WorldWideScience

Sample records for modern fuels behave

  1. Fuel model selection for BEHAVE in midwestern oak savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, K.W.; Dwyer, J.P.; Cutter, B.E.

    2001-01-01

    BEHAVE, a fire behavior prediction system, can be a useful tool for managing areas with prescribed fire. However, the proper choice of fuel models can be critical in developing management scenarios. BEHAVE predictions were evaluated using four standardized fuel models that partially described oak savanna fuel conditions: Fuel Model 1 (Short Grass), 2 (Timber and Grass), 3 (Tall Grass), and 9 (Hardwood Litter). Although all four models yielded regressions with R2 in excess of 0.8, Fuel Model 2 produced the most reliable fire behavior predictions.

  2. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system--FUEL subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Burgan; Richard C. Rothermel

    1984-01-01

    This manual documents the fuel modeling procedures of BEHAVE--a state-of-the-art wildland fire behavior prediction system. Described are procedures for collecting fuel data, using the data with the program, and testing and adjusting the fuel model.

  3. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system-BURN Subsystem, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    1986-01-01

    Describes BURN Subsystem, Part 1, the operational fire behavior prediction subsystem of the BEHAVE fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system. The manual covers operation of the computer program, assumptions of the mathematical models used in the calculations, and application of the predictions.

  4. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system - BURN subsystem, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Carolyn H. Chase

    1989-01-01

    This is the third publication describing the BEHAVE system of computer programs for predicting behavior of wildland fires. This publication adds the following predictive capabilities: distance firebrands are lofted ahead of a wind-driven surface fire, probabilities of firebrands igniting spot fires, scorch height of trees, and percentage of tree mortality. The system...

  5. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Biomass: old fuel for modern times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domac, J. [IEA Bioenergy Task 29, Zagreb (Croatia); Richards, K. [TV Energy Ltd., (United Kingdom); IEA Bioenergy Task 29, Zagreb (Croatia); Segon, V. [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2005-08-01

    The article extols the virtues of biomass in terms of environmental benefits, job creation, economics and sustainable development. At present, biomass is the biggest single renewable energy source worldwide and its use amounts to about 1 billion tonnes of oil equivalent. The various routes for deriving bioenergy from biomass are mentioned. Bioenergy is said to have the potential to supply 50% of the world's energy demand during the next century, but so far, in the UK at least, the bioenergy/wood fuel market has not materialised. The barriers and challenges which need to be overcome for the further exploitation of biomass are listed. Biomass has a bright future and should no longer be regarded as the 'poor man's fuel'.

  7. Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Ian R

    2005-01-01

    The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities.

  8. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  9. Modern on-line control system for refuse-fueled power plants. Moderne Leittechnik fuer Muellverbrennungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasmueck, L. (Asea Brown Boveri AG, Mannheim (Germany, F.R.)); Klitzke, H.J. (Goepfert und Reimer und Partner, Beratende Ingenieure, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)); Schumacher, E. (Technische Werke Ludwigshafen am Rhein AG (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-10-01

    30 years after commissioning a refuse-fueled power plant in Ludwigshafen was retrofitted and extended. A process control system provides an optimal waste combustion and flue gas cleanup. An on-line central strategy, special requirements on waste combustion and solutions are presented in this report. (orig.).

  10. How are we behaving?

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It’s almost two years since CERN introduced a Code of Conduct. The results may not be immediately measurable, but I’d like to think it’s made the lab a better place to be. The Code of Conduct is based on values that most of us immediately identify with, and so implementing it comes as second nature. Nevertheless, in an organisation of over 10,000 people, it’s useful to have a set of guidelines and there have been occasions on which it’s been necessary to remind people of them.   I use the figure of 10,000 advisedly since the Code of Conduct applies to us all, those on the CERN payroll as well as users of the lab’s facilities and people working for CERN contractors, as long as they are acting on CERN’s behalf. The Code also applies to us whether we are on the CERN site or anywhere else. CERN is a major presence in the region. The way we behave can have a significant influence on how our neighbours perceive us, and how the la...

  11. Military Fuel and Alternative Fuel Effects on a Modern Diesel Engine Employing a Fuel-Lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    Fuel-lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System, Adam C. Brandt, et al. Page 3 of 7 UNCLASSIFIED contains a two lobe camshaft ... camshafts rotation. These follower assemblies are then used to actuate the fuel plunger within the barrel to generate high pressure fuel. Fuel entering...top & bottom Camshaft light polish, seal contact wear light polish, very light burnish, seal contact wear light polish, light burnish, seal

  12. Are Girls Behaving like Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…

  13. Current status and future needs of the BehavePlus Fire Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2014-01-01

    The BehavePlus Fire Modeling System is among the most widely used systems for wildland fire prediction. It is designed for use in a range of tasks including wildfire behaviour prediction, prescribed fire planning, fire investigation, fuel hazard assessment, fire model understanding, communication and research. BehavePlus is based on mathematical models for fire...

  14. Characterization of new materials in chromatography and fuel cell development by modern NMR techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Schauff, Siri

    2007-01-01

    Phosphonic acids for high temperature fuel cell membrane materials were investigated with respect to proton mobility and transport applying solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Water uptake and its effects on anhydride formation were studied on samples that were equilibrated with saturated salt solutions. For polyvinylphosphonic acid reversible anhydride formation was found. Variable temperature 1H MAS NMR spectroscopy of three different phosphonic acids revealed single proton sites, and 1H chemical...

  15. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  16. Do you BEHAVE? - Application of the BehavePlus fire modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The BehavePlus fire modeling system is the successor to BEHAVE, which was first used in the field in 1984. It is public domain software, available for free use on personal computers. Information on user communities and fire management applications can be useful in designing next generation systems. Several sources of information about BehavePlus are summarized to...

  17. Concatenated analysis sheds light on early metazoan evolution and fuels a modern "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schierwater

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, the origin of metazoan animals has been debated. One aspect of this debate has been centered on what the hypothetical "urmetazoon" bauplan might have been. The morphologically most simply organized metazoan animal, the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, resembles an intriguing model for one of several "urmetazoon" hypotheses: the placula hypothesis. Clear support for a basal position of Placozoa would aid in resolving several key issues of metazoan-specific inventions (including, for example, head-foot axis, symmetry, and coelom and would determine a root for unraveling their evolution. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic relationships at the base of Metazoa have been controversial because of conflicting phylogenetic scenarios generated while addressing the question. Here, we analyze the sum of morphological evidence, the secondary structure of mitochondrial ribosomal genes, and molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes that amass over 9,400 phylogenetically informative characters from 24 to 73 taxa. Together with mitochondrial DNA genome structure and sequence analyses and Hox-like gene expression patterns, these data (1 provide evidence that Placozoa are basal relative to all other diploblast phyla and (2 spark a modernized "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

  18. The fuel quality and its impact on off-gas emissions of modern Diesel engines. Zum Einfluss der Kraftstoffqualitaet auf die Abgasemissionen moderner Fahrzeugdieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabelstein, W.E.A.; Cooke, J.A.; Marriott, J.M.

    1991-12-01

    Compared to a market average baseline fuel quality, improvements in terms of ignition quality and volatility resulted in significant reductions of CO, HC and particulate emissions. It was also demonstrated that the previously predicted long term fuel quality deterioration would habe been detrimental from the point of view of exhaust emissions. The influence of fuel quality on particulate emissions can be described by conventional properties without reference to aromatic content, which is difficult to define and measure unambiguously. Fuel sulphur level is also seen to be an important variable as far as particulate emissions are concerned and while Stage A (01.07.92) of the EEC proposal of 15th June 1990 exhaust emissions legislation for commercial vehicles maintains sulphur content at 0.3/0.2%wt, for Stage B (01.10.96), a reduction of sulphur content to 0.05%wt is required. The interdependence of fuel quality and exhaust emissions is taken into account in the European Standardisation of automotive gas oil for 1992/93 by more exacting requirements in terms of ignition quality, density, viscosity and volatility. The definition of an ideal diesel fuel with higher ignition quality and lower sulphur content must take into account not only economic but also environmental factors including refinery energy usage and carbon dioxide emissions. An ERGA-type study for diesel fuel production encompassing these factors as well as vehicle performance is needed. (orig./EF).

  19. Determination of biogenic component in liquid fuels by the 14C direct LSC method by using quenching properties of modern liquids for calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronić, Ines Krajcar; Barešić, Jadranka; Horvatinčić, Nada; Sironić, Andreja

    2017-08-01

    The fraction of biogenic component within various types of materials that can be used as fuels for energy production and transport can be determined by measuring their 14C activity. The method is based on different 14C signatures of the biogenic and the fossil components: while the biogenic component reflects the modern atmospheric 14C activity, no 14C is present in fossil fuels. A direct measurement of the 14C content in liquid fuel by liquid scintillation counter is a simple and fast technique but has a main disadvantage: different liquid colors cause different quenching properties and affect the measurement efficiency. We propose a new evaluation technique that uses liquids of different colors to construct modern and background calibration curves. Various binary mixtures of biogenic liquids have been used to verify the relation between the count rate and the quenching parameter. Mixtures of a biogenic and a 14C-free liquid demonstrated the potential of the proposed technique for determining the biogenic fraction of a mixture.

  20. Influence of fuel ethanol content on primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential for a modern flex-fuel gasoline vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Hilkka; Karjalainen, Panu; Saukko, Erkka; Saarikoski, Sanna; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Simonen, Pauli; Murtonen, Timo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Bloss, Matthew; Ahlberg, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Pagels, Joakim; Brune, William H.; Keskinen, Jorma; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Hillamo, Risto; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-04-01

    The effect of fuel ethanol content (10, 85 and 100 %) on primary emissions and on subsequent secondary aerosol formation was investigated for a Euro 5 flex-fuel gasoline vehicle. Emissions were characterized during a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using a comprehensive set-up of high time-resolution instruments. A detailed chemical composition of the exhaust particulate matter (PM) was studied using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), and secondary aerosol formation was studied using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. For the primary gaseous compounds, an increase in total hydrocarbon emissions and a decrease in aromatic BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) compounds was observed when the amount of ethanol in the fuel increased. In regard to particles, the largest primary particulate matter concentrations and potential for secondary particle formation was measured for the E10 fuel (10 % ethanol). As the ethanol content of the fuel increased, a significant decrease in the average primary particulate matter concentrations over the NEDC was found. The PM emissions were 0.45, 0.25 and 0.15 mg m-3 for E10, E85 and E100, respectively. Similarly, a clear decrease in secondary aerosol formation potential was observed with a larger contribution of ethanol in the fuel. The secondary-to-primary PM ratios were 13.4 and 1.5 for E10 and E85, respectively. For E100, a slight decrease in PM mass was observed after the PAM chamber, indicating that the PM produced by secondary aerosol formation was less than the PM lost through wall losses or the degradation of the primary organic aerosol (POA) in the chamber. For all fuel blends, the formed secondary aerosol consisted mostly of organic compounds. For E10, the contribution of organic compounds containing oxygen increased from 35 %, measured for primary organics, to 62 % after the PAM chamber. For E85, the contribution of organic compounds containing oxygen increased from 42 % (primary) to 57

  1. Influence of mobile air-conditioning on vehicle emissions and fuel consumption: a model approach for modern gasoline cars used in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Vasic, Ana-Marija; Stettler, Peter; Novak, Philippe

    2005-12-15

    The influence of air-conditioning activity on the emissions and fuel consumption of passenger cars is an important issue, since fleet penetration and use of these systems have reached a high level. Apart from the MOBILE6 study in the United States, little data is available on the impact of air-conditioning devices (A/Cs). Since weather conditions and A/C technologies both differ from those in the U. S., a test series was designed for the European setting. A fleet of six modern gasoline passenger cars was tested in different weather conditions. Separate test series were carried out for the initial cooldown and for the stationary situation of keeping the interior of the vehicle cool. As assumed, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption rise with the thermal load. This also causes a notable rise in CO and hydrocarbons (HCs). Moreover, A/Cs do not stop automatically at low ambient temperatures; if necessary, they produce dry air to demist the windscreen. A model is proposed that shows a constant load for lower temperatures and a linear trend for higher temperatures. The initial cooldown tests highlight significant differences among cars but show that A/C operation for the initial cooling of an overheated passenger compartment does not result in any extra emissions for the fleet as a whole.

  2. Modern State and Efficiency Analysis of Heat Recovery in Fuel Furnaces Using High Temperature Recuperators. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soroka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes various factors that affect upon heat transfer in high temperature recuperators, namely: heat transfer enhancement, heat exchange surface increase and rise of temperature head between primary and secondary heat transfer fluids. Comparison of experimental data with the results of mathematical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling has been performed in the paper. The paper considers some new designs of high temperature heat recovery plants: tube recuperator equipped with internal inserts – secondary emitters inside tubes for metallurgical furnaces and high-efficient two-way radiative recuperators for machinery engineering furnaces.  Advantages of new recuperators in comparison with existing analogues have been estimated in the paper. These advantages are:  provision of additional fuel saving due to increase of preheating temperature of the combustion air and improvement of design stability by decrease of tube wall temperature.

  3. Recent advances in the development and utilization of modern anode materials for high performance microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Jayesh M; Yadav, Abhishek; Ghosh, Prakash C; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2017-04-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are novel bio-electrochemical device for spontaneous or single step conversion of biomass into electricity, based on the use of metabolic activity of bacteria. The design and use of MFCs has attracted considerable interests because of the potential new opportunities they offer for sustainable production of energy from biodegradable and reused waste materials. However, the associated slow microbial kinetics and costly construction materials has limited a much wider commercial use of the technology. In the past ten years, there has been significant new developments in MFCs which has resulted in several-fold increase in achievable power density. Yet, there is still considerable possibility for further improvement in performance and development of new cost effective materials. This paper comprehensively reviews recent advances in the construction and utilization of novel anodes for MFCs. In particular, it highlights some of the critical roles and functions of anodes in MFCs, strategies available for improving surface areas of anodes, dominant performance of stainless-steel based anode materials, and the emerging benefits of inclusion of nanomaterials. The review also demonstrates that some of the materials are very promising for large scale MFC applications and are likely to replace conventional anodes for the development of next generation MFC systems. The hurdles to the development of commercial MFC technology are also discussed. Furthermore, the future directions in the design and selection of materials for construction and utilization of MFC anodes are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic tracking of eye position in freely behaving chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Schwarz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the visual system of non-primates, such as birds and rodents, is increasing. Evidence that neural responses can differ dramatically between head-immobilized and freely behaving animals underlines the importance of studying visual processing in ethologically relevant contexts. In order to systematically study visual responses in freely behaving animals, an unobtrusive system for monitoring eye-in-orbit position in real time is essential. We describe a novel system for monitoring eye position that utilizes a head-mounted magnetic displacement sensor coupled with an eye-implanted magnet. This system is small, lightweight, and offers high temporal and spatial resolution in real time. We use the system to demonstrate the stability of the eye and the stereotypy of eye position during two different behavioral tasks in chickens. This approach offers a viable alternative to search coil and optical eye tracking techniques for high resolution tracking of eye-in-orbit positions in behaving animals.

  5. Magnetic tracking of eye position in freely behaving chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jason S.; Sridharan, Devarajan; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the visual system of non-primates, such as birds and rodents, is increasing. Evidence that neural responses can differ dramatically between head-immobilized and freely behaving animals underlines the importance of studying visual processing in ethologically relevant contexts. In order to systematically study visual responses in freely behaving animals, an unobtrusive system for monitoring eye-in-orbit position in real time is essential. We describe a novel system for monitoring eye position that utilizes a head-mounted magnetic displacement sensor coupled with an eye-implanted magnet. This system is small, lightweight, and offers high temporal and spatial resolution in real time. We use the system to demonstrate the stability of the eye and the stereotypy of eye position during two different behavioral tasks in chickens. This approach offers a viable alternative to search coil and optical eye tracking techniques for high resolution tracking of eye-in-orbit position in behaving animals. PMID:24312023

  6. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    optimize engine performance and emissions. Fuel injectors contain an actuator, pintle (or needle), and nozzle. The most common actuator is a solenoid ...Introduction Fuel injectors have a long history in metering fuel in modern engines by either port fuel injection (PFI) or direct fuel injection (DFI...Compared with a carburetor, fuel injectors have more accurate fuel delivering capability, thus giving engineers and technicians more flexibility to

  7. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the

  8. A Novel Distributed Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO is an improved version of particle swarm optimization (PSO and has shown superior performance on many optimization problems. But for now, it may not always satisfy the situations. Nowadays, problems become larger and more complex, and most serial optimization algorithms cannot deal with the problem or need plenty of computing cost. Fortunately, as an effective model in dealing with problems with big data which need huge computation, MapReduce has been widely used in many areas. In this paper, we implement QPSO on MapReduce model and propose MapReduce quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (MRQPSO which achieves parallel and distributed QPSO. Comparisons are made between MRQPSO and QPSO on some test problems and nonlinear equation systems. The results show that MRQPSO could complete computing task with less time. Meanwhile, from the view of optimization performance, MRQPSO outperforms QPSO in many cases.

  9. On the extension of modern best-estimate plus uncertainy methodologies to future fast reactor and advanced fuel licensing - initial evaluation of issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcclure, Patrick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Closing the fuel cycle is the major technical challenge to expanding nuclear energy to meet the world's need for benign, environmentally safe electrical power. Closing the fuel cycle means getting the maximum amount of energy possible out of uranium fuel while in turn minimizing the amount of high-level waste that must be stored. DOE's Advance Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program addresses this challenge by recycling the transuranic (TRU) isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel; recycling, in turn, minimizes the amount of high-level waste that would require storage in repositories. Developing new fuels and the plants that burn them is a lengthy and expensive process, typically spanning a period of two decades from concept to final licensing. A unique challenge to meeting the AFCI objectives in this area is that the experimental database is seriously incomplete. As such, using a traditional, heavily empirical approach to develop and qualify fuels and plant operation over the operational conditions of a AFCI plant will be very challenging, if not impossible, within the expected schedule and budgetary constraints. To address this concern AFCI has launched an advanced modeling and simulation (M&S) approach to revolutionize fuel development and fast reactor design. This new approach is predicated upon transferring the recent advances in computational sciences and computer technologies into the development of these program elements. The licensing process that has historically been used by the NRC for fuels qualification is based upon using a large body of experimental work to qualify and license a new fuel. If a modeling and simulation approach with more directed experimentation is to be considered as an alternative approach for licensing, then a framework needs to be developed that can be agreed to with the NRC early in the developmental process. The use of modeling and simulation as a means of demonstrating that a design can meet NRC requirements is not new

  10. Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry 40

    CERN Document Server

    White, Ralph E

    2007-01-01

    This volume in the acclaimed series Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry starts with a dedication to the late Professor Brian Conway who for 50 years helped to guide this series to its current prominence. The remainder of the volume is then devoted to the following topics: PEM fuel cells; the use of graphs in electrochemical reaction newtworks; nanomaterials in Lithium-ion batteries; direct methanolf fuel cells (two chapters); fuel cell catalyst layers. The book is for electrochemists, electrochemical engineers, fuel cell workers and energy generation workers.

  11. Fuels and Lubricants Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Modern naval aircraft and turbine-powered craft require reliable and high-quality fuels and lubricants to satisfy the demands imposed upon them for top performance...

  12. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  13. Well behaved anisotropic compact star models in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, M. K.; Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Dayanandan, B.

    2016-11-01

    Anisotropic compact star models have been constructed by assuming a particular form of a metric function e^{λ}. We solved the Einstein field equations for determining the metric function e^{ν}. For this purpose we have assumed a physically valid expression of radial pressure (pr). The obtained anisotropic compact star model is representing the realistic compact objects such as PSR 1937 +21. We have done an extensive study about physical parameters for anisotropic models and found that these parameters are well behaved throughout inside the star. Along with these we have also determined the equation of state for compact star which gives the radial pressure is purely the function of density i.e. pr=f(ρ).

  14. Characterization of new materials in chromatography and fuel cell development by modern NMR techniques; Charakterisierung neuer Materialien in der Chromatographie und Brennstoffzellen-Forschung mit Hilfe moderner NMR-Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauff, S.

    2007-12-28

    New materials, suitable for the application in reversed phase liquid chromatography and fuel cell membranes, were characterized regarding their structure and dynamic properties using solid-state and suspended-state NMR spectroscopy. Both methods were found to be suitable to study the dynamic behaviour, the first to observe intrinsic mobilities of phosphonic acids, the second to monitor interaction processes taking place in a chromatography-like system. Several phosphonic acids, which are promising materials for high temperature fuel cell membranes, were investigated with respect to proton mobility and transport applying various solid-state NMR methods. In addition, water uptake and its effects on anhydride formation were studied on samples that were equilibrated with saturated salt solutions. For PVPA substantial, reversible anhydride formation was found, while MePA did not show condensation. These results show that the relation between hydrogen bond strength and proton mobility is complex. In particular, this work demonstrates that the application of simple 1D 1H and 2H NMR experiments provides easy access to information about proton/deuteron mobility on short time scales, needed for an identification of materials with high intrinsic proton conductivities. Stationary phases for reversed phase liquid chomatography were characterized by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and their influence on different analytes was studied using suspendedstate HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. Suspended-state HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy showed to be suitable to model the separation process of analytes on chromatographic sorbents. For this, the stationary phase was suspended in a solution of analyte dissolved in mobile phase. MePhSucc showed a peak doubling of the CH2 group in presence of monomeric C18 phase, leading to the coexistence of a narrow and a broadened peak. Thus, the dynamic interactions of MePhSucc towards the stationary phase, and under the influence of the mobile phase, could be

  15. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  16. Effect of alternative fuel properties on NOx reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter; Tokheim, Lars-André; Bjerketvedt, Dag

    2002-01-01

    Today we see a substantial increase in the use of alternative fuels in the cement industry. The prospect of reduction in fuel costs and the environmental benefits of waste to energy conversion are the driving forces. For several years Norcem have steadily increased their use of alternative fuels such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), liquid hazardous waste (LHW), solid hazardous waste (SHW), animal meal (AM) and waste oil (WO). Alternative fuels behave differently compared to e.g. coa...

  17. Modern algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Seth

    1990-01-01

    Standard text provides an exceptionally comprehensive treatment of every aspect of modern algebra. Explores algebraic structures, rings and fields, vector spaces, polynomials, linear operators, much more. Over 1,300 exercises. 1965 edition.

  18. Behavioural Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  19. Modernity's Prometheus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  20. Modernity's Prometheus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  1. Does urothelial cancer of bladder behave differently in young patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hua; LI You-yuan; HU Zhi-quan; ZHU Hui; ZHUANG Qian-yuan; QI Yong; YE Zhang-qun

    2012-01-01

    Background Bladder urothelial cancer has been diagnosed at an increasing rate among young adults in China while the clinical outcomes remain highly controversial.To optimize the management of young patients with bladder cancer,we examined whether bladder urothelial cancer in young patients behaved differently from that in the elder patients.Methods From 1994 to 2008,a database of bladder urothelial cancer patients at a major tertiary medical center was retrospectively reviewed.The clinical and pathological parameters of patients who were less than 40 years of age and a series of patients older than 40 years of age as the control group during the same period were compared.A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test,and Cox regression was performed to identify clinical parameters that affected the clinic outcomes.Results Young bladder cancer patients had a lower male-to-female ratio and were less likely to have advanced stages and high-grade cancers at the initial diagnosis.Tumors in young bladder cancer patients tended to be less multifocal at diagnosis.In addition,young patients had a lower recurrence rate and longer recurrence interval than older patients.The Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-rank test showed that young patients had significantly better cancer specific survival than old patients.The univariats and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that tumor grade is the sole predictor for tumor recurrence in young patients.Conclusions Young patients with bladder cancer have favorable pathological features and clinical outcomes than older patients.These findings argue for more conservative management approaches for young patients with bladder cancer.

  2. The biology of habitat dominance; can microbes behave as weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Jonathan A; Bell, Andrew N W; Bhaganna, Prashanth; Mswaka, Allen Y; Timson, David J; Hallsworth, John E

    2013-09-01

    Competition between microbial species is a product of, yet can lead to a reduction in, the microbial diversity of specific habitats. Microbial habitats can resemble ecological battlefields where microbial cells struggle to dominate and/or annihilate each other and we explore the hypothesis that (like plant weeds) some microbes are genetically hard-wired to behave in a vigorous and ecologically aggressive manner. These 'microbial weeds' are able to dominate the communities that develop in fertile but uncolonized--or at least partially vacant--habitats via traits enabling them to out-grow competitors; robust tolerances to habitat-relevant stress parameters and highly efficient energy-generation systems; avoidance of or resistance to viral infection, predation and grazers; potent antimicrobial systems; and exceptional abilities to sequester and store resources. In addition, those associated with nutritionally complex habitats are extraordinarily versatile in their utilization of diverse substrates. Weed species typically deploy multiple types of antimicrobial including toxins; volatile organic compounds that act as either hydrophobic or highly chaotropic stressors; biosurfactants; organic acids; and moderately chaotropic solutes that are produced in bulk quantities (e.g. acetone, ethanol). Whereas ability to dominate communities is habitat-specific we suggest that some microbial species are archetypal weeds including generalists such as: Pichia anomala, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas putida; specialists such as Dunaliella salina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria; freshwater autotrophs Gonyostomum semen and Microcystis aeruginosa; obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum; facultative pathogens such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and other extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes such as Aspergillus spp., Salinibacter ruber and Haloquadratum walsbyi. Some microbes

  3. Quantum Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on Artificial Fish Swarm

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Yumin; Zhao Li

    2014-01-01

    Quantum behaved particle swarm algorithm is a new intelligent optimization algorithm; the algorithm has less parameters and is easily implemented. In view of the existing quantum behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm for the premature convergence problem, put forward a quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm based on artificial fish swarm. The new algorithm based on quantum behaved particle swarm algorithm, introducing the swarm and following activities, meanwhile using the a...

  4. Montreal Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Through analyses of the retro scenes in Montreal, Canada, the article discusses retro culture’s role as cultural memory. It is shown how Montreal’s cultural identity is formed by memories of modern culture such as the Red-light and Sin City reputation of the illicit nightlife of the 1940s and 1950s...

  5. Modern Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  6. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  7. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar

  8. Modern maths

    CERN Document Server

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  9. Cyberspace modernization :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  10. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  11. SOME ASPECTS OF FUEL CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This work provides literature data to improve solid oxide fuel cells by a direct methane fuel cell and electrode settings of uninterrupted space. The possibility of electrochemical generators SOFC as synthesis gas from natural gas. We describe progress in the creation of new nanomaterials for components SOFC and modern technologies for their manufacture. Briefly described features of the operation and use molten carbonate fuel cells and their accessories and SOFC in cogeneration system (three...

  12. Improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with local search strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Xi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization, which was motivated by analysis of particle swarm optimization and quantum system, has shown compared performance in finding the optimal solutions for many optimization problems to other evolutionary algorithms. To address the problem of premature, a local search strategy is proposed to improve the performance of quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. In proposed local search strategy, a super particle is presented which is a collection body of randomly selected particles’ dimension information in the swarm. The selected probability of particles in swarm is different and determined by their fitness values. To minimization problems, the fitness value of one particle is smaller; the selected probability is more and will contribute more information in constructing the super particle. In addition, in order to investigate the influence on algorithm performance with different local search space, four methods of computing the local search radius are applied in local search strategy and propose four variants of local search quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. Empirical studies on a suite of well-known benchmark functions are undertaken in order to make an overall performance comparison among the proposed methods and other quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. The simulation results show that the proposed quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization variants have better advantages over the original quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization.

  13. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  14. Modern electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zangwill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

  15. Modern thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  17. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  18. Main areas of the national economy modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Tsvetkov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the concept of modernization, its main areas related to the commodity sector and transport infrastructure are identified, it is proposed to consider the application in relation to the modernization of modernization of the commodity sector. The author connects the need to modernize the Russian economy with the task of doubling GDP, correcting structural imbalances, reducing the technological gap with the developed world, overcoming social polarization in income, fighting inflation and smoothing the growth of inter-regional contrasts. The aim of modernizing the Russian economy is to achieve high competitiveness of the national economy, which would put the Russian Federation in terms of living standards among the most developed countries, and would provide a decent position in the world. The fact that "breakthrough" sectors of the sixth technological structure cannot be the starting point of modernization is substantiated. The concept of national competitiveness is reviewed. The lack of a complete model of modernization in the world is highlighted. Two main areas in relation to the modernization of the Russian Federation are identified: modernization of the commodity sector, which should represent applied modernization based on the comparative advantages of the Russian economy; with respect to functionally interrelated industries (fuel and energy complex and the oil-gas and upgrading of transport infrastructure, which is so effective because of unique transit facilities and prospects of Russia.

  19. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    , as the concept was pluralized into a variety of forms: multiple modernities, parallel modernities, manifold modernities, alternative modernities, competing modernities, reflexive modernities, early modernities, other modernities – the list still unfolding. By reviewing various attempts to conceptualise...... configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose...

  20. Age differences in how consumers behave following exposure to DTC advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, Denise E; Huh, Jisu; Reid, Leonard N

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide additional evidence on how consumers behave following direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising exposure and to determine if there are differences in ad-prompted acts (drug inquiry and drug requests) between different age groups (i.e., older, mature, and younger adults). The results suggest that younger, mature, and older consumers are all moved to act by DTC drug ads, but that each age group behaves in different ways. Somewhat surprisingly, age was not predictive of ad-prompted behavior. DTC advertising was no more effective at moving older consumers to behave than their younger counterparts. These results suggest that age does not matter that much when it comes to the "moving power" of prescription drug advertising, even though research indicates that older consumers are more vulnerable to the persuasive effects of communication.

  1. Practical Conditions for Well-behaved-ness of Anisotropic Voronoi Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Canas, Guillermo D

    2012-01-01

    Recently, simple conditions for well-behaved-ness of anisotropic Voronoi diagrams have been proposed. While these conditions ensure well-behaved-ness of two types of practical anisotropic Voronoi diagrams, as well as the geodesic-distance one, in any dimension, they are both prohibitively expensive to evaluate, and not well-suited for typical problems in approximation or optimization. We propose simple conditions that can be efficiently evaluated, and are better suited to practical problems of approximation and optimization. The practical utility of this analysis is enhanced by the fact that orphan-free anisotropic Voronoi diagrams have embedded triangulations as duals.

  2. Multiple modernities, modern subjectivities and social order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Sinclair, Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    to modern subjectivity formation. In combining conceptual tools from these strands of social theory, we argue that the emergence of multiple modernities should be understood as a historical result of idiosyncratic social constructions combining global social imaginaries with religious and other cultural......Taking its point of departure in the conceptual debate about modernities in the plural, this article presents a heuristic framework based on an interpretative approach to modernity. The article draws on theories of multiple modernities, successive modernities and poststructuralist approaches...... traditions. In the second part of the article we illustrate this argument with three short excursions into the history of Islamic reform in the 19th and 20th centuries. In this way we interpret the modern history of Muslim societies as based on cultural conflicts between different forms of social order...

  3. Hippocampal activity during transient respiratory events in the freely behaving cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M;

    1996-01-01

    We measured dorsal hippocampal activity accompanying sighs and apnea using reflectance imaging and electrophysiologic measures in freely behaving cats. Reflected 660-nm light from a 1-mm2 area of CA1 was captured during sighs and apnea at 25 Hz through a coherent image conduit coupled to a charge...

  4. A family of well-behaved Karmarkar spacetimes describing interior of relativistic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. Newton [National Defence Academy, Department of Physics, Pune (India); Pant, Neeraj [National Defence Academy, Department of Mathematics, Pune (India)

    2016-10-15

    We present a family of new exact solutions for relativistic anisotropic stellar objects by considering a four-dimensional spacetime embedded in a five-dimensional pseudo Euclidean space, known as Class I solutions. These solutions are well behaved in all respects, satisfy all energy conditions, and the resulting compactness parameter is also within Buchdahl limit. The well-behaved nature of the solutions for a particular star solely depends on the index n. We have discussed the solutions in detail for the neutron star XTE J1739-285 (M = 1.51M {sub CircleDot}, R = 10.9 km). For this particular star, the solution is well behaved in all respects for 8 ≤ n ≤ 20. However, the solutions with n < 8 possess an increasing trend of the sound speed and the solutions belonging to n > 20 disobey the causality condition. Further, the well-behaved nature of the solutions for PSR J0348+0432 (2.01M {sub CircleDot}, 11 km), EXO 1785-248 (1.3M {sub CircleDot}, 8.85 km), and Her X-1 (0.85M {sub CircleDot}, 8.1 km) are specified by the index n with limits 24 ≤ n ≤ 54, 1.5 ≤ n ≤ 4, and 0.8 ≤ n ≤ 2.7, respectively. (orig.)

  5. A family of well-behaved Karmarkar spacetime describing interior of relativistic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ksh Newton

    2016-01-01

    We are presenting a family of new exact solutions for relativistic anisotropic stellar objects by considering four dimensional spacetime embedded in five dimensional Pseudo Euclidean space known as Class I solutions. These solutions are well-behaved in all respects and free from central singularities. It also satisfies all energy conditions and the resulting compactness parameter is within Buchdahl limit. Here we discovered that the mass of compact stars represented by these solution depends on the parameter n and the radius rb. The well-behaved nature of the solutions depends on mass and radius of the chosen stars. We have discussed the solutions in detail for the neutron star XTE J1739-217 (M = 1.51$M_\\odot$, R = 10.9 km). For the particle star, the solution is well behaved in all respects for n = 8 to n = 20, where the solutions with n 20 disobeyed causality condition. However, for PSR J0348+0432 (2.01$M_\\odot$, 11km), the parameter n may approach upto 25 and the solution is well-behaved.

  6. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  7. Combinatorial Clustering Algorithm of Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Yuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a combinatorial clustering algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (COCQPSO to solve the stochastic problem. The algorithm employs a novel probability model as well as a permutation-based local search method. We are setting the parameters of COCQPSO based on the design of experiment. In the comprehensive computational study, we scrutinize the performance of COCQPSO on a set of widely used benchmark instances. By benchmarking combinatorial clustering algorithm with state-of-the-art algorithms, we can show that its performance compares very favorably. The fuzzy combinatorial optimization algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (FCOCQPSO in vague sets (IVSs is more expressive than the other fuzzy sets. Finally, numerical examples show the clustering effectiveness of COCQPSO and FCOCQPSO clustering algorithms which are extremely remarkable.

  8. Evolving Models of Pavlovian Conditioning: Cerebellar Cortical Dynamics in Awake Behaving Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. ten Brinke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three decades of electrophysiological research on cerebellar cortical activity underlying Pavlovian conditioning have expanded our understanding of motor learning in the brain. Purkinje cell simple spike suppression is considered to be crucial in the expression of conditional blink responses (CRs. However, trial-by-trial quantification of this link in awake behaving animals is lacking, and current hypotheses regarding the underlying plasticity mechanisms have diverged from the classical parallel fiber one to the Purkinje cell synapse LTD hypothesis. Here, we establish that acquired simple spike suppression, acquired conditioned stimulus (CS-related complex spike responses, and molecular layer interneuron (MLI activity predict the expression of CRs on a trial-by-trial basis using awake behaving mice. Additionally, we show that two independent transgenic mouse mutants with impaired MLI function exhibit motor learning deficits. Our findings suggest multiple cerebellar cortical plasticity mechanisms underlying simple spike suppression, and they implicate the broader involvement of the olivocerebellar module within the interstimulus interval.

  9. A VLSI Neural Monitoring System With Ultra-Wideband Telemetry for Awake Behaving Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, E; Mollazadeh, M; Hu, C; Wei Tang; Culurciello, E; Thakor, V

    2011-04-01

    Long-term monitoring of neuronal activity in awake behaving subjects can provide fundamental information about brain dynamics for neuroscience and neuroengineering applications. Here, we present a miniature, lightweight, and low-power recording system for monitoring neural activity in awake behaving animals. The system integrates two custom designed very-large-scale integrated chips, a neural interface module fabricated in 0.5 μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology and an ultra-wideband transmitter module fabricated in a 0.5 μm silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) technology. The system amplifies, filters, digitizes, and transmits 16 channels of neural data at a rate of 1 Mb/s. The entire system, which includes the VLSI circuits, a digital interface board, a battery, and a custom housing, is small and lightweight (24 g) and, thus, can be chronically mounted on small animals. The system consumes 4.8 mA and records continuously for up to 40 h powered by a 3.7-V, 200-mAh rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Experimental benchtop characterizations as well as in vivo multichannel neural recordings from awake behaving rats are presented here.

  10. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  11. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  12. Functional recordings from awake, behaving rodents through a microchannel based regenerative neural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Russell K.; Choi, Yoonsu; Bellamkonda, Ravi; English, Arthur

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Neural interface technologies could provide controlling connections between the nervous system and external technologies, such as limb prosthetics. The recording of efferent, motor potentials is a critical requirement for a peripheral neural interface, as these signals represent the user-generated neural output intended to drive external devices. Our objective was to evaluate structural and functional neural regeneration through a microchannel neural interface and to characterize potentials recorded from electrodes placed within the microchannels in awake and behaving animals. Approach. Female rats were implanted with muscle EMG electrodes and, following unilateral sciatic nerve transection, the cut nerve was repaired either across a microchannel neural interface or with end-to-end surgical repair. During a 13 week recovery period, direct muscle responses to nerve stimulation proximal to the transection were monitored weekly. In two rats repaired with the neural interface, four wire electrodes were embedded in the microchannels and recordings were obtained within microchannels during proximal stimulation experiments and treadmill locomotion. Main results. In these proof-of-principle experiments, we found that axons from cut nerves were capable of functional reinnervation of distal muscle targets, whether regenerating through a microchannel device or after direct end-to-end repair. Discrete stimulation-evoked and volitional potentials were recorded within interface microchannels in a small group of awake and behaving animals and their firing patterns correlated directly with intramuscular recordings during locomotion. Of 38 potentials extracted, 19 were identified as motor axons reinnervating tibialis anterior or soleus muscles using spike triggered averaging. Significance. These results are evidence for motor axon regeneration through microchannels and are the first report of in vivo recordings from regenerated motor axons within microchannels in a small

  13. Sampling phasic dopamine signaling with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in awake, behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, S M; Cone, J J; Ng-Evans, S; McCutcheon, J E; Roitman, M F

    2015-01-05

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that permits the in vivo measurement of extracellular fluctuations in multiple chemical species. The technique is frequently utilized to sample sub-second (phasic) concentration changes of the neurotransmitter dopamine in awake and behaving rats. Phasic dopamine signaling is implicated in reinforcement, goal-directed behavior, and locomotion, and FSCV has been used to investigate how rapid changes in striatal dopamine concentration contribute to these and other behaviors. This unit describes the instrumentation and construction, implantation, and use of components required to sample and analyze dopamine concentration changes in awake rats with FSCV.

  14. Pareto-Ranking Based Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization for Multiobjective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on pareto-ranking based quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO for multiobjective optimization problems is presented in this paper. During the iteration, an external repository is maintained to remember the nondominated solutions, from which the global best position is chosen. The comparison between different elitist selection strategies (preference order, sigma value, and random selection is performed on four benchmark functions and two metrics. The results demonstrate that QPSO with preference order has comparative performance with sigma value according to different number of objectives. Finally, QPSO with sigma value is applied to solve multiobjective flexible job-shop scheduling problems.

  15. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    as a discipline, and has important roots in Max Weber’s comparative sociology, elaborated for example by Shmul Eisenstadt. If anthropology, as Arjun Appadurai argues in Modernity at Large, wishes to contribute to a new social theory of modernity, it would need to tackle the theoretical luggage that the modernity......Anthropology never had an easy relationship with the concept of modernity. The “reflexive turn” which developed during the 1980s and 1990s tackled the concept of modernity as a culturally constructed narrative underlying Western self-assumptions of self and other– assumptions that needed...... to be unpacked and left behind. The debate was an essential part of a disciplininary reflexivity reconsidering anthropology’s epistemological and political roots in that very modernity. From the mid 1990s modernity was, somewhat surprisingly, reintroduced as a useful if not necessary conceptual tool...

  16. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  17. An Improved Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Elitist Breeding for Unconstrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Lun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with elitist breeding (EB-QPSO for unconstrained optimization is presented and empirically studied in this paper. In EB-QPSO, the novel elitist breeding strategy acts on the elitists of the swarm to escape from the likely local optima and guide the swarm to perform more efficient search. During the iterative optimization process of EB-QPSO, when criteria met, the personal best of each particle and the global best of the swarm are used to generate new diverse individuals through the transposon operators. The new generated individuals with better fitness are selected to be the new personal best particles and global best particle to guide the swarm for further solution exploration. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Compared with five state-of-the-art quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithms, the proposed EB-QPSO performs more competitively in all of the benchmark functions in terms of better global search capability and faster convergence rate.

  18. A Novel Quantum-Behaved Bat Algorithm with Mean Best Position Directed for Numerical Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Binglian; Zhu, Wenyong; Liu, Zijuan; Duan, Qingyan; Cao, Long

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel quantum-behaved bat algorithm with the direction of mean best position (QMBA). In QMBA, the position of each bat is mainly updated by the current optimal solution in the early stage of searching and in the late search it also depends on the mean best position which can enhance the convergence speed of the algorithm. During the process of searching, quantum behavior of bats is introduced which is beneficial to jump out of local optimal solution and make the quantum-behaved bats not easily fall into local optimal solution, and it has better ability to adapt complex environment. Meanwhile, QMBA makes good use of statistical information of best position which bats had experienced to generate better quality solutions. This approach not only inherits the characteristic of quick convergence, simplicity, and easy implementation of original bat algorithm, but also increases the diversity of population and improves the accuracy of solution. Twenty-four benchmark test functions are tested and compared with other variant bat algorithms for numerical optimization the simulation results show that this approach is simple and efficient and can achieve a more accurate solution.

  19. An Improved Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Elitist Breeding for Unconstrained Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen-Lun; Wu, Angus; Min, Hua-Qing

    2015-01-01

    An improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with elitist breeding (EB-QPSO) for unconstrained optimization is presented and empirically studied in this paper. In EB-QPSO, the novel elitist breeding strategy acts on the elitists of the swarm to escape from the likely local optima and guide the swarm to perform more efficient search. During the iterative optimization process of EB-QPSO, when criteria met, the personal best of each particle and the global best of the swarm are used to generate new diverse individuals through the transposon operators. The new generated individuals with better fitness are selected to be the new personal best particles and global best particle to guide the swarm for further solution exploration. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Compared with five state-of-the-art quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithms, the proposed EB-QPSO performs more competitively in all of the benchmark functions in terms of better global search capability and faster convergence rate.

  20. Whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey P; Shipley, Frederick B; Linder, Ashley N; Plummer, George S; Liu, Mochi; Setru, Sagar U; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Leifer, Andrew M

    2016-02-23

    The ability to acquire large-scale recordings of neuronal activity in awake and unrestrained animals is needed to provide new insights into how populations of neurons generate animal behavior. We present an instrument capable of recording intracellular calcium transients from the majority of neurons in the head of a freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular resolution while simultaneously recording the animal's position, posture, and locomotion. This instrument provides whole-brain imaging with cellular resolution in an unrestrained and behaving animal. We use spinning-disk confocal microscopy to capture 3D volumetric fluorescent images of neurons expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP6s at 6 head-volumes/s. A suite of three cameras monitor neuronal fluorescence and the animal's position and orientation. Custom software tracks the 3D position of the animal's head in real time and two feedback loops adjust a motorized stage and objective to keep the animal's head within the field of view as the animal roams freely. We observe calcium transients from up to 77 neurons for over 4 min and correlate this activity with the animal's behavior. We characterize noise in the system due to animal motion and show that, across worms, multiple neurons show significant correlations with modes of behavior corresponding to forward, backward, and turning locomotion.

  1. Flexible Coupling of Respiration and Vocalizations with Locomotion and Head Movements in the Freely Behaving Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Joseph Andrews; Boerner, Barbara Ciralli; Laplagne, Diego Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Quadrupedal mammals typically synchronize their respiration with body movements during rhythmic locomotion. In the rat, fast respiration is coupled to head movements during sniffing behavior, but whether respiration is entrained by stride dynamics is not known. We recorded intranasal pressure, head acceleration, instantaneous speed, and ultrasonic vocalizations from male and female adult rats while freely behaving in a social environment. We used high-speed video recordings of stride to understand how head acceleration signals relate to locomotion and developed techniques to identify episodes of sniffing, walking, trotting, and galloping from the recorded variables. Quantitative analysis of synchrony between respiration and head acceleration rhythms revealed that respiration and locomotion movements were coordinated but with a weaker coupling than expected from previous work in other mammals. We have recently shown that rats behaving in social settings produce high rates of ultrasonic vocalizations during locomotion bouts. Accordingly, rats emitted vocalizations in over half of the respiratory cycles during fast displacements. We present evidence suggesting that emission of these calls disrupts the entrainment of respiration by stride. The coupling between these two variables is thus flexible, such that it can be overridden by other behavioral demands.

  2. Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with collaborative attractors for nonlinear numerical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Jiao, Licheng; Ma, Wenping; Shang, Ronghua

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (CL-QPSO), which adopts a new collaborative learning strategy to generate local attractors for particles, is proposed to solve nonlinear numerical problems. Local attractors, which directly determine the convergence behavior of particles, play an important role in quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO). In order to get a promising and efficient local attractor for each particle, a collaborative learning strategy is introduced to generate local attractors in the proposed algorithm. Collaborative learning strategy consists of two operators, namely orthogonal operator and comparison operator. For each particle, orthogonal operator is used to discover the useful information that lies in its personal and global best positions, while comparison operator is used to enhance the particle's ability of jumping out of local optima. By using a probability parameter, the two operators cooperate with each other to generate local attractors for particles. A comprehensive comparison of CL-QPSO with some state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms on nonlinear numeric optimization functions demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Dynamic Network Traffic Flow Prediction Model based on Modified Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Jin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at effectively predicting the dynamic network traffic flow based on quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm. Firstly, the dynamic network traffic flow prediction problem is analyzed through formal description. Secondly, the structure of the network traffic flow prediction model is given. In this structure, Users can used a computer to start the traffic flow prediction process, and data collecting module can collect and return the data through the destination device. Thirdly, the dynamic network traffic flow prediction model is implemented based on BP Neural Network. Particularly, in this paper, the BP Neural Network is trained by a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization(QPSO. We modified the QPSO by utilizing chaos signals to implement typical logistic mapping and pursuing the fitness function of a particle by a set of optimal parameters. Afterwards, based on the above process, dynamic network traffic flow prediction model is illustrated. Finally, a series of experiments are conduct to make performance evaluation, and related analyses for experimental results are also given

  4. Flexible Coupling of Respiration and Vocalizations with Locomotion and Head Movements in the Freely Behaving Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Andrews Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadrupedal mammals typically synchronize their respiration with body movements during rhythmic locomotion. In the rat, fast respiration is coupled to head movements during sniffing behavior, but whether respiration is entrained by stride dynamics is not known. We recorded intranasal pressure, head acceleration, instantaneous speed, and ultrasonic vocalizations from male and female adult rats while freely behaving in a social environment. We used high-speed video recordings of stride to understand how head acceleration signals relate to locomotion and developed techniques to identify episodes of sniffing, walking, trotting, and galloping from the recorded variables. Quantitative analysis of synchrony between respiration and head acceleration rhythms revealed that respiration and locomotion movements were coordinated but with a weaker coupling than expected from previous work in other mammals. We have recently shown that rats behaving in social settings produce high rates of ultrasonic vocalizations during locomotion bouts. Accordingly, rats emitted vocalizations in over half of the respiratory cycles during fast displacements. We present evidence suggesting that emission of these calls disrupts the entrainment of respiration by stride. The coupling between these two variables is thus flexible, such that it can be overridden by other behavioral demands.

  5. Examining transactional influences between reading achievement and antisocially-behaving friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Mikolajewski, Amy J; Johnson, Wendy; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2014-12-01

    The association between poorer academic outcomes and having antisocial friends is reliably demonstrated yet not well understood. Genetically sensitive designs uniquely allow for measuring genetic vulnerabilities and/or environmental risk in the association of antisocial friend behavior and poor school achievement, allowing for a better understanding of the nature of the association. This study included 233 pairs of twins from the Florida Twin Project on Reading. First, the role of antisocial friends as an environmental moderator of reading comprehension was examined. Antisocial friends significantly moderated the nonshared environmental variance in reading comprehension, with increased variation at lower levels of association with antisocial friends, with niche-picking indicated. Second, the role of reading comprehension as an environmental moderator of antisocial friends was examined. Reading comprehension significantly moderated the nonshared environmental variance in associating with antisocial friends, with increased variance at lower levels of reading comprehension and indication that common genetic influences contributed to higher reading achievement and better-behaved friends. In total, these results suggested reciprocal influences between reading achievement and antisocially-behaving friends. The impact of antisocial friends appeared to be limited in the extent to which they can undermine reading achievement, and high reading achievement appeared to support less association with antisocial friends.

  6. Path planning for UAV based on quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yangguang; Ding, Mingyue; Zhou, Chengping; Cai, Chao; Sun, Yangguang

    2009-10-01

    Based on quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), a novel path planner for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is employed to generate a safe and flyable path. The standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) are presented and compared through a UAV path planning application. Every particle in swarm represents a potential path in search space. For the purpose of pruning the search space, constraints are incorporated into the pre-specified cost function, which is used to evaluate whether a particle is good or not. As the system iterated, each particle is pulled toward its local attractor, which is located between the personal best position (pbest) and the global best position (gbest) based on the interaction of particles' individual searches and group's public search. For the sake of simplicity, we only consider planning the projection of path on the plane and assume threats are static instead of moving. Simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  7. Er Rousseau moderne?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    1985-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme.......Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme....

  8. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  9. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  10. Productions, modern (Scandinavia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Greek comedy has never been as popular on the modern Scandinavian scene as Greek tragedy, but one play stands out among them all as a modern classic, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, which has inspired many adaptations not only on the stage, but also in radio and cinema.......Greek comedy has never been as popular on the modern Scandinavian scene as Greek tragedy, but one play stands out among them all as a modern classic, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, which has inspired many adaptations not only on the stage, but also in radio and cinema....

  11. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  12. Indonesia - Procurement Modernization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation seeks to establish evidence on the possible effects of an intervention designed to modernize public procurement: effects on cost savings, performance...

  13. Trends in Modern Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Jörg; Herrling, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Drugs discovered by the pharmaceutical industry over the past 100 years have dramatically changed the practice of medicine and impacted on many aspects of our culture. For many years, drug discovery was a target- and mechanism-agnostic approach that was based on ethnobotanical knowledge often fueled by serendipity. With the advent of modern molecular biology methods and based on knowledge of the human genome, drug discovery has now largely changed into a hypothesis-driven target-based approach, a development which was paralleled by significant environmental changes in the pharmaceutical industry. Laboratories became increasingly computerized and automated, and geographically dispersed research sites are now more and more clustered into large centers to capture technological and biological synergies. Today, academia, the regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry all contribute to drug discovery, and, in order to translate the basic science into new medical treatments for unmet medical needs, pharmaceutical companies have to have a critical mass of excellent scientists working in many therapeutic fields, disciplines, and technologies. The imperative for the pharmaceutical industry to discover breakthrough medicines is matched by the increasing numbers of first-in-class drugs approved in recent years and reflects the impact of modern drug discovery approaches, technologies, and genomics.

  14. Fuzzy Neural Networks Learning by Variable-Dimensional Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary learning of fuzzy neural networks (FNN consists of structure learning to determine the proper number of fuzzy rules and parameters learning to adjust the network parameters. Many optimization algorithms can be applied to evolve FNN. However the search space of most algorithms has fixed dimension, which can not suit to dynamic structure learning of FNN. We propose a novel technique, which is named the variable-dimensional quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm (VDQPSO, to address the problem. In the proposed algorithm, the optimum dimension, which is unknown at the beginning, is updated together with the position of swarm. The optimum dimension converged at the end of the optimization process corresponds to a unique FNN structure where the optimum parameters can be achieved. The results of the prediction of chaotic time series experiment show that the proposed technique is effective. It can evolve to optimum or near-optimum FNN structure and optimum parameters.

  15. Quantum Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with Neighborhood Search for Numerical Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm is a new PSO variant, which outperforms the original PSO in search ability but has fewer control parameters. However, QPSO as well as PSO still suffers from premature convergence in solving complex optimization problems. The main reason is that new particles in QPSO are generated around the weighted attractors of previous best particles and the global best particle. This may result in attracting too fast. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes a new QPSO algorithm called NQPSO, in which one local and one global neighborhood search strategies are utilized to balance exploitation and exploration. Moreover, a concept of opposition-based learning (OBL is employed for population initialization. Experimental studies are conducted on a set of well-known benchmark functions including multimodal and rotated problems. Computational results show that our approach outperforms some similar QPSO algorithms and five other state-of-the-art PSO variants.

  16. An Analog Front End for Recording Neuronal Activity in Freely Behaving Small Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Chun-feng; CAO Mao-yong; LI Cai-fang; KONG Hui-min; QIN Feng-ju; YAN Yu-qin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract.Extracting characteristic brain signals and simultaneous recording animals behaving could help us to understand the complex behavior of neuronal ensembles. Here,a system was established to record local field potentials (LFP) and extracellular signal or multiple-unit discharge and behavior synchronously by utilizing electrophysiology and integrated circuit technique. It comprised microelectrodes and micro-driver assembly, analog front end ( AFE), while a computer ( Pentium Ⅲ ) was used as the platform for the graphic user interface, which was developed using the LabVIEW programming language. It was designed as a part of ongoing research to develop a portable wireless neural signal recording system. We believe that this information will be useful for the research of brain-computer interface.

  17. Project description: Foundations and tools for building well-behaved systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Elmasry, Amr; Elverkilde, Jon Daniel

    We aim at doing basic research on the theoretical foundations on how to build reliable, safe, and fast software systems, and developing tools that make the construction and maintenance of such systems easier. The theoretical questions taken up are related to algorithms, exception safety, and memory...... management, among other things, and the practical implementation calls for tools to test that components are well-behaved.Our goals are: 1) To study the foundation of a program library in order to gain new knowledge and thereby optimize existing components. 2) To develop software tools which make...... construction of reliable components easier and are of general interest. 3) To build a program library, the development of which can be used as a reality exercise when training software developers....

  18. An Abstract Coalgebraic Approach to Process Equivalence for Well- Behaved Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek

    -called bialgebraic framework of Turi and Plotkin is an abstract generalization of the well-known structural operational semantics format GSOS, and provides a theory of operational semantic rules for which bisimulation equivalence is a congruence. The first part of this thesis aims at extending that framework...... is then specialized to the case of trace equivalence, completed trace equivalence and failures equivalence. In the two latter cases, novel congruence formats are obtained, extending the current state of the art in this area of research. The second part of the thesis aims at extending the bialgebraic framework......This thesis is part of the programme aimed at finding a mathematical theory of well-behaved structural operational semantics. General and basic results shown in 1997 in a seminal paper by Turi and Plotkin are extended in two directions, aiming at greater expressivity of the framework. The so...

  19. Application of quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to motor imagery EEG classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Yen

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we propose a recognition system for single-trial analysis of motor imagery (MI) electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Applying event-related brain potential (ERP) data acquired from the sensorimotor cortices, the system chiefly consists of automatic artifact elimination, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. In addition to the use of independent component analysis, a similarity measure is proposed to further remove the electrooculographic (EOG) artifacts automatically. Several potential features, such as wavelet-fractal features, are then extracted for subsequent classification. Next, quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) is used to select features from the feature combination. Finally, selected sub-features are classified by support vector machine (SVM). Compared with without artifact elimination, feature selection using a genetic algorithm (GA) and feature classification with Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD) on MI data from two data sets for eight subjects, the results indicate that the proposed method is promising in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications.

  20. Parameters estimation online for Lorenz system by a novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Fei; Li Zhuo-Qiu; Tong Heng-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (NQPSO) for the estimation of chaos'unknown parameters by transforming them into nonlinear functions' optimization. By means of the techniques in the following three aspects: contracting the searching space self-adaptively; boundaries restriction strategy; substituting the particles' convex combination for their centre of mass, this paper achieves a quite effective search mechanism with fine equilibrium between exploitation and exploration. Details of applying the proposed method and other methods into Lorenz systems axe given, and experiments done show that NQPSO has better adaptability, dependability and robustness. It is a successful approach in unknown parameter estimation online especially in the cases with white noises.

  1. An Image Enhancement Method Using the Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with an Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement techniques are very important to image processing, which are used to improve image quality or extract the fine details in degraded images. In this paper, two novel objective functions based on the normalized incomplete Beta transform function are proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of grayscale image enhancement and color image enhancement, respectively. Using these objective functions, the parameters of transform functions are estimated by the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO. We also propose an improved QPSO with an adaptive parameter control strategy. The QPSO and the AQPSO algorithms, along with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO, are tested on several benchmark grayscale and color images. The results show that the QPSO and AQPSO perform better than GA and PSO for the enhancement of these images, and the AQPSO has some advantages over QPSO due to its adaptive parameter control strategy.

  2. 'Behaving well': the transition to respectable womanhood in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Christie; A Mojola, Sanyu

    2016-12-09

    Few studies of the transition to adulthood in Africa analyse young people's own definitions of the events that confer adult status, and how adulthood is actually attained. This paper examines the experience of transitioning to womanhood in rural Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, drawing on interviews with 18 women aged 18-39. Three primary experiences characterised this transition: puberty and emerging body awareness, spending time with boys, and having a child. More important than the timing of these experiences, however, was whether women 'behaved well' and maintained respectability as they transitioned to adulthood. Behavioural standards reinforcing ideal femininity were focused on dress, manner and talk, and were particularly stringent for mothers. Findings emphasise the value of emic models of adulthood for understanding how youth experience this transition and provide an important counter-narrative to the literature focused primarily on the risk African youth face during this period of change in the life course.

  3. Calcium neuroimaging in behaving zebrafish larvae using a turn-key light field camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Perez, Carlos; Lauri, Antonella; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Cappetta, Michele; Erdmann, Arne; Westmeyer, Gil Gregor

    2015-09-01

    Reconstructing a three-dimensional scene from multiple simultaneously acquired perspectives (the light field) is an elegant scanless imaging concept that can exceed the temporal resolution of currently available scanning-based imaging methods for capturing fast cellular processes. We tested the performance of commercially available light field cameras on a fluorescent microscopy setup for monitoring calcium activity in the brain of awake and behaving reporter zebrafish larvae. The plenoptic imaging system could volumetrically resolve diverse neuronal response profiles throughout the zebrafish brain upon stimulation with an aversive odorant. Behavioral responses of the reporter fish could be captured simultaneously together with depth-resolved neuronal activity. Overall, our assessment showed that with some optimizations for fluorescence microscopy applications, commercial light field cameras have the potential of becoming an attractive alternative to custom-built systems to accelerate molecular imaging research on cellular dynamics.

  4. Fuels Inventories in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Region: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, R.G.; Oswald, B.P.; Martin, C.

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-four sites were surveyed for fuel levels, vegetational structures, and topographic characteristics. Most of the surveyed sites were on Los Alamos National Laboratory property, however, some surveys were also conducted on U.S. Forest Service property. The overall vegetation of these sites ranged from pinon-juniper woodlands to ponderosa pine forests to mixed conifer forests, and the topographic positions included canyons, mesas, and mountains. The results of these surveys indicate that the understory fuels are the greatest in mixed conifer forests and that overstory fuels are greatest in both mixed conifer forests and ponderosa pine forests on mesas. The geographic distribution of these fuels would suggest a most credible wildfire scenario for the Los Alamos region. Three major fires have occurred since 1954 and these fires behaved in a manner that is consistent with this scenario. The most credible wildfire scenario was also supported by the results of BEHAVE modeling that used the fuels inventory data as inputs. Output from the BEHAVE model suggested that catastrophic wildfires would continue to occur during any season with sufficiently dry, windy weather.

  5. On a family of well behaved perfect fluid balls as astrophysical objects in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.

    2011-07-01

    A family of well behaved perfect fluid balls has been derived starting with the metric potential g 44= B(1+ Cr 2) n for all positive integral values of n. For n≥4, the members of this family are seen to satisfy the various physical conditions e.g. c 2 ρ≥ p≥0, dp/ dr1. Also the pressure, energy density, velocity of sound and ratio of pressure and energy density are of monotonically decreasing towards the pressure free interface ( r= a). The fluid balls join smoothly with the Schwarzschild exterior model at r= a. The well behaved perfect fluid balls so obtained are utilised to construct the superdense star models with their surface density 2×1014 gm/cm3. We have found that the maximum mass of the fluid balls corresponding to various values of n are decreasing with the increasing values of n. Over all maximum mass for the whole family turns out to be 4.1848 M Θ and the corresponding radius as 19.4144 km while the red shift at the centre and red shift at surface as Z 0=1.6459 and Z a =0.6538 respectively this all happens for n=4. It is interesting to note that for higher values of n viz n≥170, the physical data start merging with that of Kuchowicz superdense star models and hence the family of fluid models tends to the Kuchowicz fluid models as n→∞. Consequently the maximum mass of the family of solution can not be less than 1.6096 M Θ which is the maximum mass occupied by the Kuchowicz superdense ball. Hence each member of the family for n≥4 provides the astrophysical objects like White dwarfs, Quark star, typical neutron star.

  6. Imaging the Dynamics of Neocortical Population Activity in Behaving and Freely Moving Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinvald, Amiram; Petersen, Carl C H

    2015-01-01

    The development of functional imaging techniques applicable to neuroscience and covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has greatly facilitated the exploration of the relationships between cognition, behaviour and electrical brain activity. For mammals, the neocortex plays a particularly profound role in generating sensory perception, controlling voluntary movement, higher cognitive functions and planning goal-directed behaviours. Since these remarkable functions of the neocortex cannot be explored in simple model preparations or in anesthetised animals, the neural basis of behaviour must be explored in awake behaving subjects. Because neocortical function is highly distributed across many rapidly interacting regions, it is essential to measure spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical activity in real-time. Extensive work in anesthetised mammals has shown that in vivo Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging (VSDI) reveals the neocortical population membrane potential dynamics at millisecond temporal resolution and subcolumnar spatial resolution. Here, we describe recent advances indicating that VSDI is also already well-developed for exploring cortical function in behaving monkeys and mice. The first animal model, the non-human primate, is well-suited for fundamental exploration of higher-level cognitive function and behavior. The second animal model, the mouse, benefits from a rich arsenal of molecular and genetic technologies. In the monkey, imaging from the same patch of cortex, repeatedly, is feasible for a long period of time, up to a year. In the rodent, VSDI is applicable to freely moving and awake head-restrained mice. Interactions between different cortical areas and different cortical columns can therefore now be dynamically mapped through VSDI and related to the corresponding behaviour. Thus by applying VSDI to mice and monkeys one can begin to explore how behaviour emerges from neuronal activity in neuronal networks residing in different cortical areas.

  7. Decoding of intentional actions from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in freely-behaving infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Zachery R; Cruz-Garza, Jesus; Tse, Teresa; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) in humans is thought to enable an individual's understanding of the meaning of actions performed by others and the potential imitation and learning of those actions. In humans, electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in sensorimotor a-band at central electrodes, which desynchronizes both during execution and observation of goal-directed actions (i.e., μ suppression), have been considered an analog to MNS function. However, methodological and developmental issues, as well as the nature of generalized μ suppression to imagined, observed, and performed actions, have yet to provide a mechanistic relationship between EEG μ-rhythm and MNS function, and the extent to which EEG can be used to infer intent during MNS tasks remains unknown. In this study we present a novel methodology using active EEG and inertial sensors to record brain activity and behavioral actions from freely-behaving infants during exploration, imitation, attentive rest, pointing, reaching and grasping, and interaction with an actor. We used 5-band (1-4Hz) EEG as input to a dimensionality reduction algorithm (locality-preserving Fisher's discriminant analysis, LFDA) followed by a neural classifier (Gaussian mixture models, GMMs) to decode the each MNS task performed by freely-behaving 6-24 month old infants during interaction with an adult actor. Here, we present results from a 20-month male infant to illustrate our approach and show the feasibility of EEG-based classification of freely occurring MNS behaviors displayed by an infant. These results, which provide an alternative to the μ-rhythm theory of MNS function, indicate the informative nature of EEG in relation to intentionality (goal) for MNS tasks which may support action-understanding and thus bear implications for advancing the understanding of MNS function.

  8. Development as modernity, modernity as development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lushaba, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    Albeit the divergences on the debate about development in Africa, it is indubitable that the continent remains underdeveloped after five decades of development efforts. To understand this impasse, it is necessary to trace Africa's encounter with Europe to the period of early modernity. This paper

  9. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  10. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under co...

  11. Spotting modern Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Hans; Bøgelund, Helle; Darger, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i Københavns Rådhus og området omkring Banegårdspladsen analyseres Københavns indtræden i det moderne......Med udgangspunkt i Københavns Rådhus og området omkring Banegårdspladsen analyseres Københavns indtræden i det moderne...

  12. Mod den moderne skole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindum, Kjeld; Birk Morgen, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    Gennemgang af fem skoler som eksemplificerer væsentlige udviklingstrin i overgangen fra det sene 1800 tals etageskolebygninger til det moderne skolebyggeris gennemsalg i 1930erne.......Gennemgang af fem skoler som eksemplificerer væsentlige udviklingstrin i overgangen fra det sene 1800 tals etageskolebygninger til det moderne skolebyggeris gennemsalg i 1930erne....

  13. Patriotism, nationalism and modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    they reflected two different understandings of core concepts such as state, language and folk culture is explained. However, both ideologies correlate to modernity, since the reflect the same dialectic tension in the relationship between the individual, the social community and the modern state...

  14. Adult learning in modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the conditions for the growth of adult education in modern societies. It is argued that in modern adult life individual biographical reflection plays an increasing role, not only for educational and occupational choice but also in the process of identity formation and emotional...

  15. Modernism / Andrus Kallastu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallastu, Andrus, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Pärnu Nüüdismuusika Päevade kujutava kunsti programmist "Modernism", kava. Raul Meele tuleetendus "Wanad Sõbrad" Pärnu jõel, Academia Grata tegevuskunstirühmituse Leegion performanceid "Sport ja loomad", "Die Modernkunst". Ettekanded Reiu Tüürilt, Ants Juskelt jt. Sven Kivisildniku performance "...text@modern"

  16. The Imaginary Significations of Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of modernity upon which one of the most interesting contemporary theories about modern social change is based - Peter Wagner's theory of successive modernities. Wagner understands modernity as a double imaginary signification which entails a basic tension between...... theory of successive modernities partly inconsistent. A stance is taken for one of these versions and it is argued that the theory of successive modernities should appropriate that version as its point of departure in order to grasp the history of modernity in a consistent way. Keywords: Cornelius...... Castoriadis; modernity; social change; successive modernities; Peter Wagner....

  17. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  18. GABAB receptor blockade enhances theta and gamma rhythms in the hippocampus of behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Stan; Shen, Bixia

    2007-01-01

    The participation of GABA(B) receptors in hippocampal EEG generation was studied by intracerebroventricular (icv) and intracerebral infusions of GABA(B) receptor antagonist p-(3-aminopropyl)-p-diethoxymethyl-phosphinic acid (CGP35348) in freely behaving rats. During awake-immobility, icv CGP35348 induced a theta rhythm and increased gamma waves (30-100 Hz) in the hippocampus. The immobility theta peaked at 6-7 Hz and had a theta phase in CA1 stratum radiatum of approximately 160 degrees with reference to the theta at the alveus, when compared with approximately 130 degrees during walking. Immobility theta power peaks at 6-7 Hz was also found in normal rats, and it was detected in 27% of the EEG segments during immobility. Incidence of immobility theta increased to 87.5% after 480 nmol of CGP35348 icv. Muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (5 mg/kg, ip) suppressed the induction of immobility theta and the gamma power increase after icv CGP35348. CGP35348 icv did not significantly change the hippocampal theta power at 7-8 Hz during walking (theta fundamental), but it increased power at 12-15 Hz, at the second harmonic of theta. CGP35348 icv also increased 30-50 Hz gamma power during walking. Medial septal infusion of CGP35348 (12 nmol in 0.4 microl) increased the power and the frequency of the hippocampal theta second harmonic during walking, but did not increase gamma activity. Infusion of CGP35348 (8 nmol in 0.4 microl) in the hippocampus increased the local gamma activity at 30-100 Hz, but did not induce immobility theta or affect the walking theta rhythm. In conclusion, icv GABA(B) receptor blockade increased an atropine-sensitive input that generated an immobility theta rhythm, while GABA(B) receptor blockade of the medial septum increased atropine-resistant theta harmonics possibly generated by apical dendritic spikes. GABA(B) receptor blockade may enhance cognitive task performance by activating hippocampal theta and gamma rhythms in behaving rats.

  19. Answers to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    In his book The consequences of modernity, the British sociologist Giddens predicts e-learning environments. He emphasises that 'modernity is inherently globalising' creating 'disembedded' social relations and tearing 'space away form place by fostering relations between "absent" others...... - teacher, learner or curriculum planner positions - result in different strategies or 'answers to modernity'. The research has taken place as a study of e-learning and virtual teachhing of Danish as a second language for adults. The fact that relations in virtual learning are established between physically...

  20. US Firms Helps Modernize Gas Stations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ji

    2002-01-01

    @@ In late June, Veeder-Root, the world's largest fuel management system provider, announced its plan to let use parent Danaher Corp's manufacturing facilities in China to meet increasing local demand.Scott Clawson, president of Veeder-Root, said the US company made its decision because of the huge potential in the Chinese fuel management system market resulting from the fast development of the modern fuel retailing business. "We see China as one of our top three markets worldwide," he said in Beiiing.

  1. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  2. Modern methods of increasing the efficiency of operation of rolling stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Krasnikova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with advanced technological methods of organizing the transport process. Particular attention is paid to modern technologies increase the efficiency of rolling stock, particularly technology GPS-monitoring and control systems in fuel consumption.

  3. A New Mutated Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimizer for Digital IIR Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive infinite impulse response (IIR filters have shown their worth in a wide range of practical applications. Because the error surface of IIR filters is multimodal in most cases, global optimization techniques are required for avoiding local minima. In this paper, we employ a global optimization algorithm, Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO that was proposed by us previously, and its mutated version in the design of digital IIR filter. The mechanism in QPSO is based on the quantum behaviour of particles in a potential well and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. QPSO is characterized by fast convergence, good search ability, and easy implementation. The mutated QPSO (MuQPSO is proposed in this paper by using a random vector in QPSO to increase the randomness and to enhance the global search ability. Experimental results on three examples show that QPSO and MuQPSO are superior to genetic algorithm (GA, differential evolution (DE algorithm, and PSO algorithm in quality, convergence speed, and robustness.

  4. Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization: analysis of individual particle behavior and parameter selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Fang, Wei; Wu, Xiaojun; Palade, Vasile; Xu, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), motivated by concepts from quantum mechanics and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is a probabilistic optimization algorithm belonging to the bare-bones PSO family. Although it has been shown to perform well in finding the optimal solutions for many optimization problems, there has so far been little analysis on how it works in detail. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the QPSO algorithm. In the theoretical analysis, we analyze the behavior of a single particle in QPSO in terms of probability measure. Since the particle's behavior is influenced by the contraction-expansion (CE) coefficient, which is the most important parameter of the algorithm, the goal of the theoretical analysis is to find out the upper bound of the CE coefficient, within which the value of the CE coefficient selected can guarantee the convergence or boundedness of the particle's position. In the experimental analysis, the theoretical results are first validated by stochastic simulations for the particle's behavior. Then, based on the derived upper bound of the CE coefficient, we perform empirical studies on a suite of well-known benchmark functions to show how to control and select the value of the CE coefficient, in order to obtain generally good algorithmic performance in real world applications. Finally, a further performance comparison between QPSO and other variants of PSO on the benchmarks is made to show the efficiency of the QPSO algorithm with the proposed parameter control and selection methods.

  5. How Do Children Behave Regarding Their Birth Order in Dental Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Ghaderi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child’s behavior in dental setting. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental setting. Materials and Method: A total of 158 children with at least one primary mandibular molar needing class I restoration were selected. Children were classified based on the ordinal position; first, middle, or last child as well as single child. A blinded examiner recorded the pain perception of children during injection based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Sound, Eye and Movement (SEM scale. To assess the child's anxiety, the questionnaire known as “Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule” (CFSS-DS was employed. Results: The results showed that single children were significantly less cooperative and more anxious than the other children (p<0.001. The middle children were significantly more cooperative in comparison with the other child's position (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Single child may behave less cooperatively in dental setting. The order of child birth must also be considered in prediction of child’s behavior for behavioral management.

  6. Testing the hypothesis of the Earth's magnetosphere behaving like an avalanching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The global auroral dissipation power as observed by the imager on the Polar spacecraft is used as a proxy for the power dissipation of the Earth's magnetosphere to examine whether or not the magnetosphere is an avalanching system. It is found that the probability density distributions for the area and power of auroral activity sites have a power law component within a finite scale range, suggestive of a scale-free nature in this finite-size system. This property is robust, prevailing with variations in the threshold used to define auroral activity sites and in the strength of the external driver, namely, the solar wind. The statistical characteristics on the temporal evolution of auroral sites are then examined, which leads to a criterion that can be used to predict about 42min in advance the total energy dissipation during the lifetime of an auroral activity site. The scale-free characteristics of auroral activity appears to be an intrinsic feature of the magnetosphere based on a comparison of the probability density distribution in the total auroral brightness power with that of the solar wind power input parameters in the same period as the auroral observations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of the magnetosphere behaving like an avalanching system.

  7. A Novel Gas Turbine Engine Health Status Estimation Method Using Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate gas turbine engine health status estimation is very important for engine applications and aircraft flight safety. Due to the fact that there are many to-be-estimated parameters, engine health status estimation is a very difficult optimization problem. Traditional gas path analysis (GPA methods are based on the linearized thermodynamic engine performance model, and the estimation accuracy is not satisfactory on conditions that the nonlinearity of the engine model is significant. To solve this problem, a novel gas turbine engine health status estimation method has been developed. The method estimates degraded engine component parameters using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm. And the engine health indices are calculated using these estimated component parameters. The new method was applied to turbine fan engine health status estimation and is compared with the other three representative methods. Results show that although the developed method is slower in computation speed than GPA methods it succeeds in estimating engine health status with the highest accuracy in all test cases and is proven to be a very suitable tool for off-line engine health status estimation.

  8. Dopamine Modulates Delta-Gamma Phase-Amplitude Coupling in the Prefrontal Cortex of Behaving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Andino-Pavlovsky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine release and phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC have independently been implicated in prefrontal cortex (PFC functioning. To causally investigate whether dopamine release affects phase-amplitude comodulation between different frequencies in local field potentials (LFP recorded from the medial PFC (mPFC of behaving rats, we used RuBiDopa, a light-sensitive caged compound that releases the neurotransmitter dopamine when irradiated with visible light. LFP power did not change in any frequency band after the application of light-uncaged dopamine, but significantly strengthened phase-amplitude comodulation between delta and gamma oscillations. Saline did not exert significant changes, while injections of dopamine and RuBiDopa produced a slow increase in comodulation for several minutes after the injection. The results show that dopamine release in the medial PFC shifts phase-amplitude comodulation from theta-gamma to delta-gamma. Although being preliminary results due to the limitation of the low number of animals present in this study, our findings suggest that dopamine-mediated modification of the frequencies involved in comodulation could be a mechanism by which this neurotransmitter regulates functioning in mPFC.

  9. Changes in Activity of the Same Thalamic Neurons to Repeated Nociception in Behaving Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yeowool; Cho, Jeiwon

    2015-01-01

    The sensory thalamus has been reported to play a key role in central pain sensory modulation and processing, but its response to repeated nociception at thalamic level is not well known. Current study investigated thalamic response to repeated nociception by recording and comparing the activity of the same thalamic neuron during the 1st and 2nd formalin injection induced nociception, with a week interval between injections, in awake and behaving mice. Behaviorally, the 2nd injection induced greater nociceptive responses than the 1st. Thalamic activity mirrored these behavioral changes with greater firing rate during the 2nd injection. Analysis of tonic and burst firing, characteristic firing pattern of thalamic neurons, revealed that tonic firing activity was potentiated while burst firing activity was not significantly changed by the 2nd injection relative to the 1st. Likewise, burst firing property changes, which has been consistently associated with different phases of nociception, were not induced by the 2nd injection. Overall, data suggest that repeated nociception potentiated responsiveness of thalamic neurons and confirmed that tonic firing transmits nociceptive signals.

  10. Activity of Caudate Nucleus Neurons in a Visual Fixation Paradigm in Behaving Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nagypál

    Full Text Available Beside its motor functions, the caudate nucleus (CN, the main input structure of the basal ganglia, is also sensitive to various sensory modalities. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of visual stimulation on the CN by using a behaving, head-restrained, eye movement-controlled feline model developed recently for this purpose. Extracellular multielectrode recordings were made from the CN of two cats in a visual fixation paradigm applying static and dynamic stimuli. The recorded neurons were classified in three groups according to their electrophysiological properties: phasically active (PAN, tonically active (TAN and high-firing (HFN neurons. The response characteristics were investigated according to this classification. The PAN and TAN neurons were sensitive primarily to static stimuli, while the HFN neurons responded primarily to changes in the visual environment i.e. to optic flow and the offset of the stimuli. The HFNs were the most sensitive to visual stimulation; their responses were stronger than those of the PANs and TANs. The majority of the recorded units were insensitive to the direction of the optic flow, regardless of group, but a small number of direction-sensitive neurons were also found. Our results demonstrate that both the static and the dynamic components of the visual information are represented in the CN. Furthermore, these results provide the first piece of evidence on optic flow processing in the CN, which, in more general terms, indicates the possible role of this structure in dynamic visual information processing.

  11. Whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey; Shipley, Frederick; Linder, Ashley; Plummer, George; Liu, Mochi; Setru, Sagar; Shaevitz, Joshua; Leifer, Andrew

    The ability to acquire large-scale recordings of neuronal activity in awake and unrestrained animals is needed to provide new insights into how populations of neurons generate animal behavior. Acquiring this data, however, is challenging because it is difficult to track and image individual neurons as an animal deforms its posture and moves many body lengths. Here, we present an instrument capable of recording intracellular calcium transients from the majority of neurons in the head of a freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular resolution while simultaneously recording the animal's position, posture, and locomotion. 3D volumetric fluorescent images of neurons expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP6s are recorded at 6 head-volumes/s using spinning disk confocal microscopy. At the same time, we record low magnification images of the animal to measure the animals behavior and track its head as it moves. We develop a time independent neuronal matching algorithm that uses non-rigid point set registration and machine learning to correctly match neurons across time. Using this method, we are able to observe calcium transients from up to 90 neurons for over 4 min and correlate the neural activity with the animal's behavior.

  12. Characteristics of fast-spiking neurons in the striatum of behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Hori, Yukiko; Pan, Xiaochuan; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Kae; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Shidara, Munetaka; Kimura, Minoru; Sakagami, Masamichi; Minamimoto, Takafumi

    2016-04-01

    Inhibitory interneurons are the fundamental constituents of neural circuits that organize network outputs. The striatum as part of the basal ganglia is involved in reward-directed behaviors. However, the role of the inhibitory interneurons in this process remains unclear, especially in behaving monkeys. We recorded the striatal single neuron activity while monkeys performed reward-directed hand or eye movements. Presumed parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons (fast-spiking neurons, FSNs) were identified based on narrow spike shapes in three independent experiments, though they were a small population (4.2%, 42/997). We found that FSNs are characterized by high-frequency and less-bursty discharges, which are distinct from the basic firing properties of the presumed projection neurons (phasically active neurons, PANs). Besides, the encoded information regarding actions and outcomes was similar between FSNs and PANs in terms of proportion of neurons, but the discharge selectivity was higher in PANs than that of FSNs. The coding of actions and outcomes in FSNs and PANs was consistently observed under various behavioral contexts in distinct parts of the striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, and anterior striatum). Our results suggest that FSNs may enhance the discharge selectivity of postsynaptic output neurons (PANs) in encoding crucial variables for a reward-directed behavior.

  13. The embodiment of tourism among bisexually-behaving Dominican male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B

    2008-10-01

    While theories of "structure" and social inequality have increasingly informed global health efforts for HIV prevention--with growing recognition of the linkages between large-scale political and economic factors in the distribution and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--there is still little theorization of precisely how structural factors shape the very bodies and sexualities of specific populations and groups. In order to extend the theoretical understanding of these macro-micro linkages, this article examines how the growth of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has produced sexual practices and identities that reflect both the influence of large-scale structural processes and the resistant responses of local individuals. Drawing on social science theories of political economy, embodiment, and authenticity, I argue that an understanding of patterns of sexuality and HIV risk in the region requires analysis of how political-economic transformations related to tourism intersect with the individual experiences and practices of sexuality on the ground. The analysis draws on long-term ethnographic research with bisexually behaving male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. By examining the global and local values placed on these men's bodies and the ways sex workers use their bodies to broker tourists' pleasure, we may better understand how the large-scale structures of the tourism industry are linked to the specific meanings and practices of sexuality.

  14. Seeing the whole picture: A comprehensive imaging approach to functional mapping of circuits in behaving zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierstein, C E; Portugues, R; Orger, M B

    2015-06-18

    In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as an appealing model system to tackle questions relating to the neural circuit basis of behavior. This can be attributed not just to the growing use of genetically tractable model organisms, but also in large part to the rapid advances in optical techniques for neuroscience, which are ideally suited for application to the small, transparent brain of the larval fish. Many characteristic features of vertebrate brains, from gross anatomy down to particular circuit motifs and cell-types, as well as conserved behaviors, can be found in zebrafish even just a few days post fertilization, and, at this early stage, the physical size of the brain makes it possible to analyze neural activity in a comprehensive fashion. In a recent study, we used a systematic and unbiased imaging method to record the pattern of activity dynamics throughout the whole brain of larval zebrafish during a simple visual behavior, the optokinetic response (OKR). This approach revealed the broadly distributed network of neurons that were active during the behavior and provided insights into the fine-scale functional architecture in the brain, inter-individual variability, and the spatial distribution of behaviorally relevant signals. Combined with mapping anatomical and functional connectivity, targeted electrophysiological recordings, and genetic labeling of specific populations, this comprehensive approach in zebrafish provides an unparalleled opportunity to study complete circuits in a behaving vertebrate animal.

  15. Frequency tuning in the behaving mouse: different bandwidths for discrimination and generalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia de Hoz

    Full Text Available When faced with sensory stimuli, an organism may be required to detect very small differences in a physical parameter (discrimination, while in other situations it may have to generalize over many possible values of the same physical parameter. This decision may be based both on learned information and on sensory aspects of perception. In the present study we describe frequency processing in the behaving mouse using both discrimination and generalization as two key aspects of behaviour. We used a novel naturalistic behavioural apparatus designed for mice, the Audiobox, and paradigm contingencies that were identical for both auditory discrimination and generalization, the latter measured using latent inhibition. Mice learned to discriminate between frequencies that were an octave apart in a single trial. They showed significant discrimination between tone frequencies that were as close as 4-7%, and had d' of about 1 for ΔF of around 10%. In contrast, pre-exposure frequencies that were half an octave or less below the conditioned tone elicited latent inhibition, showing a generalization bandwidth of at least half an octave. Thus, in the same apparatus and using the same general memory paradigm, mice showed generalization gradients that were considerably wider than their discrimination threshold, indicating that environmental requirements and previous experience can determine whether the same two frequencies will be considered same or different. Remarkably, generalization gradients paralleled the typical bandwidths established in the auditory periphery and midbrain, suggesting that frequencies may be considered similar when falling within the same critical band.

  16. Modern technologies in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Iandolo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The positive results highlighted by these clinical cases demonstrate how the use of modern technologies are essential to avoid iatrogenic injury, and guarantee, on the other hand, safe and reproducible results.

  17. Modern technologies in Endodontics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iandolo, Alfredo; Iandolo, Giuseppe; Malvano, Mariano; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Simeone, Michele

    2016-01-01

    .... Materials and methods: Today, thanks to modern technologies as Operative Microscope, ultrasonic tips, M-Wire Files, devices to activate irrigation and tridimensional obturation performed with thermo plasticized gutta...

  18. Genealogies of Modern Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Does modern technology differ from ancient technology and does it have a unique essence? This twofold question opens one of Martin Heidegger's most influential philosophical inquiries, The Question Concerning Technology. The answer Heidegger offers has inspired various critiques and appraisals from...... a vast number of contemporary scholars of technology.1 Heidegger's answer is traditionally thought to suggest a great difference between ancient and modern technology. However, by re-examining Heidegger's text, it is possible to discover previously ignored or misunderstood lines of thoughts that affirm...... a multi-stable interpretation of the origin of modern technology. In what follows, we shall see how The Question Concerning Technology in fact supports three different genealogies of modern technology...

  19. Genealogies of Modern Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Does modern technology differ from ancient technology and does it have a unique essence? This twofold question opens one of Martin Heidegger's most influential philosophical inquiries, The Question Concerning Technology. The answer Heidegger offers has inspired various critiques and appraisals from...... a vast number of contemporary scholars of technology.1 Heidegger's answer is traditionally thought to suggest a great difference between ancient and modern technology. However, by re-examining Heidegger's text, it is possible to discover previously ignored or misunderstood lines of thoughts that affirm...... a multi-stable interpretation of the origin of modern technology. In what follows, we shall see how The Question Concerning Technology in fact supports three different genealogies of modern technology...

  20. Modern optimization with R

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this book is to gather in a single document the most relevant concepts related to modern optimization methods, showing how such concepts and methods can be addressed using the open source, multi-platform R tool. Modern optimization methods, also known as metaheuristics, are particularly useful for solving complex problems for which no specialized optimization algorithm has been developed. These methods often yield high quality solutions with a more reasonable use of computational resources (e.g. memory and processing effort). Examples of popular modern methods discussed in this book are: simulated annealing; tabu search; genetic algorithms; differential evolution; and particle swarm optimization. This book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Science, Information Technology, and related areas, as well as data analysts interested in exploring modern optimization methods using R.

  1. Foucault and modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerson, A

    1995-06-01

    Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity.

  2. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  3. The ability of modern secretary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诗怡; 张婉玲

    2014-01-01

    Modern secretaries need to master a lot of old and new skills including some required skills and some modern abilities. And secretaries in modern offices also have to master some special skills to be supportive to their bosses.

  4. Den moderne patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Kapitlet indkredser, hvordan vi som sundhedsprofessionelle kan forklare den moderne patient. I særdeleshed lægges vægt på definerende faktorer i skabelsen af den patient vi møder i sundhedsvæsnet i dag. Kapitlet giver forskellige teoretiske bud på, hvordan man som sundhedsprofessionel kan anskue...... den moderne, nutidige patienter samt en kortere beskrivelse af, hvordan patienten tidligere er blev anskuet....

  5. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  6. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  7. Letterkunde en moderne tyd

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Inaugural lecture--Department of Afrikaans, Rand Afrikaans University, 13 July 1968 In this inaugural lecture the characteristics of contemporary literature and its relation to modern life are analysed. The most important influences upon modern literature are traced, amongst others those of mass communication media, the other arts, and earlier literary forms. The notion "portrayal of reality" as a literary criterium is discussed and an attempt made to place it into its proper perspective.

  8. Future Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Storage Devices, Fuel Management, Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch, Syngas , Hubberts’s Peak UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS UU 80 Dr. Sujata Millick (703) 696...prices ever higher, and perhaps lead to intermittent fuel shortages as production fluctuates. Clearly, this competition for resources also provides oil...producers multiple options for selling their products, and raises the possibility that the US could face shortages resulting from shifts in

  9. Modernization of credit relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Volosovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is essential to modernize credit relations in the conditions of global economy transformations. This is due to the influence of integration processes on credit relations and transformation of the risks inherent in the credit field. The purpose of this article is to develop measures that help to improve the efficiency of interaction of credit relations’ participants. Modernization of credit relations is based on the interaction of its main and indirect subjects who belong to the subsystems of loans granting, deposits attraction and provision of related services. Its goal is to pass from extensive to intensive model of interaction between the subjects of credit relations. Components of the credit relations modernization are the following: institutional modernization, which is based on the interaction of credit relations’ subjects, and ensures the development of competition in all credit market’s segments, the creation of its corresponding infrastructure, qualitative change in the approaches of regulation and supervision; technological modernization, which involves the formation of joint products on the credit market and the formation of an integrated informational and analytical system. In the result of the credit relations’ modernization it is expected to achieve synergies between the subjects of credit relations, that will lead to changes in the business architecture of the financial market.

  10. MODERN SCIENCE. INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RICE, GLORIA; AND OTHERS

    ELEVEN UNITS OF STUDY INCLUDE--SCIENCE IN OUR LIVES TODAY, APPLIED CHEMISTRY, MODERN MATERIALS, MAN AND MECHANICS, HEAT AND FUELS, NUCLEAR ENERGY, SOUND, LIGHT, ELECTRICITY, ELECTRONICS, AND SPACE. ALL ARE DIRECTED AT THE STUDENT WHO WOULD USE THE INFORMATION GAINED IN EVERYDAY LIFE, RATHER THAN AT THE POTENTIAL SCIENCE STUDENT. UNIT 1 EXPLAINS…

  11. Saab claims world's most modern engine-assembly plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmark, U.

    1984-01-01

    The modernization of an engine assembly plant using computer aided manufacturing techniques and robotics is described. The development of associated tools and production procedures used to assemble the Light Component Project (LCP) modular automobile are discussd. Structural design criteria used to reduce the weight and increase the fuel efficiency of the vehicle are explained.

  12. A Modern Dunciad A Modern Dunciad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebelo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available "Push-button war demands a woman's touch!" shrills Nason's twentieth century goddess Dullness, (in his book length poetic plagiarism of Pope's mock epic Dunciad, as she reestablishes her Empire in the modern New World by masking, cancelling, and attacking Progress and Liberty in a lustful attempt to destroy the Moral and Emotional content of poetry. She sluttishly breeds and fosters the Dunces of the literary kingdom of today, (Pope's Dunces were the poet Laureates of his day, and sallies brazenly everywhere in the company of her muses Self-Service, Smuggnes, sadism, and "sweet Anality", so light and fair,/ Enlaced with tender plaits her public hair".

  13. The reason why sediment transport in a Newtonian fluid behaves analogous to sliding friction

    CERN Document Server

    Pähtz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The old idea of Bagnold to describe sediment transport in Newtonian fluids by a constant friction coefficient $\\mu_b$ at the bed surface has been an essential ingredient of many historical and modern theoretical attempts to derive predictions for the sediment transport rate. Here, using approximations validated through direct numerical simulations of sediment transport in Newtonian fluids, we analytically derive $\\mu_b\\approx\\mathrm{const}$ from microscopic Newtonian dynamics, linking the origin of friction to energy conversion processes during low-angle particle-bed impacts.

  14. Policy and plural responsiveness: Taking constructive account of the ways in which Iranian farmers think about and behave in relation to water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Thompson, Michael; Zamani, Gholam Hosein; Monfared, Nozar

    2014-06-01

    Iran faces a serious and worsening water crisis, and water conservation by its farmers is rightly seen as crucial to any resolution. Whilst many farmers are profligate in their use of water, some are parsimonious: behavioural strategies vary and these strategies, we hypothesise, are accompanied by differing perceptions. These perceptions, we further hypothesise, are generated by the four different ways of organising - individualism, hierarchy, egalitarianism and fatalism - that are predicted by the theory of plural rationality. Informal guided interviews with 330 farmers in Boushehr Province support these hypotheses and show that both perceptions of and behaviour in relation to water are closely tied to the farmers’ ways of organising which, in turn, are influenced by the socio-technological origin of their water: wells, irrigation canals, qanats. “Egalitarian” farmers are already behaving in the desired way; they are most prevalent among those who rely on wells. “Individualist” and “fatalist” farmers are profligate in their water use; they are most prevalent among those who rely on irrigation canals. The modern technology, we suggest, could be re-cast, in part, along the lines of the traditional qanat socio-technological system, so that water, at times and in places, is delivered as a common-pool good (egalitarianism) and not just in the current public good (hierarchy) or private good (individualism) modes.

  15. MATLAB-based automated patch-clamp system for awake behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Niraj S; Siegel, Jennifer J; Taylor, William; Chitwood, Raymond A; Johnston, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Automation has been an important part of biomedical research for decades, and the use of automated and robotic systems is now standard for such tasks as DNA sequencing, microfluidics, and high-throughput screening. Recently, Kodandaramaiah and colleagues (Nat Methods 9: 585-587, 2012) demonstrated, using anesthetized animals, the feasibility of automating blind patch-clamp recordings in vivo. Blind patch is a good target for automation because it is a complex yet highly stereotyped process that revolves around analysis of a single signal (electrode impedance) and movement along a single axis. Here, we introduce an automated system for blind patch-clamp recordings from awake, head-fixed mice running on a wheel. In its design, we were guided by 3 requirements: easy-to-use and easy-to-modify software; seamless integration of behavioral equipment; and efficient use of time. The resulting system employs equipment that is standard for patch recording rigs, moderately priced, or simple to make. It is written entirely in MATLAB, a programming environment that has an enormous user base in the neuroscience community and many available resources for analysis and instrument control. Using this system, we obtained 19 whole cell patch recordings from neurons in the prefrontal cortex of awake mice, aged 8-9 wk. Successful recordings had series resistances that averaged 52 ± 4 MΩ and required 5.7 ± 0.6 attempts to obtain. These numbers are comparable with those of experienced electrophysiologists working manually, and this system, written in a simple and familiar language, will be useful to many cellular electrophysiologists who wish to study awake behaving mice.

  16. Differing presynaptic contributions to LTP and associative learning in behaving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Madroñal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse is an excellent experimental model for studying the interactions between short- and long-term plastic changes taking place following high-frequency stimulation (HFS of Schaffer collaterals and during the acquisition and extinction of a classical eyeblink conditioning in behaving mice. Input/output curves and a full-range paired-pulse study enabled determining the optimal intensities and inter-stimulus intervals for evoking paired-pulse facilitation (PPF or depression (PPD at the CA3-CA1 synapse. Long-term potentiation (LTP induced by HFS lasted ≈ 10 days. HFS-induced LTP evoked an initial depression of basal PPF. Recovery of PPF baseline values was a steady and progressive process lasting ≈ 20 days, i.e., longer than the total duration of the LTP. In a subsequent series of experiments, we checked whether PPF was affected similarly during activity-dependent synaptic changes. Animals were conditioned using a trace paradigm, with a tone as a conditioned stimulus (CS and an electrical shock to the trigeminal nerve as an unconditioned stimulus (US. A pair of pulses (40 ms interval was presented to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs during the CS-US interval. Basal PPF decreased steadily across conditioning sessions (i.e., in the opposite direction to that during LTP, reaching a minimum value during the 10th conditioning session. Thus, LTP and classical eyeblink conditioning share some presynaptic mechanisms, but with an opposite evolution. Furthermore, PPF and PPD might play a homeostatic role during long-term plastic changes at the CA3-CA1 synapse.

  17. Head-mounted LED for optogenetic experiments of freely-behaving animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Gnade, Andrew G.; Rush, Alexander D.; Patten, Craig D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in optogenetics have demonstrated the ability to target specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision via direct optical stimulation of genetically modified neurons in the brain. In most applications, the beam of a laser is coupled to an optical fiber, which guides and delivers the optical power to the region of interest. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an alternative light source for optogenetics and they provide many advantages over a laser based system including cost, size, illumination stability, and fast modulation. Their compact size and low power consumption make LEDs suitable light sources for a wireless optogenetic stimulation system. However, the coupling efficiency of an LED's output light into an optical fiber is lower than a laser due to its noncollimated output light. In typical chronic optogenetic experiment, the output of the light source is transmitted to the brain through a patch cable and a fiber stub implant, and this configuration requires two fiber-to-fiber couplings. Attenuation within the patch cable is potential source of optical power loss. In this study, we report and characterize a recently developed light delivery method for freely-behaving animal experiments. We have developed a head-mounted light source that maximizes the coupling efficiency of an LED light source by eliminating the need for a fiber optic cable. This miniaturized LED is designed to couple directly to the fiber stub implant. Depending on the desired optical power output, the head-mounted LED can be controlled by either a tethered (high power) or battery-powered wireless (moderate power) controller. In the tethered system, the LED is controlled through 40 gauge micro coaxial cable which is thinner, more flexible, and more durable than a fiber optic cable. The battery-powered wireless system uses either infrared or radio frequency transmission to achieve real-time control. Optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal

  18. Riding on the fast lane: how sea turtles behave in post-nesting migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-H.; Cheng, I.-J.; Centurioni, L.

    2014-07-01

    Sea turtles are known as powerful swimmers. How do they behave when riding in strong currents during their migrations? In this study, three, satellite-tagged, post-nesting green turtles travelled from Lanyu Island, east of Taiwan, partly within the Kuroshio to their foraging sites approximately 1000 km away in the Ryukyu Archipelago. Their swimming behaviors were analyzed by comparing their migration velocities estimated from Argos tag data with ocean currents derived from a data simulation model and from AVISO advection estimates. Results suggest that the turtles take advantage of Kuroshio during the initial portion of their migration routes. They must then make a great effort to swim eastward, at speeds over 1 m s-1, toward their foraging sites to avoid being carried off course by the strong current. The cues that might cause the change in swimming direction were evaluated with a Principle Component Analysis. The factors considered are ambient current velocity, wind, eddy activity (vorticity), magnetic field (latitude) and water temperature. The analysis shows that the ambient current and water temperature are negatively correlated with the eastward swimming velocity. This suggests that the changes in ocean current and a drop of water temperature, likely due to eddies impinging on the Kuroshio, may trigger the eastward swimming. Despite the differences among migratory routes of three Argos-tagged turtles after leaving the Kuroshio, they all reached foraging sites in the same general area. That suggests there may be more complex cues that guide the turtles to their foraging sites during their post-nesting migrations.

  19. Action potential waveform variability limits multi-unit separation in freely behaving rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stratton

    Full Text Available Extracellular multi-unit recording is a widely used technique to study spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity in awake behaving animals. These recordings are done using either single-wire or multiwire electrodes such as tetrodes. In this study we have tested the ability of single-wire electrodes to discriminate activity from multiple neurons under conditions of varying noise and neuronal cell density. Using extracellular single-unit recording, coupled with iontophoresis to drive cell activity across a wide dynamic range, we studied spike waveform variability, and explored systematic differences in single-unit spike waveform within and between brain regions as well as the influence of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on the similarity of spike waveforms. We also modelled spike misclassification for a range of cell densities based on neuronal recordings obtained at different SNRs. Modelling predictions were confirmed by classifying spike waveforms from multiple cells with various SNRs using a leading commercial spike-sorting system. Our results show that for single-wire recordings, multiple units can only be reliably distinguished under conditions of high recording SNR (≥ 4 and low neuronal density (≈ 20,000/ mm(3. Physiological and behavioural changes, as well as technical limitations typical of awake animal preparations, reduce the accuracy of single-channel spike classification, resulting in serious classification errors. For SNR <4, the probability of misclassifying spikes approaches 100% in many cases. Our results suggest that in studies where the SNR is low or neuronal density is high, separation of distinct units needs to be evaluated with great caution.

  20. A GUIDE TO FUEL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITZKE,W.

    2004-08-01

    Heating oil, as its name implies, is intended for end use heating consumption as its primary application. But its identity in reference name and actual chemical properties may vary based on a number of factors. By name, heating oil is sometimes referred to as gas oil, diesel, No. 2 distillate (middle distillate), or light heating oil. Kerosene, also used as a burner fuel, is a No. 1 distillate. Due to the higher heat content and competitive price in most markets, No. 2 heating oil is primarily used in modern, pressure-atomized burners. Using No. 1 oil for heating has the advantages of better cold-flow properties, lower emissions, and better storage properties. Because it is not nearly as abundant in supply, it is often markedly more expensive than No. 2 heating oil. Given the advanced, low-firing rate burners in use today, the objective is for the fuel to be compatible and achieve combustion performance at the highest achievable efficiency of the heating systems--with minimal service requirements. Among the Oil heat industry's top priorities are improving reliability and reducing service costs associated with fuel performance. Poor fuel quality, fuel degradation, and contamination can cause burner shut-downs resulting in ''no-heat'' calls. Many of these unscheduled service calls are preventable with routine inspection of the fuel and the tank. This manual focuses on No. 2 heating oil--its performance, properties, sampling and testing. Its purpose is to provide the marketer, service manager and technician with the proper guidelines for inspecting the product, maintaining good fuel quality, and the best practices for proper storage. Up-to-date information is also provided on commercially available fuel additives, their appropriate use and limitations.

  1. Evaluation of the environmental impact of modern passenger cars on petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Winkel, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    The project reported here concerns an investigation into the environmental performance of modern passenger cars on four different fuels: petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG. The objectives of the project were twofold: - To make a valid and useful comparison between modern vehicles fuelled by thes

  2. Real-world fuel consumption of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Eijk, A.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 Travelcard Nederland BV and TNO collaborate to determine the real-world fuel consumption of modern vehicles. The difference between the official type-approval value and the actual fuel consumption has been reported over the years (Ligterink, 2010 and Ligterink, 2013 and Ligterink, 2014).

  3. Modern Media Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Prijatelj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary media culture is de fi ned by the logic of the victorious spectacle expanding to all areas of life. Post-modern capitalism has turned everyday life and culture into entertainment with the help of the spectacular. In fact, such entertainment results in a fake sense of happiness, pop mainstream, the swallowing up alternatives and therefore the creation of a passive consumer society. The media today have a unique power of overwhelming a person with information. They enable a modern person to know much, but understand little. This discussion has cast some light on very popular reality shows, the body and sports. It concludes with a re fl ection on modern media, which leave a person of this age with a patchwork identity.

  4. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    conditions of such liquid modernity. In this paper, I want to argue that this picture of Adorno is mistaken and extend the view proposed by Frederic Jameson that Adorno was not only the philosopher of 1990’s but is also very useful in the 2010’s. In fact, the critique of critical theory and emancipation......In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under....... The paper argues that there are great similarities but that Adorno (and the rest of the Early Frankfurt School) has a much more well founded philosophical layout of their critique of individualization....

  5. Det sentimentalt moderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Romantikken er blevet afskrevet som en mørk epoke, hvor en hang til mystik og tvetydighed ikke passer til det moderne oplysningsprojekts mål om klarhed og orden. Afhendlingen viser imidlertid, hvordan dele af arkitekturen i det 20. århundrede er fyldt med romantisk tankegods, og hvordan romantisk...... nøglemotiver som f.eks. fragment, arabesk, krystal, symbol eller poesi kan bruges i en analyse - også af moderne arkitektur. det ses i bogens nyfortolkninger af værker og teorier hos arkitekterne Erik Gunnar Asplund, Josef Frank, Rudolf Schwarz, Aldo Rossi og Daniel Libeskind...

  6. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  7. BARCELONA: URBANSCAPES OF MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Remesar

    2015-04-01

    The Do.Co.Mo.Mo’s. database, referring to Barcelona, lists 34 buildings that could be classified as rationalists and / or modern. According to other sources, we could reach fifty constructed buildings between the late 1920s and the end of the war in Spain. The article presents the results of a field work that, using different sources, has tried to to order and record the architectural production that can be considered modern / rationalist in Barcelona in the 1920s and 1930s

  8. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  9. Modernisms and Postmodernisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋轶阳

    2009-01-01

    The Phrase "modernisms and postmodernisms" is developed for presenting complexity and mutability exiting within and between Modernism and Postmodernism. This thesis attempts to offer the essentiality of the above-mentioned in terms of the respective definitions, the differences in arguing the concept of "tradition" and "new" as well as the terms of "epistemology" and "ontology", the non-abrupt developing process between them. By doing so, the materials, such as T. S. Eliot's poem "The Waste Land" and Langston Hughes' poem "Christ in Alabama", Virginia Woolf "Mrs. Dalloway: are offered for analysis.

  10. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  11. Modern physics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jasprit

    1999-01-01

    Linking physics fundamentals to modern technology-a highly applied primer for students and engineersReminding us that modern inventions-new materials, information technologies, medical technological breakthroughs-are based on well-established fundamental principles of physics, Jasprit Singh integrates important topics from quantum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, and materials science, as well as the special theory of relativity. He then goes a step farther and applies these fundamentals to the workings of electronic devices-an essential leap for anyone interested in developing n

  12. New microbial fuels: a biotech perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, Mathew A; Schirmer, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Bioethanol and plant oil-derived biodiesel are generally considered first generation biofuels. Recognizing their apparent disadvantages, scientists and engineers are developing more sustainable and economically feasible second generation biofuels. The new microbial fuels summarized here have great potential to become viable replacements or at least supplements of petroleum-derived liquid transportation fuels. Yields and efficiencies of the four metabolic pathways leading to these microbial fuels-mostly designed and optimized in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using modern tools of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology-and the robustness of the biocatalysts that convert the metabolic intermediates to, in some cases, finished and engine-ready fuels, will determine if they can be commercially successful and contribute to alleviating our dependence on fossil fuels.

  13. Solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J.R.

    1978-11-17

    The paper is concerned with (1) the thermodynamic and kinetic limits for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy as it is received on the earth's surface, and (2) the evaluation of a number of possible photochemical reactions with particular emphasis on the production of solar hydrogen from water. Procedures for generating hydrogen fuel are considered. Topics examined include the general requirements for a fuel-generation reaction, the photochemical reaction, limits on the conversion of light energy to chemical energy, an estimate of chemical storage efficiency, and the water decomposition reaction.

  14. Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic fuel cells convert the chemical energy of biofuels into electrical energy. Unlike traditional fuel cell types, which are mainly based on metal catalysts, the enzymatic fuel cells employ enzymes as catalysts. This fuel cell type can be used as an implantable power source for a variety of medical devices used in modern medicine to administer drugs, treat ailments and monitor bodily functions. Some advantages in comparison to conventional fuel cells include a simple fuel cell design and lower cost of the main fuel cell components, however they suffer from severe kinetic limitations mainly due to inefficiency in electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. In this review article, the major research activities concerned with the enzymatic fuel cells (anode and cathode development, system design, modeling by highlighting the current problems (low cell voltage, low current density, stability will be presented.

  15. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  16. Fuel quality processing study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Syverson, H. T.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, R. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel quality processing study to provide a data base for an intelligent tradeoff between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality, and also, to guide the development of specifications of future synthetic fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985 to 2000 is given. Four technical performance tests are discussed: on-site pretreating, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and data evaluation. The base case refinery is a modern Midwest refinery processing 200,000 BPD of a 60/40 domestic/import petroleum crude mix. The synthetic crudes used for upgrading to marketable products and turbine fuel are shale oil and coal liquids. Of these syncrudes, 50,000 BPD are processed in the existing petroleum refinery, requiring additional process units and reducing petroleum feed, and in a new refinery designed for processing each syncrude to produce gasoline, distillate fuels, resid fuels, and turbine fuel, JPGs and coke. An extensive collection of synfuel properties and upgrading data was prepared for the application of a linear program model to investigate the most economical production slate meeting petroleum product specifications and turbine fuels of various quality grades. Technical and economic projections were developed for 36 scenarios, based on 4 different crude feeds to either modified existing or new refineries operated in 2 different modes to produce 7 differing grades of turbine fuels. A required product selling price of turbine fuel for each processing route was calculated. Procedures and projected economics were developed for on-site treatment of turbine fuel to meet limitations of impurities and emission of pollutants.

  17. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  18. Modern Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  19. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  20. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  1. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  2. Facility Modernization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D; Ackley, R

    2007-05-10

    Modern and technologically up-to-date facilities and systems infrastructure are necessary to accommodate today's research environment. In response, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing commitment to develop and apply effective management models and processes to maintain, modernize, and upgrade its facilities to meet the science and technology mission. The Facility Modernization Pilot Study identifies major subsystems of facilities that are either technically or functionally obsolete, lack adequate capacity and/or capability, or need to be modernized or upgraded to sustain current operations and program mission. This study highlights areas that need improvement, system interdependencies, and how these systems/subsystems operate and function as a total productive unit. Although buildings are 'grandfathered' in and are not required to meet current codes unless there are major upgrades, this study also evaluates compliance with 'current' building, electrical, and other codes. This study also provides an evaluation of the condition and overall general appearance of the structure.

  3. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  4. Customs Modernization Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    De Wulf, Luc; Sokol, José B.

    2005-01-01

    This handbook aims to make a positive contribution to the efforts that many countries are undertaking to modernize their customs administrations. The handbook views a competent and well-organized customs service as one that successfully balances its various responsibilities to ensure a high level of compliance with revenue objectives and regulatory requirements while at the same time inter...

  5. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  6. Euripides in Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Euripides is considered the most human, modern and existentialist of the famous Greek tragedians. Extremely popular after his death, he continued to be staged, read and much recited in Hellenistic and Roman times. As the Greek-speaking elite of the Roman Empire disappeared, the popularity of the Eur

  7. Modern biotechnology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  8. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  9. Shiwan Modern Pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Shiwan, Guangdong Province, is the native home of the ancient Chinese pottery culture. The soft, fine and smooth pottery clay found in Shiwan is highly suited for sculpting various figures, animals and utensils. Shiwan has now introduced modern pottery techniques, with local craftsmen combining calligraphy, painting,

  10. Modern Fortran in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, A.

    2012-01-01

    From its earliest days, the Fortran programming language has been designed with computing efficiency in mind. The latest standard, Fortran 2008, incorporates a host of modern features, including object-orientation, array operations, user-defined types, and provisions for parallel computing. This tut

  11. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  12. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  13. Validation of the BISON 3D Fuel Performance Code: Temperature Comparisons for Concentrically and Eccentrically Located Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez; R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer

    2013-03-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (USA) since 2009. The code is applicable to both steady and transient fuel behaviour and is used to analyse either 2D axisymmetric or 3D geometries. BISON has been applied to a variety of fuel forms including LWR fuel rods, TRISO-coated fuel particles, and metallic fuel in both rod and plate geometries. Code validation is currently in progress, principally by comparison to instrumented LWR fuel rods. Halden IFA experiments constitute a large percentage of the current BISON validation base. The validation emphasis here is centreline temperatures at the beginning of fuel life, with comparisons made to seven rods from the IFA-431 and 432 assemblies. The principal focus is IFA-431 Rod 4, which included concentric and eccentrically located fuel pellets. This experiment provides an opportunity to explore 3D thermomechanical behaviour and assess the 3D simulation capabilities of BISON. Analysis results agree with experimental results showing lower fuel centreline temperatures for eccentric fuel with the peak temperature shifted from the centreline. The comparison confirms with modern 3D analysis tools that the measured temperature difference between concentric and eccentric pellets is not an artefact and provides a quantitative explanation for the difference.

  14. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  15. Imaging neuronal populations in behaving rodents: paradigms for studying neural circuits underlying behavior in the mammalian cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jerry L; Andermann, Mark L; Keck, Tara; Xu, Ning-Long; Ziv, Yaniv

    2013-11-06

    Understanding the neural correlates of behavior in the mammalian cortex requires measurements of activity in awake, behaving animals. Rodents have emerged as a powerful model for dissecting the cortical circuits underlying behavior attributable to the convergence of several methods. Genetically encoded calcium indicators combined with viral-mediated or transgenic tools enable chronic monitoring of calcium signals in neuronal populations and subcellular structures of identified cell types. Stable one- and two-photon imaging of neuronal activity in awake, behaving animals is now possible using new behavioral paradigms in head-fixed animals, or using novel miniature head-mounted microscopes in freely moving animals. This mini-symposium will highlight recent applications of these methods for studying sensorimotor integration, decision making, learning, and memory in cortical and subcortical brain areas. We will outline future prospects and challenges for identifying the neural underpinnings of task-dependent behavior using cellular imaging in rodents.

  16. Large-Scale Fluorescence Calcium-Imaging Methods for Studies of Long-Term Memory in Behaving Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jercog, Pablo; Rogerson, Thomas; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2016-05-02

    During long-term memory formation, cellular and molecular processes reshape how individual neurons respond to specific patterns of synaptic input. It remains poorly understood how such changes impact information processing across networks of mammalian neurons. To observe how networks encode, store, and retrieve information, neuroscientists must track the dynamics of large ensembles of individual cells in behaving animals, over timescales commensurate with long-term memory. Fluorescence Ca(2+)-imaging techniques can monitor hundreds of neurons in behaving mice, opening exciting avenues for studies of learning and memory at the network level. Genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators allow neurons to be targeted by genetic type or connectivity. Chronic animal preparations permit repeated imaging of neural Ca(2+) dynamics over multiple weeks. Together, these capabilities should enable unprecedented analyses of how ensemble neural codes evolve throughout memory processing and provide new insights into how memories are organized in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  18. MODERN BIOGAS TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Sidorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern technical level of biogas technologies is considered, in particular in Ukraine. It is shown that in Ukraine the level of introduction of these technologies remains unsatisfactory. The main reason of such state is absence of the government program of development of sufficiently not profitable biogas industry, which again depends on availability of investment facilities including the state one. On the example of the company’s data Zorg Biogas AG, which is dominant in Ukraine among the foreign ones that offer their products using the technique of the net present value — NPV — it is shown insolvency of functioning of profitable biogas power plants. A conclusion is done about the necessity of orientation on own development in area of biogas technologies, State support and intensive technologies. The world level of modern intensive biogas technologies, in particular the use of the cogeneration plants.

  19. Modernism in American Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐君

    2011-01-01

    Modernism is a movement of artists and designers who rebelled against late 19th century's academic and historicist tradition, and embraced the new economic, social and political aspects of the emerging modem world. This thesis is going to analyze the key dements like experimentation, anti-realism and individualism of Modernism in literature by introducing well-known writers and their works in different period. The thesis also draws a conclusion that the work of modernist writers is characterized by showing the disenchantment, dislocation, and alienation of men in the world, and by the emphasis on experimentation and formalism and objectivism which are reactions to the cataclysm known as the Modem Age.

  20. Modern particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079874

    2013-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of all aspects of modern particle physics, this textbook provides a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a straightforward manner with full mathematical derivations throughout. Fully-worked examples enable students to link the mathematical theory to results from modern particle physics experiments. End-of-chapter exercises, graded by difficulty, provide students with a deeper understanding of the subject. Online resources available at www.cambridge.org/MPP feature password-protected fully-worked solutions to problems for instructors, numerical solutions and hints to the problems for students and PowerPoint slides and JPEGs of figures from the book.

  1. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...

  2. Modern examples of extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, Gabor L

    2013-01-01

    No species lives forever, and extinction is the ultimate fate of all living species. The fossil record indicates that a recent extinction wave affecting terrestrial vertebrates was parallel with the arrival of modern humans to areas formerly uninhabited by them. These modern instances of extinction...... started at around 40,000 years ago. On continents, large mammals (especially those >50 kg body mass) were affected, while on islands, the impacts were mainly felt by birds. The causes of these extinctions are not well known but hunting, habitat alteration and the introduction of non-native species...... reasons (certain groups do not fossilize) and methodological problems (methods of excavation and identification). Consequently, we can only crudely estimate the current rate of extinction. Nonetheless, it is evident that humans generated a new mass extinction, affecting all species in all habitats, and...

  3. Gold in Modern Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryshkevych Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the role of gold in modern economy. It analyses dynamics and modern state of the gold market. It studies volumes of contracts in exchange and off-exchange markets. In order to reveal changes of key features of the gold market, it focuses on the study of gold demand volumes, studies volumes and geographical changes in the world gold mining, and analyses volumes of monetary gold of central banks and its share in gold and currency reserves. It analyses price fluctuations in the gold market during 1968 – 2013 and identifies main factors that determine the gold price. It identifies interconnection between the state of the gold market and financial markets of countries. The study showed that namely geopolitical and economic instability restricts the spectrum of financial assets for investing and gold is not only a safe investment object but also a profitable one.

  4. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  5. Modern operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tanenbaum, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    Modern Operating Systems, Fourth Edition, is intended for introductory courses in Operating Systems in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, and Electrical Engineering programs. It also serves as a useful reference for OS professionals ' The widely anticipated revision of this worldwide best-seller incorporates the latest developments in operating systems (OS) technologies. The Fourth Edition includes up-to-date materials on relevant'OS. Tanenbaum also provides information on current research based on his experience as an operating systems researcher. ' Modern Operating Systems, Third Editionwas the recipient of the 2010 McGuffey Longevity Award. The McGuffey Longevity Award recognizes textbooks whose excellence has been demonstrated over time.'http://taaonline.net/index.html " Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. It will help: ' *Provide Practical Detail on the Big Picture Concepts: A clear and entertaining writing s...

  6. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  7. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...

  8. Modern examples of extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, Gabor L

    2013-01-01

    No species lives forever, and extinction is the ultimate fate of all living species. The fossil record indicates that a recent extinction wave affecting terrestrial vertebrates was parallel with the arrival of modern humans to areas formerly uninhabited by them. These modern instances of extinction...... started at around 40,000 years ago. On continents, large mammals (especially those >50 kg body mass) were affected, while on islands, the impacts were mainly felt by birds. The causes of these extinctions are not well known but hunting, habitat alteration and the introduction of non-native species...... are the main causes of extinction. Our knowledge about extinctions is very incomplete, due to bias in research by taxonomy (vertebrate groups are better studied), geography (northern areas have received more attention), habitat (terrestrial habitats are better known than marine ones), as well as biological...

  9. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  10. Cobol software modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, billions of lines of code are in the COBOL programming language. This book is an analysis, a diagnosis, a strategy, a MDD method and a tool to transform legacy COBOL into modernized applications that comply with Internet computing, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the Cloud.  It serves as a blueprint for those in charge of finding solutions to this considerable challenge.

  11. 1998 Army Modernization Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Biological (CB) Protective Duty Uniform (STO) • Biometrics (SRO) • Nanoscience (SRO) • Millimeter Wave Material and Dissemination Technology... Biometrics and Nanoscience SROs will enable the development of advanced NBC detection and characterization systems, including the exploitation of biologically...Requirements Trailers • Procure HEMAT Trailers Figure K-23 K-19 //;<?. U.S. Army 1997Modernization Plan This final fleet assessment, made against the

  12. Early modern sport

    OpenAIRE

    Huggins, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The "early modern" has always suffered problems of periodization. Its beginnings overlap with the Late Middle Ages when sport and athletic exercise were moving away from military training. It encompasses the Renaissance, Reformation, and Counter-Reformation and the scientific shifts of the Age of Enlightenment, movements that were diverse chronologically, geographically, culturally and intellectually. Some historians link its beginnings to block-printing, the beginning of the Tudor period, or...

  13. Modern algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lutfiyya, Lutfi A

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Modern Algebra includes set theory, operations, relations, basic properties of the integers, group theory, and ring theory.

  14. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  15. Den moderne russiske stat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel

    Briefet er inddelt i tre hovedafsnit. I første del gennemgås de tre verdensordener kort, og Flemming Splidsboel forklarer hvorledes de forholder sig til hinanden. Derefter diskuteres det russiske syn på fire elementer fra de moderne og postmoderne verdensordener - suverænitet, magt, de nationale ...... interesser og individets status. Flemming Splidsboel slutter af med at præsentere nogle tanker vedrørende den fremtidige læring i Rusland....

  16. Jihad, Modernity, and Sectarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2007-01-01

    are relatively modern: anti-colonial jihad, pacifist jihad, and Islamist jihad. All three are explored further by other articles in this issue. This essay also argues that the internal dynamics of the Islamist terrorist cell have much in common with the internal dynamics of the sectarian NRM......, and that understanding this helps to explain both the moral and the strategic/operational decisions made by Islamist terrorists....

  17. Revisiting modern portfolio theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tenani, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits Modern Portfolio Theory and derives eleven properties of Efficient Allocations and Portfolios in the presence of leverage. With different degrees of leverage, an Efficient Portfolio is a linear combination of two portfolios that lie in different efficient frontiers - which allows for an attractive reinterpretation of the Separation Theorem. In particular a change in the investor risk-return preferences will leave the allocation between the Minimum Risk and Risk Portfolios ...

  18. Modern Methods in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Pavlína

    2007-01-01

    Traditional marketing methods are losing their effectiveness and credibility. It has been worse and worse to communicate with customers, and marketers are therefore looking for new techniques and way how to appeal buyers. They turn to the use of modern marketing methods, which typical features are possibility of accurate targeting and low costs, and, also, the fact that they are still not considered being a classic promotion. In the theoretical part of the diploma thesis the alternative marke...

  19. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  20. Modern windships. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Knud E. Hansen A/S (KEH) has, partly funded by the Energy Research Programme, (EFP-95) investigated in the possibilities of using windships for transportation of cargo on long routes, i.e. across the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. The task was to peruse experiences from projects made during the past 30 years and then, based on new materials and design principle to make proposals to modern wind driven ships to transportation of cargo - especially bulk carriers. KEH has thus prepared a suggestion for a 50,000 DWT wind driven bulk carrier on these terms. The bulk carrier in question is a modern rig inspired by the classical lugger and junk sail with a total sail area of abt. 10,000 m{sup 2}. The hull of the ship has been developed in order to limit wave resistance and drifting. Project Windship has, in contrast to earlier tests and projects, designed a bulk carrier based on a complete evaluation of ecology, safety, economy and reasonable transportation speed. The research project shows that international sea transportation, with wind as the primary source of energy, does not seem to run up against any obstacles as regards safety. The economical analyses show that windship transportation, with today`s oil prices, will be about 10% higher compared to the diesel driven transportation. In the light of the positive results of the research project the steering committee recommends that phase II of project `Modern Windships` is carried out. (EG)

  1. Modern anaesthesia vapourisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucharita Chakravarti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers.

  2. Modern anaesthesia vapourisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

    2013-09-01

    Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers.

  3. Modern sports eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-11-01

    To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory.

  4. Fuel control system for dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Ryan, W.P.; Marvin, D.H.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel governing system for an engine adapted for operation on a first fuel and a second fuel is described comprising: a first fuel governing system including a spontaneous motion metering means; and a second fuel governing system, the second fuel governing system further comprising: means for providing a first signal indicative of position of the first fuel metering means, which signal approximates total load on the engine, means for providing a second signal of the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine, which flow causes reflective displacement of the first fuel metering means, means for determining the difference between the first signal and the second signal, which difference is indicative of distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, and means for causing operation of the means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine to cause displacement of the first fuel metering means equal to the distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load.

  5. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  6. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of mode...

  7. Rich Cultural Heritage amid Modernization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Indian civilization has thus far experienced three phases of ancient, medieval and modern stages and is now entering steadily the real modern stage in the true sense of the term. After further advances in another five to ten decades, the Indian civilization will surely appear in a new vigorous look of prosperity and strength, boasting both traditional splendor and modern wonders.

  8. Chinese Modernization in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Vinogradov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available China's rise has become subject to fierce academic debates about the nature and possible consequences of this growth. The phenomenon of the Chinese modernization was also studied from the angle of the theories of modernization. This article analyzes the historical stages of political and economic modernization in China, as well as Russian and Soviet experience.

  9. The domestication of fire: the relationship between biomass fuel, fossil fuel and burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertyn, R; Rode, H; Millar, A J W; Peck, M D

    2012-09-01

    Primitive man's discovery and use of fire had a tremendous impact on modern development. It changed lifestyles, and brought with it new fuel sources and cooking methods. It also introduced devastation, injury, pain, disfigurement, and loss of life, and the need to continuously develop management, training and prevention programs.

  10. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  11. Acupuncture in modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Kristin; Yi, Xiaobin

    2009-03-01

    For at least 2,500 years, acupuncture has been an integral part of traditional Chinese medicine. However, recently as more people in western countries are diagnosed with chronic disease poorly treated with modern medical therapies, many are turning to acupuncture and other forms of alternative medical treatments. Based on the theory of harmonious flowing qi being the basis of good health, acupuncture focuses on restoring qi by manipulation of the complementary and opposing elements of yin and yang. However, in the modern medical community we struggle to with the concept of qi, given a lack of anatomic and histological evidence supporting its existence. However, with the surge in public interest in acupuncture, the scientific community begun heavy investigation of acupuncture's efficacy, as well as the physiologic basis behind it. Thus far, evidence supports the use of acupuncture in post-operative nausea and vomiting, postoperative dental pain, chronic pain conditions such as lower back pain, and possibly also such psychologic conditions as addiction. It is possible that by affecting afferent nerve signaling, acupuncture may influence the release of endogenous opioids to promote pain relief. This effect may be augmented by release of ACTH and cortisol, as well as through down-regulation of signaling through pain fibers. When treating patients who may utilize alternative forms of medicine, it is important that medical practitioners be educated in regards to the basic fundamental beliefs behind acupuncture, as well as the scientific evidence supporting its use and revealing its efficacy. The purpose of this review is to give western trained physicians exposure to history, basic knowledge and its clinical applications of acupuncture to accommodate accelerating interests in acupuncture in modern society.

  12. MODERN AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    With China’s open door policy advocating that Chinese people study abroad, primarily in English-speaking countries, a text tailored to preparing these students is needed. Modern American English, (MAE) composed jointly by Chinese and American linguists, attempts to fill the void. The book’s introduction states a twofold purpose: to help Chinese students learn situational English and to introduce Western culture and society. By assessing MAE’s strength’s and weaknesses it is my intention to provide the publisher with some feedback that may be of some help for forthcoming revisions.

  13. Introduction to modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fowles, Grant R

    1989-01-01

    This incisive text provides a basic undergraduate-level course in modern optics for students in physics, technology and engineering. The first half of the book deals with classical physical optics; the second principally with the quantum nature of light. Chapters 1 and 2 treat the propagation of light waves, including the concepts of phase and group velocities, and the vectorial nature of light. Chapter 3 applies the concepts of partial coherence and coherence length to the study of interference, and Chapter 4 takes up multiple-beam interference and includes Fabry-Perot interferometry and mul

  14. 2010 Army Modernization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Capability Release ( JCR ) software upgrades with BFT2 and KGV-72s provides Type-1 security and enhanced (10X) L-band bandwidth to current FBCB2 terminals...Additionally, JCR will include the co-host of the TiGR and the Army will leverage to support HBCT to SBCT conversions starting in FY11. By FY13...Army Human Intelligence 89 2010 ARMY MODERNIZATION STRATEGY WWW.G8.ARMY.MIL IBCT: IED: IED: IFPC: IPADS: IRB: ISR: IT: JAB: JBC-P: JCR : JETS

  15. Der moderne Frege

    OpenAIRE

    Lämmel, Uwe

    2004-01-01

    Gottlob Frege ist einer der größten (der größte?) Wissenschaftler Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns. Als Mathematiker und Philosoph hat er die moderne mathematische Logik begründet, dazu Beiträge zur Mengenlehrer, Axiomatisierung sowie der Sprachphilosophie geleistet. Viele seiner Leistungen haben Spuren hinterlassen, die noch heute wirken, und dass nicht nur in der Mathematik und Philosophie sondern insbesondere auch in der Informatik. Diese Schrift möge dazu beitragen, den Namen Gottlob Frege und sei...

  16. MODERN MILITARY GEOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Bezuidenhout

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern Military Geography is a new text that explores the relationship between geography and military conflict. As such, it covers many different scenarios and operational theatres and brings perspective to the link between local topography, hydrographical settings, climate, coastal conditions and military operations. The text goes further by examining the influence of secondary factors, which include, biological, health and environmental issues on military operations. The unique interaction between physical conditions and the geopolitical realities of different geographical settings are well illustrated. This book is therefore an excellent addition to the fields of military geography and military history, as well as other related military disciplines.

  17. Dialogues on modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sachs, Mendel

    1998-01-01

    In this book, important conceptual developments of the two major revolutions of modern physics - the quantum and relativity theories - are presented in a nonmathematical, dialectical form of dialogue. The implications of conflicting philosophical attitudes of these revolutions in physics and applications to topics such as cosmology/astrophysics and high energy physics are emphasized. It is argued that for any substantial progress in our understanding of 21st century physics, it will be necessary to resolve these 20th century conflicts. These richly rewarding dialogues provide a starting point

  18. Modern diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mittemeijer, E J

    2013-01-01

    The role of diffraction methods for the solid-state sciences has been pivotal to determining the (micro)structure of a material. Particularly, the expanding activities in materials science have led to the development of new methods for analysis by diffraction. This book offers an authoritative overview of the new developments in the field of analysis of matter by (in particular X-ray, electron and neutron) diffraction. It is composed of chapters written by leading experts on 'modern diffraction methods'. The focus in the various chapters of this book is on the current forefront of research on

  19. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  20. Advances in modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The twentieth century elevated our understanding of the Universe from its early stages to what it is today and what is to become of it. Cosmology is the weapon that utilizes all the scientific tools that we have created to feel less lost in the immensity of our Universe. The standard model is the theory that explains the best what we observe. Even with all the successes that this theory had, two main questions are still to be answered: What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy? This book attempts to understand these questions while giving some of the most promising advances in modern cosmology.

  1. Introduction to modern cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition:""This book is a comprehensive, rigorous introduction to what the authors name 'modern' cryptography. … a novel approach to how cryptography is taught, replacing the older, construction-based approach. … The concepts are clearly stated, both in an intuitive fashion and formally. … I would heartily recommend this book to anyone who is interested in cryptography. … The exercises are challenging and interesting, and can benefit readers of all academic levels.""-IACR Book Reviews, January 2010""Over the past 30 years, cryptography has been transformed from a mysterious

  2. Charisma, Medieval and Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Dickson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Popularized by the mass media, Max Weber’s sociological concept of charisma now has a demotic meaning far from what Weber had in mind. Weberian charismatic leaders have followers, not fans, although, exceptionally, fans mutate into followers. This essay aims to trace some of the dimensions of Weberian charismatic religious leadership in comparative perspective, medieval and modern. Examples include: preachers, “double charisma,” professors, “collective charisma,” religious radicals, the economy of charisma, transgressive sexuality, demagogues, living saints.1

  3. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers in broa...... redemptive gesture toward the objects of the recent past and its predilection for irony. The article seeks to unfold hipster culture and sociality in an ongoing dialogue with sociological theory in general and conventional ways of thinking subculture in particular....

  4. Liminality and the Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    . Applying this framework to questions surrounding the implosion of ‘non-spaces’, the analysis of major historical periods and the study of political revolution, the book also explores its possible uses in social science research and its implications for our understanding of the uncertainty and contingency...... of the liquid structures of modern society. Shedding new light on a concept central to social thought, as well as its capacity for pushing social and political theory in new directions, this book will be of interest to scholars across the social sciences and philosophy working in fields such as social......, political and anthropological theory, cultural studies, social and cultural geography, and historical anthropology and sociology....

  5. History as Modernity. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Schiera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction starts from the exhaustion of modernity, drawing the fundamental lines of its development inside Western historical experience. The end of the political nexus between theology and politics, the evanescence of nation-state sovereignty, the check of great historical interpretations reveal the necessity of new categories and new organizational models, able to make us answer to the violence that the ongoing processes are liberating. Schiera underlines in particular the relevance of the administrative apparatus because of its capacity to link the global government with global organization, human rights and the commons.

  6. Modern French Grammar Workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    An innovative new workbook of exercises and language tasks for intermediate and advanced learners of French. This Workbook can be used independently or alongside Modern French Grammar.This Workbook provides exercises in:* Essential grammatical structures* Everyday functions such as agreeing and disagreeing* Role-plays set in a wide range of different contextsIt is suitable for group or pair work and for private study.A comprehensive answer key at the back of the Workbook enables you to check on your progress.This Workbook is ideal for all learners who have a basic knowledge of French, includin

  7. Visualization in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    MacEachren, AM

    1994-01-01

    Visualization in Modern Cartography explores links between the centuries-old discipline of cartography and today's revolutionary developments in scientific visualization. The book has three main goals: (1) to pass on design and symbolization expertise to the scientific visualization community - information that comes from centuries of pre-computer visualization by cartographers, and their more recent experiences with computerizing the discipline; (2) to help cartographers cope with the dramatic shift from print cartography to a dynamic virtual cartography for which their role is changing from

  8. Modern gear production

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, H J

    1970-01-01

    Modern Gear Production focuses on the processes and methods in gear making. The book first gives information on the history of gear making and types of gears. Topics such as the classification of gears based on the disposition of their shafts; shafts lying in the same plane with axes intersecting; and shafts lying in parallel planes but with axes inclined to one another are then discussed. The text describes gear groups, tooth forms, and gear materials. Heat treatment of steels, casehardening, nitriding, induction hardening, sulfinuzing, and flame hardening are explained. The book takes a look

  9. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  10. Aviation fuels outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  11. Key Differences in the Fabrication, Irradiation, and Safety Testing of U.S. and German TRISO-coated Particle Fuel and Their Implications on Fuel Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Maki, John Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hobbins, Richard Redfield

    2002-06-01

    High temperature gas reactor technology is achieving a renaissance around the world. This technology relies on high quality production and performance of coated particle fuel. Historically, the irradiation performance of TRISO-coated gas reactor particle fuel in Germany has been superior to that in the United States. German fuel generally displayed in-pile gas release values that were three orders of magnitude lower than U.S. fuel. Thus, we have critically examined the TRISO-coated fuel fabrication processes in the U.S. and Germany and the associated irradiation database with a goal of understanding why the German fuel behaves acceptably, why the U.S. fuel has not faired as well, and what process/ production parameters impart the reliable performance to this fuel form. The postirradiation examination results are also reviewed to identify failure mechanisms that may be the cause of the poorer U.S. irradiation performance. This comparison will help determine the roles that particle fuel process/product attributes and irradiation conditions (burnup, fast neutron fluence, temperature, and degree of acceleration) have on the behavior of the fuel during irradiation and provide a more quantitative linkage between acceptable processing parameters, as-fabricated fuel properties and subsequent in-reactor performance.

  12. Key Differences in the Fabrication, Irradiation, and Safety Testing of U.S. and German TRISO-coated Particle Fuel and Their Implications on Fuel Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Maki, John Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hobbins, Richard Redfield

    2002-06-01

    High temperature gas reactor technology is achieving a renaissance around the world. This technology relies on high quality production and performance of coated particle fuel. Historically, the irradiation performance of TRISO-coated gas reactor particle fuel in Germany has been superior to that in the United States. German fuel generally displayed in-pile gas release values that were three orders of magnitude lower than U.S. fuel. Thus, we have critically examined the TRISO-coated fuel fabrication processes in the U.S. and Germany and the associated irradiation database with a goal of understanding why the German fuel behaves acceptably, why the U.S. fuel has not faired as well, and what process/ production parameters impart the reliable performance to this fuel form. The postirradiation examination results are also reviewed to identify failure mechanisms that may be the cause of the poorer U.S. irradiation performance. This comparison will help determine the roles that particle fuel process/product attributes and irradiation conditions (burnup, fast neutron fluence, temperature, and degree of acceleration) have on the behavior of the fuel during irradiation and provide a more quantitative linkage between acceptable processing parameters, as-fabricated fuel properties and subsequent in-reactor performance.

  13. Modern garden delphiniums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassett, Shirley E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic features or modern English garden hybrid delphiniums are described. The development by Reinelt of the «Pacific» seed strain in America, and the successful introduction or red colours by Legro in Holland are discussed. The evolution of the tetraploid garden hybrid is considered in the light of species available to early breeders. The role of the Delphinium Society in the promotion of the flower and the encouragement or breeding programs is reviewed.

    [ca] Es descriuen les característiques dels delphiniums híbrids de jardí anglesos moderns. Es discuteix el desenvolupament de la raça de granes «Pacific» a Amèrica per Reinelt i l'èxit de la introducció de colors vermells a Holanda per Legro. L'evolució dels híbrids de jardineria tetraploides és considerada a la llum de les espècies que eren disponibles per als primers milloradors. Es revisa el paper de la Delphinium Society en la promoció de la flor i en la promoció dels programes de millora.

  14. Modern introductory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrow, Charles H; Amato, Joseph C; Galvez, Enrique; Parks, M. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Modern Introductory Physics, 2nd Edition, by Charles H. Holbrow, James N. Lloyd, Joseph C. Amato, Enrique Galvez, and Beth Parks, is a successful innovative text for teaching introductory college and university physics. It is thematically organized to emphasize the physics that answers the fundamental question: Why do we believe in atoms and their properties?  The book provides a sound introduction to basic physical concepts with particular attention to the nineteenth- and twentieth-century physics underlying our modern ideas of atoms and their structure.  After a review of basic Newtonian mechanics, the book discusses early physical evidence that matter is made of atoms.  With a simple model of the atom Newtonian mechanics can explain the ideal gas laws, temperature, and viscosity.  Basic concepts of electricity and magnetism are introduced along with a more complicated model of the atom to account for the observed electrical properties of atoms. The physics of waves---particularly light and x-rays---an...

  15. ORIGEN-based Nuclear Fuel Inventory Module for Fuel Cycle Assessment: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutnik, Steven E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-06-19

    processing, and depletion/decay solvers) can be self-contained into a single executable sequence. Further, to embed this capability into other software environments (such as the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator) requires that Origen’s capabilities be encapsulated into a portable, self-contained library which other codes can then call directly through function calls, thereby directly accessing the solver and data processing capabilities of Origen. Additional components relevant to this work include modernization of the reactor data libraries used by Origen for conducting nuclear fuel depletion calculations. This work has included the development of new fuel assembly lattices not previously available (such as for CANDU heavy-water reactor assemblies) as well as validation of updated lattices for light-water reactors updated to employ modern nuclear data evaluations. The CyBORG reactor analysis module as-developed under this workscope is fully capable of dynamic calculation of depleted fuel compositions from all commercial U.S. reactor assembly types as well as a number of international fuel types, including MOX, VVER, MAGNOX, and PHWR CANDU fuel assemblies. In addition, the Origen-based depletion engine allows for CyBORG to evaluate novel fuel assembly and reactor design types via creation of Origen reactor data libraries via SCALE. The establishment of this new modeling capability affords fuel cycle modelers a substantially improved ability to model dynamically-changing fuel cycle and reactor conditions, including recycled fuel compositions from fuel cycle scenarios involving material recycle into thermal-spectrum systems.

  16. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  17. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  18. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  19. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  20. Modern carbonate mound systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, J. P.; Dullo, C.

    2003-04-01

    Carbonate mounds are prominent features throughout the geological record. In many hydrocarbon provinces, they form prime reservoir structures. But recent investigations have increasingly reported occurrences of large mound clusters at the surface of the seabed, or buried at shallow depth on modern ocean margins, and in particular in basins rich in hydrocarbons. Such exciting new observations along the West-European margin are promising for elucidating the setting and environment of modern carbonate mounds, but at the same time they confront us with puzzling or sometimes contradictory observations in the quest for their genesis. Spectacular cold-water coral communities have colonized such mounds, but convincing arguments for recognizing them as prime builders are still lacking. The geological record provides ample evidence of microbial mediation in mound build-up and stabilisation, but as long as mound drilling is lacking, we have no opportunity to verify the role of such processes and identify the key actors in the earliest stage of onset and development of modern mounds. Some evidence from the past record and from present very-high resolution observations in the shallow seabed suggest an initial control by fluid venting, and fluid migration pathways have been imaged or are tentatively reconstructed by modelling in the concerned basins, but the ultimate link in the shallow subsurface seems still to elude a large part of our efforts. Surface sampling and analyses of both corals and surface sediments have largely failed in giving any conclusive evidence of present-day or recent venting in the considered basins. But on the other hand, applying rigourously the interpretational keys derived from e.g. Porcupine Seabight settings off NW Ireland on brand new prospective settings e.g. on the Moroccan margin have resulted in the discovery of totally new mound settings, in the middle of a field of giant, active mud volcanoes. Keys are apparently working, but we still do not

  1. Future aviation fuels overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  2. Synthetic tactile perception induced by transcranial alternating-current stimulation can substitute for natural sensory stimulus in behaving rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Ammann, Claudia; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Ruffini, Giulio; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

    2016-01-21

    The use of brain-derived signals for controlling external devices has long attracted the attention from neuroscientists and engineers during last decades. Although much effort has been dedicated to establishing effective brain-to-computer communication, computer-to-brain communication feedback for "closing the loop" is now becoming a major research theme. While intracortical microstimulation of the sensory cortex has already been successfully used for this purpose, its future application in humans partly relies on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies. In the present study, we explore the potential use of transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tACS) for synthetic tactile perception in alert behaving animals. More specifically, we determined the effects of tACS on sensory local field potentials (LFPs) and motor output and tested its capability for inducing tactile perception using classical eyeblink conditioning in the behaving animal. We demonstrated that tACS of the primary somatosensory cortex vibrissa area could indeed substitute natural stimuli during training in the associative learning paradigm.

  3. Synthetic tactile perception induced by transcranial alternating-current stimulation can substitute for natural sensory stimulus in behaving rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Ammann, Claudia; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Ruffini, Giulio; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of brain-derived signals for controlling external devices has long attracted the attention from neuroscientists and engineers during last decades. Although much effort has been dedicated to establishing effective brain-to-computer communication, computer-to-brain communication feedback for “closing the loop” is now becoming a major research theme. While intracortical microstimulation of the sensory cortex has already been successfully used for this purpose, its future application in humans partly relies on the use of non-invasive brain stimulation technologies. In the present study, we explore the potential use of transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tACS) for synthetic tactile perception in alert behaving animals. More specifically, we determined the effects of tACS on sensory local field potentials (LFPs) and motor output and tested its capability for inducing tactile perception using classical eyeblink conditioning in the behaving animal. We demonstrated that tACS of the primary somatosensory cortex vibrissa area could indeed substitute natural stimuli during training in the associative learning paradigm. PMID:26790614

  4. Chronic monitoring of cortical hemodynamics in behaving, freely-moving rats using a miniaturized head-mounted optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Iliya; Gad, Raanan; Koletar, Margaret; Ringuette, Dene; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    Growing interest within the neurophysiology community in assessing healthy and pathological brain activity in animals that are awake and freely-behaving has triggered the need for optical systems that are suitable for such longitudinal studies. In this work we report label-free multi-modal imaging of cortical hemodynamics in the somatosensory cortex of awake, freely-behaving rats, using a novel head-mounted miniature optical microscope. The microscope employs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) at three distinct wavelengths (680 nm, 795 nm, and 850 nm) to provide measurements of four hemodynamic markers: blood flow speeds, HbO, HbR, and total Hb concentration, across a > 2 mm field of view. Blood flow speeds are extracted using Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI), while oxygenation measurements are performed using Intrinsic Optical Signal Imaging (IOSI). Longitudinal measurements on the same animal are made possible over the course of > 6 weeks using a chronic window that is surgically implanted into the skull. We use the device to examine changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in superficial cortical blood vessels and tissue in response to drug-induced absence-like seizures, correlating motor behavior with changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in the brain.

  5. A movable microelectrode array for chronic basal ganglia single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording in freely behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobin; Zeng, Jia; Chen, Ting; Lin, Yuanxiang; Yu, Lianghong; Li, Ying; Lin, Zhangya; Wu, Xiyue; Chen, Fuyong; Kang, Dezhi; Zhang, Shizhong

    2014-09-01

    The basal ganglia-cortical circuits are important for information process to brain function. However, chronic recording of single-unit activities in the basal ganglia nucleus has not yet been well established. We present a movable bundled microwire array for chronic subthalamic nucleus (STN) single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording. The electrode assembly contains a screw-advanced microdrive and a microwire array. The array consists of a steel guide tube, five recording wires and one referenced wire which form the shape of a guiding hand, and one screw electrode for cortico-recording. The electrode can acquire stable cortex oscillation-driven STN firing units in rats under different behaving conditions for 8 weeks. We achieved satisfying signal-to-noise ratio, portions of cells retaining viability, and spike waveform similarities across the recording sections. Using this method, we investigated neural correlations of the basal ganglia-cortical circuits in different behaving conditions. This method will become a powerful tool for multi-region recording to study normal statements or movement disorders.

  6. Mechanically, the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis behaves like a shell inflated by a pressure of about 1 MPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léna eBeauzamy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the shoot apical meristem contains the stem cells and is responsible for the generation of all aerial organs. Mechanistically, organogenesis is associated with an auxin-dependent local softening of the epidermis. This has been proposed to be sufficient to trigger outgrowth, because the epidermis is thought to be under tension and stiffer than internal tissues in all the aerial part of the plant. However, this has not been directly demonstrated in the shoot apical meristem. Here we tested this hypothesis in Arabidopsis using indentation methods and modeling. We considered two possible scenarios: either the epidermis does not have unique properties and the meristem behaves as a homogeneous linearly-elastic tissue, or the epidermis is under tension and the meristem exhibits the response of a shell under pressure. Large indentation depths measurements with a large tip (~size of the meristem were consistent with a shell-like behavior. This also allowed us to deduce a value of turgor pressure, estimated at 0.82 ± 0.16 MPa. Indentation with atomic force microscopy provided local measurements of pressure in the epidermis, further confirming the values obtained from large deformations. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem behaves like a shell under a MPa range pressure and support a key role for the epidermis in shaping the shoot apex.

  7. Modernizing sports facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustin, R. [McKenney`s, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  8. The modern Danish student

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassesen, Berit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A study based on diaries written by 82 students at Roskilde University (Simonsen & Ulriksen, 1998) concluded that the attitudes regarding choice of education and educational activities of the "modern Danish student" are characterized by 1) an orientation towards the individualized...... and personal aspects, 2) an internally motivated and existential "personal growth" orientation, 3) a process - rather than result-oriented attitude towards educational activities, 4) a short-term "here- and now" motivation, and 5) an ambivalent attitude towards who is responsible for the result of the learning...... by Simonsen and Ulriksen (91% correspondence). Students from other faculties, however, differed in their attitudes from the ones reported by Simonsen and Ulriksen. For example, the attitudes of medical students only showed a 45% correspondence. Their attitudes were found to be more long-term career...

  9. Modern atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    Much of our understanding of physics in the last 30-plus years has come from research on atoms, photons, and their interactions. Collecting information previously scattered throughout the literature, Modern Atomic Physics provides students with one unified guide to contemporary developments in the field. After reviewing metrology and preliminary material, the text explains core areas of atomic physics. Important topics discussed include the spontaneous emission of radiation, stimulated transitions and the properties of gas, the physics and applications of resonance fluorescence, coherence, cooling and trapping of charged and neutral particles, and atomic beam magnetic resonance experiments. Covering standards, a different way of looking at a photon, stimulated radiation, and frequency combs, the appendices avoid jargon and use historical notes and personal anecdotes to make the topics accessible to non-atomic physics students. Written by a leader in atomic and optical physics, this text gives a state-of-the...

  10. Making medieval art modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth den Hartog

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Janet T. Marquardt’s book ‘Zodiaque. Making medieval art modern’ discusses the historical context, history and impact of the Zodiaque publications issued by the monks from the abbey of Ste-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire in Burgundy between 1951 and 2001 and links the striking photogravures, the core business of these books, to the modern movement. Although Marquardt’s view that the Zodiaque series made a great impact on the study of Romanesque sculpture is somewhat overrated, her claim that the photogravures should be seen as avant-garde works of art and the books as a “museum without walls” is entirely convincing.

  11. Parallelization in Modern C++

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The traditionally used and well established parallel programming models OpenMP and MPI are both targeting lower level parallelism and are meant to be as language agnostic as possible. For a long time, those models were the only widely available portable options for developing parallel C++ applications beyond using plain threads. This has strongly limited the optimization capabilities of compilers, has inhibited extensibility and genericity, and has restricted the use of those models together with other, modern higher level abstractions introduced by the C++11 and C++14 standards. The recent revival of interest in the industry and wider community for the C++ language has also spurred a remarkable amount of standardization proposals and technical specifications being developed. Those efforts however have so far failed to build a vision on how to seamlessly integrate various types of parallelism, such as iterative parallel execution, task-based parallelism, asynchronous many-task execution flows, continuation s...

  12. Constructing tropical modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. Díaz-Royo

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph in part] The buildings and ruins we discover for ourselves hold a lasting place in our imagination, not to say in our affections. In a society that has neglected the formal treatment of "space," architecturally as well as in political terms, these personal discoveries can promote a subversion of sorts. Thus, the consecutive appearance of two volumes addressing the architecture produced at the turn of the century in Puerto Rico is a notable event. Each results from an architect's passionate concern with the advent of modernity. Thomas Marvel's book concentrates on the life and work of Antonin Nechodoma, an American of Bohemian origin who spent his most productive years in Puerto Rico. It is the result of his decades-long fascination with a "versatile architect, designer, and craftsman working in unusual circumstances" (p. xviii who left, both in Puerto Rico and in the Dominican Republic, a string of edifices strangely echoing the continental Prairie School.

  13. Modern quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Jun John

    2011-01-01

    This best-selling classic provides a graduate-level, non-historical, modern introduction of quantum mechanical concepts. The author, J. J. Sakurai, was a renowned theorist in particle theory. This revision by Jim Napolitano retains the original material and adds topics that extend the text’s usefulness into the 21st century. The introduction of new material, and modification of existing material, appears in a way that better prepares the student for the next course in quantum field theory. You will still find such classic developments as neutron interferometer experiments, Feynman path integrals, correlation measurements, and Bell’s inequality. The style and treatment of topics is now more consistent across chapters.

  14. Modern Ferrite Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd Ed. offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject. The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and then increases the scope to include larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties, the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as co-precipitation, co-spray roasting ...

  15. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  16. Modern tandem control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J. R.; Marsaudon, J. C.

    1993-04-01

    Nowadays, tandem electrostatic accelerators can benefit greatly from the growing possibilities provided by modern control facilities. Controlling an electrostatic accelerator first requires the solution of technological problems raised by the necessity of fitting inside the tank equipment which is highly stressed by the physical environment. Then, these controls can take advantage of new techniques which appear on the market. Present computer technology provides cheap powerful workstations for efficient operator interfacing, and new modular and distributed control concepts have been developed for general use in experimental physics, in data acquisition and in control systems. The general trend towards standardization is now accepted for both hardware and software and this brings benefits to the designer and the user.

  17. Introduction to modern magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Galtier, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of ordinary matter in the Universe is in the form of ionized fluids, or plasmas. The study of the magnetic properties of such electrically conducting fluids, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), has become a central theory in astrophysics, as well as in areas such as engineering and geophysics. This textbook offers a comprehensive introduction to MHD and its recent applications, in nature and in laboratory plasmas; from the machinery of the Sun and galaxies, to the cooling of nuclear reactors and the geodynamo. It exposes advanced undergraduate and graduate students to both classical and modern concepts, making them aware of current research and the ever-widening scope of MHD. Rigorous derivations within the text, supplemented by over 100 illustrations and followed by exercises and worked solutions at the end of each chapter, provide an engaging and practical introduction to the subject and an accessible route into this wide-ranging field.

  18. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  19. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  20. Development of customized fire behavior fuel models for boreal forests of northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined.

  1. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  2. Communication processes and modern society

    OpenAIRE

    Kornienko Olga Yu.; Naumenko Tamara V.; Suvorova Olga S.

    2016-01-01

    The article targets specific features of modern economic and communication processes, the ones being most obviously revealed in such integral spheres of modern environment as social relations and service sector, as well as their connection with communicative space of today’s social media. It focuses on ways to assess the role and place of mass-communication processes in optimization and development of social processes. It is conducted to ascertain the influence of major actors on modern socie...

  3. Fuel flexibility via real-time Raman fuel-gas analysis for turbine system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Woodruff, S.; Chorpening, B.; Tucker, D.

    2015-06-01

    The modern energy production base in the U.S. is increasingly incorporating opportunity fuels such as biogas, coalbed methane, coal syngas, solar-derived hydrogen, and others. In many cases, suppliers operate turbine-based generation systems to efficiently utilize these diverse fuels. Unfortunately, turbine engines are difficult to control given the varying energy content of these fuels, combined with the need for a backup natural gas supply to provide continuous operation. Here, we study the use of a specially designed Raman Gas Analyzer based on capillary waveguide technology with sub-second response time for turbine control applications. The NETL Raman Gas Analyzer utilizes a low-power visible pump laser, and a capillary waveguide gas-cell to integrate large spontaneous Raman signals, and fast gas-transfer piping to facilitate quick measurements of fuel-gas components. A U.S. Department of Energy turbine facility known as HYPER (hybrid performance system) serves as a platform for apriori fuel composition measurements for turbine speed or power control. A fuel-dilution system is used to simulate a compositional upset while simultaneously measuring the resultant fuel composition and turbine response functions in real-time. The feasibility and efficacy of system control using the spontaneous Raman-based measurement system is then explored with the goal of illustrating the ability to control a turbine system using available fuel composition as an input process variable.

  4. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

  5. AFGHANISTAN: POST-MODERNIZING A PRE-MODERN SOCIETY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Bogdan Vlad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The defined purpose of this paper is to analyse the phenomenon of post-modernizing pre-modern societies, having as example the case of Afghanistan. Assuming that political modernity implies the existence of a centralized state, we will show that there never was a modern period in the history of Afghanistan. The last part of this paper focuses on presenting the impact that the phenomenon of post-modernization has had on Afghanistan, by analysing four characteristics of the contemporary world - the world after the collapse of the Soviet Union: the critique of the fungible character of power; the privatisation of security; the new types of wars; the regionalization and fragmentation of the world. The dilemma that needs to be solved is that of surpassing the risks brought about by the co-existence of three levels of evolution: the pre-modern level (the segmented Afghan society, the modern level (the attempt to found a centralized state, the post-modern level (the attempt to anchor the new-founded state in the global system, from a political, economic and cultural point of view.

  6. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

  7. Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like Attenuated Toxigenic Nonencapsulated B. anthracis Sterne in Rabbits and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like...G9241 for mice requires the presence of both plasmids. The Bacillus cereus group, of which Bacillus anthracis, Bacil- lus thuringiensis , and B... Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like Attenuated Toxigenic Nonencapsulated B

  8. Radiation chemistry for modern nuclear energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Szołucha, Monika M.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation chemistry plays a significant role in modern nuclear energy development. Pioneering research in nuclear science, for example the development of generation IV nuclear reactors, cannot be pursued without chemical solutions. Present issues related to light water reactors concern radiolysis of water in the primary circuit; long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel; radiation effects on cables and wire insulation, and on ion exchangers used for water purification; as well as the procedures of radioactive waste reprocessing and storage. Radiation effects on materials and enhanced corrosion are crucial in current (II/III/III+) and future (IV) generation reactors, and in waste management, deep geological disposal and spent fuel reprocessing. The new generation of reactors (III+ and IV) impose new challenges for radiation chemists due to their new conditions of operation and the usage of new types of coolant. In the case of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), water chemistry control may be the key factor in preventing corrosion of reactor structural materials. This paper mainly focuses on radiation effects on long-term performance and safety in the development of nuclear power plants.

  9. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740/sup 0/C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th-/sup 233/U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized.

  10. Increased demands for modern power plants. Gas and coal-fired power plants; Gestiegene Anforderungen an moderne Kraftwerke. Gas- und Kohlekraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brautsch, Andreas [Alstom Power, Baden (Switzerland). CCS; Goll, Bringfried; Hestermann, Rolf [Alstom Power Systems GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Peter, Torsten; Timmermann, Leif [Alstom Power Systems GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Rieck, Markus

    2011-07-01

    Driven by the mega trends of climate protection, increase in efficiency and flexibility, the demands for low CO{sub 2} and low emission technology, low specific fuel consumption and maximum control capability has increased significantly. Due to the energy strategy submitted by the Federal government, the demands on modern power plants are still further emphasized.

  11. IGISOL control system modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, J., E-mail: jukka.ae.koponen@jyu.fi; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  12. Modern graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobás, Béla

    1998-01-01

    The time has now come when graph theory should be part of the education of every serious student of mathematics and computer science, both for its own sake and to enhance the appreciation of mathematics as a whole. This book is an in-depth account of graph theory, written with such a student in mind; it reflects the current state of the subject and emphasizes connections with other branches of pure mathematics. The volume grew out of the author's earlier book, Graph Theory -- An Introductory Course, but its length is well over twice that of its predecessor, allowing it to reveal many exciting new developments in the subject. Recognizing that graph theory is one of several courses competing for the attention of a student, the book contains extensive descriptive passages designed to convey the flavor of the subject and to arouse interest. In addition to a modern treatment of the classical areas of graph theory such as coloring, matching, extremal theory, and algebraic graph theory, the book presents a detailed ...

  13. Modern pacemaker therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijatov Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pacemakers are devices that modern medicine and cardiology cannot be imagined without. The technique of implantation comes to surgical procedure where all principles of asepsis and antisepsis have to be respected. Although some complications do happen, they are rather rare. Results. After the implantation of the device, the patient is not handicapped (unless the heart was additionally damaged. On the contrary, the patient returns to his work and functions normally within his family in most of the cases. The first medical appointment is scheduled a month after the implantation and the following are three and six months after. Types of devices. Today there are „new types of electrostimulation”- implantable cardioverter defibrillators and multisite electrostimulators. The former is implanted in patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death and the latter in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block. Owing to these devices, the sudden cardiac death can be prevented successfully and the quality of a patient’s life is improved.

  14. Connecting Ancient and Modern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2012-01-01

    Beijing has a history of over 1,000 years.There were once many renowned readitional Chinese opera theaters in the capital city.But now these vintage theaters are being swallowed up in the glitz of modernization and urbanization.Nevertheless,people can still make unexpected discoveries of traditional Chinese culture when wandering through Beijing's hutongs,or alleys.The Zheng Yi Ci Theater is one such surprise.It is a historical relic with over 300 years of history,poised to reinvigorate the traditional Chinese opera.Xinhuayaji International Cultural Communication Co.Ltd.produced the 2011Winter Drama Season at the Zheng Yi Ci Theater from November 23 to December 25,2011,reigniting the fame of the oldest theater in Beijing.The Zheng Yi Ci served as the venue for the 100th production of the Mei Lanfang Classics,a six-part production by the eponymous Peking Opera master.This year will mark the 300th anniversary of the theater's reconstruction.

  15. Modern Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    This text is addressed to graduate students in mathematics and to interested researchers who wish to acquire an in depth understanding of Euclidean Harmonic analysis. The text covers modern topics and techniques in function spaces, atomic decompositions, singular integrals of nonconvolution type, and the boundedness and convergence of Fourier series and integrals. The exposition and style are designed to stimulate further study and promote research. Historical information and references are included at the end of each chapter. This third edition includes a new chapter entitled "Multilinear Harmonic Analysis" which focuses on topics related to multilinear operators and their applications. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 are also new in this edition. Numerous corrections have been made to the text from the previous editions and several improvements have been incorporated, such as the adoption of clear and elegant statements. A few more exercises have been added with relevant hints when necessary. Reviews fr...

  16. Modern biogeochemistry environmental risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    Most books deal mainly with various technical aspects of ERA description and calculationsAims at generalizing the modern ideas of both biogeochemical and environmental risk assessment during recent yearsAims at supplementing the existing books by providing a modern understanding of mechanisms that are responsible for the ecological risk for human beings and ecosystem

  17. Modern Mathematics and Your Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Harry L.; Kluttz, Marguerite

    This guide for parents explains the objectives of the modern mathematics being taught in the schools and discusses the teaching methods being used. A few of the elementary concepts of modern mathematics (number lines, searching for patterns, different ways of analyzing problems, number bases, and sets) are briefly explained and justifications are…

  18. Readings in modernity in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Geschiere; B. Meyer; P. Pels

    2008-01-01

    This book provides students of Africa with a guide to the bewildering variety of scholarly work on the issue of modernity in Africa, and to offer some tools for dealing with its intellectual paradoxes. Part One contains both analytical and historical examples of the genealogies of modernity in the A

  19. Side scan sonar image segmentation based on neutrosophic set and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhu; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Hongmei; Hu, Jun; Jian, Xiaomin

    2016-09-01

    To fulfill side scan sonar (SSS) image segmentation accurately and efficiently, a novel segmentation algorithm based on neutrosophic set (NS) and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the neutrosophic subset images are obtained by transforming the input image into the NS domain. Then, a co-occurrence matrix is accurately constructed based on these subset images, and the entropy of the gray level image is described to serve as the fitness function of the QPSO algorithm. Moreover, the optimal two-dimensional segmentation threshold vector is quickly obtained by QPSO. Finally, the contours of the interested target are segmented with the threshold vector and extracted by the mathematic morphology operation. To further improve the segmentation efficiency, the single threshold segmentation, an alternative algorithm, is recommended for the shadow segmentation by considering the gray level characteristics of the shadow. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are assessed with experiments of SSS image segmentation.

  20. Cooperative Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with Dynamic Varying Search Areas and Lévy Flight Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desheng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel variant of cooperative quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (CQPSO algorithm with two mechanisms to reduce the search space and avoid the stagnation, called CQPSO-DVSA-LFD. One mechanism is called Dynamic Varying Search Area (DVSA, which takes charge of limiting the ranges of particles’ activity into a reduced area. On the other hand, in order to escape the local optima, Lévy flights are used to generate the stochastic disturbance in the movement of particles. To test the performance of CQPSO-DVSA-LFD, numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithm with different variants of PSO. According to the experimental results, the proposed method performs better than other variants of PSO on both benchmark test functions and the combinatorial optimization issue, that is, the job-shop scheduling problem.

  1. Performance Improvement of Spaceborne SAR Using Antenna Pattern Synthesis Based on Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jin Won

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study improves the performance of a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR system using an antenna mask design method and antenna pattern synthesis algorithms for an active phased array SAR system. The SAR antenna is an important component that affects the SAR system performance because it is closely related to the antenna pattern. This study proposes a method for antenna mask design that is based on several previous studies as well as the antenna pattern synthesis algorithm, which is based on quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO for an active phased array SAR system. The performance of the designed antenna masks and synthesized patterns demonstrate that the proposed mask design method and antenna pattern synthesis algorithm based on QPSO can be used to improve the SAR system performance for spaceborne applications.

  2. Solid-state ring laser gyro behaving like its helium-neon counterpart at low rotation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sylvain; Gutty, François; Feugnet, Gilles; Loil, Eric; Pocholle, Jean-Paul

    2009-12-15

    Nonlinear couplings induced by crystal diffusion and spatial inhomogeneities of the gain have been suppressed over a broad range of angular velocities in a solid-state ring laser gyro by vibrating the gain crystal at 168 kHz and 0.4 microm along the laser cavity axis. This device behaves in the same way as a typical helium-neon ring laser gyro, with a zone of frequency lock-in (or dead band) resulting from the backscattering of light on the cavity mirrors. Furthermore, it is shown that the level of angular random-walk noise in the presence of mechanical dithering depends only on the quality of the cavity mirrors, as is the case with typical helium-neon ring laser gyros.

  3. Imaging brain activity during seizures in freely behaving rats using a miniature multi-modal imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Iliya; Koletar, Margaret M; Ringuette, Dene; Gad, Raanan; Jeffrey, Melanie; Carlen, Peter L; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-09-01

    We report on a miniature label-free imaging system for monitoring brain blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in awake, freely behaving rats. The device, weighing 15 grams, enables imaging in a ∼ 2 × 2 mm field of view with 4.4 μm lateral resolution and 1 - 8 Hz temporal sampling rate. The imaging is performed through a chronically-implanted cranial window that remains optically clear between 2 to > 6 weeks after the craniotomy. This imaging method is well suited for longitudinal studies of chronic models of brain diseases and disorders. In this work, it is applied to monitoring neurovascular coupling during drug-induced absence-like seizures 6 weeks following the craniotomy.

  4. Neurosharing: large-scale data sets (spike, LFP) recorded from the hippocampal-entorhinal system in behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuseki, Kenji; Diba, Kamran; Pastalkova, Eva; Teeters, Jeff; Sirota, Anton; Buzsáki, György

    2014-01-01

    Using silicon-based recording electrodes, we recorded neuronal activity of the dorsal hippocampus and dorsomedial entorhinal cortex from behaving rats. The entorhinal neurons were classified as principal neurons and interneurons based on monosynaptic interactions and wave-shapes. The hippocampal neurons were classified as principal neurons and interneurons based on monosynaptic interactions, wave-shapes and burstiness. The data set contains recordings from 7,736 neurons (6,100 classified as principal neurons, 1,132 as interneurons, and 504 cells that did not clearly fit into either category) obtained during 442 recording sessions from 11 rats (a total of 204.5 hours) while they were engaged in one of eight different behaviours/tasks. Both original and processed data (time stamp of spikes, spike waveforms, result of spike sorting and local field potential) are included, along with metadata of behavioural markers. Community-driven data sharing may offer cross-validation of findings, refinement of interpretations and facilitate discoveries.

  5. Differential contributions of microglial and neuronal IKKβ to synaptic plasticity and associative learning in alert behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrargyri, Vasiliki; Vega-Flores, Germán; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M; Probert, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    Microglia are CNS resident immune cells and a rich source of neuroactive mediators, but their contribution to physiological brain processes such as synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory is not fully understood. In this study, we used mice with partial depletion of IκB kinase β, the main activating kinase in the inducible NF-κB pathway, selectively in myeloid lineage cells (mIKKβKO) or excitatory neurons (nIKKβKO) to measure synaptic strength at hippocampal Schaffer collaterals during long-term potentiation (LTP) and instrumental conditioning in alert behaving individuals. Resting microglial cells in mIKKβKO mice showed less Iba1-immunoreactivity, and brain IL-1β mRNA levels were selectively reduced compared with controls. Measurement of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by stimulation of the CA3-CA1 synapse in mIKKβKO mice showed higher facilitation in response to paired pulses and enhanced LTP following high frequency stimulation. In contrast, nIKKβKO mice showed normal basic synaptic transmission and LTP induction but impairments in late LTP. To understand the consequences of such impairments in synaptic plasticity for learning and memory, we measured CA1 fEPSPs in behaving mice during instrumental conditioning. IKKβ was not necessary in either microglia or neurons for mice to learn lever-pressing (appetitive behavior) to obtain food (consummatory behavior) but was required in both for modification of their hippocampus-dependent appetitive, not consummatory behavior. Our results show that microglia, through IKKβ and therefore NF-κB activity, regulate hippocampal synaptic plasticity and that both microglia and neurons, through IKKβ, are necessary for animals to modify hippocampus-driven behavior during associative learning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modernizing medical photography, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Government, media and public focus on waiting times in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom has forced the organization to look closely at the process by which a patient progresses through an increasingly complex and ever changing system. In an effort to streamline the patient journey or care pathway, modernizers have turned to business and manufacturing for solutions. Whilst medical photographers need to recognize their role in this context, they are also facing major technological modernization through the development of digital photography. Part 1 of this paper looks at the origins of some of the techniques presently being used to modernize the patient journey. Part 2 shows how these tools of modernization can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large, disparate teaching hospital.

  7. The second modern condition? Compressed modernity as internalized reflexive cosmopolitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung-Sup, Chang

    2010-09-01

    Compressed modernity is a civilizational condition in which economic, political, social and/or cultural changes occur in an extremely condensed manner in respect to both time and space, and in which the dynamic coexistence of mutually disparate historical and social elements leads to the construction and reconstruction of a highly complex and fluid social system. During what Beck considers the second modern stage of humanity, every society reflexively internalizes cosmopolitanized risks. Societies (or their civilizational conditions) are thereby being internalized into each other, making compressed modernity a universal feature of contemporary societies. This paper theoretically discusses compressed modernity as nationally ramified from reflexive cosmopolitization, and, then, comparatively illustrates varying instances of compressed modernity in advanced capitalist societies, un(der)developed capitalist societies, and system transition societies. In lieu of a conclusion, I point out the declining status of national societies as the dominant unit of (compressed) modernity and the interactive acceleration of compressed modernity among different levels of human life ranging from individuals to the global community. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2010.

  8. Behaving Like a Lady

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雕文

    2004-01-01

    Mr West wanted to buy his wife a Christmas present, but he was always very busy, so he was never able to find time to go to the shops. At last, when it was the week before Christmas, and the shops were very crowded, he thought that he could not wait any longer. He worked in an office, and usually had lunch in a restaurant, but one day he bought some sandwiches, ate them quickly and went out to a big shop near his office during his lunch time.

  9. Teachers Behaving Badly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Chuck

    2003-01-01

    Incivility by teachers can turn into behavior that injures careers. Workplace "mobbing" or bullying begins when an individual becomes the target of disrespectful and harmful behavior. Recounts experiences of two teachers. Offers suggestions to school leaders to stop this incivility. (MLF)

  10. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  11. Production Functions Behaving Badly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredholm, Thomas

    This paper reconsiders Anwar Shaikh's critique of the neoclassical theory of growth and distribution based on its use of aggregate production functions. This is done by reconstructing and extending Franklin M. Fisher's 1971 computer simulations, which Shaikh used to support his critique. Together...... with other recent extensions to Shaikh's seminal work, my results support and strengthen the evidence against the use of aggregate production functions....

  12. Teachers Behaving Badly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Chuck

    2003-01-01

    Incivility by teachers can turn into behavior that injures careers. Workplace "mobbing" or bullying begins when an individual becomes the target of disrespectful and harmful behavior. Recounts experiences of two teachers. Offers suggestions to school leaders to stop this incivility. (MLF)

  13. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  14. The priorities of the energy infrastructure modernization in rural areas of the Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Viktorovna Chaika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the problems of development and modernization of energy infrastructure priorities in rural areas of the Komi Republic. For the most part of rural population the achieved level of energy supply is the necessary minimum for the needs, and it has the low parameters of the energy and economy efficiency. The main directions of the rural energy supply modernization should be: the gas supply system development, the electric grid capacity growth and the construction of the modern small energy technologies (small central heating and power plants, modular boiler plants, efficient solid fuel boilers

  15. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-05-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600/sup 0/C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660/sup 0/C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Petr P.

    2006-12-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad

  17. MODERN STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga B. Akimova

    2015-01-01

    Russia; scientific studying and codification of the modern language, promoting of scientific knowledge of Russian and languages of the people of the Russian Federation; support expansion of the private initiatives connected with preservation and development of Russian in neighboring countries; creation of base for studying of Russian by foreign experts and labor migrants; cooperation with foreign specialists in the Russian philology, translators of the Russian literature and teachers of Russian.

  18. Early Modern English:Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    By the end of the Middle English period there is already considerable loss of inflectional morphology, and in Early Modern English we see the last reflexes of a shift from synthetic Old English to analytic Modern English (Lass 1999: 139). In fact, the inflectional system of Early Modern English is not very different from what we have today (Go¨rlach 1991: 79). The changes in inflection which do take place between 1500 and 1700 show marked sociolinguistic differentiation and are the subject of...

  19. Steam thermolysis of tire shreds: modernization in afterburning of accompanying gas with waste steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitko, V. A.

    2010-03-01

    On the basis of experience in the commercial operation of tire-shred steam thermolysis in EnresTec Inc. (Taiwan) producing high-grade commercial carbon, liquid pyrolysis fuel, and accompanying fuel gas by this method, we have proposed a number of engineering solutions and calculated-analytical substantiations for modernization and intensification of the process by afterburning the accompanying gas with waste steam condensable in the scrubber of water gas cleaning of afterburning products. The condensate is completely freed of the organic pyrolysis impurities and the necessity of separating it from the liquid fuel, as is the case with the active process, is excluded.

  20. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    Present and anticipated variation in jet propulsion fuels due to advanced engine compression ratios and airframe cooling requirements necessitate greater understanding of chemical phenomena associated...

  1. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2000-01-01

    Present and anticipated variation in jet propulsion fuels due to advanced engine compression ratios and airframe cooling requirements necessitate greater understanding of chemical phenomena associated...

  2. Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

  3. Alternative Fuels for use in DoD/Army Tactical Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    Construction Equipment • Bridging • Assured Mobility Systems Robotics • TALON • PackBot • MARCbot • Gladiator • Demonstrators • Technology...Advance Controls; Advance LTC; Fuel Systems; Adv. Turbo •Modern Engine Repower MILITARY* • Variety engines (MY 19XX) • Jet fuel (JP-8

  4. High-Speed Visualisation of Combustion in Modern Gasoline Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, W.; Nauwerck, A.; Han, K.-M.; Pfeil, J.; Velji, A.; Spicher, U.

    2006-07-01

    Today research and development in the field of gasoline engines have to face a double challenge: on the one hand, fuel consumption has to be reduced, while on the other hand, ever more stringent emission standards have to be fulfilled. The development of engines with its complexity of in-cylinder processes requires modern development tools to exploit the full potential in order to reduce fuel consumption. Especially optical, non-intrusive measurement techniques will help to get a better understanding of the processes. With the presented high-speed visualisation system the electromagnetic radiation from combustion in the UV range is collected by an endoscope and transmitted to a visualisation system by 10, 000 optical fibres. The signal is projected to 1, 920 photomultipliers, which convert the optical into electric signals with a maximum temporal resolution of 200 kHz. This paper shows the systematic application of flame diagnostics in modern combustion systems. For this purpose, a single-cylinder SI engine has been modified for a spray guided combustion strategy as well as for HCCI. The characteristics of flame propagation in both combustion modes were recorded and correlated with thermodynamic analyses. In case of the spray guided GDI engine, high pressure fuel injection was applied and evaluated.

  5. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under...

  6. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  7. Composite nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollard, W.J.; Ferrari, H.M.

    1982-04-27

    An open lattice elongated nuclear fuel assembly including small diameter fuel rods disposed in an array spaced a selected distance above an array of larger diameter fuel rods for use in a nuclear reactor having liquid coolant flowing in an upward direction. Plenums are preferably provided in the upper portion of the upper smaller diameter fuel rods and in the lower portion of the lower larger diameter fuel rods. Lattice grid structures provide lateral support for the fuel rods and preferably the lowest grid about the upper rods is directly and rigidly affixed to the highest grid about the lower rods.

  8. Afferent Input Selects NMDA Receptor Subtype to Determine the Persistency of Hippocampal LTP in Freely Behaving Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Jesús J.; Buschler, Arne; Köhr, Georg; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is critically involved in many forms of hippocampus-dependent memory that may be enabled by synaptic plasticity. Behavioral studies with NMDAR antagonists and NMDAR subunit (GluN2) mutants revealed distinct contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to rapidly and slowly acquired memory performance. Furthermore, studies of synaptic plasticity, in genetically modified mice in vitro, suggest that GluN2A and GluN2B may contribute in different ways to the induction and longevity of synaptic plasticity. In contrast to the hippocampal slice preparation, in behaving mice, the afferent frequencies that induce synaptic plasticity are very restricted and specific. In fact, it is the stimulus pattern and not variations in afferent frequency that determine the longevity of long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo. Here, we explored the contribution of GluN2A and GluN2B to LTP of differing magnitudes and persistence in freely behaving mice. We applied differing high-frequency stimulation (HFS) patterns at 100 Hz to the hippocampal CA1 region, to induce NMDAR-dependent LTP in wild-type (WT) mice, that endured for 24 h (late (L)-LTP). In GluN2A-knockout (KO) mice, E-LTP (HFS, 50 pulses) was significantly reduced in magnitude and duration, whereas LTP (HFS, 2 × 50 pulses) and L-LTP (HFS, 4 × 50 pulses) were unaffected compared to responses in WT animals. By contrast, pharmacological antagonism of GluN2B in WT had no effect on E-LTP but significantly prevented LTP. E-LTP and LTP were significantly impaired by GluN2B antagonism in GluN2A-KO mice. These data indicate that the pattern of afferent stimulation is decisive for the recruitment of distinct GluN2A and GluN2B signaling pathways that in turn determine the persistency of hippocampal LTP. Whereas brief bursts of patterned stimulation preferentially recruit GluN2A and lead to weak and short-lived forms of LTP, prolonged, more intense, afferent activation recruits

  9. Afferent input selects NMDA receptor subtype to determine the persistency of hippocampal LTP in freely behaving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Javier Ballesteros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR is critically involved in many forms of hippocampus-dependent memory that may be enabled by synaptic plasticity. Behavioral studies with NMDAR antagonists and NMDAR subunit (GluN2 mutants revealed distinct contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to rapidly and slowly acquired memory performance. Furthermore, studies of synaptic plasticity, in genetically modified mice in vitro, suggest that GluN2A and GluN2B may contribute in different ways to the induction and longevity of synaptic plasticity. In contrast to the hippocampal slice preparation, in behaving mice, the afferent frequencies that induce synaptic plasticity are very restricted and specific. In fact, it is the stimulus pattern, and not variations in afferent frequency that determine the longevity of long-term potentiation (LTP. Here, we explored the contribution of GluN2A and GluN2B to LTP of differing magnitudes and persistencies in freely behaving mice. We applied differing high-frequency stimulation (HFS patterns at 100 Hz to the hippocampal CA1 region, to induce NMDAR-dependent LTP in wild-type (WT mice, that endured for 24h (late (L-LTP. In GluN2A-KO mice, E-LTP (HFS, 50 pulses was significantly reduced in magnitude and duration, whereas LTP (HFS, 2 x 50 pulses and L-LTP (HFS, 4 x 50 pulses were unaffected compared to responses in WT animals. By contrast, pharmacological antagonism of GluN2B in WT had no effect on E-LTP but significantly prevented LTP. E- LTP and LTP were significantly impaired by GluN2B antagonism in GluN2A-KO mice. These data indicate that the pattern of afferent stimulation is decisive for the recruitment of distinct GluN2A and GluN2B signaling pathways that in turn determine the persistency of hippocampal LTP. Whereas brief bursts of patterned stimulation preferentially recruit GluN2A and lead to weak and short-lived forms of LTP, prolonged, more intense, afferent activation recruits GluN2B

  10. DYSTOPIAN FURCATIONS IN MODERN LITERATURE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kubilay Akman

    2015-01-01

      Modern literature of the 20th century has provided several dystopian furcations in the history of Western literature, represented most typically by G. Orwell, A. Huxley, Y. Zamiatin and R. R. Bradbury...

  11. Sustainability in Modern Art Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campolmi, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the concept of sustainability in European governmental museum policies. It takes into consideration great modern art museums, particularly Tate Modern. On the one hand, the issue of sustainability is linked to art museums inasmuch these institutions operate for the sustainable ......) where decisions, narratives, meanings involve practitioners, beholders, curators and trustees since the tenet (archè) of the creation process.......The paper analyzes the concept of sustainability in European governmental museum policies. It takes into consideration great modern art museums, particularly Tate Modern. On the one hand, the issue of sustainability is linked to art museums inasmuch these institutions operate for the sustainable...... common good of the community. On the other hand, it is considered from the so called “three bottom” approach as also corporations and business companies have approached it. In a so called “three bottom” approach, museums’ pursuit for environmental, economic and social sustainability is related...

  12. Modern Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F.; Poole, Salwa K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the important modern developments of thin-layer chromatography are introduced. Discussed are the theory and instrumentation of thin-layer chromatography including multidimensional and multimodal techniques. Lists 53 references. (CW)

  13. Modern Mathematics and the Mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several examples of the modern mathematics familiar to the pupils at the age where the mole concept is introduced, to help the teacher adopt an appropriate approach when dealing with this topic. (GA)

  14. Basics of modern mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Spokoiny, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified and self-contained presentation of the main approaches to and ideas of mathematical statistics. It collects the basic mathematical ideas and tools needed as a basis for more serious studies or even independent research in statistics. The majority of existing textbooks in mathematical statistics follow the classical asymptotic framework. Yet, as modern statistics has changed rapidly in recent years, new methods and approaches have appeared. The emphasis is on finite sample behavior, large parameter dimensions, and model misspecifications. The present book provides a fully self-contained introduction to the world of modern mathematical statistics, collecting the basic knowledge, concepts and findings needed for doing further research in the modern theoretical and applied statistics. This textbook is primarily intended for graduate and postdoc students and young researchers who are interested in modern statistical methods.

  15. An Introduction: Around Southern Modernisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Leal, Joana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue you will find a discussion on southern modernisms stemming from an exploratory research project funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT between 2014 and 2015. As a project, southern modernisms had a theoretical and historiographical focus driven to discuss the resonances of the two words associated in its title, as well as the disquieting effect of their combination in the fields of visual arts and architecture. The first word – modernisms – stood against the standardized canon of modernism, thus bonding the research to the critical revision of that concept occurring in art history since the closing decades of the 20th century; the second word based the project in southern Europe, meaning that Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece would set the ground for selecting case studies.

  16. Modern, antimodern en postmodern ontwerpen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeus, J.

    1984-01-01

    Bespreking van inzendingen voor de prijsvraag 'Kerkplein e.o.' in Arnhem (1983). Het uitgangspunt hierbij was tweeslachtig. Van de ontwerpen wordt nagegaan in hoeverre zij zijn onder te brengen in de categorieen modern, antimodern of postmodern bouwen

  17. Modern Physics, 4th edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Paul A.; Llewellyn, Ralph

    The new edition of the classic text for the intermediate-level modern physics course, revised and updated to take students to the forefront of contemporary research and applications across the full spectrum of science and technology."

  18. Plug into 'the modernizing machine'!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    ‘The modernizing machine’ codes individual bodies, things and symbols with images from New Public Management, neoliberal and Knowledge Economy discourses. Drawing on Deleuze & Guattari’s concept of machines, this article explores how ‘the modernizing machine’ produces neo-liberal modernization...... of the public sector. Taking its point of departure in Danish university reform, the article explores how the university is transformed by this desiring-producing machine. ‘The modernizing machine’ wrestles with the so-called ‘democratic-Humboldtian machine’. The University Act of 2003 and the host of reforms...... bodies and minds simultaneously produce academic subjectivities by plugging into these transformative machinic forces and are produced as they are traversed by them. What is experienced as stressful closures vis-à-vis new opportunities depends to a great extent upon how these producing...

  19. Modern Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F.; Poole, Salwa K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the important modern developments of thin-layer chromatography are introduced. Discussed are the theory and instrumentation of thin-layer chromatography including multidimensional and multimodal techniques. Lists 53 references. (CW)

  20. CHALLENGES OF MODERN CONTROL THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fundamental objective of the new scientific discipline called ’ control theory ’ is that of modifying the behavior of a system subject to various...possible contributions of modern control theory to the biomedical domain are briefly indicated.

  1. De partnerkeuze in modern Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dries

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Partner choice in Africa was investigated in a modernization study. The research sample consisted of 275 adult males from the Zairean province of Shaba (university students, clerks, workmen and illiterate rurals. The sample was split up into two subgroups : the "moderns" and the "traditionals". Our main research instrument was a series of 14 pictures, inspired on the Thematic Apperception Technique. Traditionally, it was the father, or the family, who arranged marriage for the son. Modern young Africans more and more want to choose their partner on their own. This modern attitude leads to a number of conflict situations, because, on the one hand, Africans want to realise their partner choice by themselves, but on the other hand, they do not like to endanger their relationships with the family.

  2. Modern Technologies of Vaccine Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L.I. Chernyshova; F.I. Lapiy

    2014-01-01

    .... The article says about modern technology of vaccines that need to know the doctor to objectively and accurately inform patients before vaccination, to answer a number of questions from patients...

  3. Measuring Older Adults’ Individual Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that maintaining high individual modernity level can enable the shaping of positive self-image and boost life satisfaction for older people along with better adaptation to the process of societal modernization. This study examined the factorial structure and evaluated the psychometric properties of the adapted Multidimensional Scale of Chinese Individual Modernity (MS-CIM in a sample of 445 elders (the finalized version is named “MS-CIME” and added a self-constructed nine-item behavioral modernity domain. Principal component analysis suggested a conceptually meaningful seven-factor model, which was further supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The final 25-item MS-CIME indicated an acceptable level of reliability. The convergent validity was demonstrated by its associations with socio-economic status, participation in daily activities, self-image, and life satisfaction in expected directions.

  4. HR technology in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinkina Ol'ga Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article made a study and analysis of the concepts «HR technology", "recruitment", "interview" and other terms of the application of the mechanism of HR technologies in modern Russian market of Russia. The scheme of decision-making in recruiting Russian companies and Western, identifies key differences. Fully described algorithm measures for staff selection western companies. The article also discusses the features of recruitment in relation to modern Western companies operating in the Russian market.

  5. Don Quixote and the modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García Serrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From Hegel to Ortega there has been several attempts to relate Quixote’s realism to the characteristic features of the modernity. We follow here another path and attempt to show the fundamental connections between the cartesian and kantian project of a Philosophy of Reflection (that inaugurates the modern philosophy and the self-conscious novel from Cervantes. This paper is further more concerned with the the prominent function that the imagination fulfills as much in Kant as in Cervantes.

  6. Modernizing the symbol of Sydney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerchlango, Jørg

    2004-01-01

    Sydney's 25-year old trademark and art house is being modernized. Jørn Utzon is back in the arena with his beloved opera house. The same opera house that he was originally denied further access......Sydney's 25-year old trademark and art house is being modernized. Jørn Utzon is back in the arena with his beloved opera house. The same opera house that he was originally denied further access...

  7. [Modern neuroimaging of brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, G; Seidel, S

    2010-02-01

    Modern neuroimaging methods offer new insights into the plasticity of the human brain. As the techniques of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly being applied in a clinical setting, the examiner is now frequently confronted with the interpretation of imaging findings related to regenerative processes in response to lesions of the central and also of the peripheral nervous system. In this article individual results of modern neuroimaging studies are discussed in the context of structural and functional plasticity of the CNS.

  8. Methods of modern mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Michael

    1980-01-01

    This book is the first of a multivolume series devoted to an exposition of functional analysis methods in modern mathematical physics. It describes the fundamental principles of functional analysis and is essentially self-contained, although there are occasional references to later volumes. We have included a few applications when we thought that they would provide motivation for the reader. Later volumes describe various advanced topics in functional analysis and give numerous applications in classical physics, modern physics, and partial differential equations.

  9. Fuel Surrogate Physical Property Effects on Direct Injection Spray and Ignition Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED 1 Introduction Typical hydrocarbon fuels used in internal combustion engines , such as gasoline, diesel , or jet fuel, are composed of hundreds...optimization, which determines the surrogate composition that minimizes the deviation from the target properties. For modern diesel engines , which employ...of biodiesel and diesel fuel. Pei et al. [20] conducted a sensitivity analysis with a diesel engine simulation to assess the relative effects of

  10. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  11. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard

    The incitement for decreasing the modern society's dependency on fossil based fuel and energy is both environmentally and politically driven. Development of biofuels could be part of the future solution. The combination of ash pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of the produced bio-oil has been ide...

  13. Rationale of Early Adopters of Fossil Fuel Divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher Todd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research uses the social science perspectives of institutions, ecological modernization and social movements to analyze the rationale used by the early-adopting universities of fossil fuel divestment in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Through analysis of qualitative data from interviews with key actors at the universities that…

  14. Rationale of Early Adopters of Fossil Fuel Divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher Todd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research uses the social science perspectives of institutions, ecological modernization and social movements to analyze the rationale used by the early-adopting universities of fossil fuel divestment in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Through analysis of qualitative data from interviews with key actors at the universities that…

  15. Prosthetic Avian Vocal Organ Controlled by a Freely Behaving Bird Based on a Low Dimensional Model of the Biomechanical Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Perl, Yonatan Sanz; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the parallels found with human language production and acquisition, birdsong is an ideal animal model to study general mechanisms underlying complex, learned motor behavior. The rich and diverse vocalizations of songbirds emerge as a result of the interaction between a pattern generator in the brain and a highly nontrivial nonlinear periphery. Much of the complexity of this vocal behavior has been understood by studying the physics of the avian vocal organ, particularly the syrinx. A mathematical model describing the complex periphery as a nonlinear dynamical system leads to the conclusion that nontrivial behavior emerges even when the organ is commanded by simple motor instructions: smooth paths in a low dimensional parameter space. An analysis of the model provides insight into which parameters are responsible for generating a rich variety of diverse vocalizations, and what the physiological meaning of these parameters is. By recording the physiological motor instructions elicited by a spontaneously singing muted bird and computing the model on a Digital Signal Processor in real-time, we produce realistic synthetic vocalizations that replace the bird's own auditory feedback. In this way, we build a bio-prosthetic avian vocal organ driven by a freely behaving bird via its physiologically coded motor commands. Since it is based on a low-dimensional nonlinear mathematical model of the peripheral effector, the emulation of the motor behavior requires light computation, in such a way that our bio-prosthetic device can be implemented on a portable platform. PMID:22761555

  16. Cancer Feature Selection and Classification Using a Binary Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the feature gene selection for cancer classification, which employs an optimization algorithm to select a subset of the genes. We propose a binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (BQPSO for cancer feature gene selection, coupling support vector machine (SVM for cancer classification. First, the proposed BQPSO algorithm is described, which is a discretized version of original QPSO for binary 0-1 optimization problems. Then, we present the principle and procedure for cancer feature gene selection and cancer classification based on BQPSO and SVM with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV. Finally, the BQPSO coupling SVM (BQPSO/SVM, binary PSO coupling SVM (BPSO/SVM, and genetic algorithm coupling SVM (GA/SVM are tested for feature gene selection and cancer classification on five microarray data sets, namely, Leukemia, Prostate, Colon, Lung, and Lymphoma. The experimental results show that BQPSO/SVM has significant advantages in accuracy, robustness, and the number of feature genes selected compared with the other two algorithms.

  17. Prosthetic avian vocal organ controlled by a freely behaving bird based on a low dimensional model of the biomechanical periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Arneodo

    Full Text Available Because of the parallels found with human language production and acquisition, birdsong is an ideal animal model to study general mechanisms underlying complex, learned motor behavior. The rich and diverse vocalizations of songbirds emerge as a result of the interaction between a pattern generator in the brain and a highly nontrivial nonlinear periphery. Much of the complexity of this vocal behavior has been understood by studying the physics of the avian vocal organ, particularly the syrinx. A mathematical model describing the complex periphery as a nonlinear dynamical system leads to the conclusion that nontrivial behavior emerges even when the organ is commanded by simple motor instructions: smooth paths in a low dimensional parameter space. An analysis of the model provides insight into which parameters are responsible for generating a rich variety of diverse vocalizations, and what the physiological meaning of these parameters is. By recording the physiological motor instructions elicited by a spontaneously singing muted bird and computing the model on a Digital Signal Processor in real-time, we produce realistic synthetic vocalizations that replace the bird's own auditory feedback. In this way, we build a bio-prosthetic avian vocal organ driven by a freely behaving bird via its physiologically coded motor commands. Since it is based on a low-dimensional nonlinear mathematical model of the peripheral effector, the emulation of the motor behavior requires light computation, in such a way that our bio-prosthetic device can be implemented on a portable platform.

  18. The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a linked surface protein that behaves as an anchorless adhesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Maristela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. This is a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules that can disseminate to several organs and tissues leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion and invasion to host cells are essential steps involved in the internalization and dissemination of pathogens. Inside the host, P. brasiliensis may use the glyoxylate cycle for intracellular survival. Results Here, we provide evidence that the malate synthase of P. brasiliensis (PbMLS is located on the fungal cell surface, and is secreted. PbMLS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody was obtained against this protein. By using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PbMLS was detected in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall of the mother, but mainly of budding cells of the P. brasiliensis yeast phase. PbMLSr and its respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis with in vitro cultured epithelial cells A549. Conclusion These observations indicated that cell wall-associated PbMLS could be mediating the binding of fungal cells to the host, thus contributing to the adhesion of fungus to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection, behaving as an anchorless adhesin.

  19. Synaesthetic Colours Can Behave More like Recalled Colours, as Opposed to Physical Colours that Can Be Seen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek H. Arnold

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by coloured sensations when reading achromatic text. Different forms have been characterized, but this is somewhat controversial. In associative grapheme-colour synaesthesia, written graphemes can automatically trigger a sensation of colour in the ‘mind's eye’, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This allowed us explore the precision with which synaesthetes match triggered synaesthetic colours across separate presentations, versus the precision for recalled experiences cued by spoken graphemes. We recorded CIE coordinates, and found that matches for triggered sensations were equally variable relative to recalled experiences. To ensure this was not due to insensitivity of our apparatus, we next had synaesthetes and age-matched controls either match the colour of a circular patch while they could see it, or from memory after it had disappeared. Both synaesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and synaesthetes were more precise when matching colour hue, but not brightness. Interestingly, the variance of synaesthetes' recalled matches in this experiment matched that associated with synaesthetic colours in the first experiment. Overall, our data suggests that, for associative grapheme-colour synaesthetes, synaesthetic colours behave more like recalled colours, as opposed to physical colours that can be seen.

  20. Cancer Feature Selection and Classification Using a Binary Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Maolong; Sun, Jun; Liu, Li; Fan, Fangyun; Wu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the feature gene selection for cancer classification, which employs an optimization algorithm to select a subset of the genes. We propose a binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (BQPSO) for cancer feature gene selection, coupling support vector machine (SVM) for cancer classification. First, the proposed BQPSO algorithm is described, which is a discretized version of original QPSO for binary 0-1 optimization problems. Then, we present the principle and procedure for cancer feature gene selection and cancer classification based on BQPSO and SVM with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV). Finally, the BQPSO coupling SVM (BQPSO/SVM), binary PSO coupling SVM (BPSO/SVM), and genetic algorithm coupling SVM (GA/SVM) are tested for feature gene selection and cancer classification on five microarray data sets, namely, Leukemia, Prostate, Colon, Lung, and Lymphoma. The experimental results show that BQPSO/SVM has significant advantages in accuracy, robustness, and the number of feature genes selected compared with the other two algorithms.

  1. Do gallstones found before sleeve gastrectomy behave the same as those formed after surgery due to weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Alexandria; Tarboush, Moayad; Manatsathit, Wuttiporn; Meguid, Ahmed; Szpunar, Suzanna; Hawasli, Abdelkader

    2016-11-01

    Gallstone formation is prevalent in the bariatric population and after weight loss. We believe that gallstones found preoperatively behave differently and may not cause significant complications as those developing after weight loss. Thus, prophylactic cholecystectomy before or during sleeve gastrectomy (SG) may not be necessary. Patients undergoing SG from January 2011 to May 2012 were evaluated for the presence of gallstones and development of symptoms or need for cholecystectomy postoperatively. Group 1 (n = 18) had gallstones preoperatively. Group 2 (n = 29) developed gallstones after weight loss. Both groups' demographics were similar. Symptomatic gallstones occurred in 1 patient (5.6%) in group 1 and in 9 patients (31.0%) in group 2 (P = .19). Percent excess body mass index loss (%EBL) was 58 ± 24% vs 70 ± 22% (P = .11) with a mean follow-up of 8.9 ± 6.2 and 14.7 ± 3.9 months for group 1 and group 2, respectively (P = .005). Asymptomatic gallstones found before SG tend to have less risk of becoming symptomatic than those formed after weight loss. There was no statistical significant difference because of small sample. Prophylactic cholecystectomy, however, may not be warranted in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticancer Agents: Does a Phosphonium Behave Like a Gold(I) Phosphine Complex? Let a "Smart" Probe Answer!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moussa; Dondaine, Lucile; Adolle, Anais; Sampaio, Carla; Chotard, Florian; Richard, Philippe; Denat, Franck; Bettaieb, Ali; Le Gendre, Pierre; Laurens, Véronique; Goze, Christine; Paul, Catherine; Bodio, Ewen

    2015-06-11

    Gold phosphine complexes, such as auranofin, have been recognized for decades as antirheumatic agents. Clinical trials are now underway to validate their use in anticancer or anti-HIV treatments. However, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. A challenging question is whether the gold phosphine complex is a prodrug that is administered in an inactive precursor form or rather that the gold atom remains attached to the phosphine ligand during treatment. In this study, we present two novel gold complexes, which we compared to auranofin and to their phosphonium analogue. The chosen ligand is a phosphine-based smart probe, whose strong fluorescence depends on the presence of the gold atom. The in vitro biological action of the gold complexes and the phosphonium derivative were investigated, and a preliminary in vivo study in healthy zebrafish larvae allowed us to evaluate gold complex biodistribution and toxicity. The different analyses carried out showed that these gold complexes were stable and behaved differently from phosphonium and auranofin, both in vitro and in vivo. Two-photon microscopy experiments demonstrated that the cellular targets of these gold complexes are not the same as those of the phosphonium analogue. Moreover, despite similar IC50 values in some cancer cell lines, gold complexes displayed a low toxicity in vivo, in contrast to the phosphonium salt. They are therefore suitable for future in vivo investigations.

  3. Awake behaving electrophysiological correlates of forelimb hyperreflexia, weakness and disrupted muscular synchronization following cervical spinal cord injury in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Patrick Daniel; Meyers, Eric Christopher; Sloan, Andrew Michael; Maliakkal, Reshma; Ruiz, Andrea; Kilgard, Michael Paul; Rennaker, Robert LeMoine

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury usually occurs at the level of the cervical spine and results in profound impairment of forelimb function. In this study, we recorded awake behaving intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from the biceps and triceps muscles of the impaired forelimb during volitional and reflexive forelimb movements before and after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) in rats. C5/C6 hemicontusion reduced volitional forelimb strength by more than 50% despite weekly rehabilitation for one month post-injury. Triceps EMG during volitional strength assessment was reduced by more than 60% following injury, indicating reduced descending drive. Biceps EMG during reflexive withdrawal from a thermal stimulus was increased by 500% following injury, indicating flexor withdrawal hyperreflexia. The reduction in volitional forelimb strength was significantly correlated with volitional and reflexive biceps EMG activity. Our results support the hypothesis that biceps hyperreflexia and descending volitional drive both significantly contribute to forelimb strength deficits after cSCI and provide new insight into dynamic muscular dysfunction after cSCI. The use of multiple automated quantitative measures of forelimb dys-function in the rodent cSCI model will likely aid the search for effective regenerative, pharmacological, and neuroprosthetic treatments for spinal cord injury. PMID:27033345

  4. Abnormal burst patterns of single neurons recorded in the substantia nigra reticulata of behaving 140 CAG Huntington's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Nakhnikian, Alexander; Dorner, Jenelle L; Fischer, Benjamin I; Bower-Bir, Nathan D; Rebec, George V

    2012-03-14

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that causes neurological pathology in the basal ganglia and related circuitry. A key site of HD pathology is striatum, the principal basal ganglia input structure; striatal pathology likely changes basal ganglia output but no existing studies address this issue. In this report, we characterize single-neuron activity in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) of awake, freely behaving 140 CAG knock-in (KI) mice at 16-40 weeks. KI mice are a well characterized model of adult HD and are mildly symptomatic in this age range. As the primary basal ganglia output nucleus in rodents, the SNr receives direct innervation from striatum, as well as indirect influence via polysynaptic inputs. We analyzed 32 single neurons recorded from KI animals and 44 from wild-type (WT) controls. We found increased burst rates, without a concordant change in spike discharge rate, in KI animals relative to WTs. Furthermore, although metrics of burst structure, such as the inter-spike interval in bursts, do not differ between groups, burst rate increases with age in KI, but not WT, animals. Our findings suggest that altered basal ganglia output is a physiological feature of early HD pathology.

  5. Temporally-structured acquisition of multidimensional optical imaging data facilitates visualization of elusive cortical representations in the behaving monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, David B; Hildesheim, Rina; Grinvald, Amiram

    2013-11-15

    Fundamental understanding of higher cognitive functions can greatly benefit from imaging of cortical activity with high spatiotemporal resolution in the behaving non-human primate. To achieve rapid imaging of high-resolution dynamics of cortical representations of spontaneous and evoked activity, we designed a novel data acquisition protocol for sensory stimulation by rapidly interleaving multiple stimuli in continuous sessions of optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes. We also tested a new algorithm for the "temporally structured component analysis" (TSCA) of a multidimensional time series that was developed for our new data acquisition protocol, but was tested only on simulated data (Blumenfeld, 2010). In addition to the raw data, the algorithm incorporates prior knowledge about the temporal structure of the data as well as input from other information. Here we showed that TSCA can successfully separate functional signal components from other signals referred to as noise. Imaging of responses to multiple visual stimuli, utilizing voltage-sensitive dyes, was performed on the visual cortex of awake monkeys. Multiple cortical representations, including orientation and ocular dominance maps as well as the hitherto elusive retinotopic representation of orientation stimuli, were extracted in only 10s of imaging, approximately two orders of magnitude faster than accomplished by conventional methods. Since the approach is rather general, other imaging techniques may also benefit from the same stimulation protocol. This methodology can thus facilitate rapid optical imaging explorations in monkeys, rodents and other species with a versatility and speed that were not feasible before.

  6. The Neurochip-2: an autonomous head-fixed computer for recording and stimulating in freely behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanos, Stavros; Richardson, Andrew G; Shupe, Larry; Miles, Frank P; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2011-08-01

    The Neurochip-2 is a second generation, battery-powered device for neural recording and stimulating that is small enough to be carried in a chamber on a monkey's head. It has three recording channels, with user-adjustable gains, filters, and sampling rates, that can be optimized for recording single unit activity, local field potentials, electrocorticography, electromyography, arm acceleration, etc. Recorded data are stored on a removable, flash memory card. The Neurochip-2 also has three separate stimulation channels. Two "programmable-system-on-chips" (PSoCs) control the data acquisition and stimulus output. The PSoCs permit flexible real-time processing of the recorded data, such as digital filtering and time-amplitude window discrimination. The PSoCs can be programmed to deliver stimulation contingent on neural events or deliver preprogrammed stimuli. Access pins to the microcontroller are also available to connect external devices, such as accelerometers. The Neurochip-2 can record and stimulate autonomously for up to several days in freely behaving monkeys, enabling a wide range of novel neurophysiological and neuroengineering experiments. © 2011 IEEE

  7. Changes in ensemble activity of hippocampus CA1 neurons induced by chronic morphine administration in freely behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Jiang, H; Zhong, W; Wu, X; Luo, J

    2010-12-15

    The hippocampus plays an important role in the formation of new memories and spatial navigation. Recently, growing evidence supports the view that it is also involved in addiction to opiates and other drugs. Theoretical and experimental studies suggest that hippocampal neural-network oscillations at specific frequencies and unit firing patterns reflect information of learning and memory encoding. Here, using multichannel recordings from the hippocampal CA1 area in behaving mice, we investigated the phase correlations between the theta (4-10 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) oscillations, and the timing of spikes modulated by these oscillations. Local field potentials and single unit recordings in the CA1 area of mice receiving chronic morphine treatment revealed that the power of the theta rhythm was strongly increased; at the same time, the theta frequency during different behavioral states shifted markedly, and the characteristic coupling of theta and gamma oscillations was altered. Surprisingly, though the gamma oscillation frequency changed, the power of gamma lacking theta did not. Moreover, the timing of pyramidal cell spikes relative to the theta rhythm and the timing of interneuron spikes relative to the gamma rhythm changed during chronic morphine administration. Furthermore, these responses were impaired by a selective D1/D5 receptor antagonist intra-hippocampus injection. These results indicate that chronic morphine administration induced the changes of ensemble activity in the CA1 area, and these changes were dependent on local dopamine receptor activation.

  8. Spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation during chronic implantation of a microelectrode array in a behaving macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. S.; Parker, R. A.; House, P. A.; Bagley, E.; Wendelken, S.; Normann, R. A.; Greger, B.

    2012-12-01

    Objective. It has been hypothesized that a vision prosthesis capable of evoking useful visual percepts can be based upon electrically stimulating the primary visual cortex (V1) of a blind human subject via penetrating microelectrode arrays. As a continuation of earlier work, we examined several spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation. Approach. An array of 100 penetrating microelectrodes was chronically implanted in V1 of a behaving macaque monkey. Microstimulation thresholds were measured using a two-alternative forced choice detection task. Relative locations of electrically-evoked percepts were measured using a memory saccade-to-target task. Main results. The principal finding was that two years after implantation we were able to evoke behavioural responses to electric stimulation across the spatial extent of the array using groups of contiguous electrodes. Consistent responses to stimulation were evoked at an average threshold current per electrode of 204 ± 49 µA (mean ± std) for groups of four electrodes and 91 ± 25 µA for groups of nine electrodes. Saccades to electrically-evoked percepts using groups of nine electrodes showed that the animal could discriminate spatially distinct percepts with groups having an average separation of 1.6 ± 0.3 mm (mean ± std) in cortex and 1.0° ± 0.2° in visual space. Significance. These results demonstrate chronic perceptual functionality and provide evidence for the feasibility of a cortically-based vision prosthesis for the blind using penetrating microelectrodes.

  9. Mechanical characteristics of rat vibrissae: resonant frequencies and damping in isolated whiskers and in the awake behaving animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Mitra J.; Johnson, Nicholas J.; Towal, R. Blythe; Assad, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the natural resonance properties and damping characteristics of rat macrovibrissae (whiskers). Isolated whiskers rigidly fixed at the base showed first-mode resonance peaks between 27 and 260 Hz, principally depending on whisker length. These experimentally measured resonant frequencies were matched using a theoretical model of the whisker as a conical cantilever beam, with Young's modulus as the only free parameter. The best estimate for Young's modulus was approximately 3-4 GPa. Results of both vibration and impulse experiments showed that the whiskers are strongly damped, with damping ratios between 0.11 and 0.17. In the behaving animal, whiskers that deflected past an object were observed to resonate but were damped significantly more than isolated whiskers. The time course of damping varied depending on the individual whisker and the phase of the whisking cycle, which suggests that the rat may modulate biomechanical parameters that affect damping. No resonances were observed for whiskers that did not contact the object or during free whisking in air. Finally, whiskers on the same side of the face were sometimes observed to move in opposite directions over the full duration of a whisk. We discuss the potential roles of resonance during natural exploratory behavior and specifically suggest that resonant oscillations may be important in the rat's tactile detection of object boundaries.

  10. Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marianne E; Ewoldt, Randy H; Long, John H

    2016-09-15

    During swimming in dogfish sharks, Squalus acanthias, both the intervertebral joints and the vertebral centra undergo significant strain. To investigate this system, unique among vertebrates, we cyclically bent isolated segments of 10 vertebrae and nine joints. For the first time in the biomechanics of fish vertebral columns, we simultaneously characterized non-linear elasticity and viscosity throughout the bending oscillation, extending recently proposed techniques for large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) characterization to large-amplitude oscillatory bending (LAOB). The vertebral column segments behave as non-linear viscoelastic springs. Elastic properties dominate for all frequencies and curvatures tested, increasing as either variable increases. Non-linearities within a bending cycle are most in evidence at the highest frequency, 2.0 Hz, and curvature, 5 m(-1) Viscous bending properties are greatest at low frequencies and high curvatures, with non-linear effects occurring at all frequencies and curvatures. The range of mechanical behaviors includes that of springs and brakes, with smooth transitions between them that allow for continuously variable power transmission by the vertebral column to assist in the mechanics of undulatory propulsion.

  11. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  12. Architectural Strategies of Transformation to Modern Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark......This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark...

  13. On Heidegger, medicine, and the modernity of modern medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Iain

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines medicine's use of technology in a manner from a standpoint inspired by Heidegger's thinking on technology. In the first part of the paper, I shall suggest an interpretation of Heidegger's thinking on the topic, and attempt to show why he associates modern technology with danger. However, I shall also claim that there is little evidence that medicine's appropriation of modern technology is dangerous in Heidegger's sense, although there is no prima facie reason why it mightn't be. The explanation for this, I claim, is ethical. There is an initial attraction to the thought that Heidegger's thought echoes Kantian moral thinking, but I shall dismiss this. Instead, I shall suggest that the considerations that make modern technology dangerous for Heidegger are simply not in the character - the ethos - of medicine properly understood. This is because there is a distinction to be drawn between chronological and historical modernity, and that even up-to-date medicine, empowered by technology, retains in its ethos crucial aspects of a historically pre-modern understanding of technology. A large part of the latter half of the paper will be concerned with explaining the difference.

  14. Modernism and tradition and the traditions of modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kros Džonatan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the story of musical modernism has been told in terms of a catastrophic break with the (tonal past and the search for entirely new techniques and modes of expression suitable to a new age. The resulting notion of a single, linear, modernist mainstream (predicated on the basis of a Schoenbergian model of musical progress has served to conceal a more subtle relationship between past and present. Increasingly, it is being recognized that there exist many modernisms and their various identities are forged from a continual renegotiation between past and present, between tradition(s and the avant-garde. This is especially relevant when attempting to discuss the reception of modernism outside central Europe, where the adoption of (Germanic avant-garde attitudes was often interpreted as being "unpatriotic". The case of Great Britain is examined in detail: Harrison Birtwistle’s opera The Mask of Orpheus (1973–83 forms the focus for a wider discussion of modernism within the context of late/post-modern thought.

  15. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  16. Navy Fuel Specification Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    surfaced periodically to convert further to a single-fuel operation, i.e., one fuel for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This study...lead to the development of a single distillate fuel for ship propulsion , resulting eventually in the MIL-F-16884 Naval Distillate Fuel (NDF) used today...for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This report summarizes a study to consider this problem in light of current systems and

  17. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  18. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    properties of the other fuels are varied systematically beyond the specification limits imposed on the reference fuels, principally in the direction of...lower hydrogen content- Comparison of fuel nozzles, Figurae ,6.32. shows stronger dependence bet- ween oeiseslona and hydrogen content for airblast and

  19. Vented nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  1. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...

  2. Network technology for depot modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  3. Progress of modern agricultural chemistry and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture is facing an enormous challenge: it must ensure that enough high-quality food is available to meet the needs of a continually growing population. Current and future agronomic production of food, feed, fuel and fibre requires innovative solutions for existing and future challenges, such as climate change, resistance to pests, increased regulatory demands, renewable raw materials or requirements resulting from food chain partnerships. Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers to manage these tasks. Today, the so-called 'side effects' of agrochemicals regarding yield and quality are gaining more importance. Agrochemical companies with a strong research and development focus will have the opportunity to shape the future of agriculture by delivering innovative integrated solutions. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the innovative products launched over the past 10 years and describes the progress of modern agricultural chemistry and its future prospects. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. ATR PDQ and MCWO Fuel Burnup Analysis Codes Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Chang; P. A. Roth; M. A. Lillo

    2009-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is being studied to determine the feasibility of converting it from the highly enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel that is currently uses to low enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. In order to achieve this goal, it would be best to qualify some different computational methods than those that have been used at ATR for the past 40 years. This paper discusses two methods of calculating the burnup of ATR fuel elements. The existing method, that uses the PDQ code, is compared to a modern method that uses A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) combined with the Origen2.2 code. This modern method, MCNP with ORIGEN2.2 (MCWO), is found to give excellent agreement with the existing method (PDQ). Both of MCWO and PDQ are also in a very good agreement to the 235U burnup data generated by an analytical method.

  5. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  6. Zolpidem reduces hippocampal neuronal activity in freely behaving mice: a large scale calcium imaging study with miniaturized fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyyeva, Tamara; Otte, Stephani; Aluisio, Leah; Ziv, Yaniv; Burns, Laurie D; Dugovic, Christine; Yun, Sujin; Ghosh, Kunal K; Schnitzer, Mark J; Lovenberg, Timothy; Bonaventure, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic drugs for cognitive and psychiatric disorders are often characterized by their molecular mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate a new approach to elucidate drug action on large-scale neuronal activity by tracking somatic calcium dynamics in hundreds of CA1 hippocampal neurons of pharmacologically manipulated behaving mice. We used an adeno-associated viral vector to express the calcium sensor GCaMP3 in CA1 pyramidal cells under control of the CaMKII promoter and a miniaturized microscope to observe cellular dynamics. We visualized these dynamics with and without a systemic administration of Zolpidem, a GABAA agonist that is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of insomnia in the United States. Despite growing concerns about the potential adverse effects of Zolpidem on memory and cognition, it remained unclear whether Zolpidem alters neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a brain area critical for cognition and memory. Zolpidem, when delivered at a dose known to induce and prolong sleep, strongly suppressed CA1 calcium signaling. The rate of calcium transients after Zolpidem administration was significantly lower compared to vehicle treatment. To factor out the contribution of changes in locomotor or physiological conditions following Zolpidem treatment, we compared the cellular activity across comparable epochs matched by locomotor and physiological assessments. This analysis revealed significantly depressive effects of Zolpidem regardless of the animal's state. Individual hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differed in their responses to Zolpidem with the majority (∼ 65%) significantly decreasing the rate of calcium transients, and a small subset (3%) showing an unexpected and significant increase. By linking molecular mechanisms with the dynamics of neural circuitry and behavioral states, this approach has the potential to contribute substantially to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of CNS disorders.

  7. Adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse plasticity during associative learning in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontinha, Bruno M; Delgado-García, José M; Madroñal, Noelia; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M; Gruart, Agnès

    2009-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies have characterized the electrophysiological and molecular signaling pathways of adenosine tonic modulation on long-lasting synaptic plasticity events, particularly for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it remains to be elucidated whether the long-term changes produced by endogenous adenosine in the efficiency of synapses are related to those required for learning and memory formation. Our goal was to understand how endogenous activation of adenosine excitatory A(2A) receptors modulates the associative learning evolution in conscious behaving mice. We have studied here the effects of the application of a highly selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, SCH58261, upon a well-known associative learning paradigm-classical eyeblink conditioning. We used a trace paradigm, with a tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and an electric shock presented to the supraorbital nerve as the unconditioned stimulus (US). A single electrical pulse was presented to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs) in the pyramidal CA1 area during the CS-US interval. In vehicle-injected animals, there was a progressive increase in the percentage of conditioning responses (CRs) and in the slope of fEPSPs through conditioning sessions, an effect that was completely prevented (and lost) in SCH58261 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) -injected animals. Moreover, experimentally evoked LTP was impaired in SCH58261-injected mice. In conclusion, the endogenous activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors plays a pivotal effect on the associative learning process and its relevant hippocampal circuits, including activity-dependent changes at the CA3-CA1 synapse.

  8. Feedback controlled piezo-motor microdrive for accurate electrode positioning in chronic single unit recording in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungwook; Cho, Jeiwon; Lee, Semin; Park, Kitae; Kim, Jinseok; Huh, Yeowool; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2011-02-15

    The microdrive is one of the most essential tools for extracellular, single-unit recordings in freely behaving animals to detect and isolate the single-unit activities from brain regions of interest. Due to the increasing number of neuroscience research projects using genetically engineered mice, the demand for effective recording devices in freely moving mice is also increasing. Although manually and automatically operated microdrive devices are available, they are limited in terms of size, weight, accuracy, manipulability, and convenience for single-unit recording in mice. The present study proposed a novel microdrive that employs a small, lightweight piezo-motor and a magnetoresistive (MR) sensor with a closed-loop position feedback control system. The total weight of the device is 1.82 g, which is perfectly suitable for application to mice. Most importantly, the proposed microdrive is capable of monitoring and adjusting electrode movement on-line by integrating a closed-loop feedback control system, which enhances the accuracy of micro-advancement of the electrode by utilizing position feedback. The performance of this newly developed microdrive was extensively evaluated for both mechanical and physiological concerns at both free-loading and various-loading conditions, including agarose gel matrix and then the hippocampus and thalamus of mice. In summary, this proposed microdrive can enhance the quality of recording single unit activities in freely moving mice in terms of the size and weight of the device, the convenience and accuracy of manipulation, and, most of all, in isolating single neurons and recording stability by providing accurate positioning of an electrode.

  9. Local domains of motor cortical activity revealed by fiber-optic calcium recordings in behaving nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelsberger, Helmuth; Zainos, Antonio; Alvarez, Manuel; Romo, Ranulfo; Konnerth, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Brain mapping experiments involving electrical microstimulation indicate that the primary motor cortex (M1) directly regulates muscle contraction and thereby controls specific movements. Possibly, M1 contains a small circuit “map” of the body that is formed by discrete local networks that code for specific movements. Alternatively, movements may be controlled by distributed, larger-scale overlapping circuits. Because of technical limitations, it remained unclear how movement-determining circuits are organized in M1. Here we introduce a method that allows the functional mapping of small local neuronal circuits in awake behaving nonhuman primates. For this purpose, we combined optic-fiber–based calcium recordings of neuronal activity and cortical microstimulation. The method requires targeted bulk loading of synthetic calcium indicators (e.g., OGB-1 AM) for the staining of neuronal microdomains. The tip of a thin (200 µm) optical fiber can detect the coherent activity of a small cluster of neurons, but is insensitive to the asynchronous activity of individual cells. By combining such optical recordings with microstimulation at two well-separated sites of M1, we demonstrate that local cortical activity was tightly associated with distinct and stereotypical simple movements. Increasing stimulation intensity increased both the amplitude of the movements and the level of neuronal activity. Importantly, the activity remained local, without invading the recording domain of the second optical fiber. Furthermore, there was clear response specificity at the two recording sites in a trained behavioral task. Thus, the results provide support for movement control in M1 by local neuronal clusters that are organized in discrete cortical domains. PMID:24344287

  10. Zolpidem reduces hippocampal neuronal activity in freely behaving mice: a large scale calcium imaging study with miniaturized fluorescence microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Berdyyeva

    Full Text Available Therapeutic drugs for cognitive and psychiatric disorders are often characterized by their molecular mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate a new approach to elucidate drug action on large-scale neuronal activity by tracking somatic calcium dynamics in hundreds of CA1 hippocampal neurons of pharmacologically manipulated behaving mice. We used an adeno-associated viral vector to express the calcium sensor GCaMP3 in CA1 pyramidal cells under control of the CaMKII promoter and a miniaturized microscope to observe cellular dynamics. We visualized these dynamics with and without a systemic administration of Zolpidem, a GABAA agonist that is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of insomnia in the United States. Despite growing concerns about the potential adverse effects of Zolpidem on memory and cognition, it remained unclear whether Zolpidem alters neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a brain area critical for cognition and memory. Zolpidem, when delivered at a dose known to induce and prolong sleep, strongly suppressed CA1 calcium signaling. The rate of calcium transients after Zolpidem administration was significantly lower compared to vehicle treatment. To factor out the contribution of changes in locomotor or physiological conditions following Zolpidem treatment, we compared the cellular activity across comparable epochs matched by locomotor and physiological assessments. This analysis revealed significantly depressive effects of Zolpidem regardless of the animal's state. Individual hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differed in their responses to Zolpidem with the majority (∼ 65% significantly decreasing the rate of calcium transients, and a small subset (3% showing an unexpected and significant increase. By linking molecular mechanisms with the dynamics of neural circuitry and behavioral states, this approach has the potential to contribute substantially to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of CNS disorders.

  11. Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: implications for modeling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C; Choong, W Y; Teh, W; Buxton, A J; Bolton, P S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioral postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n = 10) in the absence and presence of an intruder rat. Plain film radiographic examination of a subset of these rats (n = 5) in each of these postures allowed measurement of head and cervical vertebral column positions adopted by the rats. When single they were quadruped or crouched most (∼80%) of the time and bipedal either supported or free standing for only ∼10% of the time. The introduction of an intruder significantly (P cervical spine was orientated (median, 25-75 percentile) near vertical (18.8°, 4.2°-30.9°) when quadruped, crouched (15.4°, 7.6°-69.3°) and bipedal supported (10.5°, 4.8°-22.6°) but tended to be less vertical oriented when bipedal free standing (25.9°, 7.7°-39.3°). The range of head positions relative to the cervical spine was largest when crouched (73.4°) and smallest when erect free standing (17.7°). This study indicates that, like humans, rats have near vertical orientated cervical vertebral columns but, in contrast to humans, they displace their head in space by movements at both the cervico-thoracic junction and the cranio-cervical regions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  13. Discrete element method study of fuel relocation and dispersal during loss-of-coolant accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-09-01

    The fuel fragmentation, relocation and dispersal (FFRD) during LOCA transients today retain the attention of the nuclear safety community. The fine fragmentation observed at high burnup may, indeed, affect the Emergency Core Cooling System performance: accumulation of fuel debris in the cladding ballooned zone leads to a redistribution of the temperature profile, while dispersal of debris might lead to coolant blockage or to debris circulation through the primary circuit. This work presents a contribution, by discrete element method, towards a mechanistic description of the various stages of FFRD. The fuel fragments are described as a set of interacting particles, behaving as a granular medium. The model shows qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations, such as the packing efficiency in the balloon, which is shown to stabilize at about 55%. The model is then applied to study fuel dispersal, for which experimental parametric studies are both difficult and expensive.

  14. DYSTOPIAN FURCATIONS IN MODERN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUBILAY AKMAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern literature of the 20th century had provided several “dystopian furcations” in the history of Western literature, represented most typically by G. Orwell, A. Huxley, Y. Zamiatin and R. R. Bradbury. What were the motivating factors behind these lines of dystopia? In this paper, we are going to discuss the phenomenon of dystopia in modern literature, based on the critical heritage of modern social theory and philosophy. Where does appear the differences between utopia and dystopia? Are the fictional worlds of More, Campanella and Bacon entirely different from the dark illustrations imagined by Orwell, Bradbury, Zamiatin and Huxley? Is there something common inside the imaginary “mechanisms” of utopian and dystopian fictions? These are the core questions we will discuss around this paper

  15. Modernizing medical photography, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Paul

    2005-03-01

    Part 1 of this paper explored the origins of process activity mapping, one of the major tools currently being used to modernize patient pathways in the National Health Service in Great Britain. Within medical photography the current notion of modernization is inextricably linked to the development of digital technology. Whilst the core principle of capturing light on a sensitive medium remains as clear and relevant as ever, the mechanisms by which the image is processed and presented to the client have changed profoundly. Part 2 shows how the principles of lean thinking and process activity mapping can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large disparate teaching hospital.

  16. Sustainability in Modern Art Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campolmi, Irene

    2013-01-01

    common good of the community. On the other hand, it is considered from the so called “three bottom” approach as also corporations and business companies have approached it. In a so called “three bottom” approach, museums’ pursuit for environmental, economic and social sustainability is related...... to their eligibility for funding and it is indeed an economic rather than a cultural issue. Though, modern art museums’ sustainability relies not only in developing economic and environmental strategies but mostly in creating cultural policies that favor art museums in accomplishing same tasks but from different......The paper analyzes the concept of sustainability in European governmental museum policies. It takes into consideration great modern art museums, particularly Tate Modern. On the one hand, the issue of sustainability is linked to art museums inasmuch these institutions operate for the sustainable...

  17. Modern problems in insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Löf, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This book is a compilation of 21 papers presented at the International Cramér Symposium on Insurance Mathematics (ICSIM) held at Stockholm University in June, 2013. The book comprises selected contributions from several large research communities in modern insurance mathematics and its applications. The main topics represented in the book are modern risk theory and its applications, stochastic modelling of insurance business, new mathematical problems in life and non-life insurance, and related topics in applied and financial mathematics. The book is an original and useful source of inspiration and essential reference for a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied researchers, research students and experts from the insurance business. In this way, Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics will contribute to the development of research and academy–industry co-operation in the area of insurance mathematics and its applications.

  18. Personality disorders and modern culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martín Murcia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the relation between the modern social context and personality —as an essential psychological entity— and its disorders were analyzed from a dialectic perspective. Therefore, I have specified the bidirectional influences of social paradigmaticchanges in modernity —and in the case of postmodernity— on the construction of personal identity. A historiography of the Self throughout the diverse eras and of the more relevant social changes was carried out, emphasizing the consequences in the development ofcharacter. The analysis includes a reflection on one of the pathologies of increasing incidence in modern societies: image disorders. In the discussion, the difficulties to organize the self in an extremely subjective world, which forces a person to self-realization asexistential task, is criticized.

  19. Brainhood, anthropological figure of modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    If personhood is the quality or condition of being an individual person, "brainhood" could name the quality or condition of being a brain. This ontological quality would define the "cerebral subject" that has, at least in industrialized and highly medicalized societies, gained numerous social inscriptions since the mid-20th century. This article explores the historical development of brainhood. It suggests that the brain is necessarily the location of the "modern self," and that, consequently, the cerebral subject is the anthropological figure inherent to modernity (at least insofar as modernity gives supreme value to the individual as autonomous agent of choice and initiative). It further argues that the ideology of brainhood impelled neuroscientific investigation much more than it resulted from it, and sketches how an expanding constellation of neurocultural discourses and practices embodies and sustains that ideology.

  20. Beck, Asia and second modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Craig

    2010-09-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2010.

  1. Modern measurements fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, D; Carbone, P; Catelani, M

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the modern role of measurement science for both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday and will help readers gain the necessary skills to specialize their knowledge for a specific field in measurement. Modern Measurements is divided into two parts. Part I (Fundamentals) presents a model of the modern measurement activity and the already recalled fundamental bricks. It starts with a general description that introduces these bricks and the uncertainty concept. The next chapters provide an overview of these bricks and finishes (Chapter 7) with a more general and complex model that encompasses both traditional (hard) measurements and (soft) measurements, aimed at quantifying non-physical concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, comfort, etc. Part II (Applications) is aimed at showing how the concepts presented in Part I can be usefully applied to design and implement measurements in some very impor ant and broad fields. The editors cover System Identification (Chapter 8...

  2. Learning-Dependent Potentiation in the Vibrissal Motor Cortex Is Closely Related to the Acquisition of Conditioned Whisker Responses in Behaving Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Garcia, Jose Maria; Troncoso, Julieta; Munera, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The role of the primary motor cortex in the acquisition of new motor skills was evaluated during classical conditioning of vibrissal protraction responses in behaving mice, using a trace paradigm. Conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation elicited a characteristic field potential in the vibrissal motor cortex, which was dependent on the synchronized…

  3. Learning-Dependent Potentiation in the Vibrissal Motor Cortex Is Closely Related to the Acquisition of Conditioned Whisker Responses in Behaving Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Garcia, Jose Maria; Troncoso, Julieta; Munera, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The role of the primary motor cortex in the acquisition of new motor skills was evaluated during classical conditioning of vibrissal protraction responses in behaving mice, using a trace paradigm. Conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation elicited a characteristic field potential in the vibrissal motor cortex, which was dependent on the synchronized…

  4. "Modern Portuguese" and The Narration of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2016-01-01

    "Modern Portuguese: A Project of the Modern Language Association" was a package of film strips, prerecorded tapes, an instructor's manual, and a textbook first published by Knopf in 1971. It followed the model established by "Modern Spanish" that was also a project of the Modern Language Association (MLA) published in 1960.The…

  5. "Modern Portuguese" and The Narration of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2016-01-01

    "Modern Portuguese: A Project of the Modern Language Association" was a package of film strips, prerecorded tapes, an instructor's manual, and a textbook first published by Knopf in 1971. It followed the model established by "Modern Spanish" that was also a project of the Modern Language Association (MLA) published in 1960.The…

  6. Memory before Modernity : Practices of Memory in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, H.M.E.P.; Pollmann, J.S.; Müller, J.M.; Steen, van der J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many students of memory assume that the practice of memory changed dramatically around 1800; this volume shows that there was much continuity as well as change. Premodern ways of negotiating memories of pain and loss, for instance, were indeed quite different to those in the modern West. Yet by exam

  7. Dilemmas of Modernity in Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Suta-Selejan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this paper is to try to find out some reference points in order to understand many dilemmas which accompanied modern society – its birth, evolution and spread throughout countries and centuries. The most frequent such dilemmas concerned the paramount criteria for choosing between individual or societal matters, between private propriety or public (state one, between private or public interests, between market mechanism or government policy as basis of the best decisions in human actions and matters. While analyzing such inconsistencies and dilemmas we can better understand the real nature of modernity and liberalism, especially what some researchers call “postmodernity”.

  8. An introduction to modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Liddle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observation

  9. Dilemmas of Modernity in Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Suta-Selejan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this paper is to try to find out some reference points in order to understand many dilemmas which accompanied modern society – its birth, evolution and spread throughout countries and centuries. The most frequent such dilemmas concerned the paramount criteria for choosing between individual or societal matters, between private propriety or public (state one, between private or public interests, between market mechanism or government policy as basis of the best decisions in human actions and matters. While analyzing such inconsistencies and dilemmas we can better understand the real nature of modernity and liberalism, especially what some researchers call “postmodernity”.

  10. Path of Chinese institutional modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Ganeswar

    2009-01-01

    We see the progress today that China has developed a treasure of modernity in terms of its World figure both in economic development and its strong military power with countless path of ups and downs in the past. We are more concerned with the historical study of its institutional modernization than a mere philosophical debate over its development and can discuss its various levels of struggle for ‘Substitute Modernity’2 since mid-19th century(the two opium wars) to till date.

  11. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  12. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... temperature. The flue gas produced thus consists primarily of carbon dioxide and water. Much research on the different aspects of an oxy-fuel power plant has been performed during the last decade. Focus has mainly been on retrofits of existing pulverized-coal-fired power plant units. Green-field plants which...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy-fuel...

  13. Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2} or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains a mixture of different uranium isotopes, primarily, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. {sup 235}U is a fissile isotope, and will readily undergo a fission reaction upon interaction with a thermal neutron. {sup 235}U has an isotopic concentration of 0.71% in naturally occurring uranium. For most reactors to maintain a fission chain reaction, the natural isotopic concentration of {sup 235}U must be increased (enriched) to a level greater than 0.71%. Modern nuclear reactor fuel assemblies contain a number of fuel pins potentially having different {sup 235}U enrichments varying from {approx}2.0% to {approx}5% enriched in {sup 235}U. Currently in the United States (US), all commercial nuclear power plants use UO{sub 2} fuel. In the rest of the world, UO{sub 2} fuel is still commonly used, but MOX fuel is also used in a number of reactors. MOX fuel contains a mixture of both UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Because the plutonium provides the fissile content of the fuel, the uranium used in MOX is either natural or depleted uranium. PuO{sub 2} is added to effectively replace the fissile content of {sup 235}U so that the level of fissile content is sufficiently high to maintain the chain reaction in an LWR. Both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium contains a number of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes, with the fraction of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes being dependent on the source of the plutonium. While only RG plutonium is currently used in MOX, there is the possibility that WG plutonium from dismantled weapons will be used to make MOX for use in US reactors. Reactor-grade plutonium

  14. Fuel cell : prime movers for the hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ashish [Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Laxmi, Nagar, New Delhi (India). Energy Center

    2007-07-01

    Energy is an important part of modern life in India. However, more energy resources are required in order to sustain the country's high growth momentum. Alternative energy programs also need to be initiated in order to mitigate the consequences of climatic changes and oil price volatility. These programs include ways of reducing carbon emissions, saving energy, increasing energy efficiency, and offering cleaner energy through distributed energy generation. Alternate fuel technologies are also needed in India because of high fuel consumption in the transportation sector. Cleaner technologies such as hydrogen for hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are needed for a real shift away from oil. This paper discussed the fuel cell market in India and identified Indian organizations investigating fuel cell technologies. It also presented the experience of the country's largest exploration and production enterprise, the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC). Hydrogen availability and key application areas of fuel cells in automotive and power generation were presented. It was concluded that fuel cells will provide a great potential for local pollution prevention, sustainable development and enhancing energy security for a developing economy like India. In addition, India was also a potential market for smaller fuel cell vehicles such as two and three wheelers. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  16. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  17. PROBLEMS IN MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAHANE, HENRY; KAHANE, RENEE

    PROBLEMS DEALING WITH LEVELS OF SPEECH AND LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN CONNECTION WITH MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDY WERE DISCUSSED. CONCERNING THE POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF A COMPETENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, THE INVESTIGATORS SUGGESTED THAT THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES (NAMELY, PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX) BE TIED TOGETHER TO INVOLVE (1) LISTING IN…

  18. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  19. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  20. Retraining the Modern Civil Engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priscoli, Jerome Delli

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why modern engineering requires social science and the nature of planning. After these conceptional discussions, 12 practical tools which social science brings to engineering are reviewed. A tested approach to training engineers in these tools is then described. Tools include institutional analysis, policy profiling, and other impact…

  1. Special issue introduction: Ecological modernization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massa, Ilmo; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2000-01-01

    The contributions to this special issue of the Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning stem from an international conference on ecological modernization that took place at the Department of Social Policy of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in late 1998. They have been selected, among other...... and restoring its meaning and justification for the environmental debate....

  2. Modern Algebra and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Virgil

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical concepts used in modern algebra are shown to be useful in modeling syndetic structure employed in information retrieval systems. The equivalence relation can represent "see also" components of traditional library catalogs; partial orderings and mappings assist in modeling syndetics in sophisticated systems such as thesauri.…

  3. A Guide to Modern Econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA Guide to Modern Econometrics is a new textbook published by John Wiley and Sons. It covers a wide range of topics in applied econometrics in a concise and intuitive way. Some distinctive features: Emphasis on empirical relevance and intuition, paying attention to the links between alt

  4. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  5. Christian Responses to Modern Slavery

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Exhibited at the second Glucksman Memorial Symposium on June 13th 2007 This research project explores the theological and ethical issues around modern slavery and movements to abolish it. Topics include: human trafficking; human rights; racism; theological language and doctrines; Christian ethics, values and social practice.

  6. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the destructio

  7. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the destructio

  8. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  9. Sport, Modernity, and the Body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.; Brownell, S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the important role that anthropological theory has bestowed on the body, modernity, nationalism, the state, citizenship, transnationalism, globalization, gender, and sexuality has placed sports at the center of questions central to the discipline. New approaches to the

  10. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  11. Modern ras minder vaak spuiten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente

    2009-01-01

    Moderne diesel is bederfelijker dan gasolie. Vooral de laatste tijd nemen de problemen met slechte brandstof toe, blijkt uit een enquête van Cumela. Veel loonwerkers kampen met bedorven diesel. Verwacht kan worden dat de problemen bij boeren groter zal zijn. De dieselomloopsnelheid op

  12. Post-Modern Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The history of software development includes elements of art, science, engineering, and fashion(though very little manufacturing). In all domains, old ideas give way or evolve to new ones: in the fine arts, the baroque gave way to rococo, romanticism, modernism, postmodernism, and so forth. What is the postmodern programming equivalent? That is, what comes after object orientation?

  13. Sport, Modernity, and the Body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Besnier; S. Brownell

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the important role that anthropological theory has bestowed on the body, modernity, nationalism, the state, citizenship, transnationalism, globalization, gender, and sexuality has placed sports at the center of questions central to the discipline. New approaches to the b

  14. Retrospective and modern views on modernization and alternative modernization components of shinto and zen buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Medviedieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the ratio of modernization and counter modernizing key components of Japan and religions (partly introduced Christianity. The author concludes that the various components of the religious consciousness of the Japanese were kontratetycal on two main elements that form the basis of modern Western culture Japanese resistance and cause upgrade. First, science and technology, working on the basis of the laws of nature, which are opposed to the supernatural and the metaphysical world. Secondly, expressed individualism and atomism as hypertrophic respect for the human person, liberal nadzoseredzhenist to a person who undermines the consolidation of corporate social society. Japanese culture in the past was oriented toward modernization, but progress has been very slow. Moreover, in this process, Japan was much more conservative because in Japanese society regulatory institutions of the army, religion and industrial corporations can be considered a kind of constants which not only can be adapted to the modernization of Euro-American style, as suggested selection of authentic script compatible, especially with life values corporatism and solidarity. It is in this dimension of modernization projects related to Christian proselytism, as were «frustrated.» The reason for this breakdown can be considered inherence religion with social cohesion, its actual merging of social institutions, as well as hidden mahizm skepticism and religious outlook that combines Shinto, Confucian and Zen Buddhist elements. Since modernization in Christianity included the distinction darkened minds clerical era and «enlightened enlightenment» of consciousness era of modern times, it is this dichotomy allowed to oppose religious «ignorance» and scientific «enlightenment», the clergy and secular intellectuals, universities and intellectual clubs as a medium spreading the ideology of the bourgeoisie and monasteries as centers of religious clericalism

  15. Diadenosine Homodinucleotide Products of ADP-ribosyl Cyclases Behave as Modulators of the Purinergic Receptor P2X7*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Santina; Basile, Giovanna; Chothi, Madhu Parakkottil; Nobbio, Lucilla; Usai, Cesare; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Schenone, Angelo; Guse, Andreas H.; Di Virgilio, Francesco; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2010-01-01

    ADP-ribosyl cyclases from both vertebrates and invertebrates were previously shown to produce two isomers of P1,P2 diadenosine 5′,5′"-P1, P2-diphosphate, P18 and P24, from cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and adenine. P18 and P24 are characterized by an unusual N-glycosidic linkage in one of the adenylic mononucleotides (Basile, G., Taglialatela-Scafati, O., Damonte, G., Armirotti, A., Bruzzone, S., Guida, L., Franco, L., Usai, C., Fattorusso, E., De Flora, A., and Zocchi, E. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14509–14514). P24, but not P18, proved to increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in HeLa cells and to negatively affect mitochondrial function. Here we show that micromolar P24, but not P18, triggers a slow and sustained influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the opening of the purinergic receptor/channel P2X7. On the other hand, P18 inhibits the Ca2+ influx induced by 0.6 mm ATP in HEK293 cells stably transfected with P2X7, with an IC50 of ∼1 μm. Thus, P18 is devoid of intrinsic P2X7 stimulatory activity and behaves as an ATP antagonist. A P2X7-mediated increase of the basal [Ca2+]i has been demonstrated to negatively affect Schwann cell (SC) function in rats with the inherited, peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) (Nobbio, L., Sturla, L., Fiorese, F., Usai, C., Basile, G., Moreschi, I., Benvenuto, F., Zocchi, E., De Flora, A., Schenone, A., and Bruzzone S. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 23146–23158). Preincubation of CMT1A SC with 200 nm P18 restored the basal [Ca2+]i to values similar to those recorded in wild-type SC. These results identify P18 as a new P2X7 antagonist, potentially useful in the treatment of CMT1A. PMID:20439466

  16. Effects on serotonin of (-)nicotine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium in the dorsal raphe and nucleus accumbens of freely behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Strecker, R E; McKenna, J T; Thakkar, M M; McCarley, R W; Tao, R

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurochemical mechanism underlying the effect of nicotine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in the dorsal raphe nucleus and nucleus accumbens of freely behaving rats. For comparison, lobeline, cytisine and RJR-2403 were also investigated. It was found that all drugs, when infused locally, evoked an increase of 5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus. However, the magnitudes of the 5-HT increase were comparatively different between the drugs in the ranking of their potency: DMPP>RJR 2403>nicotine>lobeline>cytisine. Both methyllycaconitine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist and methyllycaconitine, a selective alpha7-containing nAChR antagonist blocked the effects of nicotine and DMPP, suggesting that alpha7 subunit mediated the increases in 5-HT. However, DMPP was reported to increase 5-HT using non-nAChR mechanism [Lendvai B, Sershen H, Lajtha A, Santha E, Baranyi M, Vizi ES (1996) Differential mechanisms involved in the effect of nicotinic agonists DMPP and lobeline to release [3H]5-HT from rat hippocampal slices. Neuropharmacology 35:1769-1777]. To test if 5-HT carriers were involved, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram (1 microM) was infused into the dorsal raphe nucleus before administration of nicotine or DMPP. As a result, citalopram significantly blocked the effect of DMPP, whereas it had no influence on nicotine. Finally, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) was used to test whether the increases in 5-HT were depolarization-dependent. Administration of 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) produced significant decreases in 5-HT in the animals treated with nicotine. In contrast, the effect of DMPP was not altered by 8-OH-DPAT, suggesting that the increases in 5-HT were independent of cell membrane depolarization. In conclusion, there are different mechanisms involved in nicotine- and DMPP-evoked increases in 5-HT. This

  17. Diadenosine homodinucleotide products of ADP-ribosyl cyclases behave as modulators of the purinergic receptor P2X7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Santina; Basile, Giovanna; Chothi, Madhu Parakkottil; Nobbio, Lucilla; Usai, Cesare; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Schenone, Angelo; Guse, Andreas H; Di Virgilio, Francesco; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2010-07-02

    ADP-ribosyl cyclases from both vertebrates and invertebrates were previously shown to produce two isomers of P1,P2 diadenosine 5',5'"-P1, P2-diphosphate, P18 and P24, from cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and adenine. P18 and P24 are characterized by an unusual N-glycosidic linkage in one of the adenylic mononucleotides (Basile, G., Taglialatela-Scafati, O., Damonte, G., Armirotti, A., Bruzzone, S., Guida, L., Franco, L., Usai, C., Fattorusso, E., De Flora, A., and Zocchi, E. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14509-14514). P24, but not P18, proved to increase the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in HeLa cells and to negatively affect mitochondrial function. Here we show that micromolar P24, but not P18, triggers a slow and sustained influx of extracellular Ca(2+) through the opening of the purinergic receptor/channel P2X7. On the other hand, P18 inhibits the Ca(2+) influx induced by 0.6 mm ATP in HEK293 cells stably transfected with P2X7, with an IC(50) of approximately 1 mum. Thus, P18 is devoid of intrinsic P2X7 stimulatory activity and behaves as an ATP antagonist. A P2X7-mediated increase of the basal [Ca(2+)](i) has been demonstrated to negatively affect Schwann cell (SC) function in rats with the inherited, peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) (Nobbio, L., Sturla, L., Fiorese, F., Usai, C., Basile, G., Moreschi, I., Benvenuto, F., Zocchi, E., De Flora, A., Schenone, A., and Bruzzone S. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 23146-23158). Preincubation of CMT1A SC with 200 nm P18 restored the basal [Ca(2+)](i) to values similar to those recorded in wild-type SC. These results identify P18 as a new P2X7 antagonist, potentially useful in the treatment of CMT1A.

  18. Assess How Changes in Fuel Cycle Operation Impact Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Adigun, Babatunde John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Fugate, Michael Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division

    2016-10-31

    In this report two research topics of interest to Concepts and Approaches are investigated. The motivation of joining them into one project is that both require (1) the simulation of fuel irradiation in a reactor and (2) the transport of gamma and neutron irradiation from the fuel to safeguards detectors. In the next two subsections the merits of each of the two safeguards applications are further introduced. Given the cumulative impact of the enhancements listed above, it is not surprising that both fuel assembly design and fuel assembly irradiation optimization have improved over the past 50+ years. The purpose of the research summarized in this sub-­section is to investigate what, if any, consequence this evolution in reactor operation might have for nuclear safeguards. It is anticipated that the burnup and isotopics of the spent fuel should exhibit less variation over the decades as reactor operators irradiate each assembly to the optimum amount. In contrast, older spent fuel is anticipated to vary more in burnup and resulting isotopics for a given initial enrichment. Continuing with this thesis, modern fuel should be more uniform in composition, and thus, measured safeguards results should be easier to interpret than results from older spent fuel. With spent fuel ponds filling up, interim and long-­term storage of spent fuel will need to be addressed. Additionally after long periods of storage, spent fuel is no longer self-­protecting and as such the IAEA will categorize it as more attractive; in approximately 20 years many of the assemblies from early commercial cores will no longer be considered self-­protecting. This study will assess how more recent changes in the reactor operation could impact the interpretation of safeguards measurements.

  19. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  20. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  1. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  2. Spiral cooled fuel nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Timothy; Schilp, Reinhard

    2012-09-25

    A fuel nozzle for delivery of fuel to a gas turbine engine. The fuel nozzle includes an outer nozzle wall and a center body located centrally within the nozzle wall. A gap is defined between an inner wall surface of the nozzle wall and an outer body surface of the center body for providing fuel flow in a longitudinal direction from an inlet end to an outlet end of the fuel nozzle. A turbulating feature is defined on at least one of the central body and the inner wall for causing at least a portion of the fuel flow in the gap to flow transverse to the longitudinal direction. The gap is effective to provide a substantially uniform temperature distribution along the nozzle wall in the circumferential direction.

  3. Modern air protection technologies at thermal power plants (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Realization of the ecologically safe technologies for fuel combustion in the steam boiler furnaces and the effective ways for treatment of flue gases at modern thermal power plants have been analyzed. The administrative and legal measures to stimulate introduction of the technologies for air protection at TPPs have been considered. It has been shown that both the primary intrafurnace measures for nitrogen oxide suppression and the secondary flue gas treatment methods are needed to meet the modern ecological standards. Examples of the environmentally safe methods for flame combustion of gas-oil and solid fuels in the boiler furnaces have been provided. The effective methods and units to treat flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides and flue ash have been considered. It has been demonstrated that realization of the measures for air protection should be accompanied by introduction of the systems for continuous instrumentation control of the composition of combustion products in the gas path of boiler units and for monitoring of atmospheric emissions.

  4. Simultaneous fast pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of lignin to obtain a marine diesel fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng

    The topic of this Ph.D. project is to convert lignin, a by-product from a 2nd generation bio-ethanol plant, into a marine diesel fuel by fast pyrolysis followed with catalytic upgrading of the pyrolysis vapor. Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is underutilized in the 2nd...... generation bio-ethanol plants. Shipping industry on the other hand is looking for clean alternative fuels in order to meet stricter fuel quality and emission standards. To convert lignin into a renewable marine diesel fuel will both accelerate the development of modern bio-refinery and transfer the marine...

  5. Modern Italian libraries – between tradition and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Adamiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, lands currently belonging to the Republic of Italy boasted the greatest and the most illustrious libraries in Europe. From the Middle Ages to Renaissance, they developed extensively and were dominant in the Old World. The present article, however, concentrates on modern Italian libraries and provides an extensive review of their functioning today. The following issues are covered in the discussion: types of libraries and their cooperation, legal circumstances, the activity of national libraries, library associations and their initiatives and projects aimed at utilization of state-of-the-art IT infrastructures in librarianship. The article also emphasizes strong and weak points of Italian librarianship and ponders on the following: What is the role of Italian libraries today when they are evidently past their prime times? Can the libraries in question meet the requirements of modern times?

  6. Invisible World and Modern Physics: Modern Science and Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    A characteristic of the Western thought is the effort to counter Christian theology through arguments based on scientific discoveries (antirrhetic theology). Two objections can be raised against this trait: a) Modern science considers as a fact the future expansions, corrections, even total abolishment of scientific knowledge in the face of new discoveries. Therefore, dogmatic positions must not be based on temporary scientific views. b) Antirrhetic theology is mostly based on out-of-date scientific views of the period 1650-1900, which are not valid any more. The example of modern physics and cosmology is prime among them; in these sciences, the prevailing theories are based on the existence of an imperceptible reality, or on apparently “illogical” (in the sense of classical logic) fundamental properties of matter and its particles in quantum mechanics.

  7. Fuel safety research 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  8. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  9. Portable Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-27

    other transportation industries, such as trucking. The PFQA could also be used in fuel blending operations performed at petroleum, ethanol and biodiesel plants. ...used to identify fuel type and determine performance properties. The Phase I measurements identified the best spectral resolution, spectral region and...identified the best spectral resolution, spectral region and sample path length to differentiate between diesel and jet fuels, as well as to determine

  10. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    feedstock for HRJ, plant cost for F-T) Courtesy AFRL, Dr. Tim Edwards Unclassified • Agricultural crop oils (canola, jatropha, soy, palm , etc...Fuels Focus  Various conversion processes  Upgraded to meet fuel specs Diverse energy sources Petroleum Crude Oil Petroleum based Single Fuel in the...University of North Dakota EERC – UOP – General Electric (GE) – Swedish Biofuels AB • Cellulosic and algal feedstocks that are non- competitive with

  11. Fuel Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  12. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2013-06-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  13. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  14. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  15. Fuel assembly reconstitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Mario M.; Oliveira, Monica G.N.; Ferreira Junior, Decio B.M.; Santos, Barbara O. dos; Santos, Jorge E. dos, E-mail: mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Fuel failures have been happened in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide, without lost of integrity and safety, mainly for the public, environment and power plants workers. The most common causes of these events are corrosion (CRUD), fretting and pellet cladding interaction. These failures are identified by increasing the activity of fission products, verified by chemical analyses of reactor coolant. Through these analyses, during the fourth operation cycle of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant, was possible to observe fuel failure indication. This indication was confirmed in the end of the cycle during the unloading of reactor core through leakage tests of fuel assembly, using the equipment called 'In Mast Sipping' and 'Box Sipping'. After confirmed, the fuel assembly reconstitution was scheduled, and happened in April, 2007, where was identified the cause and the fuel rod failure, which was substitute by dummy rods (zircaloy). The cause was fretting by 'debris'. The actions to avoid and prevent fuel assemblies failures are important. The goals of this work are to describe the methodology of fuel assembly reconstitution using the FARE (Fuel Assembly Reconstitution Equipment) system, to describe the results of this task in economic and security factors of the company and show how the fuel assembly failures are identified during operation and during the outage. (author)

  16. Rethinking nuclear fuel recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Frank N

    2008-05-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains plutonium which can be extracted and used in new fuel. To reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste, the U.S. Department of Energy has proposed reprocessing spent fuel in this way and then "burning" the plutonium in special reactors. But reprocesssing is very expensive. Also, spent fuel emits lethal radiation, whereas separated plutonium can be handled easily. So reprocessing invites the possibility that terrorists might steal plutonium and construct an atom bormb. The authors argue against reprocessing and for storing the waste in casks until an underground repository is ready.

  17. WE ARE MODERN AND WANT TO BE MODERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude P. Dougherty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The author traces the thought of George Santayana, Brad S. Gregory, Pierre Manent, and Rémi Brague, who addressed the transformation of the West into its modern present. They all show that by being cut off from its cultural and political inheritance in modern times, Western Civilization presently finds itself in a burning need of recovering its identity. To save its identity, the West is to challenge the errors of modernity. We used to have the example of Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle in the darkest hours of World War II, and the remarkable example of John Paul II who through his leadership of the Solidarity movement inspired hope not only in his own people but also for others in the Soviet bloc at the time. “The cultural task awaiting Europe,” to use a phrase of Rémi Brague, challenging though it may be, may in time find its voice in another Churchill or John Paul II. At present, with no remedy in sight, all we can do is to hope.

  18. Modern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    艺术的力量:西班牙帝国的皇家盔甲和绘画马德里的皇家军工厂是世界上最古老、也是最大的军工厂之一。展览共展出75件展品,其中包括几套完整的西班牙皇家兵工厂生产的盔甲、头盔、盾牌以及骑兵盔甲等。同样吸引人的还有由彼得·保罗·鲁宾斯(Peter Paul Rubens)、安东尼·范戴克(Anthonyvsn Dyck)、迭达·委拉兹开斯(Diego Velazquez)等著名画家绘制的身着盔甲的统治者肖像,以及些来自皇家收藏的巨幅挂毯等。这些盔甲与绘画是首次起呈现在参观者面前,让人们深切感受到西班牙皇家军队的风采。

  19. Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toay, Leo

    2004-01-01

    In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

  20. Design of modern nanofabrication facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Sarah; Smith, Andrew; Morrish, Dru; Day, Daniel J.; Juodkazis, Saulius; Gu, Min

    2011-12-01

    We present a set of practical rules critical for designing and building a modern nanotechnology laboratory, focused on photonic applications in a cleanroom environment. We show the impacts on time, cost and quality of early design decisions and its importance on achieving the final fully functional laboratory. Best practice examples are presented for setting up a modern laboratory/facility, following analysis of the time, cost and quality constraints. The case study presented is the engineering and architectural solution of the nanofabrication cleanroom facility in the Advanced Technology Centre at Swinburne University of Technology, Australia. Set of practical rules is established for the cost and time efficient set up of the nanotechnology facilities for the research and development.

  1. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... with the minimum acceptable surface temperature regarding surface condensation or mold growth, implemented in the Danish Building Regulations in 2010, and the calculation method for this temperature based on international standards is discussed. The introduction of the minimum acceptable surface temperature has...

  2. Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of presenting thermodynamics in as simple and as unified a form as possible, this textbook starts with an introduction to the first and second laws and then promptly addresses the complete set of the potentials in a subsequent chapter and as a central theme throughout. Before discussing modern laboratory measurements, the book shows that the fundamental quantities sought in the laboratory are those which are required for determining the potentials. Since the subjects of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are a seamless whole, statistical mechanics is treated as integral part of the text. Other key topics such as irreversibility, the ideas of Ilya Prigogine, chemical reaction rates, equilibrium of heterogeneous systems, and transition-state theory serve to round out this modern treatment. An additional chapter covers quantum statistical mechanics due to active current research in Bose-Einstein condensation. End-of-chapter exercises, chapter summaries, and an appendix reviewing fundamental pr...

  3. Modern Engineering : Science and Education

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book draws together the most interesting recent results to emerge in mechanical engineering in Russia, providing a fascinating overview of the state of the art in the field in that country which will be of interest to a wide readership. A broad range of topics and issues in modern engineering are discussed, including dynamics of machines, materials engineering, structural strength and tribological behavior, transport technologies, machinery quality and innovations. The book comprises selected papers presented at the conference "Modern Engineering: Science and Education", held at the Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University in 2014 with the support of the Russian Engineering Union. The authors are experts in various fields of engineering, and all of the papers have been carefully reviewed. The book will be of interest to mechanical engineers, lecturers in engineering disciplines and engineering graduates.

  4. Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a trait-based disorder that can be understood as a pathological amplification of narcissistic traits. While temperamental vulnerability and psychological adversity are risk factors for NPD, sociocultural factors are also important. This review hypothesizes that increases in narcissistic traits and cultural narcissism could be associated with changes in the prevalence of NPD. These shifts seem to be a relatively recent phenomenon, driven by social changes associated with modernity. While the main treatment for NPD remains psychotherapy, that form of treatment is itself a product of modernity and individualism. The hypothesis is presented that psychological treatment, unless modified to address the specific problems associated with NPD, could run the risk of supporting narcissism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Designing a modern hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, B G; Boyar, R L; Raspante, P S

    1986-02-01

    Cooperation between the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects in planning a modern hospital pharmacy is described. The pharmacy director at an 870-bed voluntary nonprofit institution and the hospital's architects planned the design for a new 3250-square foot pharmacy department. They developed a preliminary floor plan based on the following functions that the pharmacy would perform: centralized unit dose drug distribution; compounding; bulk and unit dose prepackaging; preparation of sterile products; controlled substance storage; outpatient and employee prescription dispensing; reserve stock storage; purchasing, receiving, and inventory control; drug information services; and administrative services. A final floor plan was designed that incorporated these functions with structural and utility requirements, such as placement of the computer system and dispensing and lighting fixtures. By integrating modern material management concepts with contemporary hospital pharmacy practice, the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects were able to plan and construct a pharmacy that receives, processes, and dispenses medication efficiently.

  6. The evolution of organic modernism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高帅

    2015-01-01

    organic modernism is after the second world war to 20 s, the scandinavians countries mainly in Stan, a kind of design style in the United States and countries such as Italy, he and the role of modernism is the inheritance and development.This kind of style often win by curve on modelling, and achieve the result of odd machine, no matter in physical or psychological, gives comfortable experience to the consumer, and at the same time, the organic and is suitable for the development of today’s society, suitable for mass production on a large scale, which satisfy the design for most people the idea of service, and make a design full of human nature.

  7. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness.

  8. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references.   The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.

  9. Potentiel des moteurs à mélange pauvre face aux moteurs actuels à réglage stoechiométrique : consommation, émissions, exigence en octane The Challenge to Modern Stoichiometric Engines by the Potential Lean-Burn Engine: Consumption, Emissions, Fuel Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le moteur à allumage commandé pour application automobile aux États-Unis est généralement dépollué par catalyse trifonctionnelle qui impose un contrôle stoechiométrique du mélange air-carburant. Le contexte européen de 1990 pour la qualité de l'air stimule l'industrie automobile dans ses recherches de solutions techniques performantes. Le moteur à mélange pauvre, performant en consommation, est une solution potentielle si l'émission de NOx peut être maîtrisée par la combustion. Cet objectif nécessite une conception du moteur contrôlant la turbulence et l'hétérogénéité du mélange air + carburant + résiduels pendant la combustion. La longévité de l'adaptation optimale moteur-carburant nécessitera un contrôle électronique de l'allumage et l'utilisation d'additifs détergents. Pour satisfaire les réglementations les plus sévères, les émissions de CO et HC pourront être contrôlées par un simple pot catalytique d'oxydation. Des oxydes de métaux non précieux introduits dans la formule catalytique en addition aux métaux précieux maintiennent la fonction oxydante pendant les transitoires en mélange riche tout en réduisant partiellement les NOx. Une vue d'ensemble de ce concept basé sur des simulations numériques et des résultats expérimentaux de consommation, d'émission, d'exigence en octane, etc. est présentée. Spark-ignition engines for automotive applications in the United States are currently depolluted by a 3-way catalyst that requires air-fuel control at stoichiometry. The 1990 European context for air pollution control is stimulating the automotive industry to search for improved technical solutions. The lean-burn engine is a potential fuel-efficient answer if its combustion can be optimized for low NOx emissions. Achieving this challenging approach requires engine design to control the turbulence and heterogeneity of the air + fuel + residual mixture during combustion. Electronic ignition

  10. The Development of Modern Pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The present paper deals with agrochemicals. The low toxicities to mammals and wild lives, greater selectivity against target organisms, and high levels of activity are particular features of many modern agrochemicals. It is suggested that integrated pest management(IPM), by means of a combination of biological and chemical controls has met with some success and the present approach is to optimize the use of chemicals rather than to eliminate them.

  11. Modern Marriage and Dutch Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪芹

    2008-01-01

    In shanghai ,Beijing, Guangdong and other big cities, the invesligation in 2003 indicated that 25% couples had no children;38% couples agreed that married couples who did not give birth to child were acceptable;22% keep silent and only 15% people excepted to have children (Yu, 2003). The DINK phenomenon, nowadays, is being more and more fashionable. Under the effect of modern market, many new marital phenomena like Dutch Treatment are coming into be-ing in china.

  12. Transients of modern power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Hua

    2011-01-01

    In high power, high voltage electronics systems, a strategy to manage short timescale energy imbalances is fundamental to the system reliability. Without a theoretical framework, harmful local convergence of energy can affect the dynamic process of transformation, transmission, and storage which create an unreliable system. With an original approach that encourages understanding of both macroscopic and microscopic factors, the authors offer a solution. They demonstrate the essential theory and methodology for the design, modeling and prototyping of modern power electronics converters to crea

  13. Modern Dancer Goes Against Tradition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    WANG Mei is the youngest associate professor in modern dance at the Beijing College of Dance. Her art is the most important part of her life. When inspiration comes, she can’t help but move her hands and feet to the choreography going on in her head. And when people watch Wang perform, contradictory feelings of light-heartedness and melancholy simultaneously are felt. This charming dancer has a unique understanding about

  14. Modern strategies for effective teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Stojceska Gjorgioska, Mirjana; Serafimova, Mimoza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Modern Teaching Strategies are introducing for students to achieve in their career. These teaching strategies are changing with the passage of time. Today’s students are into global world that will demand more understanding and abilities. Students need to understand the subject basics, but also to think decisively, to investigate, and to make conclusions. Helping students to advance these skills will require changes in teaching strategies at the school and classr...

  15. Borger i det moderne Babel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delman, Thomas Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Hvordan agerer borgerne i den grænseløse by? Er vi blevet borgere i et moderne Babel, hvor vi ikke længere taler samme sprog? Hvorfor vil vi ikke have de fælles projekter i vores baghave? Og kan nyaktivisme måske være en mulig vej frem? Artiklen forsøger at give svar på nogle af disse spørgsmål....

  16. Introduction to Modern Statistical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David

    1987-09-01

    Leading physical chemist David Chandler takes a new approach to statistical mechanics to provide the only introductory-level work on the modern topics of renormalization group theory, Monte Carlo simulations, time correlation functions, and liquid structure. The author provides compact summaries of the fundamentals of this branch of physics and discussions of many of its traditional elementary applications, interspersed with over 150 exercises and microcomputer programs.

  17. Modern engineering statistics, solutions manual

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    An introductory perspective on statistical applications in the field of engineering Modern Engineering Statistics presents state-of-the-art statistical methodology germane to engineering applications. With a nice blend of methodology and applications, this book provides and carefully explains the concepts necessary for students to fully grasp and appreciate contemporary statistical techniques in the context of engineering. With almost thirty years of teaching experience, many of which were spent teaching engineering statistics courses, the author has successfully developed a

  18. Modern strategies for effective teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Stojceska Gjorgioska, Mirjana; Serafimova, Mimoza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Modern Teaching Strategies are introducing for students to achieve in their career. These teaching strategies are changing with the passage of time. Today’s students are into global world that will demand more understanding and abilities. Students need to understand the subject basics, but also to think decisively, to investigate, and to make conclusions. Helping students to advance these skills will require changes in teaching strategies at the school and classr...

  19. Deep Magic and Modern Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghivirigă Teodora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses C. S. Lewis’ position on, and criticism of, magic vs. wisdom and the type of “fast” magic that the (post-modern world has fallen prey to and ends by returning to the alternative that Lewis-and other writers such as his friend and contemporary J. R. R. Tolkien and more recent ones such as Tery Pratchett-suggest as a more propitious alternative.

  20. PARTICULARITIES OF MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL PROMOTION

    OpenAIRE

    Юрий Владимирович Тарасов

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products market is one of the most saturated consumers’ markets. Characteristic features of it are: high competition, fierce struggle for the customer, specific technologies of promotion. In conditions of globalization and increase in competition both in world pharmaceutical market and in the market of medicines and goods of medical purpose in Russia modern marketing techniques of promotion of the products to the end consumers are the key tools for strengthening market position...

  1. Rituels et communication politique moderne

    OpenAIRE

    Abélès, Marc

    1989-01-01

    Archives ouvertes du IIAC UMR8177, responsable Eliane Daphy.; International audience; Modern political communication is often assumed to be incompatible with the various features of ritual in traditional societies. This paper shows that traditional practices are too deeply embedded in our conception of public life to be rendered obsolete by the emergence of new channels of political communication. Far from being antinomic, ritual work and the use of media bring about new formats where traditi...

  2. Towards Modernizing the Electrical Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    th “l t li fys em s e as ne o defense” SSDS coordinates high- speed radars , targets defensive missiles, and directs 1000+ rounds/sec at...record time. © 2011 Real-Time Innovations, Inc. Automotive Safety The VW Driver Assistance & Integrated Safety system provides steering...C37.118, 61850, other protocols – Also across operating systems, languages, network transports, chip architectures, vendors Secure: Implements modern

  3. Framing car fuel efficiency : linearity heuristic for fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    People are sensitive to the way information on fuel efficiency is conveyed. When the fuel efficiency of cars is framed in terms of fuel per distance (FPD; e.g. l/100 km), instead of distance per units of fuel (DPF; e.g. km/l), people have a more accurate perception of potential fuel savings. People

  4. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... January 5, 2012 to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received...

  5. The origins of modern divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coontz, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    High rates of marital dissolution and easy access to divorce are not unprecedented, historically or cross-culturally. But contemporary divorce in North America and Western Europe has different origins and features than divorce in previous cultures. The origins of modern divorce patterns date back more than 200 years, to the invention of the historically unprecedented idea that marriage should be based on love and mutual affection. Ironically, then, the fragility of modern marriage stems from the same values that have elevated the marital relationship above all other personal and familial commitments: the concentration of emotion, passion, personal identity, and self-validation in the couple relationship and the attenuation of emotional attachments and obligations beyond the conjugal unit. The immediate causes of divorce may range from factors as diverse as the personal psychological characteristics of one or both spouses to the stresses of economic hardship and community disintegration. But in a larger perspective, the role of divorce in modern societies and its relatively high occurrence both flow from the same complex of factors that have made good marriages so much more central to people's happiness than through most of the past, and deterioration of a marital relationship so much more traumatic.

  6. Heidegger and Blumenberg on modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Negru

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate surrounding the way in which Heidegger and Blumenberg understand the modern age is an opportunity to discuss two different approaches to history. On one hand, from Heidegger's perspective, history should be understood as starting from how Western thought related to Being, which, in metaphysical thinking, took the form of the forgetfulness of Being. Thus, the modern age represents the last stage in the process of forgetfulness of Being, which announces the moment of the rethinking of the relationship with Being by appealing to the authentic disclosure of Being. On the other hand, Blumenberg understands history as the result of the reoccupation process, which means replacing old theories with other new ones. Thus, to the historical approach it is not important to identify epochs as periods of time between two events, but to think about the discontinuities occurring throughout history. Starting from here, the modern age will be thought of not as an expression of the radicalization of the forgetfulness of Being, but as a response to the crises of medieval conceptions. For the same reason, the interpretation of history as a history of the forgetfulness of Being is considered by Blumenberg to subordinate history to an absolute principle, without taking into account its protagonists' needs and necessities.

  7. On the Implementation of the IEC 61850 Standard: Will Different Manufacturer Devices Behave Similarly under Identical Conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad El Hariri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Standardization in smart grid communications is necessary to facilitate complex operations of modern power system functions. However, the strong coupling between the cyber and physical domains of the contemporary grid exposes the system to vulnerabilities and thus places more burden on standards’ developers. As such, standards need to be continuously assessed for reliability and are expected to be implemented properly on field devices. However, the actual implementation of common standards varies between vendors, which may lead to different behaviors of the devices even if present under similar conditions. The work in this paper tested the implementation of the International Electro-technical Commission’s Generic Object Oriented Substation Event GOOSE (IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging protocol on commercial Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs and the open source libiec61850 library—also used in commercial devices—which showed different behaviors in identical situations. Based on the test results and analysis of some features of the IEC 61850 GOOSE protocol itself, this paper proposes guidelines and recommendations for proper implementation of the standard functionalities.

  8. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  9. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  10. Durable fuel electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    the composite. The invention also relates to the use of the composite as a fuel electrode, solid oxide fuel cell, and/or solid oxide electrolyser. The invention discloses a composite for an electrode, comprising a three-dimensional network of dispersed metal particles, stabilised zirconia particles and pores...

  11. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  12. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  13. Solar Fuel Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  14. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also...

  15. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  16. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  17. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  18. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  19. Solar fuel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; West, William C.

    2017-01-17

    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  20. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy