for Sweden. It is argued that the Nordic welfare states' accomplishments must be celebrated and used as a basis for maintaining the public policies shown to be successful in promoting the health of its citizens.
Full Text Available Although breastfeeding is the normative standards for infant nutrition, exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge in the general population of newborns are still suboptimal. Besides many other psychological, social, economical, cultural factors, breastfeeding success is also significantly influenced by maternity practices that have the potential to foster or otherwise to hinder breastfeeding physiology during postpartum hospital stay. On their part, health professionals need to improve their knowledge on lactation, to acquire better skills to manage breastfeeding problems and to commit themselves to prepare evidence based clinical protocols that support breastfeeding and the use of human milk. At the Institute for Maternal and Child Health in Trieste (Italy, we have developed two surveillance protocols related to situations that commonly challenge health professionals to give their qualified advice to the breastfeeding dyad. Particularly, we have documented the feasibility of a protocol on the management of skin to skin contact between mother and his/her newborn infant. This protocol is applied in the delivery room in the context of the prevention of sudden unexpected postnatal collapse. The second protocol refers to the management of early neonatal weight loss. Finally, we believe that combining an effective promotion of breastfeeding with good clinical practice is appropriated and safe and we recognize that both the competence and the attitude of staff have an essential role in the success of the initiation of breastfeeding. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Full Text Available Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA. Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1 the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2 the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3 the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4 the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric.
Full Text Available Objective: This paper examines the scope of practice of global health, drawing on the practical experience of a global health initiative of the Government of Canada – the Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program. A number of challenges in the practical application of theoretical definitions and understandings of global health are addressed. These challenges are grouped under five areas that form essential characteristics of global health: equity and egalitarian North–South partnerships, interdisciplinary scope, focus on upstream determinants of health, global conceptualization, and global health as an area of both research and practice. Design: Information in this paper is based on the results of an external evaluation of the program, which involved analysis of project proposals and technical reports, surveys with grantees and interviews with grantees and program designers, as well as case studies of three projects and a review of relevant literature. Results: The philosophy and recent definitions of global health represent a significant and important departure from the international health paradigm. However, the practical applicability of this maturing area of research and practice still faces significant systemic and structural impediments that, if not acknowledged and addressed, will continue to undermine the development of global health as an effective means to addressing health inequities globally and to better understanding, and acting upon, upstream determinants of health toward health for all. Conclusions: While it strives to redress global inequities, global health continues to be a construct that is promoted, studied, and dictated mostly by Northern institutions and scholars. Until practical mechanisms are put in place for truly egalitarian partnerships between North and South for both the study and practice of global health, the emerging philosophy of global health cannot be effectively put into practice.
Meshchakova, N M; D'iakovich, M P; Shaiakhmetov, S F; D'iakovich, O A; Telezhkin, V V
The authors analyse changes in exposure load and associated occupational risk, health state of workers engaged into contemporary polyvinyl chloride production. Consideration covered objective parameters--results of thorough medical examinations -and subjective ones--results of quantitative risk evaluation of general pathologic syndromes and life quality caused by health state. The latter were compared with general working population unexposed to the hazards. Findings are statistically significant increase of functional disorders risk connected with cardiovascular and nervous diseases. Correlation was found between cardiovascular diseases prevalence and exposure chemical load. Statistically significant differences were seen in all life quality components between the workers groups compared.
Salvador Boix Vilella
Full Text Available Introduction: The Pilates method was designed to create a connection between mind and body through a combined work of strength and flexibility, without submitting the body to excessive stress. Objective: To expose the most relevant research results from an analytical-interpretative perspective, in relation to the mental health of healthy people who habitually practice Pilates. Materials and methods: An analysis of the main benefits of the Pilates method on mental health was carried out, by using the results of finished research. To do this, the databases ScienceDirect, PubMed and Dialnet were accessed to identify publications that relate Pilates to mental variables. Results: The 19 revised studies show scientific evidence on the levels of humor, self-efficacy, self-esteem, mood, stress, quality of sleep, depression and identification with physical exercise. However, studies focused on attention, anxiety-state, positive or negative affect and quality of life proved that the evidence is still very limited. Conclusions: New longitudinal cutting researches using sufficiently wide samples are necessary to clear the unknowns still existing in relation to Pilates. This will determine whether the high popularity of the method is associated with the important health benefits reported.
Henwood, Maree; Shaw, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy; Marjoribanks, Timothy; Kendrick, Madeleine
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the social opportunities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men created through Men's Groups/Sheds across urban, regional and remote areas of Australia. Men's Sheds are a safe space, resembling a work-shop setting or backyard shed, where men are encouraged to socialise and participate in health promotion, informal learning and engage in meaningful tasks both individually and at the community level. Design/methodology/approach Explore five case study sites through Wenger's (1998) active communities of practice (CoP). Qualitative methods are presented and analysed; methods comprise semi-structured interviews and yarning circles (focus groups). Five Indigenous leaders/coordinators participated in semi-structured interviews, as well as five yarning circles with a total of 61 Indigenous men. Findings In a societal context in which Indigenous men in Australia experience a number of social and health issues, impeding their quality of life and future opportunities, the central finding of the paper is that the effective development of social relations and socially designed programs through Men's Groups, operating as CoP, may contribute to overcoming many social and health well-being concerns. Originality/value Contributions will provide a better understanding of how Indigenous men are engaging with Men's Sheds, and through those interactions, are learning new skills and contributing to social change.
Mikhail, B I
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the Hispanic mothers' initial sources of advice and help with children's illnesses; beliefs about the etiology and seriousness of certain children's illnesses, namely, fever, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, conjunctivitis, skin rash, minor wounds, and burns; practices for the management of these children's health problems, including the use of home remedies, if any. Interviews were conducted with 100 women of Hispanic origin who had at least one child age 5 years or less and who were attending a community clinic in a rural area of central California. Mothers' beliefs about problem etiologies varied widely and revealed several misconceptions, folk beliefs, and lack of knowledge. The findings also revealed that only 32% of the mothers used or would use health professionals as the initial source of advice or help with children's problems. The majority of the subjects (81%) admitted to using home remedies to manage children's problems; 17% sought the help of a folk healer (mainly for the treatment of empacho). The various types of home remedies used by mothers were described and included the ingestion or application of certain foods, fluids, herbal teas, or other materials as well as methods to eliminate the perceived causes of the problems. It is important to note that 11% of the mothers had used azarcon or greta (substances containing lead) for treating empacho and other stomach problems in children. The need for culturally responsive and sensitive health care is discussed.
Jablonski, N G
Functionally naked skin which comes in a range of colours is unique to the human species. This review summarises current evidence pertaining to the evolution of these attributes. The biggest changes in the integument occurred during the course of human evolution in equatorial Africa, under regimes of high daytime temperatures and high ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Loss of most functional body hair was accompanied by the evolution of an epidermis with a specialised stratum corneum and permanent, protective, eumelanin pigmentation. The main reason for the evolution of dark pigmentation was to protect against folate deficiency caused by elevated demands for folate in cell division, DNA repair, and melanogenesis stimulated by UVR. Dispersal out of tropical Africa created new challenges for human physiology especially because of lower and more seasonal levels of UVR and ultraviolet B (UVB) outside of the tropics. In these environments, the challenge of producing a vitamin D precursor in the skin from available UVB was met by natural selection acting on mutations capable of producing varying degrees of depigmentation. The range of pigmentation observed in modern humans today is, thus, the product of two opposing clines, one favoring photoprotection near the equator, the other favoring vitamin D photosynthesis nearer the poles. Recent migrations and changes in lifestyle in the last 500 years have brought many humans into UVR regimes different from those experienced by their ancestors and, accordingly, exposed them to new disease risks, including skin cancer and vitamin D deficiency.
Hanlon, Phil; Carlisle, Sandra
Evidence is accumulating that well-being in high-income societies may be static or in decline. One influential theory argues that this is because 'modern' societies are influenced by values of materialism, individualism and consumerism. Does this intellectual critique resonate with ordinary people? This article reports on interviews with purposefully selected groups in Scotland, where the relevance of the cultural critique was explored. Participants in the study believed that cultural values such as individualized consumerism do exert a damaging influence on well-being. They suggested that such values are given particular power in the context of widespread social change and increasing inequalities. Nevertheless, they also believed that individuals and communities possess the capacity to resist such trends. This article concludes that efforts to achieve material improvement for disadvantaged people may not suffice in redressing deep-seated inequalities, if the contribution of some subtle but pernicious effects of contemporary culture remains neglected. However, the research does suggest that positive responses are also possible.
Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Donald, Faith; Peña, Laura Morán; Brousseau, Linda
ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN) roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries. PMID:28146177
Nuñez, Diane E; Armbruster, Charlotte; Phillips, Wayne T; Gale, Betty J
Recent research demonstrates that, although the risk of disease and disability clearly increases with age, poor health need not be an inevitable consequence of aging. A healthy lifestyle is more influential than genetic factors in assisting older adults avoid the decline and deterioration traditionally associated with aging. Many effective strategies for reducing disease and disability are widely underused. The Escalante Health Partnerships is a community-based, nurse-managed health promotion and chronic disease care management program for community-residing older adults. The program base supports a multidisciplinary, collaborative practice model, which has responded to the health needs of members of a community at high risk of having or developing chronic conditions. Preliminary comparisons of the health status of program participants with national norms demonstrate that these seniors report better general health, performance of roles, and social functioning, with the strongest correlations occurring between general health and vitality and between general health and role-physical. In addition, these participants have 4.2 doctor visits per year, in comparison with 7.1 office visits for a national comparison group and 1.6 hospital days per year, in comparison with 2.1 hospital days in the same referenced population. This collaborative partnership is a model that can be replicated cost-effectively in other communities.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries.
Abraham Flexner lit the fire that freed American doctors from obsolete aspects of their training. Edmund Pellegrino was the prudent fireman who acknowledged the risk of too broad a fire and put in place safe guards to protect those aspects that needed to be saved. The prodigious leap forward in medicine due to the “laboratory centred” training introduced by Flexner’s proposals for medical training began to have negative effects in daily medical practice, particularly with regards to the incre...
Abraham Flexner lit the fire that freed American doctors from obsolete aspects of their training. Edmund Pellegrino was the prudent fireman who acknowledged the risk of too broad a fire and put in place safe guards to protect those aspects that needed to be saved. The prodigious leap forward in medicine due to the “laboratory centred” training introduced by Flexner’s proposals for medical training began to have negative effects in daily medical practice, particularly with regards to the incre...
Bédard, Yvan; Henriques, William D
In recent years we have witnessed the massive introduction of new information technologies that are drastically changing the face of our society. These technologies are being implemented en masse in developed countries, but also in some pockets of developing nations as well. They rely on the convergence of several technologies such as powerful and affordable computers, real-time electronic measurement and monitoring devices, massive production of digital information in different formats, and faster, wireless communication media. Such technologies are having significant impacts on every domain of application, including environmental health surveillance. The current paper provides an overview of those technologies that are having or will likely have the most significant impacts on environmental health. They include World Wide Web-based systems and applications, Database Management Systems and Universal Servers, and GIS and related technologies. The usefulness of these technologies as well as the desire to use them further in the future in the context of environmental health are discussed. Expanding the development and use of these technologies to obtain support for global environmental health will require major efforts in the areas of data access, training and support.
Heinemann, Allen W; Roth, Elliot J; Rychlik, Karen; Pe, Klaren; King, Caroline; Clumpner, Jennifer
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Post-Stroke Rehabilitation Guidelines were developed to improve the quality, appropriateness and effectiveness of rehabilitation practices. An important goal of the guidelines process is to disseminate information to practitioners in order to encourage adoption of effective practices. To date, no systematic evaluation of these guidelines has been completed, nor has a programme been designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational programme about the guidelines. The objective was to evaluate changes in knowledge and practice following presentation of a lecture-based, educational programme about post-stroke rehabilitation guidelines. The research design was a single group, pre-test-post-test design without a comparison group. A knowledge and referral practices questionnaire was developed specifically for this study. Lecture attendance was not associated with an increase in knowledge or referrals. However, we found that respondents who made more referrals at follow-up had a higher knowledge level at pre-test. Also, those who completed a follow-up assessment knew more about the guidelines at the initial assessment than did those who did not complete the follow-up assessment. In addition, doctors knew more about stroke rehabilitation than the non-doctors, both at the pre-test and follow-up. Encouraging behaviour change among doctors and allied health professionals in referrals and clinical practice is a complicated process. Providing individual follow-up and lengthier contacts, assuring that care providers receive high-quality evidence that guidelines improve care, and consulting with key decision-makers about guideline implementation might enhance behaviour change.
Birdee, Gurjeet S; Ayala, Sujata G; Wallston, Kenneth A
Mind-body practices such as yoga have been studied for their generally positive effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The association between how a person practices yoga and the person's HRQOL is not known. Yoga practitioners were sent invitations to participate in an online survey via email. Yoga characteristics, HRQOL, and other sociodemographics were collected. Analyses of data from 309 consenting responders evaluated associations between yoga practice characteristics (use of yoga tools, length of practice, location, method, etc.) and the 10-item PROMIS Global Health scale for both physical and mental health components. Multivariable regression models demonstrated higher mental health scores were associated with regular meditation practice, higher income, and the method of practicing in a community group class (versus one-on-one). Higher physical health scores were associated with length of lifetime practice, teacher status, Krishnamacharya yoga style, and practicing in a yoga school/studio (versus at home). Meditation practice in yoga is positively associated with mental health. Length of lifetime yoga practice was significantly associated with better physical health, suggesting yoga has a potential cumulative benefit over time. Different locations and methods of practice may be associated with varying effects on health outcomes. Comparative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the variations in yoga practice are needed to further characterize health benefits of yoga.
Dubois-Fabing, Delphine; Pichon, Philippe; Arnevielhe, Alizée; Suscillon, Marie-Paule; Caron, Bruno; Saillard, Fabienne; François, Patrice
Very little research has been conducted on the role of general practitioners (GPs) in mental health care among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in France. The non-profit community health care centers in Grenoble provide populations living in sensitive urban zones with high quality primary health care that includes a medico-social and prevention dimension. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of mental health issues diagnosed by GPs in health care centers, to identify the factors associated with these issues and to describe treatment characteristics. This cross-sectional study focused on general practice consultations in the AGECSA Grenoble health care centers over the course of one week. At the end of each consultation, the GP collected information about the patient, including personal data, psychological disorders, vulnerability, and patient health management. Among the 451 patients included in the study, GPs found that 45.2% of patients were in vulnerable situations and 43% of patients suffered from a mental disorder, including 29% of cases of anxiety and 20% of cases of depression. 44% of patients suffered from a psychological disorder (mental disorder and/or psychological suffering). For these patients, 52.8% of the consultations lasted more than 20 minutes. Their treatment generally included a mental health care follow-up (in 76% of cases), including psychological support (59%) and treatment of functional somatic disorders (46%). The study shows the high prevalence of psychological disorders diagnosed in the patients treated by GPs working in health care centers in disadvantaged urban areas. Research shows that GPs play an important and specific role in mental health care and prevention. An analysis of the organizational methods used in health care centers is highly relevant.
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin
effect of socio-behavioral risk factors on perceived dental health, perceived need for dental care, and experience of dental symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight capital cities in China; the response rate was 92%. The study population was chosen by multistage......The objectives of this study were: to describe perceived dental health status and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Chinese urban adolescents; to assess the associations of oral health variables with socio-economic status and school performance; and to analyse the relative...
Fasola, G; Macerelli, M; Follador, A; Rihawi, K; Aprile, G; Della Mea, V
The adoption and implementation of information technology are dramatically remodeling healthcare services all over the world, resulting in an unstoppable and sometimes overwhelming process. After the introduction of the main elements of electronic health records and a description of what every cancer-care professional should be familiar with, we present a narrative review focusing on the current use of computerized clinical information and decision systems in oncology practice. Following a detailed analysis of the many coveted goals that oncologists have reached while embracing informatics progress, the authors suggest how to overcome the main obstacles for a complete physicians' engagement and for a full information technology adoption, and try to forecast what the future holds.
In many Western countries, physiotherapy in a private context is practiced and managed within a neoliberal ideology. Little is known about how private physiotherapeutic practice functions, which is why this study aims to explore how physiotherapy is practiced from the perspective...
Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura
Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way.
Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura
Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985
Domínguez Bustillo, L; Barrasa Villar, J I; Castán Ruíz, S; Moliner Lahoz, F J; Aibar Remón, C
To estimate the frequency of ineffective practices in Primary Health Care (PHC) based on the opinions of clinical professionals from the sector, and to assess the significance, implications and factors that may be contributing to their continuance. An on line survey of opinion from a convenience sample of 575 professionals who had published articles over the last years in Atención Primaria and Semergen medical journals. A total of 212 professionals replied (37%). For 70.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64.5 to 73.3) the problem of ineffective practices is frequent or very frequent in PHC, and rate their importance with an average score of 7.3 (standard deviation [SD]=1.8) out of 10. The main consequences would be endangering the sustainability of the system (48.1%; 95% CI, 41.2 to 54.9) and harming patients (32.1%; 95% CI, 25.7 to 38.5). These ineffective practices are the result of the behaviour of the patients themselves (28%; 95% CI, 22.6 to 35.0) workload (26.4%; 95% CI, 20.3 to 32.5), and the lack of the continuous education (19.3%; 95% CI, 13.9 to 24.7). Clinical procedures of greatest misuse are the prescribing of antibiotics for certain infections, the frequency of cervical cancer screening, rigorous pharmacological monitoring of type 2 diabetes in patients over 65 years, the use of psychotropic drugs in the elderly, or the use of analgesics in patients with hypertension or renal failure. The use of ineffective procedures in PHC is considered a very important issue that negatively affects many patients and their treatment, and possibly endangering the sustainability of the system and causing harm to patients. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Feb 16, 2015 ... gaps that could compromise quality and safety of poultry products in Nigeria. ... Animal Disease Control Edict and Meat Hygiene Act should be passed into law, Nigerian live ... 2010). The role of modern organized slaughtering.
Holmes, Curtis F.
The invention of the cardiac pacemaker thirty-nine years ago marked the beginning of the era of the treatment of health disorders by battery powered implantable devices. Since that time several different battery-powered implantable devices have been developed and are in use. Batteries play an important role in external medical devices as well, ranging from surgical tools to motorized wheel chairs. As both battery technology and device development progress, the use of batteries in the treatment of disease will continue to be an important feature of medical care.
Full Text Available Generalization of theoretical knowledges in area of the use of technologies saving and correctings a health in the process of preparation of young sportsmen is conducted. The necessity of revision of going is marked near organization of process of preparation of sportsmen. Contradictions between increasing requirements to preparedness of young sportsmen and limited functional possibilities of their growing organism are considered. The ways of removal of failings in physical development and preparedness of sportsmen are rotined. The pedagogical aspects of increase of interest to employments by physical exercises are selected.
McKnight, Sylvia E
A learning needs assessment focused on psychiatric/mental health nursing competency development is a central component of nursing education in specialty mental health nursing practice. The provision of education for mental health nursing relies on the underlying assumption that the learning needs of experienced mental health nurses have been assessed and educational programs implemented to address educational needs for competency in professional practice. Few professional learning needs assessments have been developed to identify learning needs in mental health nursing practice. The majority of available professional learning needs assessments focus on medical nursing practice applications rather than the psychosocial aspects of a mental health assessment. The mental health field addresses very different assessment criteria such as knowledge of suicide assessment and therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this article is to present and describe the process of developing a learning needs assessment focused on competency development for the specialty practice of mental health nursing that addresses and resolves complex learning needs.
Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A
Review of the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil (PO) and its components and adverse effects on human health, on the mechanisms of cholesterol control and risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. PO is solid or semisolid at room temperature and often is used as a natural substitute for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids which increase risks of hypercholesteremia. PO contains both saturated and unsaturated fats as well as substances with antioxidant activity. Taking into account the lipid theory of atherosclerosis pathogenesis, and sn-2 hypothesis, PO was compared with other vegetable oils, like olive, sunflower or soybean oils, and did not show great differences in changes of LDL, HDL or total cholesterol levels. Comparison of diets rich in PO with diets rich in trans fatty acids shows improvement of lipid profiles in groups with PO, and serves as a basis for replacement of trans fatty acids in food with PO and its fractions. In addition to fatty acids content, PO contains several phytonutrients including 4 forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols, carotenoids, sterols, and some others. Most of these compounds are considered beneficial for human health, mainly on account of their antioxidant activity. It is concluded that PO is safe component of food, when we pay attention to the rather high content of saturated fats in it.
McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.; Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle E.; Shaffer, Gary L.
School social workers frequently serve as the primary mental health providers to youths with mental health problems. Although school social workers play a primary role in care, many students also receive outside counseling services. Previous research has not examined whether practice approaches differ when considering mental health practice with…
Leung, Brenda; Lauche, Romy; Leach, Matthew; Zhang, Yan; Cramer, Holger; Sibbritt, David
Special diets are frequently used by the public but reasons for use and characteristics of users remain unclear. To determine prevalence of the use of special diets, the individual characteristics associated with their use and reasons for use. The secondary analysis used data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional household interview survey of a nationally representative sample of non-hospitalized US adult populations ( n = 34,525). The dependent variables in this secondary analysis were the use of a special diet (vegetarian, macrobiotic, Atkins, Pritikin, and Ornish) ever and during the past 12 months. Independent variables included sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral variables. Prevalence of special diet use and reasons for use were analyzed descriptively. Associations between independent and dependent variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of using special diets were 7.5% (weighted n = 17.7 million) and 2.9% (weighted n = 6.9 million), respectively. Individuals using special diets in the past 12 months were more likely female (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.21-1.74), not married (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.63-0.91), college-educated (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.25-3.11) and depressed (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.14-1.98). They more likely also used herbal products (OR = 2.35; 95%CI = 1.84-2.99), non-vitamin (OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.45-2.27) and vitamin supplements (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.24-1.99). Diets were mainly used to improve overall health (76.7%) or for general wellness/prevention (70.4%). Special diets are mainly used for unspecific health reasons by those who are females, have a college degree or with depression, and commonly used in conjunction with herbs and dietary supplements.
Safdari, Reza; Maserat, Elham; Maserat, Elnaz
Cancers are significant contributors to the mortality and health care expenditures. Cancer can be reduced and monitored by new information technology. Radio frequency identification or RFID is a wireless identification technology. The use of this technology can be employed for identifying and tracking clinical staff, patients, supplies, medications and equipments. RFID can trace and manage chemotherapy drugs. There are different types of RFID. Implantable RFID allowing a chip to be embedded under the skin and that store the cancer patient's identifier. These are concerns about applications of RFID. Privacy, security and legal issues are key problems. This paper describes capabilities, benefits and confidentiality aspects in radio frequency identification systems and solutions for overcoming challenges.
Kokhanevych, Ie V; Mitsoda, R M; Konoplianko, T V; Konoplianko, V V
The article addresses issues of comparative characterization of deliveries involving surgery and impact thereof on the health of the mother and her child. Risk factors are identified that the mother and her child run in sectio cesarea, in application of obstetrical forceps, and in vacuum-extraction of the fetus. Cesarean section was found out to be the most acceptable mode of delivery in origination of organic and functional nervous system involvement in children but the most ill-chosen and unpropitious one in the mother, especially so in those groups at risk for bleeding, septic complications, and genital endometriosis. Among those surgical methods of delivery being the least traumatic to the mother are obstetrical forceps and vacuum-extraction of the fetus.
The aim of the paper is to connect the field of health management to other related academic discourses (critical management studies and critical development studies) that can contribute to a more interdisciplinary approach to understanding health organizations and management. The paper's design is theoretical critique that blends post-structural, critical management and critical development approaches into a focused discussion of modernity and its relevance to contemporary health management issues. Modernity proliferates through a variety of rhetorical tropes that go unnoticed or remain invisible. Through a brief analysis of historical definitions of management and development, the findings suggest that health management could also be critiqued as a cultural and social construction, enriching anthropological studies as well as informing practical critiques of health projects in the development sector. The conceptualisation of health-management as a cultural construct of modernity opens up the prospect for some rich empirical studies into what management practices support the scientific-rational claims on which it rests. The critique informs a re-appraisal of health management practices that are often taken for granted and ritualistic parts of organizational life. Such a re-evaluation could lead to the implementation of more nuanced and appropriate health practices. Connecting management and development discourses in this way has not been done before and its relevance to health management remains under-researched. This paper highlights the way these discourses can enrich the study of health organizations and create a truly interdisciplinary understanding of health.
Burris, Scott; Ashe, Marice; Levin, Donna; Penn, Matthew; Larkin, Michelle
Public health law has roots in both law and science. For more than a century, lawyers have helped develop and implement health laws; over the past 50 years, scientific evaluation of the health effects of laws and legal practices has achieved high levels of rigor and influence. We describe an emerging model of public health law that unites these two traditions. This transdisciplinary model adds scientific practices to the lawyerly functions of normative and doctrinal research, counseling, and representation. These practices include policy surveillance and empirical public health law research on the efficacy of legal interventions and the impact of laws and legal practices on health and health system operation. A transdisciplinary model of public health law, melding its legal and scientific facets, can help break down enduring cultural, disciplinary, and resource barriers that have prevented the full recognition and optimal role of law in public health.
Peckham, Stephen; Hann, Alison; Kendall, Sally; Gillam, Steve
This paper reports the findings of a scoping review on the organisation and delivery of health improvement activities in general practice and the primary healthcare team. The project was designed to examine who delivers these interventions, where they are located, what approaches are developed in practices and how individual practices and the primary healthcare team organise such public health activities and how these contribute to health improvement. Our focus was on health promotion and prevention activities and aimed to identify the current extent of knowledge about the health improvement activities in general practice and the wider primary healthcare team. Many of the research studies reviewed had some details about the type, process, location or who provided the intervention. Little attention is paid in the literature to examining the impact of the organisational context on the way services are delivered or how this affects the effectiveness of health improvement interventions in general practice. We found that the focus of attention is mainly on individual prevention approaches with practices engaging in both primary and secondary prevention. Although many GPs do not take a population approach and focus on individual patients some do see health promotion as an integral part of practice - whether as individual approaches to primary or secondary health improvement or as a practice-based approach to improving the health of their patients. Based on our analysis we conclude that there is insufficient good evidence to support many of the health improvement interventions undertaken in general practice and primary care.
近世代数是本科数学专业学生的一门重要的专业必修课,如何提高该课程的教学效果和教学水平,结合自身的教学实际,从教学内容、教学方法和教学手段等3个方面进行了论述.%Modern algebra is an important specialized course in department of mathematics. How to improve its teaching effect and teaching level. Teaching practice is given from teaching content, teaching method and means of instruction in this paper.
Ng, Eileen; de Colombani, Pierpaolo
Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public healthBest practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite the
de Colombani, Pierpaolo
Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public health Best practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite
There is growing international acceptance of the notion that participation in the creative arts can be beneficial for well-being and health. For over 30 years practical arts for health projects have been developed to support health care and promote health and well-being in communities. An increasing body of evaluation and research evidence lends weight to the value of such initiatives. However, the field of arts and health is complex and multi-faceted and there are challenges in moving beyond 'practice-based' research, towards building a progressive body of knowledge that can provide a basis for future 'evidence-based' practice in health care and public health. This paper reviews some of the population-level evidence from epidemiological studies on cultural participation and health, before considering research on active initiatives that draw on the creative arts in health care settings and communities to support health and well-being. The notion of a hierarchy of evidence is discussed in relation to arts for health initiatives and a plea is made for recognising the value of concrete case studies, qualitative research and the testimonies of participants and professionals alike in assessing both the value of creative arts activities and for understanding their impacts. Nevertheless, the need for robust controlled studies with precise measurable health outcomes is clear if we are to move towards the scaling up of arts interventions to achieve public health-level impacts from creative arts participation. A brief account of the current programme of research on singing and health that is underway at the Sidney De Haan Research Centre for Arts and Health is presented as a possible model for future research on arts and health.
In Japan, the first half of the twentieth century saw a remarkable revival of concern with the cultivation of the belly, with a variety of belly-cultivation techniques, particularly breathing exercise and meditative sitting, widely practiced for improving health and treating diseases. This article carefully examines some practitioners' experiences of belly-cultivation practice in attempting to understand its healing effects for them within their life histories and contemporary intellectual, social and cultural contexts. It shows that belly-cultivation practice served as a medium for some practitioners to reflect on and retell their life stories, and that the personal charisma of certain masters and the communities developing around them provided practitioners with a valuable sense of belonging in an increasingly industrialized and urbanized society. Moreover, these belly-cultivation techniques provided an embodied way for some to explore and affirm their sense of self and develop individual identity. While they were increasingly promoted as cultural traditions capable of cultivating national character, they also served as healing practices by inspiring practitioners with a sense of collective identity and purpose. With these analyses, this article sheds light on the complicated meanings of belly-cultivation for practitioners, and provides illustrative examples of the multitude of meanings of the body, bodily cultivation and healing.
Badma-Gariaev, M S
The article presents results of analysis of opinion of physicians of Moscow large multifield hospital concerning issues of effectiveness of implementation of the Program of health care modernization and development of its material technical equipment. The issues of increasing of quality of medical care were also touched upon.
Although communicable disease public health practice has traditionally been based on numbers (e.g., incidence, prevalence), in the domain of HIV prevention and control qualitative research has recently become a more commonly employed data collection strategy. Of particular benefit, this approach can supplement the numbers which typically underpin public health strategies by generating in-depth understandings about how specific populations define, describe, and perceive their health and the factors that affect it. However, the use of qualitative research in public health must be explored; it cannot simply be accepted without reflection or analysis. To guide such an investigation, the work of Michel Foucault and Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri is used to examine two previous research projects that were undertaken by the author. The outcome of this analysis is the somewhat paradoxical conclusion that although qualitative research can enhance public health work, it may also be a strategy that generates the information that can be used for capturing and normalizing marginalized populations. Qualitative research, in other words, may be a technique that can be used to achieve biopolitical goals.
Jadalla, Ahlam A; Hattar, Marianne; Schubert, Christiane C
A cross-sectional descriptive study was done using the Acculturation Rating scale of Arab Americans-II, and the Health Promotion and Lifestyle Profile II to assess the relationship between acculturation and health promotion practices among Arab Americans. Findings showed that attraction to American culture was the most important predictor of physical activity; whereas attraction to Arabic culture was the most important predictor of stress management and nutritional practices. Results suggest that, when demographics are controlled, acculturation predicts various health promotion practices in different patterns among members of this group. These findings contribute to a better understanding of acculturation's influence on immigrants' health promotion practices.
Harris, Neil; Sandor, Maria
Sustainability of practice must be a central imperative in the practice of community-based health promotion to achieve population health and attract a greater share of public health spending. Although there has been some consideration of sustainability at the project or program levels, often understood as intervention longevity, very limited attention has been given to understanding sustainable practice. The present study develops a definition and features of sustainable practice in community-based health promotion through a Delphi method with health promotion practitioners in Queensland, Australia. The study presents a consensus definition and features of sustainable practice. The definition highlights the importance of collaboration, health determinants and aspirations, processes and outcomes. The four features of sustainable practice identified in the study are: (1) effective relationships and partnerships; (2) evidence-based decision making and practice; (3) emphasis on building community capacity; and (4) supportive context for practice. The definition and features are, to a large extent, consistent with the limited literature around sustainability at the project and program levels of health promotion. Together, they provide insight into a form of community-based health promotion that will be both viable and productive. So what? This consensus understanding of sustainable practice articulates the foundations of working effectively with local communities in achieving improved population health within global limits.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health organizations the world over are required to set priorities and allocate resources within the constraint of limited funding. However, decision makers may not be well equipped to make explicit rationing decisions and as such often rely on historical or political resource allocation processes. One economic approach to priority setting which has gained momentum in practice over the last three decades is program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA. Methods This paper presents a detailed step by step guide for carrying out a priority setting process based on the PBMA framework. This guide is based on the authors' experience in using this approach primarily in the UK and Canada, but as well draws on a growing literature of PBMA studies in various countries. Results At the core of the PBMA approach is an advisory panel charged with making recommendations for resource re-allocation. The process can be supported by a range of 'hard' and 'soft' evidence, and requires that decision making criteria are defined and weighted in an explicit manner. Evaluating the process of PBMA using an ethical framework, and noting important challenges to such activity including that of organizational behavior, are shown to be important aspects of developing a comprehensive approach to priority setting in health care. Conclusion Although not without challenges, international experience with PBMA over the last three decades would indicate that this approach has the potential to make substantial improvement on commonly relied upon historical and political decision making processes. In setting out a step by step guide for PBMA, as is done in this paper, implementation by decision makers should be facilitated.
Adjei, Kwame K.; Laar, Amos K.; Narh, Clement T.; Abdulai, Martha A.; Newton, Sam; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Adjei, Sam
Background Sub-Saharan Africa reports low use of family planning methods and high unmet need. Availability of these methods is one of the major barriers to contraceptive use in the region. This study determined the availability of modern contraceptives and perceived factors affecting this in health facilities in the Ga East municipality of Ghana. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving quantitative and qualitative techniques. Data was obtained from 51 randomly selected health facil...
探究激发学生对“近世代数”的学习兴趣的有效方法，阐述教师如何发挥培养学生数学思维和自主探索能力的引导作用。%In this paper, the effective methods to arouse students' interest in learning "Modern Algebra" were explored, and the teachers' guiding role in the cultivation of students' thinking and the ability to independently explore was elaborated.
Fiona Judd; Leon Piterman; Grant Blashki; Hui Yang
The Journal presents the Column of Case Studies of Mental Health in General Practice;with aca-demic support from Australian eXperts in general practice,psychology and psychiatry from Monash University and the University of Mel-bourne. The Columnˊs purpose is to respond to the increasing need for the development of mental health services in China. Through study and analysis of mental health cases,we hope to improve understanding of mental illnesses in Chinese primary health settings,and to build capaci-ty amongst community health professionals in managing mental illnesses and psychological problems in general practice. A patient - centred whole - person approach in general practice is the best way to maintain and improve the physical and mental health of residents. Our hope is that these case studies will lead the new wave of general practice and mental health service development both in practice and research. A num-ber of Australian eXperts from the disciplines of general practice,mental health and psychiatry will contribute to the Column. Professor Blash-ki,Professor Judd and Professor Piterman are authors of the teXt General Practice Psychiatry;the Chinese version of the book to be published in 2014. The Journal cases are helping to prepare for the translation and publication of a Chinese version of the book in China. We believe Chi-nese mental health in primary health care will reach new heights under this international cooperation.
Hodge, James G; Barraza, Leila; Bernstein, Jennifer; Chu, Courtney; Collmer, Veda; Davis, Corey; Griest, Megan M; Hammer, Monica S; Krueger, Jill; Lowrey, Kerri McGowan; Orenstein, Daniel G
Since its inception in September 2010, the Network for Public Health Law has responded to hundreds of public health legal technical assistance claims from around the country. Based on a review of these data, a series of major trends in public health practice and the law are analyzed, including issues concerning: the Affordable Care Act, tobacco control, emergency legal preparedness, health information privacy, food policy, vaccination, drug overdose prevention, sports injury law, public health accreditation, and maternal breastfeeding. These and other emerging themes in public health law demonstrate the essential role of law and practice in advancing the public's health. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Based on floating farming applied during the former Spanish era in the Mexico Basin of Central America,the present study is to make an analysis of such floating farming and to make a comparison between such technique and ancient Chinese rack fields so as to explore the similarities of the core technology of the two farming practices as well as its feasibility and practical value of such traditional floating farming in modern.%以中美洲前西班牙时代墨西哥盆地漂浮农业为线索展开论述,并与中国古代＂架田＂展开对比研究,探讨两者之间核心技术的相似性和传统漂浮农业在当今中国新生的可行性和实用价值。
Celia Maria Sivalli Campos
Full Text Available Objective Identify nurses’ emancipatory practices in primary care, to contribute to the improvement of health care. Method A case study type social research of qualitative nature, in which nurses of a primary health care service unit in São Paulo were interviewed. Results The home visit was identified as a nursing practice possible to be expanded in order to identify social determinants of health, triggering emancipatory practices in the service. This expansion occurred because the design of health care labour intended by the service team changed its focus from the traditional object of health services, the disease. Conclusion First, it is advocated that social policies lead projects with the purpose of improving health needs. On the other hand, the daily labour needs to provide opportunities for reflection and discussion of healthcare projects, leading workers to propose labour-processes targeted to both the social determinants of health and people’s illness.
Pau CASTELL GRANADOS
Full Text Available The Late Middle Ages witnessed a change of perception regarding some health practices performed mostly by women. These practices, condemned over centuries by both ecclesiastical and secular elites, would acquire gradually a heretical and diabolical nature giving birth to the image of the witch in the early fifteenth century. The steps of this change are perceptible through the Catalan documentation; wich allows us to present a development that connects the actions against folk magic in the fourteenth century, the first witchcraft accusations in the early fifteenth and the great persecutions in modern times.
Since the 1948 establishment of the Israeli state, an event described by Arab peoples as "Al-Nakbah" (catastrophe), the Arab minority in Israel has experienced oppression, trauma and social exclusion; they feel defeated, disempowered and poorer. There are huge gaps in quality of life between Arab and Jewish Israelis. Such social inequities, as well as other issues such as polygamy, have been identified as risk factors for psychological distress. This situation puts the Israeli Arab, like other post-colonial peoples, in an attitude of ambivalence towards modern mental health services. On the one hand, certain forms of intervention, particularly medicinal, may improve peoples' lives. On the other, mental health services, as part of the colonial process, continue to present limited cultural sensitivity towards Arab peoples. A cultural gap leading to mistrust is a given when a non-Arab mental health provider comes into contact with an Arab client. Religious beliefs, the importance of the family and the stigma attached to mental health problems have substantial influence on the Arab's perception and reaction toward mental health problems and their treatment. The expression of conflict and negative feelings are not well accepted within Arab culture. For this reason, mental illness is often denied and kept away from professional help or expressed as a physical illness. There is also a difficulty for a male being treated by a female and for the individual to ask for help outside his family or community. Arab Muslims also generally have a tendency to resign themselves to God's care and thus may neglect or deny symptoms. Another tendency is the preference for using traditional healers and folk medicine. Other problems in mental health work are the passive attitude of the patient and the degree of authority vested in the therapist. To facilitate bridging this cultural gap, the therapist's first task is that of educating him/her self about the religious, cultural and national
Nakamura, Eunice; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Campos, Célia Maria Sivalli; Nichiata, Lúcia Yasuko Izumi; Chiesa, Anna Maria; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira
To analyze an instrument that aims to understand the health-disease process, its potential to identify social vulnerabilities and health needs to enable the most appropriate interventions in a given territory. analysis of the data collection instrument--composed of closed and open questions to identify different profiles of social reproduction (ways of working and living)--used in the Project of Pedagogical Development and activities reported by students at a Collective Health Nursing department. The instrument enables health care professionals, especially those from Collective Health Nursing, to identify social vulnerabilities and health needs, and guide interventions in different contexts, according to the health promotion perspective. Thus, it reveals potential to transform current health practices, dynamism and constant innovation of these practices in different contexts, according to the 'radicality' that is characteristic of Collective Health.
Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish
Hispanics constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority population in the United States and are the fastest growing segment of the population. Knowledge about health needs and practices, effective health promotion programs, and health policy making for Hispanics has the potential to improve population health outcomes for this group. Continued research and practice literature will aid in accomplishing these objectives. However, little is known about the extent of health education-related literature available on Hispanic health issues. In this review, we analyzed research and practice publications in all health education-related journals to assess the volume of articles published on Hispanic health issues. We found that the portion of journal articles devoted to Hispanic health issues varied widely among the journals and that there was a very limited emphasis on Hispanic health-related issues. Journal editors and editorial board members may need to be more proactive in soliciting manuscripts on Hispanic health, and our practitioners may have to improve their professional skills and cultural competence in order to work with Hispanic populations to produce research and practice literature that is of adequate quantity and quality to help improve Hispanics' health.
Kleen, Joachim L; Andres, Tatjana; Exner, Ulrike; Strie, Regina
Bovine ringworm (tinea) is generally described as a disease occurring regularly in cattle. Actual data are rare, whereas the disease is regularly reported in case reports. To eradicate bovine ringworm, perception as well as measures, including hygiene and disinfection, are required. In a course for continuing education, 378 practicing veterinarians were asked in a questionnaire to state their view on bovine ringworm. The majority of the participants stated that ringworm was not satisfactorily perceived as an animal health problem and that the zoonotic potential was underestimated. A majority of participants agreed to diagnose ringworm on farms regularly and stated that they were involved in treating the disease. The participating veterinarians felt, however, that perception of ringworm by the farms themselves was inadequate. Vaccination was generally judged as being helpful. Generally, practising veterinarians feel that bovine ringworm is being perceived as less important by farms than by themselves. It is to be concluded that more information and offers regarding the treatment for ringworm could contribute to more effective engagement in the disease.
Dayananda, Ila; Walker, Dilys; Atienzo, Erika E; Haider, Sadia
Little is known about abortion practice in Mexico postlegalization of abortion in Mexico City in 2007. In 2009, we anonymously surveyed 418 Mexican health care providers at the Colegio Mexicano de Especialistas en Ginecologia y Obstetricia meeting using audio computer-assisted self-interview technology. The majority of respondents were obstetrician gynecologists (376, 90%), Catholic (341, 82%), 35-60 years old (332, 79%) and male (222, 53%) and worked with trainees (307, 74%). Prior to 2007, 11% (46) and 17% (71) provided medical and surgical abortions; now, 15% (62) and 21% (86) provide these services, respectively. Practitioners from Mexico City were more likely to provide services than those from other areas. Most medical abortion providers (50, 81%) used ineffective protocols. Surgical abortion providers mainly used either manual vacuum aspiration (39, 45%) or sharp curettage (27, 32%). Most abortion providers were trained in residency and wanted more training in medical (54, 87%) and surgical (59, 69%) abortion. Among nonproviders, 49% (175) and 27% (89) expressed interest in learning to perform medical and surgical abortion, respectively. Given the interest in learning to provide safe abortion services and the prevalent use of ineffective medical abortion regimens and sharp curettage, abortion training in Mexico should be strengthened. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peters, Todd E
Compared with other medical specialties, psychiatrists have been slower adopters of health information technology (IT) practices, such as electronic health records (EHRs). This delay in implementation could compromise patient safety and impede integration into accountable care organizations and multidisciplinary treatment settings. This article focuses on optimizing use of EHRs for clinical practice, leveraging health IT to improve quality of care, and focusing on the potential for future growth in health IT in child and adolescent psychiatric practice. Aligning with other medical fields and focusing on transparency of mental health treatment will help psychiatrists reach parity with other medical specialties.
Actively expanding services of palliative care has become a common practice of clinical oncologists and led to the development of modern Palliative Medicine. The function and position of Palliative Medicine in the intact anti-cancer therapy is gradually identified. This identification increases the enthusiastic participation of oncologists' practices on palliative care and let us reinspect Palliative Medicine from a completely new perspective. We tends to introduce the connotation evolution of modern Palliative Medicine by illustrating the development of it and the contents of palliative care in cancer patients according to their different climcal stages.%积极开展姑息医学服务已成肿瘤临床工作者的共同实践,并使其在实践中得到发展.姑息医学在肿瘤整体治疗中的作用和地位已逐渐受到同行的认同.提高了肿瘤工作者对姑息医学实践的参与热情.使业内有识之士从全新的角度对姑息医学的内涵进行审视.本文拟结合姑息医学的发展历程及不同分期肿瘤患者姑息治疗的内容介绍现代姑息医学内涵的演化过程.
Durks, Desire; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Hossain, Lutfun N; Franco-Trigo, Lucia; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel
Intervention Mapping is a planning protocol for developing behavior change interventions, the first three steps of which are intended to establish the foundations and rationales of such interventions. This systematic review aimed to identify programs that used Intervention Mapping to plan changes in health care professional practice. Specifically, it provides an analysis of the information provided by the programs in the first three steps of the protocol to determine their foundations and rationales of change. A literature search was undertaken in PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, and DOAJ using "Intervention Mapping" as keyword. Key information was gathered, including theories used, determinants of practice, research methodologies, theory-based methods, and practical applications. Seventeen programs aimed at changing a range of health care practices were included. The social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior were the most frequently used frameworks in driving change within health care practices. Programs used a large variety of research methodologies to identify determinants of practice. Specific theory-based methods (e.g., modelling and active learning) and practical applications (e.g., health care professional training and facilitation) were reported to inform the development of practice change interventions and programs. In practice, Intervention Mapping delineates a three-step systematic, theory- and evidence-driven process for establishing the theoretical foundations and rationales underpinning change in health care professional practice. The use of Intervention Mapping can provide health care planners with useful guidelines for the theoretical development of practice change interventions and programs.
Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E.; McCluskey, Amanda; Guevara, Ernesto; Verdecias, Niko; Jeanty, Yves; DeMayo, Michael; Mofidi, Mahyar
This qualitative study explored the impact on oral health-care knowledge, attitudes, and practices among 39 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participating in a national initiative aimed at increasing access to oral health care. Personal values and childhood dental experiences, beliefs about the importance of oral health in relation to HIV health, and concerns for appearance and self-esteem were found to be determinants of oral health knowledge and practice. Program participation resulted in better hygiene practices, improved self-esteem and appearance, relief of pain, and better physical and emotional health. In-depth exploration of the causes for these changes revealed a desire to continue with dental care due to the dental staff and environmental setting, and a desire to maintain overall HIV health, including oral health. Our findings emphasize the importance of addressing both personal values and contextual factors in providing oral health-care services to PLWHA. PMID:22547879
Takhauov, R. M.; Karpov, A. B.; Kubat, I. I.; Maslyuk, A. I.; Semenova, Y. V.; Freidin, M. B.; Trivozhenko, A. B.; Litvinenko, T. M.
Population health is greatly determined by social factors, mode of life, ecological situation, amount and quality of medical assistance. The analysis of reasons of health troubles increase in population should be done taking into account the above aspects. Main consideration should be given to the development of measures aimed at the highest possible decrease of technogenic and anthropogenic factors influence on a human. Thereupon a complex programme of main diseases screening and monitoring in the personnel of the Siberian Group of Chemical enterprises (SGCE) to be the biggest one among Russian atomic plants has been developed. The purpose of the present paper is to determine main diseases at the earliest stage, the decrease of death rate, as well as the complex estimation of technogenic factor influence on the personnel of radiation dangerous plants nand their offsprings. In this case a long-term effect of low doses seems to be the main risk factor. Taking into account the structure of death rate causes of the population of industrialized countries as well as the spectrum of stochastic effects of ionizing radiation, the screening of cardiac ischemia and arterial hypertension, localization of cancer and congenital malformations have been chosen as the program priorities. Algorithm of instrumental laboratory screening of a particular disease includes modern diagnostic tests. Groups ar risk are formed taking into account a complex of exogenous and endogenous risk factors (age, chronic diseases, bad habits, length of service at a radiation dangerous plant, dose loads, hereditary factors) and on the basis of the screening examination results. The information obtained is entered in the list of database of the Regional Medico dosimetric Register of the SGCE personnel and Seversk residents followed by analysis and monitoring of groups ar risk. (Author) 4 refs.
Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty; Schaffer, Marjorie A
The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing. The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/public health nursing practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based public health nursing practice and direction for improving population health.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to establish among health educators a consensus in the definition of spirituality and health that would ultimately guide effective development of a curriculum or program in spirituality and health for undergraduate programs in college health science departments. Methodology. This mixed-methods research study…
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to establish among health educators a consensus in the definition of spirituality and health that would ultimately guide effective development of a curriculum or program in spirituality and health for undergraduate programs in college health science departments. Methodology. This mixed-methods research study…
P. M. Polushkin
Full Text Available The modern state and prospects of the medico-psychological examination of students and young people are analysed by a dermatoglyphics that allows drawing up the psychological portrait of a person. On the basis of typology of digital dermatoglyphics the development of the criteria system for prognostic estimation of physical capabilities of a human being is possible. According to the ratio of norm and pathology areas of the skin markings the hereditary diseases for future posterity, developmental abnormalities, different gene mutations, congenital development defects (limbs development defects as the special case, gender anomalies (sex determination, possible lethal cases, chromosome diseases and other cases can be forecasted with 99 % confidence.
Carriere, Robin S
The collection of health outcomes information is important for effective management of the health care system. The Health Outcomes for Better Information and Care (HOBIC) program is implementing a set of nurse-sensitive health outcome measures across the province of Ontario. This paper examines some of the opportunities and challenges of implementing measures across multiple organizations and multiple sectors of the health care system.
Andreeva, Valentina A; Unger, Jennifer B
The unprecedented ethnocultural diversity in the United States and other Western countries likely changes the social norms for various health practices in the host populations, thus impacting prevalence of such practices and leading to the need for modification of public health policies. However, application of host acculturation (HA) principles in the public health domain remains underdeveloped. We conducted a narrative review of theoretical and empirical information about the association between HA and health practices or outcomes, drawing on evidence from health-care services, complementary and alternative medicine, diet, smoking, alcohol use, and psychological well-being. Given the experience of different countries with large immigrant populations, future multidisciplinary studies are needed both to supply additional empirical evidence and to identify ubiquitous HA processes, and thus inform public health promotion initiatives in the United States and worldwide.
Agampodi Thilini C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.
Integrative approaches will lead to more accurate and different understandings of mental illness. Beneficial responses to complementary and alternative therapies provide important clues about the phenomenal nature of the human body in space-time and disparate biological, informational, and energetic factors associated with normal and abnormal psychological functioning. The conceptual framework of contemporary Western psychiatry includes multiple theoretical viewpoints, and there is no single best explanatory model of mental illness. Future theories of mental illness causation will not depend exclusively on empirical verification of strictly biological processes but will take into account both classically described biological processes and non-classical models, including complexity theory, resulting in more complete explanations of the characteristics and causes of symptoms and mechanisms of action that result in beneficial responses to treatments. Part 1 of this article examined the limitations of the theory and contemporary clinical methods employed in Western psychiatry and discussed implications of emerging paradigms in physics and the biological sciences for the future of psychiatry. In part 2, a practical methodology, for planning integrative assessment and treatment strategies in mental health care is proposed. Using this methodology the integrative management of moderate and severe psychiatric symptoms is reviewed in detail. As the conceptual framework of Western medicine evolves toward an increasingly integrative perspective, novel understanding of complex relationships between biological, informational, and energetic processes associated with normal psychological functioning and mental illness will lead to more effective integrative assessment and treatment strategies addressing the causes or meanings of symptoms at multiple hierarchic levels of body-brain-mind.
Integrative approaches will lead to more accurate and different understandings of mental illness. Beneficial responses to complementary and alternative therapies provide important clues about the phenomenal nature of the human body in space-time and disparate biological, informational, and energetic factors associated with normal and abnormal psychological functioning. The conceptual framework of contemporary Western psychiatry includes multiple theoretical viewpoints, and there is no single best explanatory model of mental illness. Future theories of mental illness causation will not depend exclusively on empirical verification of strictly biological processes but will take into account both classically described biological processes and non-classical models, including complexity theory, resulting in more complete explanations of the characteristics and causes of symptoms and mechanisms of action that result in beneficial responses to treatments. Part 1 of this article examines the limitations of the theory and contemporary clinical methods employed in Western psychiatry and discusses implications of emerging paradigms in physics and the biological sciences for the future of psychiatry. In part 2, a practical methodology for planning integrative assessment and treatment strategies in mental health care is proposed. Using this methodology the integrative management of moderate and severe psychiatric symptoms is reviewed in detail. As the conceptual framework of Western medicine evolves toward an increasingly integrative perspective, novel understandings of complex relationships between biological, informational, and energetic processes associated with normal psychological functioning and mental illness will lead to more effective integrative assessment and treatment strategies addressing the causes or meanings of symptoms at multiple hierarchic levels of body-brain-mind.
Prateek, S S; Saurabh, R S
India was the first country in world to launch - The National Family Welfare Programme in 1951 but even today the couple protection rate (CPR) is still not achieved as desired. To determine extent of awareness regarding contraception among married women. To estimate proportion of couples using contraceptive methods, identify reasons for their adoption & non adoption and to assess unmet needs for contraception. A cross sectional descriptive study of four months duration was conducted among married women in reproductive age group (15 - 49 years) attending general out-patient department in Urban Health Centre (UHC) employing universal sampling method. Participants not willing to respond and pregnant women were excluded. Total of 180 women were selected as study participants. Every woman was interviewed face to face with pre-tested questionnaire after taking informed consent. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16. 94 (52.2%) were in age group of 20 - 24 years. 52.4% of women were aware about contraceptive practices, of which only 32.2% of subjects were using contraceptive methods. Out of these subjects, 89.66% used temporary methods and 10.34% used permanent methods. Cu-T (41.37%) was most preferred method. 93 subjects (51.6%) had unmet need for contraception. Religion, education status and age at marriage were significantly associated with contraceptive usage. The results suggest a significant Knowledge - Application Gap with regards to contraceptives knowledge and their actual usage in study participants. Almost fifty percent of the subjects had unmet need for contraception. This shows the need for more intense awareness campaigns for promoting contraceptive usage.
高祥伟; 费鲜芸; 谢宏全; 谷风云
In this study, Modern Cartography practice was divided into three modules, according to the action of 3S technology played in the course. They were ground GPS control point surveying, RS image preprocessing, GIS large-scale mapping using RS image. Through the completion of the practice modules, the knowledge of GPS, RS and GIS would be crossed and penetrated in Modern Cartography. For students, the comprehensive and practical ability of mapping using 3S technology would be strengthened.%本研究根据3S技术在现代地图学中的作用,将现代地图学实践教学内容分解为GPS控制点测量、遥感图像预处理、地理信息系统大比例尺地图制图三个模块,学生通过按要求和顺序对三个模块的内容进行操作实习后,完成现代地图学实践教学任务.通过模块化实习,对3S技术及现代地图学课程的基本内容进行实习,并实现3S技术在现代地图学中的交叉、渗透,培养学生利用3S技术进行地图制图的综合能力和实践能力.
... health needs assessment (CHNA) and implementation strategy/plan development and execution. HHS/CDC is... strategy development and execution for improved community health outcomes. These best practices are... accreditation standards, current practices in CHNA, implementation strategy/plan development and execution, and...
Melas, Christos D.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Dimopoulou, Anastasia; Moustakis, Vassilis
The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, 2004) is a relatively new construct for the study of attitudes toward the adoption of innovation and evidence-based practices (EBPs) in mental health service settings. Despite widespread interest in measuring the attitudes of health care providers in conjunction with the adoption of EBPs,…
Margison, Judith A.; Shore, Bruce M.
Calls for increased collaborative practices in school psychology parallel similar advances in the realm of health care. This article overviews the concepts associated with collaborative practice in school psychology and in health care (e.g., interaction, teamwork, and collaboration) and discusses how the literature emerging from interprofessional…
Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda
Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…
Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.
This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of health promotion practices among college students and the relationship of stress and the practice of various health behaviors. Method: In Fall 2008, 319 students from a mid-size university participated in a cross-sectional survey utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Health…
Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert
Objective: To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. Participants: A…
Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN
Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.
Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung
This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.
Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert
Objective: To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. Participants: A…
在科学技术迅猛发展的今天，人类与自然的矛盾越来越突出，空气污染、水污染、土地污染等一系列的环境问题日趋严重。因此，在改造客观世界的过程中，人类作为实践的主体，应该反思这些问题和矛盾，应该辩证地看待主体性实践，应该对实践的价值进行反思。目的就是要审视和反省当今人类实践的盲目性、漠视自然的以人类为中心的行为，限制和减少人类实践的负效应，有效控制实践过程，科学反思与评价实践价值。只有如此，人类才能与自然界和谐相处，才能实现人的自由发展，才能突出实践的真正意义。%With today＇s rapid development of science and technology, the contradiction between man and nature is be- coming more and more obvious. Such environmental problems as air pollution,water pollution and land pollution are also getting increasingly worse. Therefore, in the process of transforming the objective world, as the subject of practice, humans should reflect on these questions and contradictions and treat the subjectivity practice in a rational and dialectical way and should also reflect on the value of practice. This paper is intended to review and reflect on the blindness of today＇ s human practice and our ignorance of the nature in order to limit and reduce the negative effects caused by human practice and har- ness the practical process in an effective way as well as to scientifcly reflect on and evalue the value of practice. Only in this way can human beings live in harmony with nature and realize the the free development of human and show the signif- icance of the practice.
Oates, J; Drey, N; Jones, J
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: 'Expertise by experience' has become an increasingly valued element of service design and delivery by mental health service providers. The extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice has seldom been interrogated in depth. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We investigate how mental health nurses' own personal experience of mental ill health informs their mental health nursing practice with particular reference to direct work with service users. Participants said that personal experience could impact on work in three positive ways: to develop their relationship with service users, to enhance their understanding of service users and as a motivation for potential mental health nurses to join the profession. This study moves the discussion of the state of mental health nurses' mental health further towards the recovery and well-being focus of contemporary mental health care, where 'expertise by experience' is highly valued. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: We must address the taboo of disclosure within clinical nursing practice and debate the extent to which personal and professional boundaries are negotiated during clinical encounters. Introduction 'Expertise by experience' is a highly valued element of service delivery in recovery-oriented mental health care, but is unacknowledged within the mental health nursing literature. Aim To explore the extent and influence of mental health professionals' personal experience of mental ill health on clinical practice. Method Twenty-seven mental health nurses with their own personal experience of mental ill health were interviewed about how their personal experience informed their mental health nursing practice, as part of a sequential mixed methods study. Results The influence of personal experience in nursing work was threefold: first, through overt disclosure; second, through the 'use of the self as a tool
Curtis McMillen, J; Lenze, Shannon L; Hawley, Kristin M; Osborne, Victoria A
Practice-based research networks (PBRNs)-collaborations of practice settings that work together to generate research knowledge-are underused in mental health services research. This article proposes an agenda for mental health services research that uses a variety of PBRN structures and that focuses on what really happens in practice, the effectiveness of practice innovations in real world care, the challenges of implementing evidence supported interventions, modification of clinician behavior, and assessment of the effect of mental health policy changes on practice. The challenges of conducting research within PBRNs are substantial, including difficulties in maintaining positive member relations, securing ongoing funding, sustaining productivity, overcoming IRB entanglements and achieving both scientific excellence in recruitment and measurement validity and utility for practitioner members. However, the awareness of these challenges allows researchers and practitioners to build networks that creatively overcome them and that infuse mental health services research with heavy doses of the realities of everyday clinical practice.
Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of purposefulness of fitness yoga application for strengthening of special health groups’ girl students’ psycho-physical condition and psycho-social health at physical culture training and recreation classes. Material: trainings were practiced twice a week in 2 groups with 20 girl students in every group. Each training session lasted 60 minutes. The following indicators were registered: pressing ups in lying position; torso bending during 30 sec. from lying on back position; rising legs up to 90 degrees angle in hanging position; long jump from the spot; forward torso bending; test for coordination. Health condition was determined by express assessment of physical health. Results: in both groups girl students’ backbone mobility increased (р<0/05. First group’s girl students demonstrated higher results in pressing ups in lying position during 30 sec. (by 7.34+1.2 times and in long jump from the spot (14.2+0.4 cm. It was noticed that fitness yoga exercises render positive influence on girl students’ psycho-emotional state, general physical self-feeling and physical condition. Conclusions: targeted fitness yoga exercises’ influences on girl-students’ organism are recommended for support and correction of their health.
Gaillet, Lynee Lewis
Learning theorist Kenneth Bruffee traces the roots of collaborative learning in American college classrooms back to the early 1970s when changing educational needs necessitated adapting conventional college classroom practices to the needs of new students. Traditional pedagogy had failed because of the growth in the number of nontraditional…
Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue
Background. Yoga shows promise as a therapeutic intervention, but relationships between yoga practice and health are underexplored. Purpose. To examine the relationship between yoga practice and health (subjective well-being, diet, BMI, smoking, alcohol/caffeine consumption, sleep, fatigue, social support, mindfulness, and physical activity). Methods. Cross-sectional, anonymous internet surveys distributed to 4307 randomly selected from 18,160 individuals at 15 US Iyengar yoga studios; 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Results. Mean age 51.7 (± 11.7) years; 84.2% female. Frequency of home practice favorably predicted (P vegetarian status, sleep, and fatigue. Each component of yoga practice (different categories of physical poses, breath work, meditation, philosophy study) predicted at least 1 health outcome (P health better than years of practice or class frequency. Different physical poses and yoga techniques may have unique health benefits.
Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accessing family planning can reduce a significant proportion of maternal, infant, and childhood deaths. In Ethiopia, use of modern contraceptive methods is low but it is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the trends and determinants of changes in modern contraceptive use over time among young married women in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used data from the three Demographic Health Surveys conducted in Ethiopia, in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Young married women age 15-24 years with sample sizes of 2,157 in 2000, 1,904 in 2005, and 2,146 in 2011 were included. Logit-based decomposition analysis technique was used for analysis of factors contributing to the recent changes. STATA 12 was employed for data management and analyses. All calculations presented in this paper were weighted for the sampling probabilities and non-response. Complex sampling procedures were also considered during testing of statistical significance. RESULTS: Among young married women, modern contraceptive prevalence increased from 6% in 2000 to 16% in 2005 and to 36% in 2011. The decomposition analysis indicated that 34% of the overall change in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in women's characteristics. Changes in the composition of young women's characteristics according to age, educational status, religion, couple concordance on family size, and fertility preference were the major sources of this increase. Two-thirds of the increase in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in coefficients. Most importantly, the increase was due to change in contraceptive use behavior among the rural population (33% and among Orthodox Christians (16% and Protestants (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Modern contraceptive use among young married women has showed a remarkable increase over the last decade in Ethiopia. Programmatic interventions targeting poor, younger (adolescent, illiterate, and Muslim women would help to maintain the increasing trend in modern
Psychiatric nurses\\' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses\\' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy.
nurses and 100 hospital administrators in the USA found ... Ethics CPD Supplement: Ethics in health care: confidentiality and information technologies. S7 .... Health Care. News. 2003;3(2). 4. Fienberg S. A view on medical malpractice.
Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie
Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices....
Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie
Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices....
© 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Urban places and health equity are two of the most challenging concepts for 21st century environmental health. More people live in cities than at any other time in human history and health inequities are increasing. Health inequities are avoidable differences in the social, environmental and political conditions that shape morbidity and mortality, and disproportionately burden the poor, racial, ethnic and religious minorities and migra...
Conclusions: Effectively planning, implementation and also evaluation of health programs in adolescent health is required to change attitude of adolescents, the health providers and also that of the setting where adolescents are addressed. Health professionals have their credibility towards adolescents, and the advice they give may be important for teenage behavior. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 2968-2972
Athwal, Lorraine; Marchuk, Brenda; Laforêt-Fliesser, Yvette; Castanza, Joyce; Davis, Lori; LaSalle, Marg
Best practice guidelines (BPGs) were developed by the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) to support evidence-based nursing practice. One Ontario public health unit chose to implement the BPG on client-centered care (CCC). A critical review of this BPG revealed issues that would hinder successful implementation within a public health setting. These included a focus on the client as an individual, the predominance of acute care exemplars and training resources that were not representative of public health nursing practice, and the need to reconcile the enforcement roles of public health with the BPG principles. The purpose of this article is to describe the process of adapting the CCC BPG to more accurately reflect the broad scope of public health nursing practice. A model for CCC in public health nursing context is presented and processes for implementing, evaluating, and sustaining CCC are described.
Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Miner, Kathleen
Interventions to address current, future, and potential public health dilemmas, such as air pollution, urban sprawl, brown field reclamation, and threats of intentional toxic exposures would benefit from a synergy between the disciplines of environmental health and health education. A comparison between the Protocol for Assessing Community…
Strasser, Sheryl; Smith, Megan O.; Pendrick Denney, Danielle; Jackson, Matt C.; Buckmaster, Pam
Background: Poverty is a pervasive condition linked to a myriad of health conditions and severe health outcomes. Public health professionals are at the forefront of addressing poverty-related issues and require education that enhances their understanding and cultural competence. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impacts of…
Strasser, Sheryl; Smith, Megan O.; Pendrick Denney, Danielle; Jackson, Matt C.; Buckmaster, Pam
Background: Poverty is a pervasive condition linked to a myriad of health conditions and severe health outcomes. Public health professionals are at the forefront of addressing poverty-related issues and require education that enhances their understanding and cultural competence. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impacts of…
Repetto, Jeanne B.; Gibson, Robert W.; Lubbers, Joyce H.; Gritz, Sheila; Reiss, John
The increase in the number of students with disabilities and special health care needs and their need for health care transition (HCT) creates opportunity for education and health services professionals to work together. In response to this opportunity, the authors developed an HCT teaching module for 6th to 12th graders. A concern that surfaced…
Page Stacey A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the sale of non-prescription health products is ubiquitous, the views of health professionals, such as chiropractors, regarding the sale of such products are not well known. Practitioner opinion is important to understand and inform professional practice. The purpose of this study was to describe chiropractors' perspectives and practices on the sale of health care products from practitioners' offices. Methods Chiropractors were invited to provide written comments about health product sales at the end of a fixed choice, mailed survey. Respondents' comments were analyzed using qualitative description. Ethics approval was received from the Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Calgary. Results One hundred seven of the 265 respondents (response rate of 51% provided written comments. Approximately 30 pages of double-spaced, typed text were gathered. Respondents did not consistently endorse or condemn health product sales, and engaged in the practice to greater and lesser extents. While some were opposed to health products sales, some accepted the practice with a degree of ambivalence whereas others clearly embraced it. Some respondents acknowledged a professional conflict of interest in such sales and marketing, and described strategies used to mitigate it. Others provided a range of justifications for the practice. Personal integrity and professional standards were discussed and a need for monitoring identified. Conclusions A wide range of opinions and practices were described and this is consistent with resulting variation in practice. In light of this, standards that facilitate consistency in practice may benefit professionals and the public alike.
Alexandr Ivanovich Tatarkin
Full Text Available Pro forma data for exploration of mineral raw material base of some territories Ural regions are given. Perspective trajectories of development of mineral raw complex of federal subjects Russia’s are characterized. On this basis are highlighted groups of region — saving, reducing, raising the level of raw specialization or diversifying own economy. Peculiarities of forecasting technological development in ore mining branches in the period of planned economy of the USSR are illustrated. Indexes of successfully working iron-ore open casts are given. Theraise of internal Russian demand on raw is grounded, for which satisfaction are needed:corresponding tax policy for innovative production, corporate innovative policy, creating fund of supporting ore mining, commercialization of scientific products and working out rules in the sphere of scientific and technical progress. Peculiarities of technological development of ore mining branches of industry are emphasized: necessity of modernization of enterprises and exploration of deposits in regions with not enough developed infrastructure and opportunity of using new system approach by forecasting. Thestages ofeffectiveexploration of deposits and the parameters of developing ore mining enterprises arefound out. Components of forecast of technological development are analyzed. World tendencies of developing ore mining industry and basic directions of forecast of developing ore mining branches are given. New effective technologies being used in the ore mining are analyzed in detail.
Petroro, Rita A; Marola, Marianne; Ferreira, Tina; Raboin, Katie; Lewis, Katharine Kranz
Partnerships are fundamental to successful public health practice, and collaborations between academia and public health practice, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine and the Council on Linkages between academia and public health practice, are vital to ensuring a competent public health workforce. During times of economic crisis, graduate public health nursing students with clinical expertise, people and communication skills, and critical thinking capabilities are uniquely positioned to bridge the gap between academia and public health practice. In 2009, 5 registered nurses enrolled in a master of science in nursing program with a focus on public health partnered with public health professionals from the state Department of Public Health to conduct an active surveillance study to understand the increase in vancomycin-resistant enterococci incidences that occurred since 2005. The purpose of this paper is to describe the successes and challenges of the collaboration to provide an insight for those who wish to build similar collaborations. Even in light of the challenges that occurred during this collaboration, faculty should strongly consider developing partnerships with public health practice in order to contribute to important public health surveillance and other functions, and to provide relevant experiences for students. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Schaffer, Marjorie A; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty
The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing (PHN). The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/PHN practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based PHN practice and direction for improving population health.
Miroshnichenko M. A.
Full Text Available Justification of the need and the prospects of using controlling in the mechanism of management of a versatile medical center is an actual problem now. The concept of the introduction of controlling, as organizational and methodical complex of support of modernization and management in the field of health care is considered. The analysis of the essence, the tasks and the functions of controlling of medical institution, advantage and possibility of application of controlling in the treatment-and-prophylactic establishment (TAPE in system of administration is given. Controlling is capable to have an impact on adoption of administrative decisions at the different levels. Applications in a management system of LPT of controlling will allow carrying out the following kinds of activity: to study the parameters of administration and to define the quality of the purpose of medical activity and indicators estimating their result; to define the activity in specialty; to develop information support of the administration; to coordinate the process of planning at the level of intermedical and interdisciplinary interaction; to predict the work of LPU; to develop the structure of the accounting of activity which is rather detailed with the definition of the expenses of the work of LPU; to have an opportunity to estimate the work of LPU at the municipal level and at the level of the subject of the Russian Federation; to develop the unified assessment of the ways and the indicators allowing to compare the results of the administration at all stages of medical activity; to use offers on the basis of the analysis and the assessment of planned and registration data on medical activity and to be guided by them when making administrative decisions at various levels of management
McCarty, Maureen V; Fenech, Bethany J
Health Workforce Australia (HWA) was established by the Council of Australian Governments through its 2008 National Partnership Agreement on Hospital and Health Workforce Reform, as the national agency to progress health workforce reform and address the challenges of providing a skilled, innovative and flexible health workforce in Australia. The Australian Health Ministers' Conference commissioned HWA to undertake a workforce planning exercise for doctors, nurses and midwives over a planning horizon to 2025. Health Workforce 2025 (HW 2025) was conducted in two phases: developing projections for the size and type of the health workforce (doctors, nurses and midwives) needed to meet future service requirements from 2012 to 2025; and modelling the training pipeline necessary to meet the size and type of this health workforce. HWA has used a number of key principles in developing HW 2025 to ensure the projections are robust and able to be applied nationally. HW 2025 is not a one-off project. Projections will be updated as new data become available, and methodology and assumptions underpinning the projections will be periodically reviewed. To also ensure the continued improvement of national health workforce planning, HWA is pursuing other areas for improvement, including better national data collections and improved estimation methodology for demand. Results of HW 2025 were presented to the Australian Health Ministers (through the Standing Council on Health) in April 2012.
Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Miner, Kathleen
Interventions to address current, future, and potential public health dilemmas, such as air pollution, urban sprawl, brown field reclamation, and threats of intentional toxic exposures would benefit from a synergy between the disciplines of environmental health and health education. A comparison between the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model used in health education illustrates some similarities and differences in terminology, assessment procedures, intervention design, and types of evidence used by the two disciplines. Promising intervention strategies draw on the expertise of both fields and include social action, policy and media advocacy, coalition building, organizational change, lay health advisers, risk communication, and tailored educational messages. Appropriate targets of change can range from the equitable distribution of resources to individual behavior change. Significant interdisciplinary evaluation research is necessary to accelerate the identification of successful models for reducing the burden of environmental health problems in communities.
Waldman, Linda; Stevens, Marion
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunity and innovation to improve public health and health systems.This paper explores the intersections between mHealth and sexual and reproductive health and rights in both policy and practice. It is a qualitative study, informed by policy review and key informant interviews. Three case studies provide evidence of what is happening on the ground in relation to ICTs and reproductive health and rights. We argue that in terms of policy, there is little overlap between health rights and communication technology. In the area of practice, however, significant interventions address aspects of reproductive health. At present, the extent to which mHealth addresses the full range of reproductive justice and sexual and reproductive health and rights is limited, particularly in terms of government initiatives. The paper argues that mHealth projects tend to avoid contentious aspects of sexual health, while addressing favourable topics such as pregnancy and motherhood. The ways in which information is framed in mHealth mirrors current gaps within sexual and reproductive health and rights, where a limited and conservative lens predominates, and which may result in narrow programming and implementation of services.
A Swiss pharmaceutical company (F-Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.), first introduced the profession of "propagandist" in Japan in 1912. At the time, Shohei Ninomiya was a chief hospital pharmacist, but he changed his vocation to become the first "propah" (Japanese abbreviation for propagandist). The German physician Dr. Rudolf Ebering initiated Dr. Ninomiya in the methods and principles of "propah," and he faithfully practiced them. The defining principle of a modern European propagandist is one who is far from sales-centered. From the late 1970s through 1980s, however, Japanese pharmaceutical companies indulged in pursuing sales and neglected this principle, resulting in numerous abuses and adverse effects. Today, use of the description "medical representative" (MR) is more common than "propah." Even with this different description, pharmaceutical companies and MRs should never neglect the founding principle to avoid repeating such abuses.
总结了大型现代化精米厂的建设和投产后技术管理的实践经验，介绍了大型现代化精米厂的特点和关键要素，对大型现代化精米厂生产工艺、关键设备、副产品整理和利用以及自动化等方面的发展趋势进行了预测。%The practical experiences for the construction and technicalmanagement of large-scale white rice mill were summarised, the characteristics and key factors of large-scale modern rice mill introduced, and the developing trend of the production technology, main equipment, finishing and by-products utilization as well as automatic control predicted.
Nascimento, Edna de Fátima Gonçalves Alves do; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de
This was a qualitative exploratory study with the objective of identifying perceptions and practices among health professionals in Angola concerning intimate partner violence against women. Semi-structured interviews were held with a senior health administrator, head nurses, medical directors, psychologists, and nurse technicians in three national hospitals in the capital city of Luanda. The perceptions of Angolan health professionals towards violence against women are marked by the cultural construction of woman's social role in the family and the belief in male superiority and female weakness. Despite their familiarity with the types of violence and the consequences for physical and mental health, the health professionals' practices in providing care for women in situations of violence focus on the treatment of physical injuries, overlooking the subjectivity and complexity of these situations. Recent inclusion of the issue in public policies is reflected in health professionals' practices and raises challenges for the health sector in caring for women in situations of violence.
Tanenbaum, Sandra J
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the subject of vigorous controversy in the field of mental health. In this paper I discuss three distinct but interrelated controversies: how inclusive the mental health evidence base should be; whether mental health practice is a variety of applied science; and when and how the effectiveness goal in mental health is defined. I provide examples of evidence-based policy in mental health. These controversies pertain as well to general medicine. To the extent that they remain unresolved, evidence-based policy making may lead to ineffective and limited care.
Vidal, Eglídia Carla Figueirêdo; Saraiva, Klívia Regina de Oliveira; Dodt, Regina Claúdia Melo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha; Barroso, Maria Grasiela Teixeira
Democracy and citizen's participation are part of several aspects of life, and are required in health education, representing the necessary connection to the satisfaction of this practice. Discourse and practices of health education in health services are discussed in this article according to two main categories: 1) democracy and citizenship, and 2) participation of individuals as citizens. One of the strategies used by health professionals to provide the individuals autonomy as health promoters is strengthening the individuals' capacity to participate in decisions that affects them. In order to consolidate popular participation as a democratic ideal a critical professional attitude, based on the combination of full citizenship with liberty, participation, and equality, is required.
Seed, Mary S; Torkelson, Diane J; Karshmer, Judith F
The national movement to transform the health care delivery systems must include a focus on mental health treatment. To address similar deficits across other practice domains, the Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) role has been created. The CNL is a master's degree that prepares a nurse to use a systems perspective to improve outcomes for a cohort of patient, deliver care based on best practices, and coordinate care in a multidisciplinary team. Applying the CNL role to mental health care could help psychiatric mental health nursing be at the forefront in the transformation of mental health care delivery.
Altpeter, Mary; Bryant, Lucinda; Schneider, Ellen; Whitelaw, Nancy
Community-based health care agencies are facing demands for improved outcomes, cost-effective programming, and higher customer satisfaction. Implementing evidence-based health interventions and programs can help to address these challenges. This article provides an overview of evidence-based health practice, including the definition and advantages of this approach, other key terms and concepts inherent to evidence-based practice, and the tasks and steps necessary to its implementation. The article concludes with a list of resources to help health care providers learn about, plan, and implement evidence-based health interventions and programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Health communication discipline has gained importance and health communication studies and strategies have been emphasized in recent years in Turkey. Health promotion is one of the main topics in the field of health communication. Health promotion, which has grown in importance especially with the increase in prevalence of chronic diseases, requires interdisciplinary studies. Communication studies have a crucial role in planning and practising health promotion strategies. With the developments in new communication technologies, use of social media tools in heatlh communication has increased recently. Use of social media enables users active participation and offers new opportunities to improve public health outcomes. For this reason, it’s essential to carry out studies evaluating the effects of social media on society and the role of social media in health promotion practices. This paper examines the role of social media as an effective tool in health promotion practices and action plans, within the context of different countries and strategies.
Achyut, Pranita; Mishra, Anurag; Montana, Livia; Sengupta, Ranajit; Calhoun, Lisa M; Nanda, Priya
Maternal health (MH) services provide an invaluable opportunity to inform and educate women about family planning (FP). It is expected that this would enable women to choose an appropriate method and initiate contraception early in the postpartum period. In this study we examined interactions with health providers for MH services, and the effect of FP information provision during these interactions on the postpartum use of modern contraceptive methods. This study used midline data collected from 990 women who had delivered a live birth between January 2010 and the date of the midline survey in 2012. These women were asked a series of questions about their last delivery, including interactions with health providers during pregnancy, delivery and the postpartum period, if they received FP information during these interactions, and their contraceptive use during the postpartum period. The study found that FP information provision as part of antenatal care in the third trimester, delivery and the postpartum period have a positive association with postpartum modern contraceptive use in urban Uttar Pradesh. However, health providers often miss these opportunities. Despite a high proportion of women coming into contact with health providers when utilising MH services, only a small proportion received FP information during these interactions. Integration of FP with MH services can increase postpartum modern contraceptive use. With the launch of the National Urban Health Mission, there now exists appropriate policy and programmatic environments for integration of FP and MH services in urban settings in India. However, this will require a concentrated effort both to enhance the capacity of health providers and encourage supportive supervision. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Tran, Nathalie Y L; Charbonneau, Johanne; Valderrama-Benitez, Valeria
Through the conceptual lens of the archaic and modern gift, this study aims to examine perceived limitations and facilitators to increasing blood donations within Black communities in Montreal, Canada. The overall objective is to support blood agencies, such as Héma-Québec, in understanding the challenges and opportunities they face in promoting blood donation among Black communities in pluralistic societies. Thirty-three semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with donors and leaders of ethnocultural groups in Montreal: of these, 6 were Héma-Québec employees; 3 were Caribbean blood drive organizers; 14 were leaders of African, Caribbean or Black multiethnic churches and community groups; and finally, 10 were donors, including 2 African, 4 French-speaking Haitian and 4 English-speaking Caribbean. The existence of multiple Black communities in Montreal reflects the various facilitators and obstacles facing Héma-Québec. Caribbean and African communities have their own experiences with regard to blood donation as well as different relationships with the broader Quebec society, both of which have great impact on how they perceive the cause. Questions of trust, of giving to the family and to the community, as well as perceived social exclusion appear to be fundamental issues for our informants. The current participation of groups interested in bettering the lives of those affected by sickle cell anaemia combined with the fact that leaders felt more comfortable donating to someone close to the community suggests that the promotion of blood donation through this angle would be well received. Trust issues, perceived discrimination and social exclusion have structural and historical roots that can only be partly overcome with long-term efforts to increase awareness, develop collaborative partnerships and increase institutional efforts to adapt to the challenges of blood donation from Black citizens.
Alpay, L.L.; Henkemans, O.B.; Otten, W.; Rövekamp, T.A.J.M.; Dumay, A.C.M.
Objective: E-health may enable the empowerment process for patients, particularly the chronically ill. However, e-health is not always designed with the requirements of patient empowerment in mind. Drawing on evidence-based e-health studies, we propose directions for best practices to develop e-heal