WorldWideScience

Sample records for modern conventional imaging

  1. "Conventional" CT images from spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandary, Paurakh L.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging systems need to be able to produce "conventional" images, and it's been shown that systems with energy discriminating detectors can achieve higher CNR than conventional systems by optimal weighting. Combining measured data in energy bins (EBs) and also combining basis material images have previously been proposed, but there are no studies systematically comparing the two methods. In this paper, we analytically evaluate the two methods for systems with ideal photon counting detectors using CNR and beam hardening (BH) artifact as metrics. For a 120-kVp polychromatic simulations of a water phantom with low contrast inserts, the difference of the optimal CNR between the two methods for the studied phantom is within 2%. For a polychromatic spectrum, beam-hardening artifacts are noticeable in EB weighted images (BH artifact of 3.8% for 8 EB and 6.9% for 2 EB), while weighted basis material images are free of such artifacts.

  2. Modern imaging: introduction to the feature issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrysse, Peter B; Irsch, Kristina; Javidi, Bahram; Preza, Chrysanthe; Testorf, Markus; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-03-20

    This special issue of Applied Optics contains selected papers reflecting the various disciplines that are needed for the design, implementation and advancement of imaging technology and systems, and it highlights the state-of-the-art research developments in the areas of modern imaging use.

  3. Modern elements of retail enterprise image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagina Julia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases of forming the image of enterprises of retail enterprises are considered in the article. On the example of “Silpo” supermarket network the analysis of basic instruments of modern trade organization image building was executed.

  4. Modern methods of image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetter, R. C.

    The author reviews the image restoration or reconstruction problem in its general setting. He first discusses linear methods for solving the problem of image deconvolution, i.e. the case in which the data are a convolution of a point-spread function and an underlying unblurred image. Next, non-linear methods are introduced in the context of Bayesian estimation, including maximum likelihood and maximum entropy methods. Then, the author discusses the role of language and information theory concepts for data compression and solving the inverse problem. The concept of algorithmic information content (AIC) is introduced and is shown to be crucial to achieving optimal data compression and optimized Bayesian priors for image reconstruction. The dependence of the AIC on the selection of language then suggests how efficient coordinate systems for the inverse problem may be selected. The author also introduced pixon-based image restoration and reconstruction methods. The relation between image AIC and the Bayesian incarnation of Occam's Razor is discussed, as well as the relation of multiresolution pixon languages and image fractal dimension. Also discussed is the relation of pixons to the role played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in statistical physics and how pixon-based image reconstruction provides a natural extension to the Akaike information criterion for maximum likelihood. The author presents practical applications of pixon-based Bayesian estimation to the restoration of astronomical images. He discusses the effects of noise, effects of finite sampling on resolution, and special problems associated with spatially correlated noise introduced by mosaicing. Comparisons to other methods demonstrate the significant improvements afforded by pixon-based methods and illustrate the science that such performance improvements allow.

  5. Modern Imaging Modalities in the Assessment of Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatareva Dora K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The AIM of this review was to present the modern concepts of diagnostic imaging in acute stroke. Neuroimaging in acute stroke aims at diagnosing the condition as early as possible and assessing the extent of parenchymal perfusion and the intracranial vessels patency. A modern approach would involve a combination of various imaging modalities as multidetector computed tomography and high field magnetic resonance imaging. A non-enhanced computed tomography (CT is used to detect hemorrhage or to identify early signs of ischemic stroke. CT angiography finds evidence of intravascular thrombi or significant stenoses, and CT perfusion displays brain tissue at risk of irreversible alterations that can be salvaged therapeutically. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a more sensitive modality than CT in diagnosing acute brain ischemia. MR diffusion-weighted imaging is more sensitive than conventional MR sequences in hyperacute stage. MR angiography as a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging method is used as an alternative modality to CT angiography. To find brain tissue at risk diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging modalities are used. The authors present briefly the modern neuroimaging modalities used in patients with transient ischemic attack, minor stroke and venous infarction. By combining different imaging techniques in a multimodal approach we can acquire the information necessary for therapeutic planning and differentiate patients who need thrombolysis.

  6. How Modern Displays Push Conventional Colorimetry to its Limit

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Various recent studies have shown that variations in observers' color vision characteristics can be a significant issue in modern display colorimetry, since peaky color primaries (commonly red, green and blue) are often used to achieve more vivid and saturated colors. This paper presents an overview of this problem in the context of media and entertainment industry applications. The significance of the effect of observer variability is demonstrated through recent experimental results.

  7. Conventional and advanced imaging in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Y; Sutton, I J; Ghadiri, M; Masters, L; Zivadinov, R; Barnett, M H

    2014-08-01

    Myelitis and optic neuritis are prototypic clinical presentations of both multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Once considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, is now known to have a discrete pathogenesis in which antibodies to the water channel, aquaporin 4, play a critical role. Timely differentiation of neuromyelitis optica from MS is imperative, determining both prognosis and treatment strategy. Early, aggressive immunosuppression is required to prevent the accrual of severe disability in neuromyelitis optica; conversely, MS-specific therapies may exacerbate the disease. The diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica requires the integration of clinical, MR imaging, and laboratory data, but current criteria are insensitive and exclude patients with limited clinical syndromes. Failure to recognize the expanding spectrum of cerebral MR imaging patterns associated with aquaporin 4 antibody seropositivity adds to diagnostic uncertainty in some patients. We present the state of the art in conventional and nonconventional MR imaging in neuromyelitis optica and review the place of neuroimaging in the diagnosis, management, and research of the condition.

  8. Rousseau and the Image of "Modern Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    The concept of "modern education" is directly connected with Rousseau's theory of education. It is often said that Rousseau "founded" modern education, or at least was its most influential predecessor. The paper argues that "modern learning" or "experimental education" was discussed within the late-17th century "quarrel of the ancients and…

  9. Ideologeme "Order" in Modern American Linguistic World Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Vdovichenko, Larisa V.; Ilyashenko, Lubov K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the topic of modern American linguistic world image. It is known that any language is the most important instrument of cognition of the world by a person but there is also no doubt that any language is the way of perception and conceptualization of this knowledge about the world. In modern linguistics linguistic world image is…

  10. International conventions and agreements in the ecological area: In light of modern civilization and international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of authors examine the problem of environmental protection in their papers. The concept of sustainable development and intensive use of modern technology in order to overcome the environmental problems of modern civilization becomes an imperative. Theoretical engagement in ecological issues is not enough. It is necessary to implement ecological measures in practice and to spread environmental awareness. Modern science and social practice have interdependence of economy and ecology in their focus. The main direction of social change is movement from economic to ecological paradigm that involves an ethical responsibility to the current and future generations. There is a need to establish effective programs to protect the environment at the national and supranational level. Active international cooperation in the field of ecology has resulted in the formulation of a number of documents on environmental protection. This paper illustrates the importance of environmental protection and the necessity of implementing international conventions and agreements in the environmental field, with focus on their impact on international trade.

  11. Regional content-based image retrieval for solar images: Traditional versus modern methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, J. M.; Angryk, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents an extensive evaluation between conventional (distance-based) and modern (search-engine) information retrieval techniques in the context of finding similar Solar image regions within the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission image repository. We compare pre-computed image descriptors (image features) extracted from the SDO mission images in two very different ways: (1) similarity retrieval using multiple distance-based metrics and (2) retrieval using Lucene, a general purpose scalable retrieval engine. By transforming image descriptors into histogram-like signatures and into Lucene-compatible text strings, we are able to effectively evaluate the retrieval capabilities of both methodologies. Using the image descriptors alongside a labeled image dataset, we present an extensive evaluation under the criteria of performance, scalability and retrieval precision of experimental retrieval systems in order to determine which implementation would be ideal for a production level system. In our analysis we performed key transformations to our sample datasets to properly evaluate rotation invariance and scalability. At the end of this work we conclude which technique is the most robust and would yield the best performing system after an extensive experimental evaluation, we also point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and theorize on potential improvements.

  12. Modern imaging techniques during therapy in patients with multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horger, M; Claussen, CD; Lichy, M (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. (Germany)), email: marius.horger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Weisel, K (Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Hematology and Oncology, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. (Germany)); Bares, R (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. (Germany)); Ernemann, U; Fenchel, M (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroadiology, Eberhard-Karls-Univ., Tuebingen (Germany))

    2011-10-15

    Imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma have evolved and most of them are also suitable for either early or mid-term monitoring of response to novel antimyeloma therapy. This pictorial essay focuses on modern imaging techniques for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with multiple myeloma in order to highlight their individual strengths and limitations. Also, the impact of recently established modern pharmaceutical therapy, like anti-angiogenic medication, on the tumor is addressed

  13. Modern imaging techniques in the pediatric radiology; Moderne Bildgebungstechniken in der paediatrischen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staatz, Gundula [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz (Germany). Sektion Kinderradiologie; Stenzel, Martin [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Kinderradiologie

    2014-12-15

    The contribution on modern imaging techniques in the pediatric radiology covers the following topics: new sequencing techniques in pediatric skull MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): analysis of brain volume changes, diffusion weighted MRI, fractional anisotropy and fiber tracking, susceptibility weighted MRI; fetal MRI and whole-body MRI.

  14. The comparative effectiveness of conventional and digital image libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, R I; Johnson, A

    2001-03-01

    Before introducing a hospital-wide image database to improve access, navigation and retrieval speed, a comparative study between a conventional slide library and a matching image database was undertaken to assess its relative benefits. Paired time trials and personal questionnaires revealed faster retrieval rates, higher image quality, and easier viewing for the pilot digital image database. Analysis of confidentiality, copyright and data protection exposed similar issues for both systems, thus concluding that the digital image database is a more effective library system. The authors suggest that in the future, medical images will be stored on large, professionally administered, centrally located file servers, allowing specialist image libraries to be tailored locally for individual users. The further integration of the database with web technology will enable cheap and efficient remote access for a wide range of users.

  15. Modern imaging technologies in toxicologic pathology: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaoyou; Monticello, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    Modern imaging technology, now utilized in most biomedical research areas (bioimaging), enables the detection and visualization of biological processes at various levels of the molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ and/or whole body. In toxicologic pathology, the impact of modern imaging technology is becoming apparent from digital histopathology to novel molecular imaging for in vivo studies. This overview summarizes recent progresses in digital microscopy imaging and newly developed digital slide techniques. Applications of virtual microscopy imaging are discussed and compared to traditional optical microscopy reading. New generation digital pathology approaches, including automatic slide inspection, digital slide databases and image management are briefly introduced. Commonly used in vivo preclinical imaging technologies are also summarized. While most of these new imaging techniques are still undergoing rapid development, it is important that toxicologic pathologists embrace and utilize these technologies as advances occur.

  16. Modern imaging of myocarditis. Possibilities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baessler, B.; Maintz, D.; Bunck, A.C. [University Hospital of Cologne (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Radiology; Schmidt, M. [University Hospital of Cologne (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Luecke, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig, Herzzentrum Leipzig GmbH (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Blazek, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig, Herzzentrum Leipzig GmbH (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine/Cardiology; Ou, P. [Universite Paris Diderot (France). Dept. of Cardiovascular Imaging

    2016-10-15

    Myocarditis is known as the chameleon of cardiac diseases. The symptoms and the course of disease vary greatly so that it is often challenging to establish a diagnosis. Early and accurate diagnosis is of utmost importance, since myocarditis is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death in young adults and represents an important precursor to dilated cardiomyopathy. Due to the constraints of the routinely used diagnostic approach, including clinical history and examination, laboratory testing, and electrocardiogram, different imaging modalities have emerged over the last decades as contributors to the noninvasive diagnosis of myocarditis. With this interdisciplinary review we would like to present the current state-of-the-art imaging of myocarditis across all available imaging modalities (i.e., echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, cardiac computed tomography, and nuclear medicine). Furthermore, we present novel imaging techniques that might become useful in the near future for easier and more accurate diagnosis of this highly relevant disease.

  17. MR pyelography and conventional MR imaging in urinary tract obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, C.; Pavone, P.; Laghi, A.; Scipioni, A.; Panebianco, V.; Brillo, R.; Fraioli, F.; Passariello, R. [La Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Department of Radiology-II

    1999-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the possible role of MR imaging in the assessment of patients with urinary tract obstruction by combining conventional MR imaging and MR pyelography (MRP). Material and methods: Forty-three patients with dilated upper urinary tract were studied with a high gradient strength 0.5 T magnet. Respiratory compensated T1-weighted, SE and T2-weighted TSE sequences were acquired in all patients. MRP images were obtained by using a respiratory compensated 3D T2-weighted TSE sequence. MRP images were reconstructed with a MIP algorithm. In all cases, urography and/or ascending pyelography were also performed. Images were independently evaluated by two radiologists. Results: The dilated tract ureter and the level of the obstruction could be correctly demonstrated in all cases. The cause of the obstruction was correctly demonstrated by examiner 1 in 90% and by examiner 2 in 88%. The interobserver agreement was high with a kappa-value of 0.96. Conclusion: In cases of obstructive hydroureteronephrosis MR imaging, combining MRP and conventional sequences, can be proposed as an accurate technique in the assessment of level and cause of obstruction. (orig.)

  18. The role of Cobalt-60 in modern radiation therapy: Dose delivery and image guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiner L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in modern radiation therapy with techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and image-guid-ed radiation therapy (IMRT and IGRT have been limited almost exclusively to linear accel-erators. Investigations of modern Cobalt-60 (Co-60 radiation delivery in the context of IMRT and IGRT have been very sparse, and have been limited mainly to computer-modeling and treatment-planning exercises. In this paper, we report on the results of experiments using a tomotherapy benchtop apparatus attached to a conventional Co-60 unit. We show that conformal dose delivery is possible and also that Co-60 can be used as the radiation source in megavoltage computed tomography imaging. These results complement our modeling studies of Co-60 tomotherapy and provide a strong motivation for continuing development of modern Cobalt-60 treatment devices.

  19. Incidentalomas: a "disease" of modern imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer; Aron, David C

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of new diagnostic techniques has revolutionized the practice of medicine and in fact, the nature of medicine itself. Technology has also expanded the "visual" field of medicine: the naked eye was assisted by the light microscope and then electron microscope to see smaller and smaller features while radiology has permitted "non-invasive" identification of internal structures. However, there are unintended consequences one of which is the discovery of an anomaly during the course of looking for something else - incidental findings and incidentalomas. Technology in general and imaging specifically offer much in service to physicians and their patients. However, it behoves physicians to ensure that technology supplements but does not replace good clinical judgment. This essay aims to put the issue of incidental findings related to advancing technology (especially imaging technology) into a broader context. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods.

  1. [Modern imaging of the temporal bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösling, S

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the current significance of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cone beam CT, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and special X‑rays in the diagnostics of temporal bone diseases. The latter is obsolete for diagnostic intentions. Possibilities and limitations in terms of detection and/or depiction of the extent of inflammatory, traumatic, tumorous, and postoperative pathologies are discussed. A concrete question and conveyance of clinical findings influence the choice of the method to be applied in the individual case. Malformations of the middle ear can only be detected noninvasively by CT or cone beam CT. These are also the methods that may support the diagnosis of otosclerosis in clinically unclear cases. MRI is the method of choice for pathologies of the inner ear and internal auditory canal, including inner ear malformations. At present, only in few institutions is a successful visualization of endolymphatic hydrops in Menière's disease realized.

  2. Refocusing images and videos with a conventional compact camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lai; Wu, Lingda; Wei, Yingmei; Song, Hanchen; Yang, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Digital refocusing is an interesting and useful tool for generating dynamic depth-of-field (DOF) effects in many types of photography such as portraits and creative photography. Since most existing digital refocusing methods rely on four-dimensional light field captured by special precisely manufactured devices or a sequence of images captured by a single camera, existing systems are either expensive for wide practical use or incapable of handling dynamic scenes. We present a low-cost approach for refocusing high-resolution (up to 8 mega pixels) images and videos based on a single shot using an easy to build camera-mirror stereo system. Our proposed method consists of four main steps, namely system calibration, image rectification, disparity estimation, and refocusing rendering. The effectiveness of our proposed method has been evaluated extensively using both static and dynamic scenes with various depth ranges. Promising experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to simulate various controllable realistic DOF effects. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first that allows one to refocus high-resolution images and videos of dynamic scenes captured by a conventional compact camera.

  3. Modern imaging technology for childhood urinary tract infection; Moderne Bildgebung beim Harnweginfekt im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, M.; Fotter, R. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Graz (Germany). Abteilung Kinderradiologie

    2005-12-01

    Imaging in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) is still a matter of debate. There are established guidelines, however new knowledge and the changed medical environment have enhanced this ongoing discussion. These new insights have impacted therapy and consequently the imaging algorithm. Modern imaging methods - particularly MRI and modern ultrasound (US) - are less invasive with a lower radiation burden. Additionally, it has been shown that VUR is a poor predictor for renal scarring out, which affects long-term results. Furthermore, the majority of UT malformations is depicted by prenatal US. The most crucial aspect of improving long-term outcome appears to be the early and reliable depiction of UTI and effective treatment to prevent renal scarring. This review tries to present this new knowledge and to discuss the potential of modern imaging. Recent changes in imaging algorithms are highlighted and an outcome-oriented algorithm that addresses these recent developments is proposed, without lightly abandoning established standards. It consists of an orienting US and - for depiction of renal involvement - amplitude coded color Doppler sonography or renal static scintigraphy (considered the gold standard, particularly for evaluating scars); in future MRI may play a role. Based on this concept, only patients with renal damage as well as patients with complex urinary tract malformations or intractable recurrent UTI may have to undergo VCUG. (orig.) [German] Die bildgebende Diagnostik beim kindlichen Harnweginfekt (HWI) wird weiterhin heftig diskutiert. Zwar existieren etablierte Bildgebungsalgorithmen, insbesondere fuer das Kleinkindesalter; neue Erkenntnisse bzw. Aufgabenstellungen haben aber zu einer Aenderung des Therapiekonzepts mit Auswirkungen auf die Bildgebung gefuehrt. Zusaetzlich haben technische (Weiter)Entwicklungen das Potenzial der Bildgebung erweitert; v. a. MRT und moderne Ultraschallverfahren versprechen eine weniger invasive und strahlenfreie

  4. Modern imaging techniques in patients with multiple myeloma; Moderne Bildgebungsverfahren beim Multiplen Myelom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannas, Peter; Adam, G.; Derlin, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kroeger, N. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Stammzelltransplantation

    2013-01-15

    Imaging studies are essential for both diagnosis and initial staging of multiple myeloma, as well as for differentiation from other monoclonal plasma cell diseases. Apart from conventional radiography, a variety of newer imaging modalities including whole-body low-dose-CT, whole-body MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT may be used for detection of osseous and extraosseous myeloma manifestations. Despite of known limitations such as limited sensitivity and specificity and the inability to detect extraosseous lesions, conventional radiography still remains the gold standard for staging newly diagnosed myeloma, partly due to its wide availability and low costs. Whole-body low-dose CT is increasingly used due to its higher sensitivity for the detection of osseous lesions and its ability to diagnose extraosseous lesions, and is replacing conventional radiography at selected centres. The highest sensitivity for both detection of bone marrow disease and extraosseous lesions can be achieved with whole-body MRI or 18F-FDG PET/CT. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration may be visualized by whole-body MRI with high sensitivity. Whole-body MRI is at least recommended in all patients with normal conventional radiography and in all patients with an apparently solitary plasmacytoma of bone. To obtain the most precise readings, optimized examination protocols and dedicated radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians familiar with the complex and variable morphologies of myeloma lesions are required. (orig.)

  5. Image Quality Modeling and Optimization for Non-Conventional Aperture Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvaggio, Philip S.

    The majority of image quality studies have been performed on systems with conventional aperture functions. These systems have straightforward aperture designs and well-understood behavior. Image quality for these systems can be predicted by the General Image Quality Equation (GIQE). However, in order to continue pushing the boundaries of imaging, more control over the point spread function of an imaging system may be necessary. This requires modifications in the pupil plane of a system, causing a departure from the realm of most image quality studies. Examples include sparse apertures, synthetic apertures, coded apertures and phase elements. This work will focus on sparse aperture telescopes and the image quality issues associated with them, however, the methods presented will be applicable to other non-conventional aperture systems. In this research, an approach for modeling the image quality of non-conventional aperture systems will be introduced. While the modeling approach is based in previous work, a novel validation study will be performed, which accounts for the effects of both broadband illumination and wavefront error. One of the key image quality challenges for sparse apertures is post-processing ringing artifacts. These artifacts have been observed in modeled data, but a validation study will be performed to observe them in measured data and to compare them to model predictions. Once validated, the modeling approach will be used to perform a small set of design studies for sparse aperture systems, including spectral bandpass selection and aperture layout optimization.

  6. [The modern body image as ethical device for biomedical enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsameter, C

    2013-01-01

    Ovid's "De medicamine faciei feminae" contains the astonishing sentence "Culta placent - all that is artificial is beautiful". In his "Éloge du maquillage" Baudelaire, buidling on Ovid's argument, states that first culture as picture and construction of beauty brings forth the truth of Nature and claims that cosmetics that allow errors of beauty to disappear artificially produce the true fulfillment of human nature. The present article looks into the historical roots of the body images that have emerged in modern times and attempts to derive structural devices for an ethical assessment of the potential we have to enhance human nature.

  7. Malignant biliary stenosis: conventional cytology versus DNA image cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Janek; Lindenmann, Nadja; Meyenberger, Christa M; Hell, Margarete; Ulmer, Hanno; Spieler, Peter; Borovicka, Jan

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of image cytometry (ICM)-DNA analysis on cytological brush specimens in improving the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for biliary neoplasias. A total of 71 patients with 89 samples of biliary tree brushing from a stenosis were included in this prospective study. Conventional cytology (CC) and DNA ploidy using ICM of the brushing were performed. Benign or malignant findings were confirmed by surgical exploration or a clinical follow-up of at least 12 months. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical follow-up in 44 cases and surgical investigation or histology in 41 cases. A definitive diagnosis of the smears resulted in 40 malignant and 49 benign diagnoses. The sensitivity was 0.666 for CC and 0.658 for ICM, and the specificity was 0.920 and 0.937, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.866 for CC and 0.900 for ICM. McNemar's test did not reveal a significant difference between CC and ICM (P=0.803). Agreement of the two methods was found in 73 samples, raising specificity to 0.998 but not sensitivity (0.725). ICM-DNA seems not to improve significantly the PPV and NPV for detecting neoplasias of the biliary tract compared to CC. Nevertheless a clinical advantage can be seen in the agreement of the two methods in diagnosing dysplasia or cancer, since it did not show false positive results.

  8. Successful serial imaging of the mouse cerebral arteries using conventional 3-T magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Hokamura, Kazuya; Natsume, Takahiro; Kimura, Tetsuro; Kamio, Yoshinobu; Magata, Yasuhiro; Namba, Hiroki; Katoh, Takasumi; Sato, Shigehito; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Umemura, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Serial imaging studies can be useful in characterizing the pathologic and physiologic remodeling of cerebral arteries in various mouse models. We tested the feasibility of using a readily available, conventional 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to serially image cerebrovascular remodeling in mice. We utilized a mouse model of intracranial aneurysm as a mouse model of the dynamic, pathologic remodeling of cerebral arteries. Aneurysms were induced by hypertension and a single elastase injection into the cerebrospinal fluid. For the mouse cerebrovascular imaging, we used a conventional 3-T MRI system and a 40-mm saddle coil. We used non-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to detect intracranial aneurysm formation and T2-weighted imaging to detect aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A serial MRI was conducted every 2 to 3 days. MRI detection of aneurysm formation and subarachnoid hemorrhage was compared against the postmortem inspection of the brain that was perfused with dye. The imaging times for the MRA and T2-weighted imaging were 3.7±0.5 minutes and 4.8±0.0 minutes, respectively. All aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhages were correctly identified by two masked observers on MRI. This MRI-based serial imaging technique was useful in detecting intracranial aneurysm formation and subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice. PMID:25920958

  9. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI, CT and mCT to create advanced representation of animal anatomy, including bones, inner organs......Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows for fast non-invasive visualizations of animal anatomy in living animals. These modalities also...... and blood vessels in a variety of animals, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and spiders. The images have a similar quality to most traditional anatomical drawings and are presented together with interactive movies of the anatomical structures, where the object can be viewed from different...

  10. Modern magnetic resonance imaging of the liver; Modernes MR-Protokoll fuer die Leberbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedderich, D.M.; Maintz, D.; Persigehl, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Koeln (Germany); Weiss, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Koeln (Germany); Philips Healthcare Deutschland, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver has become an essential tool in the radiological diagnostics of both focal and diffuse diseases of the liver and is subject to constant change due to technological progress. Recently, important improvements could be achieved by innovations regarding MR hardware, sequences and postprocessing methods. The diagnostic spectrum of MRI could be broadened particularly due to new examination sequences, while at the same time scanning time could be shortened and image quality has been improved. The aim of this article is to explain both the technological background and the clinical application of recent MR sequence developments and to present the scope of a modern MRI protocol for the liver. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) der Leber ist in der radiologischen Diagnostik fokaler und diffuser Lebererkrankungen fest etabliert und untersteht einem steten Wandel durch den fortwaehrenden technischen Fortschritt. Durch Neuerungen bei der Hardware, den Sequenzen und der Bildnachverarbeitung konnten in den letzten Jahren deutliche Fortschritte erzielt werden. Insbesondere auf dem Gebiet der Untersuchungssequenzen kam es zu Entwicklungen, die das diagnostische Spektrum der MRT erweiterten, zu einer Verkuerzung der Scanzeit fuehrten und zu einer Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet beitrugen. Gegenstand dieses Artikels ist es, den technischen Hintergrund und die klinische Anwendung neuerer Sequenztechniken zu erklaeren und so die Moeglichkeiten und den Umfang eines modernen MRT-Untersuchungsprotokolls fuer die Leber darzustellen. (orig.)

  11. Mythical Images and Demystification: Salome in Hispanic Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Sánchez Martínez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article will focus on the analysis of the Salome myth in Hispanic Modernism through the poems of Francisco Villaespesa, Rubén Darío and Delmira Agustini. Thus, we will examine the transformation of this femme fatale, from the construction of this literary archetype to the final demystification in Agustini’s poetry. Following the intertextuality in this myth and the debts to literature and other arts of Fin de Siècle in Europe, we will study the causes and the determinant of the perverse images of Salome, both aesthetically and ideologically. Ultimately, despite all the changes and transformations, due to its essence of subversion, this myth is and always will be poetized and rewritten. In its different versions, the myth of Salome will always be an instrument which the fin-de- siècle artist use in order to produce an alternative to the utilitarian bourgeois society

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Of The Injury Treatment On Diabetes Based On The Leg Between Modern Treatment Method With Conventional Treatment Method Of Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Basri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyze cost effectiveness of the injury on diabetic leg based on the difference between modern treatment method and conventional method. The research was a quasi experimental study conducted in nurse independent practice and Tenriawaru hospital of bone. The sample was determined using purposive sampling method based on inclusive criteria. The data were obtained using instrument on the study of Bates-Jensen and record sheets of material cost of injury treatment. The difference of cost effectiveness between modern method and conventional method was examined using indenpendent t-tes with a confident level of 95. The results of indevendent t-tes indicate that there is a difference of cost effectiveness between modern treatment method and conventional method with a value of p 0001. Therefore health service institution need to develop treatment method of injury on diabetic leg using modern treatment method.

  13. Three dimensional reconstruction of conventional stereo optic disc image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, H J; Kim, S K; Seo, J M; Park, K H; Chung, H; Park, K S; Kim, H C

    2004-01-01

    Stereo disc photograph was analyzed and reconstructed as 3 dimensional contour image to evaluate the status of the optic nerve head for the early detection of glaucoma and the evaluation of the efficacy of treatment. Stepwise preprocessing was introduced to detect the edge of the optic nerve head and retinal vessels and reduce noises. Paired images were registered by power cepstrum method and zero-mean normalized cross-correlation. After Gaussian blurring, median filter application and disparity pair searching, depth information in the 3 dimensionally reconstructed image was calculated by the simple triangulation formula. Calculated depth maps were smoothed through cubic B-spline interpolation and retinal vessels were visualized more clearly by adding reference image. Resulted 3 dimensional contour image showed optic cups, retinal vessels and the notching of the neural rim of the optic disc clearly and intuitively, helping physicians in understanding and interpreting the stereo disc photograph.

  14. Comparison of conventional B-scan, tissue harmonic imaging, compound imaging and tissue harmonic compound imaging in neck lesion characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzato, Alessandro; Loika, Anne; Hornung, Joachim; Koch, Michael; Zenk, Johannes; Uter, Wolfgang; Iro, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, further technical developments of ultrasound scanning techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and compound imaging (CI), have become available and promise considerable improvement in image quality. No comparative assessments have yet been made of their systematic use in the head and neck. We studied 313 lesions of the head and neck detected on ultrasound scanning. Ultrasound images were obtained using a state-of-the-art scanning system. Two experts evaluated the images obtained for each lesion with conventional B-scan mode (BSCAN), THI, CI, and tissue harmonic compound imaging (THICI) with respect to four different aspects of image quality. Largely concordant results were found for each of the parameters studied: overall image quality, tissue contrast, lesion conspicuity, and internal structure. Evaluations of CI and THICI were frequently ranked higher (p Images obtained in BSCAN mode often had better scores than images in THI mode alone (p imaging methods improve image quality of the soft tissues of neck and may be included in the routine settings of ultrasound systems.

  15. A preliminary diffusional kurtosis imaging study of Parkinson disease: comparison with conventional diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamagata, Koji; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Yoshida, Mariko; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Taku; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Osamu [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Shimoji, Keigo [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a more sensitive technique than conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessing tissue microstructure. In particular, it quantifies the microstructural integrity of white matter, even in the presence of crossing fibers. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare how DKI and DTI show white matter alterations in Parkinson disease (PD). DKI scans were obtained with a 3-T magnetic resonance imager from 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy controls matched by age and sex. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to compare the mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps of the PD patient group and the control group. In addition, a region-of-interest analysis was performed for the area of the posterior corona radiata and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber crossing. FA values in the frontal white matter were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls. Reductions in MK occurred more extensively throughout the brain: in addition to frontal white matter, MK was lower in the parietal, occipital, and right temporal white matter. The MK value of the area of the posterior corona radiata and SLF fiber crossing was also lower in the PD group. DKI detects changes in the cerebral white matter of PD patients more sensitively than conventional DTI. In addition, DKI is useful for evaluating crossing fibers. By providing a sensitive index of brain pathology in PD, DKI may enable improved monitoring of disease progression. (orig.)

  16. Comprehensive Evaluation of Modern Enterprise Image with Theory of Fuzzy Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭德庆; 胡培

    2003-01-01

    The multi-layered indexes for modern enterprise images are summarized to overcome the shortness of single-layered ones in evaluating modern enterprise images. The relevant multi-layered evaluation model and algorithm are proposed. As an example, an electrical appliance enterprise in Qingdao city is evaluated with the proposed model and evaluation indexes to show the reasonability of the proposed indexes.

  17. Cerebellar disorders: clinical/radiologic findings and modern imaging tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; Habas, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar disorders, also called cerebellar ataxias, comprise a large group of sporadic and genetic diseases. Their core clinical features include impaired control of coordination and gait, as well as cognitive/behavioral deficits usually not detectable by a standard neurologic examination and therefore often overlooked. Two forms of cognitive/behavioral syndromes are now well identified: (1) the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, which combines an impairment of executive functions, including planning and working memory, deficits in visuospatial skills, linguistic deficiencies such as agrammatism, and inappropriate behavior; and (2) the posterior fossa syndrome, a very acute form of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome occurring essentially in children. Sporadic ataxias include stroke, toxic causes, immune ataxias, infectious/parainfectious ataxias, traumatic causes, neoplasias and paraneoplastic syndromes, endocrine disorders affecting the cerebellum, and the so-called "degenerative ataxias" (multiple system atrophy, and sporadic adult-onset ataxias). Genetic ataxias include mainly four groups of disorders: autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias, autosomal-dominant ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias and episodic ataxias), mitochondrial disorders, and X-linked ataxias. In addition to biochemical studies and genetic tests, brain imaging techniques are a cornerstone for the diagnosis, clinicoanatomic correlations, and follow-up of cerebellar ataxias. Modern radiologic tools to assess cerebellar ataxias include: functional imaging studies, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, volumetric studies, and tractography. These complementary methods provide a multimodal appreciation of the whole long-range cerebellar network functioning, and allow the extraction of potential biomarkers for prognosis and rating level of recovery after treatment. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis: roles of magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, conventional radiography and computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, Bo; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Efficient methods for diagnosis, monitoring and prognostication are essential in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While conventional X-rays only visualize the late signs of preceding disease activity, there is evidence for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography being highly sensitive...... for early inflammatory and destructive changes in RA joints, and for MRI findings being sensitive to change and of predictive value for future progressive X-ray damage. Reviewing the data on X-ray, computed tomography, MRI and ultrasonography in RA, this paper discusses current and future roles...... of these imaging modalities in the management of early RA. The main focus is on recent advances in MRI and ultrasonography. Suggestions on clinical use and research priorities are provided...

  19. Conventional and advanced MR imaging in infantile Refsum disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Mustafa; Karlı-Oğuz, Kader; Haliloğlu, Göknur; Topçu, Meral; Wanders, Ronald James; Coşkun, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    We report magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings including diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings in a patient with infantile Refsum disease. The initial diagnosis was made on the basis of history, clinical findings and biochemical studies. Bilateral and symmetrical involvement of the peritrigonal white matter, centrum semiovale, thalami, corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts as assessed by increased T2 signal was highly suggestive of a peroxisomal disorder. Facilitated diffusion was observed in diseased parenchyma. Long echo-time (TE: 270 ms) MRS showed decreased N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine and elevated choline/creatine and lactate; short echo-time MRS (TE: 30 ms) revealed increased myoinositol at 3.56 ppm and lipid peaks at 0.9 and 1.3 ppm. A major contribution to the differential diagnosis came from MR imaging and proton MRS, as discussed in this report.

  20. Fluorescence cell imaging and manipulation using conventional halogen lamp microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamagata

    Full Text Available Technologies for vitally labeling cells with fluorescent dyes have advanced remarkably. However, to excite fluorescent dyes currently requires powerful illumination, which can cause phototoxic damage to the cells and increases the cost of microscopy. We have developed a filter system to excite fluorescent dyes using a conventional transmission microscope equipped with a halogen lamp. This method allows us to observe previously invisible cell organelles, such as the metaphase spindle of oocytes, without causing phototoxicity. Cells remain healthy even after intensive manipulation under fluorescence observation, such as during bovine, porcine and mouse somatic cell cloning using nuclear transfer. This method does not require expensive epifluorescence equipment and so could help to reduce the science gap between developed and developing countries.

  1. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one's peers, the current study aimed to determine whether the relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction would be stronger for those exposed to social media images, compared to conventional media images. A sample of 193 female first year university students were randomly allocated to view a series of either Facebook or conventional media thin-ideal images. Participants completed questionnaires assessing pre- and post- image exposure measures of thin-ideal internalisation, appearance comparison, self-esteem, Facebook use and eating disorder risk. Type of exposure was not found to moderate the relationship between appearance comparison and changes in body image dissatisfaction. When analysed according to exposure type, appearance comparison only significantly predicted body image dissatisfaction change for those exposed to Facebook, but not conventional media. Facebook use was found to predict higher baseline body image dissatisfaction and was associated with higher eating disorder risk. The findings suggest the importance of extending the body image dissatisfaction literature by taking into account emerging social media formats. It is recommended that interventions for body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders consider appearance comparison processes elicited by thin-ideal content on social media forums, such as Facebook, in addition to conventional media.

  2. Staging N0 Oral Cancer: Lymphoscintigraphy and Conventional Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, J.B.; Soerensen, J.A.; Grupe, P.; Karstoft, J.; Krogdahl, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, and Pathology

    2005-08-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1 and 16 T2 cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Palpation was carried out by two observers prior to inclusion. MRI, gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Lymphoscintigraphies were done after peritumoral injections of 99mTc labelled rheniumsulphide nanocolloid, followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy guided by a gamma probe and Patent Blue. Palpation, Doppler ultrasonography, MRI, and sentinel lymph node biopsy were compared to a combination of histopathology and follow-up. Diagnostic testing was performed using the x2 test. RESULTS: Histopathological examination revealed metastatic spread to the neck in 14 of 40 patients. One patient had bilateral neck disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography were performed in 80 neck sides of 40 patients and MRI in 70 neck sides (5 patients were claustrophobic). SN revealed suspicious lymph nodes in 12 necks, ultrasonography in 23 necks, and MRI in 9 necks. The positive predictive value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was 100%, ultrasonography 57%, and MRI 56%. The respective negative predictive values were 96%, 96%, and 85%. The sensitivity of sentinel lymph node biopsy 80% was comparable to ultrasonography 87%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and Doppler ultrasonography may further improve staging. MRI and simple palpation results were poor.

  3. Image quality assessment in panoramic dental radiography: a comparative study between conventional and digital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Tiau, Yu Jin

    2013-02-01

    This study is designed to compare and evaluate the diagnostic image quality of dental panoramic radiography between conventional and digital systems. Fifty-four panoramic images were collected and divided into three groups consisting of conventional, digital with and without post processing image. Each image was printed out and scored subjectively by two experienced dentists who were blinded to the exposure parameters and system protocols. The evaluation covers of anatomical coverage and structures, density and image contrast. The overall image quality score revealed that digital panoramic with post-processing scored the highest of 3.45±0.19, followed by digital panoramic system without post-processing and conventional panoramic system with corresponding scores of 3.33±0.33 and 2.06±0.40. In conclusion, images produced by digital panoramic system are better in diagnostic image quality than that from conventional panoramic system. Digital post-processing visualization can improve diagnostic quality significantly in terms of radiographic density and contrast.

  4. Comparison of radiographic measurements obtained with conventional an indirect digital imaging during endontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Buloto Schmitd

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of indirect digitized radiographic images taken during endodontic procedures and to compare the measurements recorded with this technique to those obtained from conventional radiographs. Two-hundred conventional periapical radiographs taken at the undergraduate Endodontics Clinic of the Dental School of Bauru were digitized. The conventional and indirect digitized images were compared by three examiners as to the quality and accuracy of the measurements recorded during endodontic treatment, in canal length determination, gutta-percha adaptation, lateral condensation and final obturation. The conventional radiographs were observed on a film viewer, surrounded by a dark card, and measured with magnifying glass and a millimeter ruler; the indirect digitized images were evaluated on the Digora® for Windows software, with free utilization of the bright/contrast tool. Unlike the conventional radiographic images, all indirect digitized images were considered as having a high quality. The distance between the filling material and the root apex was 0.117 mm larger, on average, for the Digora® system (p<0.01. The measurements achieved by the investigated radiographic methods were clinically similar and they are thus equivalent. Changes in brightness and contrast of the images using Digora®software improved the diagnosis.

  5. COMPARISON OF RADIOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED WITH CONVENTIONAL AND INDIRECT DIGITAL IMAGING DURING ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitd, Ligia Buloto; Lima, Tatiana de Castro; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of indirect digitized radiographic images taken during endodontic procedures and to compare the measurements recorded with this technique to those obtained from conventional radiographs. Two-hundred conventional periapical radiographs taken at the undergraduate Endodontics Clinic of the Dental School of Bauru were digitized. The conventional and indirect digitized images were compared by three examiners as to the quality and accuracy of the measurements recorded during endodontic treatment, in canal length determination, gutta-percha adaptation, lateral condensation and final obturation. The conventional radiographs were observed on a film viewer, surrounded by a dark card, and measured with magnifying glass and a millimeter ruler; the indirect digitized images were evaluated on the Digora® for Windows software, with free utilization of the bright/contrast tool. Unlike the conventional radiographic images, all indirect digitized images were considered as having a high quality. The distance between the filling material and the root apex was 0.117 mm larger, on average, for the Digora® system (p<0.01). The measurements achieved by the investigated radiographic methods were clinically similar and they are thus equivalent. Changes in brightness and contrast of the images using Digora® software improved the diagnosis. PMID:19089211

  6. The image of the physicist in modern drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, W.

    1988-07-01

    While the role of the scientist in society has been a subject for playwrights from the time of the Renaissance onwards, quite a number of post-World War II plays have focused on the role physics and physicists play in modern society. In this article, the plays of Bertold Brecht, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, William Golding, and Heinar Kipphardt are reviewed, which focus especially on the difficult choices faced by physicists in the modern world in which the consequences of physics-based technology are immense, if not overwhelming. These plays also provide an attractive context for discussion on science and social responsibility.

  7. Current imaging of nasal sinuses; Moderne Bildgebung der Nasennebenhoehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie der Kliniken fuer Radiologie, Homburg (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Depending on the problems, CT or MRI should be used in the differential diagnosis of conditions affecting the nasal sinuses. In particular, when chronic sinusitis is present, computed tomography should be performed before surgery to ascertain the condition of the bones. In most cases spiral CT with a decidedly lowered tube voltage and power (MAS product) is now used for this purpose. This means that the patient is exposed to about 70% less radiation than in other CT investigations. To avoid artefacts attributable to dental fillings, whenever possible the spiral should be tilted in such a way that the dental artefacts are not within the mass imaged. When an isotropic voxel is selected secondary reformatting is possible with no loss of quality. Diagnostic MRI should include both T1- and T2-weighted sequences before and after the administration of contrast agent. For the differential diagnosis of a space-occupying tumour coronal cuts about 2 mm apart are advised, whether the spiral or the conventional technique is used. A T2-weighted and fat-suppressed sequence or a STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequence can also be helpful in the recognition and visualization of lymph nodes. If orbital involvement seems possible it is advisable to use a T1-weighted and fat-suppressed sequence in the coronal plane in addition to check this. (orig.) [German] Bei der differenzialdiagnostischen Evaluierung der Nasennebenhoehlen sollte je nach Fragestellung neben der klinischen Evaluierung die Computertomographie (CT) oder Magnetresonanztomographie eingesetzt werden. Dabei sollte zur Abklaerung einer chronischen Sinusitis praeoperativ zur Erhebung der knoechernen Situation auf die Computertomographie zurueckgegriffen werden. Heutzutage wird man hier zumeist eine Spiral-CT mit deutlich reduzierte Roehrenspannung und Strom (MAS-Produkt) zurueckgreifen. So koennen bis zu 70% Strahlung gespart werden. Um Artefakte durch Zahnfuellungen zu vermeiden sollte die Spirale, wenn moeglich, so

  8. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one’s peers, the current study aimed to determine wheth...

  9. In vivo sectional imaging of the retinal periphery using conventional optical coherence tomography systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kothari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT has transformed macular disease practices. This report describes the use of conventional OCT systems for peripheral retinal imaging. Thirty-six eyes with peripheral retinal pathology underwent imaging with conventional OCT systems. In vivo sectional imaging of lattice degeneration, snail-track degeneration, and paving-stone degeneration was performed. Differences were noted between phenotypes of lattice degeneration. Several findings previously unreported in histopathology studies were encountered. Certain anatomic features were seen that could conceivably explain clinical and intraoperative behavior of peripheral lesions. Peripheral OCT imaging helped elucidate clinically ambiguous situations such as retinal breaks, subclinical retinal detachment, retinoschisis, choroidal nevus, and metastasis. Limitations of such scanning included end-gaze nystagmus and far peripheral lesions. This first of its kind study demonstrates the feasibility of peripheral retinal OCT imaging and expands the spectrum of indications for which OCT scanning may be clinically useful.

  10. [Role of modern cross-sectional imaging in thanatology: a pictorial essay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedouit, F; Otal, P; Costagliola, R; Loubes Lacroix, F; Telmon, N; Rouge, D; Joffre, F

    2006-06-01

    The development of new imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is a new phenomenon in thanatology. The growing accessibility to these technologies allows, under some conditions, the acquisition of cross-sectional images on cadavers. The authors present a practical pictorial review of post-mortem changes and deadly injuries, illustrating the contributions of modern cross-sectional imaging techniques in thanatology.

  11. Modern dental imaging: a review of the current technology and clinical applications in dental practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberghe, Bart; Jacobs, Reinhilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Radiology Section, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    A review of modern imaging techniques commonly used in dental practice and their clinical applications is presented. The current dental examinations consist of intraoral imaging with digital indirect and direct receptors, while extraoral imaging is divided into traditional tomographic/panoramic imaging and the more recently introduced cone beam computed tomography. Applications, limitations and current trends of these dental ''in-office'' radiographic techniques are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Modern emergent stroke imaging: pearls, protocols, and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mark E

    2006-01-01

    Stroke remains one of the most important clinical diagnoses for which patients are referred to the radiologist for emergent imaging. Timely and accurate imaging guides admission from the emergency department or transfer to a hospital with a dedicated stroke service, triage to the intensive care unit, anticoagulation, thrombolysis, and many other forms of treatment and management. It is important to approach each patient's imaging needs logically and tailor each work-up, and constantly to review the entire process for potential improvements. Time saved in getting an accurate diagnosis of stroke may indeed decrease morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the current management of stroke imaging and reviews the relevant literature.

  13. Image Semantic Retrieval Challenges and Thesauri Modern Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz sadoughi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, images are used in almost every career, and a different range of professional groups use images in their work. They have always been used as a means to convey information. Images are very often used either alone or in compound with text, as they are able to conveying information difficult to depict in words. However, image retrieval based on syntactic features alone does not provide support for various types of queries. There is a mismatch between what the current solutions for this are able to providing, and what we demand from an image retrieval system. This gap between what is possible and what we require, by many authors has been named the "Semantic gap". The focus of this paper was how to obtain successful semantic image retrieval from large image collections. The research investigated some of the difficulties of getting correlate results when searching in image collections. A new tool, the shape thesaurus, was suggested as a step into improving image retrieval. The principal motivation behind this suggestion has been to assess the possibilities of narrowing the Semantic gap.

  14. Characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses: comparison of conventional US and tissue harmonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Seong Ho; Han, Boo-Kyung; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Jeong Mi; Im, Jung-Gi

    2007-01-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of radiologists by using conventional ultrasonography (US) and tissue harmonic imaging for the differentiation of benign from malignant solid breast masses, with histologic results used as the reference standard. The study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Images were obtained with conventional US and tissue harmonic imaging in 88 patients (age range, 25-67 years; mean age, 45 years) with 91 solid breast masses (30 cancers and 61 benign lesions) before excisional or needle biopsy. Three experienced radiologists, who did not perform the examinations, independently analyzed the US findings and provided a level of suspicion to indicate the probability of malignancy. Results were evaluated by using kappa statistics and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Regarding the descriptions of US findings, echogenicity (kappa=0.205) was the most discordant between conventional US and tissue harmonic imaging, followed by margin (kappa=0.495), lesion boundary (kappa=0.495), calcifications (kappa=0.537), posterior acoustic transmission (kappa=0.546), echotexture (kappa=0.586), shape (kappa=0.591), and orientation (kappa=0.594). The area under the ROC curve (Az) for conventional US and tissue harmonic imaging was 0.84 and 0.79, respectively, for reader 1; 0.88 and 0.85, respectively, for reader 2; and 0.91 and 0.89, respectively, for reader 3. The overall Az value for the three readers was 0.88 for conventional US and 0.84 for tissue harmonic imaging (95% confidence interval: -0.0950, 0.1646; P=.595). The performance of the radiologists with respect to the characterization of solid breast masses as benign or malignant was not significantly improved with tissue harmonic imaging. Copyright (c) RSNA, 2006.

  15. Radiopacity of restorative composites by conventional radiography and digital images with different resolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Raquel Venancio; Samento, Hugo Ramalho [Graduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas (Brazil); Duarte, Rosangela Marques; Raso, Sonia Saeger Meireles Monte; De Andrade Ana Karina Maciel; Anjos-Pontual Maria Luiza Dos [Dept. of Operative Dentistry, Federal University of Paraiba, Pelotas (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the radiopacity of dentin, enamel, and 8 restorative composites on conventional radiograph and digital images with different resolutions. Specimens were fabricated from 8 materials and human molars were longitudinally sectioned 1.0 mm thick to include both enamel and dentin. The specimens and tooth sections were imaged by conventional radiograph using 4 sized intraoral film and digital images were taken in high speed and high resolution modes using a phosphor storage plate. Densitometric evaluation of the enamel, dentin, restorative materials, a lead sheet, and an aluminum step wedge was performed on the radiographic images. For the evaluation, the Al equivalent (mm) for each material was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05), considering the material factor and then the radiographic method factor, individually. The high speed mode allowed the highest radiopacity, while the high resolution mode generated the lowest values. Furthermore, the high resolution mode was the most efficient method for radiographic differentiation between restorative composites and dentin. The conventional radiograph was the most effective in enabling differentiation between enamel and composites. The high speed mode was the least effective in enabling radiographic differentiation between the dental tissues and restorative composites. The high speed mode of digital imaging was not effective for differentiation between enamel and composites. This made it less effective than the high resolution mode and conventional radiographs. All of the composites evaluated showed radiopacity values that fit the ISO 4049 recommendations.

  16. The potential capacities of Ta'ziyeh in Modern Imagism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Nedai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ta'ziyeh as the most important method in religious and ritual theatre in Iran has many capabilities which can be used in modern visualization. The only element in this theatre which has been studied is distancing in performance styles. But by studying the existent versions of Ta'ziyehs, there are other elements for recognition and use, which has not still been studied. The relationship between religious and ritual theatre with Ta'ziyeh and also their main themes helps to identify these elements and their capabilities. Meanwhile, the presence of music as an expressive and performing element provides a basis which can be used in finding a new manner of expression in visual/dramatic works (such as music videos. Studying on such elements as time-place interlace, character replacement, functions of music, and their effects on audiences, shows that Ta'ziyeh has specific capabilities in visualization (even in Cinema and Media. This article, through capitalizing on this subject and introducing one paradigm (Moses and poor Pilgrim, and comparing two versions of it, tries to represent these capabilities, and illuminates Ta'ziyeh's abilities for modern (and even postmodern visualization.

  17. Direct imaging of phase objects enables conventional deconvolution in bright field light microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Noemí Hernández Candia

    Full Text Available In transmitted optical microscopy, absorption structure and phase structure of the specimen determine the three-dimensional intensity distribution of the image. The elementary impulse responses of the bright field microscope therefore consist of separate absorptive and phase components, precluding general application of linear, conventional deconvolution processing methods to improve image contrast and resolution. However, conventional deconvolution can be applied in the case of pure phase (or pure absorptive objects if the corresponding phase (or absorptive impulse responses of the microscope are known. In this work, we present direct measurements of the phase point- and line-spread functions of a high-aperture microscope operating in transmitted bright field. Polystyrene nanoparticles and microtubules (biological polymer filaments serve as the pure phase point and line objects, respectively, that are imaged with high contrast and low noise using standard microscopy plus digital image processing. Our experimental results agree with a proposed model for the response functions, and confirm previous theoretical predictions. Finally, we use the measured phase point-spread function to apply conventional deconvolution on the bright field images of living, unstained bacteria, resulting in improved definition of cell boundaries and sub-cellular features. These developments demonstrate practical application of standard restoration methods to improve imaging of phase objects such as cells in transmitted light microscopy.

  18. Better visualization of vermiform appendix with tissue harmonic imaging compared to conventional sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Mikail; Unal, Birsen; Bilgili, Yasemin Karadeniz

    2014-12-01

    Surgery of appendicitis carries 7-11% negative appendectomy rates. Sonographically visualized normal appendix precludes unnecessary computed tomography (CT) examination and may reduce negative appendectomy rates. Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) has been reported to improve the overall image quality. We aimed to assess whether THI is more successful than conventional ultrasonography (US) in detecting normal and pathologic appendices. The study was performed on 185 patients who applied for routine US examinations in whom clinical findings of appendicitis were detected in 25. We searched for the appendix; applying both THI and conventional US to each patient, one before and the other after the routine US examinations. Patients were divided into two groups; one was evaluated first with conventional US and the other first with THI. When the appendix was found, localization, diameter and time spent for visualization were recorded. Twelve patients were operated; all of whom had appendicitis pathologically. Two methods were compared for: 1. Success rates in all patients; female, male and child groups separately; 2. Visualization of pathologic and normal appendices; 3. Time for visualization of appendix; 4. Comparison of success rates in the adult and child population. The relationship between the rate of visualization and body mass index was evaluated. The appendix was visualized better by THI in all patients, and in the female and male groups (P imaging). THI visualizes appendix better than conventional US. It is a simple and time saving method that may eliminate further diagnostic imaging, and it may decrease negative appendectomy rates and related complications.

  19. Evolution of unilateral perinatal arterial ischemic stroke on conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dudink (Jeroen); E. Mercuri; L. Al-Nakib; P. Govaert (Paul); S.J. Counsell (Serena); M.A. Rutherford; F.M. Cowan

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Knowledge of the sequence of signal-intensity (SI) changes on conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) following perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) is limited, adding to the difficulty in timing the onset of PAIS. We hypothesized that SI changes

  20. Overlay of conventional angiographic and en-face OCT images enhances their interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pool Chris W

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combining characteristic morphological and functional information in one image increases pathophysiologic understanding as well as diagnostic accuracy in most clinical settings. En-face optical coherence tomography (OCT provides a high resolution, transversal OCT image of the macular area combined with a confocal image of the same area (OCT C-scans. Creating an overlay image of a conventional angiographic image onto an OCT image, using the confocal part to facilitate transformation, combines structural and functional information of the retinal area of interest. This paper describes the construction of such overlay images and their aid in improving the interpretation of OCT C-scans. Methods In various patients, en-face OCT C-scans (made with a prototype OCT-Ophthalmoscope (OTI, Canada in use at the Department of Ophthalmology (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and conventional fluorescein angiography (FA were performed. ImagePro, with a custom made plug-in, was used to make an overlay-image. The confocal part of the OCT C-scan was used to spatially transform the FA image onto the OCT C-scan, using the vascular arcades as a reference. To facilitate visualization the transformed angiographic image and the OCT C-scan were combined in an RGB image. Results The confocal part of the OCT C-scan could easily be fused with angiographic images. Overlay showed a direct correspondence between retinal thickening and FA leakage in Birdshot retinochoroiditis, localized the subretinal neovascular membrane and correlated anatomic and vascular leakage features in myopia, and showed the extent of retinal and pigment epithelial detachment in retinal angiomatous proliferation as FA leakage was subject to blocked fluorescence. The overlay mode provided additional insight not readily available in either mode alone. Conclusion Combining conventional angiographic images and en-face OCT C-scans assists in the interpretation of both

  1. Source effects in analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M. G. [Universidade Federal da Integracao Latino-Americana, 85867-970 Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Manica, J. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, 85867-970 Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Mazzaro, I.; Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Huang, X.-R. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Several recent papers have shown the implementation of analyzer based X-ray phase contrast imaging (ABI) with conventional X-ray sources. The high flux is always a requirement to make the technique useful for bio-medical applications. Here, we present and discuss three important parameters, which need to be taken into account, when searching for the high flux ABI: anisotropic magnification, double image, and source size spread due to intrinsic dispersive diffraction by asymmetrically cut crystals. These parameters, if not well optimized, may cause important features in the acquired images which can mislead the interpretation. A few ways to minimize these effects are implemented and discussed, including some experimental results.

  2. Computed and conventional chest radiography: a comparison of image quality and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, K; Abdullah, B J J; Ng, K-H; Mahmud, R; Hussain, A F

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the image quality and entrance skin dose (ESD) for film-screen and computed chest radiography. Analysis of the image quality and dose on chest radiography was carried out on a conventional X-ray unit using film-screen, storage phosphor plates and selenium drum direct chest radiography. For each receptor, ESD was measured in 60 patients using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Images were printed on 35 x 43 cm films. Image quality was assessed subjectively by evaluation of anatomic features and estimation of the image quality, following the guidelines established by the protocols of the Commission of the European Communities. There was no statistically significant difference noted between the computed and conventional images (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P > 0.05). Imaging of the mediastinum and peripheral lung structures were better visualized with the storage phosphor and selenium drum technique than with the film-screen combination. The patients' mean ESD for chest radiography using the storage phosphor, film-screen combination and selenium drum was 0.20, 0.20 and 0.25 mGy, respectively, with no statistically significant difference with P > 0.05 (chi(2) tests).

  3. Terahertz spectroscopy and imagingModern techniques and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Cooke, David; Koch, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades a new spectroscopic technique with unique possibilities has emerged. Based on coherent and time-resolved detection of the electric field of ultrashort radiation bursts in the far-infrared, this technique has become known as terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS)....... of research, where THz spectroscopic techniques have proven to be useful research tools, and the potential for industrial applications of THz spectroscopic and imaging techniques are discussed....

  4. Modernism as a Misnomer: Godard's Archeology of the Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rockhill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "The standard historical image of Jean-Luc Godard is that of a resolute iconoclast breaking with the representational norms and codes of classical cinema in the name of liberating film from the deadening weight of its past. His numerous formal innovations—syncopated montage, unconventional framing, unique experiments with dialogue, etc.—along with his abandonment of traditional narrative and character development, his playful pastiche of genres, his debunking of the representational illusions of cinematic realism, his reflexive preoccupation with film itself and the general dissolution of the distinction between high and low art have created a potent new form of cinema that continues to have far-reaching effects. More experimental than Truffaut, more temerarious than Chabrol, but less fastidious than Resnais, less obtuse and prolix than Rivette, Godard is seen as the bumptious enfant terrible of the Cahiers du cinéma who set the agenda for a new era of modernist filmmaking..."

  5. Imaging of inflammation by PET, conventional scintigraphy, and other imaging techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotthardt, M.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Boerman, O.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures play an important role in the assessment of inflammatory diseases. With the advent of 3-dimensional anatomic imaging, there has been a tendency to replace traditional planar scintigraphy by CT or MRI. Furthermore, scintigraphic techniques may have to be combined

  6. Imaging of Inflammation by PET, Conventional Scintigraphy, and Other Imaging Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotthardt, M.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Boerman, O.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures play an important role in the assessment of inflammatory diseases. With the advent of 3-dimensional anatomic imaging, there has been a tendency to replace traditional planar scintigraphy by CT or MRI. Furthermore, scintigraphic techniques may have to be combined

  7. Imaging of Inflammation by PET, Conventional Scintigraphy, and Other Imaging Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotthardt, M.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Boerman, O.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures play an important role in the assessment of inflammatory diseases. With the advent of 3-dimensional anatomic imaging, there has been a tendency to replace traditional planar scintigraphy by CT or MRI. Furthermore, scintigraphic techniques may have to be combined w

  8. Four-dimensional (4D) image reconstruction strategies in dynamic PET: beyond conventional independent frame reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmim, Arman; Tang, Jing; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-08-01

    In this article, the authors review novel techniques in the emerging field of spatiotemporal four-dimensional (4D) positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. The conventional approach to dynamic PET imaging, involving independent reconstruction of individual PET frames, can suffer from limited temporal resolution, high noise (especially when higher frame sampling is introduced to better capture fast dynamics), as well as complex reconstructed image noise distributions that can be very difficult and time consuming to model in kinetic parameter estimation tasks. Various approaches that seek to address some or all of these limitations are described, including techniques that utilize (a) iterative temporal smoothing, (b) advanced temporal basis functions, (c) principal components transformation of the dynamic data, (d) wavelet-based techniques, as well as (e) direct kinetic parameter estimation methods. Future opportunities and challenges with regards to the adoption of 4D and higher dimensional image reconstruction techniques are also outlined.

  9. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... with cross-validated R2=0.890 for fat content and R2=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples....

  10. The 2nd CAAP Convention & International Symposium on Modern and Contemporary English Literatures (June 8 -9, 2013 )%The 2nd CAAP Convention & International Symposium on Modern and Contemporary English Literatures (June 8 -9, 2013 )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to further promote literary scholarship and international academic exchange, the University of Pennsylvania-based Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics (CAAP) will collaborate with the School of Foreign Languages and School of Humanities of Central China Normal University, Foreign Literature Studies, and Forum for World Literature Studies in hosting "The 2nd CAAP Convention and International Symposium on Literatures in English" (June 8 -9, 2013) in Wuhan, China. Scholars and writers all over the world are welcome.

  11. Coarctation of the aorta: comparison of aortic dimensions between conventional MR imaging, 3D MR angiography, and conventional angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godart, Francois; Rey, Christian [Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Cardiac Hospital, University of Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Labrot, Gabrielle; McFadden, Eugene; Beregi, Jean-Paul [Department of Radiology, Cardiac Hospital, University of Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Devos, Patrick [CERIM-Department of Biostatistics, University of Lille, 59037 Lille (France)

    2002-08-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography is increasingly used as a non-invasive method in the evaluation of coarctation of the aorta. The aim of this study was to compare aortic dimensions calculated by MR angiography and those obtained by more conventional MR sequences and conventional angiography. Twenty-six consecutive patients with coarctation underwent three-dimensional MR angiography. Two independent observers retrospectively evaluated three aortic segments, site of coarctation, presence of aneurysm and existence of collateral circulation. Three aortic segments were also compared with those obtained on classical MR sequences and conventional angiography. The MR angiography was successfully performed in all showing 1 aneurysm and collateral circulation in 8 patients. Almost perfect intraobserver (r{sup 2}>0.91) and excellent interobserver (r{sup 2}>0.80) reliabilities were obtained for each aortic segment no matter which MR sequence was employed. Similarly, mainly excellent (r{sup 2}>0.80) concordance analysis was observed between MR angiography measurements and those calculated by either spin-echo/gradient-echo sequences or conventional angiography. This study demonstrates that MR angiography is a fast, accurate and reproducible method in the evaluation of coarctation of the aorta. It provides excellent anatomic information and reliably detects collateral vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography could probably replace the conventional angiography and will provide an additional diagnostic value in combination with turbo spin-echo sequence. (orig.)

  12. Better Visualization of Vermiform Appendix With Tissue Harmonic Imaging Compared to Conventional Sonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Mikail; Unal, Birsen; Bilgili, Yasemin Karadeniz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgery of appendicitis carries 7-11% negative appendectomy rates. Sonographically visualized normal appendix precludes unnecessary computed tomography (CT) examination and may reduce negative appendectomy rates. Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) has been reported to improve the overall image quality. Objective: We aimed to assess whether THI is more successful than conventional ultrasonography (US) in detecting normal and pathologic appendices. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on 185 patients who applied for routine US examinations in whom clinical findings of appendicitis were detected in 25. We searched for the appendix; applying both THI and conventional US to each patient, one before and the other after the routine US examinations. Patients were divided into two groups; one was evaluated first with conventional US and the other first with THI. When the appendix was found, localization, diameter and time spent for visualization were recorded. Twelve patients were operated; all of whom had appendicitis pathologically. Two methods were compared for: 1. Success rates in all patients; female, male and child groups separately; 2. Visualization of pathologic and normal appendices; 3. Time for visualization of appendix; 4. Comparison of success rates in the adult and child population. The relationship between the rate of visualization and body mass index was evaluated. Results: The appendix was visualized better by THI in all patients, and in the female and male groups (P < 0.001). In children, both methods were more successful compared to adults (P < 0.001, compared to male group, P < 0.001, compared to female group), with no difference between the methods (P = 0.22). When only the normal appendices were concerned, there was significant difference between both methods (P < 0.000). Both methods detected pathologic appendices better than normal ones, with a higher ratio for THI (P = 0.022 for the THI group, and χ2 = 7.22, P = 0.07 for the

  13. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia]. E-mail: mvmfonte@uol.com.br; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Reed, Umbertina Conti [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Rosemberg, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Patologia

    2008-11-15

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  14. OPUS: optoacoustic imaging combined with conventional ultrasound for breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, C.; Zell, K.; Sperl, J. I.; Ketzer, S.; Vogel, M. W.; Menzenbach, P.; Niessner, R.

    2007-07-01

    Besides x-ray imaging, sonography is the most common method for breast cancer screening. The intention of our work is to develop optoacoustical imaging as an add-on to a conventional system. While ultrasound imaging reveals acoustical properties of tissue, optoacoustics generates an image of the distribution of optical absorption. Hence, it can be a valuable addition to sonography, because acoustical properties of different tissues show only a slight variation whereas the optical properties may differ strongly. Additionally, optoacoustics gives access to physiological parameters, like oxygen saturation of blood. For the presented work, we combine a conventional ultrasound system to a 100 Hz laser. The laser system consists of a Nd:YAG-laser at a wavelength of 532 nm with 7 ns pulse duration, coupled to a tunable Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) with a tuning rage from 680 nm to 2500 nm. The tunable laser source allows the selection of wavelengths which compromising high spectral information content with high skin transmission. The laser pulse is delivered fiber-optically to the ultrasound transducer and coupled into the acoustical field of view. Homogeneous illumination is crucial in order to achieve unblurred images. Furthermore the maximum allowed pulse intensities in accordance with standards for medical equipment have to be met to achieve a high signal to noise ration. The ultrasound instrument generates the trigger signal which controls the laser pulsing in order to apply ultrasound instrument's imaging procedures without major modifications to generate an optoacoustic image. Detection of the optoacoustic signal as well as of the classical ultrasound signal is carried out by the standard medical ultrasound transducer. The characterization of the system, including quantitative measurements, performed on tissue phantoms, is presented. These phantoms have been specially designed regarding their acoustical as well as their optical properties.

  15. Modern imaging of the infarct core and the ischemic penumbra in acute stroke patients: CT versus MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, Carlos J; Fiebach, Jochen B; Wintermark, Max

    2009-04-01

    Thrombolysis has become an approved therapy for acute stroke. However, many stroke patients do not benefit from such treatment, since the presently used criteria are very restrictive, notably with respect to the accepted time window. Even so, a significant rate of intracranial hemorrhage still occurs. Conventional cerebral computed tomography (CT) without contrast has been proposed as a selection tool for acute stroke patients. However, more-modern MRI and CT techniques, referred to as diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-CT, have been introduced, which afford a comprehensive noninvasive survey of acute stroke patients as soon as their emergency admission, with accurate demonstration of the site of arterial occlusion and its hemodynamic and pathophysiological repercussions for the brain parenchyma. The objective of this article is to present the advantages and drawbacks of CT and MRI in the evaluation of acute stroke patients.

  16. Expanded image database of pistachio x-ray images and classification by conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Pamela M.; Schatzki, Thomas F.; Le, Lan Chau; Casasent, David P.; Weber, David

    1996-12-01

    In order to develop sorting methods for insect damaged pistachio nuts, a large data set of pistachio x-ray images (6,759 nuts) was created. Both film and linescan sensor images were acquired, nuts dissected and internal conditions coded using the U.S. Grade standards and definitions for pistachios. A subset of 1199 good and 686 insect damaged nuts was used to calculate and test discriminant functions. Statistical parameters of image histograms were evaluated for inclusion by forward stepwise discrimination. Using three variables in the discriminant function, 89% of test set nuts were correctly identified. Comparable data for 6 human subjects ranged from 67 to 92%. If the loss of good nuts is held to 1% by requiring a high probability to discard a nut as insect damaged, approximately half of the insect damage present in clean pistachio nuts may be detected and removed by x-ray inspection.

  17. Improving resolution and depth of astronomical observations via modern mathematical methods for image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Pilo, Stefano; Falcone, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  18. Variability of Image Features Computed from Conventional and Respiratory-Gated PET/CT Images of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine A. Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiomics is being explored for potential applications in radiation therapy. How various imaging protocols affect quantitative image features is currently a highly active area of research. To assess the variability of image features derived from conventional [three-dimensional (3D] and respiratory-gated (RG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT images of lung cancer patients, image features were computed from 23 lung cancer patients. Both protocols for each patient were acquired during the same imaging session. PET tumor volumes were segmented using an adaptive technique which accounted for background. CT tumor volumes were delineated with a commercial segmentation tool. Using RG PET images, the tumor center of mass motion, length, and rotation were calculated. Fifty-six image features were extracted from all images consisting of shape descriptors, first-order features, and second-order texture features. Overall, 26.6% and 26.2% of total features demonstrated less than 5% difference between 3D and RG protocols for CT and PET, respectively. Between 10 RG phases in PET, 53.4% of features demonstrated percent differences less than 5%. The features with least variability for PET were sphericity, spherical disproportion, entropy (first and second order, sum entropy, information measure of correlation 2, Short Run Emphasis (SRE, Long Run Emphasis (LRE, and Run Percentage (RPC; and those for CT were minimum intensity, mean intensity, Root Mean Square (RMS, Short Run Emphasis (SRE, and RPC. Quantitative analysis using a 3D acquisition versus RG acquisition (to reduce the effects of motion provided notably different image feature values. This study suggests that the variability between 3D and RG features is mainly due to the impact of respiratory motion.

  19. NI-82DIFFUSION AND CONVENTIONAL MR IMAGING GENOMIC BIOMARKER SIGNATURE FOR EGFR MUTATION IDENTIFICATION IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassal, Eslam; Zinn, Pascal; Colen, Rivka

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To create a diffusion and conventional MR imaging biomarker signature in order to identify those Glioblastoma (GBM) patients with EGFR mutation status. EGFR is the cell-surface receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family(EGF-family)of extracellular protein ligands,a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases. EGFR gene expression is present in 40% of GBM patients.Identification of EGFR as an oncogene has led to the development of anticancer therapeutics directed against EGFR.Thus,a non-invasive imaging surrogate that predicts EGFR mutation status will help stratify patients into therapy and clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 80 treatment-naïve patients from TCGA who had both gene and microRNA expression profiles including the EGFR mutation status and pretreatment MRI from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). Qualitative VASARI imaging features for these 80 patients were assessed by 3 independent neuroradiologists and consensus was reached. Quantitative volumetric analysis was done in the 3D Slicer software 3.6 using segmentation module.Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR)was used for segmentation of the edema and post-contrast T1 weighted imaging(T1W1)for segmentation of enhancement and necrosis.Diffusion was analyzed in Olea Sphere 2.3 and Conventional FLAIR/post- contrast T1WI was registered to DWI/ADC maps. ADC, FLAIR, T1 Gadolinium enhancement values were measured using the ROI based method, in the perilesional edema/non-enhancing tumor and the enhancing tumor zones, dividing the perilesional edema/non-enhancing tumor into 3 zones each of 1 cm width, 3 ROI measurements were taken from each zone. Each quantitative feature was correlated to EGFR mutation status to create the imaging biomarker signature predictive of EGFR mutation status. Survival analysis was done in all cases. RESULTS: A diffusion and conventional MR imaging biomarker signature was created that predicted EGFR mutation status. CONCLUSIONS: EGFR

  20. Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

  1. Green Building between Tradition and Modernity Study Comparative Analysis between Conventional Methods and Updated Styles of Design and Architecture Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Elshimy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green house   concept appeared from the ancient to the modern age ages and there is a tendency to use a traditional architecture with a pristine ecological environment areas and through sophisticated systems arrived to modern systems of the upgraded systems by Treatment architectural achieve environmental   sustainability   in   recent   years,   sustainability concept has become the common interest of numerous disciplines. The reason for this popularity is to perform the sustainable development. The Concept of Green Architecture, also known as "sustainable architecture” or “green house,” is the theory, science and style of buildings designed and constructed in accordance   with environmentally   friendly   principles.   Green house strives to minimize the number of resources consumed in the   building's  construction,   use   and   operation,   as  well  as curtailing  the  harm  done  to  the  environment  through  the emission, pollution and waste of its components.To design, construct, operate and maintain buildings energy, water and new materials are utilized as well as amounts of waste causing negative effects to health and environment is generated. In order to limit these effects and design environmentally sound and resource efficient buildings; "green building systems" must be introduced, clarified, understood and practiced.This paper aims at highlighting these difficult and complex issues of sustainability which encompass the scope of almost every aspect of human life.

  2. Imaging artifacts induced by electrical stimulation during conventional fMRI of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Andrea; Bikson, Marom; Datta, Abhishek; Lafon, Belen; Dechent, Peter; Parra, Lucas C; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain activation during transcranial electrical stimulation is used to provide insight into the mechanisms of neuromodulation and targeting of particular brain structures. However, the passage of current through the body may interfere with the concurrent detection of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which is sensitive to local magnetic fields. To test whether these currents can affect concurrent fMRI recordings we performed conventional gradient echo-planar imaging (EPI) during transcranial direct current (tDCS) and alternating current stimulation (tACS) on two post-mortem subjects. tDCS induced signals in both superficial and deep structures. The signal was specific to the electrode montage, with the strongest signal near cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and scalp. The direction of change relative to non-stimulation reversed with tDCS stimulation polarity. For tACS there was no net effect of the MRI signal. High-resolution individualized modeling of current flow and induced static magnetic fields suggested a strong coincidence of the change EPI signal with regions of large current density and magnetic fields. These initial results indicate that (1) fMRI studies of tDCS must consider this potentially confounding interference from current flow and (2) conventional MRI imaging protocols can be potentially used to measure current flow during transcranial electrical stimulation. The optimization of current measurement and artifact correction techniques, including consideration of the underlying physics, remains to be addressed.

  3. Preoperative conventional magnetic resonance images versus magnetic resonance arthrography of subacromial impingement syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Hyuk; Park, Jung Hwan; Moon, Tae Yong [Pusan National Univ. Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Sook; Lee, Seung Jun [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of conventional magnetic resonance images (MRI) for arthroscopic surgery in subacromial impingement syndrome of the shoulder, as an alternative to MR arthrography with additional T2 fat saturation images (MRA). The preoperative MRI of 77 patients (45 females, 32 males) (52 right, 25 left) and MRA of 34 patients (14 females, 20 males) (24 right, 10 left) with subsequent arthroscopic confirmation of subacromial impingement syndrome were reviewed retrospectively. The lesions requiring arthroscopic surgery were 95 subacromial spurs, 101 subacromial bursitis, and 51 full-thickness and 44 partial thickness tears of the supraspinatus among 111 cases for both studies. A two by two table was constructed in order to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of both studies against arthroscopic outcomes. Also we analyzed the false positive and false negative cases of the full-thickness tears individually. The detection rates of subacromial spur and bursitis and full and partial thickness tears of the supraspinatus were 91%, 94%, 77%, and 65% in MRI and 93%, 100%, 83%, and 77% in MRA respectively. Their specificities were 33%, 33%, 90%, and 76% in MRI and 50%, 75%, 100%, and 71% in MRA respectively. Eleven false negative cases in regards to MRI resulted in Ellman's grade 3 partial thickness tear (72.7%), mild bursitis (63.6%), greater tuberosity erosion (45.5%), and negative fluid signal of the glenohumeral joint (81.8%). Three false positive cases on the MRI were induced from errors with lower window depth and width on the imagings. Two false negative cases on MRA were induced from the adhesion between Ellman's grade 3 rim rent tear and the glenohumeral joint cavity. Conventional MR images could be used to decide the arthroscopic surgery in subacromial impingement syndrome, as an alternative to MR arthrography with additional T2 fat saturation images.

  4. Insight to Nanoparticle Size Analysis—Novel and Convenient Image Analysis Method Versus Conventional Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vippola, Minnamari; Valkonen, Masi; Sarlin, Essi; Honkanen, Mari; Huttunen, Heikki

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new image analysis program "Nanoannotator" particularly developed for analyzing individual nanoparticles in transmission electron microscopy images. This paper describes the usefulness and efficiency of the program when analyzing nanoparticles, and at the same time, we compare it to more conventional nanoparticle analysis techniques. The techniques which we are concentrating here are transmission electron microscopy (TEM) linked with different image analysis methods and X-ray diffraction techniques. The developed program appeared as a good supplement to the field of particle analysis techniques, since the traditional image analysis programs suffer from the inability to separate the individual particles from agglomerates in the TEM images. The program is more efficient, and it offers more detailed morphological information of the particles than the manual technique. However, particle shapes that are very different from spherical proved to be problematic also for the novel program. When compared to X-ray techniques, the main advantage of the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method is the average data it provides from a very large amount of particles. However, the SAXS method does not provide any data about the shape or appearance of the sample.

  5. Insight to Nanoparticle Size Analysis-Novel and Convenient Image Analysis Method Versus Conventional Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vippola, Minnamari; Valkonen, Masi; Sarlin, Essi; Honkanen, Mari; Huttunen, Heikki

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new image analysis program "Nanoannotator" particularly developed for analyzing individual nanoparticles in transmission electron microscopy images. This paper describes the usefulness and efficiency of the program when analyzing nanoparticles, and at the same time, we compare it to more conventional nanoparticle analysis techniques. The techniques which we are concentrating here are transmission electron microscopy (TEM) linked with different image analysis methods and X-ray diffraction techniques. The developed program appeared as a good supplement to the field of particle analysis techniques, since the traditional image analysis programs suffer from the inability to separate the individual particles from agglomerates in the TEM images. The program is more efficient, and it offers more detailed morphological information of the particles than the manual technique. However, particle shapes that are very different from spherical proved to be problematic also for the novel program. When compared to X-ray techniques, the main advantage of the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method is the average data it provides from a very large amount of particles. However, the SAXS method does not provide any data about the shape or appearance of the sample.

  6. Restoration of digital images with known space-variant blurs from conventional optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Thomas P.; Mikhael, Wasfy B.

    1999-07-01

    Space-variant (SV) digital image restoration methods attempt to restore images degraded by blurs that vary over the image field. One specific source of SV blurs is that of geometrical optical aberrations, which divert light rays as they pass through the optical system away from an ideal focal point. For simple optical system, aberrations can become significant even at moderate field angles. Restoration methods have been developed for some space- variant aberrations when they are individually dominant, but such dominance is not typically characteristic of conventional optical systems. In this paper, an iterative method of restoration that is applicable to generalized, known space-variant blurs is applied to simulations of images generated with a spherical lines. The method is based on the Gauss-Seidel method of solution to systems of linear equations. The method is applied to sub-images having off- axis displacements of up to 453 pixels, and found to be superior in restoration effectiveness to Fourier methods in that range of field angles.

  7. Imaging sport at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art (1929-37).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The mass popularity of sport in Britain during the inter-war years was a source of fascination and inspiration for a group of artists working at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art in London. Although largely neglected by their contemporaries, sport was embraced by Grosvenor School artists as a means to engage with both modernity and tradition within contemporary British culture. This essay examines one work, Cyril Power's 1930 linocut print, 'The Eight', as a case study to investigate the interrelationship between two cultural activities frequently regarded as at opposing ends of the cultural spectrum: art and sport. By simultaneously drawing upon a rich heritage of visual culture conventions and deploying new media and methods to represent the excitement, dynamism and sheer energy of sport, Power's work offers an insight into how visual culture can engage with, and enhance, our understanding of contemporary debates and practices in both fields of activity.

  8. Collagen imaged by Coherent X-ray Diffraction: towards a complementary tool to conventional scanning SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Bean, Richard J; Bozec, Laurent; Robinson, Ian K [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN), University College London (UCL), London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); McCallion, Catriona; Wallace, Kris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hiller, Jen C; Terrill, Nicholas J, E-mail: f.berenguer@ucl.ac.u [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-01

    Third generation x-ray sources offer unique possibilities for exploiting coherence in the study of materials. New insights in the structure and dynamics of soft condensed matter and biological samples can be obtained by coherent x-ray diffraction (CXD). However, the experimental procedures for applying these methods to collagen tissues are still under development. We present here an investigation for the optimal procedure in order to obtain high quality CXD data from collagen tissues. Sample handling and preparation and adequate coherence defining apertures are among the more relevant factors to take into account. The impact of the results is also discussed, in particular in comparison with the information that can be extracted from conventional scanning small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Images of collagen tissues obtained by CXD reconstructions will give additional information about the local structure with higher resolution and will complement scanning SAXS images.

  9. Conventional and Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, Andrea M.; Sbardella, Emilia; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Boschetti, Mara; Vitale, Giovanni; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome (ECS) can be a diagnostic challenge with the hormonal source difficult to find. This study analyzes the accuracy of imaging studies in ECS localization. Evidence Acquisition: Systematic review of medical literature for ECS case series providing individual patient data on at least one conventional imaging technique (computed tomography [CT]/magnetic resonance imaging) and one of the following: 111In-pentetreotide (OCT), 131I/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), 18F-fluorodopa-PET (F-DOPA-PET), 68Ga-DOTATATE-PET/CT or 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT scan (68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT). Evidence Summary: The analysis comprised 231 patients (females, 50.2%; age, 42.6 ± 17 y). Overall, 52.4% (121/231) had “overt” ECS, 18.6% had “occult” ECS, and 29% had “covert” ECS. Tumors were located in the lung (55.3%), mediastinum-thymus (7.9%), pancreas (8.5%), adrenal glands (6.4%), gastrointestinal tract (5.4%), thyroid (3.7%), and other sites (12.8%), and primary tumors were mostly bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (54.8%), pancreatic NETs (8%), mediastinum-thymus NETs (6.9%), gastrointestinal NETs (5.3%), pheochromocytoma (6.4%), neuroblastoma (3.2%), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (3.2%). Tumors were localized by CT in 66.2% (137/207), magnetic resonance imaging in 51.5% (53/103), OCT in 48.9% (84/172), FDG-PET in 51.7% (46/89), F-DOPA-PET in 57.1% (12/21), 131/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in 30.8% (4/13), and 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT in 81.8% (18/22) of cases. Molecular imaging discovered 79.1% (53/67) of tumors unidentified by conventional radiology, with OCT the most commonly used, revealing the tumor in 64%, followed by FDG-PET in 59.4%. F-DOPA-PET was used in only seven covert cases (sensitivity, 85.7%). Notably, 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT had 100% sensitivity among covert cases. Conclusions: Nuclear medicine improves the sensitivity of conventional radiology when tumor site

  10. Conventional versus storage phosphor-plate digital images to visualize the root canal system contrasted with a radiopaque medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoum, Hani J; Chandler, Nicholas P; Love, Robert M

    2003-05-01

    The pulp tissue was removed from 20 mandibular first molar teeth using 2.5% NaOCl irrigation and hand files. The dried canals were infused with radiopaque contrast medium. Standardized conventional and Digora digital images were obtained of each tooth positioned in a dried mandible at 0- and 30-degree horizontal angulations. Three evaluators rated the image clarity of the 0- and 30-degree original, enhanced, three-dimensional, zoom, and reverse digital image modes as superior, equal, or inferior to corresponding 0- and 30-degree conventional radiographs. The ratings were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The original, three-dimensional, zoom, or reverse digital images were inferior to the conventional radiographs for clarity of canal anatomy. The enhanced digital images were not always inferior to the conventional radiographs and were the only images superior to the original digital images. Overall, evaluators rated the image clarity of root canal anatomy on conventional radiographs better than on Digora images. However, factors in the experimental design may have contributed to this result.

  11. Analysis of modern technologies commonly used in beef cattle production: conventional beef production versus nonconventional production using meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wileman, B W; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D; Renter, D G

    2009-10-01

    Conventional feeding systems use pharmaceutical products not allowed in natural or organic systems for finishing cattle. This review of data compares the performance effects (ADG, G:F, DMI) of technologies used in conventional feeding programs that are prohibited in organic programs, natural programs, or both. The technologies evaluated were steroid implants, monensin, tylosin, endectocides, and metaphylaxis with any antimicrobial. For inclusion in this analysis, studies were conducted in North America, reported randomization to treatment group, used beef cattle, contained an untreated control group, and were sourced from peer-reviewed journals. Forest plots were used to examine the data visually for trends toward a uniform effect of the technology on the outcomes of interest (ADG, DMI, G:F). Technologies that displayed a uniform response on the forest plot compared with negative controls were then analyzed using mixed models. Examination of forest plots for endectocides, steroid implants, monensin, and metaphylaxis technologies appeared to show performance advantages for treated cattle relative to cattle in negative control groups. An insufficient number of studies met the inclusion criteria to conduct meta-analyses comparing endectocides, monensin, or tylosin with negative controls. Average daily gain in feeder cattle given metaphylaxis on arrival was 0.11 kg/d (P < 0.01) greater relative to cattle that did not receive metaphylaxis on arrival. Implanting heifers increased ADG by 0.08 kg/d compared with nonimplanted controls (P = 0.09). Implants had no effect on G:F (P = 0.14) in heifers or on DMI (P = 0.44) relative to nonimplanted control heifers. Implanting steers was associated with greater ADG, by 0.25 kg/d (P < 0.01), and DMI, by 0.53 kg/d (P < 0.01), relative to nonimplanted control steers. Implants also improved G:F in steers relative to nonimplanted steers, by 0.02 (0.17 vs. 0.15; implanted vs. controls, P < 0.01; n = 21 studies). When average estimated

  12. Fast spin echo vs conventional spin echo in cervical spine imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillams, A.R.; Soto, J.A.; Carter, A.P. [Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical School and Boston City Hospital Imaging Foundation, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The major attraction of fast-spin-echo (FSE) imaging is reduced acquisition time; however, careful review of the literature reveals many weaknesses: phase-encoded blurring, truncation artefact, bright fat signal, reduced magnetic susceptibility and increased motion artefact. Our aim was a prospective, blinded comparison of FSE and conventional spin echo (CSE) in the cervical spine. Both sequences were performed in 43 patients (19 males and 24 females; mean age 45 years, range 15-66 years). Twenty-eight patients were studied at 1.5 T and 15 at 0.5 T. Typical sequence parameters were: at 1.5 T, TR/TE 2000/90 CSE and 3000/120 FSE, and at 0.5 T, 2200/80 CSE and 2800/120 FSE. Time saved on the FSE was used to increase the matrix and the number of acquisitions. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the images for pathology, artefacts, disc signal intensity, thecal sac compression and image quality. Ten patients had cord lesions; 2 (20%) were missed on CSE. In 4 of 10 patients with moderate/severe thecal sac compression, the degree of stenosis was apparently exaggerated on CSE. The mean degree of confidence for the CSE sequences was 1.8 and for the FSE 1.1, where 1 is optimal. For cervical spine imaging, FSE should be preferred to CSE. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  13. 现代显微成像技术综述%Imaging technology in modern microsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥翔

    2015-01-01

    概述了光学宽视场显微镜、共聚焦显微镜、超分辨率显微镜中所应用的现代显微成像技术,对各种传统和先进的显微成像原理进行了总结。光学宽视场显微镜最常用的显微技术有明场成像、暗场成像、相衬成像、偏光成像、微分干涉(DIC)成像、调制对比成像和荧光成像。相衬成像中根据不同的成像结构还有切趾相衬成像。微分干涉除了传统的偏振光照明还有圆偏振光照明(C-DIC)和专用于塑料的微分干涉(PlasDIC)。共聚焦显微镜随着计算机技术和制造技术的发展而有了巨大的发展。除了传统的共聚焦荧光显微镜以外,还有连续反斯托克斯拉曼散射(CARS)共聚焦、多光子共聚焦和白光共聚焦。超分辨率显微镜中主要介绍了受激辐射淬灭(STED)技术和紧随基态淬灭显微技术的单分子返回(GSDIM)技术。%The imaging technology in modern microscope for widefield microscope,confocal microscope and super-resolution microscope is outlined here. The most frequently-used technology in the widefield microscope is brightfield,darkfield,phase contrast,polarization, DIC,modulation contrast and fluorescence.In phase contrast,there is also apodized phase contrast.In addition,DIC,C-DIC and PlasDIC are also presented.Confocal microscope is developed greatly with the development of computer and manufacture technology.Besides conventional confocal system,the principle of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering(CARS) confocal,multi-photo confocal,white confocal are also explained in detail.As for super-resolution microscope,the principle of stimulated emission depletion(STED)and ground state depletion microscopy followed by individual molecule return(GSDIM)are clarified.

  14. Oncologic imaging. Indications for and limitations of modern cross-sectional imaging techniques; Bildgebende Methoden in der onkologischen Diagnostik. Indikationen und Limitationen moderner Schnittbildverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayerhoefer, M.E.; Ba-Ssalamah, A.; Prosch, H. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2013-04-15

    Cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) CT are an integral part of the modern oncological workup. They are used for tumor detection and staging as well as for treatment evaluation and monitoring. Due to pathophysiological and histological differences there is no universal imaging protocol for the assessment of different forms of cancer. For instance, CT is still the standard technique for the detection and staging of lung cancer supplemented by PET which aids the exclusion of nodal involvement and the detection of distant metastases. For hepatocellular carcinoma on the other hand, MRI is the preferred imaging technique, particularly when used in conjunction with liver-specific contrast media - PET/CT is only of limited value. Finally, for neuroendocrine tumors there is a focus on special radiotracers, which, in the context of PET/CT, enable a highly specific whole-body assessment. Thus, knowledge of the pathophysiological and imaging characteristics of different tumors is essential for a personalized, state-of-the art management of oncology patients. (orig.) [German] Die Schnittbildmethoden Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und Positronenemissionstomographie (PET)/CT sind aus der modernen onkologischen Diagnostik nicht mehr wegzudenken. Sie werden einerseits zur Tumorsuche und zum Staging, andererseits fuer posttherapeutische Verlaufskontrollen eingesetzt. Aufgrund der pathophysiologischen Unterschiede zwischen diversen Tumorarten existiert kein Universalrezept hinsichtlich der einzusetzenden bildgebenden Methoden. So ist die CT weiterhin die Standardtechnik fuer Detektion und Staging von Lungenkarzinomen, ergaenzt durch die PET, die den Ausschluss von Lymphknotenmetastasen sowie die Suche nach Fernmetastasen erleichtert. Fuer das hepatozellulaere Karzinom hingegen steht die MRT im Zentrum, v. a. bei Verwendung leberspezifischer

  15. Air-insufflated high-definition dacryoendoscopy yields significantly better image quality than conventional dacryoendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsugihisa; Sounou, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Hideki; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    To facilitate the analysis of lacrimal conditions, we utilized high-definition dacryoendoscopy (HDD) and undertook observations with a pressure-controlled air-insufflation system. We report the safety and performance of HDD. In this retrospective, non-randomized clinical trial, 46 patients (14 males and 32 females; age range 39-91 years; mean age ± SD 70.3±12.0 years) who had lacrimal disorders were examined with HDD and conventional dacryoendoscopy (CD). The high-definition dacryoendoscope had 15,000 picture element image fibers and an advanced objective lens. Its outer diameter was 0.9-1.2 mm. Air insufflation was controlled at 0-20 kPa with a digital manometer-based pressure-controlled air-insufflation system to evaluate the quality of the image. The HDD had an air/saline irrigation channel between the outer sheath (outer diameter =1.2 mm) and the metal inner sheath of the endoscope. We used it and the CD in air, saline, and diluted milk saline with and without manual irrigation to quantitatively evaluate the effect of air pressure and saline irrigation on image quality. In vivo, the most significant improvement in image quality was demonstrated with air-insufflated (5-15 kPa) HDD, as compared with saline-irrigated HDD and saline-irrigated CD. No emphysema or damage was noted under observation with HDD. In vitro, no significant difference was demonstrated between air-insufflated HDD and saline-irrigated HDD. In vitro, the image quality of air-insufflated HDD was significantly improved as compared with that of saline-irrigated CD. Pressure-controlled (5-15 kPa) air-insufflated HDD is safe, and yields significantly better image quality than CD and saline-irrigated HDD.

  16. The effects of transducer geometry on artifacts common to diagnostic bone imaging with conventional medical ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, F William; Owen, Kevin; Tiouririne, Mohamed; Hossack, John A

    2012-06-01

    The portability, low cost, and non-ionizing radiation associated with medical ultrasound suggest that it has potential as a superior alternative to X-ray for bone imaging. However, when conventional ultrasound imaging systems are used for bone imaging, clinical acceptance is frequently limited by artifacts derived from reflections occurring away from the main axis of the acoustic beam. In this paper, the physical source of off-axis artifacts and the effect of transducer geometry on these artifacts are investigated in simulation and experimental studies. In agreement with diffraction theory, the sampled linear-array geometry possessed increased off-axis energy compared with single-element piston geometry, and therefore, exhibited greater levels of artifact signal. Simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the linear-array geometry exhibited increased artifact signal when the center frequency increased, when energy off-axis to the main acoustic beam (i.e., grating lobes) was perpendicularly incident upon off-axis surfaces, and when off-axis surfaces were specular rather than diffusive. The simulation model used to simulate specular reflections was validated experimentally and a correlation coefficient of 0.97 between experimental and simulated peak reflection contrast was observed. In ex vivo experiments, the piston geometry yielded 4 and 6.2 dB average contrast improvement compared with the linear array when imaging the spinous process and interlaminar space of an animal spine, respectively. This work indicates that off-axis reflections are a major source of ultrasound image artifacts, particularly in environments comprising specular reflecting (i.e., bone or bone-like) objects. Transducer geometries with reduced sensitivity to off-axis surface reflections, such as a piston transducer geometry, yield significant reductions in image artifact.

  17. Modern technologies for retinal scanning and imaging: an introduction for the biomedical engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I

    2014-04-29

    This review article is meant to help biomedical engineers and nonphysical scientists better understand the principles of, and the main trends in modern scanning and imaging modalities used in ophthalmology. It is intended to ease the communication between physicists, medical doctors and engineers, and hopefully encourage "classical" biomedical engineers to generate new ideas and to initiate projects in an area which has traditionally been dominated by optical physics. Most of the methods involved are applicable to other areas of biomedical optics and optoelectronics, such as microscopic imaging, spectroscopy, spectral imaging, opto-acoustic tomography, fluorescence imaging etc., all of which are with potential biomedical application. Although all described methods are novel and important, the emphasis of this review has been placed on three technologies introduced in the 1990's and still undergoing vigorous development: Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, and polarization-sensitive retinal scanning.

  18. Assessment of 70-keV virtual monoenergetic spectral images in abdominal CT imaging: A comparison study to conventional polychromatic 120-kVp images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassouli, Negin; Chalian, Hamid; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Dhanantwari, Amar; Landeras, Luis

    2017-04-18

    To evaluate the image quality of 70-keV virtual monoenergetic (monoE) abdominal CT images compared to 120-kVp polychromatic images generated from a spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner. This prospective study included generation of a 120-kVp polychromatic dataset and a 70-keV virtual monoE dataset after a single contrast-enhanced CT acquisition on a SDCT scanner (Philips Healthcare) during portal venous phase. The attenuation values (HU), noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured in the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, aorta, portal vein, and muscle. The subjective image quality including noise, soft tissue contrast, sharpness, and overall image quality were graded on a 5-point Likert scale by two radiologists independently (1-worst image quality, 5-best image quality). Statistical analysis was performed using paired sample t test and Fleiss's Kappa. Fifty-five patients (54.3 ± 16.8 y/o; 28 M, 27 F) were recruited. The noise of target organs was significantly lower in virtual monoE images in comparison to polychromatic images (p virtual monoE images (p virtual monoE images was significantly better (p virtual monoE images, respectively. The inter-reader agreement for overall image quality was good (Kappa were 0.767 and 0.762 for polychromatic and virtual monoE images, respectively). In abdominal imaging, 70-keV virtual monoE CT images demonstrated significantly better noise, SNR, CNR, and subjective score compared to conventional 120-kVp polychromatic images.

  19. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  20. (18)F Fluorocholine PET/MR Imaging in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Inconclusive Conventional Imaging: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluijfhout, Wouter P; Pasternak, Jesse D; Gosnell, Jessica E; Shen, Wen T; Duh, Quan-Yang; Vriens, Menno R; de Keizer, Bart; Hope, Thomas A; Glastonbury, Christine M; Pampaloni, Miguel H; Suh, Insoo

    2017-01-25

    Purpose To investigate the performance of flourine 18 ((18)F) fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with hyperparathyroidism and nonlocalized disease who have negative or inconclusive results at ultrasonography (US) and technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) sestamibi scintigraphy. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board. Between May and December 2015, 10 patients (mean age, 70.4 years; range, 58-82 years) with biochemical primary hyperparathyroidism and inconclusive results at US and (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy were prospectively enrolled. All patients gave informed consent. Directly after administration of 3 MBq/kg of FCH, PET imaging was performed, followed by T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging before and after gadolinium enhancement. Intraoperative localization and histologic results were the reference standard for calculating sensitivity and positive predictive value. The Wilcoxon rank test was used to calculate the mean difference in maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) between abnormal parathyroid uptake and physiologic thyroid uptake. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed. Results MR imaging alone showed true-positive lesions in five patients and a false-positive lesion in one patient. FCH PET/MR imaging allowed correct localization of nine of 10 adenomas (90% sensitivity), without any false-positive results (100% positive predictive value). One patient had four-gland hyperplasia, of which three hyperplastic glands were not localized. The median SUVmax of the nine preoperatively identified adenomas was 4.9 (interquartile range, 2.45-7.35), which was significantly higher than the SUV, 2.7 (interquartile range, 1.6-3.8), of the thyroid (P = .008). Conclusion FCH PET/MR imaging allowed localization of adenomas with high accuracy when conventional imaging results were inconclusive and provided detailed anatomic information. More patients must be examined to confirm

  1. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and conventional neuroradiographies in lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Yuichiro; Taniguchi, Mitsukazu; Michishita, Masamitsu; Ohta, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takeshi; Tonami, Hisao; Yamazaki, Yasuro; Higashida, Norihiko; Yamamoto, Tatsu (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan))

    1992-03-01

    To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would replace conventional neuroradiographies in lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus, preoperative MRI findings were compared with surgery-confirmed pathophysiology of 63 intervertebral disks in 58 patients. Conventional neuroradiographies consisted of myelography, CT myelography, discography, and CT discography. Pathophysiology of 63 herniated disks fall into normal (n=7), bulging (n=9), protrusion (n=14), extrusion (n=17), and free migrated (n=16). Diagnostic accuracy of MRI was evaluated in terms of the presence or absence of herniation, height, location, and morphology of herniated disk. In diagnosing herniation, MRI had a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 25%, and an accuracy of 78%. In determining the height of herniated disk, the diagnostic rate of MRI was 77%, being lower than both CT myelography (94%) and CT discography (89%). MRI had a concordance rate of 55% for bilateral location in transaxial view, compared with 76% for CT myelography and 74% for CT discography. MRI failed to differentiate extrusion from protrusion. In conclusion, MRI was the most suitable for screening the presence or absence of herniation; however, it was inferior to other neuroradiographies in the diagnosis of morphology of herniated disk, as well as the determination of height and surgical intervention site of herniated disk. (N.K.).

  2. Management of social sphere as a factor of positive image of the state in the modern world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulina Alevtyna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of study is the process of state management of social sphere as a factor of positive image of Ukraine in the modern world. The article conducts a complex analysis of state management of social sphere as a factor of positive image of Ukraine. The authors have defined the modern tendencies, features of management of social sphere and formation of the state positive image. The dominant, which characterize the positive image of Ukraine in the world as a basis of priorities of systemic reform of the social sphere was scientifically proved. The authors of the article define the priorities of state management of social sphere of Kharkov region.

  3. Molecular Morphology of Pituitary Cells, from Conventional Immunohistochemistry to Fluorescein Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yoshiyuki Osamura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH at the electron microscopic (EM level is essential for elucidating the intracellular distribution and role of mRNA in protein synthesis. EM-ISH is considered to be an important tool for clarifying the intracellular localization of mRNA and the exact site of pituitary hormone synthesis on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A combined ISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC under EM (EM-ISH&IHC approach has sufficient ultrastructural resolution, and provides two-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA in a pituitary cell. The advantages of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, Qdots and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM enable us to obtain three-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA. Both EM-ISH&IHC and ISH & IHC using Qdots and CLSM are useful for understanding the relationships between protein and mRNA simultaneously in two or three dimensions. CLSM observation of rab3B and SNARE proteins such as SNAP-25 and syntaxin has revealed that both rab3B and SNARE system proteins play important roles and work together as the exocytotic machinery in anterior pituitary cells. Another important issue is the intracellular transport and secretion of pituitary hormone. We have developed an experimental pituitary cell line, GH3 cell, which has growth hormone (GH linked to enhanced yellow fluorescein protein (EYFP. This stable GH3 cell secretes GH linked to EYFP upon stimulation by Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from storage. This GH3 cell line is useful for the real-time visualization of the intracellular transport and secretion of GH. These three methods from conventional immunohistochemistry and fluorescein imaging allow us to consecutively visualize the process of transcription, translation, transport and secretion of anterior pituitary hormone.

  4. High-resolution MR imaging of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC): comparison of microscopy coils and a conventional small surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, 02115, Boston, MA (United States); Ueno, Teruko; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Tanaka, Toshikazu [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tsukuba Kinen Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Shindo, Masashi [Tsukuba University Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2003-10-01

    To compare MR images of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using microscopy coils with those using a conventional surface coil qualitatively and quantitatively. Proton density-weighted images and T2*-weighted images of the TFCC from ten normal volunteers were obtained with a conventional surface coil (C4 coil; 80 mm in diameter), a 47-mm microscopy surface coil and a 23-mm microscopy surface coil at 1.5 T. Qualitative image analysis of MR images with three coils was performed by two radiologists who assigned one of five numerical scores (0, nonvisualization; 1, poor; 2, average; 3, good; 4, excellent) for five TFCC components, which were disc proper, triangular ligament, meniscus homologue, ulnotriquetral and ulnolunate ligament. Quantitative analysis included the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the disc proper of TFCC, the lunate cartilage, the lunate bone and the contrast-noise-ratio (C/N) between articular cartilage and disc proper or bone marrow were measured. All structures show higher scores qualitatively on MR with microscopy coils than those with a C4 coil, and the difference was significant with the exception of the ulnolunate ligament. MR with microscopy coils showed significantly higher S/N values than those with a conventional surface coil (P<0.05 to P<0.001). T2*-weighted images using microscopy coils showed significantly higher cartilage-disc proper C/N and cartilage-bone marrow C/N (P<0.01 to P<0.001). On proton density-weighted images, the C/N between cartilage and disc proper with two microscopy coils was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that with a conventional coil. High-resolution MR images of the normal wrist using microscopy coils were superior to those using a conventional surface coil qualitatively and quantitatively. High-resolution MR imaging with a microscopy coil would be a promising method to diagnose TFCC lesions. (orig.)

  5. Modern Trends in Imaging X: Spectral Imaging in Preclinical Research and Clinical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Levenson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral imaging methods are attracting increased interest from researchers and practitioners in basic science, pre-clinical and clinical arenas. A combination of better labeling reagents and better optics creates opportunities to detect and measure multiple parameters at the molecular and cellular level. These tools can provide valuable insights into the basic mechanisms of life, and yield diagnostic and prognostic information for clinical applications. There are many multispectral technologies available, each with its own advantages and limitations. This chapter will present an overview of the rationale for spectral imaging, and discuss the hardware, software and sample labeling strategies that can optimize its usefulness in clinical settings.

  6. Imaging features in conventional MRI, spectroscopy and diffusion weighted images of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Benjamin; Klose, Uwe; Lindig, Tobias; Biskup, Saskia; Nägele, Thomas; Schöls, Ludger; Karle, Kathrin N

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations within the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene. While a small number of reports on imaging findings in routine MRI exist, reported imaging findings in DWI and spectroscopy are scarce, and limited to not genetically proven case reports. We assessed MRI including DWI and MR spectroscopy in six patients with HDLS and two asymptomatic mutation carriers. A total of 13 MRIs were evaluated and a score of the white-matter lesion (WML) load was calculated. The course of MR abnormalities was followed for 6-19 months in four patients and 95 months in one carrier. MRI revealed widespread white-matter lesions of patchy or confluent pattern especially in the frontal and occipital lobe. The pyramidal tract was less affected than the surrounding tissue in all symptomatic patients on conventional T2WI. Three of four cases with DWI showed small dots of diffusion restriction within WML. Spectroscopy showed increased levels of mIns, Cho and lactate while NAA was decreased. Asymptomatic mutation carriers had, for the age of the patients, unusually pronounced unspecific WMLs. No diffusion restriction or alterations in metabolite levels could be detected in asymptomatic mutation carriers. Microbleeds were not found in any patient. Diffusion restriction seems to be a typical imaging pattern visible in patients with active disease progression in HDLS. Spectroscopic findings and the absence of microbleeds differ clearly from reported findings in CADASIL and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. While the distribution and character of WMLs in asymptomatic cases remain unspecific they are likely to represent subclinical markers of HDLS.

  7. The utility of MR imaging of the shoulder joint: comparison of the MR imaging between conventional MR imaging and arthrographic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dong Sik; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Kim, Ihn Sub; Rhee, Yong Girl [Kyunghee Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI of the shoulder. Between January and June 1997, shoulder MRI and arthroscopy were performed in a total of 48 patients with shoulder pain (n=3D30) or shoulder instability (n=3D18). Forty-five were males and three were females; their ages ranged from 16 to 67 (mean 32.5) years. The period between shoulder MRI and arthroscopy was between one and 390 (mean, 42.2) days. Twenty-six patents underwent MR arthrography (AMR), and 22 conventional MRI(CMR). Each image was analyzed for rotator cuff injury, glenoid labral injury, SLAP lesion, and biceps tendon injury. On arthroscopy, one disease was found in 34 patients, two were found in six, three diseases were found in seven, and one patient had four diseases. Arthroscopic diagnosis was as follows:rotator cuff injury, 29;SLAP lesion, 12;glenoid labral injury, 10;biceps tendon injury, 4;subacromial bursitis, 2;chronic synovitis, 1;adhesive capsulitis, 1;superior glenohumeral ligament injury, 1;normal, 1. For rotator cuff injury, the sensitivity of MRI was 65.5% and specificity was 93.0% (AMR:66.7%, 95.8%, CMR:65.2%, 86.4%). For SLAP lesion, sensitivity was 58.3% and specificity was 97.2% (AMR:66.7%, 100%, CMR:50%, 93.8%);for glenoid labral injury, sensitivity was 80.0% and specificity was 89.5% (AMR:85.7%, 84.2%, CMR:66.7%, 94.7%), and for biceps tendon injury, the false negative rate was 100%. In cases involving glenoid labral injury, the diagnostic accuracy of shoulder MRI was relatively high;in rotator cuff injury and SLAP lesion, however, diagnosis was limited, and in biceps tendon injury was difficult. We suggest, however, that MR arthrography has certain diagnostic advantages over conventional MRI.=20.

  8. Sensitivity of Image Features to Noise in Conventional and Respiratory-Gated PET/CT Images of Lung Cancer: Uncorrelated Noise Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jasmine A; Budzevich, Mikalai; Hunt, Dylan; Moros, Eduardo G; Latifi, Kujtim; Dilling, Thomas J; Feygelman, Vladimir; Zhang, Geoffrey

    2016-08-08

    The effect of noise on image features has yet to be studied in depth. Our objective was to explore how significantly image features are affected by the addition of uncorrelated noise to an image. The signal-to-noise ratio and noise power spectrum were calculated for a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanner using a Ge-68 phantom. The conventional and respiratory-gated positron emission tomography/computed tomography images of 31 patients with lung cancer were retrospectively examined. Multiple sets of noise images were created for each original image by adding Gaussian noise of varying standard deviation equal to 2.5%, 4.0%, and 6.0% of the maximum intensity for positron emission tomography images and 10, 20, 50, 80, and 120 Hounsfield units for computed tomography images. Image features were extracted from all images, and percentage differences between the original image and the noise image feature values were calculated. These features were then categorized according to the noise sensitivity. The contour-dependent shape descriptors averaged below 4% difference in positron emission tomography and below 13% difference in computed tomography between noise and original images. Gray level size zone matrix features were the most sensitive to uncorrelated noise exhibiting average differences >200% for conventional and respiratory-gated images in computed tomography and 90% in positron emission tomography. Image feature differences increased as the noise level increased for shape, intensity, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix features in positron emission tomography and for gray-level co-occurrence matrix and gray-level size zone matrix features in conventional computed tomography. Investigators should be aware of the noise effects on image features.

  9. Diagnostic Efficacy in Knee MRI Comparing Conventional Technique and Multiplanar Reconstruction with One-Millimeter FSE PDW Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y.C.; Kim, S.S.; Chung, H.W.; Choe, B.K.; Ahn, J.H. [Dept. of Radiolog y, Kangwon National Univ. School of Medicine, Kangwon-do (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has proved to be an excellent tool in diagnosing injuries of the cruciate ligaments and menisci. However, multiple planes and sometimes optimal oblique or double-oblique scan planes are needed due to the variability in the positioning of important structures, which means there is a lower throughput and longer scanning time. Purpose: To compare the performance of a 1-mm-thickness fast spin-echo (FSE) proton-density-weighted (PDW) MR imaging technique with multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) in diagnosing tears of the menisci and cruciate ligaments with that of conventional MR imaging. Material and Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients underwent preoperative conventional and 1-mm-thickness FSE PDW MR imaging with subsequent knee arthroscopic surgery. Two musculoskeletal radiologists evaluated the status of the cruciate ligaments and menisci using two sets of MR images (method A: conventional images including seven sequences, taking 26 min; method B: 1-mm-thickness FSE PDW images with MPR, taking 7 min 20 s). The diagnostic efficacies of both methods for tears of the cruciate ligament and menisci were calculated and compared. Results: Arthroscopic surgery revealed 10 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, one posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear, and 26 meniscal tears. The diagnostic values of both methods were 100% for a cruciate ligament tear. The diagnostic values (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) for meniscal tears were 90%, 100%, 96%, 100%, and 94% for method A, and 95%, 100%, 98%, 100%, and 97% for method B, respectively. There were no significant differences in the diagnostic values between methods A and B. Conclusion: 1-mm-slice-thickness FSE PDW imaging with MPR showed comparable performance in diagnosing tears of the cruciate ligaments and menisci to conventional sequences but the scan time was much shorter. Therefore, this technique (method B) might

  10. Avoiding preoperative breast MRI when conventional imaging is sufficient to stage patients eligible for breast conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengel, Kenneth E., E-mail: k.pengel@nki.nl [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, Claudette E. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Department of Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pijnappel, Ruud M. [Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.Th. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology/Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Aim: To determine when preoperative breast MRI will not be more informative than available breast imaging and can be omitted in patients eligible for breast conserving therapy (BCT). Methods: We performed an MRI in 685 consecutive patients with 692 invasive breast tumors and eligible for BCT based on conventional imaging and clinical examination. We explored associations between patient, tumor, and conventional imaging characteristics and similarity with MRI findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to compute the area under the curve (AUC). Results: MRI and conventional breast imaging were similar in 585 of the 692 tumors (85%). At univariate analysis, age (p < 0.001), negative preoperative lymph node status (p = 0.011), comparable tumor diameter at mammography and at ultrasound (p = 0.001), negative HER2 status (p = 0.044), and absence of invasive lobular cancer (p = 0.005) were significantly associated with this similarity. At multivariate analysis, these factors, except HER2 status, retained significant associations. The AUC was 0.68. Conclusions: It is feasible to identify a subgroup of patients prior to preoperative breast MRI, who will most likely show similar results on conventional imaging as on MRI. These findings enable formulation of a practical consensus guideline to determine in which patients a preoperative breast MRI can be omitted.

  11. Diagnostic performance of conventional diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging for the liver fibrosis and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, Mesude, E-mail: mesude.tosun@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Inan, Nagihan, E-mail: inannagihan@ekolay.net [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin, E-mail: htssarisoy@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Akansel, Gur, E-mail: gakansel@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Gumustas, Sevtap, E-mail: svtgumustas@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Gürbüz, Yeşim, E-mail: yesimgurbuz2002@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey); Demirci, Ali, E-mail: alidemirci@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of liver apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (CDI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and inflammation. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven patients with histologic diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis and 34 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. All patients and healthy volunteers were examined by 3 T MRI. CDI and DTI were performed using a breath-hold single-shot echo-planar spin echo sequence with b factors of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. ADCs were obtained with CDI and DTI. Histopathologically, fibrosis of the liver parenchyma was classified with the use of a 5-point scale (0–4) and inflammation was classified with use of a 4-point scale (0–3) in accordance with the METAVIR score. Quantitatively, signal intensity and the ADCs of the liver parenchyma were compared between patients stratified by fibrosis stage and inflammation grade. Results: With a b factor of 1000 s/mm{sup 2}, the signal intensity of the cirrhotic livers was significantly higher than those of the normal volunteers. In addition, ADCs reconstructed from CDI and DTI of the patients were significantly lower than those of the normal volunteers. Liver ADC values inversely correlated with fibrosis and inflammation but there was only statistically significant for inflammatory grading. CDI performed better than DTI for the diagnosis of fibrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: ADC values measured with CDI and DTI may help in the detection of liver fibrosis. They may also give contributory to the inflammatory grading, particularly in distinguishing high from low grade.

  12. Supine spinal magnetic resonance imaging with straightened lower extremities in spondylolisthesis: A comparison with the conventional technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Poureisa, Masoud; Arablou, Farid [Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel F., E-mail: medicorelax@yahoo.com [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • MR imaging with straightened lower extremities was tested in spondylolisthesis. • This technique is more accurate than conventional MR imaging in detecting slip. • Level of spondylolisthesis is the only independent predictor of severity of slip. - Abstract: Objectives: To compare the degree of slip in spondylolisthesis on supine magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained with flexed and straightened lower extremities. Methods: Supine spinal MR studies were performed in 100 cases of symptomatic spondylolisthesis with flexed and then straightened lower extremities. The angle of lumbar lordosis (by Cobb's method) and the degree of slip (by Taillard's method) were compared between the two sets of images. Results: The mean angle of lumbar lordosis increased from 51.65 ± 8.57° on MR images with flexed lower limbs to 57.39 ± 9.05° on MR images with straightened lower limbs (p < 0.001; mean percent increase: 11.51%). Similar change was also observed for the mean degree of slip (from 25.80 ± 7.74% to 28.68 ± 7.93%, p < 0.001; mean percent increase: 12.60%). After MR imaging with straightened lower extremities 22 out of 54 initially grade I cases had grade II disease (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Supine magnetic resonance imaging with straightened lower extremities detects higher degree of slippage in symptomatic patients with spondylolisthesis compared to conventional MRI with flexed lower extremities.

  13. Improved method for efficient imaging of intracellular Cl(-) with Cl-Sensor using conventional fluorescence setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Perrine; Bregestovski, Piotr; Medina, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Chloride (Cl(-)) homeostasis is known to be fundamental for central nervous system functioning. Alterations in intracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]i) and changes in the efficacy of Cl(-) extrusion are involved in numerous neurological disorders. Therefore, there is a strong need for studies of the dynamics of [Cl(-)]i in different cell types under physiological conditions and during pathology. Several previous works reported having successfully achieved recording of [Cl(-)]i using genetically encoded Cl-Sensor that is composed of the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and Cl(-)-sensitive mutant of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFPCl). However, all reported works were performed using specially designed setups with ultra-sensitive CCD cameras. Our multiple attempts to monitor Cl(-)-dependent fluorescence of Cl-Sensor using conventional epifluorescence microscopes did not yield successful results. In the present work, we have analysed the reason of our failures and found that they were caused by a strong inactivation of the YFPCl component of Cl-Sensor during excitation of the CFP with 430 nm light. Based on the obtained results, we reduced 20-fold the intensity of the 430 nm excitation and modified the recording protocol that allows now stable long-lasting ratiometric measurements of Cl-Sensor fluorescence in different cell types including cultured hippocampal neurons and their tiny dendrites and spines. Simultaneous imaging and patch clamp recording revealed that in mature neurons, the novel protocol allows detection of as little as 2 mM changes of [Cl(-)]i from the resting level of 5-10 mM. We demonstrate also a usefulness of the developed [Cl(-)]i measurement procedure for large scale screening of the activity of exogenously expressed potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2, a major neuronal Cl(-) extruder that is implicated in numerous neurological disorders and is a target for novel therapeutical treatments.

  14. Improved method for efficient imaging of intracellular Cl- with Cl-Sensor using conventional fluorescence setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine eFriedel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chloride (Cl- homeostasis is known to be fundamental for central nervous system functioning. Alterations in intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i and changes in the efficacy of Cl- extrusion are involved in numerous neurological disorders. Therefore there is a strong need for studies of the dynamics of [Cl-]i in different cell types under physiological conditions and during pathology. Several previous works reported having successfully achieved recording of [Cl-]i using genetically encoded Cl-Sensor that is composed of the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP and Cl--sensitive mutant of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFPCl. However all reported works were performed using specially designed setups with ultra-sensitive CCD cameras. Our multiple attempts to monitor Cl--dependent fluorescence of Cl-Sensor using conventional epifluorescence microscopes did not yield successful results. In the present work, we have analysed the reason of our failures and found that they were caused by a strong inactivation of the YFPCl component of Cl-Sensor during excitation of the CFP with 430 nm light. Based on the obtained results, we reduced 20-fold the intensity of the 430 nm excitation and modified the recording protocol that allows now stable long-lasting ratiometric measurements of Cl-Sensor fluorescence in different cell types including cultured hippocampal neurons and their tiny dendrites and spines. Simultaneous imaging and patch clamp recording revealed that in mature neurons, the novel protocol allows detection of as little as 2 mM changes of [Cl-]i from the resting level of 5-10 mM. We demonstrate also a usefulness of the developed [Cl-]i measurement procedure for large scale screening of the activity of exogenously expressed potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2, a major neuronal Cl- extruder, that is implicated in numerous neurological disorders and is a target for novel therapeutical treatments.

  15. Role and outcome of conventional surgery in the treatment of pyogenic liver abscess in the modern era of minimally invasive therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Siu-Man Ng; Janet Fung-Yee Lee; Paul Bo-San Lai

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the role and outcome of conventional surgery in the treatment of pyogenic liver abscess in the modern era of minimally invasive therapy.METHODS:The medical records of thirteen patients with pyogenic liver abscess who underwent surgical treatment between January 1995 and December 2002 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the clinical presentation,indication and nature of surgery,and out-come of surgery.RESULTS:The patients were predominantly women (10/13) with a mean age of 65±17 years.Their main presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (100%) and fever (77%).The aetiologies included biliary (n = 6),cryptogenic (n = 3),portal (n = 2),and trauma (n = 2).Seven patients underwent percutaneous drainage as the initial treatment.Of these,three patients developed peritonitis secondary to peritoneal spillage.Another four patients failed to respond because of multilocula-tion.Salvage surgery was required in these patients.Six patients proceeded to straight laparotomy:two had marked sepsis and multiloculated abscess that precluded percutaneous drainage,and four presented with perito-nitis of uncertain pathology.Surgical procedures included deroofment and drainage (n = 9),liver resection (n = 3),peritoneal lavage (n = 2),cholecystectomy (n = 4),and exploration of common bile duct (n = 2).One patient required reoperation because of bleeding.Three patients required further percutaneous drainage after surgery.The overall mortality was 46%.Four patients died of multiorgan failure and two patients died of pulmonary embolism.CONCLUSION:Surgical treatment of pyogenic liver ab-scess is occasionally needed when percutaneous drain-age has failed due to various reasons.Mortality rate in this group of patients has remained high.

  16. Is transnasal TEE imaging a viable alternative to conventional TEE during structural cardiac interventions to avoid general anaesthesia? A pilot comparison study of image quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Klettas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The role of transoesophageal echocardiography in cardiac interventional structural procedures is well established and appreciated. However, the need for general anaesthesia (GA throughout the procedure remains a controversial issue. The aim of the present study is to assess the feasibility and imaging quality of using a transnasal microrobe that allows the usage of conscious sedation in patients who undergo cardiac structural interventional procedures without missing the benefits, guidance and navigation of conventional trans-procedural TEE. Methods: We analysed the trans-procedural images of 24 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI, TMVI or ASD/PFO closure, using a transnasal 2D microprobe (PHILIPS and then we compared them with images taken by using a conventional 3D TEE probe (PHILIPS. In particular, we compared the imaging quality of the two probes regarding: (1 The anatomy, visualisation of valvular calcification and transvalvular colour Doppler of the aortic and mitral valve; (2 the imaging quality of PFO, ASD and interatrial communication colour flow; (3 the imaging of left ventricle systolic function and pericardial space and (4 transgastric imaging. Results: All images were graded with a scale from 5 to 1. The average grade of imaging quality in the mitral valve was: anatomy, 4.3; calcification, 3.8; colour Doppler, 4.2. The average grade of imaging quality in the aortic valve was: anatomy, 4.3; calcification, 3.7; colour Doppler, 4.3. The average grade of imaging quality in PFO/ASD was 4.3. The average grade of imaging quality in LV/pericardial space was 4.2. The average grade of imaging quality in transgastric imaging was 4.1. Conclusion: These results suggest that transnasal TEE can provide good anatomical image quality of relevant cardiac structures during cardiac structural interventions and this may facilitate these procedures being performed during conscious sedation without having to lose TEE guidance.

  17. Transient Splenial Lesion of Corpus Callosum Associated with Antiepileptic Drug: Conventional and Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, B.; Erdogan, C.; Yildirim, N.; Gokalp, G.; Parlak, M. [Uludag Univ. Medical School, Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-11-01

    Transient focal lesions of splenium of corpus callosum can be seen as a component of many central nervous system diseases, including antiepileptic drug toxicity. The conventional magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the disease are characteristic and include ovoid lesions with high signal intensity at T2-weighted MRI. Limited information exists about the diffusion-weighted MRI characteristics of these lesions vanishing completely after a period of time. We examined the conventional, FLAIR, and diffusion-weighted MR images of a patient complaining of depressive mood and anxiety disorder after 1 year receiving antiepileptic medication.

  18. 22. Comparison of conventional echocardiographic parameters of rv systolic function with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shamsan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging is considered the gold standard for quantification of RV size and function. Multiple 2D Echocardiography (echo parameters are recommended for quantification of systolic RV function including Fractional Area Change (FAC%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE and Tissue Doppler velocity (TDI of tricuspid annulus. The aim of our study was to compare the conventional 2-D echocardiographic parameters of RV systolic function with CMR derived RVEF and stroke volume (SV. The echo and cardiac magnetic parameters to assess the right ventricular function are different. Consecutive patients referred to CMR for RV assessment from January 2011 to December 2014 were screened. 69 patients with CMR and adequate echo were selected. 20 subjects with normal CMR were enrolled as a control group. Quantitative 2-D echo measures were compared with CMR RVEF (% and SV (ml. The comparison was made using linear correlation for the echo variables with CMR variables. The mean age of patients was 38.2 + 5.4 (51% females were enrolled. 84.1% of patients had normal RVEF by CMR. In patients, FAC% but not TAPSE or annular TDI, correlated with CMR derived RVEF (R = 0.45, p = 0.0001 with fair agreement (kappa 0.43. However, FAC% did not correlate with CMR RV stroke volume. In contrast, in normal subjects, TAPSE had the best correlation with CMR derived RVEF (R = 0.67, p = 0.0001. In patients, CMR reclassified RV function assessed by FAC% in 11 (16%. 6 (8% patients who had abnormal RV function by FAC% were reclassified as normal while 5 (7% with normal RV function by FAC% were reclassified as abnormal. In normal subjects, however, only one with abnormal RV function by TAPSE was reclassified as normal by CMR. The current quantitative 2-D echo parameters of RV systolic function assessment correlate poorly with CMR measured RVEF and SV and behave differently in comparison with CMR in patients with normal and

  19. Imaging performance in differential phase contrast CT compared with the conventional CT-noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2012-03-01

    The grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) CT is emerging as a new technology with the potential for extensive preclinical and clinical applications. In general, the performance of an imaging system is jointly determined by its signal property (modulation transfer function-MTF(k)) and noise property (noise power spectrum-NPS(k)), which is characterized by its spectrum of noise equivalent quanta. As reported by us previously, owing to an adoption of the Hilbert filtering for image reconstruction in the fashion of filtered backprojection (FBP), the noise property of DPC-CT characterized by its NPS(k) differs drastically from that of the conventional attenuation-based CT (1/|k| trait vs. |k| trait). In this work, via system analysis, modeling and simulated phantom study, we initially investigate the signal property of DPC-CT characterized by its MTF(k) and compare it with that of the conventional CT. In addition, we investigate the DPC-CT's spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k) - the most important figure of merit (FOM) in the assessment of an imaging system's performance - by taking the MTF(k) and NPS(k) jointly into account. Through such a thorough investigation into both the signal and noise properties, the imaging performance of DPC-CT and its potential over the conventional attenuation-based CT can be fully understood and appreciated.

  20. Modern CT and PET/CT imaging of the liver; Moderne CT- und PET/CT-Bildgebung der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, J.; Heusner, T.A.; Riegger, C.; Reichelt, D.; Kuhlemann, J.; Antoch, G.; Blondin, D. [Medizinische Fakultaet, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is now widely available and represents an important and rapid method for the diagnostics of acute liver disease, characterization of focal liver lesions, planning of interventional therapy measures and postintervention control. In recent years CT has not become less important despite the increasing value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By the use of different contrast medium phases good characterization of space-occupying lesions can be achieved. For the diagnostics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) a triphasic examination protocol should always be implemented. The introduction of dual energy CT increased the sensitivity of imaging of hypervascularized and hypovascularized liver lesions and by the use of virtual native imaging it has become possible to avoid additional native imaging which reduces the x-ray exposition of patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) has an advantage for imaging in oncology because nearly the complete body of the patient can be screened and this is the main indication for PET/CT (whole-body staging). For purely hepatic problems 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT using diagnostic CT data has a higher precision than CT alone but is inferior to MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Computertomographie (CT) ist heute breit verfuegbar und stellt eine wichtige und schnelle Methode zur Diagnostik akuter Lebererkrankungen, der Artdiagnostik fokaler Leberlaesionen und der Planung interventioneller Therapiemassnahmen sowie der postinterventionellen Kontrolle dar. In den letzten Jahren hat die CT trotz des zunehmenden Stellenwerts der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) nicht an Bedeutung verloren. Durch den Einsatz unterschiedlicher Kontrastmittelphasen kann meist eine gute Charakterisierung von Raumforderungen erfolgen. Bei der Diagnostik des hepatozellulaeren Karzinoms (HCC) sollte beispielsweise immer ein triphasisches Untersuchungsprotokoll angewendet werden. Mit Einfuehrung der Dual-energy-CT hat die Sensitivitaet in der

  1. Analysis of enlarged images using time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography, and conventional angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yeong-Cheol; Lee, Hae-Kag; Yang, Han-Jun; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the accuracy of time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography, and conventional angiography in depicting the actual length of the blood vessels. Three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomography angiography were performed using a flow phantom model that was 2.11 mm in diameter and had a total area of 0.26 cm(2). After this, volume rendering technique and the maximum intensity projection method as well as two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography and three-dimensional rotational angiography based on conventional angiography were conducted. For three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, 8 channel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) head coil for the 3.0 Tesla equipment was used. Fluid was added to the normal saline solution at various rates, such as 11.4, 20.0, 31.4, 40.0, 51.5, 60.0, 71.5, 80.1, 91.5, and 100.1 cm/s using an automatic contrast media injector. Each image was thoroughly examined. After reconstructing the image using the maximum intensity projection method, the length of the conduit in the center of the coronal plane was measured 30 times. After performing computed tomography angiography with the 64-channel CT scanner and 16-channel CT scanner, the images were sent to TeraRecon. Then, the length of the conduit in the center of the coronal plane of each image was measured 30 times after reconstructing the images using volume rendering and maximum intensity projection techniques. For conventional angiography, three-dimensional rotational angiography and two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography were used. Images obtained by three-dimensional rotational angiography were reconstructed and enhanced by 33, 50, and 100 % in the 128 Matrix and the 256 Matrix, respectively on the Xtra Vision workstation. The maximum intensity projection was used for the reconstruction, and the length of the conduit was measured 30 times in the center of the coronal

  2. Whole-body FDG PET/CT is more accurate than conventional imaging for staging primary breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, C.; Heusner, T.A. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Herrmann, J.; Hahn, S.; Lauenstein, T. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Nagarajah, J.; Bockisch, A. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Hecktor, J.; Kuemmel, S. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Essen (Germany); Otterbach, F. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Essen (Germany); Antoch, G. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    This retrospective study aimed (1) to compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body FDG PET/CT for initial breast cancer staging with the accuracy of a conventional, multimodal imaging algorithm, and (2) to assess potential alteration in patient management based on the FDG PET/CT findings. Patients with primary breast cancer (106 women, mean age 57 {+-} 13 years) underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT and conventional imaging (X-ray mammography, MR mammography, chest plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and breast, axillary and liver ultrasonography). The diagnostic accuracies of FDG PET/CT and a conventional algorithm were compared. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed in terms of primary tumour detection rate, correct assessment of primary lesion focality, T stage and the detection rates for lymph node and distant metastases. Histopathology, imaging or clinical follow-up served as the standards of reference. FDG PET/CT was significantly more accurate for detecting axillary lymph node and distant metastases (p = 0.0125 and p < 0.005, respectively). No significant differences were detected for other parameters. Synchronous tumours or locoregional extraaxillary lymph node or distant metastases were detected in 14 patients (13%) solely by FDG PET/CT. Management of 15 patients (14%) was altered based on the FDG PET/CT findings, including 3 patients with axillary lymph node metastases, 5 patients with extraaxillary lymph node metastases, 4 patients with distant metastases and 3 patients with synchronous malignancies. Full-dose, intravenous contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT was more accurate than conventional imaging for initial breast cancer staging due to the higher detection rate of metastases and synchronous tumours, although the study had several limitations including a retrospective design, a possible selection bias and a relevant false-positive rate for the detection of axillary lymph node metastases. FDG PET/CT resulted in a change of treatment in a substantial proportion of

  3. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    .... Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one's peers, the current study aimed to determine whether the relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction would...

  4. Everyone Knows What a Scientist Looks Like: The Image of a Modern Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, Alice

    2008-05-01

    Children are inspired to follow career paths when they can imagine themselves there. Seeing pictures of adult individuals who look like them working in a given career can provide this spark to children's imaginations. Most (though not all) of the current available posters of scientists are of Einstein, and Einstein-like scientists. This is not representative of the current face of science. To change this, Pacific Science Center is hoping to host a photography exhibit: photographs of real, current scientists from all races, genders, beliefs, walks of life, and branches of science. Photos will be taken and short biographies written by Discovery Corps Interns (Pacific Science Center's youth development program) to increase the amount of direct contact between students and scientists, and to give the exhibit an emotional connection for local teachers and families. We hope to make the photographs from this exhibit available to teachers for use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center during the International Year of Astronomy. The objectives of this project are to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community and to meet two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by underrepresented minorities in scientific and engineering careers. In this session I will present our preliminary plan for creating the photographs and working with the Discovery Corps youth, which will be available to other institutions interested in creating a similar project. I will also present more detail on the distribution plan for the photographs, so interested members and institutions can discuss contributing images to the project, or learn how they could receive copies of the photographs during IYA and beyond.

  5. Modern Guidelines for Forming the International Image of Universities: Foreign Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padalka Oleh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of scientific and technological activities of higher education pedagogical institutions of Ukraine at the end of 2014 according to the staffing situation, the functioning of postgraduate and doctoral studies and the availability of the valid specialized academic councils on thesis defense, according to students’ research works aiming at young scientists’ training. The criteria of evaluation of scientific work results of the university faculty and the ways to encourage young teachers to do the research work through postgraduate and doctoral studies and the defense of the thesis as the final result. We raised a problem of training young scientists int higher education pedagogical institutions of Ukraine as a powerful intellectual force, which determines the scientific future of the country. The main directions of scientific and technical activities of the universities aimed at foreign cooperation within the country and the world were defined as well. Modern guidelines for forming the international image of universities in foreign experience (the USA and European countries have been outlined.

  6. Prognostic value of normal stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging: a comparison between conventional and CZT-based SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shu; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Timmer, Jorik R. [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Mouden, Mohamed; Engbers, Elsemiek [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging has proven to have prognostic importance in patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The recently introduced ultrafast cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based gamma cameras have been associated with less equivocal findings and more normal interpretations, allowing stress-only imaging to be performed more often. However, it is yet unclear whether normal stress-only CZT SPECT has comparable prognostic value as normally interpreted stress-only conventional SPECT. The study population consisted of 1,650 consecutive patients without known CAD with normal stress-only myocardial perfusion results with either conventional (n = 362) or CZT SPECT (n = 1,288). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization) was compared between the conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT groups. Multivariable analyses using the Cox model were used to adjust for differences in baseline variables. Patients scanned with CZT were less often male (33 vs 39 %), had less often hypercholesterolaemia (41 vs 50 %) and had more often a family history of CAD (57 vs 49 %). At a median follow-up time of 37 months (interquartile range 28-45 months) MACE occurred in 68 patients. The incidence of MACE was 1.5 %/year in the CZT group, compared to 2.0 %/year in the conventional group (p = 0.08). After multivariate analyses, there was a trend to a lower incidence of MACE in the CZT SPECT group (hazard ratio 0.61, 95 % confidence interval 0.35-1.04, p = 0.07). The prognostic value of normal stress-only CZT SPECT is at least comparable and may be even better than that of normal conventional stress SPECT. (orig.)

  7. Imaging evidence and recommendations for traumatic brain injury: conventional neuroimaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, Max; Sanelli, Pina C; Anzai, Yoshimi; Tsiouris, A John; Whitlow, Christopher T

    2015-02-01

    Imaging plays an essential role in identifying intracranial injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goals of imaging include (1) detecting injuries that may require immediate surgical or procedural intervention, (2) detecting injuries that may benefit from early medical therapy or vigilant neurologic supervision, and (3) determining the prognosis of patients to tailor rehabilitative therapy or help with family counseling and discharge planning. In this article, the authors perform a review of the evidence on the utility of various imaging techniques in patients presenting with TBI to provide guidance for evidence-based, clinical imaging protocols. The intent of this article is to suggest practical imaging recommendations for patients presenting with TBI across different practice settings and to simultaneously provide the rationale and background evidence supporting their use. These recommendations should ultimately assist referring physicians faced with the task of ordering appropriate imaging tests in particular patients with TBI for whom they are providing care. These recommendations should also help radiologists advise their clinical colleagues on appropriate imaging utilization for patients with TBI.

  8. Needle image plates compared to conventional CR in chest radiography: Is dose reduction possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger-Kulemann, Vanessa, E-mail: vanessa.berger-kulemann@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Pötter-Lang, Sarah; Gruber, Michael [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Berger, Rudolf [Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Vonbank, Karin [Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Pneumology, Medical University of Vienna Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Weber, Michael [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Rabitsch, Werner [Department of Internal Medicine I, Bone Marrow Transplantation, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Uffmann, Martin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiology, KH Neunkirchen, Peischinger Straße 19, 2620 Neunkirchen (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To compare image quality of standard-dose computed radiography and dose reduced needle-technology CR for supine CXR in a clinical setting. Materials and methods: We prospectively evaluated 128 radiographs of 32 immunocompromised patients. For each patient four clinical CXR were performed within one week, two with powder image plates (PIP; Fuji ST-V) and two with needle image plates (NIP; Agfa DXS) at standard and half dose, respectively. One experienced radiologist and two residents blinded to dose level and kind of imaging system rated different anatomical structures, image noise, tubes/lines and abnormalities on a image quality scale from 1 to 10 (1 = poor, 10 = excellent). The rating scores were tested for statistical differences using analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results: A statistical difference (p < 0.05) was found for the two systems as well as for the two dose levels. Overall rating scores were 6.5 for PIP with full dose, 6.2 for PIP with half dose, 7.6 for NIP with full dose and 7.4 for NIP with half dose. There was a significant difference in favour of the NIP system at the same dose level. Also the NIP images obtained at half dose were ranked significantly better compared to the PIP images at standard dose. The differences in ranking of anatomical structures and abnormalities were more pronounced in low absorption areas (pulmonary vessels, parenchyma) than in high absorption areas (mediastinum, spine). Conclusion: For supine chest radiograms the NIP technology allows for a dose reduction of 50% while providing higher image quality.

  9. Estimates of Imaging Times for Conventional and Synchrotron X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kinney, J

    2003-01-01

    The following notes are to be taken as estimates of the time requirements for imaging NIF targets in three-dimensions with absorption contrast. The estimates ignore target geometry and detector inefficiency, and focus only on the statistical question of detecting compositional (structural) differences between adjacent volume elements in the presence of noise. The basic equations, from the classic reference by Grodzins, consider imaging times in terms of the required number of photons necessary to provide an image with given resolution and noise. The time estimates, therefore, have been based on the calculated x-ray fluxes from the proposed Advanced Light Source (ALS) imaging beamline, and from the calculated flux for a tungsten anode x-ray generator operated in a point focus mode.

  10. Advances in Reasoning-Based Image Processing Intelligent Systems Conventional and Intelligent Paradigms

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The book puts special stress on the contemporary techniques for reasoning-based image processing and analysis: learning based image representation and advanced video coding; intelligent image processing and analysis in medical vision systems; similarity learning models for image reconstruction; visual perception for mobile robot motion control, simulation of human brain activity in the analysis of video sequences; shape-based invariant features extraction; essential of paraconsistent neural networks, creativity and intelligent representation in computational systems. The book comprises 14 chapters. Each chapter is a small monograph, representing resent investigations of authors in the area. The topics of the chapters cover wide scientific and application areas and complement each-other very well. The chapters’ content is based on fundamental theoretical presentations, followed by experimental results and comparison with similar techniques. The size of the chapters is well-ballanced which permits a thorough ...

  11. Feed particle size evaluation: conventional approach versus digital holography based image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of image analysis approach based on digital holography in defining particle size in comparison with the sieve shaker method (sieving method as reference method. For this purpose ground corn meal was analyzed by a sieve shaker Retsch VS 1000 and by image analysis approach based on digital holography. Particle size from digital holography were compared with results obtained by screen (sieving analysis for each of size classes by a cumulative distribution plot. Comparison between particle size values obtained by sieving method and image analysis indicated that values were comparable in term of particle size information, introducing a potential application for digital holography and image analysis in feed industry.

  12. Re-imaging the Modernity of Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea: Africa past and Africa present

    OpenAIRE

    Codling, Rosetta

    2011-01-01

    This paper engages the concept of the imposed Modernity of Europe upon the African republics of Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea. Evidence of the encroachment of a ‘false’ Modernity upon Africa’s Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea are chronicled in the works of Donato Ndongo (Shadows of Your Black Memory) and Syl Cheney Coker (The Last Harmattan of Alusine Dunbar).

  13. Between history, criticism, and wit: texts and images of English modern architecture (1933-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rosso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has often been remarked that modern architecture in Britain began late and that its emergence largely depended on the contribution of a massive influx of European exiles seeking refuge from the political and racial persecution of totalitarian regimes. In the attempt to discard the tired narrative of Britain’s insular modernism as a mere echo of continental European achievements, an alternative historiography has recently directed attention to Britain’s own distinctive and original version of modern architecture in the 1930s. Through the examination of a small group of articles, books and pamphlets on English modern architecture written by English authors and published in the mid-1930s, this paper argues that the emergence of a distinctive version of architectural modernism in Britain was paralleled by the development of an equally original brand of architectural criticism and historiography.

  14. Role of clinical images based teaching as a supplement to conventional clinical teaching in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumoorthy Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Clinical Dermatology is a visually oriented specialty, where visually oriented teaching is more important than it is in any other specialty. It is essential that students must have repeated exposure to common dermatological disorders in the limited hours of Dermatology clinical teaching. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the effect of clinical images based teaching as a supplement to the patient based clinical teaching in Dermatology, among final year MBBS students. Methods: A clinical batch comprising of 19 students was chosen for the study. Apart from the routine clinical teaching sessions, clinical images based teaching was conducted. This teaching method was evaluated using a retrospective pre-post questionnaire. Students′ performance was assessed using Photo Quiz and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. Feedback about the addition of images based class was collected from students. Results: A significant improvement was observed in the self-assessment scores following images based teaching. Mean OSCE score was 6.26/10, and that of Photo Quiz was 13.6/20. Conclusion : This Images based Dermatology teaching has proven to be an excellent supplement to routine clinical cases based teaching.

  15. Diagnostic imaging of Klippel-Feil syndrome: conventional radiography, CT and MR imaging. Case report; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Klippel-Feil-Syndroms: Konventionelle Roentgenaufnahmen, CT und MRT. Fallbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochens, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Schubeus, P. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Steinkamp, H.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Menzhausen, L. [Abt. fuer Psychiatrie, Urban Krankenhaus, Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In two patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome, type II radiographic findings of the malformation are shown in the cervical spine and the craniocervical junction. Conventional X-rays of the cervical spine in the AP and lateral view and conventional tomography as well as CT of the cervical spine were obtained in both patients. One of the two patients additionally underwent MR imaging. Findings of the different imaging modalities are compared with each other. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand von zwei Patienten mit Klippel-Feil-Syndrom Typ II werden typische radiologische Befunde des Missbildungssyndroms im Bereich der Halswirbelsaeule und des kraniozervikalen Ueberganges dargestellt. Neben den konventionellen HWS-Roentgenaufnahmen und den konventionellen Schichtaufnahmen, wurden bei beiden Patienten ein CT der HWS und bei einem Patienten zusaetzlich ein MRT durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse und Befunde der verschiedenen Untersuchungsverfahren werden einander gegenuebergestellt. (orig.)

  16. Fast live-cell conventional fluorophore nanoscopy with ImageJ through super-resolution radial fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Nils; Culley, Siân; Ashdown, George; Owen, Dylan M; Pereira, Pedro Matos; Henriques, Ricardo

    2016-08-12

    Despite significant progress, high-speed live-cell super-resolution studies remain limited to specialized optical setups, generally requiring intense phototoxic illumination. Here, we describe a new analytical approach, super-resolution radial fluctuations (SRRF), provided as a fast graphics processing unit-enabled ImageJ plugin. In the most challenging data sets for super-resolution, such as those obtained in low-illumination live-cell imaging with GFP, we show that SRRF is generally capable of achieving resolutions better than 150 nm. Meanwhile, for data sets similar to those obtained in PALM or STORM imaging, SRRF achieves resolutions approaching those of standard single-molecule localization analysis. The broad applicability of SRRF and its performance at low signal-to-noise ratios allows super-resolution using modern widefield, confocal or TIRF microscopes with illumination orders of magnitude lower than methods such as PALM, STORM or STED. We demonstrate this by super-resolution live-cell imaging over timescales ranging from minutes to hours.

  17. A comparative study between the imagings of conventional radiograms and computed tomograms in patients with congealer fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The subjects of this study consisted of 75 patients with 83 congealer fractures, who were admitted to Chonbuk National University Hospital from Jan. 1988 to Oct. 1995. The purpose of this study was to compare the imagings of conventional radiograms with those of computed tomograms and to aid in the diagnosis of congealer fractures. Also the author evaluated the usefulness of 3-dimensional reconstructive imaging in condylar fractures. The following results were obtained; l. The congealer fractures were observed mainly between 2nd and 4th decades, but there was no significant difference of incidence between decades. The incidence of congealer fractures by fracture site was subcondyalr (44.6%), condylar head (36.1%), condylar neck (19.3%) in orders. 12 of 30 condylar head fractures were sagittal splitting fractures. 2. According to the relationship of congealer head to articular fossa, the incidence of congealer fractures was higher in Type II and Type III. And the incidence of subcondylar fractures was higher in Type I classified by McLennan. But there was no significant difference of incidence between Types. 3. The more the fracture fragments were displaced, the easier the fracture patterns were detected in conventional radiograms. The computed tomograms were also useful in the diagnosis of sagittal splitting fractures which were displaced mesially. 4. The 3-dimensional reconstructive imaging were useful in the evaluation of the fracture patterns, but they were not useful when the size of fragment and the degree of displacement were small.

  18. Imaging abnormalities in sporadic hemiplegic migraine on conventional MRI, diffusion and perfusion MRI and MRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, A; Mahavish, K; Bowden, A; Smith, E T S; Enevoldson, P; White, R P

    2006-08-01

    Prolonged hemiparetic migraine aura can cause diagnostic confusion and be mistaken for ischaemic stroke occurring during the course of a migraine--'migrainous infarction'. We report a case of prolonged hemiparesis occurring during the course of a migraine attack. Though initially confused with migrainous infarction, we suggest with sequential magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, diffusion, perfusion images and magnetic resonance spectroscopy that the hemiplegia was not of vascular origin and that the patient had sporadic hemiplegic migraine. We hypothesize that the mechanisms of sporadic hemiplegic migraine probably lie at a cellular level, similiar to familial hemiplegic migraine.

  19. Lunar archive panoramas: modern image processing and access to the historic data based on spatial context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Karachevtseva, Irina; Garov, Andrey; Matveev, Evgeniy

    The objectives of our work are to fully exploit the historic Soviet Lunokhod data and use the results for scientific and public purposes. Unfortunately, many of the relevant operational parameters of the Lunokhods missions are lost. Modern photogrammetry is a key to solving these issues, providing analysis techniques, not available at the time of the early lunar missions. For this purpose we use special developed software, GIS tools and high-resolution LRO data [1]. Results of new image processing of historic data are part of PRoViDE project (Planetary Robotics Vision Data Exploitation) which aims to assemble a major portion of the imaging data gathered from different vehicles and probes on planetary surfaces into a unique database, bringing them into a spatial context and providing access to a complete set of 3D vision products (http://www.provide-space.eu/). Our technology of archive panorama processing allows us to recover lost information of Soviet lunar missions and study lunar landing site imagery by state-of-the-art photogrammetric techniques. Our main task is to perform lunar panoramas in measurement form based on photogrammetry and geoanalyses methods, and then involve them in more detailed morphometric analyses [2] and 3D-modeling of lunar surface based on LROC NAC image processing [3]. The results of our work are various types of new products: panoramas in different projections, updated metadata with recovering parameters, and ortho-panoramas, which can be used for quantitative geomorphology assessment based on spatial tools [4]. All data products obtained as a result of the study are to be placed into Planetary data storage which is developing as Geodesy and Cartography Node [5]. Access to archive lunar data will be organized via Geo-portal (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal/) using authorization service, which provided data security and user control. Planetary spatial information system can integrate various types of data for planets and their

  20. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettenbacher, Thomas; Ennemoser, Sybille; Weirich, Harald [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ulmer, Hanno [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Hartig, Frank; Klotz, Werner; Herold, Manfred [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2008-03-15

    The aim was to compare X-ray and ultrasound (US) in diagnosing gout. In a prospective study, 105 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of gout underwent conventional X-ray und high-resolution US in order to help in arriving at a definite diagnosis. X-ray findings suggestive of gout included soft-tissue opacifications with densities between soft tissue and bone, articular and periarticular bone erosions, and osteophytes at the margins of opacifications or erosions. US findings suggestive of gout included bright stippled foci and hyperechoic soft-tissue areas. Fifty-five patients had a definite diagnosis of gout (102 involved sites), 31 patients were diagnosed as having another disease (59 involved sites), and 19 patients were excluded from the study because a definite diagnosis could not be established. X-ray suggested gout with a sensitivity of 31% (32/102) and a specificity of 93% (55/59), whereas US suggested gout with a sensitivity of 96% (98/102) and a specificity of 73% (43/59). US was much more sensitive than conventional X-ray but less specific. Our data show that US often provided additional diagnostic information in patients with clinical suspicion of gout when laboratory findings and X-ray results were negative or inconclusive and should therefore be used in these cases. (orig.)

  1. A comparison of conventional and geostatistical methods to replace clouded pixels in NOAA-AVHRR images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, E.A.; Stein, A.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images for large areas is often limited by cloud cover. It could be increased when small clouds are replaced by estimated reflection and emission values. In this study seven

  2. Comparison of portable and conventional ultrasound imaging in spinal curvature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Christina; Tabanfar, Reza; Kempston, Michael; Borschneck, Daniel; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    PURPOSE: In scoliosis monitoring, tracked ultrasound has been explored as a safer imaging alternative to traditional radiography. The use of ultrasound in spinal curvature measurement requires identification of vertebral landmarks, but bones have reduced visibility in ultrasound imaging and high quality ultrasound machines are often expensive and not portable. In this work, we investigate the image quality and measurement accuracy of a low cost and portable ultrasound machine in comparison to a standard ultrasound machine in scoliosis monitoring. METHODS: Two different kinds of ultrasound machines were tested on three human subjects, using the same position tracker and software. Spinal curves were measured in the same reference coordinate system using both ultrasound machines. Lines were defined by connecting two symmetric landmarks identified on the left and right transverse process of the same vertebrae, and spinal curvature was defined as the transverse process angle between two such lines, projected on the coronal plane. RESULTS: Three healthy volunteers were scanned by both ultrasound configurations. Three experienced observers localized transverse processes as skeletal landmarks and obtained transverse process angles in images obtained from both ultrasounds. The mean difference per transverse process angle measured was 3.00 +/-2.1°. 94% of transverse processes visualized in the Sonix Touch were also visible in the Telemed. Inter-observer error in the Telemed was 4.5° and 4.3° in the Sonix Touch. CONCLUSION: Price, convenience and accessibility suggest the Telemed to be a viable alternative in scoliosis monitoring, however further improvements in measurement protocol and image noise reduction must be completed before implementing the Telemed in the clinical setting.

  3. Imaging in rheumatoid arthritis--status and recent advances for magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Morten; Dohn, U.M.; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    disease manifestations such as inflammatory changes in the soft tissues (synovitis, tensynovitis, enthesitis etc.) and the earliest stages of bone erosion. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US) allow direct visualization of early inflammatory and destructive joint changes......, and have several documented and potential applications in RA patients. This chapter will review key aspects of the current status and recent important advances in imaging in RA, briefly discussing X-ray and computed tomography, and particularly focusing on MRI and US. Suggestions for use in clinical trials...

  4. Imaging the Rural: Modernity and Agrarianism in Hiroshi Hamaya’s ‘Snow Land’ Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Tunney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Snow Land photographic series by Japanese photographer Hiroshi Hamaya [1915–1999] in relation to issues of modernity, nostalgia and discourses of agrarianism in 1940s and 1950s Japan. Hamaya is one of Japan’s most celebrated and influential documentary photographers at both a national and international level. His Snow Land series presents an idyllic view of life in the small mountain villages of Japan’s Niigata Prefecture, emphasising a sense of community and spiritual meaning that Hamaya perceived to be lacking in modern society. In this sense, Snow Land constituted a critique of modernity. Through engagement with theorists such as Heidegger, Foucault and Barthes, as well as critical writings on agrarian ideology, this article investigates the underlying assumptions that govern Hamaya’s depiction of snow country, demonstrating that the series is shaped by a modern worldview and is tied to ideological discourses of agrarianism.

  5. Taking advantage of hyperspectral imaging classification of urinary stones against conventional infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francisco; Lumbreras, Felipe; Serrat, Joan; Siener, Roswitha; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of urinary stones is mandatory for the best management of the disease after the stone passage in order to prevent further stone episodes. Thus the use of an appropriate methodology for an individualized stone analysis becomes a key factor for giving the patient the most suitable treatment. A recently developed hyperspectral imaging methodology, based on pixel-to-pixel analysis of near-infrared spectral images, is compared to the reference technique in stone analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The developed classification model yields >90% correct classification rate when compared to IR and is able to precisely locate stone components within the structure of the stone with a 15 µm resolution. Due to the little sample pretreatment, low analysis time, good performance of the model, and the automation of the measurements, they become analyst independent; this methodology can be considered to become a routine analysis for clinical laboratories.

  6. Evaluation of conventional imaging performance in a research whole-body CT system with a photon-counting detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhicong; Leng, Shuai; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Li, Zhoubo; Gutjahr, Ralf; Chen, Baiyu; Halaweish, Ahmed F.; Kappler, Steffen; Yu, Lifeng; Ritman, Erik L.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the conventional imaging performance of a research whole-body photon-counting CT system and investigated its feasibility for imaging using clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux. This research system was built on the platform of a 2nd generation dual-source CT system: one source coupled to an energy integrating detector (EID) and the other coupled to a photon-counting detector (PCD). Phantom studies were conducted to measure CT number accuracy and uniformity for water, CT number energy dependency for high-Z materials, spatial resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio. The results from the EID and PCD subsystems were compared. The impact of high photon flux, such as pulse pile-up, was assessed by studying the noise-to-tube-current relationship using a neonate water phantom and high x-ray photon flux. Finally, clinical feasibility of the PCD subsystem was investigated using anthropomorphic phantoms, a cadaveric head, and a whole-body cadaver, which were scanned at dose levels equivalent to or higher than those used clinically. Phantom measurements demonstrated that the PCD subsystem provided comparable image quality to the EID subsystem, except that the PCD subsystem provided slightly better longitudinal spatial resolution and about 25% improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio for iodine. The impact of high photon flux was found to be negligible for the PCD subsystem: only subtle high-flux effects were noticed for tube currents higher than 300 mA in images of the neonate water phantom. Results of the anthropomorphic phantom and cadaver scans demonstrated comparable image quality between the EID and PCD subsystems. There were no noticeable ring, streaking, or cupping/capping artifacts in the PCD images. In addition, the PCD subsystem provided spectral information. Our experiments demonstrated that the research whole-body photon-counting CT system is capable of providing clinical image quality at clinically realistic levels of x

  7. Evaluation of conventional imaging performance in a research whole-body CT system with a photon-counting detector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhicong; Leng, Shuai; Jorgensen, Steven M; Li, Zhoubo; Gutjahr, Ralf; Chen, Baiyu; Halaweish, Ahmed F; Kappler, Steffen; Yu, Lifeng; Ritman, Erik L; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2016-02-21

    This study evaluated the conventional imaging performance of a research whole-body photon-counting CT system and investigated its feasibility for imaging using clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux. This research system was built on the platform of a 2nd generation dual-source CT system: one source coupled to an energy integrating detector (EID) and the other coupled to a photon-counting detector (PCD). Phantom studies were conducted to measure CT number accuracy and uniformity for water, CT number energy dependency for high-Z materials, spatial resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio. The results from the EID and PCD subsystems were compared. The impact of high photon flux, such as pulse pile-up, was assessed by studying the noise-to-tube-current relationship using a neonate water phantom and high x-ray photon flux. Finally, clinical feasibility of the PCD subsystem was investigated using anthropomorphic phantoms, a cadaveric head, and a whole-body cadaver, which were scanned at dose levels equivalent to or higher than those used clinically. Phantom measurements demonstrated that the PCD subsystem provided comparable image quality to the EID subsystem, except that the PCD subsystem provided slightly better longitudinal spatial resolution and about 25% improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio for iodine. The impact of high photon flux was found to be negligible for the PCD subsystem: only subtle high-flux effects were noticed for tube currents higher than 300 mA in images of the neonate water phantom. Results of the anthropomorphic phantom and cadaver scans demonstrated comparable image quality between the EID and PCD subsystems. There were no noticeable ring, streaking, or cupping/capping artifacts in the PCD images. In addition, the PCD subsystem provided spectral information. Our experiments demonstrated that the research whole-body photon-counting CT system is capable of providing clinical image quality at clinically realistic levels of x

  8. Review of automatic segmentation methods of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions on conventional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, Daniel; Francis, Simon; Narayanan, Sridar; Arnold, Douglas L; Collins, D Louis

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often used to characterize and quantify multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in the brain and spinal cord. The number and volume of lesions have been used to evaluate MS disease burden, to track the progression of the disease and to evaluate the effect of new pharmaceuticals in clinical trials. Accurate identification of MS lesions in MR images is extremely difficult due to variability in lesion location, size and shape in addition to anatomical variability between subjects. Since manual segmentation requires expert knowledge, is time consuming and is subject to intra- and inter-expert variability, many methods have been proposed to automatically segment lesions. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the state of the art in automated multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation. From 1240 hits found initially with PubMed and Google scholar, our selection criteria identified 80 papers that described an automatic lesion segmentation procedure applied to MS. Only 47 of these included quantitative validation with at least one realistic image. In this paper, we describe the complexity of lesion segmentation, classify the automatic MS lesion segmentation methods found, and review the validation methods applied in each of the papers reviewed. Although many segmentation solutions have been proposed, including some with promising results using MRI data obtained on small groups of patients, no single method is widely employed due to performance issues related to the high variability of MS lesion appearance and differences in image acquisition. The challenge remains to provide segmentation techniques that work in all cases regardless of the type of MS, duration of the disease, or MRI protocol, and this within a comprehensive, standardized validation framework. MS lesion segmentation remains an open problem.

  9. Intracolonic multiple pebbles in young adults: Radiographic imaging and conventional approach to a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Eryilmaz; Orkun Ozturk; Oner Mentes; Kenan Soylu; Murat Durusu; K(o)ksal Oner

    2006-01-01

    Most of the foreign bodies detected in adult gastrointestinal systems are accidentally swallowed pins. In this study, we presented a case with intracolonic multiple pebbles. A 20-year-old man was admitted to emergency surgery policlinic for abdominal pain for 2 d without any alleviation or aggravation. His upright plain abdominal radiographic imaging revealed about 30-40 overt dense opacities in lumen of colonic segments, with oval and well shaped contours, each approximately 1cm x 1cm in size. The multiplanar reconstructions and threedimensional images combined with sectional screening showed that all pebbles had passed completely into the colon and no foreign bodies had remained in the ileal segments. On psychiatric assessment, he was found to have immature personality features, difficulty in overcoming stressors and adaptation disorder. He recovered by conservative management and radiographic monitoring applied during his follow-up. Thus, it can be concluded that, in differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in adult ages, though less frequently seen than in children,gastrointestinal system foreign bodies should always be kept in mind and it should be considered that ingestion of pebbles may be one of the factors contributing to abdominal pain particularly in young adults with psychiatric problems. In such cases suspected of having foreign bodies which cannot be detected by plain films, abdominal tomography can be an alternative for diagnostic imaging.

  10. Prospective comparison of conventional radiography, low-dose computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in monoclonal gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarik, Jiri; Krhovska, Petra; Hrbek, Jan; Pika, Tomas; Bacovsky, Jaroslav; Herman, Miroslav; Scudla, Vlastimil

    2016-06-01

    We carried out a prospective study in order to identify the best imaging approach for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We assessed the extent of myeloma bone disease (MBD) in 112 individuals - 84 patients with MM and 28 individuals with MGUS. For the detection of osteolytic involvement we used whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI), low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) and conventional radiography (CR). Each method assessed the presence of osteolytic involvement, compressive fractures and extramedullary involvement in the following regions: skull, spine and chest, pelvis and humerus and femur. We compared the difference in the number and extent of osteolytic involvement, especially the findings in CR negative patients. Conventional radiography showed no superiority in any of the evaluated regions, and failed in the detection of extramedullary massess and spine involvement. WB-MRI was best at imaging the spine including extramedullary involvement, however, detection of osteolytic lesions of the skull was limited in comparison with both CR and LD-CT. Both WB-MRI and LD-CT were comparable in imaging of lesions of pelvis, humerus, femur and the presence of extramedullary masses. LD-CT showed superiority in detection of skull lesions but lower sensitivity in spine compared to WB-MRI. Our results confirm that relying solely on CR in the diagnostics of MM is insufficient. We suggest that the most suitable method for primary assessment of osteolytic involvement in monoclonal gammopathies should include either whole-body MRI together with CR of the skull or, with an equivalent sensitivity, whole body LD-CT.

  11. Patient satisfaction with coronary CT angiography, myocardial CT perfusion, myocardial perfusion MRI, SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and conventional coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feger, S.; Rief, M.; Zimmermann, E.; Richter, F.; Roehle, R. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany); Schoenenberger, E. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate patient acceptance of noninvasive imaging tests for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), including single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI), stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coronary CT angiography (CTA) in combination with CT myocardial stress perfusion (CTP), and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Intraindividual comparison of perception of 48 patients from the CORE320 multicentre multinational study who underwent rest and stress SPECT-MPI with a technetium-based tracer, combined CTA and CTP (both with contrast agent, CTP with adenosine), MRI, and CCA. The analysis was performed by using a validated questionnaire. Patients had significantly more concern prior to CCA than before CTA/CTP (p < 0.001). CTA/CTP was also rated as more comfortable than SPECT-MPI (p = 0.001). Overall satisfaction with CT was superior to that of MRI (p = 0.007). More patients preferred CT (46 %; p < 0.001) as a future diagnostic test. Regarding combined CTA/CTP, CTP was characterised by higher pain levels and an increased frequency of angina pectoris during the examination (p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a higher degree of pain during SPECT-MPI with adenosine stress compared to physical exercise (p = 0.016). All noninvasive cardiac imaging tests are well accepted by patients, with CT being the preferred examination. (orig.)

  12. Cerebral blood volume imaging by flat detector computed tomography in comparison to conventional multislice perfusion CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struffert, Tobias; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu; Kloska, Stephan; Engelhorn, Tobias; Boese, Jan; Zellerhoff, Michael; Schwab, Stefan; Doerfler, Arnd

    2011-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that Flat Detector computed tomography (FD-CT) with intravenous contrast medium would allow the calculation of whole brain cerebral blood volume (CBV) mapping (FD-CBV) and would correlate with multislice Perfusion CT (PCT). Twenty five patients were investigated with FD-CBV and PCT. Correlation of the CBV maps of both techniques was carried out with measurements from six anatomical regions from both sides of the brain. Mean values of each region and the correlation coefficient were calculated. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to compare the two different imaging techniques. The image and data quality of both PCT and FD-CBV were suitable for evaluation in all patients. The mean CBV values of FD-CBV and PCT showed only minimal differences with overlapping standard deviation. The correlation coefficient was 0.79 (p < 0.01). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -0.077 ± 0.48 ml/100 g between FD-CBV and PCT CBV measurements, indicating that FD-CBV values were only slightly lower than those of PCT. CBV mapping with intravenous contrast medium using Flat Detector CT compared favourably with multislice PCT. The ability to assess cerebral perfusion within the angiographic suite may improve the management of ischaemic stroke and evaluation of the efficacy of dedicated therapies.

  13. Building the image of modern art : the rhetoric of two museums and the representation and canonization of modern art (1935-1975) : the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Modern Art in New York

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leigh, Nana

    2008-01-01

    The Rhetoric of Two Museums and the Representation and Canonization of Modern Art (1935-1975): The Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Modern Art in New York Museums of modern art have determined the course of modern art history. Their contributions to the representation and

  14. Building the image of modern art : the rhetoric of two museums and the representation and canonization of modern art (1935-1975) : the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Modern Art in New York

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leigh, Nana

    2008-01-01

    The Rhetoric of Two Museums and the Representation and Canonization of Modern Art (1935-1975): The Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Modern Art in New York Museums of modern art have determined the course of modern art history. Their contributions to the representation and canoniz

  15. A Dosimetric Comparison between Conventional Fractionated and Hypofractionated Image-guided Radiation Therapies for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Gao-Feng Li; Xiu-Yu Hou; Hong Gao; Yong-Gang Xu; Ting Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Background:Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the preferred method for curative treatment of localized prostate cancer,which could improve disease outcome and reduce normal tissue toxicity reaction.IGRT using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in combination with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) potentially allows smaller treatment margins and dose escalation to the prostate.The aim of this study was to compare the difference of dosimetric diffusion in conventional IGRT using 7-field,step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated IGRT using VMAT for patients with localized prostate cancer.Methods:We studied 24 patients who received 78 Gy in 39 daily fractions or 70 Gy in 28 daily fractions to their prostate with/without the seminal vesicles using IMRT (n =12) or VMAT (n =12) for prostate cancer between November 2013 and October 2015.Image guidance was performed using kilovoltage CBCT scans equipped on the linear accelerator.Offline planning was performed using the daily treatment images registered with simulation computed tomography (CT) images.A total of 212 IMRT plans in conventional cohort and 292 VMAT plans in hypofractionated cohort were enrolled in the study.Dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images registered with the planning CT scanner.Results:Compared with 7-field,step-and-shoot IMRT,VMAT plans resulted in improved planning target volume (PTV) D95% (7663.17 ± 69.57 cGy vs.7789.17 ± 131.76 cGy,P < 0.001).VMAT reduced the rectal D25 (P < 0.001),D35 (P < 0.001),and D50 (P < 0.001),bladder V50 (P < 0.001),D25 (P =0.002),D35 (P =0.028),and D50 (P =0.029).However,VMAT did not statistically significantly reduce the rectal V50,compared with 7-field,step-and-shoot IMRT (25.02 ± 5.54% vs.27.43 ± 8.79%,P =0.087).Conclusions:To deliver the hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer,VMAT significantly increased PTV D95% dose and decreased the dose of radiation delivered to adjacent

  16. A Dosimetric Comparison between Conventional Fractionated and Hypofractionated Image-guided Radiation Therapies for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Gao-Feng; Hou, Xiu-Yu; Gao, Hong; Xu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the preferred method for curative treatment of localized prostate cancer, which could improve disease outcome and reduce normal tissue toxicity reaction. IGRT using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in combination with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) potentially allows smaller treatment margins and dose escalation to the prostate. The aim of this study was to compare the difference of dosimetric diffusion in conventional IGRT using 7-field, step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated IGRT using VMAT for patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods: We studied 24 patients who received 78 Gy in 39 daily fractions or 70 Gy in 28 daily fractions to their prostate with/without the seminal vesicles using IMRT (n = 12) or VMAT (n = 12) for prostate cancer between November 2013 and October 2015. Image guidance was performed using kilovoltage CBCT scans equipped on the linear accelerator. Offline planning was performed using the daily treatment images registered with simulation computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 212 IMRT plans in conventional cohort and 292 VMAT plans in hypofractionated cohort were enrolled in the study. Dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images registered with the planning CT scanner. Results: Compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT, VMAT plans resulted in improved planning target volume (PTV) D95% (7663.17 ± 69.57 cGy vs. 7789.17 ± 131.76 cGy, P V50 (P statistically significantly reduce the rectal V50, compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT (25.02 ± 5.54% vs. 27.43 ± 8.79%, P = 0.087). Conclusions: To deliver the hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer, VMAT significantly increased PTV D95% dose and decreased the dose of radiation delivered to adjacent normal tissues comparing to 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT. Daily online image-guidance and better management of bladder and rectum could make a more precise

  17. Multicomponent Seismic Imaging of the Cheyenne Belt: Data Improvement Through Non-Conventional Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. A.; Shoshitaishvili, E.; Sorenson, L. S.

    2001-12-01

    The Cheyenne Belt in southeastern Wyoming separates Archean Wyoming Craton from accreted juvenile Proterozoic crust making it one of the fundamental sutures in the Proterozoic assemblage of western North America. As one of the multidisciplinary components of the Continental Dynamics - Rocky Mountains Transect project (CDROM), reflection seismic data were acquired from south-central Wyoming to central Colorado to characterize crustal structure associated with this boundary and younger Proterozoic shear zones to the south. In addition to acquisition of more conventional vertical-component data, 3-component data were acquired to better constrain rock properties and reflection directionality, providing information that tends to be lost with one-component recording. In order to achieve the highest possible signal-to-noise ratios in the processed data, considerable work was focused on removal of noise caused by private vehicles driving on forest roads during active recording and, perhaps more problematical, harmonic noise generated from power-line and other electrical-equipment interference. Noise generated from these sources was successfully attenuated using 1) short-window 2D FFT filtering to remove irregular, high-amplitude vehicular noise, and 2) harmonic-noise-subtraction algorithms developed at the University of Arizona to remove harmonic electrical-induction noise. This latter filtering procedure used a time-domain-based method of automatic estimation of noise frequencies and their amplitudes, followed by subtraction of these estimated anomalous harmonics from the data. Since the technique estimates the best fit of noise for the entire trace, subtraction of the noise avoids many of the deleterious effects of simple notch filtering. After noise removal, it was possible to pick both P-wave and S-wave first arrivals and model shallow subsurface rock properties. This model provides a link between deeper events and the surface geology.

  18. The Value of Conventional Echocardiographic and Tissue Doppler Imaging in the Diagnosis of Cardiac Amyloidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHANG; Mingxing XIE; Xinfang WANG; Yali YANG; Junhong HUANG; Ming CHENG; Feixiang XIANG; Qing LU

    2008-01-01

    Transthoracic echocardiographic characteristics of 17 cases of cardiac amyloidosis (CA),a rare disease in China, were analyzed in order to improve the understanding of the disease. Seventeen cases of biopsy-proven CA, admitted to Wuhan Union Hospital from June 1994 to September 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty normal volunteers served as control group. Left atrial and ventricular functions and mitral inflow velocity were measured by two-dimensional, and Doppler echocardiography, and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-derived peak systolic wall motion velocities (Sv), peak early diastolic wall motion velocities (Ev), and peak late diastolic wall motion (Av) were measured at the septunm. Lateral, inferior and anterior comers of mitral annulus from the apical 4- and 2 chamber views. Compared with the control group, the interventricular septal thickness (IVSd), the left ventricular posterior wall (LVPWd), right ventricular transverse diameter (RVTDd) near the end of diastole and the interauricular septum thickness (IASs), left atrial anteroposterior diameter (LAADs), right atrial transverse diameter (RATDs) near the end of systole were increased significantly (all P<0.05) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased (P<0.05) in the CA group.Compared with the control group, Sv, Ev at each wall and Av at almost all walls were significantly decreased in the CA group. In the CA group, Myocardial echoes of interventricular septum and free wall of left ventricle were enhanced evidently and distributed unevenly. The echoes presented as ground glass-like images, with some spotty hyper echoes. Both atria were enlarged, and LVEF decreased, with diastolic function impaired, and mild-moderate hydropericardium found in the CA group. It was concluded that echocardiography was a relatively sensitive and highly specific non-invasive method for the diagnosis of CA.

  19. Volumetric Image Guidance Using Carina vs Spine as Registration Landmarks for Conventionally Fractionated Lung Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Caroline; Higgins, Jane; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Sun, Alexander; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bezjak@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative accuracy of 2 image guided radiation therapy methods using carina vs spine as landmarks and then to identify which landmark is superior relative to tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: For 98 lung patients, 2596 daily image-guidance cone-beam computed tomography scans were analyzed. Tattoos were used for initial patient alignment; then, spine and carina registrations were performed independently. A separate analysis assessed the adequacy of gross tumor volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume coverage on cone-beam computed tomography using the initial, middle, and final fractions of radiation therapy. Coverage was recorded for primary tumor (T), nodes (N), and combined target (T+N). Three scenarios were compared: tattoos alignment, spine registration, and carina registration. Results: Spine and carina registrations identified setup errors {>=}5 mm in 35% and 46% of fractions, respectively. The mean vector difference between spine and carina matching had a magnitude of 3.3 mm. Spine and carina improved combined target coverage, compared with tattoos, in 50% and 34% (spine) to 54% and 46% (carina) of the first and final fractions, respectively. Carina matching showed greater combined target coverage in 17% and 23% of fractions for the first and final fractions, respectively; with spine matching, this was only observed in 4% (first) and 6% (final) of fractions. Carina matching provided superior nodes coverage at the end of radiation compared with spine matching (P=.0006), without compromising primary tumor coverage. Conclusion: Frequent patient setup errors occur in locally advanced lung cancer patients. Spine and carina registrations improved combined target coverage throughout the treatment course, but carina matching provided superior combined target coverage.

  20. The Vikings are coming! A modern Icelandic self-image in the light of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Nielsen Gremaud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the connection between the economic crisis in Iceland in 2008 and the role of Viking imagery in the collective self-image of Iceland. This connection is informed by Iceland’s status as a Danish dependency for centuries – a condition that deeply affected the development of Icelandic self-perception and its cultural life. In recent years, the Viking has appeared as an image of central cultural significance in Iceland’s international relations with both Denmark and Great Britain in recent years. This article explores the connection between the sensational rise and fall of the so-called útrásarvíkingar (ex-pansion Vikings, or Icelandic businessmen, and the effect of Iceland being a former dependency of Denmark on the general function of the Viking image in Iceland’s collective identity. Thus, a postcolonial approach sheds light on how imagological representations of Vikings have affected modern Icelandic identity conceptualizations.

  1. Peripheral MRA with continuous table movement: Imaging speed and robustness compared to a conventional stepping table technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziel, Katrin [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Attenberger, Ulrike I., E-mail: ulrike.attenberger@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Lederle, Kai; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of continuous table movement (CTM)-MRA for reduction of acquisition time and to evaluate the image quality in comparison to conventional stepping table (CST) MRA. Materials and methods: The data of 82 patients were included in this retrospective, IRB-approved study. All patients underwent peripheral MRA at our institution. 41 consecutive patients were examined with a CST-MRA at a 1.5 T MR system. 41 different consecutive patients were examined with a CTM-MRA at 3.0 T MR system. Image quality was assessed by two independent radiologists in consensus on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to compare image acquisition time of CST-MRA to that of CTM-MRA with and without additional time-resolved imaging of the feet using the TWIST technique. Additionally, acquisition time was compared in a subgroup of the fastest 50%. Results: The mean imaging time for the CTM-MRA was 34% less than with the CST-MRA (18.2 min vs. 27.5 min; p < 0.0001). Even with inclusion of the TWIST sequence the combined CTM-/TWIST-MRA protocol was 26% faster (20.3 min vs. 27.5 min; p < 0.0001). The image quality was slightly better with CTM-MRA (CTM-MRA mean score 3.3 {+-} 0.5, mean score CST-MRA 2.9 {+-} 0.6). Venous overlay was significantly lower using the CTM-MRA approach (CTM-MRA mean score 2.8 {+-} 0.4; CST-MRA mean score 2.2 {+-} 0.7; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: CTM-MRA is on average 30% faster than a comparable CST-MRA protocol with equal image quality. Even when adding an additional time-resolved-MRA of the calf station the CTM-MRA protocol is still 26% faster. In conclusion, this study proves that CTM-MRA further improves MRA by reducing user interference and image acquisition times and hence allowing to increase the clinical throughput.

  2. Imaging of cochlear implant electrode array with flat-detector CT and conventional multislice CT: comparison of image quality and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struffert, Tobias; Hertel, Victoria; Kyriakou, Yannis; Krause, Jens; Engelhorn, Tobias; Schick, Bernhard; Iro, Heinrich; Hornung, Joachim; Doerfler, Arnd

    2010-04-01

    Cochlear implantation assessment is possible using commercially available standard flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT) protocols. Image quality is superior to multislice CT (MSCT). The radiation dose of FD-CT is lower in comparison with MSCT standard protocols and may therefore overcome the limitations of MSCT in the evaluation of cochlear implants. FD-CT offers higher spatial resolution than MSCT. Our objective was to compare the image quality of FD-CT to conventional MSCT in the visualization of a cochlear implant electrode array with respect to radiation exposure. An isolated temporal bone specimen was scanned using a commercially available FD-CT system and a 4 and 64 row MSCT scanner. Different scanning protocols were used. Image quality was assessed by four independent readers using a scoring system with different criteria describing delineation of the cochlea and the electrode array, image noise and spatial resolution. Radiation dose was measured using the CT dose index (CTDI) and a 16 cm acrylic phantom. Image quality was rated superior for FD-CT for all criteria by all readers. Single electrode contacts were only visible in FD-CT and assessment of implant position was improved by FD-CT. The radiation dose of FD-CT was half that of MSCT standard protocols.

  3. Applications of single kernel conventional and hyperspectral imaging near infrared spectroscopy in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen; Manley, Marena

    2014-01-30

    Single kernel (SK) near infrared (NIR) reflectance and transmittance technologies have been developed during the last two decades for a range of cereal grain physical quality and chemical traits as well as detecting and predicting levels of toxins produced by fungi. Challenges during the development of single kernel near infrared (SK-NIR) spectroscopy applications are modifications of existing NIR technology to present single kernels for scanning as well as modifying reference methods for the trait of interest. Numerous applications have been developed, and cover almost all cereals although most have been for key traits including moisture, protein, starch and oil in the globally important food grains, i.e. maize, wheat, rice and barley. An additional benefit in developing SK-NIR applications has been to demonstrate the value in sorting grain infected with a fungus or mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and aflatoxins. However, there is still a need to develop cost-effective technologies for high-speed sorting which can be used for small grain samples such as those from breeding programmes or commercial sorting; capable of sorting tonnes per hour. Development of SK-NIR technologies also includes standardisation of SK reference methods to analyse single kernels. For protein content, the use of the Dumas method would require minimal standardisation; for starch or oil content, considerable development would be required. SK-NIR, including the use of hyperspectral imaging, will improve our understanding of grain quality and the inherent variation in the range of a trait. In the area of food safety, this technology will benefit farmers, industry and consumers if it enables contaminated grain to be removed from the human food chain. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Standardised uptake values from PET/CT images: comparison with conventional attenuation-corrected PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souvatzoglou, M.; Ziegler, S.I.; Martinez, M.J.; Dzewas, G.; Schwaiger, M.; Bengel, F. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Busch, R. [Institut fuer Epidemiologie und Statistik der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    In PET/CT, CT-derived attenuation factors may influence standardised uptake values (SUVs) in tumour lesions and organs when compared with stand-alone PET. Therefore, we compared PET/CT-derived SUVs intra-individually in various organs and tumour lesions with stand-alone PET-derived SUVs. Thirty-five patients with known or suspected cancer were prospectively included. Sixteen patients underwent FDG PET using an ECAT HR+scanner, and subsequently a second scan using a Biograph Sensation 16PET/CT scanner. Nineteen patients were scanned in the reverse order. All images were reconstructed with an iterative algorithm (OSEM). Suspected lesions were grouped as paradiaphragmatic versus distant from the diaphragm. Mean and maximum SUVs were also calculated for brain, lung, liver, spleen and vertebral bone. The attenuation coefficients ({mu} values) used for correction of emission data (bone, soft tissue, lung) in the two data sets were determined. A body phantom containing six hot spheres and one cold cylinder was measured using the same protocol as in patients. Forty-six lesions were identified. There was a significant correlation of maximum and mean SUVs derived from PET and PET/CT for 14 paradiaphragmatic lesions (r=0.97 respectively; p<0.001 respectively) and for 32 lesions located distant from the diaphragm (r=0.87 and r=0.89 respectively; p<0.001 respectively). No significant differences were observed in the SUVs calculated with PET and PET/CT in the lesions or in the organs. In the phantom, radioactivity concentration in spheres calculated from PET and from PET/CT correlated significantly (r=0.99; p<0.001). SUVs of cancer lesions and normal organs were comparable between PET and PET/CT, supporting the usefulness of PET/CT-derived SUVs for quantification of tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of narrow-band imaging and conventional nasopharyngoscopy for the screening of unaffected members of families with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Yin; Chan, Kee-Tak; Chu, Pen-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Familial aggregation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been widely reported. The excess risk is about 4-8-fold among first-degree relatives of NPC patients compared with those without a family history of the disease. We used nasopharyngoscopy and a narrow-band image system (NBI) to screen NPC high-risk patients and identify a good tool for the early detection of NPC in these high-risk groups. We recruited all available, affected blood relations of the patients. When NPC patients were more distant relatives, such as cousins, we recruited their shared second-degree relatives, such as unaffected aunts and uncles, to genetically connect the NPC cases. We performed transnasal endoscopy, first in white-light mode, then under the NBI system. There were two NBI patterns in NPC: microvascular proliferation and engorged blood vessels. The NBI pattern in normal nasopharyngeal mucosa was a regular cobblestone pattern. A prospective study included 211 asymptomatic members from 154 NPC families. We found four cases of NPC, all with a tumor stage of T1. In one patient (1/4), MRI revealed a 2-cm-diameter neck lymphadenopathy (N1). The correlation between conventional nasopharyngoscopy and NBI was very high (κ = 0.798, P = 0.000). In conclusions, NBI is not superior to conventional nasopharyngoscopy for the early detection of NPC in unaffected members of families with NPC history. The long-term follow-up is necessary in high-risk NPC patients. Further studies will be needed to determine which screening tool-conventional nasopharyngoscopy, NBI, or EB virus titer-is most effective.

  6. A study on evaluating validity of SNR calculation using a conventional two region method in MR images applied a multichannel coil and parallel imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwan Woo; Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Beong Gyu; Lee, Jong Seok [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the problems of a signal to noise ratio measurement using a two region measurement method that is conventionally used when using a multi-channel coil and a parallel imaging technique. As a research method, after calculating the standard SNR using a single channel head coil of which coil satisfies three preconditions when using a two region measurement method, we made comparisons and evaluations after calculating an SNR by using a two region measurement method of which method is problematic because it is used without considering the methods recommended by reputable organizations and the preconditions at the time of using a multi-channel coil and a parallel imaging technique. We found that a two region measurement method using a multi-channel coil and a parallel imaging technique shows the highest relative standard deviation, and thus shows a low degree of precision. In addition, we found out that the difference of SNR according to ROI location was very high, and thus a spatial noise distribution was not uniform. Also, 95% confidence interval through Blend-Altman plot is the widest, and thus the conformity degree with a two region measurement method using the standard single channel head coil is low. By directly comparing an AAPM method, which serves as a standard of a performance evaluation test of a magnetic resonance imaging device under the same image acquisition conditions, an NEMA method which can accurately determine the noise level in a signal region and the methods recommended by manufacturers of a magnetic resonance imaging device, there is a significance in that we quantitatively verified the inaccurate problems of a signal to noise ratio using a two region measurement method when using a multi-channel coil and a parallel imaging technique of which method does not satisfy the preconditions that researchers could overlook.

  7. Differentiation between early rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy persons by conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal; Ejbjerg, B J; Hetland, M L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameter that best differentiates healthy persons and patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigated responsiveness to treatment of various MRI parameters. METHOD: Conventional MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE......)-MRI of the hand were performed once for 26 healthy persons, and before and after 6 and 12 months of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment for 14 early RA patients, using a 1.0-T MRI unit. One-slice DCE-MRI was analysed using Dynamika version 4.2. The number of enhancing voxels (Nvoxel...... was demonstrated in 61.5% of healthy persons and in 91.7% of RA patients at baseline, with a median Nvoxel of 3 and 362, respectively. At baseline, all parameters were higher for patients than for healthy persons (all p ≤ 0.003). Only one patient had a baseline RAMRIS synovitis score below the 95th percentile...

  8. CRYPTOGRAPHY OF A GRAY LEVEL IMAGE AND A COLOR IMAGE USING MODERN ADVANCED HILL CIPHER INCLUDING A PAIR OF INVOLUTORY MATRICES AS MULTIPLICANDS AND INVOLVING A SET OF FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Samson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation we have developed a procedure for the encryption of an image by applying modern advanced Hill Cipher including a pair of involutory matrices as multiplicands and a set of functions. Firstly we have obtained an encrypted image of a gray level image. Then this analysis is extended to an RGB color image. Here it is interesting to note that the encrypted image of the gray level image and the encrypted image of the color image do not have any resemblance with their corresponding original images. This fact ensures security of images in an effective manner. .

  9. Harnessing Diversity in Wheat to Enhance Grain Yield, Climate Resilience, Disease and Insect Pest Resistance and Nutrition Through Conventional and Modern Breeding Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E.; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K.; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A.; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P.

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance. PMID:27458472

  10. Metal stearate distributions in modern artists' oil paints: surface and cross-sectional investigation of reference paint films using conventional and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Gillian; Boon, Jaap J; Puskar, Ljiljana; Drennan, John

    2012-10-01

    Zinc oxide is a prevalent industrial-age pigment that readily reacts with fatty acids in oil-based paints to form zinc carboxylates. Zinc stearate aggregates are associated with deterioration in late nineteenth and twentieth century paintings. The current study uses both conventional and synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate metal carboxylate composition in a range of naturally aged artists' oil paints and reference paint film draw-downs. The paints contain zinc oxide alone or in combination with lead white, titanium white, and aluminum stearate and are prepared with linseed and safflower oils. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FT-IR using the conventional source identifies marked differences in carboxylate profiles between exposed and protected surfaces in a large number of samples. Synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy of thin paint cross-sections maps metal carboxylate distributions at high spatial resolution and resolves broad concentration gradients and micrometer-scale phase separation of carboxylate species. Aluminum stearate, a common paint additive, is found to influence the distribution of zinc carboxylates more strongly than pigment composition or oil type. The presence of aluminum stearate results in higher concentrations and more pronounced separation of saturated C16 and C18 chain zinc carboxylates in the margin of paint nearest the polyester substrate. The presence of aluminum stearate in association with zinc oxide has a clear influence on zinc carboxylate formation and distribution, with potential implications for long term stability of vulnerable paintings.

  11. Feasibility and evaluation of dual-source transmit 3D imaging of the orbits: Comparison to high-resolution conventional MRI at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Achim, E-mail: achim.seeger@gmx.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Schulze, Maximilian, E-mail: maximilian.schulze@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Schuettauf, Frank, E-mail: fschuettauf@uni-tuebingen.de [University Eye Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Schleichstrasse 12, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Klose, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.klose@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Ernemann, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.ernemann@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Hauser, Till-Karsten, E-mail: till-karsten.hauser@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Reduced FOV imaging enables a 3D approach for a very fast assessment of the orbits. • Conventional MRI exhibited higher eSNR values and consecutively higher scores for overall image quality in the subjective readers’ analysis. • All pathologies could be detected compared to high-resolution conventional MRI making 3D pTX SPACE to a potential alternative and fast imaging technique. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of orbital MR images obtained by using a dual-source parallel transmission (pTX) 3D sequence (Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolution, SPACE) with the image quality of conventional high-resolution standard protocol for clinical use in patients at 3T. Materials and methods: After obtaining institutional review board approval and patient consent, 32 patients with clinical indication for orbital MRI were examined using a high-resolution conventional sequences and 3D pTX SPACE sequences. Quantitative measurements, image quality of the healthy orbit, incidence of artifacts, and the subjective diagnostic performance to establish diagnosis was rated. Statistical significance was calculated by using a Student's t-test and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Length measurements were comparable in the two techniques, 3D pTX SPACE resulted in significant faster image acquisition with higher spatial resolution and less motion artifacts as well as better delineation of the optic nerve sheath. However, estimated contrast-to-noise and signal-to-noise and overall image quality as well as subjective scores of the conventional TSE imaging were rated significantly higher. The conventional MR sequences were the preferred techniques by the readers. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of 3D pTX SPACE of the orbit resulting in a rapid acquisition of isotropic high-resolution images. Although no pathology was

  12. Osveshhenie sovremennyh rossijskih innovacij v SMI Danii [The image of modern Russian innovations in the Danish mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko Arkady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to identify the attitude of the Danish mass media to modern Russian innovations. The research is timely because of the Russian interest in the experience of Denmark — one of the "innovation leaders" of the EU. The author analyses a number of publications on Russia in the Danish mass media. The positive image of Russian innovations in Danish periodicals is analysed against the background of historical stereotypes. The article also describes the Danish national innovation system. The image of Russian innovations in the Danish mass media is positive; however, the articles dedicated to Russian innovations constitute a small part of reports on developments in Russia. The article also contributes to social surveys carried out in Denmark through introducing new data. The research results can be used by politicians, scholars and social activists interested in the relations with Denmark.

  13. Characterization of Cystic Breast Masses on Ultrasound: Comparative Study among Conventional, Tissue Harmonic, Compound, and a Combination of Tissue Harmonic and Compound Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Ji Yung; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Baek Hyun [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Young [Institute of Economics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This prospective study was to compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of breast cystic masses by conventional and advanced ultrasound (US) techniques including tissue harmonic, compound, and the combination of these techniques. All 91 patients, collectively having 109 breast cystic masses were scanned using four US techniques (complicated cysts in 36, septated cysts in 33, and complex cysts in 40). Two breast radiologists independently assessed the image quality and possibility of malignancy. Image quality was evaluated in terms of contrast and clarity of the wall and internal echo pattern and then graded on a scale of 1 (poor) to grade 3 (satisfactory). The possibility of malignancy was graded on a scale of 1 (suggestive of benignancy) to 5 (suggestive of malignancy) using US images. The histopathological results and follow-up images were used as the reference standard for the assessment of diagnostic performance. Results were evaluated by Friedman's test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. In terms of image quality, a grade of 3 was significantly more frequent in the three advanced US techniques than conventional US (p < 0.05). For assessment of diagnostic performance, areas under the ROC curves in three advanced techniques were significantly higher than in conventional US (p < 0.05). Advanced US techniques including compound and tissue harmonic US techniques provide a better image quality in breast cystic masses and also improve the diagnostic performance compared with conventional US

  14. Validation of quantitative brain dopamine D2 receptor imaging with a conventional single-head SPET camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, P. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry); Liewendahl, K. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry); Savolainen, S. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics); Launes, J. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Neurology)

    1993-08-01

    Phantom measurements were performed with a conventional single-head single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera in order to validate the relevance of the basal ganglia/frontal cortex iodine-123 iodobenzamide (IBZM) uptake ratios measured in patients. Inside a cylindrical phantom (diameter 22 cm), two cylinders with a diameter of 3.3 cm were inserted. The activity concentrations of the cylinders ranged from 6.0 to 22.6 kBq/ml and the cylinder/background activity ratios varied from 1.4 to 3.8. From reconstructed SPET images the cylinder/background activity ratios were calculated using three different regions of interest (ROIs). A linear relationship between the measured activity ratio and the true activity ratio was obtained. In patient studies, basal ganglia/frontal cortex IBZM uptake ratios determined from the reconstructed slices using attentuation correction prior to reconstruction were 1.30 [+-]0.03 in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 9), 1,33 [+-]0.09 in infantile and juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (n = 7) and 1.34 [+-]0.05 in narcolepsy (n = 8). Patients with Huntington's disease had significantly lower ratios (1.09 [+-]0.04, n = 5). The corrected basal ganglia/frontal cortex ratios, determined using linear regression, were about 80 % higher. The use of dual-window scatter correction increased the measured ratios by about 10 %. Although comprehensive correction methods can further improve the resolution in SPET images, the resolution of the SPET system used by us (1.5 - 2 cm) will determine what is achievable in basal ganglia D2 receptor imaging. (orig.)

  15. Value of surveillance {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT in colorectal cancer:comparison with conventional imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Park, Hye Lim; Choi, Hyun Su; Han, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; O, Joo Hyun [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To assess the value of PET/CT for detecting local or distant recurrence in patients who undergo surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC)and to compare the accuracy of PET/CT to that of conventional imaging studies (CIS). Tumor surveillance PET/CT scans done between March 2005 and December 2009 of disease free patients after surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for CRC were retrospectively studied. CIS (serial enhanced CT from lung base to pelvis and plain chest radiograph)were performed within 1 month of PET/CT. We excluded patients with distant metastasis on initial staging, a known recurrent tumor, and a lack of follow up imaging. The final diagnosis was based on at least 6 months of follow up with colonoscopy, biopsy, and serial imaging studies in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen levels. A total of 262 PET/CT scans of 245 patients were included. Local and distant recurrences were detected in 27 cases (10.3%). On case based analysis, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100, 97.0, and 97.3% for PET/CT and 85.1, 97.0, and 95.8% for CIS, respectively. On lesion based analysis, PET/CT detected more lesions compared to CIS in local recurrence and lung metastasis. PET/CT and CIS detected the same number of lesions in abdominal lymph nodes, hepatic metastasis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. PET/CT detected two more metachronous tumors than did CIS in the lung and thyroid gland. PET/CT detected more recurrences in patients who underwent surgery for CRC than did CIS and had the additional advantage of evaluating the entire body during a single scan.

  16. AN ANALYSIS ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL IMAGE AND INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR IN MODERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat OKTAY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the organizational image and innovative organizational citizenship behavior and how these variables vary with of socio-demographic factors. The research uses both the relational and descriptive methods. Scores of both organizational image and innovative organi- zational citizenship behavior are obtained from a 937 survey with 5-point Likert scale. Regression analysis results showed that the organizational image is a statistically significant determinant of the innovative organizational citizenship behavior. The ANOVA and post-hoc analyses results show that age, experience, position, permanent or temporary work status, title, and education show that both the organizational image perception and the innovative organizational citizenship behavior scores significantly improves with age, experience, title level. However, as the level of education rises the organizational image scores significantly declines, but no significant impact of education level on innovative organizational citizenship behavior is observed.

  17. "Living well but looking good: a modern health dichotomy": a brief overview on women's body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalina Shiraishi Kakeshita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Living well but looking good. This health dichotomy is among the majors concerns in modern Western societies, especially for women. But what is "living well"? And what does it mean to "look good"? Are these concepts exclusionary or are they related in females' minds? In this paper, we sought to discuss such approaches by defining these terms, highlighting the current role of women within our society, and the importance of the body to Brazilian women. Moreover, the possible consequences on health of having a negative perception of the own body are raised, including its relation to physical activity.

  18. Conventional 3T brain MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the diagnostic workup of early stage parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, Frederick J.A. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rumund, Anouke van; Tuladhar, Anil M.; Aerts, Marjolein B.; Titulaer, Imke; Esselink, Rianne A.J.; Bloem, Bastiaan R. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Verbeek, Marcel M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Goraj, Bozena [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Medical Center of Postgraduate Education, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the diagnostic accuracy of 3 T brain MRI is improved by region of interest (ROI) measures of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to differentiate between neurodegenerative atypical parkinsonism (AP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) in early stage parkinsonism. We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 60 patients presenting with early stage parkinsonism and initial uncertain diagnosis. At baseline, patients underwent a 3 T brain MRI including DTI. After clinical follow-up (mean 28.3 months), diagnoses could be made in 49 patients (30 PD and 19 AP). Conventional brain MRI was evaluated for regions of atrophy and signal intensity changes. Tract-based spatial statistics and ROI analyses of DTI were performed to analyze group differences in mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), and diagnostic thresholds were determined. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional brain MRI and DTI was assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Significantly higher MD of the centrum semiovale, body corpus callosum, putamen, external capsule, midbrain, superior cerebellum, and superior cerebellar peduncles was found in AP. Significantly increased MD of the putamen was found in multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian form (MSA-P) and increased MD in the midbrain and superior cerebellar peduncles in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI to identify AP as a group was not improved by ROI measures of MD, though the diagnostic accuracy to identify MSA-P was slightly increased (AUC 0.82 to 0.85). The diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI to identify AP as a group was not improved by the current analysis approach to DTI, though DTI measures could be of added value to identify AP subgroups. (orig.)

  19. Post mortem magnetic resonance imaging in the fetus, infant and child: A comparative study with conventional autopsy (MaRIAS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayyil Sudhin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimally invasive autopsy by post mortem magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been suggested as an alternative for conventional autopsy in view of the declining consented autopsy rates. However, large prospective studies rigorously evaluating the accuracy of such an approach are lacking. We intend to compare the accuracy of a minimally invasive autopsy approach using post mortem MR imaging with that of conventional autopsy in fetuses, newborns and children for detection of the major pathological abnormalities and/or determination of the cause of death. Methods/Design We recruited 400 consecutive fetuses, newborns and children referred for conventional autopsy to one of the two participating hospitals over a three-year period. We acquired whole body post mortem MR imaging using a 1.5 T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions, Enlargen, Germany prior to autopsy. The total scan time varied between 90 to 120 minutes. Each MR image was reported by a team of four specialist radiologists (paediatric neuroradiology, paediatric cardiology, paediatric chest & abdominal imaging and musculoskeletal imaging, blinded to the autopsy data. Conventional autopsy was performed according to the guidelines set down by the Royal College of Pathologists (UK by experienced paediatric or perinatal pathologists, blinded to the MR data. The MR and autopsy data were recorded using predefined categorical variables by an independent person. Discussion Using conventional post mortem as the gold standard comparator, the MR images will be assessed for accuracy of the anatomical morphology, associated lesions, clinical usefulness of information and determination of the cause of death. The sensitivities, specificities and predictive values of post mortem MR alone and MR imaging along with other minimally invasive post mortem investigations will be presented for the final diagnosis, broad diagnostic categories and for specific diagnosis of each system

  20. Comparison of conventional and novel PET tracers for imaging mesothelioma in nude mice with subcutaneous and intrapleural xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Atsushi B.; Sogawa, Chizuru; Sugyo, Aya [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sudo, Hitomi [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Pathology and Oncology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Toyohara, Jun [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 206-8670 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Abe, Masaaki; Hino, Okio [Department of Pathology and Oncology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Harada, Yoshi-nobu; Furukawa, Takako [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazutoshi [Molecular Probe Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Saga, Tsuneo [Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: saga@nirs.go.jp

    2009-05-15

    Introduction: Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor originating in the pleura, peritoneum and pericardium, and the prognosis of patients undergoing current treatment remains poor. To develop new therapies, it is important to have a noninvasive imaging system for evaluating the efficacy of such prospective treatments. We have established clinically relevant mouse models and evaluated conventional and novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. Methods: Epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells were inoculated subcutaneously and intrapleurally into nude mice. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were conducted by injecting [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), 3'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3'-doxythymidine (FLT) or 4'-methyl-[{sup 11}C]thiothymidine (S-dThd) into the mouse models. In vitro cellular uptake of [{sup 14}C]FDG and [{sup 3}H]FLT and thymidine kinase 1 (TK{sub 1}) activity in both cell lines were measured. Expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and Ki-67 in xenografted tumors was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Results: In epithelioid mesothelioma models, biodistribution experiments showed that tumor uptake of [{sup 11}C]S-dThd was significantly higher than that of [{sup 18}F]FDG. On the other hand, in sarcomatoid models, [{sup 18}F]FDG showed significantly higher accumulation than the other two tracers. These differential uptakes of the three tracers were confirmed by PET imaging. The cellular uptake of [{sup 14}C]FDG and [{sup 3}H]FLT and TK{sub 1} activity in sarcomatoid cells were higher than those of epithelioid cells. GLUT-1 protein was strongly expressed in sarcomatoid but not in epithelioid tumor. We observed a high percentage of Ki-67-positive cells in both epithelioid and sarcomatoid tumors. Conclusions: We established nude mouse models of epithelioid and sarcomatoid subtypes of mesothelioma. PET tracers applicable for the evaluation of epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma would vary

  1. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (IIDL): Conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings in 42 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelblinger, Claus; Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kubin, Klaus [CT/MRI Institut Dr. Klaus Kubin, Salzburg (Austria); Wallner-Blazek, Mirja [Department of Neurology, Medical University Graz, Graz (Austria); Hauwe, Luc van den [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Macedo, Leonardo [Department of Radiology, CEDIMAGEM, Centro - Juiz de Fora (Brazil); Puchner, Stefan B. [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Thurnher, Majda M., E-mail: majda.thurnher@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR imaging characteristics with conventional and advanced MR imaging techniques in patients with IIDL. Methods: MR images of the brain in 42 patients (20 male, 22 female) with suspected or known multiple sclerosis (MS) from four institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Lesions were classified into five different subtypes: (1) ring-like lesions; (2) Balo-like lesions; (3) diffuse infiltrating lesions; (4) megacystic lesions; and (5) unclassified lesions. The location, size, margins, and signal intensities on T1WI, T2WI, and diffusion-weighted images (DWI), and the ADC values/ratios for all lesions, as well as the contrast enhancement pattern, and the presence of edema, were recorded. Results: There were 30 ring-like, 10 Balo-like, 3 megacystic-like and 16 diffuse infiltrating-like lesions were detected. Three lesions were categorized as unclassified lesions. Of the 30 ring-like lesions, 23 were hypointense centrally with a hyperintense rim. The mean ADC, measured centrally, was 1.50 ± 0.41 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. The mean ADC in the non-enhancing layers of the Balo-like lesions was 2.29 ± 0.17 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, and the mean ADC in enhancing layers was 1.03 ± 0.30 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. Megacystic lesions had a mean ADC of 2.14 ± 0.26 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. Peripheral strong enhancement with high signal on DWI was present in all diffuse infiltrating lesions. Unclassified lesions showed a mean ADC of 1.43 ± 0.13 mm{sup 2}/s. Conclusion: Restriction of diffusion will be seen in the outer layers of active inflammation/demyelination in Balo-like lesions, in the enhancing part of ring-like lesions, and at the periphery of infiltrative-type lesions.

  2. Added value of amide proton transfer imaging to conventional and perfusion MR imaging for evaluating the treatment response of newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kye Jin; Kim, Ho Sung; Park, Ji Eun; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Smith, Seth A. [Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To determine the added value of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging to conventional and perfusion MRI for differentiating tumour progression (TP) from the treatment-related effect (TE) in patients with post-treatment glioblastomas. Sixty-five consecutive patients with enlarging contrast-enhancing lesions following concurrent chemoradiotherapy were assessed using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI (CE-T1WI), 90th percentile histogram parameters of normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV90) and APT asymmetry value (APT90). Diagnostic performance was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and cross validations. There were statistically significant differences in the mean APT90 between the TP and the TE groups (3.87-4.01 % vs. 1.38-1.41 %; P <.001). Compared with CE-T1WI alone, the addition of APT90 to CE-T1WI significantly improved cross-validated AUC from 0.58-0.74 to 0.89-0.91 for differentiating TP from TE. The combination of CE-T1WI, nCBV90 and APT90 resulted in greater diagnostic accuracy for differentiating TP from TE than the combination of CE-T1WI and nCBV90 (cross-validated AUC, 0.95-0.97 vs. 0.84-0.91). The inter-reader agreement between the expert and trainee was excellent for the measurements of APT90 (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.94). Adding APT imaging to conventional and perfusion MRI improves the diagnostic performance for differentiating TP from TE. (orig.)

  3. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past.

  4. Diagnostic performance of the three-dimensional fast spin echo-Cube sequence in comparison with a conventional imaging protocol in evaluation of the lachrymal drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Lang; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Zhu, Wen-Zhen; Luo, Xin; Peng, Li [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan (China); Liu, Rong [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan (China); Xiong, Wei [GE Healthcare China Wuhan Office, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-15

    To compare the three-dimensional (3D)-fast spin-echo (FSE)-Cube with a conventional imaging protocol in evaluation of dacryostenosis. Thirty-three patients with epiphora underwent examinations using Cube magnetic resonance dacryocystography (MRD) and a conventional protocol, which included 3D fast-recovery fast spin-echo (FRFSE) MRD and two-dimensional (2D)-FSE sequences at 3.0 T. Using lachrymal endoscopic findings as the reference standard, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of both protocols for detecting lachrymal drainage system (LDS) obstruction and their accuracies in depicting the level of obstruction. Comparable coronal and axial images were selected for bot sequences. Two neuroradiologists graded paired images for blurring, artefacts, anatomic details, and overall image quality. The two methods showed no significant difference in sensitivity (89.5 % vs. 94.7 %; p =0.674), specificity (64.3 %; p =1) or accuracy (86.8 %; p =1) in detecting or depicting LDS obstruction. Blurring and artefacts were significantly better on 2D-FSE images (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). Anatomic details were significantly better on Cube reformats (p <0.001). No significant difference existed in overall image quality (p >0.05). In comparison with the conventional protocol, Cube MRD demonstrates satisfactory image quality and similar diagnostic capability for cases of possible LDS disease. (orig.)

  5. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT compared to conventional imaging modalities in pediatric primary bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Stege, Claudia; Kaspers, Gertjan [VU Medical Centre, Divisions of Paediatric Oncology/Haematology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cross, Siobhan; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Oncology, Sydney (Australia); Onikul, Ella [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia); Graf, Nicole [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Pathology, Sydney (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Imaging, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-04-15

    F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in adults with primary bone tumors. Limited published data exist in children. To compare hybrid FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with conventional imaging (CI) modalities in detecting malignant lesions, predicting response to chemotherapy and diagnosing physeal involvement in pediatric primary bone tumors. Retrospective analysis of PET/CT and CI reports with histopathology or follow-up > 6 months as reference standard. Response parameters and physeal involvement at diagnosis were compared to histopathology. A total of 314 lesions were detected in 86 scans. Excluding lung lesions, PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity than CI (83%, 98% and 78%, 97%, respectively). In lung lesions, PET/CT had higher specificity than CI (96% compared to 87%) but lower sensitivity (80% compared to 93%). Higher initial SUV{sub max} and greater SUV{sub max} reduction on PET/CT after chemotherapy predicted a good response. Change in tumor size on MRI did not predict response. Both PET/CT and MRI were very sensitive but of low specificity in predicting physeal tumor involvement. PET/CT appears more accurate than CI in detecting malignant lesions in childhood primary bone tumors, excluding lung lesions. It seems better than MRI at predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. (orig.)

  6. Accuracy of Whole-Body DWI for Metastases Screening in a Diverse Group of Malignancies: Comparison With Conventional Cross-Sectional Imaging and Nuclear Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruthikunnan, Samir Mustaffa; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Karegowda, Lakshmikanth Halegubbi

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the role of whole-body (WB) DWI as a screening modality for the detection of metastases and to compare it to conventional cross-sectional imaging modalities or nuclear scintigraphy in a population with various histopathologic malignancies. WB DWI and conventional imaging (CT, MRI, or scintigraphy) were performed for patients with known malignancies for metastatic workup, and these patients were followed up for a period of 1 year. Two radiologists assessed WB DW images separately, and conventional images were assessed by the senior radiologist. The metastatic lesions were classified into four regions: liver, lung, skeletal system, and lymph nodes. The reference standard was considered on the basis of histopathologic confirmation or clinical follow-up of the metastatic lesions. WB DWI was slightly inferior to conventional imaging modalities for the detection of hepatic metastases (sensitivity, 86.6% vs 93.3%; specificity, 91.6% vs 95.8%; and accuracy, 89.7% vs 94.8%) and skeletal metastases (sensitivity, 81.8% vs 89.4%; specificity, 86.4% vs 94.3%; and accuracy, 85.2% vs 93.0%); however, the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.625 for hepatic metastases and p = 0.0953 for skeletal metastases, McNemar test). WB DWI was statistically significantly inferior to conventional imaging for the detection of lymph node metastases (sensitivity, 74.0% vs 81.5%; specificity, 87.9% vs 90.1%; accuracy, 81.4% vs 86.0%; p = 0.0389). WB DWI was statistically significantly inferior to conventional imaging for the detection of pulmonary metastases (sensitivity, 33.3% vs 100.0%; specificity, 90.9% vs 100.0%; accuracy, 60.8% vs 100.0%; p = 0.045). WB DWI can be used for screening hepatic and skeletal metastases, but its reliability as the sole imaging sequence for the detection of lymph nodal and pulmonary metastases is poor and, at present, it cannot replace conventional imaging modalities.

  7. Image quality for five modern chest radiography techniques: a modified FROC study with an anthropomorphic chest phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, L G; Kheddache, S; Lanhede, B; Tylén, U

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the image quality for one conventional and four digital chest radiography techniques. Three storage phosphor systems, one selenium drum system, and one film-screen system were compared using a modified receiver-operating-characteristics method. Simulated pathology was randomly positioned over the parenchymal regions and the mediastinum of an anthropomorphic phantom. Eight observers (four chest radiologists, one specialist in general radiology, one hospital physicist, and two radiographers) evaluated 60 images for each technique. The selenium drum system (Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) rated best for the detection of parenchymal nodules. Together with the storage phosphor system of generation IIIN (Philips/Fuji), the selenium drum system also rated best for detection of thin linear structures. The storage phosphor system of generation V (Fuji) rated best for the detection of mediastinal nodules. The first generation of the storage phosphor system from Agfa (Mortsel, Belgium) rated worst for the detection of parenchymal nodules and thin linear structures. These differences were significant (p drum system and the storage phosphor system of generation V were significantly better than the other systems tested. The film/screen system performed significantly better than the first-generation storage phosphor system from Agfa, equal to the generation IIIN storage phosphor system (Philips/Fuji) and significantly worse than the selenium drum system (Philips) and the generation-V storage phosphor system (Fuji). The conclusion is therefore that the image quality of selenium-based digital technique and of the more recent generations of storage phosphor systems is superior to both conventional technique and storage phosphor systems using image plates of older types.

  8. Molecular targeted therapy in modern oncology: Imaging assessment of treatment response and toxicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, Katherine M.; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Shinagare, Atul B. [Dept. of of Imaging, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with a shift toward personalized cancer treatment. The use of therapies targeted to the molecular features of individual tumors and the tumor microenvironment has become much more common. In this review, anti-angiogenic and other molecular targeted therapies are discussed, with a focus on typical and atypical response patterns and imaging manifestations of drug toxicities.

  9. Red in Tooth and Claw? Images of Nature in Modern Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    Questions whether the mediated experience provided by picture books contributes toward or hinders a realistic and appropriate appreciation of the natural world. Argues that picture books present highly misleading images of animals and their habitats. Examines a few exceptional books that give an accurate and sensitive account of the animal kingdom…

  10. The Image of Russia Formed by Means of Modern Russian Paper Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhandzhugazova, Elena A.; Layko, Mikhail Y.; Ilina, Elena L.; Latkin, Aleksander N.; Valedinskaya, Ekaterina N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem posed in the article is caused by the fact that under current conditions it is necessary to develop a comprehensive, but a complete image of Russia as a huge Eurasian state on the basis of effective use of scientific and practical approaches proposed by marketing of territories and tools used in the practice of…

  11. Readout-segmented echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging in the assessment of orbital tumors: comparison with conventional single-shot echo-planar imaging in image quality and diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoquan; Wang, Yanjun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guoyi; Liu, Hu; Shi, Haibin; Wu, Feiyun

    2017-01-01

    Background Readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RS-EPI) could improve the imaging quality of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in various organs. However, whether it could improve the imaging quality and diagnostic performance for the patients with orbital tumors is still unknown. Purpose To compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of RS-EPI DWI with that of conventional single-shot EPI (SS-EPI) DWI in patients with orbital tumors. Material and Methods SS-EPI and RS-EPI DW images of 32 patients with pathologically diagnosed orbital tumors were retrospectively analyzed. Qualitative imaging parameters (imaging sharpness, geometric distortion, ghosting artifacts, and overall imaging quality) and quantitative imaging parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], signal-to-noise ratio [SNR], contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) were assessed by two independent radiologists, and compared between SS-EPI and RS-EPI DWI. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the diagnostic value of ADC in differentiating malignant from benign orbital tumors. Results RS-EPI DW imaging produced less geometric distortion and ghosting artifacts, and better imaging sharpness and overall imaging quality than SS-EPI DWI (for all, P P P P P = 0.137). There was no significant difference on the diagnostic performance between SS-EPI and RS-EPI DWI, when using ADC as the differentiating index ( P = 0.529). Conclusion Compared with SS-EPI, RS-EPI DWI provided significantly better imaging quality and comparable diagnostic performance in differentiating malignant from benign orbital tumors.

  12. Determination of optimal imaging mode for ultrasonographic detection of subdermal contraceptive rods: comparison of spatial compound, conventional, and tissue harmonic imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjun; Seo, Kyung; Song, Ho-Taek; Suh, Jin-Suck; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Park, Jeong Seon; Kim, Ah Hyun; Park, Ah Young; Kim, Yaena

    2012-01-01

    To determine which mode of ultrasonography (US), among the conventional, spatial compound, and tissue-harmonic methods, exhibits the best performance for the detection of Implanon® with respect to generation of posterior acoustic shadowing (PAS). A total of 21 patients, referred for localization of impalpable Implanon®, underwent US, using the three modes with default settings (i.e., wide focal zone). Representative transverse images of the rods, according to each mode for all patients, were obtained. The resulting 63 images were reviewed by four observers. The observers provided a confidence score for the presence of PAS, using a five-point scale ranging from 1 (definitely absent) to 5 (definitely present), with scores of 4 or 5 for PAS being considered as detection. The average scores of PAS, obtained from the three different modes for each observer, were compared using one-way repeated measure ANOVA. The detection rates were compared using a weighted least square method. Statistically, the tissue harmonic mode was significantly superior to the other two modes, when comparing the average scores of PAS for all observers (p tissue harmonic mode (p Tissue harmonic mode in uS appears to be the most suitable in detecting subdermal contraceptive implant rods.

  13. Determination of Optimal Imaging Mode for Ultrasonographic Detection of Subdermal Contraceptive Rods: Comparison of Spatial Compound, Conventional, and Tissue Harmonic Imaging Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Seo, Kyung; Song, Ho Taek; Park, Ah Young; Kim, Yaena; Yoon, Choon Sik [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jin Suck; Kim, Ah Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jeong Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To determine which mode of ultrasonography (US), among the conventional, spatial compound, and tissue-harmonic methods, exhibits the best performance for the detection of Implanon with respect to generation of posterior acoustic shadowing (PAS). A total of 21 patients, referred for localization of impalpable Implanon, underwent US, using the three modes with default settings (i.e., wide focal zone). Representative transverse images of the rods, according to each mode for all patients, were obtained. The resulting 63 images were reviewed by four observers. The observers provided a confidence score for the presence of PAS, using a five-point scale ranging from 1 (definitely absent) to 5 (definitely present), with scores of 4 or 5 for PAS being considered as detection. The average scores of PAS, obtained from the three different modes for each observer, were compared using one-way repeated measure ANOVA. The detection rates were compared using a weighted least square method. Statistically, the tissue harmonic mode was significantly superior to the other two modes, when comparing the average scores of PAS for all observers (p < 0.00-1). The detection rate was also highest for the tissue harmonic mode (p < 0.001). Tissue harmonic mode in US appears to be the most suitable in detecting subdermal contraceptive implant rods.

  14. Translation of atherosclerotic plaque phase-contrast CT imaging from synchrotron radiation to a conventional lab-based X-ray source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Saam

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Phase-contrast imaging is a novel X-ray based technique that provides enhanced soft tissue contrast. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of visualizing human carotid arteries by grating-based phase-contrast tomography (PC-CT at two different experimental set-ups: (i applying synchrotron radiation and (ii using a conventional X-ray tube. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five ex-vivo carotid artery specimens were examined with PC-CT either at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility using a monochromatic X-ray beam (2 specimens; 23 keV; pixel size 5.4 µm, or at a laboratory set-up on a conventional X-ray tube (3 specimens; 35-40 kVp; 70 mA; pixel size 100 µm. Tomographic images were reconstructed and compared to histopathology. Two independent readers determined vessel dimensions and one reader determined signal-to-noise ratios (SNR between PC-CT and absorption images. RESULTS: In total, 51 sections were included in the analysis. Images from both set-ups provided sufficient contrast to differentiate individual vessel layers. All PCI-based measurements strongly predicted but significantly overestimated lumen, intima and vessel wall area for both the synchrotron and the laboratory-based measurements as compared with histology (all p0.53 per mm(2, 95%-CI: 0.35 to 0.70. Although synchrotron-based images were characterized by higher SNRs than laboratory-based images; both PC-CT set-ups had superior SNRs compared to corresponding conventional absorption-based images (p0.98 and >0.84 for synchrotron and for laboratory-based measurements; respectively. CONCLUSION: Experimental PC-CT of carotid specimens is feasible with both synchrotron and conventional X-ray sources, producing high-resolution images suitable for vessel characterization and atherosclerosis research.

  15. Detectability comparison of simulated objects within a dense breast phantom using high energy x-ray phase sensitive and conventional imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Wei; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the detectability of simulated objects within a dense breast phantom using high energy x-rays for phase sensitive breast imaging in comparison with a conventional imaging system. A 5 cm thick phantom was used which represented a compressed breast consisting of 70% glandular and 30% adipose tissue ratio in non-uniform background. The phantom had a 6 × 6 matrix of holes with milled depths ranging from 1 to 0.1 mm and diameters ranging from 4.25 to 0.25 mm representing simulated tumors. The in-line phase sensitive prototype was equipped with a micro-focus x-ray source and a flat panel detector with a 50 μm pixel pitch, both mounted on an optical rail. Phase contrast image of the phantom was acquired at 120 kVp, 4.5 mAs at source to object distance (SOD) of 68 cm and source to image detector distance (SIDD) of 170 cm with a geometric magnification (M) of 2.5. A 2.5 mm aluminum (Al) filter was used for beam hardening. The conventional image was acquired using the same porotype with the phantom in contact with the detector at 40 kVp, 12.5 mAs under SID = 68 cm. The mean glandular dose (Dg) for both the acquisitions was 1.3 mGy. The observer study and CNR analyses indicated that the phase contrast image had higher disk detectability as compared to the conventional image. The edge enhancement provided by the phase sensitive images warrants in identifying boundaries of malignant tissues and in providing optimal results in phase retrieval process. The potential demonstrated by this study for imaging a dense breast with a high energy phase sensitive x-ray imaging to improve tumor detection in warrants further investigation of this technique.

  16. SU-E-I-39: Combining Conventional Tomographic Imaging Strategy and Interior Tomography for Low Dose Dual-Energy CT (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Xing, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Xiong, G; Elmore, K; Min, J [Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging, New York- Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) affords quantitative information of tissue density and provides a new dimension for disease diagnosis and treatment planning. The technique, however, increases the imaging dose because of the doubled scans, and thus hinders its widespread clinical applications. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel hybrid DECT image acquisition and reconstruction strategy, in which one of the energies is dealt by interior tomography while the other one is obtained using conventional tomography approach. Methods: In the proposed hybrid imaging strategy, the projection data of one of the energies (e.g., high-energy) were acquired and processed in an interior scanning model, whereas the other energy in the conventional tomographic approach. It known that, if the ROI is piecewise constant or polynomial, the interior ROI can be reconstructed with TV or HOT minimization. Here we extend the TV based interior reconstruction method into dual-energy situation. The ROI images so obtained were overlaid in the context of conventional CT of the companion energy. A material based composition in ROI was used in the proposed reconstruction framework. Results: In the simulation experiment with a diagnostic DECT geometry and energies, we were able to derive the densities of soft-tissues and bones in the ROI with high fidelity. In the experimental CBCT study, both kV and MV data were collected using the on-board kV and MV imaging system. The MV data were truncated only across the ROI. Using the interior tomography reconstruction above, we were able to obtain the ROI images as that obtained using un-truncated MV data with known tissue densities. Conclusion: The proposed DECT imaging strategy provides an effective way to extract tissue density information in the ROI and in the context of anatomical images of CT imaging, with much reduced imaging dose.

  17. [Successful surgical management of aortico-left ventricular tunnel using modern noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartyánszky, István; Katona, Márta; Kádár, Krisztina; Apor, Asztrid; Varga, Sándor; Simon, Judit; Tóth, Attila; Karácsony, Tünde; Bogáts, Gábor

    2015-07-12

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel is a rare congenital cardiac defect, which bypasses the aortic valve via the paravalvar connection from the aorta to the left ventricle. The authors present the case of a 14-year-old boy with aortico-left ventricular tunnel in whom the aortic orifice arose from the right aortic sinus and was closed by a pericardial patch. The diagnosis was confirmed by combined two-dimensional and real time three-dimensional echocardiogram and magnetic resonance imaging. This is the first case, in which these complex diagnostic imaging methods have been used in the pre- and postoperative management of this defect. Optimally the new transthoratic three-dimensional echocardiography would be needed to define the anatomy and functional consequences of the aortico-left ventricular tunnel and in the postoperative follow-up.

  18. The phenotypic flexibility of the visceral organs of pythons during digestion revealed by modern imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Tobias Wang

    the visceral organs and intestines. Fasting Burmese pythons (Python molurus) were scanned before and at 2, 16, 24, 40, 48, 72 and 132 hours after ingestion of one rat. Acquired images revealed a gradual disappearance of the meal accompanied by an overall expansion of the intestine, shrinking of the gallbladder......, and a 30% increase in heart volume. These immediate responses following ingestion are consistent with previous invasive studies of pythons. In conclusion, our study showed that MRI and CT are capable to repeatedly and non-invasively image the phenotypic flexibility of internal organs in vertebrates.......Pythons, renowned for their abilities to fast for manybmonths and ingest very large meals, exhibit extreme physiological adaptations to their “sit-and-wait predator” lifestyle. In particular, the size and function of their visceral organs are rapidly up- and downregulated during the transitions...

  19. The phenotypic flexibility of the visceral organs of pythons during digestion revealed by modern imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Tobias Wang

    Pythons, renowned for their abilities to fast for manybmonths and ingest very large meals, exhibit extreme physiological adaptations to their “sit-and-wait predator” lifestyle. In particular, the size and function of their visceral organs are rapidly up- and downregulated during the transitions...... the visceral organs and intestines. Fasting Burmese pythons (Python molurus) were scanned before and at 2, 16, 24, 40, 48, 72 and 132 hours after ingestion of one rat. Acquired images revealed a gradual disappearance of the meal accompanied by an overall expansion of the intestine, shrinking of the gallbladder......, and a 30% increase in heart volume. These immediate responses following ingestion are consistent with previous invasive studies of pythons. In conclusion, our study showed that MRI and CT are capable to repeatedly and non-invasively image the phenotypic flexibility of internal organs in vertebrates....

  20. [Possibilities of modern imaging technologies in early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unschuld, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging technology and image analysis algorithms have significantly contributed to a better understanding of spatial and temporal aspects of brain change associated with Alzheimer Disease. The current review will demonstrate how functional (fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques may be used to identify distinct patterns of brain change associated with disease progression and also increased risk for Alzheimer Disease. Moreover, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based measures of glucosemetabolism (Fluorodeoxyglucose, FDG) and Amyloid-beta plaque density (11-C-Pittsburgh Compound B, PiB and 18-F) will be reviewed regarding their diagnostic value for assessing the individual degree of Alzheimer -pathology and thus complement the information provided by MRI and other clinical measures.

  1. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallanes, L., E-mail: lorena.magallanes@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Rinaldi, I., E-mail: ilaria.rinaldi@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University Clinic (Dep. Radiation Therapy and Radiation Oncology). Im Neuenheimer Feld 400 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Ludwig Maximilians University Munich. Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Brons, S., E-mail: stephan.brons@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Im Neuenheimer Feld 450 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Marcelos, T., E-mail: tiago.marcelos@physik.uni-muenchen.de; Parodi, K., E-mail: katia.parodi@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Ludwig Maximilians University Munich. Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Takechi, M., E-mail: m.takechi@gsi.de [GSI Heimholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research. Planckstraße 1, 64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Voss, B., E-mail: b.voss@gsi.de [GSI Heimholte Center for Heavy Ion Research. Planckstraße 1, 64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Jäkel, O., E-mail: o.jaekel@dkfz-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University Clinic (Dep. Radiation Therapy and Radiation Oncology). Im Neuenheimer Feld 400 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Im Neuenheimer Feld 450 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Im N (Germany)

    2014-11-07

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  2. Robert's uterus: modern imaging techniques and ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic treatment without laparoscopy or laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwin, A; Ludwin, I; Martins, W P

    2016-10-01

    Robert's uterus is a unique malformation, described as a septate uterus with a non-communicating hemicavity, consisting of a blind uterine horn usually with unilateral hematometra, a contralateral unicornuate uterine cavity and a normally shaped external uterine fundus. The main symptom in affected young women is pelvic pain that becomes intensified near menses. We describe the case of a 22-year-old woman who was referred for diagnostic assessment and treatment of a congenital uterine anomaly. We used three-dimensional sonohysterography with volume-contrast imaging, HDLive rendering mode and automatic volume calculation (SonoHysteroAVC) for the diagnosis, surgical planning and postoperative evaluation. These imaging techniques provided a complete understanding of the internal and external uterine structures, enabling us to perform a minimally invasive hysteroscopic metroplasty, guided by transrectal ultrasound, and therefore avoiding the need for laparotomy/laparoscopy. The outcome of treatment was considered satisfactory; menstruation ceased to be painful and, after two hysteroscopic procedures, the communicating 0.3-cm(3) hemicavity was visualized as a 3.6-cm(3) normalized uterine cavity using the same imaging techniques. The findings of this case report raise questions about the embryological origin of Robert's uterus, the suitability of current classification systems, and the role of more invasive approaches (laparoscopy/laparotomy) and surgical procedures (horn resection/endometrectomy) that do not aim to improve uterine cavity shape and volume in women with this condition. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallanes, L.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.; Rinaldi, I.; Parodi, K.

    2014-11-01

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  4. Ultrasonography of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Klarlund, Mette; Narvestad, E.;

    2006-01-01

    ultrasonography can provide information on signs of inflammation and destruction in RA finger joints that are not available with conventional radiography and clinical examination, and comparable to the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The second to fifth metacarpophalangeal and proximal...

  5. THE LONGITUDINAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT INVESTIGATED USING MODERN SOLAR IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouillard, A. P. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), Toulouse (France); Sheeley, N. R.; Tylka, A.; Vourlidas, A.; Rakowski, C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ng, C. K. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mason, G. M. [Applied Physics Laboratory, John Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Reames, D. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, Greenbelt, MD 20742 (United States); Savani, N. P. [University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); StCyr, O. C.; Szabo, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    We use combined high-cadence, high-resolution, and multi-point imaging by the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory to investigate the hour-long eruption of a fast and wide coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2011 March 21 when the twin STEREO spacecraft were located beyond the solar limbs. We analyze the relation between the eruption of the CME, the evolution of an Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) wave, and the onset of a solar energetic particle (SEP) event measured in situ by the STEREO and near-Earth orbiting spacecraft. Combined ultraviolet and white-light images of the lower corona reveal that in an initial CME lateral 'expansion phase', the EUV disturbance tracks the laterally expanding flanks of the CME, both moving parallel to the solar surface with speeds of {approx}450 km s{sup -1}. When the lateral expansion of the ejecta ceases, the EUV disturbance carries on propagating parallel to the solar surface but devolves rapidly into a less coherent structure. Multi-point tracking of the CME leading edge and the effects of the launched compression waves (e.g., pushed streamers) give anti-sunward speeds that initially exceed 900 km s{sup -1} at all measured position angles. We combine our analysis of ultraviolet and white-light images with a comprehensive study of the velocity dispersion of energetic particles measured in situ by particle detectors located at STEREO-A (STA) and first Lagrange point (L1), to demonstrate that the delayed solar particle release times at STA and L1 are consistent with the time required (30-40 minutes) for the CME to perturb the corona over a wide range of longitudes. This study finds an association between the longitudinal extent of the perturbed corona (in EUV and white light) and the longitudinal extent of the SEP event in the heliosphere.

  6. Contribution of modern medical imaging technology to radiation health effects in exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I,

    1980-11-01

    The introduction of technically-advanced imaging systems in medicine carries with it potential health hazards, particularly from ionizing and nonionizing radiation exposure of human populations. This paper will discuss what we know and what we do not know about the health effects of low-level radiation, how the risks of radiation-induced health effects may be estimated, the sources of the scientific data, the dose-response models used, the uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess health risks from low-level radiation, and what the implications might be for radiation protection in medicine and public health policy.

  7. Management of Combat Vascular Injuries Using Modern Imaging: Are We Getting Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy S. Nitecki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vascular injuries often result in life threatening hemorrhage or limb loss. When they present with a single entry or exit wound, surgery is immediately indicated. With multiple injuries, however, imaging such as CTA is necessary for diagnosis and choice of treatment. Methods. For all combat-related vascular cases admitted to our medical center during the Lebanon wars in 1982 and 2006, we compiled and compared presenting signs and symptoms, means of diagnosis, treatments, and results. Results. 126 patients with vascular injuries were admitted (87 in 1982, 39 in 2006. 90% were male; mean age of 29 years (range 20–53. All injuries were accompanied by insult to soft tissue, bones, and viscera. 75% presented with injury to arteries in the extremities. 75% of these patients presented with limb ischemia, and 25% sustained massive blood loss. Treatments included venous interposition graft, end-to-end anastomosis, venous patch, endovascular technique (only in 2006, and ligation/observation. Complications included thrombosis and wound infections. Mortality and amputations occurred only in 1982, and this may be attributed to the use of imaging, advanced technique, and shorter average time from injury to hospital (7 hours. Conclusions. We recommend CTA as the first line modality for diagnosis of vascular injuries, as its liberal use allowed for early and appropriate treatment. Treatment outcomes improved with fast and effective resuscitation, liberal use of tourniquets and fasciotomies, and meticulous treatment by a multidisciplinary team.

  8. Automatic treatment of flight test images using modern tools: SAAB and Aeritalia joint approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelldahl, A.; Duranti, P.

    The use of onboard cine cameras, as well as that of on ground cinetheodolites, is very popular in flight tests. The high resolution of film and the high frame rate of cinecameras are still not exceeded by video technology. Video technology can successfully enter the flight test scenario once the availability of solid-state optical sensors dramatically reduces the dimensions, and weight of TV cameras, thus allowing to locate them in positions compatible with space or operational limitations (e.g., HUD cameras). A proper combination of cine and video cameras is the typical solution for a complex flight test program. The output of such devices is very helpful in many flight areas. Several sucessful applications of this technology are summarized. Analysis of the large amount of data produced (frames of images) requires a very long time. The analysis is normally carried out manually. In order to improve the situation, in the last few years, several flight test centers have devoted their attention to possible techniques which allow for quicker and more effective image treatment.

  9. Mechanism of disease in early osteoarthritis: application of modern MR imaging techniques -- a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobke, Bjoern; Bolbos, Radu; Saadat, Ehsan; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of early cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1ρ relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MRI sequence, T1ρ, was able to detect early intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-weighted sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future.

  10. A Test of the DSP Sexing Method on CT Images from a Modern French Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestekova, Sarka; Bruzek, Jaroslav; Veleminska, Jana; Chaumoitre, Kathia

    2015-09-01

    The hip bone is considered to be one of the most reliable indicators in sex determination. The aim of this study was to test the reliability of the DSP method for the hip bone proposed by Murail et al. (Bull Mem Soc Anthropol Paris, 17, 2005, 167) on a sample from a present-day population in France (52 males and 54 females). Ten linear measurements were collected from three-dimensional models derived from computed tomography images (CTI). To quantify the proportions of correct sex determinations, a more rigorous posterior probability threshold of 0.95 was applied. Using all 10 measurements, 92.3% of males and 97.2% of females were sexed correctly. The percentage of undetermined specimens varied depending on the used combination of measurements; however, all sexes were assigned with a 100% accuracy. This study proves that DSP is an appropriate and reliable tool for sex determination, based on dimensions obtained from CTI. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. The combined use of conventional MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging increases the diagnostic accuracy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Amedeo [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Cocozza, Sirio, E-mail: siriococozza@hotmail.it [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Saccà, Francesco [Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Giorgio, Sara M.d.A. [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Morra, Vincenzo Brescia [Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Tedeschi, Enrico [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Marsili, Angela; Vacca, Giovanni [Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Palma, Vincenzo [U.O.C. Neurofisiopatologia, PO S. Gennaro ASL Napoli 1, Naples (Italy); Brunetti, Arturo [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Quarantelli, Mario [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council, Naples (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We assessed in ALS the diagnostic accuracy of MRI signal and MRS data used alone and in combination. • We found that T2-hypointensity and NAA decrease in motor cortex are two independent phenomena. • These two variables taken alone do not provide acceptable diagnostic accuracy in ALS. • The same variables, when used in combination, improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in ALS. - Abstract: Purpose: We aimed to assess, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the diagnostic accuracy of the combined use of conventional MRI signal changes (namely, hypointensity of the precentral cortex and hyperintensity of the corticospinal tracts on T2-weighted images), and N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA) reduction in the motor cortex at Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), which are affected by limited diagnostic accuracy when used separately. Methods: T2-hypointensity and NAA/(Choline + Creatine) ratio of the precentral gyrus and T2-hyperintensity of the corticospinal tracts were measured in 84 ALS patients and 28 healthy controls, using a Region-of-Interest approach. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated using Fisher stepwise discriminant analysis, and cross-validated using the leave-one-out method. Results: Precentral gyrus T2 signal intensity (p < 10{sup −4}) and NAA peak (p < 10{sup −6}) were significantly reduced in patients, and their values did not correlate significantly to each other both in patients and controls, while no significant differences were obtained in terms of T2-hyperintensity of the corticospinal tract. Sensitivity and specificity of the two discriminant variables, taken alone, were 71.4% and 75.0%, for NAA peak, and 63.1% and 71.4% for T2-hypointensity, respectively. When using these two variables in combination, a significant increase in sensitivity (78.6%) and specificity (82.1%) was achieved. Conclusions: Precentral gyrus T2-hypointensity and NAA peak are not significantly correlated in ALS patients, suggesting that they

  12. Two-lens designs for modern uncooled and cooled IR imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert; Franks, John

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, thermal detectors with a 17 μm pixel pitch have become well-established for use in various applications, such as thermal imaging in cars. This has allowed the civilian infrared market to steadily mature. The main cost for these lens designs comes from the number of lenses used. The development of thermal detectors, which are less sensitive than quantum detectors, has compelled camera manufacturers to demand very fast F-numbers such as f/1.2 or faster. This also minimizes the impact of diffraction in the 8-12 μmm waveband. The freedom afforded by the choice of the stop position in these designs has been used to create high-resolution lenses that operate near the diffraction limit. Based on GASIR®1, a chalcogenide glass, two-lens designs have been developed for all pixel counts and fields of view. Additionally, all these designs have been passively athermalized, either optically or mechanically. Lenses for cooled quantum detectors have a defined stop position called the cold stop (CS) near the FPA-plane. The solid angle defined by the CS fixes not only the F-number (which is less fast than for thermal detectors), but determines also the required resolution. The main cost driver of these designs is the lens diameter. Lenses must be sufficiently large to avoid any vignetting of ray bundles intended to reach the cooled detector. This paper studies the transfer of approved lens design principles for thermal detectors to lenses for cooled quantum detectors with CS for same pixel count at three horizontal fields of view: a 28° medium field lens, an 8° narrow field lens, and a 90° wide field lens. The lens arrangements found for each category have similar lens costs.

  13. Low tube voltage computed tomography urography using low-concentration contrast media: Comparison of image quality in conventional computed tomography urography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Inpyeong; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Oh, Seung-June; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Lee, Joongyup; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and image quality of excretory CT urography performed using low iodine-concentration contrast media and low tube voltage. This prospective study enrolled 63 patients who undergoing CT urography. The subjects were randomized into two groups of an excretory phase CT urography protocol and received either 240 mg I/mL of contrast media and 80 kVp of tube voltage (low-concentration protocol, n=32) or 350 mg I/mL and 120 kVp (conventional protocol, n=31). Two readers qualitatively evaluated images for sharpness of the urinary tract, image noise, streak artifact and overall diagnostic acceptability. The mean attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and figure of merit were measured in the urinary tract. The non-inferiority test assessed the diagnostic acceptability between the two protocol groups. The low-concentration protocol showed a significantly lower effective radiation dose (3.44 vs. 5.70 mSv, Pconcentration protocol with iterative reconstruction algorithm than in the conventional protocol (4.06±0.45 vs. 4.50±0.37, Pconcentration protocol along the entire urinary tract (Pmedia, 80 kVp tube voltage and an iterative reconstruction algorithm is beneficial to reduce radiation dose and iodine load, and its objective image quality and subjective diagnostic acceptability is not inferior to that of conventional CT urography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of nanometer-isolated trench diffract aerial image of both conventional and second-generation synchrotron-based proximity x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changqing; Chen, Dapeng; Liu, Ming; Ye, Tianchun; Yi, Futing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Beam Propagation Method (BPM) with Fast Fourier Transforms(FFT) is employed to efficiently calculate the diffract image in the wafer plane for both conventional and second generation synchrotron-based proximity x-ray lithography(PXL). In the simulation, a dark-field isolated space pattern silicon nitride/Ta x-ray mask is used for conventional PXL and a diamond /Ta x-ray mask is used for second generation PXL, the diffract image"s dependency on absorber thickness, mask-wafer gap, effective total blur, linewidth and absorber sidewall slope has been numerically evaluated. For conventional PXL, in order to obtain a isolated trench resolution of 50nm, the mask-wafer gap should be controlled below 5 micron, the optimization condition is mask-wafer gap 5 micron, Ta absorber thickness 300nm, effective total blur 10nm, absorber sidewall slope 3°, the corresponding aerial image contrast is 0.457; For second generation, in order to obtain a isolated trench resolution of 50nm, the mask-wafer gap can be as large as 10 micron. In order to obtain a isolated trench resolution of 35nm, mask-wafer gap should be controlled below 5 micron.

  15. Conventional Radiographs and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Analysis of Trochlear Dysplasia: The Influence of Selected Levels on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, Philippe Matthias; Wanivenhaus, Florian; Fucentese, Sandro F

    2017-04-01

    Trochlear dysplasia is one of the most important risk factors for recurrent patellar instability. It is defined on true lateral conventional radiographs (CR) and axial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The type of trochlear dysplasia is decisive for surgical treatment; however, low agreement between CR and MRI has been reported. To compare the Dejour classification of trochlear dysplasia on CR and axial MRI using differing levels defined in the literature. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. The 4-type classification of trochlear dysplasia by Dejour was used to analyze 228 knees with recurrent patellar dislocations on true lateral CR and axial MRI. The 2-type modification of the Dejour classification was also similarly analyzed. Measurements on axial MRI were performed at 3 different levels: MR1, the most proximal level where the intercondylar notch forms a "Roman arch"; MR2, 3 cm above the joint line; and MR3, the midpatellar height. MR1 was measured at a mean distance of 29 ± 3.5 mm and MR3 at a mean of 38 ± 5.8 mm above the joint line. MR1 and MR2 were always measured on the cartilaginous trochlea, whereas 52% of MR3 was found more proximally. Overall agreement was fair between CR and MR1/MR2 (31.1%/25.4%, respectively) and highest for MR3 (45.2%; P fair agreement, especially when the supratrochlear region of the distal femur is not analyzed on axial MRI. MRI analysis that considers the cartilaginous trochlea only tends to underestimate the severity of dysplasia according to Dejour. For a more precise evaluation of trochlear dysplasia, the entire distal femur should be analyzed on axial MRI.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in children with headache: the clinical relevance with modern acquisition techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibert, Phillipp Fridolin; Piroth, Werner; Mansour, Michael; Haage, Patrick; Langer, Thorsten; Borusiak, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of abnormal findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with headache, the clinical relevance of these findings, and whether more sophisticated technologies also result in more relevant abnormal findings. The MRIs of 1004 children with age ranging from 1 to 17 years were retrospectively analyzed. Children who were investigated with established sequences (n = 419) were compared with those examined with state-of-the-art MRI acquisition technology (n = 585). In 216/1004 investigations, MRI was performed because of headache (74/216 with established sequences, 142/216 with state-of-the-art acquisition technology). In 114/216 (52.8%) patients with headache, the MRI was abnormal with relevant findings in 23/114 patients and findings without clinical relevance in 91/114 children. A higher incidence of abnormal findings than in previous reports was found but there was only limited clinical gain of information using modern sequences in children with headache.

  17. 68Ga-DOTATATE Compared with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide and Conventional Imaging for Pulmonary and Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppen, Stephen A; Blume, Jeffrey; Bobbey, Adam J; Shah, Chirayu; Graham, Michael M; Lee, Patricia; Delbeke, Dominique; Walker, Ronald C

    2016-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon tumors with increasing incidence and prevalence. Current reports suggest that (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging improves diagnosis and staging of NETs compared with (111)In-DTPA-octreotide and conventional imaging. We performed a systematic review of (68)Ga-DOTATATE for safety and efficacy compared with octreotide and conventional imaging to determine whether available evidence supports U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval. Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Reviews electronic databases were searched from January 1999 to September 2015. Results were restricted to human studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of (68)Ga-DOTATATE with octreotide or conventional imaging for pulmonary or gastroenteropancreatic NET and for human studies reporting safety/toxicity for (68)Ga-DOTATATE with 10 subjects or more thought to have NETs. Direct communication with corresponding authors was attempted to obtain missing information. Abstracts meeting eligibility criteria were collected by a research librarian and assembled for reviewers; 2 reviewers independently determined whether or not to include each abstract. If either reviewer chose inclusion, the abstract was accepted for review. Database and bibliography searches yielded 2,479 articles, of which 42 were eligible. Three studies compared the 2 radiopharmaceuticals in the same patient, finding (68)Ga-DOTATATE to be more sensitive than octreotide. Nine studies compared (68)Ga-DOTATATE with conventional imaging. (68)Ga-DOTATATE estimated sensitivity, 90.9% (95% confidence interval, 81.4%-96.4%), and specificity, 90.6% (95% confidence interval, 77.8%-96.1%), were high. Five studies were retained for safety reporting only. Report of harm possibly related to (68)Ga-DOTATATE was rare (6 of 974), and no study reported major toxicity or safety issues. No direct comparison of octreotide and (68)Ga-DOTATATE imaging for diagnosis and staging in an unbiased population of NETs has been

  18. Comparison of pure and hybrid iterative reconstruction techniques with conventional filtered back projection: Image quality assessment in the cervicothoracic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Masaki, E-mail: mkatsura-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Ishida, Masanori; Yasaka, Koichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact on image quality of three different image reconstruction techniques in the cervicothoracic region: model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). Methods: Forty-four patients underwent unenhanced standard-of-care clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations which included the cervicothoracic region with a 64-row multidetector CT scanner. Images were reconstructed with FBP, 50% ASIR-FBP blending (ASIR50), and MBIR. Two radiologists assessed the cervicothoracic region in a blinded manner for streak artifacts, pixilated blotchy appearances, critical reproduction of visually sharp anatomical structures (thyroid gland, common carotid artery, and esophagus), and overall diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the internal jugular vein. Data were analyzed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test. Results: MBIR images had significant lower quantitative image noise (8.88 ± 1.32) compared to ASIR images (18.63 ± 4.19, P < 0.01) and FBP images (26.52 ± 5.8, P < 0.01). Significant improvements in streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region were observed with the use of MBIR (P < 0.001 each for MBIR vs. the other two image data sets for both readers), while no significant difference was observed between ASIR and FBP (P > 0.9 for ASIR vs. FBP for both readers). MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of MBIR images included pixilated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability. Conclusions: MBIR significantly improves image noise and streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region over ASIR and FBP. MBIR is expected to enhance the value of CT examinations for areas where image noise and streak artifacts are problematic.

  19. Absence of abnormal vessels in the subarachnoid space on conventional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R; Eskey, Clifford J; Mamourian, Alexander C

    2012-05-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is an uncommon condition that can be difficult to diagnose. This often results in misdiagnosis and treatment delay. Although conventional MRI plays an important role in the initial screening for the disease, the typical MRI findings may be absent. In this article, the authors present a series of 4 cases involving patients with angiographically proven spinal DAVFs who demonstrated cord T2 prolongation on conventional MRI but without abnormal subarachnoid flow voids or enhancement. These cases suggest that spinal DAVF cannot be excluded in symptomatic patients with cord edema based on conventional MRI findings alone. Dynamic Gd-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) was successful in demonstrating abnormal spinal vasculature in all 4 cases. This limited experience provides support for the role of spinal MRA in patients with abnormal cord signal and symptoms suggestive of DAVF even when typical MRI findings of a DAVF are absent.

  20. Gathering together the essence of conventional and modern design leading the new trend of modern mechanical design——Comments on"mechanical design handbook"5th edition%荟萃常规与现代设计精华引领现代机械设计新潮流一评《机械设计手册》第5版

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪民

    2011-01-01

    It describes the "Mechanical Design Handbook"5th edition,which is edited by Bangchun Wen,the academician, and published by Machinery Industry Press.This handbook covers the mechanical design of conventional and the full content of modern design, having the overall structure of the novel and unique and scientific, advanced practical, reliable content.In particular, the 21 species of modern design methods is scientifically classified and incorporated into this handbook by use of systems engineering theory,as this handbook expounds,the comprehensive mechanical product design methods and its applications in large,complex,modern machine has innovativeness.Certainly this handbook will be able to play the role of guidance and demonstration on mechanical design especially innovative mechanics design of modern,and make an important contribution to increasing the up-to-date level of our country's mechanical design.%介绍了闻邦椿院士主编、机械工业出版社出版的大型工具书《机械设计手册》第5版.该手册涵盖机械常规设计又全面涵盖现代设计,具有新颖独特的总体结构和科学、先进、实用、可靠的内容,尤其是运用系统工程理论科学地分类并编入的21种现代设计方法,论述机械产品综合设计方法及在大型、复杂、现代机械的设计应用等具有创新性.该手册将对我国机械设计尤其是现代机械创新设计起指导和示范作用,并将为提升我国机械设计工作的现代化水平做出重要贡献.

  1. Reduced field-of -view diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas: Comparison with conventional single-shot echo-planar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Jang, Jin Young; Kim, Sun Whe; Ryu, Ji Kon; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kannengiesser, Stephan [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    To investigate the image quality (IQ) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of reduced field-of-view (FOV) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of pancreas in comparison with full FOV DWI. In this retrospective study, 2 readers independently performed qualitative analysis of full FOV DWI (FOV, 38 × 38 cm; b-value, 0 and 500 s/mm{sup 2}) and reduced FOV DWI (FOV, 28 × 8.5 cm; b-value, 0 and 400 s/mm{sup 2}). Both procedures were conducted with a two-dimensional spatially selective radiofrequency excitation pulse, in 102 patients with benign or malignant pancreatic diseases (mean size, 27.5 ± 14.4 mm). The study parameters included 1) anatomic structure visualization, 2) lesion conspicuity, 3) artifacts, 4) IQ score, and 5) subjective clinical utility for confirming or excluding initially considered differential diagnosis on conventional imaging. Another reader performed quantitative ADC measurements of focal pancreatic lesions and parenchyma. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare qualitative scores and ADCs between DWI sequences. Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare ADCs between the lesions and parenchyma. On qualitative analysis, reduced FOV DWI showed better anatomic structure visualization (2.76 ± 0.79 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 2.81 ± 0.64 at b = 400 s/mm{sup 2}), lesion conspicuity (3.11 ± 0.99 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 3.15 ± 0.79 at b = 400 s/mm{sup 2}), IQ score (8.51 ± 2.05 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 8.79 ± 1.60 at b = 400 s/mm{sup 2}), and higher clinical utility (3.41 ± 0.64), as compared to full FOV DWI (anatomic structure, 2.18 ± 0.59 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 2.56 ± 0.47 at b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}; lesion conspicuity, 2.55 ± 1.07 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 2.89 ± 0.86 at b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}; IQ score, 7.13 ± 1.83 at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} and 8.17 ± 1.31 at b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}; clinical utility, 3.14 ± 0.70) (p < 0.05). Artifacts were significantly improved on reduced FOV DWI (2.65 ± 0.68) at b = 0 s/mm{sup 2} (full FOV DWI, 2.41 ± 0.63) (p

  2. 68Ga-DOTATATE Compared with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide and Conventional Imaging for Pulmonary and Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppen, Stephen A.; Blume, Jeffrey; Bobbey, Adam J.; Shah, Chirayu; Graham, Michael M.; Lee, Patricia; Delbeke, Dominique; Walker, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon tumors with increasing incidence and prevalence. Current reports suggest that 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging improves diagnosis and staging of NETs compared with 111In-DTPA-octreotide and conventional imaging. We performed a systematic review of 68Ga-DOTATATE for safety and efficacy compared with octreotide and conventional imaging to determine whether available evidence supports U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval. Methods Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Reviews electronic databases were searched from January 1999 to September 2015. Results were restricted to human studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of 68Ga-DOTATATE with octreotide or conventional imaging for pulmonary or gastroenteropancreatic NET and for human studies reporting safety/ toxicity for 68Ga-DOTATATE with 10 subjects or more thought to have NETs. Direct communication with corresponding authors was attempted to obtain missing information. Abstracts meeting eligibility criteria were collected by a research librarian and assembled for reviewers; 2 reviewers independently determined whether or not to include each abstract. If either reviewer chose inclusion, the abstract was accepted for review. Results Database and bibliography searches yielded 2,479 articles, of which 42 were eligible. Three studies compared the 2 radiopharmaceuticals in the same patient, finding 68Ga-DOTATATE to be more sensitive than octreotide. Nine studies compared 68Ga-DOTATATE with conventional imaging. 68Ga-DOTATATE estimated sensitivity, 90.9% (95% confidence interval, 81.4%–96.4%), and specificity, 90.6% (95% confidence interval, 77.8%–96.1%), were high. Five studies were retained for safety reporting only. Report of harm possibly related to 68Ga-DOTATATE was rare (6 of 974), and no study reported major toxicity or safety issues. Conclusion No direct comparison of octreotide and 68Ga-DOTATATE imaging for diagnosis and staging in an unbiased population of NETs

  3. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the

  4. A combined static-dynamic single-dose imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Maria; Shrestha, Uttam M; Seo, Youngho; Gullberg, Grant T; Botvinick, Elias H

    2017-08-03

    SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a clinical mainstay that is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually or semi-quantitatively assessed for perfusion defects based upon the relative intensity of myocardial regions. Dynamic cardiac SPECT presents a new imaging technique based on time-varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits the evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In this work, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted in a small patient sample designed to implement a unique combined static-dynamic single-dose one-day visit imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT for improving the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen patients (11 males, four females, mean age 71 ± 9 years) were enrolled for a combined dynamic and static SPECT (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) imaging protocol with a single dose of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin administered at rest and a single dose administered at stress in a one-day visit. Out of 15 patients, eleven had selective coronary angiography (SCA), 8 within 6 months and the rest within 24 months of SPECT imaging, without intervening symptoms or interventions. The extent and severity of perfusion defects in each myocardial region was graded visually. Dynamically acquired data were also used to estimate the MBF and CFR. Both visually graded images and estimated CFR were tested against SCA as a reference to evaluate the validity of the methods. Overall, conventional static SPECT was normal in ten patients and abnormal in five patients, dynamic SPECT was normal in 12 patients and abnormal in three patients, and CFR from dynamic SPECT was normal in nine patients and abnormal in six patients. Among those 11 patients with SCA, conventional SPECT was normal in 5, 3 with documented CAD on SCA with an overall accuracy of 64%, sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 83%. Dynamic SPECT image

  5. Mineralization of collagen may occur on fibril surfaces: evidence from conventional and high-voltage electron microscopy and three-dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Song, M. J.; Arena, J.; Kiyonaga, S.; Marko, M.; Owen, C.; McEwen, B. F.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between collagen and mineral crystals in the normally calcifying leg tendons from the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, has been investigated at an ultrastructural level with conventional and high-voltage electron microscopy, computed tomography, and three-dimensional image reconstruction methods. Specimens treated by either aqueous or anhydrous techniques and resin-embedded were appropriately sectioned and regions of early tendon mineralization were photographed. On the basis of individual photomicrographs, stereoscopic pairs of images, and tomographic three-dimensional image reconstructions, platelet-shaped crystals may be demonstrated for the first time in association with the surface of collagen fibrils. Mineral is also observed in closely parallel arrays within collagen hole and overlap zones. The mineral deposition at these spatially distinct locations in the tendon provides insight into possible means by which calcification is mediated by collagen as a fundamental event in skeletal and dental formation among vertebrates.

  6. Functional imaging of infection: conventional nuclear medicine agents and the expanding role of {sup 18-}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, Marguerite T. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology R-5417, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    A growing body of literature suggests that 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET), particularly when combined with CT, is a useful tool for the detection of infectious and inflammatory disease processes. This article will briefly review the data to date on the use of FDG PET in diagnosing musculoskeletal infections and fever of unknown origin, comparing it to conventional scintigraphic techniques in both adults and, when available, in children. (orig.)

  7. Initial multicentre experience of high-speed myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison between high-speed and conventional single-photon emission computed tomography with angiographic validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, Johanne [University College London Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Prvulovich, Elizabeth M.; Bomanji, Jamshed B. [University College London Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Fish, Matthews B. [Sacred Heart Medical Center (SHMC), Springfield, OR (United States); Berman, Daniel S.; Slomka, Piotr J. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sharir, Tali [Procardia Maccabi Healthcare Services (PMHS), Tel Aviv (Israel); Martin, William H. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), Nashville, TN (United States); DiCarli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital (BWH), Boston, MA (United States); Ziffer, Jack A. [Baptist Hospital of Miami (BHM), Miami, FL (United States); Shiti, Dalia [Spectrum-Dynamics, Caesarea (Israel); Ben-Haim, Simona [University College London Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)

    2013-07-15

    High-speed (HS) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a recently developed solid-state camera shows comparable myocardial perfusion abnormalities to those seen in conventional SPECT. We aimed to compare HS and conventional SPECT images from multiple centres with coronary angiographic findings. The study included 50 patients who had sequential conventional SPECT and HS SPECT myocardial perfusion studies and coronary angiography within 3 months. Stress and rest perfusion images were visually analysed and scored semiquantitatively using a 17-segment model by two experienced blinded readers. Global and coronary territorial summed stress scores (SSS) and summed rest scores (SRS) were calculated. Global SSS {>=}3 or coronary territorial SSS {>=}2 was considered abnormal. In addition the total perfusion deficit (TPD) was automatically derived. TPD >5 % and coronary territorial TPD {>=}3 % were defined as abnormal. Coronary angiograms were analysed for site and severity of coronary stenosis; {>=}50 % was considered significant. Of the 50 patients, 13 (26 %) had no stenosis, 22 (44 %) had single-vessel disease, 6 (12 %) had double-vessel disease and 9 (18 %) had triple-vessel disease. There was a good linear correlation between the visual global SSS and SRS (Spearman's {rho} 0.897 and 0.866, respectively; p < 0.001). In relation to coronary angiography, the sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of HS SPECT and conventional SPECT by visual assessment were 92 % (35/38), 83 % (10/12) and 90 % (45/50) vs. 84 % (32/38), 50 % (6/12) and 76 % (38/50), respectively (p < 0.001). The sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of HS SPECT and conventional SPECT in relation to automated TPD assessment were 89 % (31/35), 57 % (8/14) and 80 % (39/49) vs. 86 % (31/36), 77 % (10/13) and 84 % (41/49), respectively. HS SPECT allows fast acquisition of myocardial perfusion images that correlate well with angiographic findings with overall accuracy by visual

  8. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  9. 中国传统凤纹图像与现代设计%Traditional Chinese Phoenix Vein Image and Modern Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧光

    2011-01-01

    从凤纹图像与现代设计之间的联系出发,分析和阐述传统凤纹图像对现代设计的形态与内涵上的启示意义,从而倡导人们关注中国传统艺术与文化的重要性。%From the relationship between phoenix vein image and modern design, the paper analyzes and discusses the revelation of traditional phoenix vein image to the form and connotation of modern design and thus stresses people's concern for the significance of traditional Chinese art and culture.

  10. Comparison of image uniformity with photon counting and conventional scintillation single-photon emission computed tomography system: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Chul; Lee, Young Jin [Dept. of Radiological Science, Eulji University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyuseok; Lee, Min Hee [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To avoid imaging artifacts and interpretation mistakes, an improvement of the uniformity in gamma camera systems is a very important point. We can expect excellent uniformity using cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) photon counting detector (PCD) because of the direct conversion of the gamma rays energy into electrons. In addition, the uniformity performance such as integral uniformity (IU), differential uniformity (DU), scatter fraction (SF), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) varies according to the energy window setting. In this study, we compared a PCD and conventional scintillation detector with respect to the energy windows (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) using a {sup 99m}Tc gamma source with a Geant4 Application for Tomography Emission simulation tool. The gamma camera systems used in this work are a CZT PCD and NaI(Tl) conventional scintillation detector with a 1-mm thickness. According to the results, although the IU and DU results were improved with the energy window, the SF and CNR results deteriorated with the energy window. In particular, the uniformity for the PCD was higher than that of the conventional scintillation detector in all cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the uniformity of the CZT PCD was higher than that of the conventional scintillation detector.

  11. Comparison of Image Uniformity with Photon Counting and Conventional Scintillation Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography System: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chul Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To avoid imaging artifacts and interpretation mistakes, an improvement of the uniformity in gamma camera systems is a very important point. We can expect excellent uniformity using cadmium zinc telluride (CZT photon counting detector (PCD because of the direct conversion of the gamma rays energy into electrons. In addition, the uniformity performance such as integral uniformity (IU, differential uniformity (DU, scatter fraction (SF, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR varies according to the energy window setting. In this study, we compared a PCD and conventional scintillation detector with respect to the energy windows (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% using a 99mTc gamma source with a Geant4 Application for Tomography Emission simulation tool. The gamma camera systems used in this work are a CZT PCD and NaI(Tl conventional scintillation detector with a 1-mm thickness. According to the results, although the IU and DU results were improved with the energy window, the SF and CNR results deteriorated with the energy window. In particular, the uniformity for the PCD was higher than that of the conventional scintillation detector in all cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the uniformity of the CZT PCD was higher than that of the conventional scintillation detector.

  12. Prediction of Helicobacter pylori status by conventional endoscopy, narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy in stomach after endoscopic resection of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kazuyoshi; Saka, Akiko; Nozawa, Yujiro; Nakamura, Atsuo

    2014-04-01

    To reduce the incidence of metachronous gastric carcinoma after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has been endorsed. It is not unusual for such patients to be H. pylori negative after eradication or for other reasons. If it were possible to predict H. pylori status using endoscopy alone, it would be very useful in clinical practice. To clarify the accuracy of endoscopic judgment of H. pylori status, we evaluated it in the stomach after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric cancer. Fifty-six patients treated by ESD were enrolled. The diagnostic criteria for H. pylori status by conventional endoscopy and narrow-band imaging (NBI)-magnifying endoscopy were decided, and H. pylori status was judged by two endoscopists. Based on the H. pylori stool antigen test as a diagnostic gold standard, conventional endoscopy and NBI-magnifying endoscopy were compared for their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Interobserver agreement was assessed in terms of κ value. Interobserver agreement was moderate (0.56) for conventional endoscopy and substantial (0.77) for NBI-magnifying endoscopy. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 0.79, 0.52, 0.70, and 0.63 for conventional endoscopy and 0.91, 0.83, 0.88, and 0.86 for NBI-magnifying endoscopy, respectively. Prediction of H. pylori status using NBI-magnifying endoscopy is practical, and interobserver agreement is substantial. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Imaging of the Achilles tendon in spondyloarthritis: a comparison of ultrasound and conventional, short and ultrashort echo time MRI with and without intravenous contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, R.J.; Emery, P. [University of Leeds, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Centre, Leeds (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J.; O' Connor, P.J.; Evans, R. [Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Centre, Leeds (United Kingdom); Coates, L.; Marzo-Ortega, H.; Helliwell, P.; McGonagle, D. [University of Leeds, Leeds Institute for Molecular Medicine, Leeds (United Kingdom); Robson, M.D. [University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    To compare conventional MRI, ultrashort echo time MRI and ultrasound for assessing the extent of tendon abnormalities in spondyloarthritis. 25 patients with spondyloarthritis and Achilles symptoms were studied with MRI and ultrasound. MR images of the Achilles tendon were acquired using T1-weighted spin echo, gradient echo and ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences with echo times (TE) between 0.07 and 16 ms, before and after intravenous contrast medium. Greyscale and power Doppler ultrasound were also performed. The craniocaudal extent of imaging abnormalities measured by a consultant musculoskeletal radiologist was compared between the different techniques. Abnormalities were most extensive on spoiled gradient echo images with TE=2 ms. Contrast enhancement after intravenous gadolinium was greatest on the UTE images (TE=0.07 ms). Fewer abnormalities were demonstrated using unenhanced UTE. Abnormalities were more extensive on MRI than ultrasound. Contrast enhancement was more extensive than power Doppler signal. 3D spoiled gradient echo images with an echo time of 2 ms demonstrate more extensive tendon abnormalities than the other techniques in spondyloarthritis. Abnormalities of vascularity are best demonstrated on enhanced ultrashort echo time images. (orig.)

  14. The effects of breathing motion on DCE-MRI images: Phantom studies simulating respiratory motion to compare CAIPARINHA-VIBE, radial VIBE, and conventional VIBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Kyung; Seo, Nieun; Kim, Bohyun; Huh, Jimi; Kim, Jeong Kon; Lee, Seung Soo; KIm, Kyung Won [Dept. of Radiology, and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Seong [Siemens Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nickel, Dominik [MR Application Predevelopment, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the breathing effects on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI between controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration (CAIPIRINHA)-volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), radial VIBE with k-space-weighted image contrast view-sharing (radial-VIBE), and conventional VIBE (c-VIBE) sequences using a dedicated phantom experiment. We developed a moving platform to simulate breathing motion. We conducted dynamic scanning on a 3T machine (MAGNETOM Skyra, Siemens Healthcare) using CAIPIRINHA-VIBE, radial-VIBE, and c-VIBE for six minutes per sequence. We acquired MRI images of the phantom in both static and moving modes, and we also obtained motion-corrected images for the motion mode. We compared the signal stability and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each sequence according to motion state and used the coefficients of variation (CoV) to determine the degree of signal stability. With motion, CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed the best image quality, and the motion correction aligned the images very well. The CoV (%) of CAIPIRINHA-VIBE in the moving mode (18.65) decreased significantly after the motion correction (2.56) (p < 0.001). In contrast, c-VIBE showed severe breathing motion artifacts that did not improve after motion correction. For radial-VIBE, the position of the phantom in the images did not change during motion, but streak artifacts significantly degraded image quality, also after motion correction. In addition, SNR increased in both CAIPIRINHA-VIBE (from 3.37 to 9.41, p < 0.001) and radial-VIBE (from 4.3 to 4.96, p < 0.001) after motion correction. CAIPIRINHA-VIBE performed best for free-breathing DCE-MRI after motion correction, with excellent image quality.

  15. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  16. Distinguishing and diagnosing contemporary and conventional features of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The vast number and variety of erosion lesions encountered today require reconsideration of the traditional definition. Dental erosion associated with modern dietary habits can exhibit unique features that symbolize a departure from the decades-old conventional image known as tooth surface loss. The extent and diversity of contemporary erosion lesions often cause conflicting diagnoses. Specific examples of these features are presented in this article. The etiologies, genesis, course of development, and characteristics of these erosion lesions are discussed. Contemporary and conventional erosion lesions are distinguished from similar defects, such as mechanically induced wear, carious lesions, and dental fluorosis, which affect the human dentition.

  17. Anatomy, variants, and pathologies of the superior glenohumeral ligament: Magnetic resonance imaging with three-dimensional volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence and conventional magnetic resonance arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogul, Hayri; Karaca, Leyla; Emre, Cahit; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Tuncer, Kutsi; Topai, Murat; Okur, Aylin; Kantarci, Mecit [Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkmenistan)

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this review was to demonstrate magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography findings of anatomy, variants, and pathologic conditions of the superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL). This review also demonstrates the applicability of a new MR arthrography sequence in the anterosuperior portion of the glenohumeral joint. The SGHL is a very important anatomical structure in the rotator interval that is responsible for stabilizing the long head of the biceps tendon. Therefore, a torn SGHL can result in pain and instability. Observation of the SGHL is difficult when using conventional MR imaging, because the ligament may be poorly visualized. Shoulder MR arthrography is the most accurately established imaging technique for identifying pathologies of the SGHL and associated structures. The use of three dimensional (3D) volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences produces thinner image slices and enables a higher in-plane resolution than conventional MR arthrography sequences. Therefore, shoulder MR arthrography using 3D VIBE sequences may contribute to evaluating of the smaller intraarticular structures such as the SGHL.

  18. 传统X线机的医学影像数字化实现%Implement of Digitizing for Medical Image in Conventional X-ray Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兆国; 许陇云

    2004-01-01

    基于DICOM3.0标准,系统地分析了标准中关于X线医学图像的文件格式及网络通信过程,根据传统影像增强-电视系统X线机的数字化特点,设计了一种符合DICOM标准的医学X线图像采集、增强、传输与存储系统,着重介绍了DCM文件的存储、网络传输并给出了软件实现,为传统X线机融入PACS提供了一种方法.%DICOM file format for X-ray medical image and communication process are first analyzed . An X-ray medical image acquisition, transmission and storage system, which is compatible with DICOM standard, is then designed according to the characteristic of conventional X-ray machine using image intensifier-TV system. The file storage for DCM-format and network communication are introduced in detail and software model is given. A feasible technique for conventional X-ray machine integrating into PACS is proposed.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INFLAMMATORY AND METASTATIC LYMPH NODES WITH DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING ON ANIMAL MODEL: COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-dan Xue; Shuo Li; Hong-yi Sun; Zheng-yu Jin; Fei Sun

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in discriminating inflammatory from VX2 carcinoma metastatic lymph nodes in rabbit model. Methods Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups. Complete Freund's adjuvant was injected into the bilateral dorsal footpads to set up ipsilateral lymphadenitis model (n = 10), and the other 10 rabbits received a subcutaneous implantation of VX2 tumor cell suspension (1.5×107 cells/mL) in both thighs to set up metastatic lymph node model. MR imaging scan covering the popliteal fossa and iliac fossa including short time inversion recovery echo-planar imaging DWI (STIR-EPI-DWI), T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) was performed 2 weeks after injection. T2WI signal intensity (SI), DWI SI, long/short axial ratio (LSR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the lymph nodes were evaluated in all cases. Right after MR imaging scan, popliteal and iliac fossa lymph nodes were collected for hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results Totally 33 lymph nodes larger than 5 mm, including 22 inflammatory and 11 metastatic ones, were successfully isolated and taken into pathological analysis. LSR showed no significant difference between the inflammatory and malignant lymph nodes (P > 0.05). Both benign and malignant lymph nodes appeared iso-intense on TIWI and hyperintense on both T2WI and DWI images with an even lower TIWI and higher T2WI SI core at the hilum. Both T2WI and DWI SI showed no significant difference between two pathological groups (P > 0.01) in popli-teal fossa. The mean ADC value of inflammatory nodes [(1.199 ± 0.281)×10-3 mm2/s] was significantly higher than that of metastatic nodes [(0.858 ± 0.090)×10-3 mm2/s, p < 0.01]. On ADC map, a high ADC value central area could be seen in most of the lymph nodes no matter benign or malignant. ADC value gave out the largest area under curve (AUCADC = 0.955) compared with other

  20. q-space and conventional diffusion imaging of axon and myelin damage in the rat spinal cord after axotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Jonathan A D; Zhang, Jiangyang; Jones, Melina V; Deboy, Cynthia A; Hoffman, Paul N; Landman, Bennett A; Smith, Seth A; Reich, Daniel S; Calabresi, Peter A; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2010-05-01

    Parallel and perpendicular diffusion properties of water in the rat spinal cord were investigated 3 and 30 days after dorsal root axotomy, a specific insult resulting in early axonal degeneration followed by later myelin damage in the dorsal column white matter. Results from q-space analysis (i.e., the diffusion probability density function) obtained with strong diffusion weighting were compared to conventional anisotropy and diffusivity measurements at low b-values, as well as to histology for axon and myelin damage. q-Space contrasts included the height (return to zero displacement probability), full width at half maximum, root mean square displacement, and kurtosis excess of the probability density function, which quantifies the deviation from gaussian diffusion. Following axotomy, a significant increase in perpendicular diffusion (with decreased kurtosis excess) and decrease in parallel diffusion (with increased kurtosis excess) were found in lesions relative to uninjured white matter. Notably, a significant change in abnormal parallel diffusion was detected from 3 to 30 days with full width at half maximum, but not with conventional diffusivity. Also, directional full width at half maximum and root mean square displacement measurements exhibited different sensitivities to white matter damage. When compared to histology, the increase in perpendicular diffusion was not specific to demyelination, whereas combined reduced parallel diffusion and increased perpendicular diffusion was associated with axon damage. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Progressing features of atypical mycobacterial infection in the lung on conventional and high resolution CT (HRCT) images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Daizo; Niwatsukino, Hiroshi; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Oyama, Takao

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the localization of abnormalities within secondary pulmonary lobules and the changes in follow-up studies of pulmonary atypical mycobacterial infection (AMI) by conventional and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Forty-six patients (16 men and 30 women; 43-84 years) with pulmonary AMI (M. intracellulare 36; M. avium 10) in the lung were examined by conventional and HRCT. In peripheral zones, all patients had the nodule located in the terminal or lobular bronchiole, and most of the patients also had nodules accompanied with a wedge-shaped or linear shadow connected with the pleura. In the follow-up scans, new centrilobular nodules appeared in other segments, and consolidation or ground-glass pattern appeared newly and was preceded by nodules. Bronchiectasis became more severe in five of 38 follow-up patients. The common HRCT findings of AMI were centrilobular, peribronchovascular nodules, bronchiectasis, consolidation, and pleural thickening/adhesion. The nodules frequently connected with the pleura. The initial and follow-up studies suggest that the disease may begin in the terminal bronchiole or as preexisting bronchiectasis and spread transbronchially along the draining bronchus or towards the pleura to produce lesions such as new nodules, cavities, consolidation, pleuritis, and bronchiectasis, or more severe bronchiectasis. (author)

  2. A Dosimetric Comparison between Conventional Fractionated and Hypofractionated Image-guided Radiation Therapies for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: To deliver the hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer, VMAT significantly increased PTV D95% dose and decreased the dose of radiation delivered to adjacent normal tissues comparing to 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT. Daily online image-guidance and better management of bladder and rectum could make a more precise treatment delivery.

  3. Tumor Size of Invasive Breast Cancer on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Conventional Imaging (Mammogram/Ultrasound): Comparison with Pathological Size and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdóttir, K H; Jónsson, Þ; Halldórsdóttir, A B; Tranberg, K-G; Ásgeirsson, K S

    2017-03-01

    In Landspitali University Hospital, magnetic resonance imaging is used non-selectively in addition to mammogram and ultrasound in the preoperative assessment of breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess invasive tumor size on imaging, compare with pathological size and evaluate the impact of magnetic resonance imaging on the type of surgery performed. All women with invasive breast cancer, diagnosed in Iceland, between 2007 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. In all, 438 of 641 (68%) patients diagnosed had preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded and 65 patients with multifocal or contralateral disease were assessed separately. Correlations between microscopic and radiologic tumor sizes were relatively weak. All imaging methods were inaccurate especially for large tumors, resulting in an overall underestimation of tumor size for these tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging under- and overestimated pathological tumor size by more than 10 mm in 16/348 (4.6%) and 26/348 patients (7.5%), respectively. In 19 patients (73%), overestimation of size was seen exclusively on magnetic resonance imaging. For tumors under- or overestimated by magnetic resonance imaging, the mastectomy rates were 56% and 65%, respectively, compared to an overall mastectomy rate of 43%. Of 51 patients diagnosed with multifocal disease on pathology, 19 (37%) were diagnosed by mammogram or ultrasound and 40 (78%) by magnetic resonance imaging resulting in a total detection rate of 84% (43 patients). Fourteen (3%) patients were diagnosed preoperatively with contralateral disease. Of those tumors, all were detected on magnetic resonance imaging but seven (50%) were also detected on mammogram or ultrasound or both. Our results suggest that routine use of magnetic resonance imaging may result in both under- and overestimation of tumor size and increase mastectomy rates in a small proportion of patients. Magnetic

  4. Conventional radiography and cross-sectional imaging when planning dental implants in the anterior edentulous mandible to support an overdenture: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, A M; Glenny, A-M; Goodwin, M; Brunton, P; Horner, K

    2014-01-01

    The objectives for this systematic review were to determine if the pre-operative availability of cross-sectional imaging, such as cone beam CT, has a diagnostic impact, therapeutic impact or impact on patients' outcome when placing two dental implants in the anterior mandible to support an overdenture. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE® and Embase were searched up to, and including, February 2013. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they compared the impact of conventional and cross-sectional imaging when placing dental implants in sites including the anterior mandible. An adapted quality assessment tool was used for the assessment of the risk of bias in included studies. Pooled quantitative analysis was not possible and, therefore, synthesis was qualitative. Of 2374 potentially eligible papers, 5 studies were included. Little can be determined from a synthesis of these studies because of their small number, clinical diversity and high risks of bias. Notwithstanding, it may be tentatively inferred that cross-sectional imaging has a therapeutic impact in the more challenging cases. In terms of impact, this review has found no evidence to support any specific imaging modality when planning dental implant placement in any region of the mouth. Therefore, those who argue that cross-sectional imaging should be used for the assessment of all dental implant sites are unsupported by evidence.

  5. Ultrasonography of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Klarlund, Mette; Narvestad, E.

    2006-01-01

    ultrasonography can provide information on signs of inflammation and destruction in RA finger joints that are not available with conventional radiography and clinical examination, and comparable to the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The second to fifth metacarpophalangeal and proximal...... interphalangeal joints of 40 RA patients and 20 control persons were assessed with ultrasonography, clinical examination, radiography and MRI. With MRI as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting bone erosions in the finger joints were 0.59, 0.98 and 0...

  6. Differential impact of multi-focus fan beam collimation with L-mode and conventional systems on the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging: Quantitative evaluation using phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsunori Saho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A novel IQ-SPECTTM method has become widely used in clinical studies. The present study compares the quality of myocardial perfusion images (MPI acquired using the IQ-SPECTTM (IQ-mode,conventional (180° apart: C-mode and L-mode (90° apart: L-mode systems. We assessed spatial resolution, image reproducibility and quantifiability using various physical phantoms. Materials and Methods: SPECT images were acquired using a dual-headed gamma camera with C-mode, L-mode, and IQ-mode acquisition systems from line source, pai and cardiac phantoms containing solutions of 99mTc. The line source phantom was placed in the center of the orbit and at ± 4.0, ± 8.0, ± 12.0, ± 16.0 and ± 20.0 cm off center. We examined quantifiability using the pai phantom comprising six chambers containing 0.0, 0.016, 0.03, 0.045, 0.062, and 0.074 MBq/mLof 99m-Tc and cross-calibrating the SPECT counts. Image resolution and reproducibility were quantified as myocardial wall thickness (MWT and %uptake using polar maps. Results: The full width at half maximum (FWHM of the IQ-mode in the center was increased by 11% as compared with C-mode, and FWHM in the periphery was increased 41% compared with FWHM at the center. Calibrated SPECT counts were essentially the same when quantified using IQ-and C-modes. IQ-SPECT images of MWT were significantly improved (P<0.001 over L-mode, and C-mode SPECT imaging with IQ-mode became increasingly inhomogeneous, both visually and quantitatively (C-mode vs. L-mode, ns; C-mode vs. IQ-mode, P<0.05. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion images acquired by IQ-SPECT were comparable to those acquired by conventional and L-mode SPECT, but with significantly improved resolution and quality. Our results suggest that IQ-SPECT is the optimal technology for myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging.

  7. Education and training in medical imaging for conventional and particle radiation therapy through the EC funded envision and entervision

    CERN Document Server

    Cirilli, M

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in particle therapy today is quality assurance during treatment, which needs advanced medical imaging techniques. This issue is tackled by the EC funded project ENVISION, an R\\&D consortium of sixteen leading European research centres and one industrial partner, co-ordinated by CERN. ENVISION covers developments in Time Of Flight in-beam PET, in-beam single particle tomography, organ motion monitoring techniques, simulation, and treatment planning. Additionally, ENVISION serves as a training platform for the ENTERVISION project, a Marie-Curie Initial Training Network aimed at educating young researchers in online 3D digital imaging for hadron therapy. ENTERVISION brings together ten academic institutes and research centres of excellence and a leading European company in particle therapy, and is coordinated by CERN. Its multi-disciplinary training programme of ENTERVISION includes a diversified portfolio of scientific courses, complemented by specific courses aimed at developing soft skills...

  8. Thumb-size ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imager for in-situ glucose monitoring as optional sensor of conventional dialyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogo, Kosuke; Mori, Keita; Qi, Wei; Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    We proposed the ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imaging for the realization of blood-glucose-level monitoring during dialytic therapy. Optical scattering and absorption caused by blood cells deteriorate the detection accuracy of glucose dissolved in plasma. Ultrasonic standing waves can agglomerate blood cells at nodes. In contrast, around anti-node regions, the amount of transmitted light increases because relatively clear plasma appears due to decline the number of blood cells. Proposed method can disperse the transmitted light of plasma without time-consuming pretreatment such as centrifugation. To realize the thumb-size glucose sensor which can be easily attached to dialysis tubes, an ultrasonic standing wave generator and a spectroscopic imager are required to be small. Ultrasonic oscillators are ∅30[mm]. A drive circuit of oscillators, which now size is 41×55×45[mm], is expected to become small. The trial apparatus of proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imager, whose size is 30×30×48[mm], also can be little-finger size in principal. In the experiment, we separated the suspension mixed water and micro spheres (Θ10[mm) into particles and liquid regions with the ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]). Furthermore, the spectrum of transmitted light through the suspension could be obtained in visible light regions with a white LED.

  9. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  10. The Classification of Conventional Remote Sensing Image%传统遥感影像的分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻静

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional methods of remote sensing image classification, and introduces the features of super- vised classification and unsupervised classification. These two classifications are essentially different, but there are some links between them.%详细讲述了传统遥感影像的分类方法,并分别介绍了监督分类和非监督分类的特点。这两种分类方法有着本质的区别,但也存在着一定的联系。

  11. A study of vascular response to thermal injury on hairless mice by fibre optic confocal imaging, laser doppler flowmetry and conventional histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, L T; Papworth, G D; Delaney, P M; Barkla, D H; King, R G

    1998-06-01

    Burn injury causes vascular thrombosis and occlusion by thermal damage to the vascular network in the dermis. In this study, fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) and laser doppler flowmetry were used to detect changes in vascular morphology and local dermal blood flux over 4 h, in three defined zones after a thermal burn (50 degrees C, 20 s duration, 3 mm in diameter) was induced on fully anaesthetised hairless mice. FITC-dextran (i.v.) was used to enable FOCI of vascular morphology including three-dimensional imaging of the burn site and its surrounding areas. Samples of the affected areas were collected for conventional histology, including Masson's trichrome. There was vascular damage in the zone of coagulation which showed no change during the 4 h period. The zone of stasis showed an initial reduction in blood flux and confocal imaging of the area indicated significant vessel leakage during the first 2 h which later improved. The zone of hyperaemia showed an initial increase in total blood flux and confocal imaging of the area showed initial blood vessel dilatation. This study demonstrates that FOCI is a useful non-invasive tool in the assessment of vascular changes in thermal burns in vivo, and compares the findings of FOCI with those from laser doppler flowmetry and histology.

  12. Development of modern human subadult age and sex estimation standards using multi-slice computed tomography images from medical examiner's offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K.; Stull, Kyra E.; Garvin, Heather M.; Klales, Alexandra R.

    2016-10-01

    Forensic anthropologists are routinely asked to estimate a biological profile (i.e., age, sex, ancestry and stature) from a set of unidentified remains. In contrast to the abundance of collections and techniques associated with adult skeletons, there is a paucity of modern, documented subadult skeletal material, which limits the creation and validation of appropriate forensic standards. Many are forced to use antiquated methods derived from small sample sizes, which given documented secular changes in the growth and development of children, are not appropriate for application in the medico-legal setting. Therefore, the aim of this project is to use multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data from a large, diverse sample of modern subadults to develop new methods to estimate subadult age and sex for practical forensic applications. The research sample will consist of over 1,500 full-body MSCT scans of modern subadult individuals (aged birth to 20 years) obtained from two U.S. medical examiner's offices. Statistical analysis of epiphyseal union scores, long bone osteometrics, and os coxae landmark data will be used to develop modern subadult age and sex estimation standards. This project will result in a database of information gathered from the MSCT scans, as well as the creation of modern, statistically rigorous standards for skeletal age and sex estimation in subadults. Furthermore, the research and methods developed in this project will be applicable to dry bone specimens, MSCT scans, and radiographic images, thus providing both tools and continued access to data for forensic practitioners in a variety of settings.

  13. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy versus conventional radiological imaging for the management of late, low-grade vascular prosthesis infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, P.A. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Leo, G. [ASL Lecce, U.O. Gestione Rapporti Convenzionali, U.O. Chirurgia Generale, Lecce, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Sollini, M. [Az. Osp. S.Maria Nuova - IRCCS Reggio Emilia, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Tascini, C.; Menichetti, F. [University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Infectious Diseases, Pisa (Italy); Boni, R.; Lazzeri, E.; Mariani, G. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Berchiolli, R.N.; Ferrari, M. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In this study we evaluated the diagnostic performance of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-leucocyte ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC) scintigraphy in a consecutive series of 55 patients (46 men and 9 women, mean age 71 ± 9 years, range 50 - 88 years) with a suspected late or a low-grade late vascular prosthesis infection (VPI), also comparing the diagnostic accuracy of WBC with that of other radiological imaging methods. All patients suspected of having VPI underwent clinical examination, blood tests, microbiology, US and CT, and were classified according to the Fitzgerald criteria. A final diagnosis of VPI was established in 47 of the 55 patients, with microbiological confirmation after surgical removal of the prosthesis in 36 of the 47. In the 11 patients with major contraindications to surgery, the final diagnosis was based on microbiology and clinical follow-up of at least 18 months. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC planar, SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging identified VPI in 43 of 47 patients (20 of these also showed infection at extra-prosthetic sites). In the remaining eight patients without VPI, different sites of infections were found. The use of SPECT/CT images led to a significant reduction in the number of false-positive findings in 37 % of patients (sensitivity and specificity 100 %, versus 85.1 % and 62.5 % for stand-alone SPECT). Sensitivity and specificity were 34 % and 75 % for US, 48.9 % and 83.3 % for CT, and 68.1 % and 62.5 % for the FitzGerald classification. Perioperative mortality was 5.5 %, mid-term mortality 12 %, and long-term mortality 27 %. Survival rates were similar in patients treated with surgery and antimicrobial therapy compared to patients treated with antimicrobial therapy alone (61 % versus 63 %, respectively), while infection eradication at 12 months was significantly higher following surgery (83.3 % versus 45.5 %). {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC SPECT/CT is useful for detecting, localizing and defining the extent of graft infection in patients with late and low-grade late VPI

  14. Comparison of radiation absorbed dose in target organs in maxillofacial imaging with panoramic, conventional linear tomography, cone beam computed tomography and computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjnoush M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The objective of this study was to measure and compare the tissue absorbed dose in thyroid gland, salivary glands, eye and skin in maxillofacial imaging with panoramic, conventional linear tomography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and computed tomography (CT."nMaterials and Methods: Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD were implanted in 14 sites of RANDO phantom to measure average tissue absorbed dose in thyroid gland, parotid glands, submandibular glands, sublingual gland, lenses and buccal skin. The Promax (PLANMECA, Helsinki, Finland unit was selected for Panoramic, conventional linear tomography and cone beam computed tomography examinations and spiral Hispeed/Fxi (General Electric,USA was selected for CT examination. The average tissue absorbed doses were used for the calculation of the equivalent and effective doses in each organ."nResults: The average absorbed dose for Panoramic ranged from 0.038 mGY (Buccal skin to 0.308 mGY (submandibular gland, linear tomography ranged from 0.048 mGY (Lens to 0.510 mGY (submandibular gland,CBCT ranged from 0.322 mGY (thyroid glad to 1.144 mGY (Parotid gland and in CT ranged from 2.495 mGY (sublingual gland to 3.424 mGY (submandibular gland. Total effective dose in CBCT is 5 times greater than Panoramic and 4 times greater than linear tomography, and in CT, 30 and 22 times greater than Panoramic and linear tomography, respectively. Total effective dose in CT is 6 times greater than CBCT."nConclusion: For obtaining 3-dimensional (3D information in maxillofacial region, CBCT delivers the lower dose than CT, and should be preferred over a medical CT imaging. Furthermore, during maxillofacial imaging, salivary glands receive the highest dose of radiation.

  15. [Modern methods for cancer external radiation therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philippe; Henni, Mehdi; Housset, Martin

    2008-10-15

    Radiotherapy has been in constant progress for the past century. New technologies are based on modern imaging modalities, efficient 3D treatment planning systems, sophisticated immobilization systems and rigorous quality assurance and treatment verification. The central objective of conformal radiotherapy is to ensure a high dose distribution tailored to the limits of the target volume while reducing exposure of healthy tissues. These techniques would then allow a further tumor dose escalation. New systems like CyberKnife, tomotherapy and hadrontherapy represent major potential progress for the treatment of complex tumours that are very difficult to treat with conventional radiotherapy techniques.

  16. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of periosteal reactions in bone sarcomas using conventional radiography as the reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Neto, José Luiz; Simão, Marcelo Novelino; Crema, Michel Daoud; Engel, Edgard Eduard; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting periosteal reactions and to compare MRI and conventional radiography (CR) in terms of the classification of periosteal reactions. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of 42 consecutive patients (mean age, 22 years; 20 men) with a confirmed diagnosis of osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma, MRI and CR images having been acquired pretreatment. Three blinded radiologists detected periosteal reactions and evaluated each periosteal reaction subtype in CR and MRI images: Codman's triangle; laminated; and spiculated. The CR was used as a benchmark to calculate the diagnostic performance. We used the kappa coefficient to assess interobserver reproducibility. A two-tailed Fisher's exact test was used in order to assess contingency between CR and MRI classifications. Results: In the detection of periosteal reactions, MRI showed high specificity, a high negative predictive value, and low-to-moderate sensitivity. For CR and for MRI, the interobserver agreement for periosteal reaction was almost perfect, whereas, for the classification of different subtypes of periosteal reaction, it was higher for the Codman's triangle subtype and lower for the spiculated subtype. There was no significant difference between MRI and CR in terms of the classifications (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We found no difference between MRI and CR in terms of their ability to classify periosteal reactions. MRI showed high specificity and almost perfect interobserver agreement for the detection of periosteal reactions. The interobserver agreement was variable for the different subtypes of periosteal reaction. PMID:28670029

  17. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of periosteal reactions in bone sarcomas using conventional radiography as the reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz de Sá Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in detecting periosteal reactions and to compare MRI and conventional radiography (CR in terms of the classification of periosteal reactions. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of 42 consecutive patients (mean age, 22 years; 20 men with a confirmed diagnosis of osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma, MRI and CR images having been acquired pretreatment. Three blinded radiologists detected periosteal reactions and evaluated each periosteal reaction subtype in CR and MRI images: Codman's triangle; laminated; and spiculated. The CR was used as a benchmark to calculate the diagnostic performance. We used the kappa coefficient to assess interobserver reproducibility. A two-tailed Fisher's exact test was used in order to assess contingency between CR and MRI classifications. Results: In the detection of periosteal reactions, MRI showed high specificity, a high negative predictive value, and low-to-moderate sensitivity. For CR and for MRI, the interobserver agreement for periosteal reaction was almost perfect, whereas, for the classification of different subtypes of periosteal reaction, it was higher for the Codman's triangle subtype and lower for the spiculated subtype. There was no significant difference between MRI and CR in terms of the classifications (p < 0.05. Conclusion: We found no difference between MRI and CR in terms of their ability to classify periosteal reactions. MRI showed high specificity and almost perfect interobserver agreement for the detection of periosteal reactions. The interobserver agreement was variable for the different subtypes of periosteal reaction.

  18. Indium-111-labeled autologous leukocyte imaging and fecal excretion. Comparison with conventional methods of assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leddin, D.J.; Paterson, W.G.; DaCosta, L.R.; Dinda, P.K.; Depew, W.T.; Markotich, J.; McKaigney, J.P.; Groll, A.; Beck, I.T.

    1987-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the role of /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte imaging and fecal excretion in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. We compared these tests to various indices of disease activity in Crohn's disease, to Truelove's grading in ulcerative colitis, and to endoscopy, x-ray, and pathology in both diseases. Eleven controls, 16 patients with Crohn's disease, 13 with ulcerative colitis, and 3 with other types of acute bowel inflammation were studied (positive controls). Indium scanning was performed at 1, 4, and 24 hr. Fourteen of 16 patients with active Crohn's disease had positive scans but in only five was localization accurate. One patient had inactive ulcerative colitis, and the scan was negative. Of 12 patients with active ulcerative colitis, 10 had positive scans but disease localization was accurate in only four. Disease extent was correctly defined in 1 of the 3 Positive Controls. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of scanning at 1, 4, or 24 hr. /sup 111/In fecal excretion was significantly higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease than in controls, and there was correlation between /sup 111/In fecal excretion and most of the indices of disease activity in Crohn's disease. In ulcerative colitis, /sup 111/In fecal excretion did not correlate with Truelove's grading but reflected colonoscopic assessment of severity. In conclusion, /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scanning lacks sensitivity with respect to disease extent, but fecal excretion of /sup 111/In correlates well with disease severity as determined by other methods.

  19. Knee pain and inflammation in the infrapatellar fat pad estimated by conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in obese patients with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, C; Riis, R G C; Bliddal, H;

    2014-01-01

    in the IPFP was assessed according to the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) using CE-MRI and by DCE-MRI perfusion variables. The perfusion variable, "Inflammation", was chosen as primary perfusion variable in the analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the perfusion variables ranged from 0......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between knee pain and signs of inflammation in the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). DESIGN: In a cross-sectional setting, 3-T conventional contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic...... contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI of KOA were analysed to quantify the extent of inflammation in the IPFP, and correlated (Spearman's rank correlation) to pain and other symptoms assessed via the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) (100 = no pain, 0 = extreme pain). The extent of inflammation...

  20. Characterization of imaging performance in differential phase contrast CT compared with the conventional CT: Spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Xiangyang; Yang Yi; Tang Shaojie [Imaging and Medical Physics, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Uppergate Drive, C-5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT) is emerging as a new technology to improve the contrast sensitivity of conventional attenuation-based CT. The noise equivalent quanta as a function over spatial frequency, i.e., the spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k), is a decisive indicator of the signal and noise transfer properties of an imaging system. In this work, we derive the functional form of NEQ(k) in DPC-CT. Via system modeling, analysis, and computer simulation, we evaluate and verify the derived NEQ(k) and compare it with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT. Methods: The DPC-CT is implemented with x-ray tube and gratings. The x-ray propagation and data acquisition are modeled and simulated through Fresnel and Fourier analysis. A monochromatic x-ray source (30 keV) is assumed to exclude any system imperfection and interference caused by scatter and beam hardening, while a 360 Degree-Sign full scan is carried out in data acquisition to avoid any weighting scheme that may disrupt noise randomness. Adequate upsampling is implemented to simulate the x-ray beam's propagation through the gratings G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} with periods 8 and 4 {mu}m, respectively, while the intergrating distance is 193.6 mm (1/16 of the Talbot distance). The dimensions of the detector cell for data acquisition are 32 Multiplication-Sign 32, 64 Multiplication-Sign 64, 96 Multiplication-Sign 96, and 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 {mu}m{sup 2}, respectively, corresponding to a 40.96 Multiplication-Sign 40.96 mm{sup 2} field of view in data acquisition. An air phantom is employed to obtain the noise power spectrum NPS(k), spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k), and detective quantum efficiency DQE(k). A cylindrical water phantom at 5.1 mm diameter and complex refraction coefficient n= 1 -{delta}+i{beta}= 1 -2.5604 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}+i1.2353 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} is placed in air to measure the edge transfer function, line spread function

  1. Characterization of imaging performance in differential phase contrast CT compared with the conventional CT: Spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT) is emerging as a new technology to improve the contrast sensitivity of conventional attenuation-based CT. The noise equivalent quanta as a function over spatial frequency, i.e., the spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k), is a decisive indicator of the signal and noise transfer properties of an imaging system. In this work, we derive the functional form of NEQ(k) in DPC-CT. Via system modeling, analysis, and computer simulation, we evaluate and verify the derived NEQ(k) and compare it with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT. Methods: The DPC-CT is implemented with x-ray tube and gratings. The x-ray propagation and data acquisition are modeled and simulated through Fresnel and Fourier analysis. A monochromatic x-ray source (30 keV) is assumed to exclude any system imperfection and interference caused by scatter and beam hardening, while a 360° full scan is carried out in data acquisition to avoid any weighting scheme that may disrupt noise randomness. Adequate upsampling is implemented to simulate the x-ray beam's propagation through the gratings G1 and G2 with periods 8 and 4 μm, respectively, while the intergrating distance is 193.6 mm (1/16 of the Talbot distance). The dimensions of the detector cell for data acquisition are 32 × 32, 64 × 64, 96 × 96, and 128 × 128 μm2, respectively, corresponding to a 40.96 × 40.96 mm2 field of view in data acquisition. An air phantom is employed to obtain the noise power spectrum NPS(k), spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k), and detective quantum efficiency DQE(k). A cylindrical water phantom at 5.1 mm diameter and complex refraction coefficient n = 1 − δ + iβ = 1 −2.5604 × 10−7 + i1.2353 × 10−10 is placed in air to measure the edge transfer function, line spread function and then modulation transfer function MTF(k), of both DPC-CT and the conventional attenuation-based CT. The x-ray flux is set at 5 × 106 photon/cm2 per projection and

  2. The image of the universe as a cultural choice between science and theology. Probabilism and Realism from the Middle Ages to Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fiorentino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The famous Galilean question was to become the paradigm of the conflict between Nature and Scripture, science and faith, free research of natural reason and authority of the ecclesiastical institution, obscurantism of the medieval period and scientific progress which would illuminate the modern age. It is well known that the stereotype of the pure conflict between scientific thought and religious dogma for long dominated the interpretation of the most profound essence of the Middle Ages, as an obscurantist age in the grip of the universalist political and religious authorities. This image of the Middle Ages was greatly corroborated by the Humanist writers of the Renaissance and enlightenment historiography. This contribution purports to analyse late–medieval science from an olistic methodology based on history of science and philosophy of science, to obtain a big picture in front to Scientific Revolution and to show the cultural roots of the different images of the universe.

  3. Conventional Armaments for coming decades .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Salwan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional arnaments have continued to play a decisive role even in the present scenario of nuclear weapons and electronic warfare. As a war-fighting technology, they are low cost, reliable, highly effective and proven in several battlefield situations. With the application of advancements in electronics, materials and manufacturing technologies, computers and propulsion technologies to conventional weapon systems, they are capable of having greater flexibility, lethality , accuracy and effectiveness. This communication gives an overview on advancements in conventional armament systems, emerging trends in weapon technologies and modern enabling technologies for advanced weapon systems.

  4. On the Female Images in the Modern Japanese Literature%论日本近代文学中的女性形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓丹

    2014-01-01

    日本近代文学中的女性形象是日本女性文学向女性主义文学迈进道路上的重要组成部分。基于此,从阿关、叶子、伸子这三个人物形象入手,分析日本女性文学形象的渐变与突破,以及日本社会近代化历程中女性思维的嬗变。通过对这三个女性人物性格、经历的剖析,透视日本女性文学向女性主义文学过渡的历程,以及与同时期的西方女性文学相比存在的差距。%The female image in modern Japanese literature is an important part of the transition from Japanese female literature to feminist literature. This article starts from Aguan,Yezi,and Shenzi the three characters,analyzes the gradual change and breakthrough of Japanese female literature image,as well as the evolution of Japanese females' thinking in Japanese social modernization process. By comparing the three women's characters and experiences,this paper reveals the transition of Japanese female literature and its weakness compared with western female literature in the same period.

  5. Imaging articular cartilage defects with 3D fat-suppressed echo planar imaging: comparison with conventional 3D fat-suppressed gradient echo sequence and correlation with histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, S; Huber, M; Breitenseher, M J; Trnka, H J; Rand, T; Kaider, A; Helbich, T; Imhof, H; Resnick, D

    1998-01-01

    Our goal was to shorten examination time in articular cartilage imaging by use of a recently developed 3D multishot echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with fat suppression (FS). We performed comparisons with 3D FS GE sequence using histology as the standard of reference. Twenty patients with severe gonarthrosis who were scheduled for total knee replacement underwent MRI prior to surgery. Hyaline cartilage was imaged with a 3D FS EPI and a 3D FS GE sequence. Signal intensities of articular structures were measured, and contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratios were calculated. Each knee was subdivided into 10 cartilage surfaces. From a total of 188 (3D EPI sequence) and 198 (3D GE sequence) cartilage surfaces, 73 and 79 histologic specimens could be obtained and analyzed. MR grading of cartilage lesions on both sequences was based on a five grade classification scheme and compared with histologic grading. The 3D FS EPI sequence provided a high C/N ratio between cartilage and subchondral bone similar to that of the 3D FS GE sequence. The C/N ratio between cartilage and effusion was significantly lower on the 3D EPI sequence due to higher signal intensity of fluid. MR grading of cartilage abnormalities using 3D FS EPI and 3D GE sequence correlated well with histologic grading. 3D FS EPI sequence agreed within one grade in 69 of 73 (94.5%) histologically proven cartilage lesions and 3D FS GE sequence agreed within one grade in 76 of 79 (96.2%) lesions. The gradings were identical in 38 of 73 (52.1%) and in 46 of 79 (58.3%) cases, respectively. The difference between the sensitivities was statistically not significant. The 3D FS EPI sequence is comparable with the 3D FS GE sequence in the noninvasive evaluation of advanced cartilage abnormalities but reduces scan time by a factor of 4.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging with conventional MR imaging for differentiating complex solid and cystic ovarian tumors at 1.5T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative characterization of complex solid and cystic adnexal masses is crucial for informing patients about possible surgical strategies. Our study aims to determine the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC for characterizing complex solid and cystic adnexal masses. Methods One-hundred and 91 patients underwent diffusion-weighted (DW magnetic resonance (MR imaging of 202 ovarian masses. The mean ADC value of the solid components was measured and assessed for each ovarian mass. Differences in ADC between ovarian masses were tested using the Student’s t-test. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC was used to assess the ability of ADC to differentiate between benign and malignant complex adnexal masses. Results Eighty-five patients were premenopausal, and 106 were postmenopausal. Seventy-four of the 202 ovarian masses were benign and 128 were malignant. There was a significant difference between the mean ADC values of benign and malignant ovarian masses (p -3 mm2/s may be the optimal one for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. Conclusions A high signal intensity within the solid component on T2WI was less frequently in benign than in malignant adnexal masses. The combination of DW imaging with ADC value measurements and T2-weighted signal characteristics of solid components is useful for differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian masses.

  7. Added value of contrast-enhanced CISS imaging in relation to conventional MR images for the evaluation of intracavernous cranial nerve lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Akiko; Takahashi, Ayako; Morita, Hideo; Amanuma, Makoto; Endo, Keigo [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Sato, Noriko [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Takeuchi, K. [Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Department of Health and Welfare, Gunma (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The normal cranial nerves (CNs) of the cavernous sinus can be clearly demonstrated using contrast-enhanced constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study used the method to evaluate pathological CNs III, IV, V{sub 1}, V{sub 2}, and VI in cavernous sinuses affected by inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. MR images from 17 patients with diseases involving the cavernous sinuses and/or causing neuropathy in CNs III-VI were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into inflammatory (n = 11) and neoplastic (n = 6) groups. We defined CNs as abnormal when they exhibited enlargement or enhancement. CNs were evaluated using both contrast-enhanced CISS and T1-weighted MRI. In the inflammatory group, abnormal CNs were identified by contrast-enhanced CISS MRI in 13 of 25 symptomatic CNs (52%) in eight patients, but in only two CNs (8%) in two patients by contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI. In the neoplastic group, both sequences of contrast-enhanced CISS and T1-weighted MRI detected abnormalities in the same three of eight symptomatic CNs (37.5%), i.e., the three CNs were all in the same patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma. Contrast-enhanced CISS MRI is useful for detecting CN abnormalities in inflammatory pathological conditions of the cavernous sinuses. (orig.)

  8. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  9. The value of magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of the bleeding source in non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhages: a comparison with conventional digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, Nina; Lutz, Juergen; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is currently regarded as the gold standard in detecting underlying vascular pathologies in patients with intracerebral haemorrhages (ICH). However, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostic workup of ICHs has considerably increased in recent years. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and yield of MRI for the detection of the underlying aetiology in ICH patients. Sixty-seven consecutive patients with an acute ICH who underwent MRI (including magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and DSA during their diagnostic workup) were included in the study. Magnetic resonance images were retrospectively analysed by two independent neuroradiologists to determine the localisation and cause of the ICH. DSA was used as a reference standard. In seven patients (10.4%), a DSA-positive vascular aetiology was present (one aneurysm, four arteriovenous malformations, one dural arteriovenous fistula and one vasculitis). All of these cases were correctly diagnosed by both readers on MRI. In addition, MRI revealed the following probable bleeding causes in 39 of the 60 DSA-negative patients: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (17), cavernoma (9), arterial hypertension (8), haemorrhagic transformation of an ischaemic infarction (3) and malignant brain tumour with secondary ICH (2). Performing MRI with MRA proved to be an accurate diagnostic tool in detecting vascular malformations in patients with ICH. In addition, MRI provided valuable information regarding DSA-negative ICH causes, and thus had a high diagnostic yield in ICH patients. (orig.)

  10. Feasibility and accuracy of coronary imaging in elderly patients using the 64-row multi-detector computed tomography: a correlation study with conventional coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ling CHAN; Kui Hian SIM; Chee Khoon LIEW; Sze Piaw CHIN; Tiong Kiam ONG; Seyfarth Tobias; Yean Yip FONG; Choon Kiat ANG; Houng Bang LIEW; Rapaee ANNUAR

    2006-01-01

    Background Elderly patients generally have higher occurrence of coronary calcification, increased heart rate and difficulty with prolonged breath-holding. The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in the assessment of coronary artery stenoses in elderly patients. Methods One hundred and fifty two patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease were divided into 4 groups according to their age (Group A: 40-49 years,n=34; Group B: 50-59 years, n=57; Group C: 60-69 years, n=48; Group D: 70 years and above; n=13). Coronary CT angiography (CTA) using a 64-row MDCT was performed and the findings were compared with that of conventional coronary angiography (CCA).Using axial images, multi-planar reconstructions (MPR) and maximum intensity projections (MIP), coronary segments of lumen diameter = 1.5mm were analyzed for the presence of significant stenosis (= 50% ). Results Percentages of poor image quality from coronary CTA preventing reliable correlations with CCA were 21%, 14%, 19% and 62% in Groups A to D respectively. Patients in Group D had significantly higher calcium scores compared with the other groups (P<0.001). In patients where CTA images were of acceptable quality, percentages of accurate correlations with CCA were 89.8%, 93.4%, 86.6% and 78.0% for Groups A to D respectively.There were no significant difference in serum creatinine, heart rate and contrast volume between the 4 groups. Conclusions The 64-row MDCT coronary angiography was less accurate and feasible for patients aged 70 years or above due to heavy coronary calcification and inability to perform a satisfactory breath-hold. However, a high diagnostic accuracy with the MDCT is possible in patients aged less than 70 years.

  11. On-line multi-slice computed tomography interactive overlay with conventional X-ray: a new and advanced imaging fusion concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joel A; Bhakta, Shyam; Kay, Joseph; Chan, Kak-Chen; Wink, Onno; Ruijters, Danny; Carroll, John D

    2009-04-17

    Computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized noninvasive cardiovascular evaluations. Complicated percutaneous procedures require precise imaging guidance that conventional X-ray is often unable to provide. By combining X-ray imaging with real-time, interactive, CT-based landmarks, interventional procedures could be facilitated. We describe two cases using the first CT/Live X-ray overlay in which this technology shows its potential. A 31-year-old male with an anatomically complicated atrial septal defect (ASD) was referred for percutaneous closure. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed an inferior location of the ASD complicated by it's proximity to a prominent Eustachian ridge. The CT was used to create a patient-specific physical model in preparation for the procedure and an in-lab real-time CT overlay allowing successful closure. A second case of a 41-year-old male with coronary artery disease status-post coronary artery bypass, aortic valve replacement (AVR), and aortic root replacement with an abnormal coronary computed tomography angiogram (CTA). In a prior procedure years ago the saphenous vein graft (SVG) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) could not be cannulated during invasive angiography, given the patient's complicated and unusual anatomy. Using CT overlay, the superiorly and anteriorly located SVG was cannulated successfully. CT/Live X-ray overlay provided an adequate anatomical intra-procedural ASD evaluation, defect sizing, and guidance in one case and localization of an anatomically challenging graft ostium in the other case. Adding the CT landmarks as an overlay to traditional X-ray techniques provides a revolutionary and advanced imaging fusion concept that should improve procedural success.

  12. Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 weighted voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In childhood, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is reliably associated with reduced volume of the striatum. In contrast, striatal abnormalities are infrequently detected in voxel-based morphometry (VBM neuroimaging studies of adults with ADHD. This discrepancy has been suggested to reflect normalisation of striatal morphology with age and prolonged treatment of symptoms. If so, this would indicate that while striatal abnormalities are linked to symptom expression in childhood, they cannot explain the persistence of these symptoms in adulthood. However, this may not be case. Instead, we hypothesized that the lack of evidence for striatal abnormalities in adult ADHD may reflect poor sensitivity of typical (T1-weighted neuroimaging to detect subcortical differences. To address this, we acquired both magnetisation transfer (MT saturation maps optimised for subcortical contrast, and conventional T1-weighted images in 30 adults with ADHD and 30 age, IQ, gender and handedness-matched controls. Using VBM of both datasets, we demonstrate volumetric reductions within the left ventral striatum on MT that are not observed on identically pre-processed T1-weighted images from the same participants. Nevertheless, both techniques reported similar sensitivity to cortical abnormalities in the right inferior parietal lobe. Additionally, we show that differences in striatal iron may potentially explain this reduced sensitivity of T1-weighted images in adults. Together, these findings indicate that prior VBM studies reporting no abnormalities in striatal volume in adult ADHD might have been compromised by the methodological insensitivity of T1-weighted VBM to subcortical differences, and that structural abnormalities of the striatum in ADHD do indeed persist into adulthood.

  13. Cosmesis and body image after single-port laparoscopic or conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a multicenter double blinded randomised controlled trial (SPOCC-trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonlanthen René

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging attempts have been made to reduce operative trauma and improve cosmetic results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a trend towards minimizing the number of incisions such as natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC. Many retrospective case series propose excellent cosmesis and reduced pain in SPLC. As the latter has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial, patient's satisfaction on cosmesis is still controversially debated. Methods/Design The SPOCC trial is a prospective, multi-center, double blinded, randomized controlled study comparing SPLC with 4-port conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (4PLC in elective surgery. The hypothesis and primary objective is that patients undergoing SPLC will have a better outcome in cosmesis and body image 12 weeks after surgery. This primary endpoint is assessed using a validated 8-item multiple choice type questionnaire on cosmesis and body image. The secondary endpoint has three entities: the quality of life 12 weeks after surgery assessed by the validated Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, postoperative pain assessed by a visual analogue scale and the use of analgesics. Operative time, surgeon's experience with SPLC and 4PLC, use of additional ports, conversion to 4PLC or open cholecystectomy, length of stay, costs, time of work as well as intra- and postoperative complications are further aspects of the secondary endpoint. Patients are randomly assigned either to SPLC or to 4PLC. Patients as well as treating physicians, nurses and assessors are blinded until the 7th postoperative day. Sample size calculation performed by estimating a difference of cosmesis of 20% (alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.90, drop out rate of 10% resulted in a number of 55 randomized patients per arm. Discussion The SPOCC-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study to assess cosmesis and body

  14. Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy: evaluation of the brain and optic pathway by conventional MRI and magnetisation transfer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Zikou, Anastasia K.; Tzovara, Ioanna; Margariti, Persefoni [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Nikas, Alexios; Asproudis, Ioannis [University of Ioannina, Ophthalmologic Clinic, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Blekas, Kostandinos; Galatsanos, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Informatics, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of the study was to examine the brain and the visual pathway of patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) by using conventional MRI (cMRI) and volumetric magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI). Thirty NAION patients, aged 67.5 {+-} 8.14 years, and 28 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. MTI was used to measure the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of the chiasm and for MTR histograms of the brain. The presence of areas of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) was evaluated on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Area of the optic nerves (ONs) and volume of the chiasm were assessed, as were coronal short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) and MTI images, respectively. More areas of WMH were observed in patients (total 419; mean 14.4; SD 19) than in controls (total 127; mean 4.7; SD 5.7), P < 0.001. Area (in square millimetres) of the affected ONs, volume(in cubic millimetres) and MTR (in percent) of the chiasm (10.7 {+-} 4.6), (75.8 {+-} 20.2), (56.4 {+-} 6.5), respectively, were lower in patients than in controls (13.6 {+-} 4.3), (158.2 {+-} 75.3) (62.1 {+-} 6.2), respectively, P < 0.05. Mean MTR of brain histograms was lower in patients (53.0 {+-} 8.0) than in controls (58.0 {+-} 5.6), P < 0.05. NAION is characterised by decreased ON and chiasmatic size. The low MTR of the chiasm and brain associated with increased areas of WMH may be suggestive of demyelination and axonal damage due to generalised cerebral vascular disease. (orig.)

  15. A Modern Image Quality Measurement Method for Blind Image Restoration%基于变分的盲图像复原质量评价指标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成孝刚; 安明伟; 阮雅端; 陈启美

    2013-01-01

    盲图像复原过程中,图像质量评价至关重要.通过分析重构图像质量与其总变分值之间的关系,提出了用于图像复原的一种基于总变分(Total bounded variation,TBV)的图像质量评估方法,并构建关系模型,证明了原始清晰图像的总变分值在所有模糊图像中具有极大值,且在所有重构图像的变分值中具有极小值.通过分析,得出结论:当总变分取极值时,基于所提度量方法,可以获得更好的盲图像重构效果.最后,比较了原始清晰图像、模糊图像和重构图像之间的变分值,计算机仿真验证了该方法的有效性和准确性.%In the process of blind image restoration, image quality assessment is of paramount importance. In this paper, A novel image quality assessment method is presented by analyzing the relation between reconstructed image quality and its total bounded variation (TBV), on this basis, the relationship model is constructed, that is, the original clear image's TBV is maximum in all the blurring image, and it is minimal in all the reconstructed image. Further, based on the metric method proposed, the better blind image reconstruction effect is obtained when the TBV is extremal. Finally, the TBV of original clear image, blurred images and blind restored images are compared, the simulation results shows the validation and veracity of the method proposed.

  16. Semi-quantitative Assessment of Brain Maturation by Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neonates with Clinically Mild Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Gao; Qin-Li Sun; Yu-Miao Zhang; Yan-Yan Li; Huan Li; Xin Hou; Bo-Lang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) injury is becoming the major type in neonatal brain diseases.The aim of this study was to assess brain maturation in mild HIE neonatal brains using total maturation score (TMS) based on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods:Totally,45 neonates with clinically mild HIE and 45 matched control neonates were enrolled.Gestated age,birth weight,age after birth and postmenstrual age at magnetic resonance (MR) scan were homogenous in the two groups.According to MR findings,mild HIE neonates were divided into three subgroups:Pattern Ⅰ,neonates with normal MR appearance; Pattern Ⅱ,preterm neonates with abnormal MR appearance; Pattern Ⅲ,full-term neonates with abnormal MR appearance.TMS and its parameters,progressive myelination (M),cortical infolding (C),involution of germinal matrix tissue (G),and glial cell migration bands (B),were employed to assess brain maturation and compare difference between HIE and control groups.Results:The mean of TMS was significantly lower in mild HIE group than it in the control group (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 11.62 ± 1.53 vs.12.36 ± 1.26,P < 0.001).In four parameters of TMS scores,the M and C scores were significantly lower in mild HIE group.Of the three patterns of mild HIE,Pattern Ⅰ (10 cases) showed no significant difference of TMS compared with control neonates,while Pattern Ⅱ (22 cases),Ⅲ (13 cases) all had significantly decreased TMS than control neonates (mean ± SD 10.56 ± 0.93 vs.11.48 ± 0.55,P < 0.05; 12.59 ± 1.28 vs.13.25 ± 1.29,P < 0.05).It was M,C,and GM scores that significantly decreased in Pattern Ⅱ,while for Pattern Ⅲ,only C score significantly decreased.Conclusions:The TMS system,based on conventional MRI,is an effective method to detect delayed brain maturation in clinically mild HIE.The conventional MRI can reveal the different retardations in subtle structures and development processes among the different patterns of

  17. The Vikings are coming! A modern Icelandic self-image in the light of the economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the connection between the economic crisis in Iceland in 2008 and the role of Viking imagery in the collective self-image of Iceland. This connection is informed by Iceland’s status as a Danish dependency for centuries – a condition that deeply affected the development of Icelandic self-perception and its cultural life. In recent years, the Viking has appeared as an image of central cultural significance in Iceland’s international relations with both Denmark and Great Br...

  18. Modern algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Seth

    1990-01-01

    Standard text provides an exceptionally comprehensive treatment of every aspect of modern algebra. Explores algebraic structures, rings and fields, vector spaces, polynomials, linear operators, much more. Over 1,300 exercises. 1965 edition.

  19. Behavioural Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  20. Modernity's Prometheus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  1. Modernity's Prometheus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  2. Computer and Modernization%Low-dose CT Image Reconstruction Based on Adaptive Kernel Regression Method and Algebraic Reconstruction Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志威

    2016-01-01

    针对稀疏角度投影数据CT图像重建问题,TV-ART算法将图像的梯度稀疏先验知识引入代数重建法( ART)中,对分段平滑的图像具有较好的重建效果。但是,该算法在边界重建时会产生阶梯效应,影响重建质量。因此,本文提出自适应核回归函数结合代数重建法的重建算法( LAKR-ART),不仅在边界重建时不会产生阶梯效应,而且对细节纹理重建具有更好的重建效果。最后对shepp-logan标准CT图像和实际CT头颅图像进行仿真实验,并与ART、TV-ART算法进行比较,实验结果表明本文算法有效。%To the problem of sparse angular projection data of CT image reconstruction, TV-ART algorithm introduces the gradient sparse prior knowledge of image to algebraic reconstruction, and the local smooth image gets a better reconstruction effect. How-ever, the algorithm generates step effect when the borders are reconstructed, affecting the quality of the reconstruction. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive kernel regression function combined with Algebraic Reconstruction Technique reconstruction algo-rithm ( LAKR-ART) , it does not produce the step effect on the border reconstruction, and has a better effect to detail reconstruc-tion. Finally we use the shepp-logan CT image and the actual CT image to make the simulation experiment, and compare with ART and TV-ART algorithm. The experimental results show the algorithm is of effectiveness.

  3. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: physics of flat-panel fluoroscopy systems: Survey of modern fluoroscopy imaging: flat-panel detectors versus image intensifiers and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickoloff, Edward Lee

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the design and operation of both flat-panel detector (FPD) and image intensifier fluoroscopy systems. The different components of each imaging chain and their functions are explained and compared. FPD systems have multiple advantages such as a smaller size, extended dynamic range, no spatial distortion, and greater stability. However, FPD systems typically have the same spatial resolution for all fields of view (FOVs) and are prone to ghosting. Image intensifier systems have better spatial resolution with the use of smaller FOVs (magnification modes) and tend to be less expensive. However, the spatial resolution of image intensifier systems is limited by the television system to which they are coupled. Moreover, image intensifier systems are degraded by glare, vignetting, spatial distortions, and defocusing effects. FPD systems do not have these problems. Some recent innovations to fluoroscopy systems include automated filtration, pulsed fluoroscopy, automatic positioning, dose-area product meters, and improved automatic dose rate control programs. Operator-selectable features may affect both the patient radiation dose and image quality; these selectable features include dose level setting, the FOV employed, fluoroscopic pulse rates, geometric factors, display software settings, and methods to reduce the imaging time.

  4. Diagnosis of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. A comparison between low-field magnetic resonance imaging, 3-phase bone scintigraphy and conventional X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, S.; Dresel, S.; Weiss, M.; Hahn, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Innenstadt, Muenchen (Germany); Treitl, M.; Krolak, C.; Becker-Gaab, C. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Innenstadt, Muenchen (Germany); Schattenkirchner, M. [Rheumaeinheit der Medizinischen Poliklinik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Innenstadt, Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Besides conventional X-rays, in the diagnostic work up of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 3-phase bone scintigraphy (3P-Sz) is as well established as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the newly developed low field MRI with the proven methods X-rays and 3P-Sz. Methods: 65 patients (47f, 18m; 20-86 yrs) were studied on a one day protocol with 3P-Sz (550 MBq Tc-99m DPD), MRI and X-rays of the hands. Images were visually analysed by two blinded nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists and classified as a) RA-typical, b) inflammatory, non-RA-typical and c) non inflammatory changes. All methods were compared to 3P-Sz as golden standard. Results: In comparison to 3P-Sz, low field MRI presents with almost equal sensitivity and specificity in rheumatoid-typical and inflammatory changes. Conventional X-rays revealed in arthritis-typical changes as well as in inflammatory changes a significantly lower sensitivity and also a lower negative predictive value while specificity equals the one of MRI. Quantitative analysis of 3P-Sz using ROI-technique unveiled significantly higher values in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than in those with no inflammatory changes. Conclusion: MRI represents an equally sensitive method in the initial diagnosis of rheumatoid-typical and inflammatory changes in the region of the hands as compared to the 3P-Sz. Besides the basic diagnosis with conventional X-rays, 3P-Sz is still the recommended method of choice to evaluate the whole body when RA is suspected. Additionally, quantitative analysis of the 3P-Sz using the ROI technique in the region of the hands reveals statistically significant results and should therefore be taken into account in the assessment of inflammatory changes. (orig.) [German] Zur Diagnostik initialer Veraenderungen bei rheumatoider Arthritis (RA) werden neben der Projektionsradiographie (PR) im bilddiagnostischen

  5. Combination of diffusion tensor imaging and conventional MRI correlates with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutations but not 1p/19q genotyping in oligodendroglial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ji [Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Shanghai (China); Tan, Wenli [Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Wen, Jianbo; Pan, Jiawei; Zhang, Jun; Geng, Daoying [Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Wang, Yin [Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    To explore the correlations of conventional MRI (cMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) values with the 1p/19 codeletion and IDH mutations in oligodendroglial tumours (OTs). Eighty-four patients with OTs who underwent cMRI and DTI were retrospectively reviewed. The maximal fractional anisotropy and minimal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic curves, logistic regression analysis and four-table statistics analysis were performed to predict genotypings. OTs with 1p/19q codeletion or IDH mutations were prone to locate in frontal (P = 0.106 and 0.005, respectively) and insular lobes and were associated with absent or blurry contrast enhancement (P = 0.040 and 0.013, respectively). DTI values showed significant differences between OTs with and without IDH mutations (P < 0.05) but not in OTs with and without 1p/19q loss. The Ki-67 index significantly correlated with IDH mutations (P = 0.002) but not with 1p/19q codeletion. A combination of DTI and cMRI for the identification of IDH mutations resulted in sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 92.2 %, 75.8 %, 93.8 % and 71.1 %, respectively. Combination of DTI and cMRI correlates with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutations but not 1p/19q genotyping in OTs. (orig.)

  6. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging for Monitoring the Instantly Therapeutic Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation in Rabbit VX2 Tumors without Evident Links between Conventional Perfusion Weighted Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Guo

    Full Text Available To investigate the intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI as a potential valuable marker to monitor the therapy responses of VX2 to radiofrequency ablation (RF Ablation.The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. In 10 VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits, IVIM-DWI examinations were performed with a 3.0T imaging unit by using 16 b values from 0 to 800 sec/mm2. The true diffusion coefficient (D, pseudodiffusion coefficient (D* and perfusion fraction (f of tumors were compared between before and instantly after RF Ablation treatment. The differences of D, D* and f and conventional perfusion parameters (from perfusion CT and dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, DCE-MRI in the coagulation necrosis area, residual unablated area, untreated area, and normal control had been calculated by compared t-test. The correlation between f or D* with perfusion weighted CT including blood flow, BF (milliliter per 100 mL/min, blood volume, BV (milliliter per 100 mL/min, and capillary permeability-surface area, PMB (as a fraction or from DCE-MRI: transfer constant (Ktrans, extra-vascular extra-cellular volume fraction (Ve and reflux constant (Kep values had been analyzed by region-of-interest (ROI methods to calculate Pearson's correlation coefficients.In the ablated necrosis areas, f and D* significantly decreased and D significantly increased, compared with residual unblazed areas or untreated control groups and normal control groups (P < 0.001. The IVIM-DWI derived f parameters showed significant increases in the residual unablated tumor area. There was no significant correlations between f or D* and conventional perfusion parameters.The IVIM-DW derived f, D and D* parameters have the potential to indicate therapy response immediately after RF Ablation treatment, while no significant correlations with classical tumor perfusion metrics were derived from DCE-MRI and perfusion-CT measurements.

  7. Evaluation of the Added Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging to Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Comparison With 68Ga-DOTANOC Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchione, Alessandra; Rufini, Vittoria; Brizi, Maria Gabriella; Iacovazzo, Donato; Larghi, Alberto; Massara, Roberto Maria; Petrone, Gianluigi; Poscia, Andrea; Treglia, Giorgio; De Marinis, Laura; Giordano, Alessandro; Rindi, Guido; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) evaluation and to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to Ga-DOTANOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) results. Morphological MRI (T2-weighted [T2-w] + contrast-enhanced [CE] T1-w) and DWI (T2-w + DWI) and Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT in 25 patients/30 pNETs were retrospectively evaluated. Per-patient and per-lesion detection rates (pDR and lDR, respectively) were calculated. Apparent diffusion coefficient values were compared among pNET and surrounding and normal pancreas (control group, 18 patients). Apparent diffusion coefficient and standardized uptake value (SUV) values were compared among different grading and staging groups. No statistically significant differences in PET/CT and MRI session detection rates were found (morphological MRI and DW-MRI, 88% pDR and 87% lDR; combined evaluation, 92% pDR and 90% lDR; Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT, 88% pDR and 80% lDR). Consensus reading (morphological/DW-MRI + PET/CT) improved pDR and lDR (100%). Apparent diffusion coefficient mean value was significantly lower compared with surrounding and normal parenchyma (P < 0.01). The apparent diffusion coefficient and SUV values of pNETs among different grading and staging groups were not statistically different. Conventional MRI, DW-MRI + T2-w sequences, and Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT can be alternative tools in pNET detection. Diffusion-weighted MRI could be valuable in patients with clinical suspicion but negative conventional imaging findings. However, the consensus reading of the 3 techniques seems the best approach.

  8. Peritendinous calcinosis of calcaneus tendon associated with dermatomyositis: correlation between conventional radiograph, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and gross surgical pathology; Calcinose peritendinea do tendao calcaneo associada a dermatomiosite: correlacao entre radiografia convencional, ultra-sonografia, ressonancia magnetica e macroscopia cirurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Gomide, Lidyane Marques de Paula; Lemes, Marcella Stival [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiana, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Costa, Edegmar Nunes; Rocha, Valney Luiz da [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ortopedia; Machado, Marcio Martins; Santos Junior, Rubens Carneiro dos; Barros, Nestor de; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Sernik, Renato Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Nunes, Rodrigo Alvarenga [Universidade do Vale do Sapucai (UNIVAS), Pouso Alegre, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas; Albieri, Alexandre Daher [Hospital de Acidentados de Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Interstitial calcinosis is an uncommon condition in which there is either localized or widely disseminated deposition of calcium in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, and tendons. Calcinosis is often associated with collagen diseases, scleroderma and dermatomyositis. The authors report a case of interstitial calcinosis associated with dermatomyositis studied with conventional radiograph, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and correlate the imaging findings with the results of surgical pathology gross examination. (author)

  9. [Modern neuroimaging of brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, G; Seidel, S

    2010-02-01

    Modern neuroimaging methods offer new insights into the plasticity of the human brain. As the techniques of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly being applied in a clinical setting, the examiner is now frequently confronted with the interpretation of imaging findings related to regenerative processes in response to lesions of the central and also of the peripheral nervous system. In this article individual results of modern neuroimaging studies are discussed in the context of structural and functional plasticity of the CNS.

  10. 新媒体与现代人际传播中的个人形象塑造%Personal Image-promotion in New Media and Modern Interpersonal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵谞媛

    2013-01-01

    Through the analysis of the new media represented by online games, social networking and we media, this paper analyzes the way and characteristics of user's personal image-promotion and modern interpersonal communication, and then points out the bad effects of new media on user's mind or actions. Reflections on today's advanced information and communication systems are given in this paper in order to achieve a more effective new media self-image promotion and interpersonal communication method and create a more healthy interpersonal communication environment.%本文通过分析以网络游戏、社交网络、自媒体为代表的新媒体,分析用户使用新媒体进行个人形象塑造、现代人际传播的方式及特点,进而提出新媒体对使用者带来的精神或行动方面的不良影响。反思现今发达的信息传播系统,以实现一个更有效的新媒体自我形象塑造和人际交流方式,营造一个更健康的人际传播环境。

  11. Growth pattern research on the modern deposition of Ganjiang delta in Poyang lake basin by spatio-temporal remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongying; Yuan, Xuanjun; Zhang, Youyan; Dong, Wentong; Liu, Song

    2016-11-01

    It is of great importance for petroleum exploration to study the sedimentary features and the growth pattern of shoal water deltas in lake basins. Taking spatio-temporal remote sensing images as the principal data source, combined with field sedimentation survey, a quantitative research on the modern deposition of Ganjiang delta in the Poyang Lake Basin is described in this paper. Using 76 multi-temporal and multi-type remote sensing images acquired from 1973 to 2015, combined with field sedimentation survey, remote sensing interpretation analysis was conducted on the sedimentary facies of the Ganjiang delta. It is found that that the current Poyang Lake mainly consists of three types of sand body deposits including deltaic deposit, overflow channel deposit, and aeolian deposit, and the distribution of sand bodies was affected by the above three types of depositions jointly. The mid-branch channels of the Ganjiang delta increased on an exponential growth rhythm. The main growth pattern of the Ganjiang delta is dendritic and reticular, and the distributary channel mostly arborizes at lake inlet and was reworked to be reticulatus at late stage.

  12. Transabdominal pulse inversion harmonic imaging improves assesment of ovarian morphology in virgin patients with PCOS: comparison with conventional B-mode sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmutyazicioglu, Kamran; Tanriverdi, H. Alper; Oezdemir, Hueseyin; Barut, Aykut; Davsanci, Halit; Guendogdu, Sadi

    2005-02-01

    Objective: In virgin policystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients transabdominal sonography is the preferential method of the pelvic examination. The purpose of this study was to determine ovarian morphology by the transabdominal route by pulse inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) in virgin PCOS patients and to compare the diagnostic image quality with conventional B-mode ultrasonography (CBU). Methods: Fifty-two ovaries in 26 virgin patients were evaluated by the transabdominal approach. Each ovary was examined using both PIHI and CBU. The sharpness of the follicular cysts walls, degree of internal echo definitions of the follicle cysts and overall ovarian conspicuity was assessed subjectively, using 4 point scoring (0, being worst; 3, being best score). The number of countable follicles, the size of largest and smallest ovarian follicle and ovarian volumes were assessed quantitively by both techniques. The effect of body mass index (BMI) on qualitative and quantitative scoring was evaluated. Results: The sharpness of the cyst wall and internal echo structure was significantly better with PIHI than with CBU (P < 0.001 P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). PIHI improved overall ovarian conspicuity in 41 (78.8%) of 52 examination. The number of countable follicles was significantly lower with CBU (P < 0.001). The maximum diameter of the largest follicle was larger with PIHI sonography to compared CBU (P < 0.001). Mean ovarian volume was significantly larger with CBU (P < 0.001). When data were analyzed separately according to BMI, number of non-diagnostic overall ovarian conspicuity scores with CBU was markedly high in obese patients (88% with CBU versus 3.8% with PIHI). On the other hand, mean number of countable follicles with CBU became much more lower in the obese group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In virgin PCOS patients, when compared to transabdominal CBU, PIHI significantly improved the detection of ovarian follicles, especially in high BMI obese subjects, through

  13. Montreal Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Through analyses of the retro scenes in Montreal, Canada, the article discusses retro culture’s role as cultural memory. It is shown how Montreal’s cultural identity is formed by memories of modern culture such as the Red-light and Sin City reputation of the illicit nightlife of the 1940s and 1950s...

  14. Modern Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  15. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  16. 超常规光学透视成像研究进展*--散射光成像技术介绍%Optical imaging beyond conventional limits--An introduction to scattering light imaging techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和河向; 周建英

    2016-01-01

    光学成像是人类获取信息的最重要手段,传统成像方法难以克服光在传播过程中遇到的散射干扰,当天文望远、生物显微、医学成像甚至日常生活观察等众多场合遇到散射影响时无法获得高质量的图像。如何在存在散射影响的情况下实现光学成像是人们长久以来渴望解决的基本光学问题之一。随着科技的发展,对这一问题的研究取得了不少突破。文章对这些突破和进展进行了讨论,并重点介绍了利用光场调控和解卷积成像技术实现透过散射体成像恢复的研究进展。%Optical imaging is an important means for mankind to acquire information. However, in the presence of scattering it is difficult to obtain good quality images by conven-tional imaging methods, for example, in astronomy, bio-medical microscopy, and even daily ob-servation. This is not only a fundamental optics issue but also a long-standing problem that has yet to be solved. Thanks to the development of science and technology, great breakthroughs have been made in recent years. In this letter, the latest progress in the technique of imaging through scattering media by light field modulation and de-convolution methods is described and discussed.

  17. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  18. Comparison of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and nonenhanced three dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography findings between dogs with meningioma and dogs with intracranial histiocytic sarcoma: 19 cases (2010-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chieko; Ito, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Masato; Watari, Toshihiro

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To compare conventional MRI and nonenhanced 3-D time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) findings between dogs with meningioma and dogs with intracranial histiocytic sarcoma (IHS). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 14 dogs with meningioma and 5 dogs with IHS. PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs with meningioma or IHS that were examined at a tertiary veterinary hospital from 2010 through 2014 and underwent 3-D TOF MRA in conjunction with conventional MRI were reviewed. Findings for conventional MRI and 3-D TOF MRA were compared between the 2 groups of dogs to evaluate whether there were any characteristics that could be used to differentiate meningioma from IHS. RESULTS Tumor type was significantly associated with signal intensity on conventional T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI images; most meningiomas were hyperintense, and most IHSs were isointense or hypointense on those images. Tumor type was not associated with signal uniformity, tumor location, tumor origin, or the presence of edema, midline shift, or brain herniation. On MRA, blood vessels adjacent to the tumor were identified and characterized for 9 of 14 dogs with meningioma and all 5 dogs with IHS. Vessels adjacent to meningiomas were displaced in 8 of 9 dogs, whereas vessels adjacent to IHSs were not displaced. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated nonenhanced 3-D TOF MRA findings provided additional information that can be assessed in conjunction with conventional MRI findings to help differentiate meningiomas from IHSs in dogs.

  19. Modern maths

    CERN Document Server

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  20. Cyberspace modernization :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  1. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers in broa...... redemptive gesture toward the objects of the recent past and its predilection for irony. The article seeks to unfold hipster culture and sociality in an ongoing dialogue with sociological theory in general and conventional ways of thinking subculture in particular....

  2. Comparing near-infrared conventional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for determination of the bulk properties of solid samples by multivariate regression: determination of Mooney viscosity and plasticity indices of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano da Silva, Carlos; Pasquini, Celio

    2015-01-21

    Conventional reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and hyperspectral imaging (HI) in the near-infrared region (1000-2500 nm) are evaluated and compared, using, as the case study, the determination of relevant properties related to the quality of natural rubber. Mooney viscosity (MV) and plasticity indices (PI) (PI0 - original plasticity, PI30 - plasticity after accelerated aging, and PRI - the plasticity retention index after accelerated aging) of rubber were determined using multivariate regression models. Two hundred and eighty six samples of rubber were measured using conventional and hyperspectral near-infrared imaging reflectance instruments in the range of 1000-2500 nm. The sample set was split into regression (n = 191) and external validation (n = 95) sub-sets. Three instruments were employed for data acquisition: a line scanning hyperspectral camera and two conventional FT-NIR spectrometers. Sample heterogeneity was evaluated using hyperspectral images obtained with a resolution of 150 × 150 μm and principal component analysis. The probed sample area (5 cm(2); 24,000 pixels) to achieve representativeness was found to be equivalent to the average of 6 spectra for a 1 cm diameter probing circular window of one FT-NIR instrument. The other spectrophotometer can probe the whole sample in only one measurement. The results show that the rubber properties can be determined with very similar accuracy and precision by Partial Least Square (PLS) regression models regardless of whether HI-NIR or conventional FT-NIR produce the spectral datasets. The best Root Mean Square Errors of Prediction (RMSEPs) of external validation for MV, PI0, PI30, and PRI were 4.3, 1.8, 3.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Though the quantitative results provided by the three instruments can be considered equivalent, the hyperspectral imaging instrument presents a number of advantages, being about 6 times faster than conventional bulk spectrometers, producing robust spectral data by ensuring sample

  3. Modern Ferrite Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd Ed. offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject. The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and then increases the scope to include larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties, the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as co-precipitation, co-spray roasting ...

  4. Comparison of NIR chemical imaging with conventional NIR, Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy for quantification of furosemide crystal polymorphs in ternary powder mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Weiss, A K H; Griesser, U J; Pallua, J D; Huck, C W

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), near-infrared (NIR), Raman and attenuated-total-reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to quantify three polymorphic forms (I, II, III) of furosemide in ternary powder mixtures. For this purpose, partial least-squares (PLS) regression models were developed, and different data preprocessing algorithms such as normalization, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and 1st to 3rd derivatives were applied to reduce the influence of systematic disturbances. The performance of the methods was evaluated by comparison of the standard error of cross-validation (SECV), R(2), and the ratio performance deviation (RPD). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of all methods were determined. For NIR-CI, a SECVcorr-spec and a SECVsingle-pixel corrected were calculated to assess the loss of accuracy by taking advantage of the spatial information. NIR-CI showed a SECVcorr-spec (SECVsingle-pixel corrected) of 2.82% (3.71%), 3.49% (4.65%), and 4.10% (5.06%) for form I, II, III. NIR had a SECV of 2.98%, 3.62%, and 2.75%, and Raman reached 3.25%, 3.08%, and 3.18%. The SECV of the ATR-IR models were 7.46%, 7.18%, and 12.08%. This study proves that NIR-CI, NIR, and Raman are well suited to quantify forms I-III of furosemide in ternary mixtures. Because of the pressure-dependent conversion of form II to form I, ATR-IR was found to be less appropriate for an accurate quantification of the mixtures. In this study, the capability of NIR-CI for the quantification of polymorphic ternary mixtures was compared with conventional spectroscopic techniques for the first time. For this purpose, a new way of spectra selection was chosen, and two kinds of SECVs were calculated to achieve a better comparability of NIR-CI to NIR, Raman, and ATR-IR.

  5. Liver metastases from colorectal cancer treated with conventional and antiangiogenetic chemotherapy: evaluation with liver computed tomography perfusion and magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, Michele; Napoli, Alessandro; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Cartocci, Gaia; Saba, Luca; Menichini, Guendalina; Cavallo Marincola, Beatrice; Marincola, Beatrice Cavallo; Marotta, Eugenio; Di Mare, Luisa; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine whether perfusion computed tomography (CT-p) and magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (MR-DWI) can allow evaluation of the effects of chemotherapy combined with antiangiogenetic treatment on liver metastases in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and to determine if changes in CT-p and MR-DWI correlate with the response to therapy as assessed by conventional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Eighteen patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer underwent CT-p and MR-DWI before and 6 months after chemotherapy and antiangiogenetic treatment. Lesions were classified according to RECIST criteria (complete response [CR], partial response [PR], stable disease [SD], and progressive disease) and calculations of CT-p parameters including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), capillary permeability (CP), and MR-DWI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were performed; RECIST, CT-p, and MR-DWI measurements at baseline and follow-up were tested for statistically significant differences using the paired-samples t test. Baseline and follow-up perfusion parameters of the lesions were also compared on the basis of therapy response assessed by RECIST criteria using independent-samples t test. P < 0.05 was considered indicative of a statistically significant difference for all statistical test. Six patients (6/18; 33.3%) were classified as PR (), and the remaining 12 (12/18; 66.7%) were classified as SD. On a per-lesion basis, 2 (2/32; 6.3%) cannot be identified at follow-up, 6 (6/32; 18.8%) showed a decrease in size of more than 30%, and 24 (24/32; 75%) were substantially stable in size. No cases of progressive disease were demonstrated at follow-up. No statistically significant differences were demonstrated between PR, CR, and SD lesions for BF (P = 0.19), BV (P = 0.14), and ADC (P = 0.68) measurements, whereas CP was significantly higher in CR and PR lesions (P = 0.038). Considering

  6. How restful is it with all that noise? Comparison of Interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) and conventional imaging in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, J; Ferreira, M; Leppert, I R; Matsushita, R; Pike, B; Zatorre, R J

    2017-02-15

    Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI. Several approaches have been developed to mitigate the effects of acoustic noise on fMRI signals, including sparse sampling protocols and interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) acquisition methods, the latter being used only for task-based fMRI. Here, we developed an ISSS protocol for resting-state fMRI (rs-ISSS) consisting of rapid acquisition of a set of echo planar imaging volumes following each silent period, during which the steady state longitudinal magnetization was maintained with a train of relatively silent slice-selective excitation pulses. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of intensity and spatial extent of connectivity networks of fMRI BOLD signal across three different days for rs-ISSS and compared it with a standard resting-state fMRI (rs-STD). We also compared the strength and distribution of connectivity networks between rs-ISSS and rs-STD. We found that both rs-ISSS and rs-STD showed high reproducibility of fMRI signal across days. In addition, rs-ISSS showed a more robust pattern of functional connectivity within the somatosensory and motor networks, as well as an auditory network compared with rs-STD. An increased connectivity between the default mode network and the language network and with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) network was also found for rs-ISSS compared with rs-STD. Finally, region of interest analysis showed

  7. The role of modern imaging techniques in the diagnosis of malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries and possible association with microdeletion 22q11.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuturilo, Goran; Drakulic, Danijela; Krstic, Aleksandar; Gradinac, Marija; Ilisic, Tamara; Parezanovic, Vojislav; Milivojevic, Milena; Stevanovic, Milena; Jovanovic, Ida

    2013-04-01

    Malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries is a rare malformation with two forms. In the typical form, pulmonary arteries cross each other as they proceed to their respective lungs. The “lesser form” is characterised by the left pulmonary artery ostium lying directly superior to the ostium of the right pulmonary artery, without crossing of the branch pulmonary arteries. Malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries is often associated with other congenital heart defects and extracardiac anomalies, as well as with 22q11.2 microdeletion. We report three infants with crossed pulmonary arteries and one adolescent with “lesser form” of the malformation. The results suggest that diagnosis of malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries could be challenging if based solely on echocardiography, whereas modern imaging technologies such as contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography provide reliable establishment of diagnosis. In addition, we performed the first molecular characterisation of the 22q11.2 region among patients with malposition of the branch pulmonary arteries and revealed a 3-megabase deletion in two out of four patients

  8. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  9. Post-Modern Perspectives on Orthodox Positivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution explains the travails of international legal positivism (ILP) from post-modern perspectives. It identifies conventional precepts of orthodox ILP and shows how variants of post-modern thinking unravel them. The focus rests on three main such precepts and their critique: first, ortho

  10. Measuring Older Adults’ Individual Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that maintaining high individual modernity level can enable the shaping of positive self-image and boost life satisfaction for older people along with better adaptation to the process of societal modernization. This study examined the factorial structure and evaluated the psychometric properties of the adapted Multidimensional Scale of Chinese Individual Modernity (MS-CIM in a sample of 445 elders (the finalized version is named “MS-CIME” and added a self-constructed nine-item behavioral modernity domain. Principal component analysis suggested a conceptually meaningful seven-factor model, which was further supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The final 25-item MS-CIME indicated an acceptable level of reliability. The convergent validity was demonstrated by its associations with socio-economic status, participation in daily activities, self-image, and life satisfaction in expected directions.

  11. Modern electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zangwill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

  12. Modern thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  13. In Search of Lost Community: The Literary Image between “Proust” and “Baudelaire” in Walter Benjamin’s Modernization Lament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Ball

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay takes up the encounter between philosophy and literature through a reconsideration of Walter Benjamin’s remarks from “On Some Motifs in Baudelaire” about Henri Bergson’s Matière et mémoire as an attempt “[t]owering above” other ventures into Lebensphilosophie to “lay hold of the ‘true’ experience, as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses”. Despite his initial affirmation of Bergson’s understanding of experience as connected with tradition, Benjamin criticizes the philosopher’s account for sidestepping “the alienating, blinding experience of the age of large-scale industrialism” in reaction to which, as Benjamin insists, Bergson’s philosophy of memory developed. Yet even as Bergson shuts out the historical import of modernization, according to Benjamin, he also spotlights a “complementary” visual experience “in the form of its spontaneous afterimage”. Benjamin subsequently defines Bergson’s philosophy as “an attempt to specify this afterimage and fix it as a permanent record”, an endeavor that inadvertently “furnishes a clue to the experience which presented itself undistorted to Baudelaire’s eyes, in the figure of his reader”. If the literary critic might be viewed here as weighing in on a long-running antagonism between philosophy and literature, then his assessment is resolute: by praising the self-conscious historicity of Baudelaire’s lyric, Benjamin declares that poetry succeeds where Lebensphilosophie fails. Notably, Baudelaire is not the only figure to upstage “ahistorical” Bergson, since Marcel Proust and Sigmund Freud facilitate this victory. To contextualize the second section of “Motifs”, where Benjamin discusses the novelist’s “immanent critique of Bergson” this essay offers a reading of “On the Image of Proust” as a propadeutic to Benjamin’s privileging of “Baudelaire” over

  14. Comparison of Quantitative Assessment of BLADE and Isotropic Three-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Cube (3D T2 SPACE Sequences with Conventional Protocols of wrist Joint at 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the wrist joint is a useful method in the diagnosis of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC, ligaments and tendons, peripheral nerves, cartilage and carpal tunnel syndrome. However, the evaluation of these small anatomical structures is a topic of investigation. In some instances, the diagnostic indices of MRI in tears and other lesions of cartilage and ligamentous structures are relatively low, so the protocols should be optimized. Objectives In this study, we aim to compare new MRI protocols of 3D T2SPACE, PD BLADE and T2 BLADE with the conventional protocols, including T2 FSE, PD FSE, and T1 FSE in case of signal intensity. Patients and Methods Twenty patients with a history of wrist trauma or suspected wrist lesions were referred by orthopedic hand surgeons and enrolled into the study. All the protocols were carried out on all patients and the images were assessed quantitatively by measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR and contrast to noise ratio (CNR. Then, these parameters were compared between different protocols. SPSS ver.18 was used for the statistical analyses. Results SNR of the cartilage, TFCC on 3D T2SPACE and T1 FSE was better than other sequences (P < 0.001. SNR of the bone on PD BLADE was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than that of conventional protocols. PD BLADE images showed significantly higher bone- cartilage CNR and bone- TFCC CNR (P < 0.001 to P < 0.001. CNR of cartilage-TFCC on T1 FSE was better than other sequences, but no significant statistical differences were seen. Conclusion High-resolution MR images of the wrist using 3D T2SPACE, PD BLADE and T2 BLADE were superior to those using conventional sequences quantitatively. High-SNR and CNR MR imaging with SPACE and BLADE would be a promising method to diagnose wrist lesions.

  15. Assessment of image quality and low-contrast detectability in abdominal CT of obese patients: comparison of a novel integrated circuit with a conventional discrete circuit detector at different tube voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, A.; Heye, T.; Kekelidze, M.; Bongartz, G.; Schindera, Sebastian T. [University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Szucs-Farkas, Z. [Hospital Centre of Biel, Institute of Radiology, Biel (Switzerland); Sommer, C. [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Schmidt, B. [Siemens Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To compare image quality and low-contrast detectability of an integrated circuit (IC) detector in abdominal CT of obese patients with conventional detector technology at low tube voltages. A liver phantom with 45 lesions was placed in a water container to mimic an obese patient and examined on two different CT systems at 80, 100 and 120 kVp. The systems were equipped with either the IC or conventional detector. Image noise was measured, and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) was calculated. Low-contrast detectability was assessed independently by three radiologists. Radiation dose was estimated by the volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}). The image noise was significantly lower, and the CNR was significantly higher with the IC detector at 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively (P = 0.023). The IC detector resulted in an increased lesion detection rate at 80 kVp (38.1 % vs. 17.2 %) and 100 kVp (57.0 % vs. 41.0 %). There was no difference in the detection rate between the IC detector at 100 kVp and the conventional detector at 120 kVp (57.0 % vs. 62.2 %). The CTDI{sub vol} at 80, 100 and 120 kVp measured 4.5-5.2, 7.3-7.9 and 9.8-10.2 mGy, respectively. The IC detector at 100 kVp resulted in similar low-contrast detectability compared to the conventional detector with a 120-kVp protocol at a radiation dose reduction of 37 %. (orig.)

  16. Performance of simultaneous high temporal resolution quantitative perfusion imaging of bladder tumors and conventional multi-phase urography using a novel free-breathing continuously acquired radial compressed-sensing MRI sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nainesh; Ream, Justin M; Zhang, Hoi Cheung; Block, Kai Tobias; Chandarana, Hersh; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the feasibility of high temporal resolution quantitative perfusion imaging of bladder tumors performed simultaneously with conventional multi-phase MR urography (MRU) using a novel free-breathing continuously acquired radial MRI sequence with compressed-sensing reconstruction. 22 patients with bladder lesions underwent MRU using GRASP (Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel) acquisition. Multi-phase contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic GRASP was performed during free-breathing (1.4×1.4×3.0mm(3) voxel size; 3:44min acquisition). Two dynamic datasets were retrospectively reconstructed by combining different numbers of sequentially acquired spokes into each dynamic frame: 110 spokes per frame for 25-s temporal resolution (serving as conventional MRU for clinical interpretation) and 8 spokes per frame for 1.7-s resolution. Using 1.7-s resolution images, ROIs were placed within bladder lesions and normal bladder wall, a femoral artery arterial input function was generated, and the Generalized Kinetic Model was applied. Biopsy/cystectomy demonstrated 16 bladder tumors (13 stage≥T2, 3 stage≤T1) and 6 benign lesions. All lesions were well visualized using 25-s clinical multi-phase images. Using 1.7-s resolution images, K(trans) was significantly higher in tumors (0.38±0.24) than normal bladder (0.12±0.02=8, pMRU examinations using only one contrast injection and without additional scan time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Who Has the Puck? Strategic Initiative in Modern, Conventional War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Generals Talk, 179. 45. Overy, Air War, 49. 46. Hitler, Mein Kampf , 660–61. 47. Keegan, Second World War, 174. 48. Fugate and Dvoretsky, Thunder on the...Press, 1988. Halsey, William Frederick, and J. Bryan. Admiral Halsey’s Story. New York, NY: Whittlesey House, 1947. Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf

  18. China’s Modernizing Military: Credible Conventional Threat to Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    check. Chinese leaders saw that the technological gap had widened much more than initially suspected between the United States military capability and...recognize a "significant technological gap that exists between the PLA and

  19. Geriatric Chest Imaging: When and How to Image the Elderly Lung, Age-Related Changes, and Common Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Even in a global perspective, societies are getting older. We think that diagnostic lung imaging of older patients requires special knowledge. Imaging strategies have to be adjusted to the needs of frail patients, for example, immobility, impossibility for long breath holds, renal insufficiency, or poor peripheral venous access. Beside conventional radiography, modern multislice computed tomography is the method of choice in lung imaging. It is especially important to separate the process of ...

  20. Prospective comparison of 18F-FDG PET with conventional imaging modalities (CT, MRI, US) in lymph node staging of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S; Baum, R P; Stuckensen, T; Bitter, K; Hör, G

    1998-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the detection of cervical lymph node metastases of head and neck cancer by positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to perform a prospective comparison with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), sonographic and histopathological findings. Sixty patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma were studied by PET imaging before surgery. Preoperative endoscopy (including biopsy), CT, MRI and sonography of the cervical region were performed in all patients within 2 weeks preceding 18F-FDG whole-body PET. FDG PET images were analysed visually and quantitatively for objective assessment of regional tracer uptake. Histopathology of the resected neck specimens revealed a total of 1284 lymph nodes, 117 of which showed metastatic involvement. Based on histopathological findings, FDG PET correctly identified lymph node metastases with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 94% (Pcontrolled study confirms FDG PET as the procedure with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting lymph node metastases of head and neck cancer and has become a routine method in our University Medical Center. Furthermore, the optimal diagnostic modality may be a fusion image showing the increased metabolism of the tumour and the anatomical localization.

  1. Monitoring anti-TNF{alpha} treatment in RA: Responsiveness of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography of the dominant wrist compared to conventional measures of disease activity and structural damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavardsholm, Espen A; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Hammer, Hilde Berner

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US) compared to conventional measures of disease activity and structural damage in RA patients during the first year of anti-TNFalpha treatment. METHODS: A cohort...... of RA patients (N=36, median age 53 years, disease duration 7.6 years and DAS28 5.7) was evaluated by core measures of disease activity, US (one wrist), MRI (one wrist) and conventional radiography (CR, both hands and wrists) at initiation of treatment with anti-TNFalpha agents and after 3, 6 and 12...... marrow edema (SRM between -1.05 and -1.24) were highly responsive. Moderate to high responsiveness was found for MRI tenosynovitis and bone marrow edema, all the composite indices (DAS28, SDAI and CDAI) and the 28-swollen joint count. US displayed low to moderate responsiveness. The MRI erosion score...

  2. Plug into 'the modernizing machine'!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    ‘The modernizing machine’ codes individual bodies, things and symbols with images from New Public Management, neoliberal and Knowledge Economy discourses. Drawing on Deleuze & Guattari’s concept of machines, this article explores how ‘the modernizing machine’ produces neo-liberal modernization...... of the public sector. Taking its point of departure in Danish university reform, the article explores how the university is transformed by this desiring-producing machine. ‘The modernizing machine’ wrestles with the so-called ‘democratic-Humboldtian machine’. The University Act of 2003 and the host of reforms...... bodies and minds simultaneously produce academic subjectivities by plugging into these transformative machinic forces and are produced as they are traversed by them. What is experienced as stressful closures vis-à-vis new opportunities depends to a great extent upon how these producing...

  3. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    , as the concept was pluralized into a variety of forms: multiple modernities, parallel modernities, manifold modernities, alternative modernities, competing modernities, reflexive modernities, early modernities, other modernities – the list still unfolding. By reviewing various attempts to conceptualise...... configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose...

  4. Theoretical and experimental comparison of image signal and noise for dual-energy subtraction angiography and conventional x-ray angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christiane S.; Mayo, John R.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is currently the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely used to enhance the visibility of small vessels and vasculature obscurred by overlying bone and lung fields by subtracting a mask and contrast image. However, motion between these mask and contrast images can introduce artifacts that can render a study non-diagnostic. This makes DSA particularly unsuccessful for cardiac imaging. A method called dual-energy, or energy subtraction angiography (ESA), was proposed in the past as an alternative for vascular imaging, however it was not pursued because experimental results suggested that image quality was deemed as poor and inferior to DSA. Image quality for angiography comes down to iodine signal and noise. In this paper we investigate the fundamental iodine signal and noise analysis of ESA and compare it to DSA. Method: We developed a polyenergetic and monoenergetic theoretical model for iodine signal and noise for both ESA and DSA. We validated our polyenergetic model by experiment where ESA and DSA images of a vascular phantom were acquired using an x-ray system with a flat panel CsI Xmaru1215CF-MPTM (Rayence Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea) detector. For ESA low and high applied tube voltages of 50 kV and 120 kV (2.5 mmCu), respectively, and for DSA the applied tube voltage was 80 kV. Iodine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) per entrance exposure was calculated for each iodine concentration for both ESA and DSA. Results: Our measured iodine SNR agreed well with theoretical calculations. Iodine SNR for ESA was relatively higher than DSA for low iodine mass loadings, and as iodine mass loading increases iodine SNR decreases. Conclusions: We have developed a model for iodine SNR for both DSA and ESA. Our model was validated with experiment and showed excellent agreement. We have shown that there is potential for obtaining iodine-specific images using ESA that are similar to DSA.

  5. Acetabulum protrusio and center edge angle: new MR-imaging measurement criteria - a correlative study with measurement derived from conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lina; Resnick, Donald [VASDHS-Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); UCSD Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Boonthathip, Mayura; Cardoso, Fabiano; Clopton, Paul [VASDHS-Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The goal of this study was to identify a method of measurement for acetabulum protrusio and center edge angle (CEA) using MR imaging of the pelvis that correlated with classic methods using radiographic landmarks. MR images and radiographs of the pelvis in 67 patients (132 hips) were used to identify reliable MR-imaging methods for measuring protrusio acetabulum and CEA that correlated strongly with established radiographic measurements. Protrusio acetabulum was determined using the radiographic criterion that the acetabular line projects medial to the ilioischial line by 3 mm or more in men and 6 mm or more in women. Pearson correlation factor was used to determine inter-observer variability and those methods that demonstrated the strongest correlation. The mean and standard deviation of MR-imaging and radiographic measurements for both the normal and protrusio hips were established. Several MR methods correlated strongly with radiographic measurements. The preferred method employed axial MR images at the level of the ischial spine with measurement of the distance between the medial most point of the acetabular fossa and a line perpendicular to the horizontal axis that passed through the lateral margin of the posterior inner pelvic wall. The Pearson's correlation factor between radiographic and MR measurements using this method was 0.84, and inter-observer correlation was 0.80. There were 126 hips in 63 patients (17 female and 44 male) that did not meet the radiographic criteria for protrusio acetabula. In this group of normal hips, the mean and standard deviation of radiographic measurements were 1.9 and 2.8 mm in male patients and -0.5 and 1.7 mm in female patients, and the mean and standard deviation for the preferred MR method was 1.3 and 2.5 mm in male patients and -0.8 and 1.9 mm in female patients. A total of six hips in four patients (two female and two male) met the radiographic criteria for protrusio acetabula. In this group of patients, the mean

  6. A multireader reliability study comparing conventional high-field magnetic resonance imaging with extremity low-field MRI in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, Paul; Ejbjerg, Bo; Lassere, Marissa;

    2007-01-01

    The use of extremity low-field magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) is increasing, but relatively few data exist on its reproducibility and accuracy in comparison with high-field MRI, especially for multiple readers. The aim of this multireader exercise of rheumatoid arthritis wrist...

  7. A multireader reliability study comparing conventional high-field magnetic resonance imaging with extremity low-field MRI in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, Paul; Ejbjerg, Bo; Lassere, Marissa;

    2007-01-01

    The use of extremity low-field magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) is increasing, but relatively few data exist on its reproducibility and accuracy in comparison with high-field MRI, especially for multiple readers. The aim of this multireader exercise of rheumatoid arthritis wrist and metacarpoph...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of liver metastases: experimental comparison of anionic and conventional superparamagnetic iron oxide particles with a hepatobiliary contrast medium during dynamic and uptake phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufels, Nicola; Korn, Ronny; Wagner, Susanne; Schink, Tania; Hamm, Bernd; Taupitz, Matthias; Schnorr, Jörg

    2008-07-01

    To assess the contrast-enhancing effects of citrate-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP-C184) in a rat liver tumor model using dynamic and delayed magnetic resonance imaging in comparison to carboxydextran-coated particles (ferucarbotran) and a hepatobiliary contrast medium (gadobenate dimeglumine). A total of 32 male rats with liver tumors (CC-531 colorectal carcinoma) were examined at 1.5 T with a T1-weighted dynamic series (3D gradient echo sequence) and T1-weighted and T2*-weighted images (2D gradient echo sequences) before and 15 and 90 minutes after injection. VSOP-C184 was investigated at doses of 0.015, 0.045, and 0.06 mmol Fe/kg, ferucarbotran at 0.015 mmol Fe/kg, and gadobenate dimeglumine at 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mmol Gd/kg. Liver-tumor contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated and statistically compared. T1-weighted dynamic images: VSOP-C184 has significantly higher CNR values at a dose of 0,015 mmol Fe/kg than ferucarbotran at the same dose (P = 0.001). VSOP-C184 produces a significantly higher CNR at a dose of 0.045 mmol Fe/kg than gadobenate dimeglumine at a dose of 0.05 mmol Gd/kg (P = 0.019). At a dose of 0.06 mmol Fe/kg, the CNR for VSOP-C184 is significantly lower than that of gadobenate dimeglumine (0.1 mmol Gd/kg) (P = 0.005).T2-weighted delayed images: CNR values of VSOP-C184 are similar to those of ferucarbotran and are significantly higher than those of gadobenate dimeglumine (P VSOP-C184 produces a high contrast comparable to that of a hepatobiliary contrast medium in addition to its contrast-enhancing effect in T2-weighted imaging.

  9. Faster pediatric 3-T abdominal magnetic resonance imaging: comparison between conventional and variable refocusing flip-angle single-shot fast spin-echo sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Stanford University, LPCH Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Loening, Andreas M.; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Vasanawala, Shreyas S. [Stanford University, LPCH Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Litwiller, Daniel V. [GE Healthcare, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) is particularly appealing in pediatric patients because of its motion robustness. However radiofrequency energy deposition at 3 tesla forces long pauses between slices, leading to longer scans, longer breath-holds and more between-slice motion. We sought to learn whether modulation of the SSFSE refocusing flip-angle train could reduce radiofrequency energy deposition without degrading image quality, thereby reducing inter-slice pauses and overall scan times. We modulated the refocusing flip-angle train for SSFSE to minimize energy deposition while minimizing blurring and motion-related signal loss. In a cohort of 50 consecutive patients (25 boys, mean age 5.5 years, range 1 month to 17 years) referred for abdominal MRI we obtained standard SSFSE and variable refocusing flip-angle (vrfSSFSE) images and recorded sequence scan times. Two readers independently scored the images in blinded, randomized order for noise, tissue contrast, sharpness, artifacts and left lobe hepatic signal uniformity on a four-point scale. The null hypothesis of no difference between SSFSE and vrfSSFSE image-quality was assessed with a Mann-Whitney U test, and the null hypothesis of no scan time difference was assessed with the paired t-test. SSFSE and vrfSSFSE mean acquisition times were 54.3 and 26.2 s, respectively (P-value <0.0001). For each reader, SSFSE and vrfSSFSE noise, tissue contrast, sharpness and artifacts were not significantly different (P-values 0.18-0.86). However, SSFSE had better left lobe hepatic signal uniformity (P < 0.01, both readers). vrfSSFSE is twice as fast as SSFSE, with equivalent image quality with the exception of left hepatic lobe signal heterogeneity. (orig.)

  10. Modernism and tradition and the traditions of modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kros Džonatan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the story of musical modernism has been told in terms of a catastrophic break with the (tonal past and the search for entirely new techniques and modes of expression suitable to a new age. The resulting notion of a single, linear, modernist mainstream (predicated on the basis of a Schoenbergian model of musical progress has served to conceal a more subtle relationship between past and present. Increasingly, it is being recognized that there exist many modernisms and their various identities are forged from a continual renegotiation between past and present, between tradition(s and the avant-garde. This is especially relevant when attempting to discuss the reception of modernism outside central Europe, where the adoption of (Germanic avant-garde attitudes was often interpreted as being "unpatriotic". The case of Great Britain is examined in detail: Harrison Birtwistle’s opera The Mask of Orpheus (1973–83 forms the focus for a wider discussion of modernism within the context of late/post-modern thought.

  11. [Imaging techniques in the preoperative diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. A comparison of MRT, CT, sonography, angiography and conventional x-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeren, T; Gindele, A; Grosspietsch, C; Dueck, M; Kauffmann, G W

    1992-12-01

    In a study on 51 patients with histologically confirmed soft tissue tumors (STT), we retrospectively evaluated the preoperative use of imaging procedures (MRI, CT, ultrasound, angiography, plain film) for identification of tumor size, delineation, and determination of malignancy and tissue type. The findings were correlated with intraoperative findings and histological diagnosis. The overall diagnostic method of choice for preoperative imaging of STT is MRI, followed by CT. Ultrasound, although sensitive, lacks the required specificity. Angiography and plain film can only be used for specific indications, as they generally do not make it possible to stage the tumor. Combining our results with those from the more recent literature, we propose a diagnostic algorithm according to which MRI would generally be performed for preoperative staging of STT. CT and plain film should only be used if bony infiltration is suspected; angiography is indicated for planning intraarterial chemotherapy or embolization or if vascular infiltration is probable.

  12. Metrology of Wide Field of View Nano-Thickness Foils' Homogeneity by Conventional and Phase Contrast Soft X-ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Homma, Takayuki; Kawase, Keigo; Skobelev, Igor; Gasilov, Sergei; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Daido, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Toshiki; Kato, Yoshiaki; Bulanov, Sergei

    2010-06-01

    A tabletop ultra-bright, debris-free femtosecond-laser-driven cluster-based plasma soft X-ray source, which emits more than 1012 photons/(sr·pulse) in the spectral range 1-10 nm within a 4π sr solid angle was developed. Using such source in combination with a high dynamic range LiF crystal soft X-ray detector allows obtaining contact and propagation-based phase-contrast images of nanostructures with 700 nm spatial resolutions in a wide field of view. It was demonstrated that the high precision of used techniques enable distinguishing inhomogeneity of measured intensities of ultrathin foils in the order of ±3%. All of this opens a new approach for PBPC imaging and metrology of full areas of free-standing or mesh-supported nano-thickness foils, or other nanostructures.

  13. Metrology of Wide Field of View Nano-Thickness Foils’ Homogeneity by Conventional and Phase Contrast Soft X-ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatoly Faenov,; Tatiana Pikuz,; Yuji Fukuda,; Masaki Kando,; Hideyuki Kotaki,; Takayuki Homma,; Keigo Kawase,; Igor Skobelev,; Sergei Gasilov,; Tetsuya Kawachi,; Hiroyuki Daido,; Toshiki Tajima,; Yoshiaki Kato,; Sergei Bulanov,

    2010-06-01

    A tabletop ultra-bright, debris-free femtosecond-laser-driven cluster-based plasma soft X-ray source, which emits more than 1012 photons/(sr\\cdotpulse) in the spectral range 1-10 nm within a 4π sr solid angle was developed. Using such source in combination with a high dynamic range LiF crystal soft X-ray detector allows obtaining contact and propagation-based phase-contrast images of nanostructures with 700 nm spatial resolutions in a wide field of view. It was demonstrated that the high precision of used techniques enable distinguishing inhomogeneity of measured intensities of ultrathin foils in the order of ± 3%. All of this opens a new approach for PBPC imaging and metrology of full areas of free-standing or mesh-supported nano-thickness foils, or other nanostructures.

  14. Enhancement effects of Gd-DTPA for cerebro-spinal lesions. In comparison with conventional T/sub 2/-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mano, Isamu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kono, Takeshi; Tsuchida, Takashi; Terao, Hideo; Iio, Masahiro

    1987-12-01

    Effects of Gadolinium DTPA enhancement in MRI for cerebro-spinal lesions were studied on 20 patients. In this study, pre-contrast T/sub 2/ weighted image and the postcontrast T/sub 1/ weighted image were, especially, compared. Out of 20 cases investigated, the clinical significance of Gd-DTPA was recognized clearly in 14 cases. In the other 6 cases, some new information, though which did not give us the direct clinical significance, was also obtained. It was confirmed that T/sub 2/ weighted sequence without Gd-DTPA was the best in sensitivity, while T/sub 1/ weighted sequence after Gd-DTPA administration was superior in specificity of the information in making a discrimination between tumor and edema, gliosis and in the time-course of infarction.

  15. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  16. Conventional radiography and cross-sectional imaging when planning dental implants in the anterior edentulous mandible to support an overdenture: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, A M; Glenny, A-M; Goodwin, M.; Brunton, P.; Horner, K

    2014-01-01

    The objectives for this systematic review were to determine if the pre-operative availability of cross-sectional imaging, such as cone beam CT, has a diagnostic impact, therapeutic impact or impact on patients' outcome when placing two dental implants in the anterior mandible to support an overdenture. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE® and Embase were searched up to, and including, February 2013. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion ...

  17. Image quality and diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced SSFP MR angiography compared with conventional contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the assessment of thoracic aortic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnam, Mayil S. [University of California, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Imaging, UCI Medical Center, Irvine, CA (United States); Tomasian, Anderanik; Malik, Sachin; Ruehm, Stefan G. [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Radiological Sciences, Ronald Reagan Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Desphande, Vibhas; Laub, Gerhard [Siemens Medical Solutions, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) unenhanced steady state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the evaluation of thoracic aortic diseases. Fifty consecutive patients with known or suspected thoracic aortic disease underwent free-breathing ECG-gated unenhanced SSFP MRA with non-selective radiofrequency excitation and contrast-enhanced (CE) MRA of the thorax at 1.5 T. Two readers independently evaluated the two datasets for image quality in the aortic root, ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, and origins of supra-aortic arteries, and for abnormal findings. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were determined for both datasets. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced SSFP MRA for the diagnosis of aortic abnormalities were determined. Abnormal aortic findings, including aneurysm (n = 47), coarctation (n = 14), dissection (n = 12), aortic graft (n = 6), intramural hematoma (n = 11), mural thrombus in the aortic arch (n = 1), and penetrating aortic ulcer (n = 9), were confidently detected on both datasets. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of SSFP MRA for the detection of aortic disease were 100% with CE-MRA serving as a reference standard. Image quality of the aortic root was significantly higher on SSFP MRA (P < 0.001) with no significant difference for other aortic segments (P > 0.05). SNR and CNR values were higher for all segments on SSFP MRA (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that free-breathing navigator-gated 3D SSFP MRA with non-selective radiofrequency excitation is a promising technique that provides high image quality and diagnostic accuracy for the assessment of thoracic aortic disease without the need for intravenous contrast material. (orig.)

  18. A comparison of three Deformable Image Registration Algorithms in 4DCT using conventional contour based methods and voxel-by-voxel comparison methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirek eFatyga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commonly used methods of assessing the accuracy of Deformable Image Registration (DIR rely on image segmentation or landmark selection. These methods are very labor intensive and thus limited to relatively small number of image pairs. The direct voxel-by-voxel comparison can be automated to examine fluctuations in DIR quality on a long series of image pairs.Methods: A voxel-by-voxel comparison of three DIR algorithms applied to lung patients is presented. Registrations are compared by comparing volume histograms formed both with individual DIR maps and with a voxel-by-voxel subtraction of the two maps. When two DIR maps agree one concludes that both maps are interchangeable in treatment planning applications, though one cannot conclude that either one agrees with the ground truth. If two DIR maps significantly disagree one concludes that at least one of the maps deviates from the ground truth. We use the method to compare three DIR algorithms applied to peak inhale-peak exhale registrations of 4DFBCT data obtained from thirteen patients. Results: All three algorithms appear to be nearly equivalent when compared using DICE similarity coefficients. A comparison based on Jacobian Volume Histograms shows that all three algorithms measure changes in total volume of the lungs with reasonable accuracy, but show large differences in the variance of Jacobian distribution on all contoured structures. Analysis of voxel-by-voxel subtraction of DIR maps shows that the three algorithms differ to a degree which is sufficient to create a potential for dosimetric discrepancy during dose accumulation.Conclusions: DIR algorithms can perform well in some clinical applications, while potentially fail in others. These algorithms are best treated as potentially useful approximations of tissue deformation that need to be separately validated for every intended clinical application.

  19. Practical guidelines for radiographers to improve computed radiography image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongnapang, N

    2005-10-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) has become a major digital imaging modality in a modern radiological department. CR system changes workflow from the conventional way of using film/screen by employing photostimulable phosphor plate technology. This results in the changing perspectives of technical, artefacts and quality control issues in radiology departments. Guidelines for better image quality in digital medical enterprise include professional guidelines for users and the quality control programme specifically designed to serve the best quality of clinical images. Radiographers who understand technological shift of the CR from conventional method can employ optimization of CR images. Proper anatomic collimation and exposure techniques for each radiographic projection are crucial steps in producing quality digital images. Matching image processing with specific anatomy is also important factor that radiographers should realise. Successful shift from conventional to fully digitised radiology department requires skilful radiographers who utilise the technology and a successful quality control program from teamwork in the department.

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND NON CONVENTIONAL SPECIES OF CURCUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Jyoti; Sahu Rajeshwari

    2012-01-01

    Plants and plant based medicaments are the basis of many of the modern pharmaceutical we use today for our various aliment. Plant show medicinal properties as it contain phytochemical constituent. Phytochemical constituent are non nutritive plant chemical that have disease preventive properties .This paper reports an investigation of phytochemical constituent present in the Methanolic crude rhizome extract of conventional and non conventional Curcuma species i.e Curcuma caecia , Curcuma amad...

  1. Multiple modernities, modern subjectivities and social order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Sinclair, Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    to modern subjectivity formation. In combining conceptual tools from these strands of social theory, we argue that the emergence of multiple modernities should be understood as a historical result of idiosyncratic social constructions combining global social imaginaries with religious and other cultural......Taking its point of departure in the conceptual debate about modernities in the plural, this article presents a heuristic framework based on an interpretative approach to modernity. The article draws on theories of multiple modernities, successive modernities and poststructuralist approaches...... traditions. In the second part of the article we illustrate this argument with three short excursions into the history of Islamic reform in the 19th and 20th centuries. In this way we interpret the modern history of Muslim societies as based on cultural conflicts between different forms of social order...

  2. 一种基于改进型PCNN的织物疵点图像自适应分割方法%An Approach for Fabric Defect Image Segmentation Based on the Improved Conventional PCNN Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝双武; 郝重阳

    2012-01-01

    An approach is proposed for fabric defect detection based on the improved conventional pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) model. For these too many parameters of conventional PCNN.it is difficult to get die adaptive parameters. The problem can be solved in the proposed way, in which optimal number of iteration to segment fabric defect image automatically is determined based on minimum difference of uniformity within region. Segmentations on various defect images are implemented with the proposed approach and die experimental results demonstrate its reliability and validity.%针对传统脉冲耦合神经网络(Pulse Coupled Neural Network,PCNN)模型中网络参数多、不易自动选取的问题,本文在对PCNN模型进行改进的基础上,提出了一种基于改进型PCNN织物疵点图像自适应分割方法.采用了一种基于分割区域内均匀度差异最小作为最佳迭代次数判断标准,从而有效地满足了PCNN对织物疵点图像的自动分割要求.通过对不同疵点图像分割实验证明了算法对疵点分割的准确性和有效性.

  3. Performance of ultralow-dose CT with iterative reconstruction in lung cancer screening: limiting radiation exposure to the equivalent of conventional chest X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Adrian [University Hospital Inselspital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); University Hospital Pitie-Salpetriere, Department of Polyvalent and Oncological Radiology, Paris (France); Landau, Julia; Buetikofer, Yanik; Leidolt, Lars; Brela, Barbara; May, Michelle; Heverhagen, Johannes; Christe, Andreas [University Hospital Inselspital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Ebner, Lukas [University Hospital Inselspital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the detection rate of pulmonary nodules in ultralow-dose CT acquisitions. In this lung phantom study, 232 nodules (115 solid, 117 ground-glass) of different sizes were randomly distributed in a lung phantom in 60 different arrangements. Every arrangement was acquired once with standard radiation dose (100 kVp, 100 references mAs) and once with ultralow radiation dose (80 kVp, 6 mAs). Iterative reconstruction was used with optimized kernels: I30 for ultralow-dose, I70 for standard dose and I50 for CAD. Six radiologists examined the axial 1-mm stack for solid and ground-glass nodules. During a second and third step, three radiologists used maximum intensity projection (MIPs), finally checking with computer-assisted detection (CAD), while the others first used CAD, finally checking with the MIPs. The detection rate was 95.5 % with standard dose (DLP 126 mGy*cm) and 93.3 % with ultralow-dose (DLP: 9 mGy*cm). The additional use of either MIP reconstructions or CAD software could compensate for this difference. A combination of both MIP reconstructions and CAD software resulted in a maximum detection rate of 97.5 % with ultralow-dose. Lung cancer screening with ultralow-dose CT using the same radiation dose as a conventional chest X-ray is feasible. (orig.)

  4. Practical limitations of superresolution imaging due to conventional sample preparation revealed by a direct comparison of CLSM, SIM and dSTORM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Michael; Fiederling, Felix; Bastmeyer, Martin

    2016-06-01

    We evaluate the suitability of conventional sample preparation and labelling methods for two superresolution techniques, structured illumination microscopy and direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, by a comparison to established confocal laser scanning microscopy. We show that SIM is compatible with standard fixation procedures and immunofluorescence labelling protocols and improves resolution by a factor of two compared to confocal laser scanning microscopy. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, fluorophores can theoretically be localized with much higher precision. However, in practice, with indirect immunofluorescence labelling density can be insufficient due to the bulky probes to reveal biological structures with high resolution. Fine structures like single actin fibres are in fact resolved with direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy when using small affinity probes, but require proper adjustment of the fixation protocol. Finally, by a direct comparison of immunofluorescent and genetic labelling with fluorescent proteins, we show that target morphology in direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy data sets can differ significantly depending on the labelling method and the molecular environment of the target.

  5. Comparison of radiation dose and image quality of triple-rule-out computed tomography angiography between conventional helical scanning and a strategy incorporating sequential scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric D; Peters, M Robert; Wolff, Steven D; Qureshi, Mehreen A; Atluri, Prashanth; Pearson, Gregory D N; Einstein, Andrew J

    2011-04-01

    Triple-rule-out computed tomographic angiography (TRO CTA), performed to evaluate the coronary arteries, pulmonary arteries, and thoracic aorta, has been associated with high radiation exposure. The use of sequential scanning for coronary computed tomographic angiography reduces the radiation dose. The application of sequential scanning to TRO CTA is much less well defined. We analyzed the radiation dose and image quality from TRO CTA performed at a single outpatient center, comparing the scans from a period during which helical scanning with electrocardiographically controlled tube current modulation was used for all patients (n = 35) and after adoption of a strategy incorporating sequential scanning whenever appropriate (n = 35). Sequential scanning was able to be used for 86% of the cases. The sequential-if-appropriate strategy, compared to the helical-only strategy, was associated with a 61.6% dose decrease (mean dose-length product of 439 mGy × cm vs 1,144 mGy × cm and mean effective dose of 7.5 mSv vs 19.4 mSv, respectively, p TRO CTA with a diagnostic strategy of sequential scanning, as appropriate, can offer a marked reduction in the radiation dose while maintaining the image quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and noninterferometric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-11-01

    Information security has attracted much current attention due to the rapid development of modern technologies, such as computer and internet. We propose a novel method for optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and rotatable-phase-mask noninterferometric imaging. An optical image encryption scheme is developed in the gyrator transform domain, and one phase-only mask (i.e., phase grating) is rotated and updated during image encryption. For the decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract high-quality plaintexts. Conventional encoding methods (such as digital holography) have been proven vulnerably to the attacks, and the proposed optical encoding scheme can effectively eliminate security deficiency and significantly enhance cryptosystem security. The proposed strategy based on the rotatable phase-only mask can provide a new alternative for data/image encryption in the noninterferometric imaging.

  7. Image and dose quality in selected studies of conventional radiology in designed hospitals; Calidad de imagen y dosis en estudios seleccionados de radiologia convencional en hospitales designados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas H, J.; Martinez G, A. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47 Playa, C.P. 11300 La Habana (Cuba); Machado T, A.; Mora M, R. de la [Centro de Control Estatal de Equipos Medicos (Cuba); Pedroso, L. [Grupo Asesor del Ministerio de Salud Publica en materia de radiologia (Cuba); Villa Z, R. [Programa de Seguridad Radiologica del Ministerio de Salud Publica (Cuba); Sotolongo C, J.A.; Rodriguez S, R.M. [Hospital Universitario Clinico Quirurgico ' Luis Diaz Soto' (Cuba); Martinez A, U.; Figueroa G, L.M. [Hospital Universitario Clinico Quirurgico ' Miguel Enriquez' (Cuba)]. e-mail: cardenas@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The medical exposures have a significant contribution to the received doses by the population. As they generally contribute to the patient's direct benefit during a lot of time has been paid smaller attention that to other exposure forms, in spite of existing potentialities of reducing dose to the patients as consequence of these applications. In such sense in the last years the scientific community and international organizations have defined requirements to contribute to that the doses to the patients are the minimum ones necessary to achieve its diagnostic objective. The work exposes the results obtained in the evaluation of the image quality and dose in studies of radiology of thorax posteroanterior and of lumbosacral column anteroposterior and lateral, carried out in 2 university hospitals of La Havana, as well as the contribution of this investigation to the establishment of guidance levels in our country. (Author)

  8. Beijing's Convention and Exhibition Industry Maintains Good Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Jiuling

    2011-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Beijing's conven-tion and exhibition industry has maintained a good development momentum with expanding scale and improving facilities, becoming an inseparable part of the city's modern service sector.The development of the convention and exhibition industry has played an active role in perfecting the capital's functions, optimizing the industrial structure and enhancing the city's radiation capabilities.

  9. Varieties of conventional implicature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Scott McCready

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system capable of analyzing the combinatorics of a wide range of conventionally implicated and expressive constructions in natural language via an extension of Potts's (2005 L_CI logic for supplementary conventional implicatures. In particular, the system is capable of analyzing objects of mixed conventionally implicated/expressive and at-issue type, and objects with conventionally implicated or expressive meanings which provide the main content of their utterances. The logic is applied to a range of constructions and lexical items in several languages. doi:10.3765/sp.3.8 BibTeX info

  10. Conventionally-fractionated image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT: a safe and effective treatment for cancer spinal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiaoqin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatments for cancer spinal metastasis were always palliative. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and effectiveness of IG-IMRT for these patients. Methods 10 metastatic lesions were treated with conventionally-fractionated IG-IMRT. Daily kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT scan was applied to ensure accurate positioning. Plans were evaluated by the dose-volume histogram (DVH analysis. Results Before set-up correction, the positioning errors in the left-right (LR, superior-inferior (SI and anterior-posterior (AP axes were 0.3 ± 3.2, 0.4 ± 4.5 and -0.2 ± 3.9 mm, respectively. After repositioning, those errors were 0.1 ± 0.7, 0 ± 0.8 and 0 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. The systematic/random uncertainties ranged 1.4–2.3/3.0–4.1 before and 0.1–0.2/0.7–0.8 mm after online set-up correction. In the original IMRT plans, the average dose of the planning target volume (PTV was 61.9 Gy, with the spinal cord dose less than 49 Gy. Compared to the simulated PTVs based on the pre-correction CBCT, the average volume reduction of PTVs was 42.3% after online correction. Also, organ at risk (OAR all benefited from CBCT-based set-up correction and had significant dose reduction with IGRT technique. Clinically, most patients had prompt pain relief within one month of treatment. There was no radiation-induced toxicity detected clinically during a median follow-up of 15.6 months. Conclusion IG-IMRT provides a new approach to treat cancer spinal metastasis. The precise positioning ensures the implementation of optimal IMRT plan, satisfying both the dose escalation of tumor targets and the radiation tolerance of spinal cord. It might benefit the cancer patient with spinal metastasis.

  11. Comparison of Synchrotron Radiation-based Propagation Phase Contrast Imaging and Conventional Micro-computed Tomography for Assessing Intervertebral Discs and Endplates in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianzhong; Ni, Shuangfei; Cao, Yong; Wang, Xiaokai; Liao, Shenghui; Lu, Hongbin

    2017-08-01

    The synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography (SRμCT) and micro-CT (μCT) were applied to comparatively assess the intervertebral disc (IVD) and endplate (EP). To explore a new approach to evaluate the detailed structure of the IVD and EP during maturation and aging in a murine model. Till date, methods to observe the morphological changes in the IVD and EP from rodents have been relatively limited. SRμCT has been recognized as a potential way to visualize the structures containing sclerous and soft tissue. Our study focused on comparing the capacity of SRμCT and μCT in evaluating the detailed structure of the IVD and EP. Both SRμCT and μCT were performed to depict the structure of spinal tissue from 4-month-old mice. Then, the imaging quality was evaluated in the three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed model. Further, the changes in the EP and IVD during the maturation and aging process were assessed morphologically and quantitatively using SRμCT. The 3D reconstructed model of the EP from both μCT and SRμCT provided detailed information on its inner structure. However, the IVD was only depicted using SRμCT. Multi-angle observations of the 3D structure of EP and IVD from mice of different ages (15 days, 2 months, 4 months, and 18 months) were dynamically performed by SRμCT. Quantitative evaluations indicated that the total volume of EP and IVD, the average height of IVD and the canal-total volume ratio of EP increased from 15-day-old mice to 4-month-old mice and decreased in 18-month-old mice. The EP and IVD were clearly visualized using SRμCT. Compared with μCT, SRμCT provided a better ultrahigh resolution image of soft tissue and hard tissue simultaneously, which makes it a promising approach for the noninvasive study of disc degeneration. N /A.

  12. High-pitch computed tomography of the lung in pediatric patients. An intraindividual comparison of image quality and radiation dose to conventional 64-MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiflikas, I.; Thomas, C.; Ketelsen, D.; Claussen, C.D.; Schaefer, J.F. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Seitz, G.; Warmann, S. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Pediatric Surgery

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of typical artifacts in low-dose pediatric lung examinations using high-pitch computed tomography (HPCT) compared to MDCT, and to estimate the effective radiation dose (E{sub eff}). Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval for this retrospective study was obtained. 35 patients (17 boys, 18 girls; mean age 112 ± 69 months) were included and underwent MDCT and follow-up scan by HPCT or vice versa (mean follow-up time 87 days), using the same tube voltage and current. The total artifact score (0-8) was defined as the sum of artifacts arising from movement, breathing or pulsation of the heart or pulmonary vessels (0 - no; 1 - moderate; 2 - severe artifacts). E{sub eff} was estimated according to the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Multislice Computed Tomography. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze differences between the patient groups. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation of ordinal variables. Results: The scan time was significantly lower for HPCT compared to MDCT (0.72 ± 0.13 s vs. 3.65 ± 0.81s; p < 0.0001). In 28 of 35 (80 %) HPCT examinations no artifacts were visible, whereas in MDCT artifacts occurred in all examinations. The frequency of pulsation artifacts and breathing artifacts was higher in MDCT compared to HPCT (100% vs. 17% and 31% vs. 6%). The total artifact score significantly correlated with the patient's age in MDCT (r=-0.42; p=0.01), but not in HPCT (r=-0.32; p=0.07). The estimated E{sub eff} was significantly lower in HPCT than in MDCT (1.29±0.31 vs. 1.47±0.37 mSv; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our study indicates that the use of HPCT has advantages for pediatric lung imaging with a reduction of breathing and pulsation artifacts. Moreover, the estimated E{sub eff} was lower. In addition, examinations can be performed without sedation or breath-hold without losing image quality. (orig.)

  13. Modernizing medical photography, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Paul

    2005-03-01

    Part 1 of this paper explored the origins of process activity mapping, one of the major tools currently being used to modernize patient pathways in the National Health Service in Great Britain. Within medical photography the current notion of modernization is inextricably linked to the development of digital technology. Whilst the core principle of capturing light on a sensitive medium remains as clear and relevant as ever, the mechanisms by which the image is processed and presented to the client have changed profoundly. Part 2 shows how the principles of lean thinking and process activity mapping can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large disparate teaching hospital.

  14. Personality disorders and modern culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martín Murcia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the relation between the modern social context and personality —as an essential psychological entity— and its disorders were analyzed from a dialectic perspective. Therefore, I have specified the bidirectional influences of social paradigmaticchanges in modernity —and in the case of postmodernity— on the construction of personal identity. A historiography of the Self throughout the diverse eras and of the more relevant social changes was carried out, emphasizing the consequences in the development ofcharacter. The analysis includes a reflection on one of the pathologies of increasing incidence in modern societies: image disorders. In the discussion, the difficulties to organize the self in an extremely subjective world, which forces a person to self-realization asexistential task, is criticized.

  15. The diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse elasticity imaging to differentiate malignant from benign thyroid nodules: Comparison with conventional B- mode sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Sang; An, Yeong Yi; Ihn, Yon Kwon; Park, Young Ha [Dept. of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elasticity imaging. One hundred and twenty-seven thyroid nodules were examined by both ARFI elastography and B-mode sonography. Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) values of the thyroid nodules were measured. Scoring of B-mode sonographic findings of each thyroid nodules was performed. The sums of these VTQ and the B-mode scores were determined. The comparative diagnostic performances of the VTQ value, the B-mode score, and the combined score were analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of each scoring mode were: B-mode score, 84%, 85%, 66%, 94%, and 85%; VTQ, 75%, 91%, 73%, 92%, and 86%; and combined score, 88%, 87%, 70%, 95%, and 88%. The areas under the curves for B-mode, VTQ, and combined score were 0.895, 0.837, and 0.912, respectively. Pairwise comparisons of receiver-operating characteristic curves showed no statistical differences between B-mode and VTQ, and B-mode and combined score. Combined score showed better diagnostic performance than VTQ value (p = 0.0023). ARFI VTQ value is a good diagnostic modality for differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign nodules. However, ARFI evaluation is not superior to B-mode sonographic evaluation, but only has a better diagnostic performance when combined with B-mode sonographic findings.

  16. Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials.

  17. Functionality and operation of fluoroscopic automatic brightness control/automatic dose rate control logic in modern cardiovascular and interventional angiography systems: a report of Task Group 125 Radiography/Fluoroscopy Subcommittee, Imaging Physics Committee, Science Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Phillip; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Balter, Stephen; Fukuda, Atsushi; Goode, Allen; Hartwell, Gary; LaFrance, Terry; Nickoloff, Edward; Shepard, Jeff; Strauss, Keith

    2012-05-01

    Task Group 125 (TG 125) was charged with investigating the functionality of fluoroscopic automatic dose rate and image quality control logic in modern angiographic systems, paying specific attention to the spectral shaping filters and variations in the selected radiologic imaging parameters. The task group was also charged with describing the operational aspects of the imaging equipment for the purpose of assisting the clinical medical physicist with clinical set-up and performance evaluation. Although there are clear distinctions between the fluoroscopic operation of an angiographic system and its acquisition modes (digital cine, digital angiography, digital subtraction angiography, etc.), the scope of this work was limited to the fluoroscopic operation of the systems studied. The use of spectral shaping filters in cardiovascular and interventional angiography equipment has been shown to reduce patient dose. If the imaging control algorithm were programmed to work in conjunction with the selected spectral filter, and if the generator parameters were optimized for the selected filter, then image quality could also be improved. Although assessment of image quality was not included as part of this report, it was recognized that for fluoroscopic imaging the parameters that influence radiation output, differential absorption, and patient dose are also the same parameters that influence image quality. Therefore, this report will utilize the terminology "automatic dose rate and image quality" (ADRIQ) when describing the control logic in modern interventional angiographic systems and, where relevant, will describe the influence of controlled parameters on the subsequent image quality. A total of 22 angiography units were investigated by the task group and of these one each was chosen as representative of the equipment manufactured by GE Healthcare, Philips Medical Systems, Shimadzu Medical USA, and Siemens Medical Systems. All equipment, for which measurement data were

  18. 论元代婚恋杂剧中女性形象的近世性%The Modernity in Images of Women in Yuan Opera with the Love and Marriage Theme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘堃

    2014-01-01

    作为近世文学萌发期的代表性文学样式,元杂剧作品中当然不乏对个人权利和要求的渲染,女性形象对爱情和婚姻的追求是其中的一个重要侧面。但元杂剧中女性形象强烈的依附性人格无法使其承担太多重负,元杂剧作家们在她们身上和相关作品中努力试图的,只是在正统儒学式微的背景下,另辟蹊径,以达到教化的目的。元代婚恋杂剧中的女性形象是中国文学近世性复杂特征的充分体现。%As the symbol in the germination period of Modern Literature, Yuan Opera is full of the demands about individual rights, one important aspect of which is the women pursuit for love and happy marriage.But in fact, the writers of Yuan Opera just try to figure out another way for moralizing in the background of the decline of the classic Confucianism, so the strong dependence in the images of women in Yuan Dynasty cannot carry too much burden of Modernity.The images of women in Yuan Dynasty with Love and marriage theme represent the complexity of Chinese Modern Literature perfectly.

  19. Combined SPECT/CT improves detection of initial bone invasion and determination of resection margins in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck compared to conventional imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Munich (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Mund-Kiefer und Gesichtschirurgie, Muenchen (Germany); Schuster, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Chlebowski, A.; Kesting, M.; Bissinger, O.; Weitz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Munich (Germany); Lange, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Munich (Germany); Scheidhauer, K.; Schwaiger, M.; Dinges, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Knowledge of the presence and extent of bone infiltration is crucial for planning the resection of potential bone-infiltrating squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Routinely, plain-film radiography, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for preoperative staging, but they show relatively high rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-bisphosphonate has the ability to show increased metabolic bone activity. If combined with anatomical imaging (e.g. (SPECT)/CT), it facilitates the precise localization of malignant bone lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the indications and advantages of SPECT/CT compared with standard imaging modalities and histology with regard to specificity and sensitivity A longitudinally evaluated group of 30 patients with biopsy-proven HNSCC adjacent to the mandible underwent {sup 99m}Tc-bisphosphonate SPECT/CT, MRI, MSCT and conventional radiography before partial or rim resection of the mandible was performed. Bone infiltration was first evaluated with plain films, MSCT and MRI. In a second reading, SPECT/CT data were taken into account. The results (region and certainty of bone invasion) were evaluated among the different imaging modalities and finally compared with histological specimens from surgical resection as the standard of reference. For a better evaluation of the hybrid property of SPECT/CT, a retrospectively evaluated group of 20 additional patients with tumour locations similar to those of the longitudinally examined SPECT/CT group underwent SPECT, MSCT and MRI. To assess the influence of dental foci on the specificity of the imaging modalities, all patients were separated into two subgroups depending on the presence or absence of teeth in the area of potential tumour-bone contact. Histologically proven bone infiltration was found in 17 patients (57 %) when analysed by conventional imaging modalities. SPECT/CT data

  20. Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Chen; Bin Zheng; Hong Liu

    2011-01-01

    The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications o...

  1. Practical guidelines for radiographers to improve computed radiography image quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pongnapang, N

    2005-01-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) has become a major digital imaging modality in a modern radiological department. CR system changes workflow from the conventional way of using film/screen by employing photostimulable phosphor plate technology. This results in the changing perspectives of technical, artefacts and quality control issues in radiology departments. Guidelines for better image quality in digital medical enterprise include professional guidelines for users and the quality control programme...

  2. Cross-sectional imaging with rotational panoramic X-ray machine for preoperative assessment of dental implant site. Comparisons of imaging properties with conventional film tomography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makihara, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Kuroyanagi, Kinya [Tokyo Dental Coll., Chiba (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    To clarify the validity of cross-sectional imaging with rotational panoramic x-ray machine for preoperative assessment of the dental implant site, the imaging properties were compared with those of spiral tomography and multi-planer reconstruction (MPR) manipulation of x-ray computed tomography. Cross-sectional imaging of the maxilla and mandible of an edentulous dry skull was performed by each technique at an image layer thickness of 1 mm. Steel spheres were used to identify cross-sectional planes and measure distance. Six oral radiologists scored the image clarity of structures with 5-grade rating scales and measured the distance between images of 2 steel spheres. Each measured distance was divided by the magnification factor. The actual distance was also measured on the skull. The score and the distance were statistically compared. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the score and the absolute values of the difference in distances measured by different observers were calculated as test units to compare inter-observer agreements statistically. The same observation and measurement were repeated to compare intra-observer agreement. Image clarity of the linear tomography available with a panoramic machine was comparable to spiral tomography and superior to MPR, except for the cortical bone on the lingual side. The inter- and intra-observer agreements were comparable. The accuracy for measurement of distance, the inter- and intra-observer agreements were also comparable to the spiral tomography and superior to those of MPR. Therefore, it is concluded that cross-sectional imaging with a rotational panoramic x-ray machine is useful for preoperative assessment of the dental implant site. (author)

  3. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  4. Direct imaging electron microscopy (EM) methods in modern structural biology: overview and comparison with X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-EM reconstruction in the studies of large macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Katsuyuki

    2014-10-01

    Determining the structure of macromolecules is important for understanding their function. The fine structure of large macromolecules is currently studied primarily by X-ray crystallography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) reconstruction. Before the development of these techniques, macromolecular structure was often examined by negative-staining, rotary-shadowing and freeze-etching EM, which are categorised here as 'direct imaging EM methods'. In this review, the results are summarised by each of the above techniques and compared with respect to four macromolecules: the ryanodine receptor, cadherin, rhodopsin and the ribosome-translocon complex (RTC). The results of structural analysis of the ryanodine receptor and cadherin are consistent between each technique. The results obtained for rhodopsin vary to some extent within each technique and between the different techniques. Finally, the results for RTC are inconsistent between direct imaging EM and other analytical techniques, especially with respect to the space within RTC, the reasons for which are discussed. Then, the role of direct imaging EM methods in modern structural biology is discussed. Direct imaging methods should support and verify the results obtained by other analytical methods capable of solving three-dimensional molecular architecture, and they should still be used as a primary tool for studying macromolecule structure in vivo.

  5. The Geometry of Conventionality

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    Hans Reichenbach famously argued that the geometry of spacetime is conventional in relativity theory, in the sense that one can freely choose the spacetime metric so long as one is willing to postulate a "universal force field". Here we make precise a sense in which the field Reichenbach defines fails to be a "force". We then argue that there is an interesting and perhaps tenable sense in which geometry is conventional in classical spacetimes. We conclude with a no-go result showing that the variety of conventionalism available in classical spacetimes does not extend to relativistic spacetimes.

  6. 常规超声及超声造影对大体积肾包块诊断的对比研究%Imaging diagnosis of large renal tumors: Conventional ultrasonography versus contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦光亮; 雷丽; 傅宁华; 魏淑萍; 杨斌; 翁志强

    2013-01-01

    目的 近年来,超声造影技术应用于临床,为肾肿瘤良恶性的鉴别诊断提供了重要信息,文中探讨常规超声及超声造影对大体积肾包块(直径≥5.0cm)的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析151例大体积肾包块的常规超声及超声造影结果,对比2种方法的鉴别诊断价值.结果 常规超声及超声造影对大体积肾包块的良恶性鉴别诊断差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但超声造影对包块内的血供尤其是微小血流的显示明显优于常规超声.结论 超声造影是诊断肾脏包块的一种重要影像学方法,其对肾包块的血供情况显示优于常规超声.%Objective Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CELTS) provides important information for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant renal tumors. This study was to evaluate CELTS in the diagnosis of large renal tumors ≥5.0 cm in diameter. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 151 cases of large renal tumor diagnosed by conventional ultrasound and CELTS , and compared the diagnostic value of the two methods .Results There were no significant differences between conventional ultrasound and CELTS in the diagnosis of large renal tumors (P>0.05). However, CELTS exhibited its unique advantages over conventional ultrasound in dis -playing microvascular blood flow in renal tumors . Conclusion CELTS is an important imaging method for the diagnosis of renal tumors, obviously superior to conventional ultrasound in exhibiting the blood flow of kidney tumors .

  7. Correction parameters in conventional dental radiography for dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barunawaty Yunus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiographic imaging as a supportive diagnostic tool is the essential component in treatment planning for dental implant. It help dentist to access target area of implant due to recommendation of many inventions in making radiographic imaging previously. Along with the progress of science and technology, the increasing demand of easier and simpler treatment method, a modern radiographic diagnostic for dental implant is needed. In fact, Makassar, especially in Faculty of Dentistry Hasanuddin University, has only a conventional dental radiography. Researcher wants to optimize the equipment that is used to obtain parameters of the jaw that has been corrected to get accurate dental implant. Purpose: This study aimed to see the difference of radiographic imaging of dental implant size which is going to be placed in patient before and after correction. Method: The type of research is analytical observational with cross sectional design. Sampling method is non random sampling. The amount of samples is 30 people, male and female, aged 20–50 years old. The correction value is evaluated from the parameter result of width, height, and thick of the jaw that were corrected with a metal ball by using conventional dental radiography to see the accuracy. Data is analyzed using SPSS 14 for Windows program with T-test analysis. Result: The result that is obtained by T-Test analysis results with significant value which p<0.05 in the width and height of panoramic radiography technique, the width and height of periapical radiography technique, and the thick of occlusal radiography technique before and after correction. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is a significant difference before and after the results of panoramic, periapical, and occlusal radiography is corrected.

  8. Definitive salvage for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer: the impact of modern intensity-modulated-radiotherapy with image-based HDR brachytherapy and the interplay of the PORTEC 1 risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, John A; Kim, Hayeon; Houser, Christopher J; Berhane, Hebist; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Olawaiye, Alexander B; Kelley, Joseph L; Edwards, Robert P; Comerci, John T; Huang, Marilyn; Courtney-Brooks, Madeleine; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-10-01

    Data for salvage radiotherapy for recurrent endometrial cancer are limited especially in the era of modern radiotherapy including IMRT and 3-dimensional image-based HDR brachytherapy. Theoretically, modern radiotherapy reduces the dose to critical organs-at-risk and maximizes dose to the target volume, possibly decreasing morbidity and increasing tumor control. Forty-one patients completing definitive salvage radiotherapy for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer from June 2004 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. HDR Brachytherapy was completed using image-based planning with contouring/optimization with each fraction to a median dose of 23.75 Gy in 5 fractions. HDR brachytherapy was preceded by external beam radiotherapy predominately using an IMRT technique (90%) to a median dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Toxicity was reported according to CTCAEv4. At a median follow-up of 18 months (range: 3-78), the clinical complete response rate was 95%. The 3-year local control, distant control, recurrence free survival, and overall survival were 95%, 61%, 68%, and 67%. Significant predictors of both distant failure and overall survival were primary prognostic factors of depth of myometrial invasion, FIGO stage, and FIGO grade. There was no grade 3+ acute toxicity; the 3-year rate of grade 3+ late toxicity was 8%. Salvage IMRT plus 3-dimensional image-based HDR brachytherapy shows excellent tumor control and minimal morbidity for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer. Anticipated salvage rates must be taken in the context of primary risk factors including depth of myometrial invasion, FIGO stage, and FIGO grade. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conventional Spinal Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients scheduled for clcctive unilateral lower limb surgery. ... the conventional group were turned supine immediately after injection. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen .... Characteristic Type of spinal anaesthcsia P-value.

  10. Investigation on the Regional Branding Mode of Modern Agriculture in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone——From the Perspective of Country-of-origin Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The theory of the country-of-origin image is discussed and the natural relations between county-of-origin image and the regional brand are explored.The paper points out that the dispersion of agriculture has intensified the natural relations to a large extent.The paper probes into the branding status of agriculture in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic zone and points out the problems of it.In the first place,the agricultural industrial system is complete but there is no unified agricultural regional brand;in the second place,the weak awareness on protecting brand leads to the irrational behaviors on damaging brand.From the perspective of the image of the country of origin,the branding mode of agriculture is established and the countermeasures on improving the competitiveness of agricultural products are put forward.Firstly,the leading role of the government should be fully displayed;secondly,the image protection of original production place and regional brand promotion of the agricultural region should be intensified;thirdly,the functions of local pillar industries in protecting image and regional branding should be fully made use of.

  11. Modern carbonate mound systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, J. P.; Dullo, C.

    2003-04-01

    Carbonate mounds are prominent features throughout the geological record. In many hydrocarbon provinces, they form prime reservoir structures. But recent investigations have increasingly reported occurrences of large mound clusters at the surface of the seabed, or buried at shallow depth on modern ocean margins, and in particular in basins rich in hydrocarbons. Such exciting new observations along the West-European margin are promising for elucidating the setting and environment of modern carbonate mounds, but at the same time they confront us with puzzling or sometimes contradictory observations in the quest for their genesis. Spectacular cold-water coral communities have colonized such mounds, but convincing arguments for recognizing them as prime builders are still lacking. The geological record provides ample evidence of microbial mediation in mound build-up and stabilisation, but as long as mound drilling is lacking, we have no opportunity to verify the role of such processes and identify the key actors in the earliest stage of onset and development of modern mounds. Some evidence from the past record and from present very-high resolution observations in the shallow seabed suggest an initial control by fluid venting, and fluid migration pathways have been imaged or are tentatively reconstructed by modelling in the concerned basins, but the ultimate link in the shallow subsurface seems still to elude a large part of our efforts. Surface sampling and analyses of both corals and surface sediments have largely failed in giving any conclusive evidence of present-day or recent venting in the considered basins. But on the other hand, applying rigourously the interpretational keys derived from e.g. Porcupine Seabight settings off NW Ireland on brand new prospective settings e.g. on the Moroccan margin have resulted in the discovery of totally new mound settings, in the middle of a field of giant, active mud volcanoes. Keys are apparently working, but we still do not

  12. Prostitute Images in Novels of the New Century and China’s Modernity%新世纪小说中妓女形象谱系与中国现代性问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣

    2015-01-01

    Prostitute images in novels of the new century are special metaphorical vehicles and narra-tive codes offering us insights into the social reality of China in the new century and an approach to the issue of China’s modernity. These prostitutes mainly fall into four categories. Some are forced to en-gage in prostitution for utter misery, revealing the inequality of urban-rural dual structure and the cru-elty of modernity. Some choose to be prostitutes on their initiative, through whose experiences the au-thors criticize the typical ill mentality in the age of consumerism. Some play an active role in the anti-Japanese war, in line with the motif of prostitutes saving the nation, indicating the authors’ return to traditional values. Some are excluded from the rural society for their past as a prostitute thus failing to return to normal life. The first three types show the authors’ reflections on and criticisms of modernity, while the last one manifests their calling for modernity and rage against the outdated traditional values. These prostitute images, endowed with different values in modernity, reveal the particularity and com-plexity of China’s modernity.%新世纪小说中所塑造的妓女形象,成为了一种特殊的喻体,一种感知与体验新世纪中国现实的叙事符码,一种思考中国现代性的媒介。“逼良为娼型”的妓女形象,以妓女苦难叙事揭示城乡二元结构的不平等,追问现代性的冷酷;“赏心乐事型”以妓女自甘堕落的愉悦叙事,批判消费主义时代的精神病像,“知亡国恨型”延续“妓女救国”的故事母题,表明作家重返传统的取向。这三者均表现出反思、质疑与批判现代性的立场。而“从良幻灭型”则对阻滞现代性的传统道德观念表达出愤怒,彰显的是吁求现代性的急切。同为妓女形象,扭结了对现代性不同的价值立场,亦充分说明了中国现代性的特殊性与复杂性。

  13. Nuclear stress perfusion imaging versus computed tomography coronary angiography for identifying patients with obstructive coronary artery disease as defined by conventional angiography: insights from the CorE-64 multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tanami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography angiography (CTA versus myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI for detecting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD as defined by conventional quantitative coronary angiography (QCA. Sixty-three patients who were enrolled in the CorE-64 multicenter study underwent CTA, MPI, and QCA imaging. All subjects were referred for cardiac catheterization with suspected or known coronary artery disease. The diagnostic accuracy of quantitative CTA and MPI for identifying patients with 50% or greater coronary arterial stenosis by QCA was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Pre-defined subgroups were patients with known CAD and those with a calcium score of 400 or over. Diagnostic accuracy by ROC analysis revealed greater area under the curve (AUC for CTA than MPI for all 63 patients: 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.89-0.100] vs 0.65 (95%CI: 0.53-0.77, respectively (P<0.01. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.93, 0.95, 0.97, 0.88, respectively, for CTA and 0.85, 0.45, 0.74, 0.63, respectively, for MPI. In 48 patients without known CAD, AUC was 0.96 for CTA and to 0.67 for SPECT (P<0.01. There was no significant difference in AUC for CTA in patients with calcium score below 400 versus over 400 (0.93 vs 0.95, but AUC was different for SPECT (0.61 vs 0.95; P<0.01. In a direct comparison, CTA is markedly superior to MPI for detecting obstructive coronary artery disease in patients. Even in subgroups traditionally more challenging for CTA, SPECT does not offer similarly good diagnostic accuracy. CTA may be considered the non-invasive test of choice if diagnosis of obstructive CAD is the purpose of imaging.

  14. Defining the role of modern imaging techniques in assessing lymph nodes for metastasis in cancer: evolving contribution of PET in this setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Basu, Sandip [Tata Memorial Center Annexe, Radiation Medicine Center (Bhabha Atomic Research Center), Bombay (India); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Torigian, Drew A.; Saboury, Babak; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Accurate characterization of lymph nodes in patients with cancer and in patients who present with unexplained lymphadenopathy is of major importance for appropriate treatment planning and determination of prognosis. Size measurements are still the most frequently used method for discriminating malignant from non-malignant lymph nodes, but are insufficiently accurate. In order to improve evaluation of lymph nodes, there is a need for imaging modalities that go beyond anatomical lymph node assessment and that allow visualization and quantification of physiological and biochemical processes at the cellular level. We review and discuss functional imaging techniques in the evaluation of lymph nodes. (orig.)

  15. 现代光学成像技术在食品品质快速检测中的应用%Applications of Modern Optical Imaging Technologies for Rapid Quality Inspection of Food Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大文; 吴迪; 何鸿举; 冯耀泽

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the consumers' demands on the quality and safety of food products, it is required to apply rapid and non-invasive inspection during production and processing of food products in the modern food industry. The quality and safety issues of food products in China have raised a high attention of the whole society in recent years. By acquiring the images of food products in different spectral ranges, modern optical imaging techniques use digital image processing algorithms to extract feature information from digital images of food products and establish quantitative relationships between features and quality attributes of the products, resulting in realizing rapid, non-invasive, efficient, and low-cost assessment of food products and providing information support to automatic sorting and grading management, and to quality inspection in modern food process operations. Food Refrigeration & Computerised Food Technology (FRCFT) in University College Dublin (UCD) led by Professor Da-Wen Sun has carried out a series of research works on applying the advanced optical imaging techniques including computer vision and hyperspectral imaging to determine food quality in a rapid and non-invasive way. Their leading research works are well recognized by their international peers. This paper reviews the research results of UCD-FRCFT on food quality inspection using computer vision and hyperspectral imaging in the past decade.%食品现代化生产、加工过程中需要对食品品质信息进行快速无损获取,以保证食品品质安全,满足消费者的需要.近年来国内频发的食品质量与安全问题也要求实现食品品质安全信息的客观准确检测.现代光学成像技术透过获取食品在不同光谱波段下的图像信息,然后采用数字图像处理算法进行特征信息提取,并通过模式识别算法建立食品品质定量关系模型,从而实现食品品质信息的快速、无损、高效、低成本检测,为食品现

  16. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    as a discipline, and has important roots in Max Weber’s comparative sociology, elaborated for example by Shmul Eisenstadt. If anthropology, as Arjun Appadurai argues in Modernity at Large, wishes to contribute to a new social theory of modernity, it would need to tackle the theoretical luggage that the modernity......Anthropology never had an easy relationship with the concept of modernity. The “reflexive turn” which developed during the 1980s and 1990s tackled the concept of modernity as a culturally constructed narrative underlying Western self-assumptions of self and other– assumptions that needed...... to be unpacked and left behind. The debate was an essential part of a disciplininary reflexivity reconsidering anthropology’s epistemological and political roots in that very modernity. From the mid 1990s modernity was, somewhat surprisingly, reintroduced as a useful if not necessary conceptual tool...

  17. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul 04342 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ{sup 2} test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  18. Triple arterial phase MR imaging with gadoxetic acid using a combination of contrast enhanced time robust angiography, keyhole, and viewsharing techniques and two-dimensional parallel imaging in comparison with conventional single arterial phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ2 test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  19. TU-AB-201-01: A Comprehensive Planning Comparison Study Between a Novel Direction Modulated Brachytherapy Tandem Applicator and Conventional T&R Applicator for Image Guided Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D; Liu, Z [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Tanderup, K [Aarhus University (Denmark); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Scanderbeg, D [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate that utilization of a novel, intensity modulation capable, direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator can improve plan quality compared with conventional T&R applicator during an image guided cervical cancer brachytherapy. Methods: 45 cervical cancer patients treated with PDR brachytherapy were reviewed. Of them, a) 27 were treated using T&R only, b) 9 were treated using T&R with needles attached to the ring, and c) the remaining 9 were treated using T&R with needles attached to the ring (AN) as well as additional free-hand-loaded needles (FN). The DMBT tandem design has 6 peripheral holes of 1.3-mm diameter, grooved along a nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod, enclosed in a plastic sheath with total 6.0-mm diameter. An in-house-coded inverse planning system was used for planning DMBT and T&R cases. All typical clinical constraints including OAR dose limits, dwell times, and loading patterns were respected. For the DMBT and T&R applicators, the plans were optimized with the same conventional ring in place, but repeatedly planned with and without AN/FN needles. All generated plans were normalized to the same D90 of the clinically treated plans. Results: For the plans in category a), DMBT generally outperformed T&R with average reduction in D2cc of −2.39%, −5.21%, and −2.69% for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively. For the plans in category b) and c), DMBT generally outperformed T&R if the same needles in AN/FN were utilized in both cases with average reduction in D2cc of −1.82%, −3.40%, and −6.04%, respectively. For the cases where the needles were not utilized for both applicators, an average D2cc reduction of −7.45%, −7.61%, and 17.47% were observed, respectively. Conclusions: Under the same clinical conditions, with/without needles, the DMBT applicator tends to generate more favorable plans compared with the conventional T&R applicator, and hence, is a promising technology.

  20. Biomechanical factors and physical examination findings in osteoarthritis of the knee: associations with tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography and high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to explore the associations between knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography (CR) and by high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as biomechanical factors and findings from physical examination in patients with knee OA. Methods This was an explorative cross-sectional study of 105 patients with knee OA. Index knees were imaged using CR and MRI. Multiple features from CR and MRI (cartilage, osteophytes, bone marrow lesions, effusion and synovitis) were related to biomechanical factors (quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength, proprioceptive accuracy and varus-valgus laxity) and physical examination findings (bony tenderness, crepitus, bony enlargement and palpable warmth), using multivariable regression analyses. Results Quadriceps weakness was associated with cartilage integrity, effusion, synovitis (all detected by MRI) and CR-detected joint space narrowing. Knee joint laxity was associated with MRI-detected cartilage integrity, CR-detected joint space narrowing and osteophyte formation. Multiple tissue abnormalities including cartilage integrity, osteophytes and effusion, but only those detected by MRI, were found to be associated with physical examination findings such as crepitus. Conclusion We observed clinically relevant findings, including a significant association between quadriceps weakness and both effusion and synovitis, detected by MRI. Inflammation was detected in over one-third of the participants, emphasizing the inflammatory component of OA and a possible important role for anti-inflammatory therapies in knee OA. In general, OA-related tissue abnormalities of the knee, even those detected by MRI, were found to be discordant with biomechanical and physical examination features. PMID:23039323

  1. Er Rousseau moderne?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    1985-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme.......Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme....

  2. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  3. Evaluation of the linear measurements by conventional radiographs and indirect digital images in the endodontic treatment Avaliação de medidas lineares por meio de radiografia convencional e digitalizada no tratamento endodôntico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kawauchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A successful endodontic therapy depends on the linear measurements obtained by means of radiographs taken during odontometry and also on the application of the established working length up to the final obturation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the precision of the linear measurement obtained by means of conventional radiographs and indirect digital images evaluated by the Digora 1.5 software during the different stages of endodontic treatment, as well as to evaluate the tools available on this software. METHODS: A total of 160 radiographs of single-rooted teeth were obtained from files, which were analysed and divided in 4 groups comprising odontometry, cone fit, condensation and the final obturation. Analyses of the conventional radiographs and digitized images were performed by five previuosly calibrated examiners. RESULTS: A high level of inter and intra-examiner agreement was observed through application of the Kendall coefficient and the correlation index, respectively. In relation to the results of linear measurement, the two-way variance analyses and the Tukey test revealed that, concerning the method, a statistically significant decrease was observed on the measurement obtained through the digital method when compared to the conventional radiograph (pA radiologia digital tem sido amplamente difundida na odontologia, especialmente na endodontia. O sucesso do tratamento endodôntico depende das medidas lineares obtidas a partir de radiografias tomadas durante a odontometria, e do seguimento do comprimento de trabalho determinado até a obturação final. Este trabalho objetivou comparar a precisão das medidas lineares obtidas em radiografias convencionais com as imagens digitais indiretas avaliadas pelo programa Digora 1.5, durante as diferentes fases do tratamento endodôntico, bem como avaliar as ferramentas disponíveis neste programa. Foram analisadas 160 radiografias de dentes unirradiculares, dos

  4. Lamenting Language Loss at the Modern Language Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, John Hunt, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his Dakota ancestry. Here, he also talks about "Lamenting Dakota Language Loss," a paper he delivered at the 2004 Modern Language Association (MLA) convention. At the convention, he raised several questions regarding the revitalization of endangered Native American languages. Among other things, he points…

  5. Depiction of Nidi and Fibrovascular Zones of Osteoid Ostemas Using Gamma Correction Tc 99m HDP Pinhole Bone Scan and Conventional Radiograph, and Correlation with CT, MRI, and PVC Phantom Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Youg Whee [Sung Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Yong An; Bahk, Won Jong; Park, Jung Mee; Kang, You Mee; Choi, Woo Hee; Park, Young Ha; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kim, Byung Ki; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    For the precise imaging diagnosis of osteoid osteoma (OO), the identification of the nidus and fibrovascular zone (FVZ) is essential. However, the latter sign has received little attention because it is difficult to demonstrate. We applied the recently introduced gamma correction (GC) to depict the FVZ on pinhole bone scan (PBS), conventional radiography (CR), and computed tomography (CT). Non gamma correction MRI was also analyzed for reference. Ten patients with histologically proven diagnoses of OO were enrolled in this retrospective study. PBS, CR, and CT were processed by GC to demonstrate the nidi and FVZ as distinct yet integrating components of OO. PBS was performed using a 4mm pinhole collimator 3 h after iv injection of 925 to 1, 110 MBq (25 to 30mCi) of Tc 99m HDP, and anteroposterior and mediolateral CR and transverse CT were taken according to the standard technique. MRI sequences included T1 and T2 weighted images. For gamma correction, we utilized the Photo Correction Wizard program of ACD Photo Editor v3. 1. A team of three qualified nuclear physician radiologists, two nuclear physicians, and one MRI specialist read bone scans, radiographs, and MRIs of OO according to each specialty, and orthopaedic aspects and histology were reviewed by one qualified orthopedic surgeon and two qualified pathologists, respectively. Each observer first read the images separately with basic information about the aim of the study given and then in concert. Interpretive disagreement was settled by discussion and consensus. On pinhole scan, nidi were presented as areas of intense tracer uptake in all cases, and, importantly after GC, a thin ring like zone with lower tracer uptake became visible in seven out of ten cases. GCCR also revealed a thin lucent zone that circumscribed the nidi in six out of ten cases and GCCT in two of four cases. MRI, without GC, presented nidi with high signal in the center and a thin ring like zone with low signal in the periphery in five out

  6. Productions, modern (Scandinavia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Greek comedy has never been as popular on the modern Scandinavian scene as Greek tragedy, but one play stands out among them all as a modern classic, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, which has inspired many adaptations not only on the stage, but also in radio and cinema.......Greek comedy has never been as popular on the modern Scandinavian scene as Greek tragedy, but one play stands out among them all as a modern classic, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, which has inspired many adaptations not only on the stage, but also in radio and cinema....

  7. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  8. Indonesia - Procurement Modernization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation seeks to establish evidence on the possible effects of an intervention designed to modernize public procurement: effects on cost savings, performance...

  9. Imaging of acute pyelonephritis in the adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stunell, H.; Buckley, O.; Feeney, J.; Geoghegan, T.; Browne, R.F.J.; Torreggiani, W.C. [The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)

    2007-07-15

    The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in adults is predominantly made by a combination of typical clinical features of flank pain, high temperature and dysuria combined with urinalysis findings of bacteruria and pyuria. Imaging is generally reserved for patients who have atypical presenting features or in those who fail to respond to conventional therapy. In addition, early imaging may be useful in diabetics or immunocompromised patients. In such patients, imaging may not only aid in making the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, but more importantly, it may help identify complications such as abscess formation. In this pictorial review, we discuss the role of modern imaging in acute pyelonephritis and its complications. We discuss the growing role of cross-sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that may be used to demonstrate both typical as well as unusual manifestations of acute pyelonephritis and its complications. In addition, conditions such as emphysematous and fungal pyelonephritis are discussed. (orig.)

  10. 常用影像方法在乳腺癌辅助诊断中的性能对比%Performance Comparison of Conventional Imaging Methods for Adjunctive Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 罗立民; 鲍旭东

    2012-01-01

    To avoid presences of benign biopsies,there is a urgent need to introduce adjunctive diagnostic methods for suspicious lesions classified as BI-RADS 3 ~ 5 detected in mammography. However,diagnostic performances of different conventional imaging modalities,such as ultrasound ( US) ,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ,scintimammography ( SMM ) and electrical impedance scanning ( EIS ) ,for this specific clinical application are less known. In this paper,related articles published between 2000 and 2011 were searched,and the diagnostic performances of each imaging modality based on a relative large size of breast lesions were demonstrated by meta-analysis. The sensitivity with 95% confidence interval of US,MRI,SMM and EIS are 81.3% (0.794,0.831),90.0% (0.883,0.916),84.4% (0.821,0.866) and 81.0% (0.778,0.839); the specificity are 93.0% (0. 921,0. 938) ,82. 9% (0. 811,0. 846) ,83. 6% (0.816,0. 855) and 67. 9% (0. 651 ,0. 707) ; the accuracy,as the area under summary receive operation curve,are 94.7% (0.924,0.969),93.4% (0.894,0.973),92.8% (0.900,0.955) and 76.9% (0.691,0. 846). Statistic analysis indicated that MRI was the most sensitive one and US was of the most specificity of four conventional imaging modalities. There were no significant differences among US,MRI and SMM in accuracy. EIS had a relative high sensitivity,but its specificity was lower. Adjunctive diagnosis according the characteristic of each imaging modality,adopting single ( US/MRI/SMM/EIS) or combing imaging modalities (MRI followed by US) ,could reduce benign biopsies rate from 80% to 25.7%/43. 0%/43. 8%/61. 2% and even 6. 4% ,with a rate of missed diagnosis of 10.0% ~ 27. 0%. In application,short-interval follow-up should be taken for benign patients diagnosed by the adjunctive imaging method to decrease the blight of possible missed diagnosis.%为降低良性活检的发生,对于经乳腺X线摄像检查发现的可疑病灶(根据乳腺影像-报告和数据系统BIRADS归为3~5类,无法明确

  11. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  12. Development as modernity, modernity as development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lushaba, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    Albeit the divergences on the debate about development in Africa, it is indubitable that the continent remains underdeveloped after five decades of development efforts. To understand this impasse, it is necessary to trace Africa's encounter with Europe to the period of early modernity. This paper

  13. Images for preaching the Gospel. The presence of the Imprese sacre of bishop Aresi in the spanish sacred oratory of the Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Azanza López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the Seventeenth Century, the Theatine Paolo Aresi, Bishop of Tortona, wrote the Imprese sacre, a collection of symbolic images for the use of preachers which can be seen as a response to the concern to use the most effective means of persuasion in discourses such as the homily. In Spain, the Imprese sacre was well known early on, and its application in homilies was widespread, in both time and space. When reaching the IV Centennial of its publication, the aim of this paper is to analyse the use of the concepts from Aresi’s work in Spanish Sacred Oratory, specifically in its explanation of the passages of the Gospel.

  14. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Zhuo; Li; Pei-Hong; Wu

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal(GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimallyor not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread.

  15. National Convention on Family Life Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    This secretarial report gives brief comments on some discussion of topics at the National Convention on Family Life Education. Discussion included: 1) legalized prostitution as a means to reduce venereal disease; 2) family life education promotion by government and civic groups; 3) more authority for the Population Council; 4) more liberal abortion legislation than previously; 5) statutory notification of veneral disease by medical practitioners; 6) compensatory measures for working women with young children, and 7) the need for modernization of legislation pertaining to child health, adoption, paternity, the Persons Act, infant life preservation, drugs, age of consent, and the age of minority.

  16. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  17. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under co...

  18. Spotting modern Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Hans; Bøgelund, Helle; Darger, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i Københavns Rådhus og området omkring Banegårdspladsen analyseres Københavns indtræden i det moderne......Med udgangspunkt i Københavns Rådhus og området omkring Banegårdspladsen analyseres Københavns indtræden i det moderne...

  19. Mod den moderne skole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindum, Kjeld; Birk Morgen, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    Gennemgang af fem skoler som eksemplificerer væsentlige udviklingstrin i overgangen fra det sene 1800 tals etageskolebygninger til det moderne skolebyggeris gennemsalg i 1930erne.......Gennemgang af fem skoler som eksemplificerer væsentlige udviklingstrin i overgangen fra det sene 1800 tals etageskolebygninger til det moderne skolebyggeris gennemsalg i 1930erne....

  20. Patriotism, nationalism and modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    they reflected two different understandings of core concepts such as state, language and folk culture is explained. However, both ideologies correlate to modernity, since the reflect the same dialectic tension in the relationship between the individual, the social community and the modern state...

  1. Adult learning in modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the conditions for the growth of adult education in modern societies. It is argued that in modern adult life individual biographical reflection plays an increasing role, not only for educational and occupational choice but also in the process of identity formation and emotional...

  2. Modernism / Andrus Kallastu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallastu, Andrus, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Pärnu Nüüdismuusika Päevade kujutava kunsti programmist "Modernism", kava. Raul Meele tuleetendus "Wanad Sõbrad" Pärnu jõel, Academia Grata tegevuskunstirühmituse Leegion performanceid "Sport ja loomad", "Die Modernkunst". Ettekanded Reiu Tüürilt, Ants Juskelt jt. Sven Kivisildniku performance "...text@modern"

  3. The Left - behind Women Image in the Jiangnan Modern City and Town Culture%现代江南市镇文学中的留守女性形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余连祥

    2012-01-01

    The modern writers' writings on Jiangnan city and town culture have constructed Jiangnan modern city and town literature. The left - behind women images in such literature are chiefly represen- ted by Shuangxi's wife in Xu Qinwen's novelA Mad Woman, Xiangmei in Xu Jie's novel Da Baizhi , Juying and Her Mother in Wang Luyan's novel Juying's Marriage and Aunt A Zhi in Under the Roof, Jin Peizhuang in Ye Shaojun's novel Ni Huanzhi, etc. Among those women, only Jin Peizhuang is a new educated woman and all the others are traditional women with tragic fates.%现代作家对现代江南市镇文化的文学书写,建构了现代江南市镇文学。此类文学中的留守女性形象系列,主要有许钦文小说《疯妇》中的双喜媳妇、许杰小说《大白纸》中的香妹、王鲁彦小说《菊英的出嫁》中的菊英母女和《屋顶下》中的阿芝婶、叶绍钧小说《倪焕之》中的金佩璋等。这些留守女性形象,除了金佩璋为有知识的新型职业女性外,其他都是传统女性,具有浓郁的悲剧性。

  4. 现代传媒对女性运动员性别角色与身体形象的构建%Construction of Gender Roles and Body Image of Female Athletes via the Modern Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥武; 张永龙

    2014-01-01

    采用文献资料和逻辑分析等研究方法,以现代传媒对女性运动员的性别角色和身体形象构建为研究对象,对现代传媒影响下女性运动员身体的异化和成因进行研究。结果认为:性化与性感特征是现代传媒的娱乐主导倾向;在其影响下女性运动员的身体呈现“工具化”、“符号化”和“扭曲化”的多元异化发展趋势;现代女子竞技项目呈现性感化发展趋向;在男权文化的影响下女性运动员的身体扮演着客体化与边缘化的角色,呈现明显的符号化特征;男权文化的控制、价值需求、经济利益、工具化和功用化(功用性美丽和功用性色情)等因素的多元驱使是造成女性运动员身体异化的主要动因。%In this paper ,we studied the body alienation of female athletes and its causes using documents ,logical analysis and other methods with gender roles and body image construction by modern media as study object .We hold that :gender characteristics is the dominant entertainment tendency of modern media ;under its influence ,the bodies of female athletes show the multiple alienation trends of “instrumentalization” ,“symbolization”and“distortion”;modern female competitive events are showing a gender -oriented development trend ;the bodies of female athletes are playing the objectified and marginal roles under the influence of the male power culture an object with a marginal role ,showing obvious symbolization characteristic ;the factors such as control of male culture ,val-ue demand ,economic benefits ,instrumentalization and functionalization (functional beauty and functional sex ) are main caused for body alienation of female athletes .

  5. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2009-07-01

    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  6. Historical Maps from Modern Images: Using Remote Sensing to Model and Map Century-Long Vegetation Change in a Fire-Prone Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Callister

    Full Text Available Understanding the age structure of vegetation is important for effective land management, especially in fire-prone landscapes where the effects of fire can persist for decades and centuries. In many parts of the world, such information is limited due to an inability to map disturbance histories before the availability of satellite images (~1972. Here, we describe a method for creating a spatial model of the age structure of canopy species that established pre-1972. We built predictive neural network models based on remotely sensed data and ecological field survey data. These models determined the relationship between sites of known fire age and remotely sensed data. The predictive model was applied across a 104,000 km(2 study region in semi-arid Australia to create a spatial model of vegetation age structure, which is primarily the result of stand-replacing fires which occurred before 1972. An assessment of the predictive capacity of the model using independent validation data showed a significant correlation (rs = 0.64 between predicted and known age at test sites. Application of the model provides valuable insights into the distribution of vegetation age-classes and fire history in the study region. This is a relatively straightforward method which uses widely available data sources that can be applied in other regions to predict age-class distribution beyond the limits imposed by satellite imagery.

  7. Historical Maps from Modern Images: Using Remote Sensing to Model and Map Century-Long Vegetation Change in a Fire-Prone Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Kate E; Griffioen, Peter A; Avitabile, Sarah C; Haslem, Angie; Kelly, Luke T; Kenny, Sally A; Nimmo, Dale G; Farnsworth, Lisa M; Taylor, Rick S; Watson, Simon J; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the age structure of vegetation is important for effective land management, especially in fire-prone landscapes where the effects of fire can persist for decades and centuries. In many parts of the world, such information is limited due to an inability to map disturbance histories before the availability of satellite images (~1972). Here, we describe a method for creating a spatial model of the age structure of canopy species that established pre-1972. We built predictive neural network models based on remotely sensed data and ecological field survey data. These models determined the relationship between sites of known fire age and remotely sensed data. The predictive model was applied across a 104,000 km(2) study region in semi-arid Australia to create a spatial model of vegetation age structure, which is primarily the result of stand-replacing fires which occurred before 1972. An assessment of the predictive capacity of the model using independent validation data showed a significant correlation (rs = 0.64) between predicted and known age at test sites. Application of the model provides valuable insights into the distribution of vegetation age-classes and fire history in the study region. This is a relatively straightforward method which uses widely available data sources that can be applied in other regions to predict age-class distribution beyond the limits imposed by satellite imagery.

  8. Roles Of Photographic And Electro-Optic Imaging Sensors In The Modern Reconnaissance Aircraft-Will Electro-Optics Replace Film?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ralph W.; Graham, John; Koper, Harry F.; Lapp, Henry S.; Roberts, Alfred; Tracy, Robert E.

    1983-08-01

    Fisher. On my left is Robert E. Tracy. Bob probably has the honor of being a senior member on this panel and he has been involved in reconnaissance, one way or another, since about 1939. He has some real first-hand experience in that he actually flew as an aerial photographer in B-47s and RB-36s. He's also a qualified image interpreter. Since 1969 he has been project engineer on one of our advanced strategic aircraft. He earned his BS degree at Southern Illinois University and his MSA at Cal State. He has also pursued advanced studies in recce intelligence and various CAI, DIA, USA and industrial schools. He's a certified photogrammetrist, and a co-inventor on a patent for a correlation system for multi-sensor re-connaissance vehicles. Also, he's a member of several national groups dealing with reconnaissance and intelligence. I have been told by some people who have known him for a long time this his approach doesn't always follow the mainline thinking. So he fits in real well with this group.

  9. The Images of Port Arthur in Modern Anglo-American Texts%近现代英美文本中的旅顺形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒

    2014-01-01

    从1890年旅顺军港竣工算起,旅顺走入英美文化视野已有120多年了,1904年的日俄战争更是吸引了大批的英美人士来到旅顺,他们用笔给后世构建了多样复杂的旅顺文本形象,并将自己的宗教欲求和文明判断融入其中,使得旅顺的文本形象呈现出明显的“语词城市”倾向。%The final establishment of Port Arthur military port is the beginning of Port Arthur entering into the Anglo-American view. Since then one hundred and twenty years has passed. The Russo-Japanese War in 1904 especially drove many people from Anglo-American world to come to Port Arthur. They penned the diversified images of Port Arthur and fused their religious pursuits and civilization criticism into them, which gave rise to obvious tendency of“word city”.

  10. Reflections on the Creation and Aesthetic of Modern Ani-mation under the Restriction of Traditional Ideas:On the Techniques and Aesthetic of Image Building in the Mod-ern Animation "Bears! Dangerous! "%对传统观念制约下现代动画创作及审美现象的反思--论现代动画《熊出没》形象塑造的手法和审美

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万兴; 赵永丽

    2013-01-01

    The modern animation "Bears! Dangerous!" tells the wits against abused deforestation, and highlights the theme of contemporary environmental protection, but it adopts traditional creation models and ideas in image building, which is of certain restriction compared with the cultural connotation influenced by the modern cultural diversity.%现代动画《熊出没》围绕乱砍滥伐而展开的熊与人之间的斗智斗勇的故事,集中反映了当代环境保护的主题;但在人物塑造上采用了传统创作模式及其理念,这与现代多元文化影响下的文化内涵相比,具有一定的局限性。

  11. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  12. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  13. Imagens em 2D e 3D geradas pela TC Cone-Beam e radiografias convencionais: qual a mais confiável? 2D / 3D Cone-Beam CT images or conventional radiography: which is more reliable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Perez Couceiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a confiabilidade de identificação dos pontos visualizados sobre radiografias cefalométricas convencionais e sobre imagens geradas pela Tomografia Computadorizada Cone-Beam em 2D e 3D. MÉTODOS: o material constou de imagens obtidas através do tomógrafo computadorizado Cone-Beam, em norma lateral, em 2D e 3D, impressas em papel fotográfico; e radiografias cefalométricas laterais, realizadas na mesma clínica radiológica e no mesmo dia, de dois pacientes pertencentes aos arquivos do Curso de Especialização em Ortodontia da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF. Dez alunos do Curso de Especialização em Ortodontia da UFF identificaram pontos de referência sobre papel de acetato transparente e foram feitas medições das seguintes variáveis cefalométricas: ANB, FMIA, IMPA, FMA, ângulo interincisal, 1-NA (mm e ¯1-NB (mm. Em seguida, foram calculadas médias aritméticas, desvios-padrão e coeficientes de variância de cada variável para os dois pacientes. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os valores das medições realizadas a partir de imagens em 3D apresentaram menor dispersão, sugerindo que essas imagens são mais confiáveis quanto à identificação de alguns pontos cefalométricos. Entretanto, como as imagens em 3D impressas utilizadas no presente estudo não permitiram a visualização de pontos intracranianos, torna-se necessário que softwares específicos sejam elaborados para que esse tipo de exame possa se tornar rotineiro na clínica ortodôntica.OBJECTIVE: To compare the reliability of two different methods used for viewing and identifying cephalometric landmarks, i.e., (a using conventional cephalometric radiographs, and (b using 2D and 3D images generated by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography. METHODS: The material consisted of lateral view 2D and 3D images obtained by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography printed on photo paper, and lateral cephalometric radiographs, taken in the same

  14. (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma: a lesion-by-lesion comparison with (111)In-octreotide SPECT/CT and conventional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo L; Campos Neto, Guilherme C; Garcia, Marcio R T; Yang, Ji H; Camacho, Cleber P; Wagner, Jairo; Funari, Marcelo B G

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the detection rate of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT with (111)In-octreotide SPECT-CT and conventional imaging (CI) in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients with increased calcitonin (Ctn) levels but negative CI after thyroidectomy. Fifteen patients with raised Ctn levels and/or CI evidence of recurrence underwent (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT, (111)In-octreotide SPECT-CT and CI. Histopathology, CI and biochemical/clinical/imaging follow-up were used as the reference standard. PET/CT, SPECT/CT and CI were compared in a lesion-based and organ-based analysis. PET/CT evidenced recurrence in 14 of 15 patients. There were 13 true positive (TP), 1 true negative (TN), 1 false positive (FP) and no false negative (FN) cases, resulting in a sensitivity and accuracy of 100% and 93%. SPECT/CT was positive in 6 of 15 cases. There were 6 TP, 2 TN, 7 FN and no FP cases, resulting in a sensitivity of 46% and accuracy of 53%. CI procedures detected tumor lesions in 14 of 15 patients. There were 13 TP, 1TN, 1 FP and no FN cases with a sensitivity of 100% and accuracy of 93%. A significantly higher number of lesions was detected by PET/CT (112 lesions, p = 0.005) and CI (109 lesions, p = 0.005) in comparison to SPECT/CT (16 lesions). There was no significant difference between PET/CT and CI for the total number of detected lesions (p = 0.734). PET/CT detected more lesions than SPECT/CT regardless of the organ. PET/CT detected more bone lesions but missed some neck nodal metastases evidenced by CI. The number of lesions per region demonstrated by PET/CT and CI were similar in the other sites. (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT is superior to (111)In-octreotide SPECT/CT for the detection of recurrent MTC demonstrating a significantly higher number of lesions. (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT showed a superior detection rate compared to CI in demonstrating bone metastases.

  15. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and conventional imaging for assessment of Hodgkin's disease and non Hodgkin's lymphoma. An analysis of 193 patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital of Bonn (Germany); Herkel, C.; Moser, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Joe, A.Y.; Reinhardt, M.J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital of Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Altehoefer, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Finke, J. [Dept. of Hematology and Oncology, Univ. Hospital of Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of FDG-PET and conventional imaging (CI) in a large series of patient with Hodgkin's disease (HD) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) at three time points during their course of disease. Patients, methods: 169 consecutive lymphoma patients (69 HD; 100 NHL) were included. 193 FDG-PET studies were performed for staging at baseline in 42 cases, for post-therapeutic monitoring in 103, and for diagnosis of recurrence in 48 cases. Performance indices of sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of metabolic FDG-PET and morphological CI were calculated. Differences in staging and diagnosis of residual or recurrent lymphoma were compared. Results: FDG-PET changed staging in 36% of cases for staging at baseline, in 52% of cases for monitoring response to treatment, and in 29% for diagnosis of recurrence. FDG-PET staging results were confirmed in 80% for staging at baseline, in 74% for monitoring response to treatment, and in 50% for diagnosis of recurrence. FDG-PET and CI differed significantly at monitoring response to treatment for sensitivity (0.91 versus 0.69; p < 0.02), specificity (0.90 versus 0.38; p < 0.00001), PPV (0.77 versus 0.42; p < 0.001), and accuracy (0.83 versus 0.55; p < 0.02). Conclusion: FDG-PET should be considered as the diagnostic modality of choice for post-therapeutic assessment of lymphoma patients and may be a reliable alternative to CI for staging at baseline and diagnosis of recurrence. (orig.)

  16. Correlation of structural abnormalities of the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints evaluated by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and conventional radiographs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Hee; Srikhum, Waraporn; Burghardt, Andrew J; Virayavanich, Warapat; Imboden, John B; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) hands, we applied high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are new methods for erosion detection and bone marrow edema (BME) quantification. We compared the erosion measurements between these techniques with conventional radiographs (CR) in order to examine their significance for evaluating structural abnormalities. In 16 RA patients, HR-pQCT of metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints, 3 T MRI of wrist joints, as well as CR in both hands and feet were performed. Ten patients had 1-year follow-up CR. CRs were graded according to the modified Sharp score (MSS). Bone erosions were evaluated in HR-pQCT and MRI. BME pattern was quantified from MRI for volume, signal change and total burden. The erosion detection sensitivity of MRI was 85.7% and CR was 60.9% when HR-pQCT was considered as a reference method. The smallest dimensions of erosion detected by HR-pQCT, MRI and CR were 0.09, 0.14 and 0.66 cm, respectively. Baseline total MSS was correlated with HR-pQCT erosion measures, MRI erosion measures and MRI BME volume (P < 0.05). The mean difference between baseline and 1-year follow-up MSS (delta MSS) was 1.2. A trend was observed toward a correlation between delta MSS and MRI BME volume and burden. This study demonstrates that HR-pQCT detects more and smaller bone erosions compared to MRI and CR. In addition, 3 T MRI can provide quantitative measurement of BME. Combination of HR-pQCT and MRI modalities may provide powerful tools to evaluate joint inflammation and bone damage in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. 现代诗语新论:意象、非意象化、无意象之纠结%A New Study of Modern Poetic Language: Entanglement among Images, Non-images and Imagelessness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仲义

    2012-01-01

    As the core component of modem poetic language, images have undergone the process from superficial images through profound ones to aesthetic and wise ones, thereby having elevated the modem poetic language up to the "peak" status. Nevertheless, extremes meet; although non-images featuring their substance and concreteness have compensated for the shortcomings and defects of images and have greatly enhanced the ability of poetry to deal with the complexity of daily trivialities--an embodiment of some" actual poetic quality", imagelessness has even rendered poetry rational and abstract. However, as a matter of fact, the non-image and imagelessness which have emerged recently can not take the place of the image, for there are not only exclusion and conflicts but also coordination and interchanges between images and non-images as well as between images and imagelessness. Their counter-balance is to lie in the regulation of the tension lever.%意象作为现代诗语的核心构件,经历了从浅表意象到深度意象到审智意象的过程,现代诗语言达到了某种“巅峰”状态。然而物极必反,非意象化带着事象化和事态化特征,弥补了意象的不足与缺陷,它大大提升了诗歌处理日常琐屑事物的复杂能力,体现了某种“事实诗意”。而无意象更是把诗歌引入理象与抽象。但事实上,近年崛起的非意象化和无象无法取代意象。意象与非意象化、意象与无象之间既有排他、冲突的一面,也有协调、互化的一面。它们的此消彼长,还得依托于张力杠杆的撬正。

  18. The Imaginary Significations of Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of modernity upon which one of the most interesting contemporary theories about modern social change is based - Peter Wagner's theory of successive modernities. Wagner understands modernity as a double imaginary signification which entails a basic tension between...... theory of successive modernities partly inconsistent. A stance is taken for one of these versions and it is argued that the theory of successive modernities should appropriate that version as its point of departure in order to grasp the history of modernity in a consistent way. Keywords: Cornelius...... Castoriadis; modernity; social change; successive modernities; Peter Wagner....

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, ...

  20. Differences between conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Annalisa; Marino, Maria Adele; Morabito, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an in vivo assessment of cortical and subcortical regions affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD). This review summarizes the most important conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques applied in this field. Standard neuroimaging techniques have played a marginal role in the diagnosis and follow-up of PD, essentially being used only to discriminate atypical syndromes from PD, to exclude secondary causes such as vascular lesions, and to confirm the absence of specific imaging features found in atypical parkinsonisms. However, non-conventional MRI techniques, i.e. new neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and functional MRI, may allow the detection of structural, functional and metabolic changes useful not only for differential diagnosis, but also for early diagnosis and outcome and treatment monitoring in PD. In addition, we illustrate the advantages of high-field MRI over lower magnetic fields, highlighting the great potential of advanced neuroimaging techniques. PMID:24125556

  1. Modern neuroimaging of brain plasticity; Darstellung von Plastizitaet mittels moderner klinischer Neurobildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und Muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Seidel, S. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Wien (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    Modern neuroimaging methods offer new insights into the plasticity of the human brain. As the techniques of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly being applied in a clinical setting, the examiner is now frequently confronted with the interpretation of imaging findings related to regenerative processes in response to lesions of the central and also of the peripheral nervous system. In this article individual results of modern neuroimaging studies are discussed in the context of structural and functional plasticity of the CNS. (orig.) [German] Moderne Bildgebungsmethoden ermoeglichen neue Einblicke in die Plastizitaet des menschlichen Gehirns. Da Techniken wie das funktionelle MRT und die Diffusions-Tensor-Bildgebung zusehends bei der klinisch-radiologischen Untersuchung an Bedeutung gewinnen, ist der Untersucher mit der Interpretation von Bildgebungsdaten konfrontiert, die regenerative Prozesse als Konsequenz von Laesionen des zentralen und peripheren Nervensystems darstellen. Im vorliegenden Artikel werden individuelle Ergebnisse moderner MR-Untersuchungstechniken im Kontext struktureller und funktioneller Plastizitaet diskutiert. (orig.)

  2. Modern Approach to Ureteral Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert G. Tailly

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a very common affliction of mankind. In western countries incidence is increasing steadily. An increasing proportion of patients are presenting with ureteral stones, of which renal colic most often is the first complaint and the most common reason for an emergency visit to a urologist. Proper imaging strategy is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of acute flank pain and in the subsequent therapy planning once a ureteral stone is diagnosed. Renal colic during pregnancy poses specific problems, both in imaging and therapy. Apart from the adequate treatment of renal colic, modern therapy of those ureteral calculi that will not pass spontaneously will consist of a judicious combination of ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, endourology, and laparoscopy. Open surgery should only be reserved for limited and very specific indications. Although beyond the scope of this article, metaphylaxis should take an important role in the follow-up of stone patients in general.

  3. Answers to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    In his book The consequences of modernity, the British sociologist Giddens predicts e-learning environments. He emphasises that 'modernity is inherently globalising' creating 'disembedded' social relations and tearing 'space away form place by fostering relations between "absent" others...... - teacher, learner or curriculum planner positions - result in different strategies or 'answers to modernity'. The research has taken place as a study of e-learning and virtual teachhing of Danish as a second language for adults. The fact that relations in virtual learning are established between physically...

  4. Communicating pictures a course in image and video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, David R

    2014-01-01

    Communicating Pictures starts with a unique historical perspective of the role of images in communications and then builds on this to explain the applications and requirements of a modern video coding system. It draws on the author's extensive academic and professional experience of signal processing and video coding to deliver a text that is algorithmically rigorous, yet accessible, relevant to modern standards, and practical. It offers a thorough grounding in visual perception, and demonstrates how modern image and video compression methods can be designed in order to meet the rate-quality performance levels demanded by today's applications, networks and users. With this book you will learn: Practical issues when implementing a codec, such as picture boundary extension and complexity reduction, with particular emphasis on efficient algorithms for transforms, motion estimators and error resilience Conflicts between conventional video compression, based on variable length coding and spatiotemporal prediction,...

  5. “好教师形象”是现代教育的一座桥——关于“好教师形象”研究的调查报告%"The Image of Teachers" is a Bridge of Modern Education——Investigation Report on "the Image of Teachers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖虹; 孙亚玲

    2012-01-01

    The advances of science and technology promote the rapid development of education.This requires not only modern teachers to have the philosophy of the times professional,motivated professional attitude,complete and reasonable expertise,flexible and skilled expertise,more Modern teachers internally and externally to create a good image of teachers,the ideal type of "good teacher" in the minds of students.The investigation takes special "good image of teachers" for the investigation of the subject,the preparation of an open-ended questionnaire.%科学技术的日新月异促进了教育事业的迅猛发展。这不但要求现代教师要拥有与时俱进的专业理念,积极进取的专业态度,完整合理的专业知识,灵活熟练的专业技能,更要求现代教师内外兼修塑造良好的教师形象,成为学生心目中理想型的"好教师"。本调查特以"好教师形象"为调查主题,编制一份开放式调查问卷。

  6. IBM Brazil: and environmental modern view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, Valter [IBM Brasil, Industria, Maquinas e Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, Rj (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Information of practical experiences on Environmental Affairs at IBM Brazil plant and branch offices is presented, with a modern view of the mission, resources, support, waste management, monitoring programs, recycling, energy conservation, partners programs, nature preservation 2rograms, recognitions and image. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Modern technologies in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Iandolo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The positive results highlighted by these clinical cases demonstrate how the use of modern technologies are essential to avoid iatrogenic injury, and guarantee, on the other hand, safe and reproducible results.

  8. Modern technologies in Endodontics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iandolo, Alfredo; Iandolo, Giuseppe; Malvano, Mariano; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Simeone, Michele

    2016-01-01

    .... Materials and methods: Today, thanks to modern technologies as Operative Microscope, ultrasonic tips, M-Wire Files, devices to activate irrigation and tridimensional obturation performed with thermo plasticized gutta...

  9. Genealogies of Modern Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Does modern technology differ from ancient technology and does it have a unique essence? This twofold question opens one of Martin Heidegger's most influential philosophical inquiries, The Question Concerning Technology. The answer Heidegger offers has inspired various critiques and appraisals from...... a vast number of contemporary scholars of technology.1 Heidegger's answer is traditionally thought to suggest a great difference between ancient and modern technology. However, by re-examining Heidegger's text, it is possible to discover previously ignored or misunderstood lines of thoughts that affirm...... a multi-stable interpretation of the origin of modern technology. In what follows, we shall see how The Question Concerning Technology in fact supports three different genealogies of modern technology...

  10. Genealogies of Modern Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Does modern technology differ from ancient technology and does it have a unique essence? This twofold question opens one of Martin Heidegger's most influential philosophical inquiries, The Question Concerning Technology. The answer Heidegger offers has inspired various critiques and appraisals from...... a vast number of contemporary scholars of technology.1 Heidegger's answer is traditionally thought to suggest a great difference between ancient and modern technology. However, by re-examining Heidegger's text, it is possible to discover previously ignored or misunderstood lines of thoughts that affirm...... a multi-stable interpretation of the origin of modern technology. In what follows, we shall see how The Question Concerning Technology in fact supports three different genealogies of modern technology...

  11. Modern optimization with R

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this book is to gather in a single document the most relevant concepts related to modern optimization methods, showing how such concepts and methods can be addressed using the open source, multi-platform R tool. Modern optimization methods, also known as metaheuristics, are particularly useful for solving complex problems for which no specialized optimization algorithm has been developed. These methods often yield high quality solutions with a more reasonable use of computational resources (e.g. memory and processing effort). Examples of popular modern methods discussed in this book are: simulated annealing; tabu search; genetic algorithms; differential evolution; and particle swarm optimization. This book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Science, Information Technology, and related areas, as well as data analysts interested in exploring modern optimization methods using R.

  12. Foucault and modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerson, A

    1995-06-01

    Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity.

  13. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  14. Simultaneity, relativity and conventionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Allen I.

    2008-01-01

    The view of simultaneity presented by Max Jammer is almost breathtaking, encompassing, as the book's subtitle suggests, the period from antiquity to the 21st century. Many interesting things are to be found along the way. For example, what Jammer (p. 49) says "may well be regarded as probably the earliest recorded example of an operational definition of distant simultaneity" is due to St. Augustine (in his Confessions, written in 397 A.D.; for a modern translation, see Augustine, 2006). He was arguing against astrology by presenting the story of two women, one rich and one poor, who gave birth simultaneously. Although the two children thus had precisely the same horoscopes, their lives followed quite different courses. And how was it determined that the births were simultaneous? A messenger went from each birth site to the other, leaving the instant the child was born (and, presumably, traveling with equal speeds). Since the messengers met at the midpoint between the locations of the two births, the births must have been simultaneous. This is, of course, quite analogous to Albert Einstein's definition of simultaneity (given more than 1500 years later), which will be discussed in Section 2.1.

  15. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  16. The ability of modern secretary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诗怡; 张婉玲

    2014-01-01

    Modern secretaries need to master a lot of old and new skills including some required skills and some modern abilities. And secretaries in modern offices also have to master some special skills to be supportive to their bosses.

  17. Den moderne patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Kapitlet indkredser, hvordan vi som sundhedsprofessionelle kan forklare den moderne patient. I særdeleshed lægges vægt på definerende faktorer i skabelsen af den patient vi møder i sundhedsvæsnet i dag. Kapitlet giver forskellige teoretiske bud på, hvordan man som sundhedsprofessionel kan anskue...... den moderne, nutidige patienter samt en kortere beskrivelse af, hvordan patienten tidligere er blev anskuet....

  18. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  19. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  20. Letterkunde en moderne tyd

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Inaugural lecture--Department of Afrikaans, Rand Afrikaans University, 13 July 1968 In this inaugural lecture the characteristics of contemporary literature and its relation to modern life are analysed. The most important influences upon modern literature are traced, amongst others those of mass communication media, the other arts, and earlier literary forms. The notion "portrayal of reality" as a literary criterium is discussed and an attempt made to place it into its proper perspective.

  1. Modernization of credit relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Volosovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is essential to modernize credit relations in the conditions of global economy transformations. This is due to the influence of integration processes on credit relations and transformation of the risks inherent in the credit field. The purpose of this article is to develop measures that help to improve the efficiency of interaction of credit relations’ participants. Modernization of credit relations is based on the interaction of its main and indirect subjects who belong to the subsystems of loans granting, deposits attraction and provision of related services. Its goal is to pass from extensive to intensive model of interaction between the subjects of credit relations. Components of the credit relations modernization are the following: institutional modernization, which is based on the interaction of credit relations’ subjects, and ensures the development of competition in all credit market’s segments, the creation of its corresponding infrastructure, qualitative change in the approaches of regulation and supervision; technological modernization, which involves the formation of joint products on the credit market and the formation of an integrated informational and analytical system. In the result of the credit relations’ modernization it is expected to achieve synergies between the subjects of credit relations, that will lead to changes in the business architecture of the financial market.

  2. What constitutes a convention? : implications for the coexistence of conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    A model of repeated play of a coordination game, where stage games have a location in social space, and players receive noisy signals of the true location of their games, is reviewed. Sugden (1995) suggests that in such a model, there can be a stationary state of convention coexistence only if interaction is non-uniform across social space. This paper shows that an alternative definition of conventions, which links conventions to actions rather than expectations, permits convention coexistenc...

  3. Microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in

  4. A Modern Dunciad A Modern Dunciad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebelo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available "Push-button war demands a woman's touch!" shrills Nason's twentieth century goddess Dullness, (in his book length poetic plagiarism of Pope's mock epic Dunciad, as she reestablishes her Empire in the modern New World by masking, cancelling, and attacking Progress and Liberty in a lustful attempt to destroy the Moral and Emotional content of poetry. She sluttishly breeds and fosters the Dunces of the literary kingdom of today, (Pope's Dunces were the poet Laureates of his day, and sallies brazenly everywhere in the company of her muses Self-Service, Smuggnes, sadism, and "sweet Anality", so light and fair,/ Enlaced with tender plaits her public hair".

  5. Posttreatment PET/CT Rather Than Interim PET/CT Using Deauville Criteria Predicts Outcome in Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Prospective Study Comparing PET/CT with Conventional Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Sameer; Bhethanabhotla, Sainath; Kumar, Rakesh; Agarwal, Krishankant; Sharma, Punit; Thulkar, Sanjay; Malhotra, Arun; Dhawan, Deepa; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas

    2017-04-01

    Data about the significance of (18)F-FDG PET at interim assessment and end of treatment in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are limited. Methods: Patients (≤18 y) with HL were prospectively evaluated with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) and PET combined with low-dose CT (PET/CT) at baseline, after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and after completion of treatment. Revised International Working Group (RIW) criteria and Deauville 5 point-scale for response assessment by PET/CT were used. All patients received doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine chemotherapy along with involved-field radiotherapy (25 Gy) for early stage (IA, IB, and IIA) and advanced stage (IIB-IV) with bulky disease. Results: Of the 57 enrolled patients, median follow-up was 81.6 mo (range, 11-97.5 mo). Treatment decisions were based on CECT. At baseline, PET/CT versus CECT identified 67 more disease sites; 23 patients (40.3%) were upstaged and of them in 9 patients (39%) upstaging would have affected treatment decision; notably none of these patients relapsed. The specificity of interim PET/CT based on RIW criteria (61.5%) and Deauville criteria (91.4%) for predicting relapse was higher than CECT (40.3%) (P = 0.03 and P interim PET/CT (RIW) response was 93.3 ± 4.1 versus 89.6 ± 3.8 (positive vs. negative scan, respectively; P = 0.44). The specificity of posttreatment PET/CT (Deauville) was 95.7% versus 76.4% by CECT (P = 0.006). Posttreatment PET/CT (Deauville) showed significantly inferior overall survival in patients with positive scan versus negative scan results (66.4 ± 22.5 vs. 94.5 ± 2.0, P = 0.029). Conclusion: Interim PET/CT has better specificity, and use of Deauville criteria further improves it. Escalation of therapy based on interim PET in pediatric HL needs further conclusive evidence to justify its use. Posttreatment PET/CT (Deauville) predicts overall survival and has better specificity in comparison to conventional imaging.

  6. In vivo body composition in autochthonous and conventional pig breeding groups by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging under special consideration of Cerdo Ibérico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, P V; Fernández-Fígares, I; Förster, M; Scholz, A M

    2012-12-01

    The improvement of carcass quality is one of the main breeding goals in pig production. To select appropriate breeding animals, it is of major concern to exactly and reliably analyze the body composition in vivo. Therefore, the objective of the study was to examine whether the combination of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to reliably analyze quantitative and qualitative body composition characteristics of different pig breeding groups in vivo. In this study, a total of 77 pigs were studied by DXA and MRI at an average age of 154 days. The pigs originated from different autochthonous or conventional breeds or crossbreeds and were grouped into six breed types: Cerdo Ibérico (Ib); Duroc × Ib (Du_Ib); White Sow Lines (WSL, including German Landrace and German Large White); Hampshire/Pietrain (Pi_Ha, including Hampshire, Pietrain × Hampshire (PiHa) and Pietrain × PiHa); Pietrain/Duroc (Pi_Du, including Pietrain × Duroc (PiDu) and Pietrain × PiDu); crossbred WSL (PiDu_WSL, including Pietrain × WSL and PiDu × WSL). A whole-body scan was performed by DXA with a GE Lunar DPX-IQ in order to measure the amount and percentage of fat tissue (FM; %FM), lean tissue (LM; %LM) and bone mineral, whereas a Siemens Magnetom Open with a large body coil was used for MRI in the thorax region between 13th and 14th vertebrae in order to measure the area of the loin (LA) and the above back fat area (FA) of both body sides. A GLM procedure using SAS 9.2 was used to analyze the data. As expected, the native breed Ib followed by Du_Ib crossbreeds showed the highest %FM (27.2%, 25.0%) combined with the smallest LA (46.2 cm2, 73.6 cm2), whereas Ib had the lowest BW at an average age of 154 days. Pigs with Pi_Ha origin presented the least %FM (12.4%) and largest LA (99.5 cm2). The WSL and PiDu_WSL showed an intermediate body composition. Therefore, it could be concluded that DXA and MRI and especially their combination

  7. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  8. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019

  9. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas.

  10. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  11. Introduction to Modern Methods in Light Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joel; Gerhold, Abby R; Boudreau, Vincent; Smith, Lydia; Maddox, Paul S

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, light microscopy has been a key method in biological research, from the early work of Robert Hooke describing biological organisms as cells, to the latest in live-cell and single-molecule systems. Here, we introduce some of the key concepts related to the development and implementation of modern microscopy techniques. We briefly discuss the basics of optics in the microscope, super-resolution imaging, quantitative image analysis, live-cell imaging, and provide an outlook on active research areas pertaining to light microscopy.

  12. Modern imaging in patients with obstructive jaundice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-19

    Jul 19, 2007 ... have significantly modified the investigation of biliary tract diseases. A wide .... such as the portal, superior mesenteric and hepatic veins, and hepatic artery. Although US is ... in which ultrafast detector rotation and collimation ...

  13. Modern Media Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Prijatelj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary media culture is de fi ned by the logic of the victorious spectacle expanding to all areas of life. Post-modern capitalism has turned everyday life and culture into entertainment with the help of the spectacular. In fact, such entertainment results in a fake sense of happiness, pop mainstream, the swallowing up alternatives and therefore the creation of a passive consumer society. The media today have a unique power of overwhelming a person with information. They enable a modern person to know much, but understand little. This discussion has cast some light on very popular reality shows, the body and sports. It concludes with a re fl ection on modern media, which leave a person of this age with a patchwork identity.

  14. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    conditions of such liquid modernity. In this paper, I want to argue that this picture of Adorno is mistaken and extend the view proposed by Frederic Jameson that Adorno was not only the philosopher of 1990’s but is also very useful in the 2010’s. In fact, the critique of critical theory and emancipation......In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under....... The paper argues that there are great similarities but that Adorno (and the rest of the Early Frankfurt School) has a much more well founded philosophical layout of their critique of individualization....

  15. Det sentimentalt moderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Romantikken er blevet afskrevet som en mørk epoke, hvor en hang til mystik og tvetydighed ikke passer til det moderne oplysningsprojekts mål om klarhed og orden. Afhendlingen viser imidlertid, hvordan dele af arkitekturen i det 20. århundrede er fyldt med romantisk tankegods, og hvordan romantisk...... nøglemotiver som f.eks. fragment, arabesk, krystal, symbol eller poesi kan bruges i en analyse - også af moderne arkitektur. det ses i bogens nyfortolkninger af værker og teorier hos arkitekterne Erik Gunnar Asplund, Josef Frank, Rudolf Schwarz, Aldo Rossi og Daniel Libeskind...

  16. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  17. BARCELONA: URBANSCAPES OF MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Remesar

    2015-04-01

    The Do.Co.Mo.Mo’s. database, referring to Barcelona, lists 34 buildings that could be classified as rationalists and / or modern. According to other sources, we could reach fifty constructed buildings between the late 1920s and the end of the war in Spain. The article presents the results of a field work that, using different sources, has tried to to order and record the architectural production that can be considered modern / rationalist in Barcelona in the 1920s and 1930s

  18. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  19. Modernisms and Postmodernisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋轶阳

    2009-01-01

    The Phrase "modernisms and postmodernisms" is developed for presenting complexity and mutability exiting within and between Modernism and Postmodernism. This thesis attempts to offer the essentiality of the above-mentioned in terms of the respective definitions, the differences in arguing the concept of "tradition" and "new" as well as the terms of "epistemology" and "ontology", the non-abrupt developing process between them. By doing so, the materials, such as T. S. Eliot's poem "The Waste Land" and Langston Hughes' poem "Christ in Alabama", Virginia Woolf "Mrs. Dalloway: are offered for analysis.

  20. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  1. Modern physics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jasprit

    1999-01-01

    Linking physics fundamentals to modern technology-a highly applied primer for students and engineersReminding us that modern inventions-new materials, information technologies, medical technological breakthroughs-are based on well-established fundamental principles of physics, Jasprit Singh integrates important topics from quantum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, and materials science, as well as the special theory of relativity. He then goes a step farther and applies these fundamentals to the workings of electronic devices-an essential leap for anyone interested in developing n

  2. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  3. GIS application on modern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  4. [Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, A; Drapé, J L; Godefroy, D; Dupont, A M; Pessis, E; Sarazin, L; Minoui, A

    1997-01-01

    The panoply of imaging techniques useful in podology is essentially limited to X-rays. Standard "standing" and "lying" X-rays furnish most of the required information. Arthrography is sometimes performed, in particular for trauma or tumour of the ankle. CT scan and MRI make a decisive contribution in difficult cases, notably in fractures and in small fractures without displacement. The two latter techniques are useful in tendon, ligament and muscular disorders, where echography is also informative. Rigorous analysis of radiographies and a good knowledge of foot disorders make these imaging techniques efficacious.

  5. Imágenes de la locura en la Edad Moderna: escarnio y máscara en el discurso del poder = Images of Madness in the Modern Age: Derision and Mask in the Discourse of the Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gil Desco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A finales del siglo XV el tema de la locura irrumpió en el relato del poder a través de varios discursos que utilizaron como elementos retóricos de expresión imágenes textuales y visuales muy heterogéneas. Dichos discursos procedían del ámbito médico, jurídico, social y político, y también del crítico reformista y del religioso contrarreformista. El presente trabajo intenta analizar cómo se configuraron estos discursos desde la dialéctica entre la categoría iconográfica que adquirió el loco en dichas imágenes y como se mostró este en la vida real. El trabajo se centra en el análisis de su peculiar indumentaria: el traje de escarnio identificativo del hospital al que estaba adscrito, y los vestidos de máscara del bufón y botarga. Desde tal presupuesto, planteamos una incursión en los mecanismos que convirtieron a la representación visual y textual del loco en un topos con dimensión moralizante sumamente útil como herramienta pedagógica para adoctrinar a las clases populares urbanas iletradas.In the late fifteenth century the theme of folly broke into the narration of power through various narratives that used different textual expressions and visual images as rhetorical elements. These discourses covered a variety of heterogeneous fields, from medical to legal, social and political, as well as to the critical reformer and the religious counter-reformer. This paper analyzes how these images and their speech were configured in the Modern Age in connection with the dialectic among the way in which madness acquired iconographic category and its real life. The paper analyzes this process through the ridicule clothes, which the mad was forced to wear when he was admitted to certain hospitals, and dress maskes, as the jester or the baffoon. This work proposes an exploration into the mechanisms that converted the visual and textual representation of folly in a topos with moralizing dimension, and extremely

  6. 冠状动脉能谱CT单能量成像与混合能量成像质量的比较——静态模型的实验研究%A Comparative Study on Simulated Coronary Artery with Artificial Plaques with Gemstone Spectral Imaging and Conventional Polychromatic X-ray Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓红; 刘斌; 周勇; 汪洁; 王乐; 吴兴旺; 王万勤; 张帅

    2012-01-01

    规混合能量扫描模式具有更好的图像质量.%Objective To compare the image quality of simulated coronary artery with artificial plaques between gem-stone spectral imaging (GSI) and conventional polychromatic X-ray imaging (CPXI). Materials and Methods Three microtubes with artificial plaques (the CT value from 60 HU -148.6 HU ) injected with three kinds of iodine contrast a-gent 6.25 mgl/ml( A group) , 7.89 mgI/ml(B group) , 14.06 mgI/ml(C group) fixed in a water tank received CT (Discovery CT750 HD) scans in order with CSI and CPXI (Scan Type of Segment Standard and Segment High Resolution Standard ) , respectively. All GSI data were transferred to AW4.4 workstation to obtain monochromatic images of 60 lceV by GSI Viewer. CT values of lumens and plaques and the noise of background were measured at polychromatic images and monochromatic images of 60keV to calculate contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Meanwhile, the image quality was evaluated by using a four point scale at polychromatic images and monochromatic images of 60 keV. CNR and subject scales between monochromatic images and polychromatic images were compared by two radiologists. Results The optimal monochromatic level for gemstone spectral imaging( GSI) at 60 Icev had good contrast to noise ratio compare to polychromatic images of Segment Standard and Segment High Resolution Standard with different stenosis conditions from A - C group, in addition to 25% and 75% stenosis of group A which had no statistically significant. There was significant difference in image quality between monochromatic images and polychromatic images especially with low contrast agent concentration (A and B group). But there was no significant difference in 50% and 75% stenosis of group C with high contrast agent concentration between monochromatic images and polychromatic images. Conclusion For plaques in coronary arteries in vitro, CSI could be a good choice to display plaques compared to conventional polychromatic X

  7. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  8. Modern Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  9. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  10. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect