WorldWideScience

Sample records for modern chemical analysis

  1. The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    There is no doubt that Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) has had a profound impact on the ways and means that modern analytical chemical procedures are performed. This is amply reflected in the voluminous scientific literature, which by the middle of 2004 passed more than 14,500 FIA-publications in i......There is no doubt that Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) has had a profound impact on the ways and means that modern analytical chemical procedures are performed. This is amply reflected in the voluminous scientific literature, which by the middle of 2004 passed more than 14,500 FIA...... and preconcentration procedures. In recent years, FIA has been supplemented by Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Following a brief historic introduction and an account of the impact of FIA in academia, the lecture will describe these two new generations of FIA, accompanied...

  2. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MODERNIZATION FOR CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Задольський, Аркадій Михайлович

    2015-01-01

    Industry of Ukraine is currently in a very difficult situation. This fully relates to the chemical industry. The real way to overcome negative developments, in the chemical industry, is improving its material base and objects of fixed assets. First of all, need improvement, machinery and equipment (chemical equipment). This important problem can be solved by upgrading existing equipment. In order to choose the most efficient option for replacement of obsolete equipment, should apply the techn...

  3. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  4. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  5. The modern alchemy: The chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

  6. MODERN TERRORISM: CONCEPT AND APPROACH ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIKA ALEXANDER VIKTOROVICH

    2015-01-01

    The problem of modern terrorism as an image of counterculture environment is considered. The analysis of concepts and approaches of foreign and native authors, specialists of terrorism problem research was conducted. Separate features of the modern terrorism are considered and emphasized. The author drew conceptual conclusions on the basis of dialectical approach to modern terrorism counterculture phenomenon research.

  7. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  8. An introduction to 'Chemical knowledge in the early modern world'.

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Matthew Daniel; Mauskopf, Seymour H.; Newman, William R.

    2014-01-01

    The essays in this volume collectively cover the development of chemistry in the “early modern world,” that is to say, from the fifteenth century through the eighteenth century. Until comparatively recently, this period was of less interest to historians of chemistry than the succeeding era of the emergence of “modern” chemistry, with its familiar chemical elements, compounds, and equations. But recent research, exemplified by the essays of this volume, has shown how exciting and complex this...

  9. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  10. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.

  11. The Foundations of Modern Time Series Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Professor Terence C

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the analysis of Time Series from its formal beginnings in the 1890s through to the publication of Box and Jenkins' watershed publication in 1970, showing how these methods laid the foundations for the modern techniques of Time Series analysis that are in use today.

  12. Fundamental Concepts in Modern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view butalso occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics...

  13. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  14. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse teсhnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse teсhno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  15. Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPlessis, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

  16. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  17. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag; Laursen, Jens;

    In the city of Borås, which is a medium sized city in the south-western part of Sweden, a new modern plant for electricity and heat generation has recently been installed and optimised with respect to internal parameters of efficiency and economy. The direct emissions of gaseous pollutants which...... are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources...... contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty...

  18. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  19. Popular Modernism:an analysis of Modern Architecture of village in city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娅; 司敏

    2009-01-01

    From many elements of Modern Architecture could be affect by houses of village in city,we call see the degree of acceptance of people to modernism.The analysis to this appearance has shown that this problem already has been the center ofpopuhr modernism research.In many countries,the Modern Architecture has never achieved so popular,and people think this would be the reason of modernism failure.However,In the end of 20th century,the modernism seems to be very popular in China,and it takes a very important role.The popular modernism became the prevalent style is a very interesting appearance which is worth of research,and which could contribute to the development of architecture in the 21st century.

  20. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  1. Radiometric chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric method of analysis is noted for its sensitivity and its simplicity in both apparatus and procedure. A few inexpensive radioactive reagents permit the analysis of a wide variety of chemical elements and compounds. Any particular procedure is generally applicable over a very wide range of concentrations. It is potentially an analytical method of great industrial significance. Specific examples of analyses are cited to illustrate the potentialities of ordinary equipment. Apparatus specifically designed for radiometric chemistry may shorten the time required, and increase the precision and accuracy for routine analyses. A sensitive and convenient apparatus for the routine performance of radiometric chemical analysis is a special type of centrifuge which has been used in obtaining the data presented in this paper. The radioactivity of the solution is measured while the centrifuge is spinning. This device has been used as the basis for an automatic analyser for phosphate ion, programmed to follow a sequence of unknown sampling, reagent mixing, centrifugation, counting data presentation, and phosphate replenishment. This analyser can repeatedly measure phosphate-concentration in the range of 5 to 50 ppm with an accuracy of ±5%. (author)

  2. Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

  3. A Brief Analysis to Modern American Slang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖煜晨; 李洋

    2014-01-01

    Modern American slang has a unique display of feelings and ideas and a long history. It has become a language used widely in every field of work, and it continues to appear in newspapers, TVs, reports, and even election speeches. Modern American slang has gained importance over the years, During its development process, American slang has formed its own unique characteristics: it is humorous, vivid, easy to express feelings, and updates fast. Although scholars’ opinions toward slang have a wide discrepancy, it is undeniable that the emergence and development of modern American slang has conformed to the needs of the society and times.

  4. ANALYSIS OF MODERN ELEVATOR DESIGNS AND TENDENCIES OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Antonevich

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of modern elevator designs and control systems, their classification and characteristics are given in the paper. Tendencies and prospects of their development are revealed on the basis of the executed analysis.

  5. Current trends of the development of chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Matakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents dynamics of the development of all stages of chemical analysis during last 15 years. The ways of the quality improvement of chemical analysis and its considerable advancement into the field of trace concentrations of substances are shown. Features of development of analytical methods, modern techniques for concentration and separation of substances, as well as chemomerrical processing of results are analyzed. Huge importance of computerization and automation of the analysis is shown.

  6. Modern catalysis in the synthesis of some pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Slobodan D.; Mišić-Vuković Milica M.; Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Catalysis in the synthesis of Pharmaceuticals and line chemicals nowadays becomes more and more important. Synthesis that minimizes wastes is important from the economical aspect, as well as from the environmental aspect. "Green chemistry" or "green technology" is an effort to protect the environment by increasing the efficiency of the overall synthetic processes in the chemical industry by minimizing or eliminating wasteful by-products. Modern catalytic methods in the synthesis of some Pharm...

  7. Banking and Modern Payments System Security Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-criminals have benefited from on-line banking (OB, regardless of the extensive research on financial cyber-security. To better be prepared for what the future might bring, we try to predict how hacking tools might evolve. We briefly survey the state-of-the-art tools developed by black- hat hackers and conclude that they could be automated dramatically. To demonstrate the feasibility of our predictions and prove that many two-factor authentication schemes can be bypassed, we have analyzed banking and modern payments system security. In this research we will review different payment protocols and security methods that are being used to run banking systems. We will survey some of the popular systems that are being used today, with a deeper focus on the Chips, cards, NFC, authentication etc. In addition, we will also discuss the weaknesses in the systems that can compromise the customer's trust.

  8. Chemical Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Uses state-of-the-art instrumentation for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic compounds, and biomolecules from gas, liquid, and...

  9. Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

  10. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Is Chinese industry modernized?——Analysis of modernization in China’s 15 key industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳贵; 黄群慧

    2009-01-01

    Based on the construction of an evaluation indictor system, this paper analyzes the modernization levels of 15 industries included in China’s five industry categories: energy, high-tech, medium high-tech, medium low-tech and low-tech industries. Our research reaches five conclusions. First, the level of modernization of the shipbuilding, iron and steel, and petroleum industries has achieved 50% of the advanced level globally, and these three industries have covered half of the modernization process. Second, the level of industrial modernization of the electric power, computer manufacturing and textile industries has exceeded the overall level in China, and now approaches 50% of the advanced level globally. Third, the level of industrial modernization of the chemical industry is also higher than the whole level in China. Fourth, the modernization level of the cement, coal mining and lathe industries is the lowest. This level is under the Chinese overall level of industrial modernization, and has not achieved 30% of the advanced level globally, which is to say that these three industries have not covered a third of the modernization process. Lastly, the industrial modernization level of the pharmaceutical, telecommunication equipment, automobile, food and papermaking industries is equivalent to the whole level of Chinese industrial modernization, and has basically finished a third of the modernization course.

  12. Regulatory Impact Analysis: Regulasi Pasar Modern di Kabuoaten Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudiyanto Hudiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RIA or Regulatory Impact Analysis is an analysis tool that is used to develop the quality of rules or policy that is made by the Government. This article is analyzing the use of RIA that is currently being run by Bantul Government in managing he moern market that is threatening the very existence of local economy that is currently the backbone of bantul's people economical activities. Th analysis, it's found out that the most threatened business by modern market is grocery stores, but the Bupati Rules limits the definition of local economy to traditional markets, which means that this Bupati Rules isn't consistent in protecting local economy. The modern market has an oligopoly structure. This kinds of structure make benefit the consumer, but on the other side, it also impose the transaction fee to the supplier. Bupati Rules that only manages the existence of modern markets become inefficient in removing the negative impact of the modern market itself. In the structure of market with that strong network, policy that only obstruct would be ineffective, because once the permission is granted, the network will spread by any means necessary. The protection to local economy bargaining position to the consumer and seller.

  13. Discussion of Population Modernization Theory and Actuality Analysis of Population Modernization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shu

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic concept and connotation of population modernization.The author briefly analyzes the actuality of population modernization in China, gives some advice and puts forward some measures.

  14. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  15. Network analysis and synthesis a modern systems theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this book offers a comprehensive look at linear network analysis and synthesis. It explores state-space synthesis as well as analysis, employing modern systems theory to unite the classical concepts of network theory. The authors stress passive networks but include material on active networks. They avoid topology in dealing with analysis problems and discuss computational techniques. The concepts of controllability, observability, and degree are emphasized in reviewing the state-variable description of linear systems. Explorations

  16. Modern Material Analysis Instruments Add a New Dimension to Materials Characterization and Failure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Binayak

    2009-01-01

    Modern analytical tools can yield invaluable results during materials characterization and failure analysis. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) provide significant analytical capabilities, including angstrom-level resolution. These systems can be equipped with a silicon drift detector (SDD) for very fast yet precise analytical mapping of phases, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) units to map grain orientations, chambers that admit large samples, variable pressure for wet samples, and quantitative analysis software to examine phases. Advanced solid-state electronics have also improved surface and bulk analysis instruments: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) can quantitatively determine and map light elements such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron - with their isotopes. Its high sensitivity detects impurities at parts per billion (ppb) levels. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) can determine oxidation states of elements, as well as identifying polymers and measuring film thicknesses on coated composites. This technique is also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAM) combines surface sensitivity, spatial lateral resolution (10 nm), and depth profiling capabilities to describe elemental compositions of near and below surface regions down to the chemical state of an atom.

  17. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  18. Analysis of Variance in the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a tutorial introduction to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), intended as a reference for aerospace researchers who are being introduced to the analytical methods of the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), or who may have other opportunities to apply this method. One-way and two-way fixed-effects ANOVA, as well as random effects ANOVA, are illustrated in practical terms that will be familiar to most practicing aerospace researchers.

  19. Complex analysis a modern first course in function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Muir, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    A thorough introduction to the theory of complex functions emphasizing the beauty, power, and counterintuitive nature of the subject Written with a reader-friendly approach, Complex Analysis: A Modern First Course in Function Theory features a self-contained, concise development of the fundamental principles of complex analysis. After laying groundwork on complex numbers and the calculus and geometric mapping properties of functions of a complex variable, the author uses power series as a unifying theme to define and study the many rich and occasionally surprising properties of analytic fun

  20. Chemical Analysis of Single Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Laura M.; Kottegoda, Sumith; Phillips, K. Scott; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2008-07-01

    Chemical analysis of single cells requires methods for quickly and quantitatively detecting a diverse array of analytes from extremely small volumes (femtoliters to nanoliters) with very high sensitivity and selectivity. Microelectrophoretic separations, using both traditional capillary electrophoresis and emerging microfluidic methods, are well suited for handling the unique size of single cells and limited numbers of intracellular molecules. Numerous analytes, ranging from small molecules such as amino acids and neurotransmitters to large proteins and subcellular organelles, have been quantified in single cells using microelectrophoretic separation techniques. Microseparation techniques, coupled to varying detection schemes including absorbance and fluorescence detection, electrochemical detection, and mass spectrometry, have allowed researchers to examine a number of processes inside single cells. This review also touches on a promising direction in single cell cytometry: the development of microfluidics for integrated cellular manipulation, chemical processing, and separation of cellular contents.

  1. DGA Clustering and Analysis: Mastering Modern, Evolving Threats, DGALab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Chailytko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Domain Generation Algorithms (DGA is a basic building block used in almost all modern malware. Malware researchers have attempted to tackle the DGA problem with various tools and techniques, with varying degrees of success. We present a complex solution to populate DGA feed using reversed DGAs, third-party feeds, and a smart DGA extraction and clustering based on emulation of a large number of samples. Smart DGA extraction requires no reverse engineering and works regardless of the DGA type or initialization vector, while enabling a cluster-based analysis. Our method also automatically allows analysis of the whole malware family, specific campaign, etc. We present our system and demonstrate its abilities on more than 20 malware families. This includes showing connections between different campaigns, as well as comparing results. Most importantly, we discuss how to utilize the outcome of the analysis to create smarter protections against similar malware.

  2. Modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Herbert J.; Batina, John T.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    The application and assessment of the recently developed CAP-TSD transonic small-disturbance code for flutter prediction is described. The CAP-TSD code has been developed for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations and was previously applied to the calculation of steady and unsteady pressures with favorable results. Generalized aerodynamic forces and flutter characteristics are calculated and compared with linear theory results and with experimental data for a 45 deg sweptback wing. These results are in good agreement with the experimental flutter data which is the first step toward validating CAP-TSD for general transonic aeroelastic applications. The paper presents these results and comparisons along with general remarks regarding modern wing flutter analysis by computational fluid dynamics methods.

  3. Causes and analysis of food price volatility: Implications for modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Valinkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of price volatility on the food industry enterprises functioning is examined and analyzed in the article. The food price indexes, consumer prices index for food and nonalcoholic beverages for years 2005-2012, food and beverages production indexes in Ukraine for years 2007-2012 and FAO food price indexes are considered. The aspects of government regulation of pricing for certain types of food, its prices instability and volatility are traced. It is reasoned that the organizational-economic modernization is revealed in the enterprise’s ability as a system to respond adequately to changes in environment at any time and at the same time to generate these interaction, which requires a clear pricing mechanism, exceptional resources, competencies and knowledge, determining the opportunity of optimal available at its disposal resources combination. It is proved that the efficient pricing for food industry products, its dynamics analysis and monitoring in comparison with world prices is one of the determinants of successful organizational-economic modernization implementation for stable competitive market position ensuring

  4. Semen analysis: its place in modern reproductive medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Robert I; Baker, H W Gordon; Clarke, Gary N; Harrison, Keith L; Matson, Phillip L; Holden, Carol A; de Kretser, David M

    2003-02-01

    Semen analysis is the most important laboratory investigation for men when assessing the infertile couple. Advances in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques, particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) involving the direct injection of a single spermatozoon into an egg, have not diminished the role of semen analysis in modern reproductive practice. Semen analysis is the most basic laboratory investigation undertaken and is descriptive in terms of semen volume, appearance, viscosity, sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology. Since the results are used by clinicians to choose appropriate treatment options, a reliable service is imperative. It is crucial that the laboratory is experienced in the performance of semen analyses to ensure an accurate result. To ensure a quality semen analysis service, laboratories must participate in internal and external quality assurance activities, incorporate rigorous training protocols for technical staff and use reliable procedures. The World Health Organization laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm cervical mucous interaction, clearly describes the variables that need to be assessed and the methods of analysis and quality assurance to be used. PMID:12701680

  5. Analysis of Innovative and Modern Technology of Parking Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Damidavičius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of urban communication systems and ensuring of residents demands are the main tasks of the sustainable city development. One of the most important areas that forms better urban image is sustainable mobility development. It has influence on social, economical viability and environmental quality. Nowadays, intensive rhythm of life and increasing transport demands, usage of cars become a significant problem which regards the air and noise pollution and lack of parking spaces. Due to the daily impossibility of residents to find vacant parking spaces influence unproper usage of public spaces, streets, pedestrian and bicycle paths, children backgrounds, green areas and other territories. This report provides an overview of concepts of parking lots and their technology, and property usage in city center, middle zones, suburban territories and as well an analysis of the evolution of parking spaces. The report presents modern and innovative concepts of parking lots, which improves quality of communication and life in city and improves architectural environment.

  6. Crossed optical and chemical evaluations of modern glass soiling in various European urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favez, Olivier; Cachier, Hélène; Chabas, Anne; Ausset, Patrick; Lefevre, Roger

    As part of the MULTI-ASSESS and VIDRIO EC projects, the soiling of modern glass is characterised in various European urban atmospheres. Our original methodology relies on crossed chemical measurements of the deposit (evaluation of the ion, elemental and organic carbon contents, and subsequent "mass closure") and exhaustive measurements of glass optical properties (light reflectance, transmittance and absorption). Samples were exposed sheltered from rain in Athens, Krakow, London, Montelibretti (Italy), Prague and Troyes (France), during increasing exposure durations, up to more than two years. Although a slowing down of the deposition rate is observed for some species at some sites, no obvious saturation phenomenon seems to occur for the particle deposition. The chemical composition of the deposit is shown to reflect the atmospheric environment of the exposure site. Some post-deposit evolutions, such as the disappearance of ammonium and possibly of particulate organic matter, are found to occur. For thin deposits, the glass optical properties (e.g. light absorption and diffuse transmittance) are found to evolve quasi-linearly with species concentrations (EC and ions, respectively). However, for conditions creating heavier deposits such as long time exposures in rather polluted environments, a saturation phenomenon is observed. Using a simple model, light absorption, which is primarily due to EC particles, is shown to reach the saturation level ( S) for A≈16% and the concentration for which the semi-saturation level is reached (C 1/2) is found to be about 15 μgC of EC/cm 2. For diffuse transmittance, due to scattering species, these parameters are found to be about 30% and 65 μg of ions/cm 2, respectively. These values may be considered as representative of the soiling in Europe.

  7. John rawls and the theory of modernization. a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bula, Jorge Iván

    2010-01-01

    This work discusses the value of the theory of modernization and describes the scope and limitations of Rawls' Theory of Justice. The theory of modernization has a strong darwinist legacy: the biological evolution from simple to complex forms is applied to the social context and the transition from traditional to modern forms becomes a linear process. Rawls' most recent work link the concept of justice to that of social order, and his principIes become relevant when the principle of differenc...

  8. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  9. The Principles of Modern Attacks Analysis for Penetration Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern cyber defense requires a realistic and thorough understanding of web application security issues. Anyone can learn to sling a few web hacks, but web application penetration testing requires something deeper. Major web application flaws and their exploitation, a field-tested and repeatable process to consistently finding these flaws and convey them will be discussed in this article. Modern attacks principles will be analyzed on purpose to create the most sufficient penetration tests.

  10. Analysis of Modern State of Engineering Industry of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Bozhko Valeriy P.; Kashcheeva Irina A.

    2013-01-01

    The article studies the modern state of engineering companies of Ukraine. It proves importance of the engineering industry, state and level of development of which is the main indicator of economic and, first of all, industrial development of the country. It reveals main problems of engineering companies, which arise under modern economic conditions and slow down or even stop their development. The studied material is used for development of recommendations on improvement of the state and sol...

  11. Optical MEMS for chemical analysis and biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the current state of optical MEMS in chemical and biomedical analysis and brings together current trends and highlights topics representing the most exciting progress in recent years in the field.

  12. Analysis of the Reference Systems of Modern Selenographic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Petrova, Natalia; Andreev, Alexey; Demina, Natalya

    2016-07-01

    In this work analysis of the reference systems of modern selenographic systems was made. The center of the Moon's mass position relative to its center of figure was determined from the data of "Clementine" and "Kaguya" missions and "ULCN" and "KSC-1162" catalogues. The knowledge of the Moon's center of mass position relative to its center of figure is important for researches of the lunar origin, structure and evolution and in terms of precision solutions circumlunar navigation tasks. At the present this task is the most relevant and demanded for cosmic lunar missions.The expansions by spherical harmonics N=5 degree and order of the lunar function h (λ, β) using the package ASNI USTU were executed. Module of the expansion of the local area to surfaces to full sphere was used. The parameters of cosmic missions are given for comparison (SAI; Bills, Ferrari). The normalized coefficients from expansions for eight sources of hypsometric information are obtained: "Clementine" (N=40), "KSC-1162" (N=5), "Kiev" (N=5), "SAI" (N=10; Chuikova (1975)), "Bills, Ferrari", "Kaguya" (Selena, Japan mission), "ULCN" (The Unified Lunar Control Network 2005). The displacements of the lunar center of figure relative to the lunar center of the mass were defined from equations (Chuikova (1975)): Δ ξ = C_{11} √{3}, Δ η= S_{11} √{3}, Δ ζ = C_{10} √{3}, where ξ is the axis directed towards the Earth, η is equatorial axis directed perpendicularly to ξ , ζ is rotation axis of the Moon, C_{11} , S_{11} , C_{10} are the normalized amplitudes of the harmonics of the first order expansion of the relief. After that we considered: - mathematical models in the form of expansions in spherical functions - methods for estimating the model parameters; - information technology data processing. As a model describing the behavior of the relief on the lunar sphere is used the expansion of the height in a series of spherical harmonics (Sagitov (1979)) in the form of a regression model

  13. Sustainable Development or Ecological Modernization? An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Munck

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has been developed with the mainly objective of investigate what expression has the deepest theoretical contributions for indicate the ways for which the sustainable development can putted in action: the sustainable development itself or the ecological modernization? It was realized a theoretical, qualitative, exploratory and bibliographic research. It has been founded that the ecological modernization acquire a higher analytical point of view, so it has a more defined path and priorities more well established than the ones offered by the sustainable development.

  14. Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

  15. Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

  16. An Analysis of Love and Marriage in Modern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The monthly magazine Chinese Women has hosted a discussion on "How would you spend your enriched days?" The discussion, which lasted seven months, focused on the situation of love and marriage in modern China. Dr. Zhou Guoping, a well-known philosopher, wrote a conclusion for the discussion.

  17. "The saga of alien": The analysis of the frame of otherness in modern culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gorokhovskaya, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    In this article on a basis of Erving Hoffman's frame analysis the image of «Alien» in modern fantastic movies is considered. The primary social frame of «Alien» comes to light, and medieval and modern imaginary «Aliens» are compared as secondary frames.

  18. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... analysis. (a) Extract PCBs from the standard wipe sample collection medium and clean-up the extracted...

  19. New kids on the block: an analysis of modern blockchains

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Luke; Holz, Ralph; Ponomarev, Alexander; Rimba, Paul; Weber, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Half a decade after Bitcoin became the first widely used cryptocurrency, blockchains are receiving considerable interest from industry and the research community. Modern blockchains feature services such as name registration and smart contracts. Some employ new forms of consensus, such as proof-of-stake instead of proof-of-work. However, these blockchains are so far relatively poorly investigated, despite the fact that they move considerable assets. In this paper, we explore three representat...

  20. An Analysis of Modern Bilingualism Currently Existing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces two kinds of conceptions of bilingualism existing in China. One is traditional bilingualism, and the other refers to using a foreign language-English as an instrument to teach specialist subjects, which is called modern bilingual-ism. Then the emphasis is put on the latter to analyze the current circumstances in China, and its own affective factors and diffi-culties confronting it have been taken into account.

  1. The Analysis of The Waste Land from the Modern Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛瑞应

    2015-01-01

    <正>Published in 1922,The Waste Land describes to us a doomsday scene under modernization.Eliot lived in the middle of the 20th century when industrial civilization was extremely criticized.The despair,suggested in The Waste Land,of the serious conflict between social reality,and traditional culture and the British Empire,was largely influenced by the widespread critical

  2. SWOT Analysis and Strategic Research on China’s Rural Modern Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper expounds the necessity of China’s rural modern industrial development,and points out that developing rural modern industry is the necessary choice of increasing farmers’ income and bridging urban-rural gap;developing rural modern industry is the propeller of promoting rural economic prosperity and holistic economic growth of the nation;developing rural modern industry is the foundation of perfecting various kinds of social undertakings and changing rural appearance.SWOT analysis is conducted on China’s rural modern industrial development.The advantages of China’s rural modern industrial development include human resources advantage,economic development advantage,and policy advantage;the disadvantages of China’s rural modern industrial development include outdated thinking and concept,unsound infrastructure and imperfect system guarantee;the opportunities of China’s rural modern industrial development include great development of agricultural technology,implementation of new countryside construction strategy and development of rural informatization construction;the challenges of China’s rural modern industrial development include the transformation from closed rural environment with weak infrastructure to open rural environment with sound infrastructure,the transformation from traditional agricultural production mode to modern industrial development mode,and the transformation from administrative management model to service-oriented management model.The corresponding strategies are put forward to promote China’s rural modern industrial development at present as follows:change thinking and concept;perfect infrastructure;establish security system and perfect management system;provide good hard and soft foundation for rural industrial development so as to promote rural modern industrial development.

  3. Chemical analysis of high purity graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-Committee on Chemical Analysis of Graphite was organized in April 1989, under the Committee on Chemical Analysis of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI. The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analyses among eleven participating laboratories for the certification of the Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), JAERI-G5 and G6, after developing and evaluating analytical methods during the period of September 1989 to March 1992. The certified values were given for ash, boron and silicon in the CRM based on the collaborative analysis. The values for ten elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V) were not certified, but given for information. Preparation, homogeneity testing and chemical analyses for certification of reference materials were described in this paper. (author) 52 refs

  4. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  5. Modern EMC analysis techniques II models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of modern real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, numerical investigations delve into printed circuit boards, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, radio frequency microelectro

  6. Analysis of modern problems and state of land relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В. Козлова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the current situation of land relations and public land policy in Ukraine are investigated. Key factors that cause inhibition of land reform are identified. It was noted that public land policy today does not correspond to the full European and world standards and requirements of effective land management, so creating modern public land management is the main task, which will create a clear mechanism for land relations regulation. It was found that land issues can not be seen in isolation from the complex related to social, economic, environmental and legal issues. The measures to be implemented at this stage of land reform are proposed.

  7. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, José A.; Duane A. Rogers; Gijsbert B. van der Voet; Elisa Fornero; Lingsu Zhang; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Alexander Stojadinovic; Potter, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions rega...

  8. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  9. An Analysis and Overview of Modern Digital Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The major growth of information technology is based on the growth of computer networks. The computer network diminished the entire global in a nutshell, via the internet and the intranet capabilities. Approach: In the recent year, communicating information within authenticated groups in the text, image and video formats are highly unavoidable one. And in the same manner, there are more possibility that the communicated information to be hacked by the anonymous hacker. Results: The hacker may be passive or active; it is highly risk for many engineering applications like military network. Hence, digital watermarking is merged to rectify the above pitfalls. Conclusion: Watermarking techniques developed for images are mainly classified into visible and invisible approaches. The study further analyses the modern digital watermarking system.

  10. Traditional Medicine Through the Filter of Modernity: A brief historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabarihoela Razafimandimby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines still prevail in current Malagasy context. A careful historical analysis shows however that Malagasy traditional medicine has been screened through many filters before being accepted in a global context. Traditional medicine in its authentic form has been more or less rejected with the advent of  modern medicine – although not without reaction. This paper will retrace the historical encountering of the modern and traditional to determine the extent to which traditional medicine is acknowledged and used in the current prevailing modern, rational and scientific global context.

  11. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  12. Physico-chemical standardization of Habbe Shifa: A polyherbal Unani formulation with modern techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asira Tarannum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habbe Shifa (HS is an important pharmacopoeial Unani formulation, which is used in the treatment of Humma (fever, Iya (fatigue, Tashannuje rewi (pulmonary spasm and Zeequn Nafas (asthma and opium deaddiction. Aim: The physico-chemical standards of HS were established in the present study. Materials and Methods: HS was prepared with ingredients of particle size 150 μm (100 mesh sieve, 5% w/w Gum Acacia mucilage was used as binder, dried at a temperature 90°C for 120 min and finally evaluated for different physico-chemical parameters to develop standards for HS. Results and Conclusion: Physico-chemical standards of HS were observed as characteristic brown colour, spherical shape, hard in texture, odourless and bitter in taste; average weight 242.95 ± 1.53 mg; diameter 7.33 ± 0.16 mm; hardness 3.5 ± 0.00 kg/cm; friability 0.02 ± 0.003%; pH value in 1% and 10% aqueous solution 6.22 ± 0.06 and 5.39 ± 0.008 respectively; percentage loss of weight on drying at 105°C 6.63 ± 0.12%; total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash 5.33 ± 0.16, 0.95 ± 0.05 and 1 ± 0.00% respectively and total alkaloid 0.65 ± 0.01% and R f values in the thin layer chromatography in ethanolic extract in hexane: Acetone (7.6:2.4 solvent system were 0.25, 0.78 and in hexane: Diethyl ether (4:6 solvent system were 0.58, 0.89. The results obtained for the various physico-chemical tests of lab sample of HS may be taken as standard parameter for future reference and help in setting up regulatory limit to assure the quality of Unani medicine.

  13. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  14. COMPARATIVE FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF MODERN AND TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF BROILER CHICKEN FARM BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firda Rachma Amalia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility study is a study assessing a project to be undertaken in the future. This research aimed to analyze whether the broiler business by partnership pattern at Prospek Mitra Lestari (PML was feasible to be continued. This research analyzed two models of cage that is traditional cage (open with a scale of 10,000  and modern cage (close with a scale 14.500 and decided whether they were financially feasible or not. In addition, this research aimed to compare between traditional cage and modern cage with estimation for one year (six harvest times and to analyze which cage had better feasibility in order to provide recommendations or suggestions to the breeders or young breeders. Sensitivity analysis was based on current input and output data from breeder in 2012. The feasibility study of chicken broiler farm cage partnership with traditional and modern cage with the next ten year estimation showed that the modern cage was better than the traditional cage. It can be seen from the values of NPV, IRR, PP, B/C, GPM and ROI. Sensitivity analysis shows that traditional cage is more sensitive to price changes than modern cage. It is shown in the traditional cage with the capacity of 10,000 produces smaller values, indicating that is it is sensitive to cost increase by 2% and to selling price decline of chicken by 1,7%. The recommendations from this study include inputs to farmers in selecting a modern cage since it is more feasible than the traditional cage for long periods of time, while the traditional cage is more viable than the modern cage if the farmer wants a shorter investment timeKeywords: Feasibility studies, Broiler, modern and Traditional cageABSTRAKKelayakan merupakan studi  menilai proyek yang akan dikerjakan di masa mendatang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisisis apakah usaha ayam broiler dengan pola kemitraan pada Prospek Mitra Lestari (PML layak untuk diteruskan. Penelitian ini menganalisisis dua model kandang tradisional

  15. Physician impact analysis: an imperative for the modern hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlow, D R; Rea, P A

    1988-01-01

    In the majority of Canadian hospitals, medical personnel planning is seldom a part of the strategic plan, and the total impact of physician appointments is rarely assessed. By developing a physician impact analysis, the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg has attempted to pinpoint key elements associated with physician appointments, such as the impact on financial and physical resources. This development process has been an ongoing one, however, as the institution faced new situations. Because interrelationships between a teaching hospital and faculties of medicine are multifaceted, implementation of the physician impact analysis process allows a better understanding of the impact of medical personnel recruitment on hospital services, on behalf of both parties.

  16. Cost-benefit Analysis for Modernization the Agricultural Working Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. COVRIG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To achieve this CBA we use a series of specific steps and process documentation and references provided by the guide in preparation for submission of projects CBA as 125/FEADR/2010. The content of the cost-benefit analysis it is described in the document developed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development ”Recommendations for developing cost-benefit analysis”. For a clear image of thesituation described in the project we will try to analyze three scenarios. The method used in developing the financial analysis is ” discounted cash flow ”. The chosen project is an example, but the dates and figures are real.

  17. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical...

  18. Modern Analysis of Protein Folding by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Naganathan, Athi N; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Muñoz, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a very powerful tool for investigating protein folding and stability because its experimental output reflects the energetics of all conformations that become minimally populated during thermal unfolding. Accordingly, analysis of DSC experiments with simple thermodynamic models has been key for developing our understanding of protein stability during the past five decades. The discovery of ultrafast folding proteins, which have naturally broad conformational ensembles and minimally cooperative unfolding, opens the possibility of probing the complete folding free energy landscape, including those conformations at the top of the barrier to folding, via DSC. Exploiting this opportunity requires high-quality experiments and the implementation of novel analytical methods based on statistical mechanics. Here, we cover the recent exciting developments in this front, describing the new analytical procedures in detail as well as providing experimental guidelines for performing such analysis.

  19. Modern Sequential Analysis and its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay; Lai, Tze Leung

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We then show how these methods can be used to design adaptive mastery tests, which are asymptotically optimal and are also shown to provide substantial improvements over currently used sequential and fixed length tests.

  20. Chemical detection, identification, and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical detection, identification, and analysis system (CDIAS) has three major goals. The first is to display safety information regarding chemical environment before personnel entry. The second is to archive personnel exposure to the environment. Third, the system assists users in identifying the stage of a chemical process in progress and suggests safety precautions associated with that process. In addition to these major goals, the system must be sufficiently compact to provide transportability, and it must be extremely simple to use in order to keep user interaction at a minimum. The system created to meet these goals includes several pieces of hardware and the integration of four software packages. The hardware consists of a low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, explosives, and hydrogen sulfide detector; an ion mobility spectrometer for airborne vapor detection; and a COMPAQ 386/20 portable computer. The software modules are a graphics kernel, an expert system shell, a data-base management system, and an interface management system. A supervisory module developed using the interface management system coordinates the interaction of the other software components. The system determines the safety of the environment using conventional data acquisition and analysis techniques. The low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, explosives, and vapor detectors are monitored for hazardous levels, and warnings are issued accordingly

  1. Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  2. SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any

  3. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  4. Technical Analysis of a Ptolemaic Child Sarcophagus and the Identification of Ancient and Modern Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Catherine Scott

    The goals of this project are the technical analysis of a Ptolemaic child coffin lid, development of a conservation strategy, and realization of priority stabilization interventions. Early in the process of evaluation and analysis irregularities in the appearance and structure of the coffin suggested re-use of components. This thesis proposes that there are incidences of ancient and modern reuse of structural elements in this coffin lid, and substantiates this assertion through the results of a technical analysis. Non-destructive and destructive methods of analysis were used including UV induced visible fluorescence, Infrared and Visible-induced luminescence (VIL) imaging. Particle samples were investigated microscopically, and using XRF or X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, XRD or X-ray Diffraction, FTIR or Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and GC-MS or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry technologies were used for elemental and molecular analysis. Egyptology scholars, conservators, and materials scientists were consulted. The text establishes the historical context, and the use and meaning of the artifact. The object is described, the pigment analysis is presented, and prior interventions to the object are elaborated. The collective results of the technical analysis, observation and consultation are interpreted to substantiate the assertion of modern and ancient reuse. Technical analysis supports the observation that face of the deceased is inconsistent with the Ptolemaic period and that is was created in an early dynastic period and reused on this coffin in antiquity. The components of the foot-block are identified as ancient but not associated with this coffin, and 20th century adhesives and hardware are evidence that it is a modern addition. Social and economic demands in antiquity, and also in the post-excavation period of the late 19th and 20th centuries, have motivated alterations to objects of cultural and economic importance. This thesis provides

  5. Growth rates of modern science: A bibliometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Many studies in information science have looked at the growth of science. In this study, we re-examine the question of the growth of science. To do this we (i) use current data up to publication year 2012 and (ii) analyse it across all disciplines and also separately for the natural sciences and for the medical and health sciences. Furthermore, the data are analysed with an advanced statistical technique (segmented regression analysis) which can identify specific segments with similar growth rates in the history of science. The study is based on two different sets of bibliometric data: (1) The number of publications held as source items in the Web of Science (WoS, Thomson Reuters) per publication year and (2) the number of cited references in the publications of the source items per cited reference year. We have looked at the rate at which science has grown since the mid-1600s. In our analysis we identified three growth phases in the development of science, which each led to growth rates tripling in compariso...

  6. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  7. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  8. Lagrangian analysis. Modern tool of the dynamics of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnoux, J.; Chartagnac, P.; Hereil, P.; Perez, M.; Seaman, L.

    Explosive metal-working, material synthesis under shock loading, terminal ballistics, and explosive rock-blasting, are some of the civil and military fields of activity that call for a wider knowledge about the behavior of materials subjected to strong dynamic pressures. It is in these fields that Lagrangian analysis methods, the subject of this work, prove to be a useful investigative tool for the physicist. Lagrangian analysis was developed around 1970 by Fowles and Williams. The idea is based on the integration of the conservation equations of mechanics using stress or particle velocity records obtained by means of transducers placed in the path of a stress wave. In this way, all the kinematical and mechanical quantities contained in the conservation equations are obtained. In the first chapter the authors introduce the mathematical tools used to analyze plane and spherical one-dimensional motions. For plane motion, they describe the mathematical analysis methods pertinent to the three regimes of wave propagation encountered : the non-attenuating unsteady wave, the simple wave, and the attenuating unsteady wave. In each of these regimes, cases are treated for which either stress or particle velocity records are initially available. The authors insist that one or the other groups of data (stress and particle velocity) are sufficient to integrate the conservation equations in the case of the plane motion when both groups of data are necessary in the case of the spherical motion. However, in spite of this additional difficulty, Lagrangian analysis of the spherical motion remains particularly interesting for the physicist because it allows access to the behavior of the material under deformation processes other than that imposed by plane one-dimensional motion. The methods expounded in the first chapter are based on Lagrangian measurement of particle velocity and stress in relation to time in a material compressed by a plane or spherical dilatational wave. The

  9. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  10. Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Liem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

  11. Accuracy Combination Test of Classical and Modern Technical Analysis: A Case Study in Stock of PT Wijaya Karya Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustini Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to measure the accuracy and combination of Classic and Modern Technical Analysis. PT Wijaya Karya Tbk (WIKA’s stock in two periods is the sample of research. Technical analysis was used to predict stock prices by observing changes in historical share price. Practically, technical analysis is divided into Classic Technical and Modern. Research was conducted by library study and using a computer software. Microsft Excel was used for the simulation and Chart Nexus for analyzing Modern Technical Analysis. The research period started in January 1, 2013 until December 31, 2013 and January 1, 2014 until December 31, 2014. The Classic Technical Analysis used Support, Resistance, Trendline, and Flag Patern. Meanwhile for Modern Technical Analysis used Moving Average, Stochastic, Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD indicator. The Classical Technical Analysis gave less result than Modern Technical Analysis. The classical give 14 investment decisions in two periods. The average return of Classical Technical is 15,50%. Meanwhile the Modern Technical Analysis gave 18 investment decisions in two periods. The average return of Modern Technical is 18,14%. Combining Classic Technical Analysis and Modern Technical Analysis gave 20 investment decisions with the average rate of return 20,41%.

  12. Non-linear finite element assessment analysis of a modern heritage structure

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sorace; Terenzi, G

    2011-01-01

    A synthesis of a non-linear finite element structural assessment enquiry carried out on a monumental modern heritage building is reported in this paper. The study includes a buckling analysis of the slender steel beams constituting a mushroom-type roof, and an ?integral" seismic pushover analysis of the supporting R/C columns. The computational solutions obtained for the steel roof beams are compared to the results derived from a calculation of the critical stress of beam panels, and the glob...

  13. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  14. Chemical signatures of life in modern stromatolites from Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Applications for the search of life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Karina F.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Alcocer, Javier; Escobar, Elva; Morales, Pedro; Cienfuegos, Edith; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, Francois; Stalport, Fabien; Cabane, Michel; Person, Alain; McKay, Chris

    Stromatolites are one of the most important forms of fossil evidence for microbial life on early Earth (Schopf et al., 1971). They are formed when layers of microbial organisms at the shallow bottom of a lake or tide pool are periodically covered with sediment or precipitating salts (e.g. carbonate). The photosynthetic organisms that form the basis of the community must migrate through sediment toward the light in order to survive. If life emerged on Mars, it is possible that stromatolites were formed in lakes and marine lagoons. Recently the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mapping found a regional rock layer with near-infrared spectral characteristics that are consistent with the presence of magnesium carbonate in the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008). The Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby crater. It is located at 22° N, 75° E and has an elevation of 0.6 km. The carbonate-bearing rocks outcrops in the Nili Fossae region could have formed in (1) the subsurface by groundwater percolating through fractures in the ultramafic rock and altering olivine or (2) in shallow lakes from waters enriched in Mg2+ relative to other cations by percolation through ultramafic olivine-bearing rocks. In the latter scenario, it is possible that these carbonate outcrops could have been deposited in association with microbial activity. The purpose of this work is to chemically characterize a modern stromatolite by thermal volatization (TV), a method that has been widely used in past missions (Viking and Phoenix) and will also be used in future missions (Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars) in the search for life on Mars. Alchichica is a volcanic crater lake situated in an enclosed basin within the El Seco Valley at 19° 24' 13" N, 97° 24' 0" W, and 2.345 km above sea level in Mexico. It has an area of 1.81 km2 , a mean depth of 38.5 m and a maximum depth of 64 m. The lake is

  15. How to make the production of methanol/DME "GREENER"-Integration of wind power with modern coal chemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidou NI; Jian GAO; Zhen CHEN; Zheng LI

    2009-01-01

    The urgency and necessity of alternative fuels give an impetus to the development of modern coal chemical industry. Coal-based methanol/DME is the key element of this industry. Wind power, whose installed capacity increased at a rate of more than 100% in recent years, has the most developed technologies in renewable energy. However, there still exist many unsolved problems in wind power for on-grid utilization. A new integrated system which combines coal-based methanol/DME production with wind power is proposed in this paper. In this system, wind power is used to electrolyze water to produce H2 and O2. The O2 is fed to the gasifier as gasification agent. The H2 is mixed with the CO-rich gas to adjust the H2/CO to an appropriate ratio for methanol synthesis. In comparison with conventional coal-based methanol/DME system, the proposed system omits the expensive and energy-consuming ASU and greatly reduces the water gas shift process, which brings both advantages in the utilization of all raw materials and significant mitigation of CO2 emission. This system will be attractive in the regions of China which have abundant wind and coal resources.

  16. Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

  17. How caseload analysis led to the modernization of the DN service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kay

    2009-01-01

    As we move into a new century and care moves out of hospital and into the community, there is a drive to seek new models for providing nursing care to patients in their homes. Following a Caseload Analysis report, the District Nursing Modernization Project was launched in April 2004, aimed to redesign the structure and delivery of the district nursing services in South and East Belfast. The service was totally re-engineered within the existing budget and workforce. Nursing careers changed as new supporting services were developed and new job opportunities became available within the service. The structure of the services was designed on the basis of caseload analysis gathered over a number of years. Evaluation of the project indicated that the project aim and objectives had been achieved. Caseload Analysis was instrumental in establishing the need to modernize district nursing services and how this should be carried out. PMID:19363865

  18. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  19. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  20. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses

  1. Modern contaminants affecting microscopic residue analysis on stone tools: A word of caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedergnana, A; Asryan, L; Fernández-Marchena, J L; Ollé, A

    2016-07-01

    Residue analysis is a method frequently used to infer the function of stone tools and it is very often applied in combination with use-wear analysis. Beyond its undeniable potential, the method itself has several intrinsic constraints. Apart from the exceptional circumstances necessary for residues to survive, the correct identification of the residue type is a very debatable topic. Before attempting to recognise ancient residues, a proper method should allow analysts to identify possible modern contaminants and exclude them from the final interpretation. Therefore, analysts should not underestimate the presence of modern contaminants and might learn how to discriminate the background noise due to handling. The main aim of this research is to provide some methodological improvements to residue analysis through the characterisation of some modern residues often present on the surface of stone tools (e.g. skin flakes, modelling clay). This characterisation was done by using both optical light microscopy (OLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, a special care in the post-excavation treatment of stone tools is claimed in order to avoid major contamination of the samples. PMID:27113340

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  3. 浅析现代俄语语气词%Analysis of modern Russian modal word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    2013-01-01

    语气词在口语中的使用频率极高,是非常重要的辅助词之一。本文从现代俄语语气词的分类和功能两个角度,对语气词做了详细的分析。%The frequency of modal words used in spoken language is high, is one of the important auxiliary word. In this paper, from two aspects, classification and function of mood words in modern Russian, to do a detailed analysis of the mood.

  4. Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Grigalis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Literature and Critical Theory: dystopia as an analysis tool of radical modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomir Cardoso Hilário

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to argue that the literary genre known as dystopia is configured, from the perspective of critical theory of society, as an analysis tool of radical modernity. Therefore, there is a brief description of what would such a literary genre, as well as elect three dystopian works to bring proof that argument. Such works are: 1984, Orwell, Fahrenheit 451, Bradbury, and Brave New World, Huxley. Highlighting some of these characteristics, it is possible to shed light on the distinctive features of our contemporary.

  6. Diet of upper paleolithic modern humans: evidence from microwear texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zaatari, Sireen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the results of the occlusal molar microwear texture analysis of 32 adult Upper Paleolithic modern humans from a total of 21 European sites dating to marine isotope stages 3 and 2. The occlusal molar microwear textures of these specimens were analyzed with the aim of examining the effects of the climatic, as well as the cultural, changes on the diets of the Upper Paleolithic modern humans. The results of this analysis do not reveal any environmentally driven dietary shifts for the Upper Paleolithic hominins indicating that the climatic and their associated paleoecological changes did not force these humans to significantly alter their diets in order to survive. However, the microwear texture analysis does detect culturally related changes in the Upper Paleolithic humans' diets. Specifically, significant differences in diet were found between the earlier Upper Paleolithic individuals, i.e., those belonging to the Aurignacian and Gravettian contexts, and the later Magdalenian ones, such that the diet of the latter group was more varied and included more abrasive foods compared with those of the former. PMID:24449141

  7. Modern sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: Sonography for medical practitioners - more than 400 illustrations - practical section with methods of choice for suspected diagnoses - DD tables according to sonographic characteristics and criteria for differential diagnosis - (3D ultrasonic analysis, Tissue Harmonic Imaging, Power-Doppler, modern contrasting agents etc.) - specific problems (preoperative diagnosis, HIV, intervention). Apart from radiology experts, the book also addresses all medical users of ultrasonic methods

  8. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    It is already well known that there are significant differences regarding the emissions, especially particulate matter (PM) emissions, of old and modern as well as automatically and not automatically controlled biomass based residential heating systems. This concerns their magnitude as well as their chemical composition. In order to investigate emission factors for particulate emissions and the chemical compositions of the PM emissions over typical whole day operation cycles, a project on the determination and characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant small-scale biomass combustion systems was performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria, in cooperation with the Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology. The project was based on test stand measurements, during which relevant operation parameters (gaseous emissions, boiler load, flue gas temperature, combustion chamber temperature etc.) as well as PM emissions have been measured and PM samples have been taken and forwarded to chemical analyses. Firstly, typical whole day operation cycles for residential biomass combustion systems were specified for the test runs. Thereby automatically fed and automatically controlled boilers, manually fed and automatically controlled boilers as well as manually fed stoves were distinguished. The results show a clear correlation between the gaseous emissions (CO and OGC) and the PM{sub 1} emissions. It is indicated that modern biomass combustion systems emit significantly less gaseous and PM emissions than older technologies (up to a factor of 100). Moreover, automatically fed systems emit much less gaseous and PM emissions than manually fed batch-combustion systems. PM emissions from modern and automatically controlled systems mainly consist of alkaline metal salts, while organic aerosols and soot dominate the composition of aerosols from old and not automatically controlled systems. As an important result comprehensive data

  9. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brügmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.

    Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %. Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 % across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl

  10. Improving resolution and depth of astronomical observations via modern mathematical methods for image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Pilo, Stefano; Falcone, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    In the past years modern mathematical methods for image analysis have led to a revolution in many fields, from computer vision to scientific imaging. However, some recently developed image processing techniques successfully exploited by other sectors have been rarely, if ever, experimented on astronomical observations. We present here tests of two classes of variational image enhancement techniques: "structure-texture decomposition" and "super-resolution" showing that they are effective in improving the quality of observations. Structure-texture decomposition allows to recover faint sources previously hidden by the background noise, effectively increasing the depth of available observations. Super-resolution yields an higher-resolution and a better sampled image out of a set of low resolution frames, thus mitigating problematics in data analysis arising from the difference in resolution/sampling between different instruments, as in the case of EUCLID VIS and NIR imagers.

  11. Modern Dance in a Postmodern World: An Analysis of Federal Arts Funding and Its Impact on the Field of Modern Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Jan

    This book om the interrelationship of economics and aesthetics from the perspective of modern dance includes a preface and six chapters. Chapter 1, "The Modern Dance Point of View," presents a history of modern dance from 1915 to the 1980s. Chapter 2, "The National Endowment for the Arts and Its Impact on Modern Dance," consists of a review of…

  12. Chemical Diversity, Origin, and Analysis of Phycotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Andersen, Aaron John Christian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted;

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae, particularly those from the lineage Dinoflagellata, are very well-known for their ability to produce phycotoxins that may accumulate in the marine food chain and eventually cause poisoning in humans. This includes toxins accumulating in shellfish, such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid......, yessotoxins, azaspiracids, brevetoxins, and pinnatoxins. Other toxins, such as ciguatoxins and maitotoxins, accumulate in fish, where, as is the case for the latter compounds, they can be metabolized to even more toxic metabolites. On the other hand, much less is known about the chemical nature of compounds...... complex natural compounds known to mankind, with chemical structures that show no resemblance to what has been characterized from plants, fungi, or bacteria. In addition, it will summarize algal species known to be related to fish-killing blooms, but from which ichthyotoxins are yet to be characterized....

  13. From Modernity to Post-Modernity: Conflicting Voices in Literary Discourse – A Corpus Analysis of You and One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa Alcina Maria Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possibilities of a corpus analysis applied to literary study and interpretation. It is thus its goal to present some findings related to the disambiguation of some pronominal references, i.e. you and one, as they occur in speech and thought presentation in prose fiction, across periods in the 20th century. The texts selected are two of Virginia Woolf's novels (early and late modernist period and one by Hugo Hamilton (in the postmodern era. The analysis benefits from a multi-layered interpretive framework drawing on discourse analysis, corpus-based approaches and literary study, particularly in that it unpacks ways in which writers make use of linguistic structures. These involve readers in a dialogic interpretation of the text's “polyphony” and “heteroglossia”, either conveying the generic pronoun reference or the protagonist's inner voice.

  14. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  15. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities.

  16. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature.

  17. China's economic, environmental and social development in crossfire : province-specific analysis of China's ecological modernization and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Häyhä, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Häyhä, Laura. China’s Economic, Environmental and Social Development in Crossfire – Province-specific Analysis of China’s Ecological Modernization and Sustainability. Master thesis. Autumn 2014. Supervisor: Pertti Jokivuori. Sociology. University of Jyväskylä. Pages 89 + 1 appendix. This study concentrated to examine ecological modernization process and sustainability of Chinese provinces. The examination focused on the differences between the westernmost and the easternmos...

  18. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject...

  19. EDXRF for non-destructive chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels and also precious metals analysis. (Author)

  20. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households. Economic and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders. (author)

  1. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, B. Sudhakara, E-mail: sreddy@igidr.ac.i [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Balachandra, P. [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

  2. Tribology analysis of chemical-mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runnels, S.R.; Eyman, L.M. (Sematech, Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-06-01

    To better understand the variation of material removal rate on a wafer during chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), knowledge of the stress distribution on the wafer surface is required. The difference in wafer-surface stress distributions could be considerable depending on whether or not the wafer hydroplanes during polishing. This study analyzes the fluid film between the wafer and pad and demonstrates that hydroplaning is possible for standard CMP processes. The importance of wafer curvature, slurry viscosity, and rotation speed on the thickness of the fluid film is also demonstrated.

  3. PREFACE: Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis 2012 (MPSVA 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2012-08-01

    This is the second time that the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conference has come to the University of Glasgow and it is with great pleasure that I write this preface for the event in 2012. The remit of the Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis conferences is relatively broad and encompasses scientific and technological research in stress analysis, the mechanics of materials, applied dynamics, metrology and instrumentation, system identification, structural health monitoring, nondestructive evaluation, and vibration theory and analysis. Within these relatively traditional subject areas we also see burgeoning new themes emerging, in which new manufacturing technologies, energy harvesting, micro and nano-mechanic applications, biomechanics, and advanced modelling feature very strongly. The conference converges around six keynote addresses over the three days, each one being linked to a central theme for the conference. The first day opens on the morning of Wednesday 29 August 2012 with an address by Professor Walter Lacarbonara of the University of Rome on 'Nonlinear dynamics enabled design and control', in which ideas taken from nonlinear dynamics and once considered to be highly specialised are now informing the design and control of mechanical systems. This is followed by an afternoon address by Professor James R Barber of the University of Michigan on the topic of 'Frictional systems under periodic load - History-dependence, non-uniqueness, and energy dissipation', where fundamental mechanical issues are considered in the performance of loaded mechanical systems in which complicated friction mechanisms play an important role. The second day begins with a morning lecture by Professor Fabrice Pierron of Paris Tech entitled 'A novel photomechanical approach to dynamic testing of materials', and covering the testing of materials, an important theme which has long been central to this conference series. This is followed by the British

  4. Chemical equilibrium analysis of dry hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is based on a thermo-chemical equilibrium model for studying the effect of combustion of hydrogen during postulated accident scenarios in nuclear reactor containments. This model is based on the method of element potentials which seeks to minimize the free energy of the system. The condition on internal energy balance is imposed as a constraint during the minimization process. Another simplified model purely based on the internal energy balance has also been implemented to investigate the isolated impact of free energy and the conditions under which it becomes dominant. The two models have been used to extract final pressures for a wide range of initial conditions and mixture compositions that are typically found during accident scenarios. In the absence of hydrogen combustion experimental data, such models will become important for laying down a first estimate on the possible outcomes. (author)

  5. Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  6. Symbolic Nodal Analysis of Analog Circuits with Modern Multiport Functional Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sanchez-Lopez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes admittance matrix models to approach the behavior of six modern multiport functional blocks called: differential difference amplifier, differential difference operational floating amplifier, differential difference operational mirror amplifier, differential difference current conveyor, current backward transconductance amplifier and current differencing transconductance amplifier. The novelty is that the behavior of any active device mentioned before can immediately be introduced in the nodal admittance matrix by using the proposed admittance matrix models and without requiring the use of extra variables. Therefore, a standard nodal analysis is applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal performance parameters of analog circuits containing any active device mentioned above. This means that not only the size of the admittance matrix is smaller than those generated by applying modified nodal analysis method, for instance, but also, the number of nonzero elements and the generations of cancellation-terms are both reduced. An analysis example for each amplifier is provided in order to show the useful of the proposed stamps.

  7. Modernization and Islamist Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Meierrieks, Daniel; Krieger, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This contribution studies the impact of modernization on the onset of Islamist conflict. To capture the multi-dimensional phenomenon of modernization, we create a unique modernization index. Our empirical analysis for 154 countries for the 1971-2006 period provides robust evidence that modernization rather than economic underdevelopment or a lack of democracy increases the likelihood of the onset of Islamist conflict. This relationship especially matters to Islamist groups that aim at a regim...

  8. Comparison between Modern Violin Bridge and Baroque Violin Bridge by Photoelastic Observation and Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2004-05-01

    A comparison between the modern bridge and the baroque bridge of the violin by photoelastic observation was carried out. The relationship between the stress part and the hole is symmetric in the modern and baroque bridges. The measured spectral envelopes of baroque bridges are similar to those of modern bridges in D- or G-strings, and have peaks at a frequency higher than those of modern bridges in E-string. The visualization method as used in this study may provide hints for the design of violin bridges.

  9. Literature analysis on Harry Potter series under the perspective of post-modernism%Literature analysis on Harry Potter series under the perspective of post-modernism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪莉

    2011-01-01

    Harry Potter series books are not only the children's books that show clear good and evil forces and heroism, but also carrying strong postmodern features. This paper is to analyze the feature of post-modernism in Harry Potter series in terms of magical realism, postmodern feminism and pluralism and so on for the purpose of offering a different perspective of studying the books.

  10. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hexemer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS, new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  11. Modern design and safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new safety analysis of the University of Florida Training Reactor is presented. • This analysis uses modern codes and replaces the NRC approved analysis from 1982. • Reduction in engineering margin confirms that the UFTR is a negligible risk reactor. • Safety systems are not required to ensure that safety limits are not breached. • Negligible risk reactors are ideal for testing digital I&C equipment. - Abstract: A comprehensive series of neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses were conducted to demonstrate the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR), an ARGONAUT type research reactor, as a negligible risk reactor that does not require safety-related systems or components to prevent breach of a safety limit. These analyses show that there is no credible UFTR accident that would result in major fuel damage or risk to public health and safety. The analysis was based on two limiting scenarios, whose extremity bound all other accidents of consequence: (1) the large step insertion of positive reactivity and (2) the release of fission products due to mechanical damage to a spent fuel plate. The maximum step insertion of positive reactivity was modeled using PARET/ANL software and shows a maximum peak fuel temperature of 283.2 °C, which is significantly below the failure limit of 530 °C. The exposure to the staff and general public was calculated for the worst-case fission product release scenario using the ORIGEN-S and COMPLY codes and was shown to be 6.5% of the annual limit. Impacts on reactor operations and an Instrumentation & Control System (I&C) upgrade are discussed

  12. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals. PMID:14762640

  13. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

  14. Modernity and Empire: A Modest Analysis of Early Colonial Writing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    During colonial times, various British Indian educational institutions and practices, including writing pedagogies at these institutions, introduced modernity to British India. This essay explains the manner in which some students internalized modernity and in their writings used modernist beliefs and premises to critique some precolonial Indian…

  15. Analysis of modern state of radiation purification technologies of water polluted with oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: this work the modern state of methods and technologies on radiation purification of waste and sea water polluted with oil products is analyzed. Technologies based on ultraviolet (UV), electroplasma, magnet and radiation purification are considered. It is shown, that radionuclide - installations have following advantages: 1) for operational personal the specific qualification is not required and personnel quantity may be reduced to minimum (2-3 person for equipment); 2) high penetrability of - radiation; 3) low dose rate = 10 Gy/s (10 Vt/kg). These technologies have also significance economic, ecologic, and other advantages versus to existing traditional methods. It is also shown, that among radiation purification methods of waste and sea water electron-beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: to decrease the concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits. It is also shown that among of technologies of radiation purification of waste and sea water an electron -beam treatment has specific actuality. It allows: a) to decrease concentration of harmful ingredients down to limits acceptable purification system; b) to increase of clarity of water by removing of color matters; c) to produce purification without using of additional ingredients. The technology of application of frequency high-current electron beams for purification and disinfection of water also is considered. The advantages of this technology are : simultaneous action on all water parameters; absence of consumed materials; multiple-factor action on all chemical impurities; affection of microorganisms of all types; flexibility and simplicity of operation of purification degree by increasing/decreasing of dose rateIn present work it is also shown that one of perspective directions of radiation purification is interfacial action of radiation and heat. The radiation-thermal method of purification of water from heptanes is considered. It is shown, that at absorbed dose of 2-3 kGy, at a

  16. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Sellström

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

  17. Terahertz Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath - Broad Essay of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Daniela R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 3000 chemicals are thought to be present in human breath. Of these chemicals, many are considered typical of exhaled air. Yet, others can allude to different disease pathologies. The detection of chemicals in breath could have many practical purposes in medicine and provide a noninvasive means of diagnostics. We have previously reported on detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in exhaled human breath using a novel sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopic approach. This paper reports on our most recent study. A tentative list has been made of approximately 20 chemicals previously found in breath using other methods. Though many of these chemicals are only expressed in samples from donors with certain pathologies, at the time of this submission we are able to detect and quantitatively measure acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide in the breath of several healthy donors. Additional tentatively identified chemicals have been seen using this approach. This presentation will explain our experimental procedures and present our most recent results in THz breath analysis. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed.

  18. A review of chemical gradient systems for cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaweera, Himali; Ibraguimov, Akif; Pappas, Dimitri

    2016-02-11

    Microfluidic spatial and temporal gradient generators have played an important role in many biological assays such as in the analysis of wound healing, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. Chemical gradient systems can also be applied to other fields such as drug design, chemical synthesis, chemotaxis, etc. Microfluidic systems are particularly amenable to gradient formation, as the length scales used in chips enable fluid processes that cannot be conducted in bulk scale. In this review we discuss new microfluidic devices for gradient generation and applications of those systems in cell analysis.

  19. 现代新型煤化工工程建设项目管理模式探讨%Discussion of project management pattern of modern new coal chemical engineering construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武祥东

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the strengths and weeknesses of the traditional self-supporting management mode, international PMC and IPMT pattern, the speciality of the modern new coal chemical engineering construction and the fact of China Coal Group' s coal chemical engineering construction, the effective management mode for China Coal Group' s coal chemical engineering contruction is dicussed and a proposal for project management is suggested.%笔者分析了传统的自营管理模式、国际PMC(project management contractor,项目管理承包商)模式和IPMT( integrated project management team,联合管理团队)模式3种现行项目管理模式的优缺点,结合现代新型煤化工项目建设特点和建设业主的实际,探讨了现代煤化工项目建设的有效管理模式,提出了项目管理建议.

  20. Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...

  1. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  2. Analysis of carbon isotope in phytoliths from C3 and C4 plants and modern soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of carbon isotope in phytoliths from modern plants and surface soils in China shows that the values of carbon isotope are consistent with those from C3 and C4 plants,and the processes of photosynthesis of the original plants can be clearly identified by carbon isotope in phytoliths.The value of carbon isotope varied from -23.8‰ to -28‰,with the maximum distributed in the latitude zone from 34° N to 40° N in North China and East China areas,and the minimum in the Northeast China and South China regions.The values of carbon of phytoliths tend to increase from low to high and then reduce to low value again as the latitude increases.In the same latitude zone,the carbon isotope in phytoliths from grassland soil under the trees is obviously lower than that from grassland soil without any trees with the difference of 1‰-2‰.

  3. Application programming interface document for the modernized Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-M)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaffy, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Boyack, B.E.; Steinke, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this document is to ease the task of adding new system components to the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) or altering old ones. Sufficient information is provided to permit replacement or modification of physical models and correlations. Within TRAC, information is passed at two levels. At the upper level, information is passed by system-wide and component-specific data modules at and above the level of component subroutines. At the lower level, information is passed through a combination of module-based data structures and argument lists. This document describes the basic mechanics involved in the flow of information within the code. The discussion of interfaces in the body of this document has been kept to a general level to highlight key considerations. The appendices cover instructions for obtaining a detailed list of variables used to communicate in each subprogram, definitions and locations of key variables, and proposed improvements to intercomponent interfaces that are not available in the first level of code modernization.

  4. CFD Sensitivity Analysis of a Modern Civil Transport Near Buffet-Onset Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Allison, Dennis O.; Biedron, Robert T.; Buning, Pieter G.; Gainer, Thomas G.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Rivers, S. Melissa; Mysko, Stephen J.; Witkowski, David P.

    2001-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sensitivity analysis is conducted for a modern civil transport at several conditions ranging from mostly attached flow to flow with substantial separation. Two different Navier-Stokes computer codes and four different turbulence models are utilized, and results are compared both to wind tunnel data at flight Reynolds number and flight data. In-depth CFD sensitivities to grid, code, spatial differencing method, aeroelastic shape, and turbulence model are described for conditions near buffet onset (a condition at which significant separation exists). In summary, given a grid of sufficient density for a given aeroelastic wing shape, the combined approximate error band in CFD at conditions near buffet onset due to code, spatial differencing method, and turbulence model is: 6% in lift, 7% in drag, and 16% in moment. The biggest two contributers to this uncertainty are turbulence model and code. Computed results agree well with wind tunnel surface pressure measurements both for an overspeed 'cruise' case as well as a case with small trailing edge separation. At and beyond buffet onset, computed results agree well over the inner half of the wing, but shock location is predicted too far aft at some of the outboard stations. Lift, drag, and moment curves are predicted in good agreement with experimental results from the wind tunnel.

  5. An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Robustly Redesigned Modern Aero-Engine Fan

    CERN Document Server

    Seshadri, Pranay; Shahpar, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents results from a recent computational study aimed at de-sensitizing fan stage aerodynamics---in a modern, high bypass ratio aero-engine---to the effects of rear-seal leakage flows. These flows are the result of seal erosion between a rotor and stator disk in an engine, and deterioration over the life of an engine. The density-matching technique for optimization under uncertainty was applied to this problem. This involved RANS and adjoint flow solves of a full fan stage carried out at two different leakage conditions. Here a detailed analysis of the fan stage aerodynamics is carried out to determine why exactly the new design is more insensitive to the effects of leakage flows. Specifically, it is shown that this insensitivity is attributed to three main factors: a slight rearward shift in loading, and thus a reduction in incidence; a reduction in the cross-passage pressure gradient; and a re-acceleration of the flow towards the trailing edge, which prevented any corner separation.

  6. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysismodern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata eGutarowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Oświęcim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and 9 fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of

  7. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis-modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Bonifay, Vincent; Otlewska, Anna; Aydin, Egemen; Oldham, Athenia L; Brauer, Jonathan I; Duncan, Kathleen E; Adamiak, Justyna; Sunner, Jan A; Beech, Iwona B

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in Oświecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities

  8. Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple p

  9. Shotgun lipidomic analysis of chemically sulfated sterols compromises analytical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casanovas, Albert; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard;

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) for identification and quantification of lipid species [6]. Shotgun lipidomics affords extensive lipidome coverage by combining the analysis of lipid extracts in positive and negative ion mode [1, 3]. Notably, sterols such as cholesterol and ergosterol exhibit...... low ionization efficiency in ESI [7]. For this reason, chemical derivatization procedures including acetylation [8] or sulfation [9] are commonly implemented to facilitate ionization, detection and quantification of sterols for global lipidome analysis [1-3, 10]....

  10. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  11. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential. PMID:23810322

  12. The analysis on Development of modern service industry and personnel needs in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀红斌

    2015-01-01

    As a modern service industry with advanced technological capabilities to enhance the guidance of the industry, its strong development capacity, the majority of prospects, has become a focal point of our economy and raise the level of new momentum.Especially in Suzhou, favorable geographical location and advanced development conditions for the planning and development of modern service industry provides a reasonable market background and ability to support the development of the firm.

  13. LOOKING OUT CLASICAL TURKISH POEM ACCORDING TO MODERN ANALYSIS METHODS / DİVAN ŞİİRİ'NE MODERN METİN ÇÖZÜMLEME YÖNTEMLERİNDEN BAKMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dursun Ali TÖKEL

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature has a characteristic of following the changes of investigations and technology. The great literal changes ın 19th century, effected deeply literature studies. After Saussure, the view of the Occident on language and literature changed. This view changed not only structuralism but also linguistic studies, perceiving and utilizing the linguistic existence. In modern terms, all scientific toughts as modernism, structuralism, post-modernism, seemeiology, semantics bring up new points of view to literary texts. The last quarter of 20th century has been the term of understanding Classical Ottoman Poems not only with the view of traditional commentary methods but also modern analysis methods. This paper gives the panorama of all these analysis, methods of Classical Ottoman Poems.

  14. Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatičanin Biljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of -hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

  15. Near-field Optical Imagigng and Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, La Rosa

    1998-03-01

    Identification of molecular structures in complex mixtures represents a major challenge in chemical research today. Microfabricated devices or lab-on-a-chip that perform chemical analysis allows dynamic sampling of picoliter microenvironments and separation. The long-term goals of nanochemistry down to the femtoliter scale involve refinement of the detection limit to single-molecule. Our approach consists in designing a very sensitive near-field optical microscope (NSOM-SIAM) to explore the mesoscopic properties of organic compounds. The validity, sensitivity and unique spatial resolution of this system will be discussed for multiple analyte chemosensing.

  16. An Extended Algorithm of Flexibility Analysis in Chemical Engineering Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An extended algorithm of flexibility analysis with a local adjusting method for flexibility region of chemical processes, which is based on the active constraint strategy, is proposed, which fully exploits the flexibility region of the process system operation. The hyperrectangular flexibility region determined by the extended algorithm is larger than that calculated by the previous algorithms. The limitation of the proposed algorithm due to imperfect convexity and its corresponding verification measure are also discussed. Both numerical and actual chemical process examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  17. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H. [Keppel Seghers, Center of Excellence, Hoofd 1, B-2830 Willebroek (Belgium); Van Caneghem, J., E-mail: jo.vancaneghem@cit.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Group T Leuven Engineering College, Association of the University of Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 13, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  18. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  19. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulieu-Barton, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The proceedings contain the papers presented at the 7th International Conference on Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis. The collection of papers represents the range of activities that are carried out to understand the functionality of engineering systems and structures through stress/strain based evaluation and dynamic response. The scope is broad and covers theoretical studies, modelling and experimental evaluations. Many of the papers cover integration techniques and approaches to better understanding of system performance and failure. All of the papers have been peer reviewed by at least two experts and represent the state of the art of research in this area. The conference is the seventh in the series, following on from previous conferences in Bath, Glasgow, Nottingham, Dublin, Sheffield and Liverpool. Although based in the British Isles the conference has a truly international flavour with offerings from 22 countries. The conference is organised by the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group (formerly the Stress and Vibration Group). It incorporates activities associated with the British Society for Strain Measurement including the Measurements Lecture, the EMex Exhibition and the Young Stress Analyst Competition. The organising committee is grateful for the support of all of the authors, the scientific committee and keynote speakers who played a significant role in the review process, to John Edwards who was instrumental in managing the paper review and submission process, Dawn Stewart and Claire Garland of the Institute of Physics for organising the conference, social programme and registration and Biana Gale of the British Society for Strain Measurement for organising the Exhibition. The organising committee is also grateful to the sponsors of the conference for their kind support and to the co-sponsors for distributing information on the conference. Professor Janice M Dulieu-Barton Professor of Experimental Mechanics University of

  20. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A

  1. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral

  2. Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P2O5:SiO2, B2O3:SiO2, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO2 films

  3. A Brief Analysis on the Way to Promote Modern Logistic Operations of Railway Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zengtang

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to the "Twelfth Five-year Plan of the Economic and Social Development of Sui Fenhe City", the modern logistics industry has been given great priority.To put it more specially, the development of modern logistics industry should be based on the port strategy, and with the aid of tax-free zone, the Sino-Russian Trans-border co operation zone and land- ocean joint transportation.Therefore, during the "twelfth five-year plan" period, our company should understand how to grasp the opportunity, and establish a management model featuring integrated supply chain, to make it play a more important role to the company's rapid developments.

  4. Algorithmic and Statistical Challenges in Modern Large-Scale Data Analysis are the Focus of MMDS 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, Michael W; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Workshop on Algorithms for Modern Massive Data Sets (MMDS 2008), sponsored by the NSF, DARPA, LinkedIn, and Yahoo!, was held at Stanford University, June 25--28. The goals of MMDS 2008 were (1) to explore novel techniques for modeling and analyzing massive, high-dimensional, and nonlinearly-structured scientific and internet data sets; and (2) to bring together computer scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and data analysis practitioners to promote cross-fertilization of ideas.

  5. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  6. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  7. Brief Analysis of the Utitity Vatue of Chinese Folk Vest in Modern Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Huie; Gao Mengchu; Gu Qiyi

    2011-01-01

    This paper, taking the modern folk vest of our country since the late Qing period as an example, addresses the practical value, applicable value and using value of vest dress. And it points out the significance and developing trends of the vest's construction research.

  8. The figure of the consumer in modernity: A Simmelian analysis of marketing business strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlechter, Diego

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the links between two conceptions of "the consumer" in modernity: one in Georg Simmel's classic book “Philosophy of money", and the other implicit in the marketing strategies of modern companies. In modernity, the division of labour, and social differentiation, have produced a general sense of intellectualization, in which objective culture and cultural products have acquired their own life, independently of their creators, who are more and more anonymous. This process makes possible a detachment of the subject from things. Money or, in Simmel's terms, the monetary economy, unifies all products through an abstract value. These products are converted from ends in themselves into means to other ends. This provides for two divergent paths forward, which reflect the ambivalent character of modernity: on the one hand, the subject can develop a hyper- developed appreciation of the world, achieving independence from the immediate necessities of life and developing an aesthetic sensitivity towards objective culture. But, on the other hand, the proliferation of consumption, and its penetration into almost all facets of life, can undermine and alienate even the most intimate space that the subject might try to keep private.

  9. Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio;

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use ...... allows for a series of potential applications in paleogenomics, comparative genomics and metagenomics. Applying the PALEOMIX pipeline to the three ancient and seven modern Phytophthora infestans genomes as described here takes 5 d using a 16-core server.......Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use...... a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics.ku.dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, which largely automates the in silico analyses behind whole-genome resequencing. Starting with next...

  10. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and

  11. Chemical variation from biolipids to sedimentary organic matter in modern oceans and its implication to the geobiological evaluation of ancient hydrocarbon source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongmei; MA Xiangru; LIU Deng; YANG Xiaofen; LI Jihong

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of organic matter in modern marine Water columns greatly favors the geobiologcal evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks.Biolipids could make great contribution to petroleum hydrocarbons due to their comparable chemical components and the slightly refractory characteristics of biolipids during the microbial/thermal degradation.A variety of environmental factors such as temperature.CO2 and salinity could affect the biochemical contents in microorganisms.As a result,microorganisms living in a changing environmental condition might have a difierent contribution to the petroleum formation.Organic carbon flux is shown to bear a positive correlation with the primary productivity only within a certain range of biomass volumes in a specific biohabitat.Furthermore,organic matter is degraded much quickly in a water column with oxic conditions.Therefore,the anoxic condition,along with the enhanced biological productivity,would be one of the significant factors in the formation of high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks.The formation of biofilms and microbial mats favors the preservation of sedimentary organic matter by decreasing the degradation rate of organic matter.Identification of biofilms and microbial mats in sedimentary rocks will thus greatly help to understand the depositional processes of organic matter finally preserved in hydrocarbon source rocks.

  12. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1)

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connell, Julia E; Frinchaboy, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    We present elemental abundances for all seven stars in Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) to determine if they may be chemically related. These stars appear to be both spatially and kinematically related, but no spectroscopic abundance analysis exists in literature. Abundances for eight elements were derived via equivalent width analyses of high resolution (R $\\sim$60,000), high signal-to-noise ratio ($\\langle$SNR$\\rangle\\sim$100) spectra obtained with the Otto Struve 2.1m telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The large star-to-star scatter in metallicity, -0.55 $\\leq$ [Fe/H] $\\leq$ 0.06 dex ($\\sigma$= 0.25), implies these stars were not produced from the same chemically homogeneous molecular cloud, and are therefore not part of a remnant or open cluster as previously proposed. Prior to this analysis, it was suggested that two stars in the group, W11449 & W11450, are possible wide binaries. The candidate wide binary pair show similar chemical abundance patterns with not only ir...

  13. Proximate analysis, backwards stepwise regression between gross calorific value, ultimate and chemical analysis of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmo, C; Lousada, J; Moreira, N

    2010-06-01

    The gross calorific value (GCV), proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis of debark wood in Portugal were studied, for future utilization in wood pellets industry and the results compared with CEN/TS 14961. The relationship between GCV, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined by multiple regression stepwise backward. The treatment between hardwoods-softwoods did not result in significant statistical differences for proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis. Significant statistical differences were found in carbon for National (hardwoods-softwoods) and (National-tropical) hardwoods in volatile matter, fixed carbon, carbon and oxygen and also for chemical analysis in National (hardwoods-softwoods) for F and (National-tropical) hardwoods for Br. GCV was highly positively related to C (0.79 * * *) and negatively to O (-0.71 * * *). The final independent variables of the model were (C, O, S, Zn, Ni, Br) with R(2)=0.86; F=27.68 * * *. The hydrogen did not contribute statistically to the energy content.

  14. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Ding; Wen Zhang; Xiaofeng Hu; Qi Zhang; Peiwu Li; Zhaowei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail....

  15. On Business Model for Industrial Application of Technology in Modern Coal Chemical Industry%现代煤化工技术产业化业务模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯大任; 方斌

    2013-01-01

      以现代煤化工产业为例,探讨如何通过不同的业务模式,将技术转化为可以投入工业化使用,并带来经济利润和社会效益的技术产品,或者工艺创新的现实生产力。分析认为,结合我国现阶段技术产业化现状,通过与全球知名跨国公司联手,建立中外合资企业,对加速国内煤化工技术产业化,推动我国煤化工产业升级,增强企业知识产权保护意识,创新管理理念具有重要的战略意义。%This paper discusses how to transform technology into technical products that can be put into use in industry with economic and social benefit, or actual productivity on process innovation through different business model, taking modern coal chemical industry for example. The analysis indicates that the establishing of sino-foreign joint venture with well-known global transnational corporation, considering the current situation of industrial application of technology at home, has significant strategic meaning to several aspects, for example: to speed up industrial application of technology on coal chemical industry at home, to implement the upgrade of coal chemical industry, to enhance protective consciousness and innovation management.

  16. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

    2012-06-01

    Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

  17. Geometric Morphometric Study and Cluster Analysis of Late Byzantine and Modern Human Crania

    OpenAIRE

    Turan Ozdemir, Senem; Ercan, Ilker; Ozkaya, Guven; Simsek Cankur, N.; Selim Erdal, Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    Inter-population variation of cranial morphology, which plays an important role in human evolution studies and biological research, can be studied morphologically and metrically. Geometric morphometry compares body forms using specific landmarks determined by anatomical prominences. The aim of this study was to identify cranial shape differences between the crania of Byzantium period humans and modern humans. Variability in cranial shape was examined using the geometric morphometric technique...

  18. Analysis of modernization of tire recycling machine for improvement of environmental sustainability and feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Samarskiy, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The main idea of this thesis is twofold: first of all to develop utilization processes for used tires and, second, to study and explain the serious ecological problems in the tire recycling and waste utilization sector in Russia. This thesis was commissioned by a recycling firm called Istra Ecologia Company. The thesis presents improvements in a tire recycling machine owned by this company. The owner of the plant has developed a modernized version of the system, and seems to have solved som...

  19. Chemical Bond Analysis of Single Crystal Growth of Magnesium Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the crystallographic structure of magnesium oxide (MgO), both the chemical bond model of solids and Pauling's third rule (polyhedral sharing rule) were employed to quantitatively analyze the chemical bonding structure of constituent atoms and single crystal growth. Our analytical results show that MgO single crystals prefer to grow along the direction and the growth rate of the {100} plane is the slowest one. Therefore, the results show that the {100} plane of MgO crystals can be the ultimate morphology face, which is in a good agreement with our previous experimental results. The study indicate that the structure analysis is an effective tool to control the single-crystal growth.

  20. Analysis of chemical composition of high viscous oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Germanovna Yashchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of viscous oils which are considered as an important reserve for oil-production in future were studied on base of information from global database on oil physical and chemical properties. Changes in chemical composition of viscous oils in different basins and continents were analyzed as well. It is shown, on average, viscous oils are sulfur-bearing, low paraffin, highly resinous oils with an average content of asphaltenes and low content of the fraction boiling at 200 C. Study results of viscous oils peculiarities of Canada, Russia and Venezuela are given. The analysis results can be used to determine the optimal layouts and conditions of oil transportation, to improve the search methods of geochemical exploration, and to solve other problems in the oil chemistry.

  1. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  2. Probabilistic Approach to Risk Analysis of Chemical Spills at Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magda Bogalecka; Krzysztof Kolowrocki

    2006-01-01

    Risk analysis of chemical spills at sea and their consequences for sea environment are discussed. Mutual interactions between the process of the sea accident initiating events, the process of the sea environment threats, and the process of the sea environment degradation are investigated. To describe these three particular processes, the separate semi-Markov models are built. Furthermore, these models are jointed into one general model of these processes interactions.Moreover, some comments on the method for statistical identification of the considered models are proposed.

  3. Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

  4. Crystal-Chemical Analysis of Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N.; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analysis on Martian soil [1] at Rocknest in Gale Crater. In particular, crystalline phases from scoop 5 were identified and analyzed with the Rietveld method [2]. Refined unit-cell parameters are reported in Table 1. Comparing these unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical composition of the crystalline phases. For instance, Fig. 1 shows the Mg-content of Fa-Fo olivine as a function of the b unit-cell parameter using literature data. Our refined b parameter is indicated by the black triangle.

  5. Kinematic analysis of modern dance movement “stag jump” within the context of impact loads, injury to the locomotor system and its prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Gorwa, Joanna; Dworak, Lechosław B.; Michnik, Robert; Jurkojć, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper presents a case study of kinematic analysis of the modern dance movement known as the “stag jump”. Detailed analysis of the kinematic structure of this movement as performed by the dancers, accompanied by measurements of impact forces during landing, will allow the authors to determine, in subsequent model-based research phases, the forces acting in knee joints of the lower landing limb. Material/Methods Two professional modern dancers participated in the study: a male a...

  6. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF “NERIUM OLEANDER” LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhmili Siham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic products of medicinal plants have a great pharmacological interest. This product gives the powers of medicinal plants. They are the source of several active principles widely used in modern medicine. The use of Nerium oleander in Moroccan traditional medicine is very common. Few studies have focused on the chemical analysis and phenolic compounds of this plant. For this, we investigated the mineral composition and phenolic combination of the leaves oleander and the study of the antioxidant activity. The mineral analysis shows a very high level of potassium and protein. The biochemical studies revealed a very high quantity of polyphenols in the leaves. Thus, the HPLC analysis of the phenolic fraction shows great variability of substances. The cinnamic acid is the majors compounds identified in the phenolic fraction. The other compounds identified are catechin, epicatechine, chlorogenic acid. This present study which is made for the first time showed a very important antioxidant effect, the value of IC50 (The half maximal inhibitory concentration of DPPH is 0,43 mg mL-1 for the phenolic fraction. On the other hand, the antioxydant activity of the organic extract, the methanolique fraction, n-butanolique fraction and the decoction, has a percentage of inhibition of DPPH over than 90% at a concentration of µg/mL. IC50% values are respectively 0,005 mg mL-1; 0,018 mg mL-1 and 0,005 mg mL-1.

  7. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Centeno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU, tungsten (W, lead (Pb, and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and confocal laser Raman

  8. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José A.; Rogers, Duane A.; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; Fornero, Elisa; Zhang, Lingsu; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Potter, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD) directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU), tungsten (W), lead (Pb), and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and confocal laser Raman

  9. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  10. Statistical sampling and chemical analysis of complex weapon components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the waste streams generated by nuclear weapon dismantlement programs will be component ''hardware'', including complex electronic assemblies such as: radars, arming/fusing/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been the design and development laboratory for many of these components and will be responsible for their ultimate disposition. This disposition, whether it be reuse, material recycle, or disposal, will require some level of material characterization and analysis. Previous efforts at developing a process for segregation and characterization of hazardous materials in weapon components have been documented. This paper describes the results of recent activities undertaken in support of the Weapon Hardware Inventory Reduction Effort (WHIRE) at Sandia National Laboratories. These activities have been directed principally towards: The development of a statistically sound sampling plan for chemical analysis of weapon component materials; the development of a non-destructive analytical screening method for determining the Toxicity Characteristic of excess weapon hardware

  11. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include plan...... of the dye Bromothymol Blue. The influence of three different bonding procedures on the spectrally resolved propagation loss of the integrated waveguides between 500 nm and 900 nm was furthermore determined.......A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar...... waveguides and fiber-to-waveguide coupler structures, are defined in the same processing step. This results in self-alignment of all components and enables a fabrication and packaging time of only one day. The fabrication scheme has recently been presented elsewhere for fluorescence excitation of beads...

  13. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  14. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has completed 27 years of data) soon to be caught up to present. Here) we present an evaluation of those years currently available) including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40) JRA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems, but that the magnitude of energy imbalance in the system is improved with more observations. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

  16. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  17. Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1H-NMR and 13C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H2O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF)

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Osteosarcoma Outcomes in the Modern Medical Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four decades ago, specialized chemotherapy regimens turned osteosarcoma, once considered a uniformly fatal disease, into a disease in which a majority of patients survive. Though significant survival gains were made from the 1960s to the 1980s, further outcome improvements appear to have plateaued. This study aims to comprehensively review all significant, published data regarding osteosarcoma and outcome in the modern medical era in order to gauge treatment progress. Our results indicate that published survival improved dramatically from 1960s to 1980s and then leveled, or in some measures decreased. Recurrence rates decreased in the 1970s and then leveled. In contrast, published limb salvage rates have increased significantly every recent decade until the present. Though significant gains have been made in the past, no improvement in published osteosarcoma survival has been seen since 1980, highlighting the importance of a new strategy in the systemic management of this still very lethal condition.

  19. Analysis of carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS): an overview of modern electroanalytical techniques and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürk, Zühre

    2013-02-01

    A number of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be toxicants, and induce carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects. Since PAHs are often present in low concentrations and it may be difficult to determine them in complex matrices, it is therefore essential to use powerful analytical tools to separate and identify the analyses in the samples. In this paper, initially, a short description of the principles, instrumentation, and use of common extraction and analytical techniques for PAH pollutants and their metabolites will be made in light of the previously reported works and major reviews. Special attention will be given to the use of modern polarographic and voltammetric techniques on the mercury and different types of solid electrodes, together with their some practical applications. The main drawbacks and limitations of these methods will also be discussed.

  20. Analysis on the Cultivation of Modern Chinese Farmers’ Values from the Perspective of Traditional Political Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen; Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Farmers in traditional China have formed the cultural psychology of being reluctant to move from native land and hate to change during the long- term closed production and life. This has exerted negative effect on the values cultivation of farmers today,who possess weak democratic consciousness,low legal spirit and cultural quality as well as strong antagonistic psychology. Measures should be carried out to cultivate their modern values. Firstly,construction of villagers’ self-governance system should be stressed. Secondly,political socialization should be perfected to improve farmers’ political culture. Furthermore,channels of political participation should be widened in order to gradually promote the ordered political participation of farmers.

  1. 六味地黄汤现代药理学及化学的初步研究%Modern pharmacological and chemical studies of Liuwei Dihuang decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永祥

    2000-01-01

    Liuwei Dihuang decoction(LW),a classical traditional Chinese medicinal prescription with the effect of “nourishing Kidney-Yin”,consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa (Shudi),Cornus officinalis(Shauzhuyu),Dioscorea opposita(Shanyao),Alisma orientale(Zexie),Porie cocos(Fuling)and Paeonia suffruticosa(Mudanpi).It has long been used clinically in the treatments of many kinds of diseases with the sign of “Kidney-Yin deficiency”,such as cancer,diabetes,autoimmue diseases,menopausal syndrome in traditional Chinese medical treatments.The effectiveness of it has been well documented during the long-term clinical practices.In our study,the effects and the possible active mechanisms of LW on learning and memory ,neuroendocrine and immune functions were studies from the angle of neuroendocrine immunomodulation(NIM)network .In chemical fractionation and purification of the immunoactive fractions or components contained in LW,the method of a close collaboration between pharmacological and chemical studies was employed.The chemical fractionation was begun from the decoction and guided by pharmacological activity evaluation.The results showed that oral administration of LW significantly improved learning and memory abilities in several kinds of model animals such as senescence accelerated mice (SAM),chronic hanging stress-loaded mice and corticosterone-treated mice and the mechanism studies suggested that the effects were achieved through several ways.LW significantly decreased the plasma level of corticosterone in SAM-prone/8 (SAMP8) ,a substrain of SAM.SAMP8 showed a marked elevation of plasma level of corticosterone with advancing age in comparison with SAMR1 ,a substrain of senescence resistant of SAM.LW also significantly improved the secretion of testosterone by primary cultured testis cells from SAMP8.The immunopharmacological studies showed that oral administration of LW not only

  2. Structural Analysis Of Alfa Fibers After Chemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mouallif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, natural fibers are used as reinforcement in composite materials. The Alfa fibers have undergone an alkaline treatment with sodium hydroxide NaOH at a concentration of 10%, during an immersion period of two days. After drying, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used for the analysis of the chemical properties of these fibers which were extracted from the plant Alfa of the region Al Haouz (Morocco in order to study the modifications resulting from the alkaline treatment. The results proved the presence of the cellulose, with an increase in its proportion in those fibers which have undergone an alkaline treatment with NaOH, the presence of lignin and pectin, as well as their disappearance after the alkaline extraction.

  3. Chemical gas analyzers for proximate analysis of mine atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochenkova, T.K.; Klassovskaya, N.A.; Zlenko, A.G.; Gus' kova, A.N. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornogo Dela, Donetsk (Ukraine))

    1992-09-01

    Describes a series of chemical gas analyzers developed by the VNIIGD institute for proximate analysis of mine atmosphere in coal mines. The new GKh-4, GKh-5, GKh-6, GKh CO-5 use detector tubes for carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen sulfide. These devices allow miners to determine gas concentrations in the mine atmosphere in less than 4 minutes with an accuracy of +/-25%. The series is now complemented by the GKh-M CH[sub 2]O-0.004 gas analyzer for measuring formaldehyde content in mine air during mine rescue operations conducted with the use of carbamide-formaldehyde resins. Key technical data on the gas analyzers are given.

  4. Chemical analysis of ancient relicts in the Milky Way disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvaišienė G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present detailed analysis of two groups of F- and G- type stars originally found to have similarities in their orbital parameters. The distinct kinematic properties suggest that they might originate from ancient accretion events in the Milky Way. From high resolution spectra taken with the spectrograph FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, we determined abundances of oxygen, alpha- and r-process elements. Our results indicate that the sample of investigated stars is chemically homogeneous and the abundances of oxygen, alpha and r-process elements are overabundant in comparison with Galactic disk dwarfs. This provides the additional evidence that those stellar groups had the common formation and possible origin from disrupted satellites.

  5. Emergent Modernism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement".......This article discusses the problems of historizing modernism in the light of developments within world literature and theories about world literature. It draws upon Wlad Godzich's concept of emergence and Lyotard's concept of "evènement"....

  6. Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, Jacob Holm;

    2006-01-01

    and lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary......Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation...

  7. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ding

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  8. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investiga...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  9. Foucault and modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerson, A

    1995-06-01

    Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity.

  10. Concatenated analysis sheds light on early metazoan evolution and fuels a modern "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schierwater

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, the origin of metazoan animals has been debated. One aspect of this debate has been centered on what the hypothetical "urmetazoon" bauplan might have been. The morphologically most simply organized metazoan animal, the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, resembles an intriguing model for one of several "urmetazoon" hypotheses: the placula hypothesis. Clear support for a basal position of Placozoa would aid in resolving several key issues of metazoan-specific inventions (including, for example, head-foot axis, symmetry, and coelom and would determine a root for unraveling their evolution. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic relationships at the base of Metazoa have been controversial because of conflicting phylogenetic scenarios generated while addressing the question. Here, we analyze the sum of morphological evidence, the secondary structure of mitochondrial ribosomal genes, and molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes that amass over 9,400 phylogenetically informative characters from 24 to 73 taxa. Together with mitochondrial DNA genome structure and sequence analyses and Hox-like gene expression patterns, these data (1 provide evidence that Placozoa are basal relative to all other diploblast phyla and (2 spark a modernized "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

  11. Prospective approaches for risk analysis in modern radiotherapy: the Italian experience and the contribution of medical physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years there has been significant development of radiation therapy (RT) equipment with advanced imaging and delivery techniques, as well as treatment planning systems. From this perspective, proactive approaches for risk assessment were identified as a powerful tool in modern radiation oncology. A multidisciplinary working group (WG) has been established in the framework of the Italian association for medical physics (AIFM) to promote the use of prospective approaches in the radiotherapy scientific community. This paper describes the main actions carried out by the WG in order to collect information about the engagement of Italian medical physicists in the risk management process, in reporting possible incidents in RT and in the procedures of collecting and analysing near misses. In particular, the main scope of the study was to evaluate the actual level of experience in use of proactive risk analysis tools in modern RT by medical physicists. Finally, the measures implemented by the WG in order to promote the use of such approaches, and consequently to contribute to enhancing safety and radiation protection culture in radiation oncology are described. (authors)

  12. Chemical hazards analysis of resilient flooring for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Tom; Silas, Julie; Vallette, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses resilient flooring, evaluating the potential health effects of vinyl flooring and the leading alternatives-synthetic rubber, polyolefin, and linoleum-currently used in the healthcare marketplace. The study inventories chemicals incorporated as components of each of the four material types or involved in their life cycle as feedstocks, intermediary chemicals, or emissions. It then characterizes those chemicals using a chemical hazard-based framework that addresses persistence and bioaccumulation, human toxicity, and human exposures. PMID:21165873

  13. Chemical analysis of Argonne premium coal samples. Bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Contents: The Chemical Analysis of Argonne Premium Coal Samples: An Introduction; Rehydration of Desiccated Argonne Premium Coal Samples; Determination of 62 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Ash Samples by Automated Semiquantitative Direct-Current Arc Atomic Emission Spectrography; Determination of 18 Elements in 5 Whole Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Quantitative Direct-Current Arc Atomic Emission Spectrography; Determination of Major and Trace Elements in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (Ash and Whole Coal) by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry; Determination of 29 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis; Determination of Selected Elements in Coal Ash from Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry; Determination of 25 Elements in Coal Ash from 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry; Determination of 33 Elements in Coal Ash from 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; Determination of Mercury and Selenium in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Cold-Vapor and Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Determinaton of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Using a Gas Chromatographic Analyzer with a Thermal Conductivity Detector; and Compilation of Multitechnique Determinations of 51 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples.

  14. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. PMID:27343945

  15. Assessment of modern methods of human factor reliability analysis in PSA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is structured as follows: Classical terms and objects (Probabilistic safety assessment as a framework for human reliability assessment; Human failure within the PSA model; Basic types of operator failure modelled in a PSA study and analyzed by HRA methods; Qualitative analysis of human reliability; Quantitative analysis of human reliability used; Process of analysis of nuclear reactor operator reliability in a PSA study); New terms and objects (Analysis of dependences; Errors of omission; Errors of commission; Error forcing context); and Overview and brief assessment of human reliability analysis (Basic characteristics of the methods; Assets and drawbacks of the use of each of HRA method; History and prospects of the use of the methods). (P.A.)

  16. Comparison and analysis of two modern methods in the structural health monitoring techniques in aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Role of air transport in the development and expansion of world trade leading to economic growth of different countries is undeniable. Continuing the world's trade sustainability without expansion of aerospace is next to impossible. Based on enormous expenses for design, manufacturing and maintenance of different aerospace structures, correct and timely diagnosis of defects in those structures to provide for maximum safety has the highest importance. Amid all this, manufacturers of commercial and even military aircrafts are after production of less expensive, lighter, higher fuel economy and nonetheless, higher safety. As such, two events has prevailed in the aerospace industries: (1) Utilization of composites for the fuselage as well as other airplane parts, (2) using modern manufacturing methods. Arrival of two these points have created the need for upgrading of the present systems as well as innovating newer methods in diagnosing and detection of defects in aerospace structures. Despite applicability of nondestructive testing (NDT) methods in aerospace for decades, due to some limitations in the defect detection's certainty, particularly for composite material and complex geometries, shadow of doubt has fallen on maintaining complete confidence in using NDT. These days, two principal approach are ahead to tackle the above mentioned problems. First, approach for the short range is the creative and combinational mean to increase the reliability of NDT and for the long run, innovation of new methods on the basis of structural health monitoring (SHM) is in order. This has led to new philosophy in the maintenance area and in some instances; field of design has also been affected by it.

  17. Metagenomic analysis suggests modern freshwater microbialites harbor a core and distinct microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Allen White III

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern microbialites are complex microbial communities that interface with abiotic factors to form carbonate-rich organosedimentary structures whose ancestors provide the earliest evidence of life. Past studies primarily on marine microbialites have inventoried diverse taxa and metabolic pathways, but it is unclear which of these are members of the microbialite community and which are introduced from adjacent environments. Here we control for these factors by sampling the surrounding water and nearby sediment, in addition to the microbialites and use a metagenomics approach to interrogate the microbial community. Our findings suggest that the Pavilion Lake microbialite community profile, metabolic potential and pathway distributions are distinct from those in the neighboring sediments and water. Based on RefSeq classification, members of the Proteobacteria (e.g alpha and delta classes were the dominant taxa in the microbialites, and possessed novel functional guilds associated with the metabolism of heavy metals, antibiotic resistance, primary alcohol biosynthesis and urea metabolism; the latter may help drive biomineralization. Urea metabolism within Pavilion Lake microbialites is a feature not previously associated in other microbialites. The microbialite communities were also significantly enriched for cyanobacteria and acidobacteria, which likely play an important role in biomineralization. Additional findings suggest that Pavilion Lake microbialites are under viral selection as genes associated with viral infection (e.g CRISPR-Cas, phage shock and phage excision are abundant within the microbialite metagenomes. The morphology of Pavilion Lake microbialites changes dramatically with depth; yet, metagenomic data did not vary significantly by morphology or depth, indicating that microbialite morphology is altered by other factors, perhaps transcriptional differences or abiotic conditions. This work provides a comprehensive metagenomic

  18. 现代农药管理内涵浅析%Modern Agrochemicals Management Connotation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆剑飞

    2013-01-01

    中国是农药生产、使用大国,但农药管理的各个方面还处于起步发展阶段.党的十八大作出了推进生态文明,建设美丽中国战略部署,对我国农药管理工作提出了新要求、新理念.现代农药管理必须把握公共服务、生态文明和创新发展的理念,才能发挥农药增加农业供给,保障粮食安全,改善民生条件,提升生活品质的作用,控制农药影响环境、危害健康的风险.%China has a large quantily both of production and use of agrochemicals, but all aspects of agrochemicals management is still in its infancy. The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made the promotion of ecological civilization, construction beautiful China strategy, to our country agrochemicals management the job raised new requirement, new concept. Modern Agrochemicals management must grasp the public service, ecological civilization and the concept of innovation and development, in order to play agrochemicals increase a-gricultural supply, ensure food safety, the improvement of living condition, improves life quality , control of agrochemicals effects of environmental, health risks.

  19. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis

  20. Meta-Analysis of the Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, approximately 42 million children under the age of 5 years are considered overweight or obese. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-chemical stres...

  1. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  2. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwell Marcus D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format

  3. Statistical power analysis a simple and general model for traditional and modern hypothesis tests

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kevin R; Wolach, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Noted for its accessible approach, this text applies the latest approaches of power analysis to both null hypothesis and minimum-effect testing using the same basic unified model. Through the use of a few simple procedures and examples, the authors show readers with little expertise in statistical analysis how to obtain the values needed to carry out the power analysis for their research. Illustrations of how these analyses work and how they can be used to choose the appropriate criterion for defining statistically significant outcomes are sprinkled throughout. The book presents a simple and g

  4. Problems and prospects of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aptekar Saveliy S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is a comparative analysis of modern methods of business analysis in the process of assessment of solvency of borrowers of Ukrainian commercial banks, study of prospects and problems of the use of methods in the credit process. In the result of the study the article systemises and considers the conduct of the credit process of Ukrainian commercial banks. It becomes clear from result of the study that it is impossible to obtain a single assessment of solvency of a borrower with generalisation of numerical and non-numerical data. Assessment of qualified analysts is required for a justified assessment of solvency apart from information represented in numbers. Improvement of approaches to assessment of solvency of borrowers and adaptation of the existing foreign experience in this field to specific features of formation of solvency of Ukrainian borrowers are important tasks for the Ukrainian banking system. Prospects of further studies in this direction are establishment of importance of the conduct of business analysis and its key role in assessment of solvency of borrowers as a main instrument of minimisation of the credit risk. Improvement of this sphere of analytical work in Ukrainian banks should be carried out in the following main directions: study and analysis of qualitative indicators of business activity; analysis of main sections of the business plan; expansion of the composition of indicators of the financial analysis for obtaining information; conduct of analysis of possible sources of repayment of loan liabilities; and active use of analysis of cash flows of an enterprise.

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF THE NEW TRACTORS DISTRIBUTION LOGISTICS IN THE ASPECT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION PROGRAMMES FOR SUPPORTING AGRICULTURE MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir JUŚCIŃSKI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains an analysis of issues concerning logistics of agricultural tractors distribution. Programmes and the level of utilization of means from Structural Funds of the European Union for modernization of equipment of agricultural farms in Poland have been presented. Structure of agricultural tractors market in Poland and the issues on domestic selective distribution of leading producers of agricultural tractors have been characterized. The achieved results of research on the sales level of agricultural tractors have been presented. The research has been carried out at the Trade Department of the authorized distributor of tractors and agricultural machines. The research cycle covered the years 2003-2010. The research results have been statistically prepared using the R programme for Windows (version 2.14.1 and defining trend, random fluctuations and seasonal fluctuations. The time schedules of sales were analysed in the aspect of subsidizing purchases from the Structural Funds of the European Union and the agritechnical procedures calendar.

  6. Theoretical and Empirical Analysis on Influence Factors of Modern Agricultural Equipment Level in the Process of Agricultural Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Tingwu; Li Lingchao; Wang Wang Ruixue

    2012-01-01

    To promote modem agricultural equipment level is one characteristic of constructing and developing modem agriculture in China. This paper makes up stepwise linear regression analysis model of influence factors of modem agricultural equipment level, and chooses rural labor, per capita income of rural residents, rural investment, proportion of people at secondary education level and at higher level in per hundred rural labor force and arable land area as independent variables, and total power of machine as induced variable. The major results show that the relativity of modem ag- ricultural equipment level, rural investment and education level of peasants is remarkable, and they are the major influence factors of modem agricultural equipment level. Raising investment level of rural infrastructure construction as well as and research and devel- opment and promotion of advanced and applicable modem agricultural equipment, improving quality and education level of peasants can accelerate the development of China's modern agricultural equipment effectively in the process of agricultural sustainable development.

  7. Multivariate analysis of the sexual dimorphism of the hip bone in a modern human population and in early hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M

    1994-02-01

    A large sample of hip bones of known sex coming from one modern population is studied morphologically and by multivariate analysis to investigate sexual dimorphism patterns. A principal component analysis of raw data shows that a large amount of the hip bone sexual dimorphism is accounted for by size differences, but that sex-linked shape variation is also very conspicuous and cannot be considered an allometric consequence of differences in body size between the sexes. The PCA of transformed ("shape") variables indicates that the female hip bones are different in those traits associated with a relatively larger pelvic inlet (longer pubic bones, a greater degree of curvature of the iliopectineal line, and more posterior position of the auricular surface), as well as a broader sciatic notch. The analysis of nonmetric traits also shows marked sexual dimorphism in the position of the sacroiliac joint in the iliac bone, in the shape of the sciatic notch, in pubic morphology, and in the presence of the pre-auricular sulcus in females. When the australopithecine AL 288-1 and Sts 14 hip bones are included in the multivariate analysis, they appear as "ultra-females." In particular these early hominids exhibit extraordinarily long pubic bones and iliopectineal lines, which cannot be explained by allometry. PMID:8147439

  8. Modische Moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Vojta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer opulenten Arbeit untersucht Julia Bertschik die Mode als modernes Phänomen oder besser: als Phänomen der Moderne. Für sie ist Mode nicht nur ein vestimentäres Zeichensystem, sondern eine Spiegelung sozialer und politischer Umschwünge. Somit fungiert Kleidung gleichzeitig als individueller Ausdruck des eigenen Geschmacks und als gesellschaftlicher Code. Die Kleidermode „als Indikator kulturellen Wandels“ wird von Bertschik im Hinblick auf vier Epochen untersucht: Goethezeit, Jahrhundertwende, Weimarer Republik und Nationalsozialismus.

  9. Is English the key to access the wonders of the modern world? A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of English in the world today is not only the result of colonizing campaigns (Canagarajah, 1999, 2005; Pennycook, 1994a, 1998a, 2000; Phillipson, 1992, 2000 but also of the compliance of the governments associated with the "expanding circle" (Kachru, 1986. Colombia is a good example of this phenomenon, because its national government is implementing a National Bilingualism Project (pnb where there is an explicit interest in the promotion of English over all other languages spoken in the country. This article is a critical discourse analysis of the handbook that sets the standards for competences in English. The analysis of data follows Fairclough¿s textual analysis and shows that the authors of the handbook perpetuate mainstream concepts about the symbolic power of English as the one and only necessary tool for academic and economic success.

  10. Analysis and Study of Modern Fault Diagnosis Methods of Mechanical Equipments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Rong-tao

    2008-01-01

    Fast Fourier Transform(FFT)fiequeney spectrum analysis,signal decomposing and reconstruction by wavelet analysis,fractal theory and chaos theory are hot research topics for fault diagnosis and prediction of complex machinery so far.In this paper,the characteristics of the FFT method.wavelet method,fractal method,and largest Lyapunov exponent method are studied and analyzed in detail.The advantages and shortcomings of these methods are pointed out respectively.Some unsolved problems are presented here.

  11. Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical...

  12. Spirit possession and healing in modern Zambia : an analysis of letters to Archbishop Milingo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, ter G.; Ellis, S.D.K.

    1988-01-01

    This article is based on research into the healing ministry of Monsignor Emmanuel Milingo, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Lusaka from 1969 to 1983. On the basis of an analysis of a collection of some 250 letters written to the Archbishop in 1979 and 1980 by people in need of spiritual healing or guida

  13. A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

  14. Microplasmas for chemical analysis: analytical tools or research toys?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities of the research groups that have been involved in fabrication, development and characterization of microplasmas for chemical analysis over the last few years is presented. Microplasmas covered include: miniature inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs); capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs); microwave-induced plasmas (MIPs); a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD); microhollow cathode discharge (MCHD) or microstructure electrode (MSE) discharges, other microglow discharges (such as those formed between 'liquid' electrodes); microplasmas formed in micrometer-diameter capillary tubes for gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) applications, and a stabilized capacitive plasma (SCP) for GC applications. Sample introduction into microplasmas, in particular, into a microplasma device (MPD), battery operation of a MPD and of a mini- in-torch vaporization (ITV) microsample introduction system for MPDs, and questions of microplasma portability for use on site (e.g., in the field) are also briefly addressed using examples of current research. To emphasize the significance of sample introduction into microplasmas, some previously unpublished results from the author's laboratory have also been included. And an overall assessment of the state-of-the-art of analytical microplasma research is provided

  15. Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials.

  16. A Philosophical Analysis1 On The Relationship Between The Problems Of The Modern Era And Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail Söylemez

    2015-04-01

    critical age, it is too late for changing the earlier acquired character and personality structure of a young person who is about to attend a university. The chances of changing the self, character, and personality, let us say re-shaping and re-moulding him becomes significantly reduced. What is left to higher education institutions is limited to offering such youths merely the professional knowledge, skills and techniques. I suppose my fellow academicians in that congress avoided the topic I stress here for the same reason. The problems I am trying to draw attention here, is the underlying reason of serious problems for individuals, societies and the globe in general. Modern educational philosophies, institutions, and some educators either overlook or avoid these issues, or they simply remain helpless. This paper is limited to insensitivity of education in response to certain problems of individuals, societies and the world facing as caused by the above mentioned issues.

  17. Montreal Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Through analyses of the retro scenes in Montreal, Canada, the article discusses retro culture’s role as cultural memory. It is shown how Montreal’s cultural identity is formed by memories of modern culture such as the Red-light and Sin City reputation of the illicit nightlife of the 1940s and 1950s...

  18. Low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children. A meta-analysis of modern studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.; Gatsonis, C.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-02-02

    We identified 24 modern studies of childhood exposures to lead in relation to IQ. From this population, 12 that employed multiple regression analysis with IQ as the dependent variable and lead as the main effect and that controlled for nonlead covariates were selected for a quantitative, integrated review or meta-analysis. The studies were grouped according to type of tissue analyzed for lead. There were 7 blood and 5 tooth lead studies. Within each group, we obtained joint P values by two different methods and average effect sizes as measured by the partial correlation coefficients. We also investigated the sensitivity of the results to any single study. The sample sizes ranged from 75 to 724. The sign of the regression coefficient for lead was negative in 11 of 12 studies. The negative partial r's for lead ranged from -.27 to -.003. The power to find an effect was limited, below 0.6 in 7 of 12 studies. The joint P values for the blood lead studies were less than .0001 for both methods of analysis (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.15 {plus minus} .05), while for the tooth lead studies they were .0005 and .004, respectively (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.08 {plus minus} .05). The hypothesis that lead impairs children's IQ at low dose is strongly supported by this quantitative review. The effect is robust to the impact of any single study.

  19. Trends of modern contraceptive use among young married women based on the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys: a multivariate decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accessing family planning can reduce a significant proportion of maternal, infant, and childhood deaths. In Ethiopia, use of modern contraceptive methods is low but it is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the trends and determinants of changes in modern contraceptive use over time among young married women in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used data from the three Demographic Health Surveys conducted in Ethiopia, in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Young married women age 15-24 years with sample sizes of 2,157 in 2000, 1,904 in 2005, and 2,146 in 2011 were included. Logit-based decomposition analysis technique was used for analysis of factors contributing to the recent changes. STATA 12 was employed for data management and analyses. All calculations presented in this paper were weighted for the sampling probabilities and non-response. Complex sampling procedures were also considered during testing of statistical significance. RESULTS: Among young married women, modern contraceptive prevalence increased from 6% in 2000 to 16% in 2005 and to 36% in 2011. The decomposition analysis indicated that 34% of the overall change in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in women's characteristics. Changes in the composition of young women's characteristics according to age, educational status, religion, couple concordance on family size, and fertility preference were the major sources of this increase. Two-thirds of the increase in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in coefficients. Most importantly, the increase was due to change in contraceptive use behavior among the rural population (33% and among Orthodox Christians (16% and Protestants (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Modern contraceptive use among young married women has showed a remarkable increase over the last decade in Ethiopia. Programmatic interventions targeting poor, younger (adolescent, illiterate, and Muslim women would help to maintain the increasing trend in modern

  20. Psychological underpinning of personalized approaches in modern medicine: syndrome analysis of mitral valve prolapsed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate a high efficiency of the methodological means suggested by psychological syndrome analysis approach (Vygotsky-Luria school for solving theoretical and applied issues in contemporary person-centered medicine. This is achieved through an example of empirical study meant to construct a psychosomatic syndrome for 290 patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP. Analysis of all collected data was based on psychological syndrome analysis concept (Vygotsky–Luria school and A.R. Luria’s principles for psychological factors (causes selection, which determine the logic and structure of a neuropsychological syndrome. It demonstrated the association between characteristics of emotional experiences and clinical symptoms manifested in MVP patients. This correlation was statistically verified. The results proved that the most important syndrome-establishment factor (radical is a specific emotionality and dysfunction of emotion regulation and emotional control in MVP patients (excessive emotional repression with insufficient reflection of emotional experiences. Features of the motivation sphere of MVP patients appear as a second psychological syndrome-establishment factor: these are domination of the motive of failure avoidance and unsatisfied self-approval need. We argue that psychological syndrome analysis can be used as a means to approach not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and medicine, as well as for the development and implementation of the person-centered integrative diagnosis model. We maintained that this approach, applied in theoretical and practical fields of clinical psychology and mental health care is highly efficient at the current stage of the science evolution due to prospects revealed by s new methodological context of postnonclassical model of rationality and a comprehensive character of the cultural-historical concept regarding an individual and his mind as a self

  1. AN ANALYSIS ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL IMAGE AND INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR IN MODERN

    OpenAIRE

    Fuat OKTAY

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the organizational image and innovative organizational citizenship behavior and how these variables vary with of socio-demographic factors. The research uses both the relational and descriptive methods. Scores of both organizational image and innovative organi- zational citizenship behavior are obtained from a 937 survey with 5-point Likert scale. Regression analysis results showed that the organizational image is a statistically significant determ...

  2. A morphometric analysis of prognathism and evaluation of the gnathic index in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesciotto, K M; Cabo, L L; Garvin, H M

    2016-08-01

    Subnasal prognathism is a morphological feature often described in studies of paleoanthropology, bioarchaeology, and forensic anthropology. This trait is commonly quantified using the gnathic index, which compares basion-prosthion and basion-nasion lengths. This study used geometric morphometrics to assess whether the gnathic index is a reliable indicator of subnasal prognathism and to explore the effects of sex, population, and allometry on this trait. Nineteen craniofacial landmarks were collected from three-dimensional cranial surface scans of 192 individuals across five population groups. Generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components analysis were employed to identify shape components related to changes in subnasal prognathism, comparing component scores to gnathic index values. M/ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of sex and population on prognathism, and linear regression served to assess static allometry. The gnathic index was significantly correlated with PCs 1 and 3, which appeared to capture prognathic shape change, but also with PCs 2 and 6, which reflected other craniofacial shape changes. Population differences in levels of prognathism were identified, but no significant effects of sex or allometry were found. The results show that, although the gnathic index correlates with prognathic shape variation, it is also influenced by other variables, such as the relative position of basion. In this sense, the gnathic index serves to illustrate the shortcomings of linear measurement analysis as compared to landmark configurations. Further, the results demonstrate that subnasal prognathism is a complex feature in need of redefinition.

  3. A morphometric analysis of prognathism and evaluation of the gnathic index in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesciotto, K M; Cabo, L L; Garvin, H M

    2016-08-01

    Subnasal prognathism is a morphological feature often described in studies of paleoanthropology, bioarchaeology, and forensic anthropology. This trait is commonly quantified using the gnathic index, which compares basion-prosthion and basion-nasion lengths. This study used geometric morphometrics to assess whether the gnathic index is a reliable indicator of subnasal prognathism and to explore the effects of sex, population, and allometry on this trait. Nineteen craniofacial landmarks were collected from three-dimensional cranial surface scans of 192 individuals across five population groups. Generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components analysis were employed to identify shape components related to changes in subnasal prognathism, comparing component scores to gnathic index values. M/ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of sex and population on prognathism, and linear regression served to assess static allometry. The gnathic index was significantly correlated with PCs 1 and 3, which appeared to capture prognathic shape change, but also with PCs 2 and 6, which reflected other craniofacial shape changes. Population differences in levels of prognathism were identified, but no significant effects of sex or allometry were found. The results show that, although the gnathic index correlates with prognathic shape variation, it is also influenced by other variables, such as the relative position of basion. In this sense, the gnathic index serves to illustrate the shortcomings of linear measurement analysis as compared to landmark configurations. Further, the results demonstrate that subnasal prognathism is a complex feature in need of redefinition. PMID:27132876

  4. Perspectives of modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An undergraduate text-book is reported of modern physics dealing primarily with the special relativity theory, relativistic mechanics, wave and particle properties, atomic structure, Bohr atom model, Schroedinger equation, quantum mechanics applications, quantum theory of a hydrogen atom, multi-electron atoms, atomic spectra, chemical bond, molecular structure, molecular spectra, statistical mechanics, quantum statistics, bond in solids, crystal structure, specific heat of solids, band theory of solids, nucleus, nuclear forces and nuclear models, radioactivity, nuclear reactions, and elementary particles. (J.P.)

  5. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

  6. The public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria: an analysis of selection, forecasting and inventory control

    OpenAIRE

    Asa Auta; Banwat, Samuel B

    2011-01-01

    Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as websi...

  7. Principles, methods and modern trends in analysis of residential real estate market

    OpenAIRE

    Булаенко, Диана Владимировна

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of existing approaches and methods to analysis and forecasting of the residential real estate market as well as the problem of development of a multifactorial mathematical model of the price per square meter of residential real estate in the city of Kharkov. It also analyzes the current state of the subject area and reveals that one of the acute issues of analyzing real estate market data lies in the automated search of the key factors that determine the beha...

  8. Time of flight mass spectroscopy, a modern approach to current methods of solid analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass spectrography has been a current method for trace analysis in solids, with spark source or laser probe, but photoplate is no more a convenient detector; in a contrast, time of flight mass spectrometry, capable of recording all the ions emitted in only one swarm, allows data acquisition to be performed on line by a computer. The electro-optical detector of Eloy and Unsold brings to mass spectrography the time of flight technics. The results obtained with a single focusing instrument are discussed in terms of ion optics, and a theoretical approach to spark source mass spectrograph is presented showing that the performances depend on the ion source properties

  9. Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath.

  10. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Tejedor, J. García; Martina, S.; Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N.

    2015-11-01

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  11. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (μ) and first hyper polarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  12. Geometric morphometric analysis of craniofacial variation, ontogeny and modularity in a cross-sectional sample of modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellens, H L L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Halazonetis, D J

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aimed to quantify craniofacial variation in a sample of modern humans. In all, 187 consecutive orthodontic patients were collected, of which 79 were male (mean age 13.3, SD 3.7, range 7.5–40.8) and 99 were female (mean age 12.3, SD 1.9, range 8.7–19.1). The male and female subgroups were tested for differences in mean shapes and ontogenetic trajectories, and shape variability was characterized using principal component analysis. The hypothesis of modularity was tested for six different modularity scenarios. The results showed that there were subtle but significant differences in the male and female Procrustes mean shapes. Males were significantly larger. Mild sexual ontogenetic allometric divergence was noted. Principal component analysis indicated that, of the four retained biologically interpretable components, the two most important sources of variability were (i) vertical shape variation (i.e. dolichofacial vs. brachyfacial growth patterns) and (ii) sagittal relationships (maxillary prognatism vs. mandibular retrognathism, and vice versa). The mandible and maxilla were found to constitute one module, independent of the skull base. Additionally, we were able to confirm the presence of an anterior and posterior craniofacial columnar module, separated by the pterygomaxillary plane, as proposed by Enlow. These modules can be further subdivided into four sub-modules, involving the posterior skull base, the ethmomaxillary complex, a pharyngeal module, and the anterior part of the jaws. PMID:23425043

  13. Geometric morphometric analysis of craniofacial variation, ontogeny and modularity in a cross-sectional sample of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellens, H L L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Halazonetis, D J

    2013-04-01

    This investigation aimed to quantify craniofacial variation in a sample of modern humans. In all, 187 consecutive orthodontic patients were collected, of which 79 were male (mean age 13.3, SD 3.7, range 7.5-40.8) and 99 were female (mean age 12.3, SD 1.9, range 8.7-19.1). The male and female subgroups were tested for differences in mean shapes and ontogenetic trajectories, and shape variability was characterized using principal component analysis. The hypothesis of modularity was tested for six different modularity scenarios. The results showed that there were subtle but significant differences in the male and female Procrustes mean shapes. Males were significantly larger. Mild sexual ontogenetic allometric divergence was noted. Principal component analysis indicated that, of the four retained biologically interpretable components, the two most important sources of variability were (i) vertical shape variation (i.e. dolichofacial vs. brachyfacial growth patterns) and (ii) sagittal relationships (maxillary prognatism vs. mandibular retrognathism, and vice versa). The mandible and maxilla were found to constitute one module, independent of the skull base. Additionally, we were able to confirm the presence of an anterior and posterior craniofacial columnar module, separated by the pterygomaxillary plane, as proposed by Enlow. These modules can be further subdivided into four sub-modules, involving the posterior skull base, the ethmomaxillary complex, a pharyngeal module, and the anterior part of the jaws.

  14. Modern maths

    CERN Multimedia

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  15. Cyberspace modernization :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  16. The Impact of the Processing and Foreign Trade of Agricultural Products on Agricultural Modernization: An Empirical Analysis Based on Cointegration and VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data related to the Chinese and world agricultural production and trade from 1986 to 2011,this paper uses the principal component analysis,cointegration and vector error correction model to perform the empirical analysis of the impact of processing,import and export of agricultural products on the agricultural modernization in China. The results show that the processing and export of agricultural products play a role in promoting the agricultural modernization in China,while the import of agricultural products has some negative effects on the agricultural modernization in China. The negative effects of the import of agricultural products are from the limitations of farmers’ small-scale operation and foreign trading partners’ protectionism. China should further develop the processing industry of agricultural products,and strengthen the role of downstream industries in promoting the agricultural modernization; improve the level of large-scale and intensive operation,and make good use of WTO rules,in order to provide the necessary market conditions for the agricultural modernization.

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Affecting Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Worldwide, approximately 42 million children under the age of 5 years are considered overweight or obese. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-ch...

  18. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Zylinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

  19. SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia-Paulina BALAURE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the concentration in heavy metals from the filtrate, we used a acetylene-nitrous oxide flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Potential dehydrogenase activity, the only indicator of the possible sources of pollution, excluded the presence of either chemical or biological pollution. The number of bacteria involved in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in the analyzed soil indicated a high efficiency regarding the mineralization of the organic residues of plant and animal origin.

  20. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level.

  1. 40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....61(a)(6) § 761.292 Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. Use... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. 761.292 Section 761.292 Protection of Environment...

  2. CERENA: ChEmical REaction Network Analyzer--A Toolbox for the Simulation and Analysis of Stochastic Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Fröhlich, Fabian; Raue, Andreas; Theis, Fabian J; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression, signal transduction and many other cellular processes are subject to stochastic fluctuations. The analysis of these stochastic chemical kinetics is important for understanding cell-to-cell variability and its functional implications, but it is also challenging. A multitude of exact and approximate descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics have been developed, however, tools to automatically generate the descriptions and compare their accuracy and computational efficiency are missing. In this manuscript we introduced CERENA, a toolbox for the analysis of stochastic chemical kinetics using Approximations of the Chemical Master Equation solution statistics. CERENA implements stochastic simulation algorithms and the finite state projection for microscopic descriptions of processes, the system size expansion and moment equations for meso- and macroscopic descriptions, as well as the novel conditional moment equations for a hybrid description. This unique collection of descriptions in a single toolbox facilitates the selection of appropriate modeling approaches. Unlike other software packages, the implementation of CERENA is completely general and allows, e.g., for time-dependent propensities and non-mass action kinetics. By providing SBML import, symbolic model generation and simulation using MEX-files, CERENA is user-friendly and computationally efficient. The availability of forward and adjoint sensitivity analyses allows for further studies such as parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. The MATLAB code implementing CERENA is freely available from http://cerenadevelopers.github.io/CERENA/.

  3. Ultrastructural Analysis of Urinary Stones by Microfocus Computed Tomography and Comparison with Chemical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Karakan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the ultra-structure of urinary system stones using micro-focus computed tomography (MCT, which makes non-destructive analysis and to compare with wet chemical analysis. Methods: This study was carried out at the Ankara Train­ing and Research hospital. Renal stones, removed from 30 patients during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL surgery, were included in the study. The stones were blindly evaluated by the specialists with MCT and chemi­cal analysis. Results: The comparison of the stone components be­tween chemical analysis and MCT, showed that the rate of consistence was very low (p0.05. It was also seen that there was no significant relation between its 3D structure being heterogeneous or homogenous. Conclusion: The stone analysis with MCT is a time con­suming and costly method. This method is useful to un­derstand the mechanisms of stone formation and an im­portant guide to develop the future treatment modalities.

  4. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Thacker; Doug D. Carlton; Zacariah L. Hildenbrand; Kadjo, Akinde F.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO), such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify ...

  5. Clinical and economic analysis of the modern strategies for treating metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fedorovna Kalashnikova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to identify the ways to optimize therapy for metabolic syndrome through complex clinical and economic analysis.MethodsSixty patients with metabolic syndrome were included in the study. The study group (30 subjects with the mean age of 41.0±11 years, 23 females (76.7%, 7 males (23.3% received pharmacotherapy for obesity (orlistat and insulin resistance (metformin, lipid-lowering therapy and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. The control group (30 patients with the mean age of 43.4±9.5 years, 26 females (86.7%, 4 males (13.3% received lipid-lowering and antihypertensive therapy, if needed. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory examination, assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory and evaluation of the quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire at admission to the study and after 6 months of therapy. Complex clinical and economic analyses, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses and calculation of such indices as “the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio” (ICER, LYG, QALY and “net monetary benefit” (NMB, were conducted based on the results obtained.ResultsImprovement of clinical and laboratory indicators and quality of life in the study group was more significant than that in the control group. The direct medical costs were 33,440.40 RUB for the study group and 18,878.50 RUB for the control group (for 6 months of therapy. The control group CER was 4,016.70, while the study group CER was 3,125.30; ICER was 2,430.90 RUB. LYG was equal to 0.7 and 2.3 years for the control and the study groups, respectively. The QALY measure for the control and study groups was 8.63 and 9.45, respectively. The weighted average total costs for the intended period of living was 498,745.00 RUB for the control group and 457,866.00 RUB for the study group. The control group CUR was 57,792.00 and 54,902.00 RUB/QALY without and with discounting, respectively, while in the study group

  6. An Analysis of Yusuf (AS's Counter-Cyclical Principle and its Implementation in the Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study examines the present-day implementation of the counter-cyclical principle suggested by Yusuf (AS around four thousand years ago, in response to the King of Egypt's dream, to overcome the famine of seven years through saving grain during seven years of abundance. In general, the counter-cyclical principle encourages saving during times of plenty and spending during times of scarcity, activities which today help to stabilise the business-cycle.Method - Library research is applied since this paper relies on secondary data by thoroughly reviewing the most relevant literature. This paper reviews the commodity-based currency systems proposed before, during and after the Second World War by several prominent economists (particularly Keynes, 1938; Graham, 1940; Hayek, 1943; Grondona, 1950 and Lietaer, 2001 all of which basically incorporated the counter-cyclical principle of Prophet Yusuf (AS. The primary purpose of these commodity-based currency systems is to stabilise the real value of money in order to improve macroeconomic stability. Additionally, this paper provides an in-depth analysis of Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility.Results - The Grondona system would partially stabilise the real value of each country's national currency in terms of a range of durable, essential, basic imported commodities, thereby also partially stabilising the prices of the selected commodities in terms of the national currency of each country implementing the system.Conclusion - The Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility as compared to other commodity-based currency systems is more practical. Its primary advantage in comparison to other proposals of commodity reserve currency is that it could be implemented in parallel with the existing monetary system. Accordingly, it could be taken as a preliminary step towards a monetary system based on real money such as gold dinar.Keywords : Counter-cyclical principle

  7. China Rubber Chemicals Production and Market Situation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Because the stimulus driven impact of the rapid growth of tire and other rubber products' output,in recent years,the production and marketing of domestic rubber chemicals appear to increase,and the specific production and marketing conditions are as follows: 1.Rapid Growth of Chemicals Output From 2009 to 2010,in China an upsurge of expanding or building new rubber chemicals equipment was raised.These equipment were planned to be put into production in 2010 with newly increased production capacity of about 120,000 tons,among which there were 40,000 tons antioxidant 4020,50,000tons accelerator M,and about 40,000 tons other Chemicals.In 2010,the total output was 701,000 tons,with year-on-year growth of 17.8% or so.In 2010,the total sales volume of domestic rubber chemicals were 13 billion yuan,and the export volume was about 180,000 tons,basically the same with that in 2009.See the statistics of domestic rubber chemicals output from 2009 to 2010 in Table 1.

  8. Modern Era Retrospective Restrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Stephen W.; Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset is a NASA satellite era, 30 year (1979 - present), reanalysis using the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5). The project, run out of NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center, provides the science and application communities with a state-of-the-art global analysis with emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle over a broad range of weather and climate time scales. MERRA products are generated as a long-term synthesis that places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The MERRA analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 2/3 longitude x 1/2 latitude (540x361 global gridpoints) with observational analyses every 6 hours. The MERRA output data will include 3 dimensional state fields for every 6 hourly analysis cycle on 42 pressure levels (or 72 terrain following model coordinate levels) from the surface through the stratosphere. Several data products are specifically designed to support chemistry and stratosphere transport modeling. The 2 dimensional surface and atmospheric diagnostics (numbering 259) are being stored on the native grid at 1 hourly intervals. These include radiation and vertical integrals of the atmosphere for water and energy budget studies and also surface diagnostics where the diurnal cycle is important. The one hourly surface and near surface data product will also facilitate research on the integrated analysis of Earth system observations in the land, ocean and cryosphere. The MERRA products are archived and distributed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through its Modeling DISC Web (MDISC) portal. Multiple data access methods and services are available for MERRA data through MDISC: (1) Mirador offers a quick, comprehensive search of MERRA and all GES DISC archived data holdings, allowing searches on

  9. Social complexity, modernity and suicide: an assessment of Durkheim's suicide from the perspective of a non-linear analysis of complex social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condorelli, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Can we share even today the same vision of modernity which Durkheim left us by its suicide analysis? or can society 'surprise us'? The answer to these questions can be inspired by several studies which found that beginning the second half of the twentieth century suicides in western countries more industrialized and modernized do not increase in a constant, linear way as modernization and social fragmentation process increases, as well as Durkheim's theory seems to lead us to predict. Despite continued modernizing process, they found stabilizing or falling overall suicide rate trends. Therefore, a gradual process of adaptation to the stress of modernization associated to low social integration levels seems to be activated in modern society. Assuming this perspective, the paper highlights as this tendency may be understood in the light of the new concept of social systems as complex adaptive systems, systems which are able to adapt to environmental perturbations and generate as a whole surprising, emergent effects due to nonlinear interactions among their components. So, in the frame of Nonlinear Dynamical System Modeling, we formalize the logic of suicide decision-making process responsible for changes at aggregate level in suicide growth rates by a nonlinear differential equation structured in a logistic way, and in so doing we attempt to capture the mechanism underlying the change process in suicide growth rate and to test the hypothesis that system's dynamics exhibits a restrained increase process as expression of an adaptation process to the liquidity of social ties in modern society. In particular, a Nonlinear Logistic Map is applied to suicide data in a modern society such as the Italian one from 1875 to 2010. The analytic results, seeming to confirm the idea of the activation of an adaptation process to the liquidity of social ties, constitutes an opportunity for a more general reflection on the current configuration of modern society, by relating the

  10. Evaluating Chemical Persistence in a Multimedia Environment: ACART Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.H.; McKone, T.E.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1999-02-01

    For the thousands of chemicals continuously released into the environment, it is desirable to make prospective assessments of those likely to be persistent. Persistent chemicals are difficult to remove if adverse health or ecological effects are later discovered. A tiered approach using a classification scheme and a multimedia model for determining persistence is presented. Using specific criteria for persistence, a classification tree is developed to classify a chemical as ''persistent'' or ''non-persistent'' based on the chemical properties. In this approach, the classification is derived from the results of a standardized unit world multimedia model. Thus, the classifications are more robust for multimedia pollutants than classifications using a single medium half-life. The method can be readily implemented and provides insight without requiring extensive and often unavailable data. This method can be used to classify chemicals when only a few properties are known and be used to direct further data collection. Case studies are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the approach.

  11. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  12. Analysis of farmland fragmentation in China Modernization Demonstration Zone since "Reform and Openness": a case study of South Jiangsu Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Xia, Nan; Jiang, Penghui; Zhong, Lishan; Pian, Yuzhe; Duan, Yuewei; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2015-01-01

    Farmland is a fundamental resource for human survival and development. However, farmland fragmentation has become a serious problem, causing ecological damage and low crop production efficiency in many parts of the world. Based on remote sensing and socioeconomic data, we used landscape pattern indices, Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA), and Markov chain models to analyze the temporal and spatial pattern changes in farmland in South Jiangsu Province (the first "Modernization Demonstration Zone" in China) during 1985-2010. Our results demonstrated that the total farmland area decreased by ca. 24% and the farmland pattern became fragmented during 1985-2008: core farmland decreased and islet farmland increased. Additionally, the farmland patch density (PD) increased and three other landscape indices (NLSI, MESH, and COHESION) showed significant decreases. Although the fragmentation rate slowed after 2008, the convergence rate to a stationary farmland distribution became faster, and transitions tended to be less deterministic after 2000. Economic and population growth and policy changes positively contributed to this phenomenon. Therefore, the primary task of farmland protection should be to preserve contiguous farmlands and reduce scattered patches in order to promote farmland connectivity. PMID:26135496

  13. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  14. Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

  15. ANALYSIS OF SOLUBLE CHEMICAL TRANSFER BY RUNOFF WATER IN FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Ju-xiu; YANG Jin-zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the main factors influencing soluble chemical transfer and corresponding techniques for reducing fertilizer loss caused by runoff in irrigated fields, a physically based two-layer model was developed with incomplete mixing theory. Different forms of incomplete mixing parameters were introduced in the model, which was successfully verified with previous published experimental data. According to comparison, the chemicals loss of fertilizer is very sensitive to the runoff-related parameter while it is not sensitive to the infiltration-related parameter. The calculated results show that the chemicals in infiltration water play an important role in the early time of rainfall even with saturated soil, and it is mainly in the runoff flow in the late rainfall. Therefore, prevention of shallow subsurface drainage in the early rainfall is an effective way to reduce fertilizer loss, and the coverage on soil surface is another effective way.

  16. Modernisms and Postmodernisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋轶阳

    2009-01-01

    The Phrase "modernisms and postmodernisms" is developed for presenting complexity and mutability exiting within and between Modernism and Postmodernism. This thesis attempts to offer the essentiality of the above-mentioned in terms of the respective definitions, the differences in arguing the concept of "tradition" and "new" as well as the terms of "epistemology" and "ontology", the non-abrupt developing process between them. By doing so, the materials, such as T. S. Eliot's poem "The Waste Land" and Langston Hughes' poem "Christ in Alabama", Virginia Woolf "Mrs. Dalloway: are offered for analysis.

  17. Powerful chemical technique. [CSIR uses new x-ray diffractometer for structural chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The CSIR's National Chemical Research Laboratory (NCRL) is now using one of the most powerful techniques available to determine the structure of molecules. It has recently acquired a Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometer. This powerful method provides the only means of determining the structure of certain compounds. NCRL scientists often carry out structure determinations to find out the relative or absolute stereochemistry of molecules. This is important when correlating physiological activity and structure, information which is necessary for synthesizing medicines with specific characteristics.

  18. Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas

    OpenAIRE

    RAYMOND E. MARCH; MILA D. LAUSEVIC; TATJANA M. VASILJEVIC

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (Cl) technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The di...

  19. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation c

  20. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  1. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  2. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  3. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  4. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DENSE-GAS EXTRACTS FROM LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to make qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic biologically active substances (BAS in the extracts produced from lime flowers with condensed gases, using method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and methods: materials for this study were the extracts obtained by consequent processing of the herbal drug and marcs thereof with various condensed gases: difluorochloromethane (Freon R22, difluoromethane (Freon R32, azeotropic mixture of difluoromethane with pentafluoroethane (Freon 410A and freon-ammonium mixture. Extracts obtained with the latter were subjected to further fractionation by liquidliquid separation into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-alcohol phases. Besides, the supercritical СО2 extract, obtained from the herbal drug under rather strong conditions (at temperature 60°С and pressure 400 bar, was studied in our previous research. Presence of phenolic BAS and their quantity in the researched samples were determined by method of HPLC with UVspectrometric detection. Results and discussion: It has been found that Freon R22 extracted trace amounts of rutin from lime flowers – its content was only 0.08% of the total extract weight. On the other hand, Freons R32 and R410А showed good selectivity to moderately polar BAS of lime flowers (derivatives of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids: in particular, the extract obtained with freon R32 contained about 1.3% of the total phenolic substances, and it was the only one of the investigated condensed gases used by us which took the basic flavonoid of lime flowers tiliroside – its content was 0.42% of extract weight. Also Freons R32 and R410А were able to withdraw another compound dominating among phenolic substances in the yielded extracts. Its quantity was rather noticeable – up to 0.87% of extract weight. This substance was not identified by existing database, but its UV-spectrum was similar to those of

  5. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  6. The Matthew Effect in Environmental Science Publication: A Bibliometric Analysis of Chemical Substances in Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Grandjean Philippe; Eriksen Mette L; Ellegaard Ole; Wallin Johan A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title se...

  7. Chemical Analysis of Emu Feather Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Chandra sekhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A composite is usually made up of at least two materials out of which one is binding material called as matrix and other is a reinforcement material known as fiber. For the past ten years research is going on to explore possible composites with natural fiber like plant fibers and animal fibers. The important characteristics of composites are their strength, hardness light in weight. It is also necessary to study about the resistance of the composites for deferent chemicals. In the present work, composites prepared with epoxy (Araldite LY-556 as resin and „emu‟ bird feathers as fiber have been tested for chemical resistance. The composites were prepared by varying fiber loading (P of „emu‟ feathers ranging from 1 to 5 and length (L of feather fibers from 1 to 5 cm. The composites thus prepared were subjected to various chemicals (Acids, Alkalis, solvents etc.. Observations were plotted and studied. The results reveal that there will be weight gain for the composite samples after three days, when treated with Hydrochloric acid, Sodium carbonate, Acetic acid, Sodium hydroxide, Nitric acid and Ammonium hydroxide. Weight loss was observed for all the samples including pure epoxy when treated with Benzene, Carbon tetra chloride and Toluene.

  8. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. PMID:23914934

  9. Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

  10. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, M.L.M.; Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock t

  11. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  12. Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAYMOND E. MARCH

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI and chemical ionization (Cl technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The disadvantage of using EI in the analysis of PCBs congeners is the extensive fragmentation of the molecular ion. The main fragmentation pattern recorded in the EI mass spectra of PCBs was the loss of a chlorine atom from the molecular ion. Therefore the fragment-ion signal overlapped with the molecular-ion cluster of lower mass congener. The fragmentation reactions of PCBs are suppressed if methane is used as a reagent gas for chemical ionization, but fragment ions are also present in the spectrum as an obstruction for quantitative analysis. The most selective method for PCBs quantitative analysis appears to be Cl with mass-selected C2H5+ ions from methane, which results in a mass spectrum with a negligible amount of fragment ions.

  13. The interpretation of artistic practices in Gramsci’s discourse: Towards the Gramscian analysis of music of modern and postmodern times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci dedicated a lot of his attention in his writings to the analysis of the cultural practices and their function in the socio-historical processes. An important segment of his work included the analysis of art and literature of modern times which was indirectly incorporated into the discussion of the problem of usefulness of historical materialism as a philosophical and social practice, social power and its cultural and historical appearances, cultural and political emancipation of subaltern classes etc. Mostly focusing on the explication of socio-cultural, political and historical dimensions of Italian literature of Renaissance and the modern period, Gramsci elaborated a sketch of his own version of Marxist aesthetic proposing specific interpretations of the problem of social function of artistic practices, the nature of artistic action and artwork and the consumption of artistic artifacts. In this paper we will discuss Gramsci’s thought on art in the context of his comprehensive theoretical, philosophical and historical research aiming at elaborating a Gramscian model of analysis of music practices of modern and postmodern times. One of our results should be the examination of the possibilities of the analysis of music based on Gramsci’s theory as well as the critical review of the application of its main concepts in the existing body of research on music. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  14. Statistical analysis of DNT detection using chemically functionalized microcantilever arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosco, Filippo; Bache, M.; Hwu, E.-T.;

    2012-01-01

    The need for miniaturized and sensitive sensors for explosives detection is increasing in areas such as security and demining. Micrometer sized cantilevers are often used for label-free detection, and have previously been reported to be able to detect explosives. However, only a few measurements...... on the chemically treated surfaces results in significant bending of the cantilevers and in a decrease of their resonant frequencies. We present averaged measurements obtained from up to 72 cantilevers being simultaneously exposed to the same sample. Compared to integrated reference cantilevers with...

  15. Chemical analysis of acoustically levitated drops by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Puskar, Ljiljana; Zavabeti, Mahta; Sekine, Ryo; McNaughton, Don

    2009-07-01

    An experimental apparatus combining Raman spectroscopy with acoustic levitation, Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy (RALS), is investigated in the field of physical and chemical analytics. Whereas acoustic levitation enables the contactless handling of microsized samples, Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of a noninvasive method without complex sample preparation. After carrying out some systematic tests to probe the sensitivity of the technique to drop size, shape, and position, RALS has been successfully applied in monitoring sample dilution and preconcentration, evaporation, crystallization, an acid-base reaction, and analytes in a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy colloidal suspension. PMID:19418043

  16. Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

  17. A kinetic and equilibrium analysis of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition on monofilaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical kinetics of atmospheric pressure silicon carbide (SiC) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from dilute silane and propane source gases in hydrogen is numerically analyzed in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for CVD on monofilaments. The chemical composition of the SiC deposit is assessed both from the calculated total fluxes of carbon and silicon and from chemical equilibrium considerations for the prevailing temperatures and species concentrations at and along the filament surface. The effects of gas and surface chemistry on the evolution of major gas phase species are considered in the analysis.

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C;

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  19. Savremene metode analize ulja u tehničkim sistemima / Modern methods of oil analysis in technical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten R. Perić

    2010-01-01

    reduce negative effects of tribological processes related to friction, wear and temperature increase in tribomechanical systems, all types of maintenance include lubrication as a very important part of the whole procedure. On the other hand, lubricant is, as a contact element of the system, a carrier of information about the condition of the whole system, from the aspect of tribological and other ageing processes. Therefore, an analysis of oils, based on a properly defined program, represents a very effective method for monitoring the condition of technical systems, which ensures early warning signals of potential problems that could lead to failure and break down of technical systems. Besides mechanical components in a system structure, the condition of lubricant itself is also affected, which leads to a loss of lubricating properties. Contamination and degradation of lubricating oils There are numerous opportunities for contamination and degradation of lubricating oils. Contamination and degradation of oil exploitation cannot be completely prevented, but can be significantly reduced, which is very important both for oil and for a technical system itself. The rate and degree of degradation of oil are proportional to the rate and extent of contamination. It is therefore important to prevent rapid contamination of oil, before and during use. The spectrum of oil contaminants is considerably wide. Any contaminant destructive impact on oil, reducing its physical-chemical and working properties, results in shortening its service life as well as the service life of the technical system in question. During oil exploitation, changes occur in: chemical compositions and properties of base oils, chemical compositions and properties of additives, and consequently chemical compositions of oils in general, as a result of contamination and degradation. The most significant oil contaminants are base oils degradation products, additives degradation products, metal particles as a result

  20. THE MODERN THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN THE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS: FROM INTEREST GROUPS TO CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Votchenko, E.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article touches a vital topic of contemporary relations between business and government - public-private partnerships (PPP in the system of public discourse. The article discusses the various modern theoretical approaches to the study of the social aspects of interaction between business and government in modern political science. The author considers the concept and models of foreign public-private partnerships, social investments and corporate citizenship. In the end, the author makes an interesting conclusion that in the modern scientific community is formed and becomes stable a new institutional paradigm of PPP – practice of corporate citizenship. Corporate social responsibility in the narrow sense of the definition goes beyond charity and philanthropy, and today it is expressed in a broad sense - as corporate citizenship, which implies mutual responsibility of business and government to the public.

  1. Nano-structural and Nano-chemical analysis of dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMWs) is generally applied to nuclear power plants for manufacturing and machining in structural components such as reactor pressure vessels and pressurizer nozzles. Alloy 152 is used frequently as filler metal in the manufacture of the DMW in light water reactors to join the low alloy steel pressure vessel nozzles and steam generator nozzles to nickel-based wrought alloy or austenitic stainless steel components. However, in recent years cracking phenomena has been observed in the welded joints. Concerns have been raised to the integrity and reliability in the joint transition zone due to the high susceptibility of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the fusion boundary (FB) to stress corrosion cracking in combination with thermal aging. Since the material microstructure and chemical composition are key parameters affecting the stress corrosion cracking, improving the understanding of stress corrosion cracking at the FB region requires fundamental understanding of the unique microstructure of the FB region in DMW. Despite the potential degradation and consequent risk in the DMW, there is still a lack of the fundamental understanding of microstructure in the FB region, in particular the region containing unidentified band structures near the FB. The scale of the microstructure in modern metallic materials is becoming increasingly smaller. The 3-dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multi-component metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. The 3D APT is a microscope that allows the reconstruction of 3D 'atom maps'. These reconstructions can be interrogated and interpreted to determine the nanoscale chemistry of the material. Therefore, the current study is aiming at the establishment of detail procedure

  2. Analysis of Thermal Desorption System for the Chemical Treatment of Old Storages of Oil Based Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Tanweer Hussain; Abdul Rehman Memon; Javed Larik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis for the chemical treatment of OBM (Oil Based Mud) used in the drilling process in the oil and gas industry. The analysis is based on OBM stored at ENI (Italian National Energy) gas fields at Bhit mount district Jamshoro since the last ten years that has been chemically and physically deteriorated. Characterization of various OBM samples was performed and these samples were processed in order to evaluate the best characteristics of the OBM for optimum treatment ...

  3. Chemical analysis of steel (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1964-Apr 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-05-01

    Information is cited on chemical analysis of boron, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, silicon, carbon, oxygen, aluminum, rare earths, and other trace elements in steel. In addition, research on the determination of major elements, including iron, is covered. New techniques and refinement of older techniques, including x-ray fluorescence, spectroscopy, chromatography, activation analysis, and wet chemical methods are also included. (This updated bibliography contains 240 abstracts, 14 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Li; Shiyu Fu; Huaiyu Zhan; Yao Zhan; Lucian A. Lucia

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

  5. 现代化地籍管理工作浅议%Analysis of Modern Cadastral Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏宗跃; 赵晋睿

    2012-01-01

    本文通过分析旧地籍管理工作的现状和现代化地籍管理工作的需求,提出了现代化地籍管理工作需要注意的问题和改善的建议.%This paper introduces the current situation in the cadastral management firstly. Then, it analyses the new needs of modern cadastral management and existing problems. At last, it comes up with improving suggestions to solve the problems and meet those new requirements in modern cadastral management.

  6. A COMPARITIVE ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN MODERN EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT IN BRITISH AND RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES (THE CASE OF DURHAM UNIVERSITY, UK, AND TOMSK STATE UNIVERSITY, RUSSIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Obdalova, O.; Logan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language teaching methods applied in the UK and Russia are reviewed, using as an example Durham University (UK) and Tomsk State University (Russia) in the conditions of the modern educational environment. The new educational environment is defined. The specificity of the language environment for teaching foreign languages is characterized. A comparative analysis of approaches and methods to foreign language teaching is conducted. Conclusions are made on the effectiveness of the approa...

  7. The Development of Modern Pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The present paper deals with agrochemicals. The low toxicities to mammals and wild lives, greater selectivity against target organisms, and high levels of activity are particular features of many modern agrochemicals. It is suggested that integrated pest management(IPM), by means of a combination of biological and chemical controls has met with some success and the present approach is to optimize the use of chemicals rather than to eliminate them.

  8. American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2009-01-01

    The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has

  9. Chemical analysis of 24 dusty (pre-)main-sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Acke, B; Acke, Bram; Waelkens, Christoffel

    2004-01-01

    We have analysed the chemical photospheric composition of 24 Herbig Ae/Be and Vega-type stars in search for the lambda Bootis phenomenon. We present the results of the elemental abundances of the sample stars. Some of the stars were never before studied spectroscopically at optical wavelengths. We have determined the projected rotational velocities of our sample stars. Furthermore, we discuss stars that depict a (selective) depletion pattern in detail. HD 4881 and HD 139614 seem to display an overall deficiency. AB Aur and possibly HD 126367 have subsolar values for the iron abundance, but are almost solar in silicon. HD 100546 is the only clear lambda Bootis star in our sample.

  10. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    case, the probabilistic design of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is performed. The effect of statistical variations in the material (i.e. fiber and resin) and resin kinetic properties, as well as process parameters such as pulling speed and inlet temperature...... on the product quality (degree of cure) are examined by means of Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. The variations in the activation energy as well as the density of the resin are found to have a strong influence on the centerline degree of cure at the exit whereas......In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation...

  11. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND ANALYSIS FOR CHEMICAL-FLOODING SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yirang

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the enhanced oil recovery numerical simulation of the chemical-flooding (such as surfactants, alcohol, polymers) composed of three-dimensional multicomponent, multiphase and incompressible mixed fluids. The mathematical model can be described as a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations with initialboundary value problems. From the actual conditions such as the effect of cross interference and the three-dimensional characteristic of large-scale science-engineering computation, this article puts forward a kind of characteristic finite element fractional step schemes and obtain the optimal order error estimates in L2 norm. Thus we have thoroughly solved the well-known theoretical problem proposed by a famous scientist, R. E. Ewing.

  12. Cobol software modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, billions of lines of code are in the COBOL programming language. This book is an analysis, a diagnosis, a strategy, a MDD method and a tool to transform legacy COBOL into modernized applications that comply with Internet computing, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the Cloud.  It serves as a blueprint for those in charge of finding solutions to this considerable challenge.

  13. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text′s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant I Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

  14. Negotiating the labyrinth of modernity's promise a paradigm analysis of energy poverty in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odarno, Lily Ameley

    Energy poverty in developing countries has been conventionally attributed to a lack of access to sufficient, sustainable and modern forms of energy (ESMAP 2001; Modi et al. 2006). Per this definition, Sub--Saharan Africa is the most energy poor region in the world today. In line with this, efforts at addressing energy poverty in the region have concentrated on the expansion of access to modern energy sources, particularly electricity. In spite of the implementation of diverse energy development interventions, access to modern energy services remains limited. That energy poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges in Sub--Saharan Africa today in spite of the many decades of energy development necessitates a candid and thorough re--evaluation of the questions that have been traditionally asked about this issue and the solutions that have been offered in response to it. Based on theoretical analyses and empirical studies in peri--urban Kumasi, Ghana, this study attempts to offer some of the much needed re--evaluations. Using Kuhn's paradigm approach as a conceptual tool, this dissertation identifies peri--urban energy poverty as a paradigm--scale conflict in the modern arrangement of energy--development relations. By emphasizing the importance of context and political economy in understanding energy poverty, the study proposes strategies for an alternative paradigm in which energy--development relations are fundamentally redefined; one which enlists appropriate knowledge, technologies, and institutions in addressing the needs of the energy poor in ways which promote environmental values, social equity and sustainable livelihoods.

  15. Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, A

    2006-01-02

    Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

  16. Comprehensive Analysis Competence and Innovative Approaches for Sustainable Chemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Joerg; Colombo, Corrado; Dätwyler, Urs; Chen, Yun; Kerimoglu, Nimet

    2016-01-01

    Humanity currently sees itself facing enormous economic, ecological, and social challenges. Sustainable products and production in specialty chemistry are an important strategic element to address these megatrends. In addition to that, digitalization and global connectivity will create new opportunities for the industry. One aspect is examined in this paper, which shows the development of comprehensive analysis of production networks for a more sustainable production in which the need for innovative solutions arises. Examples from data analysis, advanced process control and automated performance monitoring are shown. These efforts have significant impact on improved yields, reduced energy and water consumption, and better product performance in the application of the products. PMID:27646543

  17. Comprehensive Analysis Competence and Innovative Approaches for Sustainable Chemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Joerg; Colombo, Corrado; Dätwyler, Urs; Chen, Yun; Kerimoglu, Nimet

    2016-01-01

    Humanity currently sees itself facing enormous economic, ecological, and social challenges. Sustainable products and production in specialty chemistry are an important strategic element to address these megatrends. In addition to that, digitalization and global connectivity will create new opportunities for the industry. One aspect is examined in this paper, which shows the development of comprehensive analysis of production networks for a more sustainable production in which the need for innovative solutions arises. Examples from data analysis, advanced process control and automated performance monitoring are shown. These efforts have significant impact on improved yields, reduced energy and water consumption, and better product performance in the application of the products.

  18. Synthesis and analysis in studies of chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, C.; Hobish, M. K.; Kobayashi, K.; Hua, L. L.; Senaratne, N.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the various processes that may have given rise to life on the Earth have demonstrated the appropriateness of an approach that makes use of analysis and synthesis. Analysis of extraterrestrial samples in the form of meteorites has demonstrated the presence of several precursors of biomolecules, most notably a full suite of nucleic acid bases and nucleotides of biological significance. These species were determined after exhaustive extraction of the sample and subsequent analysis using HPLC, GC, MS, and GC-MS. Procedural blanks indicate that these molecules are likely not the result of contamination during the extraction and analysis process. Similar species were found as products of spark discharge experiments in atmospheres thought to mimic primitive Earth conditions. These results indicate that the basic chemistry underlying these syntheses is common, and that life may not be unique to the Earth. Studies underway in the laboratory make use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a probe to assess associations between selected amino acids and any of several nucleotides comprising their genetic code and genetic anticode sequences. These studies demonstrate a clear selectivity by the anticode sequences, thus confirming the hydrophobicity studies performed by Lacey et al. These studies further support the contention that life is likely a natural result of the physics and chemistry of the universe.

  19. Chemical analysis of superconducting phase in K-doped picene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Takashi; Nishiyama, Saki; Nguyen, Huyen L T; Terao, Takahiro; Izumi, Masanari; Sakai, Yusuke; Zheng, Lu; Goto, Hidenori; Itoh, Yugo; Onji, Taiki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C; Sugino, Hisako; Gohda, Shin; Okamoto, Hideki; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Potassium-doped picene (K3.0picene) with a superconducting transition temperature (T C) as high as 14 K at ambient pressure has been prepared using an annealing technique. The shielding fraction of this sample was 5.4% at 0 GPa. The T C showed a positive pressure-dependence and reached 19 K at 1.13 GPa. The shielding fraction also reached 18.5%. To investigate the chemical composition and the state of the picene skeleton in the superconducting sample, we used energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, MALDI-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Both EDX and MALDI-TOF indicated no contamination with materials other than K-doped picene or K-doped picene fragments, and supported the preservation of the picene skeleton. However, it was also found that a magnetic K-doped picene sample consisted mainly of picene fragments or K-doped picene fragments. Thus, removal of the component contributing the magnetic quality to a superconducting sample should enhance the volume fraction. PMID:27604421

  20. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred P M

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Integrated separation and optical detection for novel on-chip chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.E.; Anex, D.S.; Rakestraw, D.; Gourley, P.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report represents the completion of a two years Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate miniaturized systems for chemical detection and analysis. The future of advanced chemical detection and analysis is in miniature devices that are able to characterize increasingly complex samples, a laboratory on a chip. In this concept, chemical operations used to analyze complicated samples in a chemical laboratory sample handling, species separation, chemical derivitization and detection are incorporated into a miniature device. By using electrokinetic flow, this approach does not require pumps or valves, as fluids in microfabricated channels can be driven by externally applied voltages. This is ideal for sample handling in miniature devices. This project was to develop truly miniature on-chip optical systems based on Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) and diffractive optics. These can be built into a complete system that also has on-chip electrokinetic fluid handling and chemical separation in a microfabricated column. The primary goal was the design and fabrication of an on-chip separation column with fluorescence sources and detectors that, using electrokinetic flow, can be used as the basis of an automated chemical analysis system. Secondary goals involved investigation of a dispersed fluorescence module that can be used to extend the versatility of the basic system and on chip, intracavity laser absorption as a high sensitivity detection technique.

  2. Benchmark quantum-chemical calculations on a complete set of rotameric families of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone and their comparison with modern density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mládek, Arnošt; Krepl, Miroslav; Svozil, Daniel; Cech, Petr; Otyepka, Michal; Banáš, Pavel; Zgarbová, Marie; Jurečka, Petr; Sponer, Jiří

    2013-05-21

    accurate as the less demanding DFT-D3 methods. Preliminary force field tests using several charge sets reveal an almost order of magnitude larger deviations from the reference QM data compared to modern DFT-D3, underlining the challenges facing force field simulations of nucleic acids. As expected, inclusion of the solvent environment approximated by a continuum approach has a large impact on the relative stabilities of different backbone substates and is important when comparing the QM data with structural bioinformatics and other experimental data.

  3. Impact of Agricultural Modernization,Economic Growth and Industrialization on the International Competitiveness of Agricultural Products:Based on the Empirical Analysis of Cointegration and VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YAO

    2015-01-01

    The expanded agricultural trade deficit in recent years has caused widespread concern about the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.In this paper,guided by Michael Porter’s diamond model theory,based on agricultural production and trade data in China and the world from 1986 to 2011,we use principal component analysis,cointegration and vector error correction model,to perform an empirical analysis of the impact of agricultural modernization,economic growth and industrialization on the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.The results show that China’s agricultural modernization is slow,the demand for agricultural products caused by economic growth is increased,and excessive rural labor transfer due to industrialization leads to decline in the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.China should increase its efforts to promote the modernization of agriculture and level of industry nurturing agriculture;use WTO rules to create a good international and domestic environment for the development of China’s agriculture and improvement of the international competitiveness of agricultural products;give full play to the role of demand in boosting the industrial upgrading of domestic agriculture.

  4. Investigation and Analysis on Color Characteristics of Modern Architecture in Nantong%南通近代建筑色彩特征调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the color characteristics of existing modern historic buildings in Nantong by qualitative and quantitative analysis method. We research architectural color of modern architecture in Nantong in aspects of color distribution, color characteristics of various architectural components, color hierarchical pattern. In this paper, we explore and create new method of color sampling and color analysis, attend to establish a data base color for applying to modern architecture conservation, further serving to continuance of historic building color, which an important urban context feature.%  本文通过定性与定量相结合的调查分析近代建筑色彩的方法,对南通市区内现有近代历史建筑进行色彩特征研究,从色彩分布、各类构件色彩特征、色彩等级规律等角度分析南通近代建筑色彩,并探索创新的色彩取样方法和分析方法,建立可直接应用于近代建筑保护实践的色彩数据库,更好地将历史建筑色彩这一重要城市风貌特征得以延续。

  5. Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P; Holt, J

    2008-07-28

    In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how

  6. Different Models Used to Interpret Chemical Changes: Analysis of a Curriculum and Its Impact on French Students' Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermen, Isabelle; Meheut, Martine

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of the new French curriculum on chemical changes describing the underlying models and highlighting their relations to the empirical level. The authors of the curriculum introduced a distinction between the chemical change of a chemical system and the chemical reactions that account for it. We specify the different roles of…

  7. Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Julian; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 μm spectral window has evolved from a routine laboratory technique into a state-of-the-art spectroscopy and sensing tool by benefitting from recent progress in increasingly sophisticated spectra acquisition techniques and advanced materials for generating, guiding, and detecting mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. Today, MIR spectroscopy provides molecular information with trace to ultratrace sensitivity, fast data acquisition rates, and high spectral resolution catering to demanding applications in bioanalytics, for example, and to improved routine analysis. In addition to advances in miniaturized device technology without sacrificing analytical performance, selected innovative applications for MIR spectroscopy ranging from process analysis to biotechnology and medical diagnostics are highlighted in this review.

  8. Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M F; Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V

    1978-01-01

    Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

  9. Chemical analysis of outgassing contaminants on spacecraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnutt, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Methods for analyzing and characterizing outgassing contaminants from such materials as RTV 501 potting compound and S 13 G paint are presented. Fractional distillation of a gross distillate from RTV 501 rubber was carried out and the distilled fractions examined as to their ultraviolet and infrared spectra by gas liquid chromatography. A sensitive technique for structural analysis and molecular identification was found to consist of a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy system, which was determined to be economically unfeasible at present.

  10. Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables

  11. Ontogenetic study of the skull in modern humans and the common chimpanzees: neotenic hypothesis reconsidered with a tridimensional Procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, Xavier; Berge, Christine; Baylac, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Heterochronic studies compare ontogenetic trajectories of an organ in different species: here, the skulls of common chimpanzees and modern humans. A growth trajectory requires three parameters: size, shape, and ontogenetic age. One of the great advantages of the Procrustes method is the precise definition of size and shape for whole organs such as the skull. The estimated ontogenetic age (dental stages) is added to the plot to give a graphical representation to compare growth trajectories. We used the skulls of 41 Homo sapiens and 50 Pan troglodytes at various stages of growth. The Procrustes superimposition of all specimens was completed by statistical procedures (principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and discriminant function) to calculate separately size-related shape changes (allometry common to chimpanzees and humans), and interspecific shape differences (discriminant function). The results confirm the neotenic theory of the human skull (sensu Gould [1977] Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; Alberch et al. [1979] Paleobiology 5:296-317), but modify it slightly. Human growth is clearly retarded in terms of both the magnitude of changes (size-shape covariation) and shape alone (size-shape dissociation) with respect to the chimpanzees. At the end of growth, the adult skull in humans reaches an allometric shape (size-related shape) which is equivalent to that of juvenile chimpanzees with no permanent teeth, and a size which is equivalent to that of adult chimpanzees. Our results show that human neoteny involves not only shape retardation (paedomorphosis), but also changes in relative growth velocity. Before the eruption of the first molar, human growth is accelerated, and then strongly decelerated, relative to the growth of the chimpanzee as a reference. This entails a complex process, which explains why these species reach the same overall (i.e., brain + face) size in adult stage. The neotenic traits seem to concern

  12. The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis microscopy beamline data acquisition system at ELETTRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, C.; Krempaska, R.; Morrison, G. R.

    1996-07-01

    The electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) microscopy data acquisition system enables the user to control the imaging and spectroscopy modes of operation of the beamline ESCA microscopy at ELETTRA. It allows the user to integrate all experiment, beamline and machine operations in one single environment. The system also provides simple data analysis for both spectra and images data to guide further data acquisition.

  13. Inorganic chemical analysis of environmental materials—A lecture series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, the authors prepared and presented a lecture series to the students of a graduate level advanced instrumental analysis class. The slides and text presented in this report are a compilation and condensation of this series of lectures. The purpose of this report is to present the slides and notes and to emphasize the thought processes that should be used by a scientist submitting samples for analyses in order to procure analytical data to answer a research question. First and foremost, the analytical data generated can be no better than the samples submitted. The questions to be answered must first be well defined and the appropriate samples collected from the population that will answer the question. The proper methods of analysis, including proper sample preparation and digestion techniques, must then be applied. Care must be taken to achieve the required limits of detection of the critical analytes to yield detectable analyte concentration (above "action" levels) for the majority of the study's samples and to address what portion of those analytes answer the research question-total or partial concentrations. To guarantee a robust analytical result that answers the research question(s), a well-defined quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) plan must be employed. This QA/QC plan must include the collection and analysis of field and laboratory blanks, sample duplicates, and matrix-matched standard reference materials (SRMs). The proper SRMs may include in-house materials and/or a selection of widely available commercial materials. A discussion of the preparation and applicability of in-house reference materials is also presented. Only when all these analytical issues are sufficiently addressed can the research questions be answered with known certainty.

  14. Analysis on the Cultivation of Modern Chinese Farmers’ Values from the Perspective of Traditional Political Culture

    OpenAIRE

    ZHUANG, Shiwen

    2015-01-01

    Farmers in traditional China have formed the cultural psychology of being reluctant to move from native land and hate to change during the long-term closed production and life. This has exerted negative effect on the values cultivation of farmers today, who possess weak democratic consciousness, low legal spirit and cultural quality as well as strong antagonistic psychology. Measures should be carried out to cultivate their modern values. Firstly, construction of villagers’ self-governance ...

  15. Analysis of Effectiveness of Modern Information and Communication Technologies on Maize Marketing Efficiency in Selected Markets of Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Tione, S. E.; Katengeza, Samson P.; Mangisoni, Julius H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries have been promoting initiatives that aim at reducing information asymmetry among market players especially smallholder farmers. Using co-integration error correction models, the study assessed effectiveness of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) based market interventions in improving maize market efficiency in Malawi. Considering that efficient markets are integrated markets when price difference is only a factor of transaction costs, Threshold Autore...

  16. Geometric morphometric analysis of craniofacial variation, ontogeny and modularity in a cross-sectional sample of modern humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, H.L.L.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Halazonetis, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aimed to quantify craniofacial variation in a sample of modern humans. In all, 187 consecutive orthodontic patients were collected, of which 79 were male (mean age 13.3, SD 3.7, range 7.5-40.8) and 99 were female (mean age 12.3, SD 1.9, range 8.7-19.1). The male and female subgrou

  17. Modern pollution signals in sediments from Windermere, NW England, determined by micro-XRF and lead isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, H.; Croudace, I.W.; Bull, J. M.; Cotterill, C.J.; Dix, J.K.; Taylor, R.N.

    2015-01-01

    High resolution geochemical (Itrax micro-XRF and wavelength dispersive XRF) data, radiochronology (210Pb and 137Cs analyses) and ultra-high precision double-spike lead isotope measurements from lacustrine sediment cores are used in combination with historical research of former mining landscapes to investigate modern pollution signals in sediments from Windermere, the largest lake in the English Lake District. The sediment record suggests that while most element concentrations have been stabl...

  18. Modern slavery–an empirical analysis of source countries of human trafficking and the role of gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Martinsen, Kristine Gran

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 million victims of trafficking from more than 136 countries in the world. This thesis takes a closer look at this modern form of slavery, in particular the nonlinear relation between gender equality and human trafficking outflows. My main hypothesis is that an increase in gender equality first has a positive effect on the amount of trafficking outflows and then a negative effect as countries become more egalitarian. Using cross-national data from the World Bank and from the ...

  19. The public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria: an analysis of selection, forecasting and inventory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Auta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Public health facilities in rural Nigeria have been experiencing a long period of stock-outs and unavailability of modern contraceptives. This work was carried out to review the public health sector supply of modern contraceptives in rural Nigeria in order to make recommendations on how to improve the supply of modern contraceptives in this area. The study reviewed secondary data from country documents and literature obtained from Pubmed, Popline, and Global Health databases; as well as websites of USAID/DELIVER Project, Measure DHS and Federal Ministry of Health. The study revealed that a wide range of contraceptives are included in the essential drug list to be used in secondary facilities, while only a few ones are selected to be used in primary facilities which serve the majority of rural population. Forecasting is done using issue data from the central warehouse because facilities are not generating reliable consumption data. Inventory control is poor in rural facilities, and these facilities do not follow the established inventory control guidelines. The study therefore demonstrates that the current essential drug list should be reviewed in order to include injectables for use in primary facilities, strengthen the current forecasting, data reporting and inventory control system.

  20. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  1. Software for analysis of chemical mixtures--composition, occurrence, distribution, and possible toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathon C.; Skach, Kenneth A.; Toccalino, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The composition, occurrence, distribution, and possible toxicity of chemical mixtures in the environment are research concerns of the U.S. Geological Survey and others. The presence of specific chemical mixtures may serve as indicators of natural phenomena or human-caused events. Chemical mixtures may also have ecological, industrial, geochemical, or toxicological effects. Chemical-mixture occurrences vary by analyte composition and concentration. Four related computer programs have been developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey for research of chemical-mixture compositions, occurrences, distributions, and possible toxicities. The compositions and occurrences are identified for the user-supplied data, and therefore the resultant counts are constrained by the user’s choices for the selection of chemicals, reporting limits for the analytical methods, spatial coverage, and time span for the data supplied. The distribution of chemical mixtures may be spatial, temporal, and (or) related to some other variable, such as chemical usage. Possible toxicities optionally are estimated from user-supplied benchmark data. The software for the analysis of chemical mixtures described in this report is designed to work with chemical-analysis data files retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System but can also be used with appropriately formatted data from other sources. Installation and usage of the mixture software are documented. This mixture software was designed to function with minimal changes on a variety of computer-operating systems. To obtain the software described herein and other U.S. Geological Survey software, visit http://water.usgs.gov/software/.

  2. Modern potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Eric; Pretsch, Ernö

    2007-01-01

    For most chemists, potentiometry with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) primarily means pH measurements with a glass electrode. Those interested in clinical analysis might know that ISEs, routinely used for the determination of blood electrolytes, have a market size comparable to that of glass electrodes. It is even less well known that potentiometry went through a silent revolution during the past decade. The lower detection limit and the discrimination of interfering ions (the selectivity coefficients) have been improved in many cases by factors up to 10(6) and 10(10), respectively, thus allowing their application in fields such as environmental trace analysis and potentiometric biosensing. The determination of complex formation constants for lipophilic hosts and ionic guests is also covered in this Minireview.

  3. Physico Chemical Analysis of Sapota (Manilkara zapota) Coated by Edible Aloe Vera Gel

    OpenAIRE

    N.Padmaja; S. John Don Bosco; J. Sudhakara Rao

    2015-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit have immense significance as they ultimately affect the quality of processed productsprepared from them. Over ripening of Sapota (Manilkara zapota) fruits at the post-harvest stage usually results in dramatic decline in quality.In the present study, physico chemical analysis (which includes Weight loss, Colour, Texture, TSS, pH, TA and Ascorbic acid content) ofedible Aloe vera gel coated Sapota fruits packed in LDPE and stored at 15 ± 2? ...

  4. Permeability and chemical analysis of aromatic polyamide based membranes exposed to sodium hypochlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Ettori, Axel; Gaudichet-Maurin, Emmanuelle; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe; Aimar, Pierre; Causserand, Christel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a cross-linked aromatic polyamide based reverse osmosis membrane was exposed to variable sodium hypochlorite ageing conditions (free chlorine concentration, solution pH) and the resulting evolutions of membrane surface chemical and structural properties were monitored. Elemental and surface chemical analysis performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that chlorine is essentially incorporated on the polyamide...

  5. Analysis of abused drugs by selected ion monitoring: quantitative comparison of electron impact and chemical ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of electron impact and chemical ionization when used for selected ion monitoring analysis of commonly abused drugs. For most of the drugs examined chemical ionization using ammonia as the reactant gas gave the largest single m/e ion current response per unit weight of sample. However, if maximum sensitivity is desired it is important to evaluate electron impact and chemical ionization with respect to both maximum response and degree of interference from background and endogenous materials

  6. Organics. [Nature and analysis of chemical species in water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWalle, F.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle); Lo, C.; Sung, J.; Kalman, D.; Chian, E.S.K.; Giabbai, M.; Ghosal, M.

    1982-01-01

    This literature review presents an overview of nonspecific methods, followed by group and compound specific methods used in the analysis of detergents, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and herbicides, and in process and industrially related compounds. Many studies are focused on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) because of their persistant character in nature even after a substantial decrease in usage. Their presence in sediments is correlated with organic matter and clay owing to their adsorption to these materials. They are also observed in effluents from combustion processes and in sludges from treatment units. Bacteria have been identified that degrade PCBs and give higher rates than the 1-year turnover rate observed in coastal waters. Industrially derived organics have been detected in surface and ground water, drinking water and waste water. Coal conversion processes can lead to releases of toxic nitrogen-containing compounds such as pyridines and sulfur heterocyclics. Included are 8 tables and 242 references. (JMT)

  7. The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sobek; Sofia, Bejgarn; Christina, Rudén; Magnus, Breitholtz

    2016-08-10

    A major challenge for society is to manage the risks posed by the many chemicals continuously emitted to the environment. All chemicals in production and use cannot be monitored and science-based strategies for prioritization are essential. In this study we review available data to investigate which substances are included in environmental monitoring programs and published research studies reporting analyses of chemicals in Baltic Sea fish between 2000 and 2012. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion of priority settings in environmental chemical monitoring and research, which is closely linked to chemical management. In total, 105 different substances or substance groups were analyzed in Baltic Sea fish. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most studied substances or substance groups. The majority, 87%, of all analyses comprised 20% of the substances or substance groups, whereas 46 substance groups (44%) were analyzed only once. Almost three quarters of all analyses regarded a POP-substance (persistent organic pollutant). These results demonstrate that the majority of analyses on environmental contaminants in Baltic Sea fish concern a small number of already regulated chemicals. Legacy pollutants such as POPs pose a high risk to the Baltic Sea due to their hazardous properties. Yet, there may be a risk that prioritizations for chemical analyses are biased based on the knowns of the past. Such biases may lead to society failing in identifying risks posed by yet unknown hazardous chemicals. Alternative and complementary ways to identify priority chemicals are needed. More transparent communication between risk assessments performed as part of the risk assessment process within REACH and monitoring programs, and information on chemicals contained in consumer articles, would offer ways to identify chemicals for environmental analysis. PMID:27222376

  8. Environmental Chemical Analysis (by B. B. Kebbekus and S. Mitra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Reviewed By Nathan W.

    1999-11-01

    This text helps to fill a void in the market, as there are relatively few undergraduate instrumental analysis texts designed specifically for the expanding population of environmental science students. R. N. Reeve's introductory, open-learning Environmental Analysis (Wiley, 1994) is one of the few, and it is aimed at a lower level and is less appropriate for traditional classroom study. Kebbekus and Mitra's book appears to be an update of I. Marr and M. Cresser's excellent 1983 text by the same name (and also published under the Chapman and Hall imprint). It assumes no background in instrumental methods of analysis but it does depend upon a good general chemistry background in kinetic and equilibrium calculations and the standard laboratory techniques found in a classical introduction to analytical chemistry. The slant taken by the authors is aimed more toward engineers, not only in the choice of topics, but also in how they are presented. For example, the statistical significance tests presented follow an engineering format rather than the standard used in analytical chemistry. This approach does not detract from the book's clarity. The writing style is concise and the book is generally well written. The earlier text, which has become somewhat of a classic, took the unusual step of teaching the instruments in the context of their environmental application. It was divided into sections on the "atmosphere", the "hydrosphere", the "lithosphere", and the "biosphere". This text takes a similar approach in the second half, with chapters on methods for air, water, and solid samples. Users who intend to use the book as a text instead of a reference will appreciate the addition of chapters in the first half of the book on spectroscopic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric methods. The six chapters in these two parts of the book along with four chapters scattered throughout on environmental measurements, sampling, sample preparation, and quality assurance make a nice

  9. Systematic Analysis of the Lag in Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine%中医现代化滞后的制度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王屹亭; 沃红梅; 徐玲

    2012-01-01

    中医的科学性是毋庸置疑的,但作为传统医学它必须经历现代化才能适应社会的需要.从近代资料对比中解读西医现代化的进程和中医现代化的滞后.并从医学教育和社会保障两个方面,分析中医落后的直接原因.消除这些阻碍因素将有助于构建适宜中医现代化的环境,让中医重新焕发生机.%Traditional Chinese Medicine is no doubt a form of life science. However, it must experience modernization to a-dapt to the needs of society. Based on the review of development history, this article compares the modernization process in Western Medicine with it in Traditional Chinese Medicine which is relatively lagging. By the analysis of differences in education system and insurance system, the main systematic reasons for the lag can be concluded. Eliminating these obstacles will be helpful to the modernization and development of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  10. IDEOLOGY OF MODERN COSSACK MOVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Matsievsky German Olegovitch

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: to consider the main ideas of the Cossack movement which have defined a place and a role of the modern Cossacks in the Russian society. Methodology: methodological basis of research are the standard principles of a historicism and the objectivity, assuming the concrete historical approach to the analysis of events in their dialectic development. Results: some substantial directions of development of ideology of modern Cossack movement are revealed: use of traditions of Cossack democr...

  11. HR technology in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinkina Ol'ga Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article made a study and analysis of the concepts «HR technology", "recruitment", "interview" and other terms of the application of the mechanism of HR technologies in modern Russian market of Russia. The scheme of decision-making in recruiting Russian companies and Western, identifies key differences. Fully described algorithm measures for staff selection western companies. The article also discusses the features of recruitment in relation to modern Western companies operating in the Russian market.

  12. Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Gingerbread Plum (Neocarya macrophylla Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidjani Amza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla seeds, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed the following composition: moisture 10.57 and 10%, ash 4.43 and 6.43%, fat 47.28 and 2.14%, crude protein 20.37 and 61.71%, carbohydrates 8.64 and 12.10% and crude fiber 8.70 and 7.37% for Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (GPSF and Defatted Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (DGPSF respectively. Oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids with 47.15, 19.10 and 17.64% respectively. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.72% of total fatty acids. The main saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic, with minute amounts of arachidic. Magnesium, potassium and calcium were the predominant elements present in the seeds. Copper, iron and manganese were also detected in appreciable amounts. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural Organization/W orld Health Organization (FAO/WHO for humans. The results of the present investigation showed that gingerbread plum seeds are a rich source of many important nutrients that appear to have a very positive effect on human health.

  13. Chemical analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in M62

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, E; Ferraro, F R; Origlia, L; Lanzoni, B; Massari, D; Dalessandro, E

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light-elements (O, Na, Al and Mg). For the majority (5 out 6) of the AGB targets we find that the abundances, of both iron and titanium, determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of Non-Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O-Na, Al-Mg and Na-Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for globular cluster stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first generation stars are expected to lie, similarly to what recently found for the AGB population of NGC6752. W...

  14. Multivariate data analysis for depth resolved chemical classification and quantification of sulfur in SNMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M.; Goschnick, J.

    2005-09-01

    The quantification of elements in quadrupole based SNMS is hampered by superpositions of atomic and cluster signals. Moreover, the conventional SNMS data evaluation employs only atomic signals to determine elemental concentrations, which not allows any chemical specifications of the determined elements. Improvements in the elemental quantification and additional chemical information can be obtained from kinetic energy analysis and the inclusion of molecular signals into mass spectra evaluation. With the help of multivariate data analysis techniques, the combined information is used for the first time for a quantitative and chemically distinctive determination of sulfur. The kinetic energy analysis, used to solve the interference of sulfur with O 2 at masses 32-34 D, turned out to be highly important for the new type of evaluation.

  15. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. PMID:27311789

  16. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited

  17. Post-communism: postmodernity or modernity revisited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L

    1997-12-01

    Coinciding with the popularity of postmodern theory, the fall of communism appeared to offer further evidence of the exhaustion of modernity. Such analysis is grounded in a view that the Soviet system was the epitome of modernity. An alternative approach regards post-communism as opening new terrains of struggle for modernity. Thus Habermas and others suggest that post-communist societies are rejoining the trajectory of western modernity whose problems they now recapitulate. This alternative view implies that Soviet systems were something other than 'modern', although their nature is not always clearly defined. However, even if post-communist societies do encounter problems of modernity, they do so in new circumstances where modernist notions of social development have become problematic. This article argues that, contrary to those who regard modernization or postmodernization as irresistible trends, core post-communist societies are likely to develop along an alternative path to that of western modernity. This is tentatively described as 'neo-mercantilist'.

  18. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted

  19. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on Ginkgo biloba have appeared, and about 400 of them pertain to chemical analysis in a broad sense and are cited herein. The more important ones are discussed and, where relevant, compared with the b...

  20. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  1. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

    2000-08-01

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

  2. 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis....... In the mechanical analysis, the developments of the process induced stresses and distortions during the process are predicted using the already obtained temperature and degree of cure profiles together with the glass transition temperature. The predictions of the transverse transient stresses and distortions...... are found to be similar as compared to the available data in the literature. Using the proposed 3D mechanical analysis, different mechanical behaviour is obtained for the longitudinal stress development as distinct from the stress development in the transverse directions. Even though the matrix material...

  3. Modern Ferrite Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Modern Ferrite Technology, 2nd Ed. offers the readers an expert overview of the latest ferrite advances as well as their applications in electronic components. This volume develops the interplay among material properties, component specification and device requirements using ferrites. Throughout, emphasis is placed on practical technological concerns as opposed to mathematical and physical aspects of the subject. The book traces the origin of the magnetic effect in ferrites from the level of the simplest particle and then increases the scope to include larger hierarchies. From the desired magnetic properties, the author deduces the physical and chemical material parameters, taking into consideration major chemistry, impurity levels, ceramic microstructures and grain boundary effects. He then discusses the processing conditions and associated conditions required for implementation. In addition to conventional ceramic techniques, he describes non-conventional methods such as co-precipitation, co-spray roasting ...

  4. Biological and chemical removal of Cr(VI) from waste water: cost and benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aynur; Arisoy, Münevver

    2007-08-17

    The objective of the present study is cost and benefit analysis of biological and chemical removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] ions. Cost and benefit analysis were done with refer to two separate studies on removal of Cr(VI), one of heavy metals with a crucial role concerning increase in environmental pollution and disturbance of ecological balance, through biological adsorption and chemical ion-exchange. Methods of biological and chemical removal were compared with regard to their cost and percentage in chrome removal. According to the result of the comparison, cost per unit in chemical removal was calculated 0.24 euros and the ratio of chrome removal was 99.68%, whereas those of biological removal were 0.14 and 59.3% euros. Therefore, it was seen that cost per unit in chemical removal and chrome removal ratio were higher than those of biological removal method. In the current study where chrome removal is seen as immeasurable benefit in terms of human health and the environment, percentages of chrome removal were taken as measurable benefit and cost per unit of the chemicals as measurable cost.

  5. The status and thecountermeasure analysis of Dalian modern service industry%大连市现代服务业的发展及其态势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴凯; 龙亚平

    2012-01-01

    Dalian service industry. Thirdly, there are still great gaps between the level of the tertiary industry in Dalian and in other developed cities. Fourthly, compared to the overall level of the developed country, the development of modern logistics industry is still in the initial stage. Then it analyzes the advantages, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Dalian modern service industry qualitatively. Finally it presents that Dalian should follow the strategies of developing competitive industries, exerting the policy advantage, industry-driving development of producer services and establishing improvement personnel training in the development of Dalian modern service industry according to the analysis result.

  6. Analysis of the National Modernizers Network for the Support of the Public Administration Reform Process from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PROFIROIU

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The reform process of the state and implicitly of the public administration was a priority for the past governments of Romania. During 2004- 2009, within the reform process, the main actors involved in the coordination, implementation and monitoring of reform measures were: the Prime Minister, the Superior Council for Public Administration Reform, Public Policy Coordination and Structural Adjustment, the Ministry of Public Finance, the General Secretariat of Government, Ministry of Administration and Interior (renamed for a short time Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, the Central Unit for Public Administration Reform, National Institute of Administration, the National Agency of Civil Servants, and the National Modernizers Network. For evaluation of aspects related to the reform process it was designed a selective research within the members of the National Modernizers Network, for assessing their perception of the public administration reform undertaken by the institutions presented above. Evaluating their opinion can be an important point in the revitalization of the area of the administration reform process. Also, the research conducted aimed at assessing the degree of modernizers’ involvement in activities related to important aspects of the reform process: strategic planning, formulating and evaluating public policies, financial management, human resources management, decentralization, introduction of new information and communication technologies and administrative simplification.

  7. Viability Analysis of Waste Tires as Material for Rail Vibration and Noise Control in Modern Tram Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focused on the effect of using damping chamber elements made from waste tires on railway noise reduction. First, the energy absorption characteristics of damping chamber elements with various gradation combinations and compaction indices were measured in the laboratory using compression testing. The laboratory compression results demonstrated that the optimal gradation combination of damping chamber elements is as follows: the content of fine rubber particles is 10%, the content of coarse granules is 90%, and the optimal compaction index is 0.98. Next, the findings from the laboratory compression-test studies were used to produce damping chamber elements that were applied to a full-scale modern track model in the laboratory. The measurements of the dynamic properties indicated that the damping chamber elements could significantly reduce the vibration levels of the rail head. Finally, the damping chamber elements, which had been proven effective through laboratory dynamic tests, were widely applied to test rail sections in the field. The field tests demonstrated that damping chamber elements can significantly increase the track vibration decay rate in the frequency range of 200–10000 Hz. Therefore, damping chamber elements made from waste tires are able to control rail vibration and noise in modern tram track systems.

  8. 现代汉语教学改革论析%Analysis on the Teaching Reform of Modern Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩李

    2014-01-01

    "Modern Chinese Language"is a professional and ma-jor course for Chinese language and literature majors in higher normal universities, and it is also a highly practical course. Its teaching quality and effect directly influences normal university students' language ability and practical language application a-bility, and even further influences the language application ability among the entire society. But there are still some deficiencies to be improved in the teaching of"Modern Chinese Language".%现代汉语是高等师范院校中文专业开设的一门专业主干课程,实践性很强。其教学质量的高低与教学效果的好坏直接关系到师范生的语言文字能力和实际语言运用水平,进而也关系和影响到整个社会的语言文字应用水平,但现代汉语课的教学还存在着一定的弊端,有需要改进和提高之处。

  9. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Ellegaard, Ole;

    2011-01-01

    Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine longterm trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research......Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract...... attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20...

  10. Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for MgS , PO4(T ), NHU and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for CaS often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity.

  11. [Relativity of commercial specification of Menthae Herba based on chemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Zhao, Ming; Shao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhen; Peng, Hua-sheng; Han Bang-xing; Zhang, Wei-wan-qi; Gu, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare the differences of 35 Menthae Herba samples collected on the market and at producing areas, the contents of six total terpenoids, the essential oil and chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed, which provided evidences for drawing up the commodity specifications and grading criteria of Menthae Herba. GC-MS method was used to analyze the chemical constituents of 35 different samples. The chromatographic fingerprints obtained by using GC were then evaluated by similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The relativity between the content of six terpenoids and the essential oil were studied. In this study, the chemical profiles of 35 samples from different producing areas had significant disparity. All samples collected in the report could be categorized into four chemical types, L-menthol, pulegone, carvone and L-menthone, but the chemical profiles had no relationship with the areas. The chromatographic fingerprints of the samples from different types were dissimilar, while the different producing areas were difficult to be separated. It was indicated that the content of volatile oil was positively correlated with the content of L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids. The content of the essential oil, L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids of Menthae Herba were considered as one of the commercial specifications and grading criteria. These results in the research could be helpful to draw up the commercial specification and grading criteria of Menthae Herba from a view of chemical information.

  12. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO2 emissions

  13. Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the modern carbon fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Jimenez

    2009-12-01

    correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted fire impacts or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA. A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB, resulting in 15% higher modern carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 37% of organic carbon (OC and 30% total carbon (TC are from modern sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional modern carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA.

    Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15–23% of the OA and 7–9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2–3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area. The ambient BBOA/ΔCH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day, which may explain some disagreements between BB impacts from afternoon aircraft flights and those from 24-h ground measurements. Finally, we show that there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts.

  14. Chemical structure of wood charcoal by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Nicole; Harper, David; Rials, Timothy; Elder, Thomas

    2006-05-17

    In this work, the effect of temperature on charcoal structure and chemical composition is investigated for four tree species. Wood charcoal carbonized at various temperatures is analyzed by mid infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis and by thermogravimetric analysis to characterize the chemical composition during the carbonization process. The multivariate models of charcoal were able to distinguish between species and wood thermal treatments, revealing that the characteristics of the wood charcoal depend not only on the wood species, but also on the carbonization temperature. This work demonstrates the potential of mid infrared spectroscopy in the whiskey industry, from the identification and classification of the wood species for the mellowing process to the chemical characterization of the barrels after the toasting and charring process. PMID:19127715

  15. Evaluation of C60 secondary ion mass spectrometry for the chemical analysis and imaging of fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Edward; Demoranville, Leonard T; Gillen, Greg

    2013-09-10

    The feasibility of using C60(+) cluster primary ion bombardment secondary ion mass spectrometry (C60(+) SIMS) for the analysis of the chemical composition of fingerprints is evaluated. It was found that C60(+) SIMS could be used to detect and image the spatial localization of a number of sebaceous and eccrine components in fingerprints. These analyses were also found to not be hindered by the use of common latent print powder development techniques. Finally, the ability to monitor the depth distribution of fingerprint constituents was found to be possible - a capability which has not been shown using other chemical imaging techniques. This paper illustrates a number of strengths and potential weaknesses of C60(+) SIMS as an additional or complimentary technique for the chemical analysis of fingerprints.

  16. Chemical Speciation Analysis and Environmental Behaviour of 127I and 129I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    H. The absorption capacity of iodate is low and reduces quickly when its concentration increases. Compared with activated charcoal, DEAE 32 cellulose showed a lower adsorption capacity of inorganic and organic iodine species. Adsorption of iodine species onto activated charcoal and DEAE 32 cellulose from seawater......This thesis deals with chemical speciation analysis and behaviour of the anthropogenic radioisotope 129I as well as stable iodine 127I in environmental samples such as freshwater, seawater, soils, sediments and seaweed. The behaviour and chemical speciation of iodine (127I and 129I...... been present in the biosphere for a relatively short time, may not show the same behaviour as the stable 127I isotope. The present study illustrates this. Chemical speciation analysis of 129I and 127I as iodide, iodate and total inorganic iodine in seawater samples from the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak...

  17. Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using High Resolution Mm-Wave Rotational Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianle; Branco, Daniela; Thomas, Jessica; Medvedev, Ivan; Dolson, David; Nam, Hyun-Joo; O, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy enables chemical sensors that are both sensitive and highly specific, which is well suited for analysis of expired human breath. We have previously reported on detection of breath ethanol, methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde using THz sensors. This paper will outline our present efforts in this area, with specific focus on our ongoing quest to correlate levels of blood glucose with concentrations of a few breath chemicals known to be affected by elevated blood sugar levels. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed. Fosnight, A.M., B.L. Moran, and I.R. Medvedev, Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach. Applied Physics Letters, 2013. 103(13): p. 133703-5.

  18. 近代江南地区化肥和有机肥使用变化研究%On the Application Changes of Chemical Fertilizers and Organic Fertilizers in Southeast China in Modern Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过慈明; 惠富平

    2012-01-01

    化肥作为西方农学的主要标志物,20世纪初进入中国,二三十年代在江南以及沿海省份的施用量逐渐增加,但始终处于试验及推广阶段,未能在农业生产中普遍应用。有机肥(农家肥)是中国的传统肥料,近代江南的肥料施用始终以有机肥为主体,农学家还借助西方实验科学手段研究有机肥积制及施用问题。化肥传入对当地农业生产的影响有限。外来的化肥与本土的有机肥各有优劣,化肥的销售、施用与推广,以及化肥与有机肥的配合使用等问题.引发相关农学家及管理者的关注、争论和试验研究,并逐步改变了江南地区传统的肥料观念和施肥方式.人们总结出以有机肥为主、化肥为辅的一套施肥经验。近代江南地区化肥与有机肥的应用、推广和研究的变化,从一个侧面反映出中西方农学交汇的艰难过程和历史特点,对当今倡导化肥的合理使用和有机肥的回归具有一定参考价值。%Chemical fertilizer as the main marker of Western agriculture was first introduced to China in the early 20th century. During the 1920s and 1930s, its application gradually increased in the south and the coastal provinces, but was still in the experimental and promotion stage and couldn't be widely used in the agricultural production. Organic fertilizer (manure) is China's traditional fertilizer. In modern times, organic fertilizer was still the main fertilizer used in south-eastern China. Moreover, agronomists began to study the production and application of organic fertilizers by means of Western experimental science. As a result, chemical fertilizer had limited influence on the local agricultural production. Foreign fertilizer and domestic organic fertilizer have their own advantages and disadvantages. The sales, application and promotion of chemical fertilizer as well as the combination of chemical fertilizer with organic

  19. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and canbe interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analyticalmethod for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, andease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using opticalchemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. Thiswork summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using opticalchemical sensors in FIA.

  20. Development of pure component property models for chemical product-process design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol Shivajirao

    Property prediction models based on the group-contribution+ (GC+) approach have been developed to provide reliable predictions of pure component properties together with uncertainties of predicted property values which is much needed information in performing chemical product and process design...... into ProPred®, a property estimation toolbox of Integrated Computer Aided System, ICAS®, developed at CAPEC, DTU. Finally, a methodology for performing sensitivity analysis of process design due to uncertainties of property estimates is presented. This methodology allows the user to evaluate the effects...... and analysis of sustainable chemical processes. For developing property models, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis is employed. The methodology includes a parameter estimation step to determine parameters of the property model and an uncertainty analysis step to establish...

  1. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation. PMID:18093731

  2. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  3. Deconvolution-based resolution enhancement of chemical ice core records obtained by continuous flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Andersen, Katrine K.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann;

    2005-01-01

    Continuous flow analysis (CFA) has become a popular measuring technique for obtaining high-resolution chemical ice core records due to an attractive combination of measuring speed and resolution. However, when analyzing the deeper sections of ice cores or cores from low-accumulation areas, there ...

  4. Fertilizer/Chemical Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for fertilizer/chemical sales and service workers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  5. Supramolecular chemical shift reagents inducing conformational transitions: NMR analysis of carbohydrate homooligomer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeren, Sophie; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of supramolecular chemical shift reagents as a tool to improve signal resolution for the NMR analysis of homooligomers. Non-covalent interactions with the shift reagent can constrain otherwise flexible analytes inducing a conformational transition that results in signal...

  6. Chemical analysis during lifecycle of munition; from Cradle-to-Grave (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M. van; Duvalois, W.; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analysis is one of the most important parts within an energetic material lifecycle. It starts with the qualification and quantification of the raw materials and/or the intermediate materials used for the manufacturing of the final product. When the product is finished there is quality contr

  7. Chemical analysis during lifecycle of munition; from Cradle-to-Grave (Poster)

    OpenAIRE

    van Hulst, M.; Duvalois, W.; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analysis is one of the most important parts within an energetic material lifecycle. It starts with the qualification and quantification of the raw materials and/or the intermediate materials used for the manufacturing of the final product. When the product is finished there is quality control and finally after functioning or demilitarisation components will end-up in the environment.

  8. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on

  9. On the graph and systems analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks with mass action kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recent progresses on the interplay between the graph theory and systems theory, we revisit the analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks described by mass action kinetics by reformulating it using the graph knowledge of the underlying networks. Based on this formulation, we

  10. Quantitative analysis of chemical elements in single cells using nuclear microprobe and nano-probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the role of trace elements at cellular level requires the use of state-of-the-art analytical tools that could achieve enough sensitivity and spatial resolution. We developed a new methodology for the accurate quantification of chemical element distribution in single cells based on a combination of ion beam analysis techniques STIM, PIXE and RBS. The quantification procedure relies on the development of a STIM data analysis software (Paparamborde). Validity of this methodology and limits are discussed here. The method allows the quantification of trace elements (μg/g) with a 19.8 % uncertainty in cellular compartments with mass below 0.1 ng. The main limit of the method lies in the poor number of samples that can be analyzed, due to long irradiation times required and limited access to ion beam analysis facilities. This is the reason why we developed a database for cellular chemical composition capitalization (BDC4). BDC4 has been designed in order to use cellular chemical composition as a tracer for biological activities and is expected to provide in the future reference chemical compositions for any cellular type or compartment. Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology to the study of nuclear toxicology of cobalt compounds is presented here showing that STIM analysis is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. (author)

  11. Transportation Structure Analysis Using SD-MOP in World Modern Garden City: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the “garden city” was developed theoretically to offer solutions to serious city development problems such as traffic congestion, population, and environmental pollution, among which the transportation is considered the most important. The question is how to develop balanced transportation in a garden city. Transportation is a complex system, particularly in a garden city. Therefore, we establish a new approach named the transportation multiobjective optimization system dynamics  (SD-MOP model, which firstly calculates the optimal proportion of different transport means with an MOP approach and then applies them to the dynamic transportation system to analyze the results and analyze the influence on the whole system using different transportation means variation. In this paper, we take Chengdu as an example, one of the few cities in the world declared as building a garden city, and then develop some recommendations about world modern garden city transportation system development.

  12. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FRESH AND FERMENTED FRUIT JUICES PROBIOTICATED WITH LACTOBACILLUS CASEI

    OpenAIRE

    Bathal Vijaya Kumar; Mannepula Sreedharamurthy; Obulam Vijaya Sarathi Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the suitability of different fruit juices for probiotication by using Lactobacillus casei. Phyto-chemical analysis of different fruit juices (mango, sapota, grape and cantaloupe) were carried out using the standard methods. Carbohydrates, flavoniods, tannins, glycosides were present and alkaloids and saponins were absent in all the above fruit juices. Further analysis by TLC and DPPH methods indicated good antioxidant activity in all the fruit juice...

  13. On the graph and systems analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks with mass action kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu; der Schaft, Arjan van

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recent progresses on the interplay between the graph theory and systems theory, we revisit the analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks described by mass action kinetics by reformulating it using the graph knowledge of the underlying networks. Based on this formulation, we can characterize the space of equilibrium points and provide simple dynamical analysis on the state space modulo the space of equilibrium points.

  14. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

    2012-11-01

    GOALS OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary

  15. Network technology for depot modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  16. Kinematic analysis of modern dance movement “stag jump” within the context of impact loads, injury to the locomotor system and its prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwa, Joanna; Dworak, Lechosław B.; Michnik, Robert; Jurkojć, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper presents a case study of kinematic analysis of the modern dance movement known as the “stag jump”. Detailed analysis of the kinematic structure of this movement as performed by the dancers, accompanied by measurements of impact forces during landing, will allow the authors to determine, in subsequent model-based research phases, the forces acting in knee joints of the lower landing limb. Material/Methods Two professional modern dancers participated in the study: a male and a female. The study consisted in recording the values of ground reaction and body motion, and then determining and analyzing kinematic parameters of performed movements. Results The results of measurement of joint angles in the landing lower limb, pelvis, and foot position in relation to the ground, as well as the level of vertical components of ground reaction, provided insight into the loading response phase of the “stag jump”. The measurements and obtained results show differences between the man and woman in ground reactions and kinematic quantities. Conclusions The results obtained during the research may be used in the development and teaching of dancing movements. Training sessions, carried out in the biomechanical laboratory, with active participation of dancing teachers, could form a basis for a prevention model of injuries and physical overloads occurring within this occupational group. Primary differences in the “stag jump” performance technique probably result from the different educational path the man and the woman went through. PMID:24971626

  17. Postmodernism in Belgrade architecture: Between cultural modernity and societal modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the introduction and articulation of ideas and aesthetic practice of postmodernism in architecture of late socialism in Yugoslavia, with the focus on Belgrade architecture scene. Theoretical and methodological point of departure of this analysis is Jürgen Habermas's thesis of modernity as an incomplete, i.e., unfinished project, from his influential essay “Die Moderne: Ein unvollendetes Projekt” (1980. The thematic framework of the paper is shifted towards issues raised by Habermas which concern relations of cultural modernity and societal modernization, or rather towards consideration of architectural postmodernity in relation to the split between culture and society. The paper investigates architectural discourse which was profiled in Belgrade in 1980s, in a historical context of cultural modernity simultaneous with Habermas's text, but in different conditions of societal modernization of Yugoslav late socialism. In that, the principle methodological question concerns the interpretation of postmodern architecture as part of the new cultural production within the social restructuration of late and/or end of socialism as a system, that being analogous to Fredric Jameson's thesis of “Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism” (1984.

  18. Chemical data visualization and analysis with incremental generative topographic mapping: big data challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Héléna A; Baskin, Igor I; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2015-01-26

    This paper is devoted to the analysis and visualization in 2-dimensional space of large data sets of millions of compounds using the incremental version of generative topographic mapping (iGTM). The iGTM algorithm implemented in the in-house ISIDA-GTM program was applied to a database of more than 2 million compounds combining data sets of 36 chemicals suppliers and the NCI collection, encoded either by MOE descriptors or by MACCS keys. Taking advantage of the probabilistic nature of GTM, several approaches to data analysis were proposed. The chemical space coverage was evaluated using the normalized Shannon entropy. Different views of the data (property landscapes) were obtained by mapping various physical and chemical properties (molecular weight, aqueous solubility, LogP, etc.) onto the iGTM map. The superposition of these views helped to identify the regions in the chemical space populated by compounds with desirable physicochemical profiles and the suppliers providing them. The data sets similarity in the latent space was assessed by applying several metrics (Euclidean distance, Tanimoto and Bhattacharyya coefficients) to data probability distributions based on cumulated responsibility vectors. As a complementary approach, data sets were compared by considering them as individual objects on a meta-GTM map, built on cumulated responsibility vectors or property landscapes produced with iGTM. We believe that the iGTM methodology described in this article represents a fast and reliable way to analyze and visualize large chemical databases.

  19. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  20. Extracting chemical information from plane wave calculations by a 3D 'fuzzy atoms' analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakó, I.; Stirling, A.; Seitsonen, A. P.; Mayer, I.

    2013-03-01

    Bond order and valence indices have been calculated by the method of the three-dimensional 'fuzzy atoms' analysis, using the numerical molecular orbitals obtained from plane wave DFT calculations, i.e., without introducing any external atom-centered functions. Weight functions of both Hirshfeld and Becke types have been applied. The results are rather close to the similar 'fuzzy atoms' ones obtained by using atom-centered basis sets and agree well with the chemical expectations, stressing the power of the genuine chemical concepts.

  1. ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF AGARWOOD OIL FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY (GCMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim; Nur Izzah Ismail; Phirdaous Abbas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Agarwood oil is a highly prized type of oil due to its unique aroma. The oil is extracted from the fragrant resin found in the agarwood tree (trunk).  The unique aroma and quality of agarwood resin and oil are contributed by the presence of certain chemical compounds. In this work, analysis and comparison of the chemical compounds of agarwood oil from A. malaccensis, A. sub-integra and a mixture of both were conducted.  The essential oils were diluted in hexane (5%) prior to gas chr...

  2. Computer-Aided Modelling of Short-Path Evaporation for Chemical Product Purification, Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    An important stage in the design process for many chemical products is its manufacture where, for a class of chemical products that may be thermally unstable (such as, drugs, insecticides, flavours /fragrances, and so on), the purification step plays a major role. Short-path evaporation is a safe...... through a computer-aided modelling framework, which allows the use of systematic simulation strategies for various types of design/analysis problems. The main features of the model and the modelling framework are highlighted through two case studies: (a) the purification of a reaction mixture containing...

  3. Impact analysis of different chemical pre-treatments on colour of apple discs during drying process

    OpenAIRE

    Magdić, D.; Lukinac, Jasmina; Jokić, Stela; Čačić-Kenjerić, F.; Bilić, M.; Velić, D.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare colour changes of chemically pre-treated dried apple discs. Changes were observed by chromameter in L*a*b* colour model by using Minolta chromameter CR-400 and by image analysis system in RGB colour model. Apple discs variety "Gold Rush" were pre-treated and dried in laboratory tray drier at drying temperature 70 °C and at airflow velocity of 1.5 ms-1. Different chemical pre-treatments were applied on apple discs (dipping in 0.5% ascorbic acid sol...

  4. 泉州市现代服务业发展的SWOT战略模式%Development Strategy of Quanzhou Modern Service Industry Under the SWOT Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林青

    2012-01-01

    泉州市要实现经济大市向经济强市的跨越,需要转变经济增长方式、需要培育崛起的竞争机制、需要创新型企业的推动,这些都离不开服务业的支撑,对服务业的要求更高,即需要高技术含量、高人力资本、高附加值以及新技术、新业态、新方式的现代服务业来为泉州市的跨越式发展助力。拟对泉州市现代服务业的发展进行SWOT分析,指出泉州市发展现代服务业有着自己的优势和劣势,机遇和威胁,并根据SWOT分析,进一步用SWOT矩阵确定泉州市现代服务业发展的战略选择与战略思路。%In order to realize the span economic development , Quanzhou need to change economic development way , to establish the competitive mechanism, and to be driven by the innovative enterprises. These are inseparable from the support of service industry. The modern service industry that with high technology , high added value, high human capital as well as new business modes is the driven force for Quanzhou' development. Based on the SWOT analysis , the paper discusses the develop- ment of modern service industry in Quanzhou city , especially the advantages and disadvantages of the service industry, the op- portunities and threats . It put forward a strategic choice and a strategic approach for developing modern service industry in Quanzhou city.

  5. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic analysis of a 5 kw, compact steam reformer - PEMFC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Luis Evelio Garcia; Oliveira, Amir Antonio Martins [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: evelio@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    Here we present a thermodynamic and chemical kinetic analysis of the methane steam reforming for production of 5 kw of electrical power in a PEM fuel cell. The equilibrium analysis is based on the method of element potentials to find the state of minimum Gibbs free energy for the system and provides the equilibrium concentration of the reforming products. The objective of this analysis is to obtain the range of reforming temperature, pressure and steam-methane molar ratio that results in maximum hydrogen production subjected to low carbon monoxide production and negligible coke formation. The thermal analysis provides the heat transfer rates associated with the individual processes of steam production, gas-phase superheating and reforming necessary to produce 5 kw of electrical power in a PEM fuel cell and allows for the calculation of thermal efficiencies. Then, the chemical reaction pathways for hydrogen production in steam reforming are discussed and the available chemical, adsorption and equilibrium constants are analyzed in terms of thermodynamic consistency. This analysis provides the framework for the reactor sizing and for establishing the adequate operation conditions. (author)

  6. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  7. Modernization and restructuring of realistic thermal hydraulic system analysis code, RELAP5/MOD3.3.1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The code architecture entails the programming language and the code database. Various recent programming languages such as C, C++, Fortran 90, were considered as the candidate language for the modernization of RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2. Among them, Fortran 90 was selected as a basic programming laguage for the modernization and restructuring of the code. Most of header file (*.h) and equivalenced variables in RELAP5 have been replaced with members in the MODULE, which greatly enhance the code maintenance and readability. The FTB package is used for the dynamic memory management (DMM) of RELAP5. Although FTB DMM features are very successful, the use of FTB has been the obstacle in the maintenance of the code. It is difficult to understand and change the coding, and it requires a significant effort to find out index errors in large memory pools. With new features introduced in Fortran 90, it is possible to slove dynamic allocation problems within the standard features in an elegant, clear safe way. Each of FTB data blocks can be replaced by the suitably organized derived variables in MODULE and the standard DMM scheme. This DMM scheme provides the code flexibility which can save the memory requirements depending on the problem sizes without a extensive use of the complex FTB package. The current user's interface of the RELAP5 consists of a set of input file, output file, and restart/plot file. Many users complain that this interface is not user friendly. It was mainly caused by the text-oriented programming, namly console programming during the past many years. Now, windows programming has become popular in most areas of software development. Using this windows programming technique, the user friend freatures can be implemented. The Visual Fortran Quick Win run-time library helps to turn graphics programs into simple Windows applications. RELAP5 code has been re-compiled with the Quick Win feature, and the mask for user's dialog and graphical x-y plot were designed. This

  8. Humidity independent mass spectrometry for gas phase chemical analysis via ambient proton transfer reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongying; Huang, Guangming, E-mail: gmhuang@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-03-31

    Graphical abstract: Direct and humidity independent mass spectrometry analysis of gas phase chemicals could be achieved via ambient proton transfer ionization, ion intensity was found to be stable with humidity ranged from ∼10% to ∼100%. - Highlights: • A humidity independent mass spectrometric method for gas phase samples analysis. • A universal and good sensitivity method. • The method can real time identify plant released raw chemicals. - Abstract: In this work, a humidity independent mass spectrometric method was developed for rapid analysis of gas phase chemicals. This method is based upon ambient proton transfer reaction between gas phase chemicals and charged water droplets, in a reaction chamber with nearly saturate humidity under atmospheric pressure. The humidity independent nature enables direct and rapid analysis of raw gas phase samples, avoiding time- and sample-consuming sample pretreatments in conventional mass spectrometry methods to control sample humidity. Acetone, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene were used to evaluate the analytical performance of present method. The limits of detection for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene are in the range of ∼0.1 to ∼0.3 ppbV; that of benzene is well below the present European Union permissible exposure limit for benzene vapor (5 μg m{sup −3}, ∼1.44 ppbV), with linear ranges of approximately two orders of magnitude. The majority of the homemade device contains a stainless steel tube as reaction chamber and an ultrasonic humidifier as the source of charged water droplets, which makes this cheap device easy to assemble and facile to operate. In addition, potential application of this method was illustrated by the real time identification of raw gas phase chemicals released from plants at different physiological stages.

  9. Humidity independent mass spectrometry for gas phase chemical analysis via ambient proton transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Direct and humidity independent mass spectrometry analysis of gas phase chemicals could be achieved via ambient proton transfer ionization, ion intensity was found to be stable with humidity ranged from ∼10% to ∼100%. - Highlights: • A humidity independent mass spectrometric method for gas phase samples analysis. • A universal and good sensitivity method. • The method can real time identify plant released raw chemicals. - Abstract: In this work, a humidity independent mass spectrometric method was developed for rapid analysis of gas phase chemicals. This method is based upon ambient proton transfer reaction between gas phase chemicals and charged water droplets, in a reaction chamber with nearly saturate humidity under atmospheric pressure. The humidity independent nature enables direct and rapid analysis of raw gas phase samples, avoiding time- and sample-consuming sample pretreatments in conventional mass spectrometry methods to control sample humidity. Acetone, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene were used to evaluate the analytical performance of present method. The limits of detection for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene are in the range of ∼0.1 to ∼0.3 ppbV; that of benzene is well below the present European Union permissible exposure limit for benzene vapor (5 μg m−3, ∼1.44 ppbV), with linear ranges of approximately two orders of magnitude. The majority of the homemade device contains a stainless steel tube as reaction chamber and an ultrasonic humidifier as the source of charged water droplets, which makes this cheap device easy to assemble and facile to operate. In addition, potential application of this method was illustrated by the real time identification of raw gas phase chemicals released from plants at different physiological stages

  10. The Analysis of the System Monitoring the Process of Modernization of China%中国现代化进程监测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    《中国现代化进程监测系统研究》课题组

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the meaning of modernization of China, basic characteristics, monitoring system of indicators, monitoring standards, monitoring methods, together with the measurement concerning meeting the requirements of modernization of China in 2000.

  11. Observations on the morphology and chemical analysis of medullary granules in chinchilla hair. Research letters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keogh, H.J. (South African Inst. for Medical Research, Johannesburg); Haylett, T. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Chemical Research Lab.)

    1983-02-01

    The ultrastructure of the medullary granules of white and grey chinchilla hair was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis in an attempt to clarify their structure and function. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and amino acid analysis showed them to be composed of melanin. The sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy is discussed. The metal content was qualitatively established by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and quantitatively determined on a Varian Techtron model AAs atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Amino acid analysis of the granule, was carried out on a Beckman 121 amino acid analyser. Information is provided on the amino acid composition of the medullary granules as well as its metal content.

  12. Observations on the morphology and chemical analysis of medullary granules in chinchilla hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrastructure of the medullary granules of white and grey chinchilla hair was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis in an attempt to clarify their structure and function. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and amino acid analysis showed them to be composed of melanin. The sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy is discussed. The metal content was qualitatively established by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and quantitatively determined on a Varian Techtron model AAs atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Amino acid analysis of the granule, was carried out on a Beckman 121 amino acid analyser. Information is provided on the amino acid composition of the medullary granules as well as its metal content

  13. STEADY STATE PERFORMANCES ANALYSIS OF MODERN MARINE TWO-STROKE LOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINE USING MLP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Bukovac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the other marine engines for ship propulsion, turbocharged two-stroke low speed diesel engines have advantages due to their high efficiency and reliability. Modern low speed ”intelligent” marine diesel engines have a flexibility in its operation due to the variable fuel injection strategy and management of the exhaust valve drive. This paper carried out verified zerodimensional numerical simulations which have been used for MLP (Multilayer Perceptron neural network predictions of marine two-stroke low speed diesel engine steady state performances. The developed MLP neural network was used for marine engine optimized operation control. The paper presents an example of achieving lowest specific fuel consumption and for minimization of the cylinder process highest temperature for reducing NOx emission. Also, the developed neural network was used to achieve optimal exhaust gases heat flow for utilization. The obtained data maps give insight into the optimal working areas of simulated marine diesel engine, depending on the selected start of the fuel injection (SOI and the time of the exhaust valve opening (EVO.

  14. Analysis of Modern Regional Architecture Creation%浅析现代地域性建筑形式创作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓波

    2012-01-01

    现代建筑不仅仅是遮风避雨的单功能空间,随着人类文明的发展,建筑的空间形态和建筑特点应具有地域性,而不应受全球文化一体化的影响形成千篇一律的建筑形式。文中列举了自然条件、建筑文化、传统习俗以及材料、技术等条件对建筑形式创作的地域性影响。%Modern architecture is not just shelter,single-function space,with the development of human civilization,architectural space form and architectural features of the space should have a regional,rather than by the effects of global cultural integration monotony.Natural conditions,architectural culture,traditional practices and materials,technical and other conditions have far-reaching architectural creation of regional impact,it is worth learning and research designers.

  15. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  16. Modern Enology: Quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Malík

    2001-03-01

    The beauty wine of the third millennium should develop from the refined range of today´s varieties. However, application of the latest methods of chemical analysis (GC, HPLC, MS, SNIF - NMR will allow a more precise determination of the origin, purity and authenticity of wine in the near future. It will help define the originality (both chemical and sensory of a wide range of wines from different parts of the world which have to be preserved for the generations of our descendants.

  17. LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for gas-phase reactions: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1993-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for complex, homogeneous, gas-phase reactions is described. The main features of the code, LSENS, are its flexibility, efficiency and convenience in treating many different chemical reaction models. The models include static system, steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow, shock initiated reaction, and a perfectly stirred reactor. In addition, equilibrium computations can be performed for several assigned states. An implicit numerical integration method, which works efficiently for the extremes of very fast and very slow reaction, is used for solving the 'stiff' differential equation systems that arise in chemical kinetics. For static reactions, sensitivity coefficients of all dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate coefficient parameters can be computed. This paper presents descriptions of the code and its usage, and includes several illustrative example problems.

  18. Low Cost Long Distance Detector for Explosives and Chemical Analysis by IEC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Miley

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A radiation source for detecting specific chemicals at several meter distances even behind walls, car doors or other barriers is the application of Million electron Volts (MeV neutrons from nuclear fusion reactions at such low intensities to avoid any danger for human bodies. The chemical analysis consists in the neutron activation of nuclei emitting then gamma radiation of lines very specific for the excited nuclei. The neutron generation by the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC had been developed to a level where very low cost neutron generators in mass production may be developed with a power supply from a normal AC plug-in or a battery. For specific chemicals e.g. the ratio of nitrogen against other elements used in all explosives, the selection of few specific gamma lines for the detectors may be of sufficiently low cost in the case of mass production.

  19. Physico Chemical Analysis of Sapota (Manilkara zapota Coated by Edible Aloe Vera Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Padmaja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit have immense significance as they ultimately affect the quality of processed productsprepared from them. Over ripening of Sapota (Manilkara zapota fruits at the post-harvest stage usually results in dramatic decline in quality.In the present study, physico chemical analysis (which includes Weight loss, Colour, Texture, TSS, pH, TA and Ascorbic acid content ofedible Aloe vera gel coated Sapota fruits packed in LDPE and stored at 15 ± 2? were studied at regular intervals of 5 days i.e., 0th,5th, 10th,15thand 20th days. The dip treatment of Aloe vera gel coating 1:2, 7 minutes had best retained the physico chemical characteristics than the othertreatments performed and was found to be the most effective treatment in maintaining the fruit quality attributes along with the shelf lifeextension of about 20 days.

  20. Prediction of chemical, physical and sensory data from process parameters for frozen cod using multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ellegaard; Jensen, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels;

    1998-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters were determined for 115 cod (Gadus morhua) samples stored under varying frozen storage conditions. Five different process parameters (period of frozen storage, frozen storage. temperature, place of catch, season for catching and state of rigor) were....... PLS models that were able to predict the physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters from the process parameters of the frozen raw material were generated. The prediction abilities of the PLS models were good enough to give reasonable results even when the process parameters were characterised...... by ones and zeroes only. These results illustrate the application of multivariate analysis as an effective strategy for improving the quality of frozen fish products. (C) 1998 Society of Chemical Industry...

  1. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  2. Combined Micro-chemical and Micro-structural Analysis of New Minerals Representing Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.; Tschauner, O. D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements in micro-chemical analysis in combination with novel tools for micrometer-scale structural analysis of minerals from synchrotron X-ray diffraction open a pathway towards studies of mineral paragenesis that were previously not or barely accessible. Often mineral assemblies that represent extreme conditions also pose extreme challenges to analysis: very small size scale, complex matrix, minor amounts of material. Examples of such extreme, but also quite relevant environments are: a) High pressure shock-metamorphic minerals in meteorites and terrestrial impact sites, b) inclusions in diamonds from the deep mantle, c) ultrarefractory phases in Ca-Al-inlcusions from the solar nebula, d) presolar condensates. We show how a combination of synchrotron-based structural and semi-quantitative chemical techniques, with electron-microscopy based high-resolution imaging and fully quantitative chemical analysis and qualitative structural identification establish a powerful tool for discovery and characterization of important and interesting new minerals on micron- to submicron size scale.

  3. Chemical and physical analysis of core materials for advanced high temperature reactors with process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various chemical and physical methods for the analysis of structural materials have been developed in the research programmes for advanced high temperature reactors. These methods are discussed using as examples the structural materials of the reactor core - the fuel elements consisting of coated particles in a graphite matrix and the structural graphite. Emphasis is given to the methods of chemical analysis. The composition of fuel kernels is investigated using chemical analysis methods to determine the heavy metals content (uranium, plutonium, thorium and metallic impurity elements) and the amount of non-metallic constituents. The properties of the pyrocarbon and silicon carbide coatings of fuel elements are investigated using specially developed physiochemical methods. Regarding the irradiation behaviour of coated particles and fuel elements, methods have been developed for examining specimens in hot cells following exposures under reactor operating conditions, to supplement the measurements of in-reactor performance. For the structural graphite, the determination of impurities is important because certain impurities may cause pitting corrosion during irradiation. The localized analysis of very low impurity concentrations is carried out using spectrochemical d.c. arc excitation, local laser and inductively coupled plasma methods. (orig.)

  4. Letters from China: A History of the Origins of the Chemical Analysis of Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A M

    2015-02-01

    This paper is an attempt to document the early history of the quantitative chemical analysis of ceramic materials in Europe, with a specific interest in the analysis of archaeological ceramics. This inevitably leads to a study of the attempts made in Europe to imitate the miraculous material--porcelain--imported from China from the fourteenth century onwards. It is clear that before the end of the eighteenth century progress was made in this endeavor by systematic but essentially trial-and-error firing of various raw materials, culminating in the successful production of European porcelain by Böttger and von Tschirnhaus in 1709. Shortly after this, letters describing the Chinese manufacture of porcelain, and, more importantly, samples of raw and fired material, began to arrive in Europe from French Jesuit missionaries, which were subjected to intense study. Following the perfection of gravimetric methods of chemical analysis in the late eighteenth century, these Chinese samples, and samples of porcelain from various European factories, were regularly analysed, particularly by Brongniart at Sèvres. Similar work was carried out on English porcelain by Simeon Shaw and Sir Arthur Church. The origins of the chemical analysis of archaeological ceramics are still somewhat obscure, but must date to the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries, by the likes of Vauquelin and Chaptal.

  5. USE OF AMAZONIAN SPECIES FOR AGING DISTILLED BEVERAGES: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of storing liquor in wooden barrels is a practice that aims to improve the sensory characteristics, such as color, aroma and flavor, of the beverage. The quality of the liquor stored in these barrels depends on wood characteristics such as density, permeability, chemical composition, anatomy, besides the wood heat treatment used to fabricate the barrels. Brazil has a great diversity of forests, mainly in the north, in the Amazon. This region is home to thousands of tree species, but is limited to the use of only a few native species to store liquors. The objective of this study was to determine some of the physical and chemical characteristics for four Amazon wood species. The results obtained in this study will be compared with others from woods that are traditionally used for liquor storage. The species studied were angelim-pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke cumarurana (Dipteryx polyphylla (Huber Ducke, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. and louro-vermelho (Nectandra rubra (Mez CK Allen. The trees were collected from Precious Woods Amazon Company forest management area, in Silves, Amazonas. Analyzes such as: concentration of extractives, lignin amount, percentage of minerals (ash and tannin content, density, elemental analysis (CHNS-O and thermal analysis were done. It was observed that the chemical composition (lignin, holocellulose and elemental analysis (percentage of C, H, N and O of the woods have significant differences. The jatobá wood presented higher tannin content, and in the thermal analysis, was that which had the lowest mass loss.

  6. Global identification and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Qi-Fu-Yin by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Ning; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Rui; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2015-10-10

    Qi-Fu-Yin (QFY), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, is proven to have significant neuroprotective effects by modern pharmacological studies. However, the chemical constituents of QFY have not been fully explored. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) was developed for comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents in QFY. By using characteristic ions and fragmentation rules, a reliable identification of 156 compounds was described here, including 69 triterpene saponins, 23 oligosaccharide esters, 22 flavanoids, 9 alkaloids, 9 phenolic acids, 8 phthalides, 7 phenylethanoid glycosides, 3 xanthones, 3 sesquiterpene lactones, 2 ionones and 1 iridoid glycoside. Twenty-six major compounds were then determined in a single run by UHPLC coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (QQQ MS) with fast positive/negative polarity switching. It allows for the acquisition of MS data in both ionization modes from a single run. The proposed method was then validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. The overall recoveries for 26 analytes ranged from 91.35% to 109.58%, with RSDs ranging from 0.82% to 4.83%. In addition, the content of 26 analytes in QFY prepared by five batches of herbal materials was also analyzed. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of QFY. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects. PMID:26112926

  7. Analysis of pharmaceutical pellets: An approach using near-infrared chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabin, Guilherme P.; Breitkreitz, Marcia C.; Souza, Andre M. de [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Patricia da; Calefe, Lupercio; Moffa, Mario [Zelus Servicos para Industria Farmaceutica Ltda., Av. Professor Lineu Prestes n. 2242, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Poppi, Ronei J., E-mail: ronei@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging was used for pellets analysis. {yields} Distribution of the components throughout the coatings layers and core of the pellets was estimated. {yields} Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculation of the concentration maps. - Abstract: Pharmaceutical pellets are spherical or nearly spherical multi-unit dosage forms designed to optimize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features of drug release. The distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in the layers and core is a very important parameter for appropriate drug release, especially for pellets manufactured by the process of layer gain. Physical aspects of the sample are normally evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), but it is in many cases unsuitable to provide conclusive chemical information about the distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in both layers and core. On the other hand, methods based on spectroscopic imaging can be very promising for this purpose. In this work, a Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) method was developed and applied to the analysis of diclophenac sodium pellets. Since all the compounds present in the sample were known in advance, Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculations. The results have shown that the method was capable of providing chemical information about the distribution of the active ingredient and excipients in the core and coating layers and therefore can be complementary to SEM for the pharmaceutical development of pellets.

  8. Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

  9. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jen Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticizers are additives that are used to increase the flexibility of plastic during manufacturing. However, in injection molding processes, plasticizers cannot be generated with monomers because they can peel off from the plastics into the surrounding environment, water, or food, or become attached to skin. Among the various plasticizers that are used, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid is a typical precursor to generate phthalates. In addition, phthalic acid is a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. According to Gene_Ontology gene/protein database, phthalates can cause genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. In this study, a silanized linker (3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane, APTES was deposited on silicon dioxides (SiO2 particles and phthalate chemical probes were manufactured from phthalic acid and APTES–SiO2. These probes could be used for detecting proteins that targeted phthalic acid and for protein-protein interactions. The phthalic acid chemical probes we produced were incubated with epithelioid cell lysates of normal rat kidney (NRK-52E cells to detect the interactions between phthalic acid and NRK-52E extracted proteins. These chemical probes interacted with a number of chaperones such as protein disulfide-isomerase A6, heat shock proteins, and Serpin H1. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA software showed that these chemical probes were a practical technique for protein-protein interaction analysis.

  10. Coding and Analysis for the Policy of Modern Distance Education in China%中国现代远程教育政策编码与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈欣忆; 林世员; 陈丽

    2014-01-01

    Since the pilot project of modern distance education started, Chinese government promulgated a series of policies to guarantee the quality of modern distance education. And policy became the leading factor in the development and reform of modern distance education in China. However, the quality of modern distance education had been queried, no matter how hard Chinese government tried. There is a new angle of view to find the problem in the existing policies with the method of policy coding and analysis. Based on the elements concluded from the project "Quality Assurance Models, Standards and Key Performance Indicators for ICT-Supported Distance Education in Asia", 80 existing policies from1999 to 2011 are coded and then their focuses and shortcomings are analyzed. After analysis, we found that: (1) the existing policies are more concerned with elements of institution level such as information and publication, organization policy and supervision, curriculum design and development, paid little attention to the elements that has close relation to students' learning; (2) teachers' support and their contribution to the society is less mentioned;(3) teaching and learning, research and results are paid more attention in 2000 and 2001, but the interest in these elements has declined since 2001; (4) the degree of concern for the assessment and evaluation is not very high all the time. We hope these results will be helpful in making the future policy for modern distance education.%现代远程教育试点以来,中国政府颁布了一系列政策来保障现代远程教育的质量和发展,政策成为中国现代远程教育发展的主导性因素和重要动力,推动现代远程教育的发展与变革。然而现代远程教育质量却一直备受社会质疑,政府有关部门的努力并没有达到理想的效果。运用政策编码研究方法,从政策制订本身来探寻问题是一个新的视角。通过“亚洲地区高等远程教育质量保

  11. 中国现代远程教育政策编码与分析%Coding and Analysis for the Policy of Modern Distance Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈欣忆; 林世员; 陈丽

    2014-01-01

    现代远程教育试点以来,中国政府颁布了一系列政策来保障现代远程教育的质量和发展,政策成为中国现代远程教育发展的主导性因素和重要动力,推动现代远程教育的发展与变革。然而现代远程教育质量却一直备受社会质疑,政府有关部门的努力并没有达到理想的效果。运用政策编码研究方法,从政策制订本身来探寻问题是一个新的视角。通过“亚洲地区高等远程教育质量保证模式、标准和关键绩效指标”项目研究得出的现代远程教育质量要素,对1999年到2011年间的80条核心政策进行编码,分析已有政策的主要着力点和疏忽的地方:已有政策较多地关注信息与宣传、机构政策与监管、课程设计与开发等机构层面的要素;对与学生学习环节息息相关的学生支持、教与学环节提及不多;教师支持和对社会的贡献较少被提及;教与学、研究、结果与成果在2000年和2001年受到较多关注,然后关注度持续下降;对评估与评价的关注度一直不高。基于编码结果分析,对今后的现代远程教育政策制订需要有较大的调整。%Since the pilot project of modern distance education started, Chinese government promulgated a series of policies to guarantee the quality of modern distance education. And policy became the leading factor in the development and reform of modern distance education in China. However, the quality of modern distance education had been queried, no matter how hard Chinese government tried. There is a new angle of view to find the problem in the existing policies with the method of policy coding and analysis. Based on the elements concluded from the project "Quality Assurance Models, Standards and Key Performance Indicators for ICT-Supported Distance Education in Asia", 80 existing policies from1999 to 2011 are coded and then their focuses and shortcomings are analyzed. After

  12. THE NON-LINEAR METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN MODERN DESIGNING (BY THE EXAMPLE OF GEOTECHNICS FACILITIES AND BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Melnichuk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Non-linear solutions are widely used within the framework of solution of the problems of development of the areas which were earlier unsuitable for construction (wetlands, slope areas; bases consisting of weak overwet soils.Results and conclusions. Design models and examples of practical implementa-tion of two groups of non-linear analysis in design of construction objects are considered. These are spatial deformation analysis of reinforced concrete decks of road bridges and elastoplastic numerical analysis of the bases, soil structures and structures interacting with soil structures.

  13. Chemical analysis of fish bile extracts for monitoring endocrine disrupting chemical exposure in water: Bisphenol A, alkylphenols, and norethindrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghong; Pan, Chenyuan; Yang, Ming; Xu, Bentuo; Lei, Xiangjie; Ma, Jing; Cai, Ling; Chen, Jingsi

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined concentrations of estrogenic bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol, octylphenol (4-tert-octylphenol), butylphenol (4-tert-butylphenol), and progestogenic norethindrone by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in bile extracts from field fish from the Xin'an River and market fish in Shanghai, China. Compared with the field fish, endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) concentrations in market fish bile were at relatively high levels with high detectable rates. The average concentrations of BPA, nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, and norethindrone in field fish bile were 30.1 µg/L, 203 µg/L, 4.69 µg/L, 7.84 µg/L, and 0.514 µg/L, respectively; in market fish bile they were 240 µg/L, 528 µg/L, 76.5 µg/L, 12.8 µg/L, and 5.26 µg/L, respectively; and in the surface water of Xin'an River they were 38.8 ng/L, 7.91 ng/L, 1.98 ng/L, 2.66 ng/L, and 0.116 ng/L, respectively. The average of total estrogenic activity of river water was 3.32 ng/L estradiol equivalents. High bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were discovered for all 5 EDCs (≧998-fold) in field fish bile. Furthermore, the authors analyzed the BCF value of BPA in fish bile after 30-d exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA in the laboratory, and the analysis revealed that BCF in fish bile (BCF(Fish bile)) changed in an inverse concentration-dependent manner based on the log10-transformed BPA concentration in water. Strikingly, the data from the field study were well fitted within this trend. The data together suggested that analysis of fish bile extracts could be an efficient method for assessing waterborne EDCs exposure for aquatic biota.

  14. THz-Raman: accessing molecular structure with Raman spectroscopy for enhanced chemical identification, analysis, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyler, Randy A.; Carriere, James T. A.; Havermeyer, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Structural analysis via spectroscopic measurement of rotational and vibrational modes is of increasing interest for many applications, since these spectra can reveal unique and important structural and behavioral information about a wide range of materials. However these modes correspond to very low frequency (~5cm-1 - 200cm-1, or 150 GHz-6 THz) emissions, which have been traditionally difficult and/or expensive to access through conventional Raman and Terahertz spectroscopy techniques. We report on a new, inexpensive, and highly efficient approach to gathering ultra-low-frequency Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra (referred to as "THz-Raman") on a broad range of materials, opening potential new applications and analytical tools for chemical and trace detection, identification, and forensics analysis. Results are presented on explosives, pharmaceuticals, and common elements that show strong THz-Raman spectra, leading to clear discrimination of polymorphs, and improved sensitivity and reliability for chemical identification.

  15. Problem Based Learning (PBL: Analysis of Continuous Stirred Tank Chemical Reactors with a Process Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regalado-Méndez Alejandro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on a project that integrates the curriculum such as thermodynamic, chemical reactorengineering, linear algebra, differential equations and computer programming. The purpose is thatstudents implement the most knowledge and tools to analyse the stirred tank chemical reactor as a simpledynamic system. When the students finished this practice they should have learned about analysis ofdynamic system through bifurcation analysis, hysteresis phenomena, find equilibrium points, stabilitytype, and phase portrait. Once the steps were accomplished, we concluded that the purpose wassatisfactorily reached with an increment in creative ability. The student showed a bigger interesting inthis practice, since they worked in group. The most important fact is that the percentage of failure amongstudents was 10%. Finally, using alternative teaching-learning process improves the Mexican systemeducation.

  16. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Quantitative analysis of abused drugs in physiological fluids by gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods have been developed for quantitative analysis of commonly abused drugs in physiological fluids using gas chromatography/chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The methods are being evaluated in volunteer analytical and toxicological laboratories, and analytical manuals describing the methods are being prepared. The specific drug and metabolites included in this program are: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, methadone, phencyclidine, methaqualone, morphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, mescaline, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl amphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam, and N-desmethyldiazepam. The current analytical methods utilize relatively conventional instrumentation and procedures, and are capable of measuring drug concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml. Various newer techniques such as sample clean-up by high performance liquid chromatography, separation by glass capillary chromatography, and ionization by negative ion chemical ionization are being investigated with respect to their potential for achieving higher sensitivity and specificity, as well as their ability to facilitate simultaneous analysis of more than one drug and metabolite. (Auth.)

  18. Chemical imaging and solid state analysis at compact surfaces using UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Rehder, Sönke; van den Berg, Frans;

    2014-01-01

    Fast non-destructive multi-wavelength UV imaging together with multivariate image analysis was utilized to visualize distribution of chemical components and their solid state form at compact surfaces. Amorphous and crystalline solid forms of the antidiabetic compound glibenclamide, and...... excipients in a non-invasive way, as well as mapping the glibenclamide solid state form. An exploratory data analysis supported the critical evaluation of the mapping results and the selection of model parameters for the chemical mapping. The present study demonstrated that the multi-wavelength UV imaging is...... microcrystalline cellulose together with magnesium stearate as excipients were used as model materials in the compacts. The UV imaging based drug and excipient distribution was in good agreement with hyperspectral NIR imaging. The UV wavelength region can be utilized in distinguishing between glibenclamide and...

  19. Retraining the Modern Civil Engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priscoli, Jerome Delli

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why modern engineering requires social science and the nature of planning. After these conceptional discussions, 12 practical tools which social science brings to engineering are reviewed. A tested approach to training engineers in these tools is then described. Tools include institutional analysis, policy profiling, and other impact…

  20. PROBLEMS IN MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAHANE, HENRY; KAHANE, RENEE

    PROBLEMS DEALING WITH LEVELS OF SPEECH AND LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN CONNECTION WITH MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDY WERE DISCUSSED. CONCERNING THE POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF A COMPETENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, THE INVESTIGATORS SUGGESTED THAT THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES (NAMELY, PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX) BE TIED TOGETHER TO INVOLVE (1) LISTING IN…

  1. Strategy of modernization of Sonatrach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of modernization of Sonatrach proceeds from an analysis which assumes as fundamentals : technological evolution as a source of competitive advantage, the careful observation of the strategies followed by the main actors of the international oil industry, the evolution of relationship between the State and the state owned enterprise. (Author)

  2. Quality assessment of mized fruit squash: physico-chemical analysis, senory evaluation and storage studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jothi, J.S.; Karmoker, P.; Sarower, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables belong to an essential class of foods that supply human diet with nutritive requirements including vitamins and minerals which are essential for normal body health and function. The study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical analysis and sensory qualities of mixed fruit squash. Carrot (Drocus carota), papaya (Carica papaya) and banana (Musa sapientum) juice were standardized to produce mixed squash which was stored for 9 weeks in sterilized glass bottles at ...

  3. Chemical composition analysis of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the analysis of the chemical compositions of raw materials used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland. The iron ore sintering process is the largest source of emissions of dust and gas pollution in the iron and steel industry. Hematite ores, magnetite concentrates, admixtures (dolomite, limestone and burnt lime, fuels (coke breeze, anthracite and by-products are used in Poland to produce the sinter mixture.

  4. "A Note on New Product Project Selection Model: Empirical Analysis in Chemical Industry" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Kuwashima; Junichi Tomita

    2001-01-01

    By focusing its attention on one particular scoring method that is used to evaluate R&D projects, this paper seeks to specify empirically the factors that discriminate successful projects from failed projects in the Japanese chemical industry. Our statistical analysis revealed that when projects are evaluated in this industry, three factors, marketability, technology, and synergistic potential, tend to be valued by practitioners approximately in a 3:2:1 ratio. Although the project evaluations...

  5. Patterns of innovation and organizational demography in emerging sustainable fields: an analysis of the chemical sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Epicoco

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the eco-innovation dynamics in the chemical sector by analyzing Sustainable Chemistry (SC) technologies and the organizations that generated those technologies. First, we build an original dataset of patents and investigate trends emerging from patent statistics. Second, by using a clustering algorithm for the analysis of citation networks, we identify the main clusters of innovations that are driving the evolution of the field and analyze the demography of involved organi...

  6. Quality system of the Chemical Analysis Laboratory to fulfill the requirements with Certification Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work was described the Quality System established in the Chemical Analysis Department to fulfill with the Organization requirements, personnel, measurement equipment, calibration, working procedures, etc. to get official acknowledgment by the National Assurance System for Testing laboratories, dependent of the General Standards Direction. There are described the available resources, the performance and control of each of one principal points of the system. (Author)

  7. Fourier-Domain Analysis of Hydriding Kinetics Using Pneumato-Chemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Millet, P.; C. Decaux; R. Ngameni; Guymont, M.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of phase transformation processes observed in hydrogen absorbing materials (pure metals, alloys, or compounds) is still a matter of active research. Using pneumato-chemical impedance spectroscopy (PIS), it is now possible to analyze the mechanism of hydriding reactions induced by the gas phase. Experimental impedance diagrams, measured on activated LaNi5 in single- and two-phase domains, are reported in this paper. It is shown that their shape is mostly affected by the slope of the i...

  8. Evaluation of Three Flow Injection Analysis Methods for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Korenaga, Takashi; Moriwake, Tosio; Takahashi, Teruo

    1984-01-01

    Three methods for determining chemical oxygen demand (COD) by means of flow injection analysis (FIA) with potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, or cerium(IV) sulfate as oxidant, developed in this laboratory, are described from the point of view of their operating properties. The permanganate method is the most sensitive and common, but forms manganese(IV) oxide precipitate which blocks the FIA lines and connectors. Addition of phosphoric acid in the reagent system is, however, effecti...

  9. PHYSICO CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PANCHAVAKTRA RAS: A HERBO-MINERAL FORMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bandari Srinivasulu; P Bhadra Dev; P H C Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Panchavaktra Ras is a rational combination of Rasadravyas and Kasthaushadhis prescribed in the management of Amavata. Panchavaktra rasa has been taken into consideration for its Pharmaceutical standardization through Standard Operative procedures. In pharmaceutical study, the drug has been prepared in 3 batches adopting Khalviya Rasayana method and physico chemical analysis was carried out on these batches. This formulation was analysed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emissio...

  10. Tracking millennial-scale climate change by analysis of the modern summer precipitation in the marginal regions of the Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wang, Nai'ang; Chen, Hongbao; Li, Zhuolun; Zhou, Xuehua; Zhang, Chengqi

    2012-09-01

    The Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds interact in the mid-latitude regions of East Asia, so that climate change there is influenced by the combined effect of the two climate systems. The Holocene millennial-scale Asian summer monsoon change shows the out-of-phase relationship with the moisture evolution in arid Central Asia. Although much research has been devoted to the long-term climate change, little work has been done on the mechanism. Summer precipitation, in the marginal regions of the Asian monsoon, is strongly affected by the monsoon and the westerly winds. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanism of the millennial-scale out-of-phase relationship by modern summer precipitation analysis in the northwest margin of the Asian monsoon (95-110°E, 35-45°N). First, the method of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis was carried out to the 1960-2008 summer rainfall data from 64 stations in that region; then the water vapor transportation and geopotential height field data were studied, in order to explain and understand the factors that influence the summer precipitation; lastly, the East Asian Summer Monsoon Index (EASMI), South Asian Summer Monsoon Index (SASMI), Summer Westerly Winds Index (SWI) were compared with the EOF time series. The results indicate the complicated interannual-scale interaction between the Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds, which can result in the modern out-of-phase relationship in the study area. This study demonstrates that the interaction between the two climate systems can be considered as a factor for the millennial-scale out-of-phase relationship.

  11. Computational analysis of modern HTGR fuel performance and fission product release during the HFR-EU1 irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • HFR-EU1 irradiation test demonstrates high quality of HTGR spherical fuel elements. • Irradiation performance is in good agreement with German fuel performance modeling. • International benchmark exercise expected first particle to fail at ∼13–17% FIMA. • EOL silver release is predicted to be in the percentage range. • EOL cesium and strontium are expected to remain at a low level. - Abstract: Various countries engaged in the development and fabrication of modern HTGR fuel have initiated activities of modeling the fuel and fission product release behavior with the aim of predicting the fuel performance under HTGR operating and accident conditions. Verification and validation studies are conducted by code-to-code benchmarking and code-to-experiment comparisons as part of international exercises. The methodology developed in Germany since the 1980s represents valuable and efficient tools to describe fission product release from spherical fuel elements and TRISO fuel performance, respectively, under given conditions. Continued application to new results of irradiation and accident simulation testing demonstrates the appropriateness of the models in terms of a conservative estimation of the source term as part of interactions with HTGR licensing authorities. Within the European irradiation testing program for HTGR fuel and as part of the former EU RAPHAEL project, the HFR-EU1 irradiation experiment explores the potential for high performance of the presently existing German and newly produced Chinese fuel spheres under defined conditions up to high burnups. The fuel irradiation was completed in 2010. Test samples are prepared for further postirradiation examinations (PIE) including heatup simulation testing in the KÜFA-II furnace at the JRC-ITU, Karlsruhe, to be conducted within the on-going ARCHER Project of the European Commission. The paper will describe the application of the German computer models to the HFR-EU1 irradiation test and

  12. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants. RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara

    CERN Document Server

    Galan, Cezary; Hinkle, Kenneth H; Schmidt, Miroslaw R; Gromadzki, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are the long period, binary systems of strongly interacting stars at the final stages of evolution which can be useful tool to understand the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the formation of stellar populations. Knowledge of the chemical composition of the symbiotic giants is essential to advancing our understanding of these issues but unfortunately reliably determinations exist only in a few cases. We perform a program for detailed chemical composition analysis in over 30 symbiotic giants, based on the high resolution, near-IR spectra, obtained with Phoenix/Gemini South spectrometer. The methods of the standard LTE analysis is used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around iron peak. Here we present results obtained for four objects: RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara. Our analysis revealed a significantly sub-solar metallicity (Me/H ~ -0.75) for RW Hya, a slightly sub-solar metallicities (Me/H ~ 0.2-0.3) in BX Mon and AE Ara, and a near-solar metallicity in SY Mus. 12...

  13. Definitional Excursions: The Meanings of Modern/Modernity/Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Stanford Friedman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the present article is to characterize the changing perspectives in the description and definition of modernism and modernity in a reciprocal relationship of these two categories. The creation of definitions is described here as a processes of fictionalization with a generational viewpoint of scholars. Moreover, the article indicates the difference between a nominal and a relational mode of defining and the question of institutionalization of knowledge within the framework of definition projects. Such research perspectives lead to the conclusion about dialogical and at the same time contradictory character of historical formations of phenomena to which the studied terms allude.

  14. Coupling passive sampling with in vitro bioassays and chemical analysis to understand combined effects of bioaccumulative chemicals in blood of marine turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ling; Escher, Beate I; Limpus, Colin J; Gaus, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Conventional target analysis of biological samples such as blood limits our ability to understand mixture effects of chemicals. This study aimed to establish a rapid passive sampling technique using the polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for exhaustive extraction of mixtures of neutral organic chemicals accumulated in blood of green turtles, in preparation for screening in in vitro bioassays. We designed a PDMS-blood partitioning system based on the partition coefficients of chemicals between PDMS and major blood components. The sampling kinetics of hydrophobic test chemicals (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; PCDDs) from blood into PDMS were reasonably fast reaching steady state in turtles with known concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides. The quantified chemicals explained most of the dioxin-like activity (69-98%), but less than 0.4% of the oxidative stress response. The results demonstrate the applicability of PDMS-based passive sampling to extract bioaccumulative chemicals from blood as well as the value of in vitro bioassays for capturing the combined effects of unknown and known chemicals.

  15. The Multiple Modernities of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    What Europe? Eric Voegelin on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic modernities. The concept ‘multiple modernities’ has during the last decade established itself in social and political theory, not least due to contributions made by Shmul Eisenstadt. The debate on multiple moderntities has served to...... aim of this paper will be to reconstruct Voegelin’s analysis and to point out its relevance for the current debate on multiple modernities, but also to assess Voegelin against other ideas and against recent debates on the identity of Europe....

  16. Meta-analysis of mass balances examining chemical fate during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidler, Jochen; Halden, Rolf U

    2008-09-01

    Mass balances are an instructive means for investigating the fate of chemicals during wastewater treatment. In addition to the aqueous-phase removal efficiency (phi), they can inform on chemical partitioning, transformation, and persistence, as well as on the chemical loading to streams and soils receiving, respectively, treated effluent and digested sewage sludge (biosolids). Release rates computed on a per-capita basis can serve to extrapolate findings to a larger scale. This review examines over a dozen mass balances conducted for various organic wastewater contaminants, including prescription drugs, estrogens, fragrances, antimicrobials, and surfactants of differing sorption potential (hydrophobicity), here expressed as the 1-octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) and the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K(OC)). Major challengesto mass balances are the collection of representative samples and accurate quantification of chemicals in sludge. A meta-analysis of peer-reviewed data identified sorption potential as the principal determinant governing chemical persistence in biosolids. Occurrence data for organic wastewater compounds detected in digested sludge followed a simple nonlinear model that required only K(OW) or K(OC) as the input and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.9 in both instances. The model predicted persistence in biosolids for the majority (> 50%) of the input load of organic wastewater compounds featuring a log10 K(OW) value of greater than 5.2 (log10 K(OC) > 4.4). In contrast, hydrophobicity had no or only limited value for estimating, respectively, phi and the overall persistence of a chemical during conventional wastewater treatment.

  17. Deuterium and oxygen-18 isotopic analysis - a modern procedure for the evaluation of underground potassium and sodium salt mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedl, H.D.; Runge, A.; Jordan, H.; Koch, K.; Pilot, J.; Elert, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    The statements in the chapters 2-4 have shown that by means of D and O-18 isotopic analysis an unambiguous identification of underground meteoritic infiltration solutions is possible, even in the presence of great quantities of dissolved carnallite. If meteoritic infiltration waters or portions of waters will be detected by D and O-18 analysis in a brine occurrence, then geological, geophysical, isotopic geochemical and other investigations must be made in order to clear, whether we have an open occurrence of brine and recent infiltration water. By reason of the generally great material and personal expense for these investigations and the possible measures of security, a preliminary distinction of discovered brines into meteoritic infiltration solutions or solutions with waters of non-meteoritic origin by D and O-18 isotopic analysis has a great economic importance.

  18. GLOBALIZATION AND BUILDING OF IDENTITIES IN MODERN CITIES: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AT BARCELONA’S NEW CIVIC ORDINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA VARGAS MONROY

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a discourse analysis of the Civic Ordinance of Barcelona, adopted by the City Hall of Barcelona-Spain in January of 2006, in order to typify and manage behaviour in the public spaces of the city. The textual corpuswe used for this analysis is the Ordinance project in its two versions. The Discourse Analysis methodology used in thisstudy has been proposed by different authors in this field (Martín Rojo, 2001; Parker, 1992; Potter & Wetherell, 1987;Van Dijk, 2003; Wetherell, 2001. Results point to the emergence of two kinds of discourses inside the text, as well as the strategies from which both discourses allow the construction of citizens’ identities as a new way of governability in the spaces of contemporary European cities.

  19. Personality disorders and modern culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martín Murcia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the relation between the modern social context and personality —as an essential psychological entity— and its disorders were analyzed from a dialectic perspective. Therefore, I have specified the bidirectional influences of social paradigmaticchanges in modernity —and in the case of postmodernity— on the construction of personal identity. A historiography of the Self throughout the diverse eras and of the more relevant social changes was carried out, emphasizing the consequences in the development ofcharacter. The analysis includes a reflection on one of the pathologies of increasing incidence in modern societies: image disorders. In the discussion, the difficulties to organize the self in an extremely subjective world, which forces a person to self-realization asexistential task, is criticized.

  20. Hyphenation of sequential- and flow injection analysis with FTIR-spectroscopy for chemical analysis in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, B.; Schindler, R.; Kellner, R.

    1998-06-01

    A survey of the principles of sequential (SIA)-and flow injection analysis (FIA) systems with FTIR spectroscopic detection is presented to introduce these hyphenations as powerful techniques for performing chemical analysis in aqueous solution. The strength of FIA/SIA-FTIR systems lies in the possibility to perform highly reproducible and automated sample manipulations such as sample clean-up and/or chemical reactions prior to spectrum acquisition. It is shown that the hyphenation of FIA/SIA systems with an FTIR spectrometer enhances the problem solving capabilities of the FTIR spectrometer as also parameters which can not be measured directly (e.g. enzyme activities) can be determined. On the other hand application of FTIR spectroscopic detection in FIA or SIA is also of advantage as it allows to shorten conventional analysis procedures (e.g. sucrose or phosphate analysis) or to establish and apply a multivariate calibration model for simultaneous determinations (e.g. glucose, fructose and sucrose analysis). In addition to these examples two recent instrumental developments in miniaturized FIA/SIA-FTIR systems, a μ-Flow through cell based on IR fiber optics and a micromachined SI-enzyme reactor are presented in this paper.

  1. Physical chemical analysis of marine sediment cementation from the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianfeng; Hammad, Tammam; Saiyouri, Nadia; Hattab, Mahdia

    2012-09-01

    This study aims at investigating the cementation of marine sediments from the Gulf of Guinea by using physicochemical analysis. In order to highlight the presence of cementation in the sediments, three conventional consolidation tests were conducted on intact and remoulded samples. Mercury intrusion porosimetry analyses were then carried out on the specimens taken from samples after consolidation tests. Several physicochemical experimental techniques were used to analyze these cementations, such as cation exchange capacity analysis, batch test, scanning electron microscope imaging coupled with EDS chemical analysis, and thermal analysis. The results seem to indicate that the cementation of these sediments is predominated by the presence of smectite gel between clay aggregates (clusters). Finally, a conceptual sediment microstructural model is proposed to describe the cementation.

  2. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Benito-Calvo

    Full Text Available Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry, and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils, which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  3. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record. PMID:25793642

  4. MODERN ROLE OF THE REPORT ON FINANCIAL RESULTS AND THE FEATURES OF ITS EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babackov A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the statement of financial performance in the current conditions. Factor analysis of earnings is studied in detail. The basic principles and steps of constructing a report for RAS and IAS have been revealed

  5. A chemical profiling strategy for semi-quantitative analysis of flavonoids in Ginkgo extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, An-Qi; Li, Xue-Jing; Fan, Xue; Yin, Shan-Shan; Lan, Ke

    2016-05-10

    Flavonoids analysis in herbal products is challenged by their vast chemical diversity. This work aimed to develop a chemical profiling strategy for the semi-quantification of flavonoids using extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGB) as an example. The strategy was based on the principle that flavonoids in EGB have an almost equivalent molecular absorption coefficient at a fixed wavelength. As a result, the molecular-contents of flavonoids were able to be semi-quantitatively determined by the molecular-concentration calibration curves of common standards and recalculated as the mass-contents with the characterized molecular weight (MW). Twenty batches of EGB were subjected to HPLC-UV/DAD/MS fingerprinting analysis to test the feasibility and reliability of this strategy. The flavonoid peaks were distinguished from the other peaks with principle component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis of the normalized UV spectrometric dataset. Each flavonoid peak was subsequently tentatively identified by the MS data to ascertain their MW. It was highlighted that the flavonoids absorption at Band-II (240-280 nm) was more suitable for the semi-quantification purpose because of the less variation compared to that at Band-I (300-380 nm). The semi-quantification was therefore conducted at 254 nm. Beyond the qualitative comparison results acquired by common chemical profiling techniques, the semi-quantitative approach presented the detailed compositional information of flavonoids in EGB and demonstrated how the adulteration of one batch was achieved. The developed strategy was believed to be useful for the advanced analysis of herbal extracts with a high flavonoid content without laborious identification and isolation of individual components. PMID:26907698

  6. Analysis of Chemical Constituents in Wuzi-Yanzong-Wan by UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixin Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wuzi-Yanzong-Wan (WZYZW, a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM prescription containing Fructus Lych, Semen Cuscutae (fried, Fructus Rubi, Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (steamed and Semen Plantaginis (fried with salt, is widely used to treat impotence, sterility, spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, lumbago and post-micturation dribble. However, the chemical profile of WZYZW has not been established yet. In this work, a rapid and sensitive method for systematically screening and identifying the chemical constituents of WZYZW in both positive and negative ion modes using Ultra-Performance LC coupled with ESI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS has been developed. Based on the chromatographic and spectrometric data, and referring to the literature, we could tentatively identify 106 compounds, including organic acids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids and terpenoids. Fourteen ingredients from Fructus Lych were identified, while 10 ingredients were from Semen Cuscutae (fried, 33 ingredients were from Fructus Rubi, 37 ingredients were from Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (steamed, and 20 ingredients were from Semen Plantaginis (fried with salt. The results may provide essential data for further quality control, pharmacological research and clinical evaluation of WZYZW. Furthermore, this study indicates the developed approach based on UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS is suitable for characterizing the chemical profiles of TCM prescriptions. This is the first report to provide a comprehensive analysis of the chemical constituents of WZYZW.

  7. Analysis of Chemical Constituents in Wuzi-Yanzong-Wan by UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dixin; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Bo; Xie, Suhua; Wang, Qing; Xu, Kexin; Lin, Ruichao

    2015-01-01

    Wuzi-Yanzong-Wan (WZYZW), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription containing Fructus Lych, Semen Cuscutae (fried), Fructus Rubi, Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (steamed) and Semen Plantaginis (fried with salt), is widely used to treat impotence, sterility, spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, lumbago and post-micturation dribble. However, the chemical profile of WZYZW has not been established yet. In this work, a rapid and sensitive method for systematically screening and identifying the chemical constituents of WZYZW in both positive and negative ion modes using Ultra-Performance LC coupled with ESI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) has been developed. Based on the chromatographic and spectrometric data, and referring to the literature, we could tentatively identify 106 compounds, including organic acids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids and terpenoids. Fourteen ingredients from Fructus Lych were identified, while 10 ingredients were from Semen Cuscutae (fried), 33 ingredients were from Fructus Rubi, 37 ingredients were from Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (steamed), and 20 ingredients were from Semen Plantaginis (fried with salt). The results may provide essential data for further quality control, pharmacological research and clinical evaluation of WZYZW. Furthermore, this study indicates the developed approach based on UPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS is suitable for characterizing the chemical profiles of TCM prescriptions. This is the first report to provide a comprehensive analysis of the chemical constituents of WZYZW. PMID:26633334

  8. Childhood and Citizenship: A Conversation across Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the problematic nature of citizenship as a modern achievement faced with the challenge of vindicating ancient ideals in what is increasingly considered to be a "postmodern" world. It offers a parallel analysis of childhood as a characteristically modern construct whose reality in children's life-worlds is threatened by social…

  9. Chemical composition dispersion in bi-metallic nanoparticles: semi-automated analysis using HAADF-STEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epicier, T., E-mail: thierry.epicier@insa-lyon.fr [INSA-Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, Bat. Blaise Pascal (France); Sato, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Material Processing and Characterization Division (Japan); Tournus, F. [Universite Lyon 1, LPMCN, UMR 5586 CNRS and Universite de Lyon (France); Konno, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Material Processing and Characterization Division (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    We present a method using high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) to determine the chemical composition of bi-metallic nanoparticles. This method, which can be applied in a semi-automated way, allows large scale analysis with a statistical number of particles (several hundreds) in a short time. Once a calibration curve has been obtained, e.g., using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements on a few particles, the HAADF integrated intensity of each particle can indeed be directly related to its chemical composition. After a theoretical description, this approach is applied to the case of iron-palladium nanoparticles (expected to be nearly stoichiometric) with a mean size of 8.3 nm. It will be shown that an accurate chemical composition histogram is obtained, i.e., the Fe content has been determined to be 49.0 at.% with a dispersion of 10.4 %. HAADF-STEM analysis represents a powerful alternative to fastidious single particle EDX measurements, for the compositional dispersion in alloy nanoparticles.

  10. Application of quantum dots as analytical tools in automated chemical analysis: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigerio, Christian; Ribeiro, David S.M.; Rodrigues, S. Sofia M.; Abreu, Vera L.R.G.; Barbosa, Joao A.C.; Prior, Joao A.V.; Marques, Karine L. [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy of Porto University, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Santos, Joao L.M., E-mail: joaolms@ff.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy of Porto University, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review on quantum dots application in automated chemical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Automation by using flow-based techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum dots in liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection by fluorescence and chemiluminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemiluminescence and radical generation. - Abstract: Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are one of the most relevant developments in the fast-growing world of nanotechnology. Initially proposed as luminescent biological labels, they are finding new important fields of application in analytical chemistry, where their photoluminescent properties have been exploited in environmental monitoring, pharmaceutical and clinical analysis and food quality control. Despite the enormous variety of applications that have been developed, the automation of QDs-based analytical methodologies by resorting to automation tools such as continuous flow analysis and related techniques, which would allow to take advantage of particular features of the nanocrystals such as the versatile surface chemistry and ligand binding ability, the aptitude to generate reactive species, the possibility of encapsulation in different materials while retaining native luminescence providing the means for the implementation of renewable chemosensors or even the utilisation of more drastic and even stability impairing reaction conditions, is hitherto very limited. In this review, we provide insights into the analytical potential of quantum dots focusing on prospects of their utilisation in automated flow-based and flow-related approaches and the future outlook of QDs applications in chemical analysis.

  11. The Collaborative Relationship among Industrialization, Urbanization, Informatization and Agricultural Modernization and the Path of Synchronous Development: An Analysis Based on the Data during 1978-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xinzhi; Lu LI; Liu, Yusong

    2014-01-01

    The synchronous development of industrialization, urbanization, agricultural modernization and informatization is the basic trend and future requirements of China's economic and social development. By using the relevant data of 1978-2011, and establishing the VAR model, we find that in the short term, industrialization is the Granger cause of urbanization; urbanization is the Granger cause of industrialization, informatization, and agricultural modernization; agricultural modernization is the...

  12. Privacy at home: Analysis of behavioral patterns in the spatial configuration of traditional and modern houses in the city of Hamedan based on the notion of space syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Alitajer

    2016-09-01

    The findings indicate that the spatial configurations of houses have changed in the course of time. In terms of the indices of spatial configurations, however, the striking difference between traditional and modern houses in Hamedan revolves around the integration and equivalence of all spaces in a house. In other words, the hierarchy of access to spaces and the recognition of territories are limited in modern houses. Hence, privacy in modern houses fades.

  13. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityagin A. Yu.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

  14. Comparing chemical analysis with literature studies to identify micropollutants in a catchment of Copenhagen (DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Birch, Heidi; Eriksson, Eva;

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2000 the European Union implemented the European Water Framework Directive of which the overall aim is to maintain or obtain good ecological and chemical status of European near coastal waters, lakes, rivers, streams, groundwater as well as artificial water bodies as docks and canals...... (EU, 2000). It is also required to establish inventories of sources to pollution, to design and perform monitoring programs as well as to outline strategies to reduce emissions if the environmental quality standards are exceeded. The aim of this study was to compare chemical analysis performed...... on urban surface runoff originating from a well defined catchment of Copenhagen (Denmark) with an inventory of potential pollution sources for the same catchment. The selected catchment covers an area with roads, a shopping centre, a parking lot, office buildings, a gymnasium and some restaurants...

  15. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Selected Groundwater Samples of Inkollu Mandal, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical parameters of groundwater quality based on Physic-chemical parameters at Inkollu mandal, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India have been taken up to evaluate its suitability for Drinking purpose. Nine ground water samples were collected from different places of Inkollu mandal of Prakasam district. The quality analysis has been made through the pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Iron. By observing the results, it was shown that the parameters from the water samples were compared with WHO (World Health Organization and BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards, USPH (United state Public health for ground water .The results revealed that some parameters were in high concentration and quality of the potable water has deteriorated to a large extent at some sampling locations.

  16. Fault Diagnosis in Chemical Process Based on Self-organizing Map Integrated with Fisher Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xinyi; YAN Xuefeng

    2013-01-01

    Fault diagnosis and monitoring are very important for complex chemical process.There are numerous methods that have been studied in this field,in which the effective visualization method is still challenging.In order to get a better visualization effect,a novel fault diagnosis method which combines self-organizing map (SOM) with Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) is proposed.FDA can reduce the dimension of the data in terms of maximizing the separability of the classes.After feature extraction by FDA,SOM can distinguish the different states on the output map clearly and it can also be employed to monitor abnormal states.Tennessee Eastman (TE) process is employed to illustrate the fault diagnosis and monitoring performance of the proposed method.The result shows that the SOM integrated with FDA method is efficient and capable for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis in complex chemical process.

  17. Reaction path analysis of sodium-water chemical reaction field using laser diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. On the other hand, it has strong chemical reactivity with water vapor. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes. Therefore, the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of importance for security reasons. This study aims to clarify the gas phase sodium-water reaction path and reaction products. Na, Na2, H2O, and reaction products in the counter-flow sodium-water reaction field were measured using laser diagnostics such as Raman scattering and photo-fragmentation. The main product in the sodium-water reaction was determined to be NaOH and its reaction path was discussed using Na-H2O elementally reaction analysis. (author)

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to the chemical composition of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the technological application of steel, the knowledge of its chemical composition is of fundamental importance as it is directly related to various properties, such as, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, temperability and others. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, INAA, is an appropriate technique in the evaluation of the chemical composition of steel and other metallurgical materials due to the possibility of simultaneous determination of a great number of elements without the inconvenience of sample dissolution. Element determination is achieved with good accuracy and precision for major and minor constituents as well as for trace elements. In this paper, INAA was used in the determination of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, V and W in steel and iron samples and in certified reference materials. The obtained accuracy and precision were less than 10% for most of the elements confirming the possibility of its use in the study of metallic samples and in the certification of new reference materials. (author)

  19. Analysis of solar chemical processes for hydrogen production from water splitting thermochemical cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a process analysis of ZnO/Zn, Fe3O4/FeO and Fe2O3/Fe3O4 thermochemical cycles as potential high efficiency, large scale and environmentally attractive routes to produce hydrogen by concentrated solar energy. Mass and energy balances allowed estimation of the efficiency of solar thermal energy to hydrogen conversion for current process data, accounting for chemical conversion limitations. Then, the process was optimized by taking into account possible improvements in chemical conversion and heat recoveries. Coupling of the thermochemical process with a solar tower plant providing concentrated solar energy was considered to scale up the system. An economic assessment gave a hydrogen production cost of 7.98$ kg-1 and 14.75$ kg-1 of H2 for, respectively a 55 MWth and 11 MWth solar tower plant operating 40 years

  20. Chemical contents in Lygeum spartum L. using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria)

    2015-09-01

    The present investigation was conducted to determine the chemical contents of Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae). Samples were analyzed in order to determine essential (Ca, K, Na, Fe, Co) and some potentially toxic elements (Eu, Sb, Tb) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In general chemical element contents were in substantial amounts to meet adult sheep requirements. Potential intake of Ca, K, Zn, Co and Fe by ruminant weighing 50 kg BW consuming 2.0 kg per day DM was sufficient to satisfy their requirements. However, only Na level was still insufficient to meet the requirements for grazing ruminants. Potential toxic elements in this species were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by NRC. Na supplementation would seem to be necessary in this zone, for optimum productivity of grazing animals.

  1. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhuo

    Full Text Available For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE at q (False Discover Rate 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01 enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  2. Analysis of practical use of modern internet technology as a mean of marketing communications in the field of B2B and B2C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Melnyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of modern Internet technologies as the tool of marketing communication on the example of B2B and B2C areas of companies. The main objectives are: to explore modern tools and technology of Internet communications; to identify their kinds; to analyze the main features of the Internet communications complex (tools and technologies, using selected companies; to conduct a performance evaluation of the use of Internet communications. The results of the analysis. The Internet marketing communications complex is a specific action plan aimed at achieving the goals of the company through its implementation on the Internet. Internet marketing complex includes traditional communication tools: advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, personal selling, sponsorship and modern facilities due to the specifics of the Internet resource (own corporate site, content sites, portals, banners, virtual communities, social networks, forums, message boards, search engines, etc. that are implemented using Internet technology (social media marketing, viral marketing, product placement, lead generation, search engine optimization, targeting, etc.. EFSOL Company’s Internet communications complex has a branded SEO-optimized website, base of dedicated analytical materials, contextual advertising, banner advertising, base of thematic Internet resources (portals, forums, electronic bulletin boards, etc. that helps to accommodate analytical and advertising subject content and personal communication. BASK Company uses the following Internet technologies: functional SEO-optimized site, contextual advertising and sponsorship, social work in social media marketing and personal communication. Conversion was calculated as the ratio of sales to the number of orders as a percentage. The average conversion was 26%. It means that the advertising company targeted on the wrong audience or has not

  3. The aesthetic of dragon pattern elements in modern clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任倩慧

    2015-01-01

    Dragon pattern with a long history of traditional patterns,contains profound cultural connotation.This passage illustrate the aesthetic analysis of dragon pattern in modern clothing, analyze the aesthetic expression of dragon pattern with modern costume designer.

  4. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  5. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  6. Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window ``C`` volatile organic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window ``C`` after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

  7. Hydrogen Safety Project chemical analysis support task: Window C'' volatile organic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Stromatt, R.W.; Ross, G.A.; Hoope, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    This data package contains the results obtained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff in the characterization of samples for the 101-SY Hydrogen Safety Project. The samples were submitted for analysis by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the Technical Project Plan (TPP) 17667 and the Quality Assurance Plan MCS-027. They came from a core taken during Window C'' after the May 1991 gas release event. The analytical procedures required for analysis were defined in the Test Instructions (TI) prepared by the PNL 101-SY Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) Project Management Office in accordance with the TPP and the QA Plan. The requested analysis for these samples was volatile organic analysis. The quality control (QC) requirements for each sample are defined in the Test Instructions for each sample. The QC requirements outlined in the procedures and requested in the WHC statement of work were followed.

  8. Content analysis of legal acts and the determination of the directions of optimization of palliative care in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerugina M.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author's analysis of the normative documents of the Russian Federation necessary for providing palliative care. According to the authors regulatory — legal support of palliative medical care to the population allows to plan and to develop this kind of assistance in Russia. To ensure the availability of palliative care it is necessary to have scientific and methodological basis and to develop a general classification of the states under which the palliative care is needed and should be organized. The procedure for medical care must be brought into conformity with the mentioned above classification. The authors consider the trends of medicalisation of palliative care in Russia in the context of dysfunctional practices of the social institute of Public Health.

  9. Finite element analysis of the Girkmann problem using the modern hp-version and the classical h-version

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2011-06-03

    We perform finite element analysis of the so called Girkmann problem in structural mechanics. The problem involves an axially symmetric spherical shell stiffened with a foot ring and is approached (1) by using the axisymmetric formulation of linear elasticity theory and (2) by using a dimensionally reduced shell-ring model. In the first approach the problem is solved with a fully automatic hp-adaptive finite element solver whereas the classical h-version of the finite element method is used in the second approach. We study the convergence behaviour of the different numerical models and show that accurate stress resultants can be obtained with both models by using effective post-processing formulas. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011.

  10. Microfluidic electrochemical device and process for chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis at the electrode-liquid interface in-situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical device and process are detailed that provide chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis under vacuum at the surface of the electrode-sample or electrode-liquid interface in-situ. The electrochemical device allows investigation of various surface layers including diffuse layers at selected depths populated with, e.g., adsorbed molecules in which chemical transformation in electrolyte solutions occurs.

  11. Analysis of Thermal Desorption System for the Chemical Treatment of Old Storages of Oil Based Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis for the chemical treatment of OBM (Oil Based Mud used in the drilling process in the oil and gas industry. The analysis is based on OBM stored at ENI (Italian National Energy gas fields at Bhit mount district Jamshoro since the last ten years that has been chemically and physically deteriorated. Characterization of various OBM samples was performed and these samples were processed in order to evaluate the best characteristics of the OBM for optimum treatment results. The OBM treatment process involves the separation of hazardous fluid (such as diesel or mineral oil from solids Due to the lean quality of the OBM, the dust separation process in the cyclone caused blockage in the cyclone. This paper suggests a remedial way by means of installation of a hammer stick in the cyclone dust collector to overcome cyclone blockage. The analysis is performed to compare the pressure drop and the dust collection efficiency in the cyclone with and without the hammer stick. The post-installation experimental results showed that hammer stick can improve the cyclone dust collection efficiency without blockage of the cyclone.

  12. Accuracy of chemical analysis of airborne particulates: results of an intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since suitable standard reference materials for chemical analysis of airborne particulates are not available, an intercomparison exercise was carried out among 40 interested laboratories in order to evaluate the accuracy of various trace analysis techniques for this specific application. Six hundred grams of airborne particulates were collected from the inlet filters of the air conditioning installation of a hotel in the center of Milan. The sample was sieved to remove coarser particles, thoroughly mixed, and distributed in 1 to 5 gram aliquots. The homogeneity was checked by relative measurements carried out by three independent techniques. For 40 elements no inhomogeneity was found to exceed the analytical error, which was estimated to be approximately 10 percent. The data of the analytical exercise are being collected and evaluated. Results are available for 56 elements, but to date only 33 have been determined by more than one technique. Activation analysis, emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption, x-ray fluorescence and various wet chemical methods contributed to the intercomparison. No result was received from mass spectroscopic methods and, although analyses were specifically encouraged, very few results were received on the organic components. From a first approximate evaluation a good agreement was found for Al, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Pb, Cl, S, Si, Ti, Mn, while for the other elements no definite conclusion can yet be drawn. An attempt will be made to interpret important cases of systematic errors, a few of which are already evident

  13. Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Certain Water Sources and Industrial Wastewater Samples in Dakahlia Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical analysis included quantitative measurement of electrical conductivity, alkalinity , hardness sulphate, ph, total dissolved solids, chloride, as well as dissolved oxygen was carried out. The microbiological examination for different water sources and industrial wastewater samples was also conducted. some of heavy metals, Co2+ Cu2+ Fe3+ and Mn2+ were determined in fresh water, while other metals, such as Cr6+ , Co2+ , Zn2+ and Ni2+ were measured in industrial wastewater. Results of the chemical analysis showed that all measured parameters were found within the limitation either national or international law, except some samples which showed higher values than the permissible limits for some measured parameters. The microbiological analysis exhibited presence of yeasts, fungi and bacteria. Most bacterial isolates were short rod, spore formers as well as coccoid shaped bacteria. The efficiency of water treatment process on the reduction of microbial load was also calculated. Regarding the pathogenic bacteria, data showed that neither water samples nor industrial wastewater contain pathogens when using specific cultivation media for the examination. Furthermore, data proved the possibility of recycling of the tested industrial wastewater on which some microorganisms can grow. Data showed that the percent of heavy metals removal can reach to more than 70% in some cases as a result to bacterial treatment of industrial wastewater

  14. Neutron activation analysis applied to the chemical composition of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical properties of metallic materials, such as mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and others are determined by their chemical composition, which influences the various steps of the production process and the economic value attained by the materials. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used in this work to evaluate the chemical composition of iron, steel, silicon and ferrosilicon reference materials. The concentration of the elements As, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, V and W were analyzed in the iron and steel samples whereas As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Eu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, U, Th, Sb, Sc, Sm, Tb, V, W and Yb were determined in silicon and ferrosilicon samples. Accuracy was assessed comparing obtained results to reference materials certified values. Results of about 10 % were achieved for most of the elements. Precision was assessed by replicate measurements, and the results of about 10 % were also achieved. Accuracy and precision results showed that the technique is suitable for the metallic materials composition analysis. Interferences of Cr and Mn in V, Fe and Co in Mn; Co in Fe and Cr in Ti were quantified and only the last one was critical to the analysis of the materials employed in this work. (author)

  15. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  16. THE POSSIBILITIES OF SPREADING OF THE DOWNSHIFTING IN MODERN SOCIETY: THE VALUE LANDMARKS ANALYSIS OF MOSCOW AND ST. PETERSBURG SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Vadimovna Ovechkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the «downshifting» phenomena, which is voluntary downward vertical mobility, as an alternative path to success. The author defines downshif-ters as a social group, analyzes the motives of this voluntary downward mobility. Basing on the own hypothesis, author takes an attempt to outline those social groups, which are subject to this so-called downward motion on the «social ladder». Author also tries to predict the possible spread of the «downshifting» phenomena in Russian Federation. The value landmarks of two groups of specialists were researched, one being the «young adults» group (ages 25-30, the other – «adults» (ages 31-36. Both their emotional tension and the quality of life satisfaction being closely examined. The attention to these problems and further examination of practices and standards of downshifters and followers of adjacent movements will help the researchers to determine zones of increased tension in society, professional staff and family. In addition, it will help to predict possible changes in the labour relations system.

  17. Model analysis of influences of the high-temperature reactor on location shifting in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is presented of the influences of High-Temperature Reactor on probable location shifting of big chemical plants, in the future. This is done by a spatial location model, that includes an investigation on 116 industrial locations within the first six countries of Common Market. The results of a computerized program show differences in location qualities when furnished either with traditional or with nuclear energy systems. In addition to location factor energy some other important factors, as subventions, taxes, labour, and transport costs are analysed, and their influence on industrial location is quantified. (orig.)

  18. Improved Method for the Flow Injection Analysis of Chemical Oxygen Demand Using Silver Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    Korenaga, Takashi; Ikatsu, Hisayoshi; Moriwake, Tosio; Takahashi, Teruo

    1980-01-01

    On the flow injection analysis (FIA) of chemical oxygendemand (COD), silver salt was added as an oxidation catalyst for COD substances and a masking agent for halide to improve operating conditions of the FIA apparatus. Both of a proper concentration of potassium permanganate solution and 6.0 % sulfuric acid solution containing 0.1 % silver nitrate are individually pumped up with respective flow rates of 0.51 ml min(-l) and merged into a carrier stream. A 20 μ1 of sample solution is injected ...

  19. Chemical composition analysis of ancient bricks and potteries by internal monostandard NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ko-based internal monostandard INAA (IM-INAA) method was used for the determination of major, minor and trace element concentrations in ancient bricks as well as potteries, collected from Buddhist (4th B.C. to 3rd A.D.) sites of in and around Vishakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Chemical composition analysis of these artifacts was carried out for the provenance study and also to find out possible correlations among the bricks and potteries. INAA is one of the best techniques used for the provenance study due to its advantageous properties like simultaneous multielement capability, negligible matrix effect, no spectral interference and inherent precision and accuracy

  20. Recent developments in methods of chemical analysis in investigations of firearm-related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Arie

    2003-08-01

    A review of recent (approximately the last ten years) developments in the methods used for chemical analysis in investigations of firearm-related events is provided. This review discusses:examination of gunshot (primer) residues (GSR) and gunpowder (propellant) residues on suspects and their clothing;detection of firearm imprints on the hands of suspects;identification of the bullet entry holes and estimation of shooting distance;linking weapons and/or fired ammunition to the gunshot entries, and estimation of the time since discharge. PMID:12811451