WorldWideScience

Sample records for modern airplane surfaces

  1. Revolution in airplane construction? Grob G110: The first modern fiber glass composition airplane shortly before its maiden flight

    Dorpinghaus, R.

    1982-01-01

    A single engine two passenger airplane, constructed completely from fiber reinforced plastic materials is introduced. The cockpit, controls, wing profile, and landing gear are discussed. Development of the airframe is also presented.

  2. Modern techniques of surface science

    Woodruff, D Phil

    2016-01-01

    This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation tec...

  3. ON MODERN APPROACH TO AIRPLANE-TYPE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES DESIGN WITH SHORT TAKEOFF AND LANDING

    Oleg P. Minin

    2017-01-01

    This publication opens a series of review papers devoted to the current design problems of the next generation unmanned airplanes that are expected to appear in the period from 2025 to 2035. The series of papers considers airplanes with vertical take-off and landing, air launch of small satellites into the orbit, cargo transportation tasks, issues related to new aerodynamic forms, as well as hybrid, combined and distributed power units. The first paper of the cycle is devoted to the conceptua...

  4. ON MODERN APPROACH TO AIRPLANE-TYPE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES DESIGN WITH SHORT TAKEOFF AND LANDING

    Oleg P. Minin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This publication opens a series of review papers devoted to the current design problems of the next generation unmanned airplanes that are expected to appear in the period from 2025 to 2035. The series of papers considers airplanes with vertical take-off and landing, air launch of small satellites into the orbit, cargo transportation tasks, issues related to new aerodynamic forms, as well as hybrid, combined and distributed power units. The first paper of the cycle is devoted to the conceptual aerodynamic design of the airplanes with a short take-off and landing, and with technical and economic characteristics on cruise flight conditions no worse than for traditional airplane based on aerodrome with long airstrip. We consider traditional linear methods for aerodynamic scheme analysis and weight analysis, as well. The main relationships and references to the works enabling the parametric analysis of the aerodynamic configuration are given. It is concluded that one of the most promising areas in the field of airplanes with a short take-off and landing is the development of aerodynamic circuits constructed as a "flying wing" of small aspect ratio and large structural height.

  5. Tire-to-Surface Friction-Coefficient Measurements with a C-123B Airplane on Various Runway Surfaces

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Kolnick, Joseph J.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the tire-to-surface friction coefficients available in aircraft braking during the landing run. The tests were made with a C-123B airplane on both wet and dry concrete and bituminous pavements and on snow-covered and ice surfaces at speeds from 12 to 115 knots. Measurements were made of the maximum (incipient skidding) friction coefficient, the full-skidding (locked wheel) friction coefficient, and the wheel slip ratio during braking.

  6. Floral motive in design of the modern surfaces

    Kramskaia N. V.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available modern surfaces don't need a decor, but new requirements are imposed to them in exchange, such as technological effectiveness, textures, visual expressiveness. Today the image of flower motive changes according to the requirements of time and evolves from graphic pattern to pattern element.

  7. Experimental rig to estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and surface in airplane touchdown simulations.

    Li, Chengwei; Zhan, Liwei

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and runway surface during airplane touchdowns, we designed an experimental rig to simulate such events and to record the impact and friction forces being executed. Because of noise in the measured signals, we developed a filtering method that is based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the bandwidth of probability density function of each intrinsic mode function to extract friction and impact force signals. We can quantify the coefficient of friction by calculating the maximum values of the filtered force signals. Signal measurements are recorded for different drop heights and tire rotational speeds, and the corresponding coefficient of friction is calculated. The result shows that the values of the coefficient of friction change only slightly. The random noise and experimental artifact are the major reason of the change.

  8. Modern methods of studying surfaces and their application to glasses

    Rauschenbach, B.; Haehnert, M.

    1977-05-01

    In the works are demonstrated modern methods for study of solid surfaces and its use of glasses. Study of the interaction of ions, electrons and photons with the glass surface provides information about the composition of the surface and its structure on an atomic scale. A qualitative analysis of a surface can be made with the aid of the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and with the ion scattering (ISS and RBS) and the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The structure of a surface can be studied by means of ion scattering and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and the topography of a surface by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ellipsometry is generally confined to measuring the thickness of very thin layers. The application these methods to the glass surfaces is demonstrated on series of examples. (author)

  9. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian

    2017-01-01

    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  10. Surface characterization of modern resin composites: a multitechnique approach.

    Silikas, Nick; Kavvadia, Katerina; Eliades, George; Watts, David

    2005-04-01

    To characterize the surface properties of some modern resin composites employing a series of physicochemical methods. Specimens from three microhybrid (Palfique Estellite-PE, Z250 Filtek-ZF, Tetric Ceram-TC) and one nanofilled (Supreme Filtek-SF) conventionally photo-cured resin composites polished with Soflex disks were studied for the following properties: Surface chemical composition and degree of C=C conversion (FTIR), surface energetics (contact angles), surface texture (AFM), surface roughness (AFM, stylus profilometry) and gloss (60 degrees-, 20 degrees-angle specular gloss). Polar and non polar molecular groups were identified in all products including NH and CONH (SF, ZF, TC). SF and ZF demonstrated higher conversion than PE and TC (P 0.05) were found in critical surface tension, total work of adhesion and its polar and dispersion components, the latter being the highest in all products. AFM showed the smoothest surface texture in PE. The ranking of Sa, Sq, Ra and Rz roughness parameters was PEgloss measurements (PE, SF>ZF>TC, PTC, Pgloss differences. A positive correlation was found between Sa and Ra and a negative one between Sa and 20 degree-angle gloss.

  11. Construction and modernization of underground and surface mines. [USSR

    Burshtein, N M

    1983-12-01

    Development of the Sredazugol' association in Soviet Central Asia from 1976 to 1985 is discussed. From 1976 to 1980 investment in the association amounted to 151 million rubles, 87.5 million of which fell on construction. Major development projects of the 1976-1980 period are reviewed: construction of new mining levels in underground coal mines, development of a number of operating surface mines, modernization of earthmoving and mining equipment, development of mine haulage by locomotives and railroad cars, improving occupational safety in coal mining, increasing slope stability in surface mining, especially in the area of the Atchinsk landslide in the Angren mine. From 1981 to 1985 investment in the Sredazugol' association should amount to 202 million rubles, of which 126 million rubles will be spent on construction. Investment will be 35% higher than in the 1976-1980 period and investment in mine construction 43% higher. The largest development project will be modernization of the Angren surface mine and increasing its targeted coal output from 5.2 Mt/y to 10.3 Mt/y by 1990. Modernization and reconstruction of the Angren mine will be carried out in 2 stages. Coal output of the mine will increase by 1.2 Mt/y in the current 5 year plan (by 1985), and by 3.9 Mt/y in the next 5 year period. Reconstruction and development of the Angren mine will cost approximately 254 million rubles. Mining and earthmoving equipment which will be used in the Angren mine is reviewed: EhRGV-630 bucket wheel excavators, EhSh-10/70 and EhSh-13/50 walking draglines, etc.

  12. Degradation of glass artifacts: application of modern surface analytical techniques.

    Melcher, Michael; Wiesinger, Rita; Schreiner, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    A detailed understanding of the stability of glasses toward liquid or atmospheric attack is of considerable importance for preserving numerous objects of our cultural heritage. Glasses produced in the ancient periods (Egyptian, Greek, or Roman glasses), as well as modern glass, can be classified as soda-lime-silica glasses. In contrast, potash was used as a flux in medieval Northern Europe for the production of window panes for churches and cathedrals. The particular chemical composition of these potash-lime-silica glasses (low in silica and rich in alkali and alkaline earth components), in combination with increased levels of acidifying gases (such as SO(2), CO(2), NO(x), or O(3)) and airborne particulate matter in today's urban or industrial atmospheres, has resulted in severe degradation of important cultural relics, particularly over the last century. Rapid developments in the fields of microelectronics and computer sciences, however, have contributed to the development of a variety of nondestructive, surface analytical techniques for the scientific investigation and material characterization of these unique and valuable objects. These methods include scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy- or wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDX or SEM/WDX), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this Account, we address glass analysis and weathering mechanisms, exploring the possibilities (and limitations) of modern analytical techniques. Corrosion by liquid substances is well investigated in the glass literature. In a tremendous number of case studies, the basic reaction between aqueous solutions and the glass surfaces was identified as an ion-exchange reaction between hydrogen-bearing species of the attacking liquid and the alkali and alkaline earth ions in the glass, causing a depletion of the latter in the outermost surface layers. Although mechanistic analogies to liquid corrosion are obvious, atmospheric

  13. Amphibious Airplane

    1986-01-01

    The airplane pictured is the new Air Shark I, a four-place amphibian that makes extensive use of composite materials and cruises at close to 200 miles per hour under power from a 200-horsepower engine. Air Shark I is a "homebuilt" airplane, assembled from a kit of parts and components furnished by Freedom Master Corporation, Satellite Beach, Florida. The airplane incorporates considerable NASA technology and its construction benefited from research assistance provided by Kennedy Space Center (KSC) In designing the Shark, company president Arthur M. Lueck was able to draw on NASA's aeronautical technology bank through KSC's computerized "recon" library. As a result of his work at KSC, the wing of the Air Shark I is a new airfoil developed by Langley Research Center for light aircraft. In addition, Lueck opted for NASA-developed "winglets," vertical extensions of the wing that reduce drag by smoothing air turbulence at the wingtips. The NASA technology bank also contributed to the hull design. Lueck is considering application of NASA laminar flow technology-means of smoothing the airflow over wing and fuselage-to later models for further improvement of the Shark's aerodynamic efficiency. A materials engineer, Lueck employed his own expertise in designing and selecting the materials for the composite segments, which include all structural members, exposed surfaces and many control components. The materials are fiber reinforced plastics, or FRP They offer a high strength-to-weight ratio, with a nominal strength rating about one and a half times that of structural steel. They provide other advantages: the materials can be easily molded into finished shapes without expensive tooling or machining, and they are highly corrosion resistant. The first homebuilt to be offered by Freedom Master, Air Shark I completed air and water testing in mid-1985 and the company launched production of kits.

  14. The Airplane Cabin Microbiome.

    Weiss, Howard; Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Dupont, Chris; Espinoza, Josh L; Levy, Shawn; Nelson, Karen; Norris, Sharon

    2018-06-06

    Serving over three billion passengers annually, air travel serves as a conduit for infectious disease spread, including emerging infections and pandemics. Over two dozen cases of in-flight transmissions have been documented. To understand these risks, a characterization of the airplane cabin microbiome is necessary. Our study team collected 229 environmental samples on ten transcontinental US flights with subsequent 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that bacterial communities were largely derived from human skin and oral commensals, as well as environmental generalist bacteria. We identified clear signatures for air versus touch surface microbiome, but not for individual types of touch surfaces. We also found large flight-to-flight beta diversity variations with no distinguishing signatures of individual flights, rather a high between-flight diversity for all touch surfaces and particularly for air samples. There was no systematic pattern of microbial community change from pre- to post-flight. Our findings are similar to those of other recent studies of the microbiome of built environments. In summary, the airplane cabin microbiome has immense airplane to airplane variability. The vast majority of airplane-associated microbes are human commensals or non-pathogenic, and the results provide a baseline for non-crisis-level airplane microbiome conditions.

  15. Modern

    A.V. Bagrov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the most important problems of modern meteoric astronomy and briefly describes ways and methods of their solutions. Particular attention is paid to the construction and arrangement of meteoric video cameras intended for registration of the meteoric phenomena as the main method of obtaining reliable and objective observational data on the basis of which the solution of the described tasks is possible.

  16. Mars Gashopper Airplane, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Gas Hopper Airplane, or "gashopper" is a novel concept for propulsion of a robust Mars flight and surface exploration vehicle that utilizes indigenous CO2...

  17. Analysis of surface stains on modern gold coins

    Corregidor, V., E-mail: vicky.corregidor@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Cruz, J. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Dep. Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-216 Caparica (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    It is a mandatory practice in the European Mint Houses to provide a certificate of guarantee of their products specially when issuing commemorative gold or silver coins. This practise should assure satisfaction and trust both for the mint house and for the demanding numismatic collector. For these reasons the Mint Houses follow a strict quality control in all the production steps in order to ensure a no-defect, fully supervised output. In spite of all the undertaken precautions, different surface stains with diverse origin on gold coins recently minted in Europe were observed. Those were compositionally studied by means of IBA techniques at the end-stage nuclear microprobe installed at IST/ITN. From this study it was possible to identify several possible sources for these stains. The presence of defects at the surface of these commemorative coins address the need of improving the quality control system and the results here presented point out where these improvements should occur, in order to reduce/eliminate them and give the customer a product that with time probably will be revalued.

  18. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  19. 78 FR 76254 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Control Surface Awareness and Mode...

    2013-12-17

    ...-0899; Notice No. 25-13-15-SC] Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Control... of proposed special conditions. SUMMARY: This action proposes special conditions for the Airbus Model..., data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the proposed special...

  20. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off, or...

  1. Airplane crash

    Brunner, P.

    1975-01-01

    In May, 1974, a severe airplane crash occurred near Springfield, llinois; the crew of three and a courier were killed. The plane was carrying a large container of controlled water with a slight amount of 60 Co. A survey of the crash site by Air Force detectives and the radiological assistance team from Wright--Patterson Air Force Base indicated no radioactivity. Experiences of the incident were used to develop guidelines for future emergency preparedness

  2. Use of modern methods of fibre surface modification to obtain the multifunctional properties of textile materials

    Jocić Dragan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern textile fibre treatments aim to obtain the required level of beneficial effect while attempting to confine the modification to the fibre surface. Recently, much attention has been focused on different physical methods of fibre surface modification, cold plasma treatment being considered as very useful. Moreover, there are efficient chemical methods available, such as peroxide, biopolymer and enzyme treatment. Some interesting combinations of these physical and chemical surface modification methods as means to modify fibre surface topography and thus controlling the surface-related properties of the fibre are presented in this paper. The properties obtained are discussed on the basis of the physico-chemical changes in the surface layer of the fibre, being assessed by wettability and contact angle measurements, as well as by FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis. The SEM and AFM technique are used to assess the changes in the fibre surface topography and to correlate these changes to the effectiveness, uniformity and severity of the textile fibre surface modification treatments.

  3. The historic surface ozone record, 1896-1975, and its relation to modern measurements

    Galbally, I. E.; Tarasick, D. W.; Stähelin, J.; Wallington, T. J.; Steinbacher, M.; Schultz, M.; Cooper, O. R.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas, a key component of atmospheric chemistry, and is detrimental to human health and plant productivity. The historic surface ozone record 1896-1975 has been constructed from measurements selected for (a) instrumentation whose ozone response can be traced to modern tropospheric ozone measurement standards, (b) samples taken when there is low probability of chemical interference and (c) sampling locations, heights and times when atmospheric mixing will minimise vertical gradients of ozone in the planetary boundary layer above and around the measurement location. Early measurements with the Schönbein filter paper technique cannot be related to modern methods with any degree of confidence. The potassium iodide-arsenite technique used at Montsouris for 1876-1910 is valid for measuring ozone; however, due to the presence of the interfering gases sulfur dioxide, ammonia and nitrogen oxides, the measured ozone concentrations are not representative of the regional atmosphere. The use of these data sets for trend analyses is not recommended. In total, 58 acceptable sets of measurements are currently identified, commencing in Europe in 1896, Greenland in 1932 and globally by the late 1950's. Between 1896 and 1944 there were 21 studies (median duration 5 days) with a median mole fraction of 23 nmol mol-1 (range of study averages 15-62 nmol mol-1). Between 1950 and 1975 there were 37 studies (median duration approx. 21 months) with a median mole fraction of 22 nmol mol-1 (range of study averages 13-49 nmol mol-1), all measured under conditions likely to give ozone mole fractions similar to those in the planetary boundary layer. These time series are matched with modern measurements from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) Ozone Database and used to examine changes between the historic and modern observations. These historic ozone levels are higher than previously accepted for surface ozone in the late 19th early 20th Century

  4. Radiation exposure of airplane crews. Exposure levels

    Bergau, L.

    1995-01-01

    Even at normal height levels of modern jet airplanes, the flying crew is exposed to a radiation level which is higher by several factors than the terrestrial radiation. There are several ways in which this can be hazardous; the most important of these is the induction of malignant growths, i.e. tumours. (orig./MG) [de

  5. 77 FR 50644 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Airplane Company Airplanes

    2012-08-22

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Airplane Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Cessna Airplane Company Model 525 airplanes equipped with certain part number (P/N... Aircraft Company (Cessna) 525, 550, and 560 airplanes, where investigation revealed brushes had worn beyond...

  6. Simple Electromagnetic Modeling of Small Airplanes: Neural Network Approach

    Koudelka, V.; Raida, Zbyněk; Tobola, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of simple electromagnetic models of small airplanes, which can contain composite materials in their construction. Electromagnetic waves can penetrate through the surface of the aircraft due to the specific electromagnetic properties of the composite materials, which can increase the intensity of fields inside the airplane and can negatively influence the functionality of the sensitive avionics. The airplane is simulated by two parallel dielectric layers (t...

  7. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on both...

  8. The Airplane as an Open-Source Invention

    Peter B. Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Airplanes were invented after decades of experimentation in many countries through a process we can call open-source innovation. Experimenters, inventors, and writers contributed to the airplane’s development by sharing information in publications, in clubs, by writing letters and by visiting. The hundreds of aeronautical patents before 1900 were treated like publications, not like claims to intellectual property. Inventors of modern airplanes copied earlier designs, analogously to advances i...

  9. The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-Situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity

    Martinez, G. M.; Newman, C. N.; De Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Richardson, M. I.; Fairén, A. G.; Genzer, M.; Guzewich, S. D.; Haberle, R. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the complete set of in-situ meteorological data obtained from the Viking landers in the 1970s to todays Curiosity rover to review our understanding of the modern near-surface climate of Mars, with focus on the dust, CO2 and H2O cycles and their impact on the radiative and thermodynamic conditions near the surface. In particular, we provide values of the highest confidence possible for atmospheric opacity, atmospheric pressure, near-surface air temperature, ground temperature, near-surface wind speed and direction, and near-surface air relative humidity and water vapor content. Then, we study the diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability of these quantities over a span of more than twenty Martian years. Finally, we propose measurements to improve our understanding of the Martian dust and H2O cycles, and discuss the potential for liquid water formation under Mars present day conditions and its implications for future Mars missions.

  10. Paleoecological Calibration In Central Guatemala: Modern Pollen Rain From Bryophyte Polsters And Surface Sediments

    Finkelstein, S. A.; Avendano, C. E.; Cowling, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Paleoecology requires understanding the correspondences between modern pollen rain and local-regional vegetation, in order to develop accurate paleovegetation reconstructions. Paleoecology in Guatemala has been developed largely over decades in the northern lowlands in close relationship with Classic Maya archaeology, where paleoenvironmental reconstructions have been made mainly through the use of fossil pollen. Scarcity of calibration studies in the Mesoamerican region however remains evident; nevertheless, they are necessary to produce reliable reconstructions. We present calibration pollen data from two locations in Central Guatemala: Lachua Lowlands and Purulha Highlands. Pollen spectra were analyzed from surface sediments samples (SS) from a lake and a small pond in Lachua, a river floodplain and a lake shore in Purulha. Bryophyte polsters samples (BP) were collected from the interior of minimally disturbed forests in both Lachua (rain forest) and Purulha (cloud forest). Pollen spectra between SS and BP differed in both locations. Analysis per location indicates that SS were more similar for Purulha, as compared to Lachua. Combined analysis of locations indicates that SS from both locations were related to anemophilous taxa - great production of pollen quantities that has high dispersion capacities-. This provides evidence that the pollen signal from SS is probably more regional than local. BP from Lachua and Purulha differed notably in their pollen signal, each location containing local taxa, tropical and temperate respectively. Some temperate anemophilous taxa were better represented in Lachua than in Purulha. Purulha SS were similar, and contained more taxa related to disturbance and anemophilous taxa. The arboreal pollen (AP) to non-arboreal (NAP) ratio (AP/NAP) of both SS and BP corresponded with the tree- prevalent landscape in Lachua. The SS AP/NAP ratio represented the deforested landscape of the river floodplain and lake environments in Purulha

  11. Surface Textural Analysis of Quartz Grains from Modern Point Bar Deposits in Lower Reaches of the Yellow River

    Cheng, Yong; Liu, Cong; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Yu; Nie, Qi; Wen, Yiming

    2018-01-01

    The surfaces of quartz grains contain characteristic textures formed during the process of transport, due to their stable physical and chemical properties. The surface textures include the information about source area, transporting force, sedimentary environment and evolution history of sediment. Surface textures of quartz grains from modern point bar deposits in the lower reaches of the Yellow River are observed and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicate that there are 22 kinds of surface textures. The overall surface morphology of quartz grains shows short transporting time and distance and weak abrasive action of the river water. The combined surface textures caused by mechanical action indicate that quartz grains are transporting in a high-energy hydrodynamic condition and suffer a strong mechanical impact and abrasion. The common solution pits prove that the chemical property of transportation medium is very active and quartz grains receive an obvious chemical action. The combination of these surface textures can be an identification mark of fluvial environment, and that is: quartz grains are main subangular outline, whose roundness is higher with the farther motion distance; Surface fluctuation degree of quartz grains is relatively high, and gives priority to high and medium relief; V-shaped percussion marks are very abundant caused by mechanical action; The conchoidal of different sizes and steps are common-developed with paragenesis relationship; Solution pits are common-developed as well. The study makes up for the blank of surface textures analysis of quartz grains from modern fluvial deposits in China. It provides new ideas and evidence for studies of the sedimentary process and environmental significance, although the deep meanings of these micro textures remain to be further researched.

  12. The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity

    Martínez, G. M.; Newman, C. N.; De Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; Richardson, M. I.; Fairén, A. G.; Genzer, M.; Guzewich, S. D.; Haberle, R. M.; Harri, A.-M.; Kemppinen, O.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; de la Torre-Juárez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the complete set of in-situ meteorological data obtained from the Viking landers in the 1970s to today's Curiosity rover to review our understanding of the modern near-surface climate of Mars, with focus on the dust, CO2 and H2O cycles and their impact on the radiative and thermodynamic conditions near the surface. In particular, we provide values of the highest confidence possible for atmospheric opacity, atmospheric pressure, near-surface air temperature, ground temperature, near-surface wind speed and direction, and near-surface air relative humidity and water vapor content. Then, we study the diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability of these quantities over a span of more than twenty Martian years. Finally, we propose measurements to improve our understanding of the Martian dust and H2O cycles, and discuss the potential for liquid water formation under Mars' present day conditions and its implications for future Mars missions. Understanding the modern Martian climate is important to determine if Mars could have the conditions to support life and to prepare for future human exploration.

  13. The Bristol "Badminton" Airplane

    1926-01-01

    The Bristol Badminton, Type 99 airplane has a radial aircooled engine (a Bristol Jupiter 9 cylinder 450 HP.) and three fuel tanks. It is a single seat biplane weighing 1,840 lbs. empty and 2,460 lbs. loaded.

  14. Prospect of ultralight airplanes development

    Adam KONICZEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents characteristic of ultralight airplanes, rules and current interest of them. The purpose is to determine prospect of ultralight airplanes development on the basis of Civil Aviation Authority statistics analysis and trend of aviation market.

  15. Incorporating classic adsorption isotherms into modern surface complexation models: implications for sorption of radionuclides

    Kulik, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Computer-aided surface complexation models (SCM) tend to replace the classic adsorption isotherm (AI) analysis in describing mineral-water interface reactions such as radionuclide sorption onto (hydr) oxides and clays. Any site-binding SCM based on the mole balance of surface sites, in fact, reproduces the (competitive) Langmuir isotherm, optionally amended with electrostatic Coulomb's non-ideal term. In most SCM implementations, it is difficult to incorporate real-surface phenomena (site heterogeneity, lateral interactions, surface condensation) described in classic AI approaches other than Langmuir's. Thermodynamic relations between SCMs and AIs that remained obscure in the past have been recently clarified using new definitions of standard and reference states of surface species [1,2]. On this basis, a method for separating the Langmuir AI into ideal (linear) and non-ideal parts [2] was applied to multi-dentate Langmuir, Frumkin, and BET isotherms. The aim of this work was to obtain the surface activity coefficient terms that make the SCM site mole balance constraints obsolete and, in this way, extend thermodynamic SCMs to cover sorption phenomena described by the respective AIs. The multi-dentate Langmuir term accounts for the site saturation with n-dentate surface species, as illustrated on modeling bi-dentate U VI complexes on goethite or SiO 2 surfaces. The Frumkin term corrects for the lateral interactions of the mono-dentate surface species; in particular, it has the same form as the Coulombic term of the constant-capacitance EDL combined with the Langmuir term. The BET term (three parameters) accounts for more than a monolayer adsorption up to the surface condensation; it can potentially describe the surface precipitation of nickel and other cations on hydroxides and clay minerals. All three non-ideal terms (in GEM SCMs implementation [1,2]) by now are used for non-competing surface species only. Upon 'surface dilution

  16. Surface analysis characterisation of gum binders used in modern watercolour paints

    Sano, Naoko; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    Conducting this study has demonstrated that not only SEM-EDX but also XPS can be an efficient tool for characterising watercolour paint surfaces. We find that surface effects are mediated by water. Once the powdered components in the watercolour come into contact with water they dramatically transform their chemical structures at the surface and show the presence of pigment components with a random dispersion within the gum layer. Hence the topmost surface of the paint is confirmed as being composed of the gum binder components. This result is difficult to confirm using just one analytical technique (either XPS or SEM-EDX). In addition, peak fitting of C1s XPS spectra suggests that the gum binder in the commercial watercolour paints is probably gum arabic (by comparison with the reference materials). This identification is not conclusive, but the combination techniques of XPS and SEM shows the surface structure with material distribution of the gum binder and the other ingredients of the watercolour paints. Therefore as a unique technique, XPS combined with SEM-EDX may prove a useful method in the study of surface structure for not only watercolour objects but also other art objects; which may in future help in the conservation for art.

  17. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals

    John M. Boyce

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer’s recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating “self-disinfecting” surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer “no-touch” (automated decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm light. These “no-touch” technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections

  18. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals.

    Boyce, John M

    2016-01-01

    Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer's recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid) and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating "self-disinfecting" surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer "no-touch" (automated) decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C) light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm) light. These "no-touch" technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections. In conclusion, continued efforts to

  19. Flatulence on airplanes

    Pommergaard, Hans C; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases......, due to altered cabin pressure, increase the amount of potential flatus. Holding back flatus on an airplane may cause significant discomfort and physical symptoms, whereas releasing flatus potentially presents social complications. To avoid this problem we humbly propose that active charcoal should...... airplanes, by using a methane breath test or to alter the fibre content of airline meals in order to reduce its flatulent potential. We conclude that the use of active charcoal on airlines may improve flight comfort for all passengers....

  20. Quantifying Modern Recharge to the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System: Inferences from GRACE and Land Surface Models

    Mohamed, A.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Yan, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) is shared by Egypt, Libya, Chad and Sudanand is one of the largest (area: ~ 2 × 106 km2) groundwater systems in the world. Despite its importance to the population of these countries, major hydrological parameters such as modern recharge and extraction rates remain poorly investigated given: (1) the large extent of the NSAS, (2) the absence of comprehensive monitoring networks, (3) the general inaccessibility of many of the NSAS regions, (4) difficulties in collecting background information, largely included in unpublished governmental reports, and (5) limited local funding to support the construction of monitoring networks and/or collection of field and background datasets. Data from monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity solutions were processed (Gaussian smoothed: 100 km; rescaled) and used to quantify the modern recharge to the NSAS during the period from January 2003 to December 2012. To isolate the groundwater component in GRACE data, the soil moisture and river channel storages were removed using the outputs from the most recent Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5). GRACE-derived recharge calculations were performed over the southern NSAS outcrops (area: 835 × 103 km2) in Sudan and Chad that receive average annual precipitation of 65 km3 (77.5 mm). GRACE-derived recharge rates were estimated at 2.79 ± 0.98 km3/yr (3.34 ± 1.17 mm/yr). If we take into account the total annual extraction rates (~ 0.4 km3; CEDARE, 2002) from Chad and Sudan the average annual recharge rate for the NSAS could reach up to ~ 3.20 ± 1.18 km3/yr (3.84 ± 1.42 mm/yr). Our recharge rates estimates are similar to those calculated using (1) groundwater flow modelling in the Central Sudan Rift Basins (4-8 mm/yr; Abdalla, 2008), (2) WaterGAP global scale groundwater recharge model (plans are underway for the deployment of a GRACE follow-On and GRACE-II missions, we suggest that within the next few years, GRACE

  1. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes and jet airplanes. 36.7 Section 36.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical change...

  2. 77 FR 37797 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-06-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 series airplanes; Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter series airplanes; Airbus Model A330-300 series airplanes; Airbus Model A340-200 series airplanes; and Airbus Model A340-300 series...

  3. 78 FR 28152 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-05-14

    ...-0416; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-144-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A318-111 and -112 airplanes, Model A319 series airplanes, Model A320 series airplanes, and Model A321 series airplanes. The existing AD currently requires repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower...

  4. 78 FR 78705 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-12-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A318 series airplanes, Model A319 series airplanes, Model A320 series airplanes, and Model A321 series airplanes. AD 2010- 24-07 required repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower...

  5. 78 FR 70207 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-11-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4- 600R series airplanes; and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called Model A300-600 series airplanes). This AD was...

  6. Modern sedimentation patterns in Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia, derived from surface sediment and inlet streams samples

    V. Wennrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake El'gygytgyn/NE Russia holds a continuous 3.58 Ma sediment record, which is regarded as the most long-lasting climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. Based on multi-proxy geochemical, mineralogical, and granulometric analyses of surface sediment, inlet stream and bedrock samples, supplemented by statistical methods, major processes influencing the modern sedimentation in the lake were investigated. Grain-size parameters and chemical elements linked to the input of feldspars from acidic bedrock indicate a wind-induced two-cell current system as major driver of sediment transport and accumulation processes in Lake El'gygytgyn. The distribution of mafic rock related elements in the sediment on the lake floor can be traced back to the input of weathering products of basaltic rocks in the catchment. Obvious similarities in the spatial variability of manganese and heavy metals indicate sorption or co-precipitation of these elements with Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides. But the similar distribution of organic matter and clay contents might also point to a fixation to organic components and clay minerals. An enrichment of mercury in the inlet streams might be indicative of neotectonic activity around the lake. The results of this study add to the fundamental knowledge of the modern lake processes of Lake El'gygytgyn and its lake-catchment interactions, and thus, yield crucial insights for the interpretation of paleo-data from this unique archive.

  7. Flatulence on airplanes

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases...

  8. Adhesion, friction, wear, and lubrication research by modern surface science techniques.

    Keller, D. V., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The field of surface science has undergone intense revitalization with the introduction of low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and other surface analytical techniques which have been sophisticated within the last decade. These developments have permitted submono- and monolayer structure analysis as well as chemical identification and quantitative analysis. The application of a number of these techniques to the solution of problems in the fields of friction, lubrication, and wear are examined in detail for the particular case of iron; and in general to illustrate how the accumulation of pure data will contribute toward the establishment of physiochemical concepts which are required to understand the mechanisms that are operational in friction systems. In the case of iron, LEED, Auger and microcontact studies have established that hydrogen and light-saturated organic vapors do not establish interfaces which prevent iron from welding, whereas oxygen and some oxygen and sulfur compounds do reduce welding as well as the coefficient of friction. Interpretation of these data suggests a mechanism of sulfur interaction in lubricating systems.

  9. 78 FR 78694 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-12-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes, and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. AD... certain check valves in the [[Page 78695

  10. 78 FR 72834 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    2013-12-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... airworthiness directive (AD) for SOCATA Model TBM 700 airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory... review this referenced service information at the FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Kansas...

  11. Investigation of control law reconfigurations to accommodate a control element failure on a commercial airplane

    Ostroff, A. J.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a pilot to reconfigure the control surfaces on an airplane after a failure, allowing the airplane to recover to a safe condition, becomes more difficult with increasing airplane complexity. Techniques are needed to stabilize and control the airplane immediately after a failure, allowing the pilot more time to make longer range decisions. This paper presents a baseline design of a discrete multivariable control law using four controls for the longitudinal channel of a B-737. Non-reconfigured and reconfigured control laws are then evaluated, both analytically and by means of a digital airplane simulation, for three individual control element failures (stabilizer, elevator, spoilers). The simulation results are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the control reconfiguration on tracking ability during the approach and landing phase of flight with severe windshear and turbulence disturbing the airplane dynamics.

  12. Documenting a modern day transgressive surface in a carbonate ramp setting

    Lokier, Stephen; Paul, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The low-angle carbonate ramp geometry of the Abu Dhabi coastline provides an ideal site for studying the effects of marine transgression in a setting analogous to Mesozoic epeiric seas. Supratidal sabkha evaporite precipitation passes offshore, through a broad and complex carbonate-evaporite intertidal environment, into a subtidal carbonate depositional setting. The coast of the mainland is locally isolated from open-marine conditions by a number of peninsulas and islands associated with the east-west trending Great Pearl Bank. This study combined 12 years of fieldwork observations with historical satellite imagery in order to establish multiple lines of evidence for active retrogradation over a 15 km length of coastline in the Abu Dhabi sabkha. Surveyed transects of the sabkha yield an average slope angle of 0.02°. Employing a current estimate of global sea level rise of 3.3 mm/yr, we calculate an expected present-day marine transgression of 7.9 m/yr. The landward and seaward boundaries of the microbial mat facies belt are strongly controlled by the location of the intertidal zone. The seaward limit of the Recent microbial mat belt in the Abu Dhabi Sabkha is currently being buried beneath retrograding lower-intertidal sediments whilst the landward side is simultaneously backstepping over previously-supratidal gypsum-dominated facies. The landward migration of spits and beach ridges was monitored at several locations with rates of retrogradation of up to 28 m per year being recorded locally. The study also identified numerous erosive features that are consistent with an increase in energy regimes. There has been a significant increase in denudation of the microbial mat, causing underlying sediment to be increasingly susceptible to erosion. In the lowermost intertidal zone, erosion of the hardground and other facies is observed. Clasts from the hardground are transported landward onto the surface of the sabkha where they are incorporated within other facies. This

  13. 77 FR 58970 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 Airplanes, Sudden Engine Stoppage

    2012-09-25

    ... primary structure is metal with composite empennage and control surfaces. The Model EMB-550 airplane is...: Cindy Ashforth, FAA, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft... conditions numbers 3 and 4, below) could allow some deformation in the engine-supporting structure (ultimate...

  14. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    2011-06-01

    ... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or... Design Features The Gulfstream Model GVI airplane has an electronic flight control system and no direct... impending control surface limiting, piloted or auto-flight system control of the airplane might be...

  15. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    2011-02-17

    ...: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY... for transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system... Design Features The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit...

  16. Simple Electromagnetic Modeling of Small Airplanes: Neural Network Approach

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of simple electromagnetic models of small airplanes, which can contain composite materials in their construction. Electromagnetic waves can penetrate through the surface of the aircraft due to the specific electromagnetic properties of the composite materials, which can increase the intensity of fields inside the airplane and can negatively influence the functionality of the sensitive avionics. The airplane is simulated by two parallel dielectric layers (the left-hand side wall and the right-hand side wall of the airplane. The layers are put into a rectangular metallic waveguide terminated by the absorber in order to simulate the illumination of the airplane by the external wave (both of the harmonic nature and pulse one. Thanks to the simplicity of the model, the parametric analysis can be performed, and the results can be used in order to train an artificial neural network. The trained networks excel in further reduction of CPU-time demands of an airplane modeling.

  17. Airplane dopes and doping

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  18. 78 FR 71992 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-12-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... certain Airbus Model A318-100 and A319-100 series airplanes, A320-111 airplanes, A320-200 series airplanes... identified in this AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EIAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  19. 78 FR 9787 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-02-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called Model A300- 600 series airplanes); and Airbus [[Page 9788

  20. 78 FR 68347 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-11-14

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...-200, A340- 300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. AD 2009-04-07 required revising the airplane... reference unit (ADIRU) from providing erroneous data to other airplane systems. AD 2011-02-09 required...

  1. 78 FR 28159 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-05-14

    ...-0418; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-200-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes...

  2. 77 FR 6023 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-02-07

    ...-0038; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-209-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes and Model A310-203, -204, - 221, and -222 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of... explosion and consequent loss of the airplane. DATES: We must receive comments on this proposed AD by March...

  3. 78 FR 27015 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-05-09

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 and A330-300 series airplanes, and Model A340-200 and A340-300 series airplanes... seal on a solenoid. This AD requires, depending on airplane configuration, modifying three flight...

  4. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  5. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93 Airplane...

  6. 78 FR 65187 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-300 series airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted..., and possibly resulting in loss of control of the airplane. DATES: This AD becomes effective December 5...

  7. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and... certificate holder may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land unless each food and beverage tray...

  8. Effect of Base on Friction Surface of Powder Metallurgy Airplane Brake Materials%基体对粉末冶金航空刹车材料摩擦面的影响

    姚萍屏; 熊翔; 余峰

    2001-01-01

    The colour, collapse phenomenon and chemical component of the friction surface of powder metallurgy airplane brake materials with different base are studied in this paper. The results show that the base affects the characteristic and appearance of material through the effects of material sticking and strength.%在不同的摩擦速度下,考察了铁基、铁铜基及铜基粉末冶金航空刹车材料摩擦面的变化情况。结果表明刹车材料的抗压强度随基体而变化,刹车材料摩擦面的表观颜色与基体密切相关;基体对刹车材料摩擦面的粘附转移产生重大影响,从而使刹车材料摩擦面的化学成分发生变化。

  9. Modern plasmonics

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  10. Airplane crash simulations

    Jovall, Ola

    2007-01-01

    Impact loads are considered in nuclear facility design as the result of the loading effects of certain design basis accidents and design basis threats made up of natural as well as man-made hazards. Also, beyond design basis accidents and threats are considered. Typical missiles include objects caused by tornado winds, aircrafts, war or terrorist activities, dropped objects, turbine fragments and other missiles resulting from failure of rotating equipment and whipping pipes and other objects of failure of pressurized fluid systems. The aim of the work is to study the potential of tools for numerical simulations to study the local load effects of airplane missiles impacting concrete structures. Two of the leading commercial computer codes for analysis of highly dynamic events, ABAQUS/Explicit and AUTODYN, have been evaluated. Numerical simulations have been carried out for rigid as well as deformable missiles with the characteristics of airplane engines. The analysis results have been compared with test results from a test program performed in the USA at Sandia National Laboratory and in Japan at Kobori Research Complex and Central Research Institute of the Electric Power industry. Finally, numerical simulations of a large passenger airliner impacting a reactor containment has been carried out using the analysis methodology developed. (author)

  11. Reconfigurable multivariable control law for commercial airplane using a direct digital output feedback design

    Ostroff, A. J.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a pilot to reconfigure the control surfaces on an airplane after a failure, allowing the airplane to recover to a safe condition for landing, becomes more difficult with increasing airplane complexity. Techniques are needed to stabilize and control the airplane immediately after a failure, allowing the pilot time to make longer range decisions. This paper shows a design of a discrete multivariable control law using four controls for the longitudinal channel of a B-737. Single control element failures are allowed in three of the four controls. The four controls design and failure cases are analyzed by means of a digital airplane simulation, with regard to tracking capability and ability to overcome severe windshear and turbulence during the aproach and landing phase of flight.

  12. 78 FR 41684 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 Airplanes, Sudden Engine Stoppage

    2013-07-11

    ...-tail empennage. The primary structure is metal with composite empennage and control surfaces. The Model..., Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington... more-critical airframe supporting structure. Applicability As discussed above, these special conditions...

  13. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project will employ an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere, a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn's moon, Titan.

  14. 78 FR 60660 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-10-02

    ... compound (CIC) Boeing Material Specification (BMS) 3-23 to the surfaces of the repaired area. As an option... fracture and failure of the skin panels of the fuselage, and consequent rapid decompression of the airplane... availability of this material at the FAA, call 425-227-1221. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD...

  15. Modern processes of sediment formation in Lake Towuti, Indonesia, as derived from the composition of lake surface sediments

    Hasberg, Ascelina; Melles, Martin; Morlock, Marina; Vogel, Hendrik; Russel, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria

    2016-04-01

    In summer 2015, a drilling operation funded by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) was conducted at Lake Towuti (2.75°S, 121.5°E), the largest tectonically formed lake (surface area: 561 km²) of the Republic Indonesia. The Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) recovered more than 1000 meters of sediment core from three sites. At all three sites replicate cores down to 133, 154, and 174 m below lake floor have penetrated the entire lake sediment record, which is expected to comprise the past ca. 650.000 years continuously. Lake Towutís sediment record thus can provide unique information for instance concerning the climatic and environmental history in the Indo-Pacific-Warm-Pool (IPWP) and concerning the evolutionary biology in SE Asia. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analyzed on the drill cores, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and in its catchment - under known environmental conditions - were investigated on a set of 84 lake sediment surface samples. Sampling was conducted by grab sampler (UWITEC Corp., Austria) in a grid of 1 to 4 km resolution that covers the entire lake. The samples were analyzed for inorganic geochemical composition (XRF powder scans and ICP-MS), magnetic susceptibility (Kappabridge), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), biogenic components (smear-slide analyses), biogenic silica contents (leaching), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN), and sulfur (TS) concentrations (elemental analyzer). The sediments close to the lake shores and in front of the major river inlets are characterized by mean grain sizes coarser than average and high magnetic susceptibilities presented by high ratios of Cr, Ni, Co, and Zr. This reflects higher energies due to wave action and fluvial sediment supply, as well as the occurrence of magnetic minerals particularly in the sand and gravel fractions of the sediments. In regions of deeper waters and more distal to

  16. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

  17. Differential equations in airplane mechanics

    Carleman, M T

    1922-01-01

    In the following report, we will first draw some conclusions of purely theoretical interest, from the general equations of motion. At the end, we will consider the motion of an airplane, with the engine dead and with the assumption that the angle of attack remains constant. Thus we arrive at a simple result, which can be rendered practically utilizable for determining the trajectory of an airplane descending at a constant steering angle.

  18. Modernity after Modernity

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the

  19. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  20. Modern teaching for modern education

    Mirascieva, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    Carrying the epithet of being contemporary education today means modern teaching. If modern education is a state in the field of education of all its elements, then teaching will also be a state with its own special features defining it as modern. The main issues of concern in this paper relate to what constitutes modern teaching, which features determine it as being modern, and how much is teaching today following the trend of modernization.

  1. 77 FR 69571 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane, Limit Pilot Forces for Sidestick Control

    2012-11-20

    ... owner operations. The aircraft has a conventional configuration with low wing and T-tail empennage. The primary structure is metal with composite empennage and control surfaces. The Model EMB-550 airplane is...: Todd Martin, FAA, Airframe and Cabin Safety Branch, ANM-115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft...

  2. Advances in Thrust-Based Emergency Control of an Airplane

    Creech, Gray; Burken, John J.; Burcham, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center have received a patent on an emergency flight-control method implemented by a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system. Utilizing the preexisting auto-throttle and engine-pressure-ratio trim controls of the airplane, the PCA system provides pitch and roll control for landing an airplane safely without using aerodynamic control surfaces that have ceased to function because of a primary-flight-control-system failure. The installation of the PCA does not entail any changes in pre-existing engine hardware or software. [Aspects of the method and system at previous stages of development were reported in Thrust-Control System for Emergency Control of an Airplane (DRC-96-07), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 3 (March 2001), page 68 and Emergency Landing Using Thrust Control and Shift of Weight (DRC-96-55), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 58.]. Aircraft flight-control systems are designed with extensive redundancy to ensure low probabilities of failure. During recent years, however, several airplanes have exhibited major flight-control-system failures, leaving engine thrust as the last mode of flight control. In some of these emergency situations, engine thrusts were successfully modulated by the pilots to maintain flight paths or pitch angles, but in other situations, lateral control was also needed. In the majority of such control-system failures, crashes resulted and over 1,200 people died. The challenge lay in creating a means of sufficient degree of thrust-modulation control to safely fly and land a stricken airplane. A thrust-modulation control system designed for this purpose was flight-tested in a PCA an MD-11 airplane. The results of the flight test showed that without any operational control surfaces, a pilot can land a crippled airplane (U.S. Patent 5,330,131). The installation of the original PCA system entailed modifications not only of the flight-control computer (FCC) of the airplane but

  3. 77 FR 24137 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-04-23

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... Register. That AD applies to all Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, Model... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4- 600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes...

  4. The X-15 airplane - Lessons learned

    Dana, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The X-15 rocket research airplane flew to an altitude of 354,000 ft and reached Mach 6.70. In almost 200 flights, this airplane was used to gather aerodynamic-heating, structural loads, stability and control, and atmospheric-reentry data. This paper describes the origins, design, and operation of the X-15 airplane. In addition, lessons learned from the X-15 airplane that are applicable to designing and testing the National Aero-Space Plane are discussed.

  5. 78 FR 78285 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-12-26

    ...-1064; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-101-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A300 B4-605R and B4-622R airplanes; Model A300 F4-605R airplanes; and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes. AD 2005-23-08 required repetitive inspections to detect cracks of certain attachment holes...

  6. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design(RAPID)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bloor, Malcolm I. G.; Wilson, Michael J.; Thomas, Almuttil M.

    2004-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail, horizontal tail, and canard components. The wing, tail, and canard components are manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. Grid sensitivity is obtained by applying the automatic differentiation precompiler ADIFOR to software for the grid generation. The computed surface grids, volume grids, and sensitivity derivatives are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSAL ALGORITHM FOR THE AIRSPACE CONFLICTS RESOLUTION WITH AN AIRPLANE EN-ROUTE

    N. A. Petrov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the formulation and solution of the problem of an airplane trajectory control within dynamically changing flight conditions. Physical and mathematical formulation of the problem was justified and algorithms were proposed to solve it using modern automated technologies.

  8. 76 FR 61555 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2011-10-05

    ... pieces unit welded, instead of 4 pieces unit with 3 welds (old design) as pictured in Appendix 1 of this... pre-modification 02447. Blue and Green. A300 airplanes post-modification 02447 Blue. A300-600 airplanes Blue. A310 airplanes Green. Table 2--Applicable Service Information Airbus Mandatory Service...

  9. 78 FR 53640 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter series airplanes; Model A330-200 and - 300 series airplanes, and Model... of the forward or aft cargo door. To address this condition, Airbus issued four separate Alert...

  10. 78 FR 41280 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A319-112, -113, and -132 airplanes; Model A320-211, -212, -214, -231, and -232 airplanes... A319 aeroplane on which Airbus modification (mod.) 22058 had been embodied in production. Airbus mod...

  11. 78 FR 70003 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-11-22

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model...

  12. 77 FR 64701 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-10-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Model A310 series airplanes; and Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4... that the AD be effective after Airbus completes certifying the improved design for the fuel pump half...

  13. 78 FR 47537 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes, and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. AD... by application of Airbus modification 49590/Service Bulletin (SB) A330-27-3085 [or SB A340-27-4089...

  14. 77 FR 76228 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-12-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-300 series airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted... operational test. This [EASA] AD also requires reporting operational test results to Airbus. You may obtain...

  15. 78 FR 52414 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A320-214, -232 and -233 airplanes; and Model A321-211, - 213, and -231 airplanes. This AD... Service Information Airbus requested that we revise the NPRM (77 FR 63270, October 16, 2012) to reflect...

  16. 77 FR 16430 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F airplanes.../N A5231007000600. This [EASA] AD has been corrected to make clear that the use of Airbus SB A310...

  17. 77 FR 42952 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-07-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318-112 and -121 airplanes; Model A319-111, -112, -115, - 132, and -133 airplanes; Model... MCAI states: During structural part assembly in Airbus production line, some nuts Part Number (P/N...

  18. 77 FR 65799 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 freighter series airplanes, Model A330-200 and - 300 series airplanes, and Model... [Amended] 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-21-20 Airbus: Amendment 39...

  19. 78 FR 69594 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-11-20

    ...-0972; Directorate Identifier 2002-NM-009-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330 series airplanes. The NPRM would have required... rulemaking (NPRM) for a new AD for all Airbus Model A330 series airplanes. The NPRM, FAA Docket No. FAA-2013...

  20. 78 FR 78294 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-12-26

    ...-1031; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-155-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... Freighter, and A330-300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200, A340-300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by the failure of the generator control unit-constant speed motor...

  1. 78 FR 65173 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a determination that... Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on the availability of this...

  2. 78 FR 40069 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-07-03

    ...-0539; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-145-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... B4-600 and Model A300 B4-600R series airplanes. That AD currently requires repetitive inspections to... information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on...

  3. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355 Airplane...

  4. 78 FR 40074 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-07-03

    ...-0465; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-085-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a determination that oxygen generators installed on a... information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on...

  5. 78 FR 40057 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-07-03

    ...-0467; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-023-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of certain sliding windows that were... from safely evacuating the airplane during an emergency. DATES: We must receive comments on this...

  6. 78 FR 8054 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-02-05

    ...-1321; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-147-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A310 series airplanes. The existing AD currently requires repetitive inspections for fatigue cracking... information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on...

  7. 78 FR 7261 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-02-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A310-203 airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of an analysis that demonstrated a...-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057-3356; telephone (425...

  8. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in § 121...

  9. 78 FR 49915 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of..., for certain Airbus Model A310 series airplanes. AD 2004-15-07 required repetitive inspections for..., International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057-3356...

  10. 78 FR 46543 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-01

    ...-0665; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-082-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-300 series airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of corrosion...

  11. 78 FR 46536 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-01

    ...-0668; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-017-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... B4-600R series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of cracks found in the bottom wing... at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on the...

  12. 78 FR 31386 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-05-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...) for all Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes. That AD currently requires a one-time detailed inspection of both main landing gear...

  13. STUDY ABOUT THE STABILITY AND CONTROL OF A ROTOR AIRPLANE

    Stafy, Victor; Neto, Aristeu Silveira

    2017-01-01

    On this paper is studied the stability and control of a Rotor Airplane, more specifically a MAV (Micro Air Vehicle) and how works the dynamics of flight of this unusual configuration of aircraft. It’s discussed the impact of the gyroscopic effect on stability (mainly lateral and directional stability) and was found the best feasible configuration of the stability surface, but the project of the stabilizers was limited to lifting surfaces that use airfoil sections, the possibility of a very un...

  14. Building concepts against airplane crash

    Henkel, F.O.; Woelfel, H.

    1984-01-01

    In Germany safety related buildings of nuclear facilities as well as their equipment are to be designed against airplane crash. While the safety of the structure itself can always be guaranteed by structural means, the induced vibrations may cause severe problems for the equipment. Considerable effort was expended in recent years to comprehend the load case airplane crash in a more exact manner and to evaluate reasonable floor response spectra. Besides this analytical effort, investigations are cited to minimize the induced vibrations by new structural concepts. The present paper gives a survey concerning the development of structural concepts, culminating in the double shell structures that are state of the art today. Then the idea of spring supports, as it is known for the aseismic foundation of buildings, is further developed to a new spring concept which reduces the induced vibrations in an optimum way in the load case airplane crash and which additionally isolates earthquake vibrations. (orig.)

  15. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  16. DESIGN ASPECTS IN AIRPLANE EVOLUTION

    ENUŞ Marilena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to present a few important aspects from aerodynamics and aerospace technology. It also, presents important points regarding the improvement of airplanes as a result of research in shape modelling, materials, aerodynamics and 3d design. Several examples based on constructive structures are offered. The embodiment design of a traditional airplane is presented in order to offer directions of conceptual development for improving its performance parameters and shapes. The virtual scale models are created by computer in Catia V5, in order to provide the validation of the features and the performance of aerodynamic configuration in the wind tunnel.

  17. Paper Airplanes: A Classroom Activity

    Painter, Richard A.

    1976-01-01

    A learning experience is described for upper elementary or junior high students involving the manufacture, transportation, and marketing of a product for consumers. Steps are given and roles are assigned for students to convert raw material (paper) to a finished product (paper airplanes) and to sell it. (AV)

  18. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  19. Thermal surface analysis on high-rise building façades with neo-minimalist and modern style in Penang, Malaysia

    Arab, Yasser; Hassan, Ahmad Sanusi; Qanaa, Bushra

    2017-10-01

    This research analyzed the façade thermal performance of high-rise buildings with modern and neo-minimalist architectural style. Four high-rise apartment buildings in Penang Island are selected as case studies for this research. The modern architectural style, which was popular during the 1970s to 1990s, nearly disregarded the cultural identity of the country and used the basic geometric shapes in the design. Conversely, the neo-minimalist style is the popular style from the 2010s up to the present. This style is a result of the "less is more" concept, which means using minimal applications to obtain an efficient design. The four selected case studies are as follows: Halaman Kristal 2 and Mutiara Idaman 1 with modern architectural style and Light Linear and Baystar apartments with neo-minimalist style. The research uses Fluke Ti20 thermal imager to capture thermal images of the west façade of the selected case studies on an hourly basis from 12:00 to 6:00 P.M. on March 15, 2017. Results confirm that the neo-minimalist façade elements, such as balconies and recessed walls, as well as other shading elements, are effective in improving the performance of façade shading. Notably, façade shading causes low surface temperature and provides cool indoor atmosphere during the day when the temperature is extremely high outside. Accordingly, this distinct feature partly explains the current popularity of the neo-minimalist architectural style.

  20. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  1. Spoilers for roll control of light airplanes

    Roskam, J.; Kohlman, D. L.; Wentz, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art of roll control spoilers for light airplanes. Reasons for using spoilers on light airplanes are presented. Several classical objections to the use of spoilers of such airplanes are critically examined. It is shown that mechanically driven spoiler systems can be designed. Flight test results of a new mechanically driven spoiler on the Redhawk airplane are discussed. Tunnel data of spoilers on the new general aviation airfoil GA(W)-1 are presented. Finally, a bibliography on spoiler data is included.

  2. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    With advanced air handling systems on modern aircraft and the high level of measles immunity in many countries, measles infection in air travelers may be considered a low-risk event. However, introduction of measles into countries where transmission has been controlled or eliminated can have substantial consequences both for the use of public health resources and for those still susceptible. In an effort to balance the relatively low likelihood of disease transmission among largely immune travelers and the risk to the public health of the occurrence of secondary cases resulting from importations, criteria in the United States for contact investigations for measles exposures consider contacts to be those passengers who are seated within 2 rows of the index case. However, recent work has shown that cabin air flow may not be as reliable a barrier to the spread of measles virus as previously believed. Along with these new studies, several reports have described measles developing after travel in passengers seated some distance from the index case. To understand better the potential for measles virus to spread on an airplane, reports of apparent secondary cases occurring in co-travelers of passengers with infectious cases of measles were reviewed. Medline™ was searched for articles in all languages from 1946 to week 1 of March 2012, using the search terms "measles [human] or rubeola" and ("aircraft" or "airplane" or "aeroplane" or "aviation" or "travel" or "traveler" or "traveller"); 45 citations were returned. Embase™ was searched from 1988 to week 11 2012, using the same search strategy; 95 citations were returned. Papers were included in this review if they reported secondary cases of measles occurring in persons traveling on an airplane on which a person or persons with measles also flew, and which included the seating location of both the index case(s) and the secondary case(s) on the plane. Nine reports, including 13 index cases and 23 apparent secondary cases

  3. 90% Below 10m: Summer Biomass and Productivity are Invisible to Satellites and Surface Transects in Modern Lake Michigan

    Cuhel, R. L.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-12-01

    Deep biomass maxima, often identified through in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence profiles (DCM or deep chlorophyll maximum), have been common 'forever' in Lake Michigan. Usually present in the upper thermocline zone of 15-25m, summer DCM populations were characteristically dominated by diatoms. Increased light transmission in quagga mussel (QM) engineered Lake Michigan waters now has enabled phytoplankton to proliferate in discrete layers as deep as 50m. Instances of multiple fluorescence maxima and transmission minima, often not coincident, document the habitat diversity available in clear, often sequentially stratified offshore waters and MidLake Reef Complex locations. Phytoplankton population structure has also changed, and diatoms have become a much smaller component of algal biomass. Discrete layers of chromatically adapted picoplankton now dominate the deepest biomass maxima. Photosynthetic characteristics differ substantially among leading edge, principal biomass or fluorescence, and deep trailing edge populations. Saturation coefficients are often as low as 25 uEin/m2/sec, or 1% of midday summer surface radiance. In vivo fluorescence is only loosely related to biomass, which is greatest in shallower zones of beam transmission minima. On a daily basis, areal primary productivity post-QM is less than half of previous levels, and seasonality has been muted. Spring bloom enhancement no longer exists, and the depth zone of maximum productivity is 10-20m deeper than during the diatom epoch. Altered phytoplankton community structure and decreased productivity left strong signals in biogeochemical time series measurements. A clear discontinuity in silicate cycling indicates dampened diatom productivity and consequently lower silica loss through deposition and burial. Porewater analysis pre- and post-QM shows evidence of reduced organic sedimentation overall, with an especially strong signal in decreased potential silicate efflux. Biogeochemical consequences include

  4. A Modern Sr/Ca-δ18O-Sea Surface Temperature Calibration for Isopora Corals in the Great Barrier Reef

    Brenner, L. D.; Linsley, B. K.; Potts, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Most coral-based paleoceanographic studies have used massive colonies of Porites or Faviidae, due to their long, continuously accreted skeletal records and sub-annual resolution, but other sub-massive corals provide an untapped resource. The genus Isopora is a dominant reef builder in some high-energy environments in the tropical western Pacific, and was a major component of cores recovered on IODP Leg 325 off the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Despite its abundance, Isopora remains largely unexplored and hence underutilized in paleoceanographic studies. We present a modern Sr/Ca-δ18O-Sea Surface Temperature (SST) calibration of modern Isopora corals (n=3) collected from inner and outer reef locations ranging from 1-13m depth by Heron Island in the southern GBR in 2012. Pairing the Isopora Sr/Ca record with monthly SST yielded an average relationship of SST=-11.48×(Sr/Ca)+131.1 (r2 = 0.42-0.78). The Sr/Ca sensitivity of -0.087 mmol/mol/°C is similar to the sensitivity for Porites that was corrected for tissue layer smoothing effects determined by Gagan et al. (2012). The similarity between our Sr/Ca-SST sensitivity and the corrected sensitivity for Porites suggests tissue layer effects are minimal in Isopora. The mean annual SST amplitude recorded by the corals from 2008-2011 (full annual cycles) was 5.3°C and the average δ18O annual cycle of 1.1‰ approximates that expected if salinity had little effect on coral δ18O, assuming a previously established conversion of -0.23‰ (δ18O)/°C for biogenic aragonite. The average annual salinity amplitude of 0.3 in gridded data from around Heron Island supports our conclusion that δ18O variability is forced almost completely by SST. This modern Sr/Ca-SST calibration will expand the paleoceanographic utility of Isopora and, by assisting interpretation of Sr/Ca data from fossil corals collected during IODP 325, will better constrain the timing and magnitude of sea level changes and surface conditions since the Last

  5. Modern cosmology

    Zeldovich, Y.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper fives a general review of modern cosmology. The following subjects are discussed: hot big bang and periodization of the evolution; Hubble expansion; the structure of the universe (pancake theory); baryon asymmetry; inflatory universe. (Auth.)

  6. Modern pollen and stomate deposition in lake surface sediments from across the treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia.

    Gervais, B R.; MacDonald, G M.

    2001-04-01

    We sampled and analyzed surface sediments from 31 lakes along a latitudinal transect crossing the coniferous treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The major vegetation zones along the transect were tundra, birch-forest tundra, pine-forest tundra, and forest. The results indicate that the major vegetation types in our study area have distinct pollen spectra. Sum-of-squares cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) groupings of pollen sites correspond to the major vegetation zones. PCA ordination of taxa indicates that the first axis separates taxa typical of the forest zone (Pinus, Picea) from taxa typical of tundra and forest-tundra zones (Polypodiaceae, Ericaceae, and Betula). The current position of the coniferous treeline, defined in our region by Pinus sylvestris, occurs roughly where Pinus pollen values reach 35% or greater. Arboreal pollen (AP)/non-arboreal pollen (NAP) ratios were calculated for each site and plotted against geographic distance along the transect. AP/NAP ratios of 7 or greater are found within pine-forest tundra and forest vegetation zones. Pinus stomates (dispersed stomatal guard cells) are absent from sites north of the coniferous treeline and all but two samples from the forested sites contain stomates. Stomate concentrations among the samples are highly variable and range from 10 to 458 per ml and positively correlate with the changing Pinus pollen values.

  7. 78 FR 66861 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-11-07

    ...-0834; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-045-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... 2004-11-08, AD 2004-13-25, AD 2004-18-14, AD 2008-06-07, and AD 2012-04-07 that apply to certain Airbus... Airbus Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes from the applicability. We are proposing...

  8. 78 FR 51058 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... certain Airbus Model A319 and A320 series airplanes. AD 2004-13-06 required repetitive detailed... and to allow extension of the interval between two consecutive inspections, Airbus validated an Eddy...

  9. 78 FR 60798 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-10-02

    ...-0363; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-031-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200, -300 and -200 Freighter series airplanes, and Model A340-200... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point...

  10. 77 FR 57003 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-09-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of a torn out.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-18-12 Airbus: Amendment 39-17189...

  11. 78 FR 9581 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-02-11

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F...-03-11 Airbus: Amendment 39-17346. Docket No. FAA-2012-1002; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-052-AD. (a...

  12. 77 FR 51717 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-08-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... applies to certain Airbus Model A300 B4-2C, B4-103, and B4- 203 airplanes; and Model A300 B4-601, B4-603... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--EAW (Airworthiness Office), 1 Rond Point...

  13. 78 FR 54377 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-09-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports that certain... accordance with the Accomplishment Instructions of Airbus Service Bulletin A320-27- 1214, including Appendix...

  14. 78 FR 68352 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-11-14

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-223F, -223, -321, -322, and -323 airplanes. This AD was prompted by fatigue load... this AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac...

  15. 78 FR 64162 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-10-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a determination that...., Washington, DC. For service information identified in this AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EIAS, 1...

  16. 78 FR 79292 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-12-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) 2011-24-09 which applied to certain Airbus Model A340-200 and A340-300 series airplanes. AD... AD, contact Airbus SAS-- Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac...

  17. 77 FR 65808 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A320-214 and -232 airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports that medium-head fasteners were... installation of upper panels on Frame 35 in Airbus A320 final assembly line. Investigations revealed that...

  18. 77 FR 40485 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; all Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series... new AD: 2012-13-06 Airbus: Amendment 39-17108. Docket No. FAA-2012-0040; Directorate Identifier 2011...

  19. 78 FR 71996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-12-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318-112, A319-111, A319-112, A319-115, A319-132, and A319-133 airplanes. This AD was... developing this AD. We have considered the comments received. Request To Refer to Revised EASA AD Airbus...

  20. 78 FR 64156 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-10-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A340-211 -212, -213, -311, -312, -313, -541, and -642 airplanes. This AD... information identified in this AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice...

  1. 78 FR 21227 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200, A330-200 Freighter, A330-300, A340-200, and A340-300 series airplanes; and Model... that, due to similar design, the enhanced MLG bogie pivot pin (Airbus modification 54500) could also be...

  2. 77 FR 7523 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-02-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires modifying the fire.... Relevant Service Information Airbus has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin A340-26-5020, including Appendix...

  3. 78 FR 14647 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-03-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... (AD) for certain Airbus Model A310-204, -222, -304, -322, and -324 airplanes. This AD was prompted by... the Airbus A310 Airworthiness Limitation Section (ALS) Part 1 and bolts must be replaced at or before...

  4. 78 FR 60667 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. AD 2012- 26-51 required revising the...''), to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: Recently, an Airbus A330...

  5. 77 FR 19067 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A321-131, -211, -212, and -231 airplanes. This AD requires a.... Relevant Service Information Airbus has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin A320-57-1120, Revision 01...

  6. 77 FR 19065 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires a detailed inspection for.... Relevant Service Information Airbus has issued All Operators Telex A340-25A5191, dated January 18, 2011...

  7. 78 FR 21230 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by fuel system reviews conducted..., Airbus developed a modification which includes installing Ground Fault Interrupters (GFI) into the centre...

  8. 78 FR 19085 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-03-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of oil residue... (MCAI) states: During Airbus Final Assembly Line flight tests, AoA [angle of attack] data from two...

  9. 78 FR 17071 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-03-20

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, -300, and -200 Freighter series airplanes; and all Airbus Model A340-200 and -300 series...

  10. 77 FR 75825 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-12-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of a prematurely... [Amended] 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-25-12 Airbus: Amendment 39...

  11. 77 FR 19059 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-30

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... all Airbus Model A340-500 and Model -600 series airplanes. This AD requires performing repetitive high... Airbus has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin A340-57-5029, including Appendices 01 and 02, dated February...

  12. 78 FR 37437 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-06-21

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. That AD currently requires one-time and... affected by AOT A320-55-1039 and Airbus SB A320-55-1035, A320-55- 1036 and A320-55-1037 which were not...

  13. 78 FR 15874 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-03-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F... ground threat avoidance, an Airbus A310 aeroplane experienced an uncommanded slide back of the co-pilot...

  14. 78 FR 52405 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-300, A340-200, and A340-300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a determination... Airbus: Amendment 39-17549. Docket No. FAA-2013-0335; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-187-AD. [[Page 52407...

  15. 77 FR 19071 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, A330-300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This AD...: During structural part assembly in Airbus production line, some nuts Part Number (P/N) ASNA2531-4 were...

  16. 77 FR 65812 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-10-31

    ... airplanes; and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of ram air turbine... before delivery from production, an A330 aeroplane experienced a RAT [ram air turbine] pump failure, as a result of which, the green hydraulic system could not be fully pressurized. Investigations concluded that...

  17. 76 FR 50706 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    2011-08-16

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329-4119; fax: (816) 329-4090; e-mail: albert.mercado@faa... Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  18. 76 FR 50405 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    2011-08-15

    ...) 329-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...; e-mail: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a notice of... information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301...

  19. 76 FR 67341 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    2011-11-01

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329-4119; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: albert.mercado@faa...: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City...

  20. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section 129.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.25 Airplane...

  1. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  2. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  3. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual or...

  4. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  5. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding.

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  6. A modern Sr/Ca-δ18O-sea surface temperature calibration for Isopora corals on the Great Barrier Reef

    Brenner, Logan D.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Potts, Donald C.

    2017-02-01

    Isopora (Acroporidae) is a genus of often encrusting, branching to submassive corals that are common in many shallow habitats on modern and fossil Indo-West Pacific reefs. Although abundant, Isopora is largely absent from paleoceanographic literature. The scarcity of large Porites and the abundance of Isopora retrieved from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 325 focused paleoceanographic attention on Isopora. Here we provide the first independent high-resolution calibration of both Sr/Ca and δ18O for temperature analyses based on Isopora and demonstrate its consistency with Porites records. We developed modern skeletal Sr/Ca- and δ18O-sea surface temperature (SST) calibrations based on five modern Isopora colonies from Heron Island in the southern GBR. Pairing the coral Sr/Ca record with monthly SST data yielded Sr/Ca-SST sensitivities from -0.061 ± 0.004 (centered) to -0.083 ± 0.007 (raw) mmol/mol °C-1 based on reduced major axis regressions. These sensitivities are in the middle of the range of published Porites values and overlap most published values for Isopora, -0.075 ± 0.011 to -0.065 ± 0.011 mmol/mol °C-1. The δ18O-SST sensitivities range from -0.184 ± 0.014 (centered) to -0.185 ± 0.014 (raw) ‰ °C-1, assuming that all seasonal variation in δ18O was due to SST. These δ18O-SST sensitivities are smaller than the widely accepted value of -0.23‰ °C-1 for biogenic aragonite but are at the upper end of high-resolution Porites-defined sensitivities that are consistently less than the aforementioned established value. Our results validate the use of Isopora as an alternative source of paleoceanographic records in habitats where large massive Porites are scarce or absent.

  7. Recurring norovirus transmission on an airplane.

    Thornley, Craig N; Emslie, Nicola A; Sprott, Tim W; Greening, Gail E; Rapana, Jackie P

    2011-09-01

    Previously reported outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with aircraft have been limited to transmission during a single flight sector. During October 2009, an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting occurred among different groups of flight attendants who had worked on separate flight sectors on the same airplane. We investigated the cause of the outbreak and whether the illnesses were attributable to work on the airplane. Information was obtained from flight attendants on demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible transmission risk factors. Case patients were defined as flight attendants with diarrhea or vomiting airplane during 13-18 October 2009. Stool samples were tested for norovirus RNA. A passenger had vomited on the Boeing 777-200 airplane on the 13 October flight sector. Sixty-three (82%) of 77 flight attendants who worked on the airplane during 13-18 October provided information, and 27 (43%) met the case definition. The attack rate among flight attendants decreased significantly over successive flight sectors from 13 October onward (P airplane during successive flight sectors. Airlines should make provision for adequate disinfection of airplanes with use of products effective against norovirus and other common infectious agents after vomiting has occurred.

  8. Italian Modernities

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  9. Montreal Modern

    Handberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    , and the space age modernism of the 1960s following the Expo 67 and Quebec’s Quiet Revolution. This is reflected in the city’s thriving retro culture through the study of two groups of retro shops. In circulating specific memories and objects in a specific context, retro is an important negotiation of the past...

  10. Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-airplane lasercom experiment: Airplane considerations

    Kalil, Ford

    1990-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of various airplanes for a Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-Airplane laser communications experiment. As supporting documentation, pertinent technical details are included about the potential use of airplanes located at Ames Research Center and Wallops Flight Facility. The effects and application of orbital mechanics considerations are also presented, including slant range, azimuth, elevation, and time. The pros and cons of an airplane equipped with a side port with a bubble window versus a top port with a dome are discussed.

  11. 76 FR 36390 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747SP Series Airplanes

    2011-06-22

    ... power control modules (PCM). This proposed AD was prompted by a report of a rudder hard-over event on a... rudder PCM manifold, which could result in a hard-over of the rudder surface leading to an increase in... of a Model 747-400 series airplane of a lower rudder hard-over event caused by a lower rudder PCM...

  12. 76 FR 39763 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Interaction of Systems and Structures...

    2011-07-07

    ... Conditions No. 25-354A-SC] Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Interaction of Systems and..., electronic flight control system control surface awareness, HIRF protection, limit engine torque loads for... standards. A special condition is needed to require consideration of the effects of systems on the...

  13. Modern Cosmology

    Zhang Yuan Zhong

    2002-01-01

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

  14. Modern bureaucracy

    Toye, John

    2006-01-01

    Max Weber believed that bureaucracy could be understood by analysing its ideal-typical characteristics, and that these characteristics would become more pervasive as the modern age advanced. Weber’s horizontal account of bureaucracy can be criticised on various grounds, including its unrealistic notion of bureaucratic rationality. An alternative view is proposed, namely, that the development of state bureaucracies is driven by the trajectory of the highpower politics in which they are nested....

  15. Modern Biology

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  16. Modern maths

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  17. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative.

    2010-01-01

    ... the Airplane Flight Manual, allows the airplane to fly from the point where the two engines are...-inoperative, en route, net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual, allows the airplane to fly from the... Airplane Flight Manual, allows the airplane to fly from the point where the two engines are assumed to fail...

  18. 77 FR 26937 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-05-08

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...) for certain Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2K-3C, B2-203, B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203 airplanes; and Model... Airbus Service Bulletins (SB) A300-57-0235 and A300-57-6088 * * *. Subsequently, new cases of cracks were...

  19. 77 FR 75833 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-12-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...) for certain Airbus Model A300 B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203 airplanes; and Model A300 B4-601, B4-603, B4... accordance with Airbus SB A300-57-6053 (Mod. 10453). Therefore and pending completion of the full analysis...

  20. [A rarely known headache: Airplane travel headache].

    Azman, Filiz; Erkılınç, Büşra; Çabalar, Murat; Çağırıcı, Sultan; Yayla, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, headache associated with airplane travel has gained importance with case reports and took its place in the classification of headache in 2013. This rare condition has different spesific characteristic from the primary headaches and its pathophysiology is not clear yet. In this case report, a 27-years-old female patient was diagnosed with the headache associated with airplane travel by history, examination and imaging findings. The possible pathophysiology and treatment were discussed.

  1. Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Bents, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of

  2. Solar Airplane Concept Developed for Venus Exploration

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    An airplane is the ideal vehicle for gathering atmospheric data over a wide range of locations and altitudes, while having the freedom to maneuver to regions of scientific interest. Solar energy is available in abundance on Venus. Venus has an exoatmospheric solar flux of 2600 W/m2, compared with Earth's 1370 W/m2. The solar intensity is 20 to 50 percent of the exoatmospheric intensity at the bottom of the cloud layer, and it increases to nearly 95 percent of the exoatmospheric intensity at 65 km. At these altitudes, the temperature of the atmosphere is moderate, in the range of 0 to 100 degrees Celsius, depending on the altitude. A Venus exploration aircraft, sized to fit in a small aeroshell for a "Discovery" class scientific mission, has been designed and analyzed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. For an exploratory aircraft to remain continually illuminated by sunlight, it would have to be capable of sustained flight at or above the wind speed, about 95 m/sec at the cloud-top level. The analysis concluded that, at typical flight altitudes above the cloud layer (65 to 75 km above the surface), a small aircraft powered by solar energy could fly continuously in the atmosphere of Venus. At this altitude, the atmospheric pressure is similar to pressure at terrestrial flight altitudes.

  3. Factors of airplane engine performance

    Gage, Victor R

    1921-01-01

    This report is based upon an analysis of a large number of airplane-engine tests. It contains the results of a search for fundamental relations between many variables of engine operation. The data used came from over 100 groups of tests made upon several engines, primarily for military information. The types of engines were the Liberty 12 and three models of the Hispano-Suiza. The tests were made in the altitude chamber, where conditions simulated altitudes up to about 30,000 feet, with engine speeds ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 r.p.m. The compression ratios of the different engines ranged from under 5 to over 8 to 1. The data taken on the tests were exceptionally complete, including variations of pressure and temperature, besides the brake and friction torques, rates of fuel and air consumption, the jacket and exhaust heat losses.

  4. Predicting Tail Buffet Loads of a Fighter Airplane

    Moses, Robert W.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    Buffet loads on aft aerodynamic surfaces pose a recurring problem on most twin-tailed fighter airplanes: During maneuvers at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from various surfaces on the forward parts of such an airplane (engine inlets, wings, or other fuselage appendages) often burst, immersing the tails in their wakes. Although these vortices increase lift, the frequency contents of the burst vortices become so low as to cause the aft surfaces to vibrate destructively. Now, there exists a new analysis capability for predicting buffet loads during the earliest design phase of a fighter-aircraft program. In effect, buffet pressures are applied to mathematical models in the framework of a finite-element code, complete with aeroelastic properties and working knowledge of the spatiality of the buffet pressures for all flight conditions. The results of analysis performed by use of this capability illustrate those vibratory modes of a tail fin that are most likely to be affected by buffet loads. Hence, the results help in identifying the flight conditions during which to expect problems. Using this capability, an aircraft designer can make adjustments to the airframe and possibly the aerodynamics, leading to a more robust design.

  5. Radioactivity level of airplane to Guangzhou Baiyun international airport during the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Song Haiqing; Chen Wentao; Cheng Xiaobo; Liao Tong; Deng Fei; Chen Fuliang; Zhang Yanjin; Li Lingjuan; Liang Guiyuan; Wu Guibiao

    2014-01-01

    The radioactivity level of airplanes to Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport (GBIAC) during the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was monitored by Guangdong Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (GERC) on March 15 and 16, 2011. The artificial radionuclide "1"3"1I, "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"7Cs, "l"3"6Cs, "1"3"2I, "1"3"2Te were detected in the wipe samples of the outer surface of airplanes from Japan to GBIAC. The radioactivity ration of "1"3"7Cs/"1"3"4Cs was calculated as (1.12 ± 0.06) in the wipe samples, which similar to the result in the wipe sample of the outer surface of airplanes from Japan to Hangzhou airport obtained by Zhejiang Province Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (l.lO ± 0.08), but slightly higher than results in the aerosol monitoring at Guangzhou (0.99 ± 0.30) and Shenzhen (0.94 ± 0.30) by GERC, the data (0.83) published by Japan Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and the result (1.00 ± 0.13) measured by Tokyo Electric Power Company. A slight radioactive contamination was detected on the surface of outer airplanes and internal cabin. The practice suggested that the wipe sample of the outer surface of airplane was a fast , simple and sensitive approach for emergency monitoring of radioactive contamination. (authors)

  6. Modern Cosmology

    Zhang Yuanzhong

    2002-06-21

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and

  7. Modern spectroscopy

    Hollas, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of this highly acclaimed title introduces the reader to a wide range of spectroscopies, and includes both the background theory and applications to structure determination and chemical analysis.  It covers rotational, vibrational, electronic, photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy, as well as EXAFs and the theory of lasers and laser spectroscopy. A  revised and updated edition of a successful, clearly written book Includes the latest developments in modern laser techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy and femtosecond lasers Provides numerous worked examples, calculations and questions at the end of chapters.

  8. Modeling of terminal-area airplane fuel consumption

    2009-08-01

    Accurate modeling of airplane fuel consumption is necessary for air transportation policy-makers to properly : adjudicate trades between competing environmental and economic demands. Existing public models used for : computing terminal-area airplane ...

  9. 75 FR 59658 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    2010-09-28

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301... found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...

  10. 77 FR 56991 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    2012-09-17

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901....mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a supplemental notice of proposed.... Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901...

  11. Studies on aerodynamic interferences between the components of transport airplane using unstructured Navier-Stokes simulations

    Wang, G.; Ye, Z.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the aerodynamic interference flows widely exist between the components of conventional transport airplane, for example, the wing-fuselage juncture flow, wing-pylon-nacelle flow and tail-fuselage juncture flow. The main characteristic of these aerodynamic interferences is flow separation, which will increase the drag, reduce the lift and cause adverse influence on the stability and controllability of the airplane. Therefore, the modern civil transport designers should do their best to eliminate negative effects of aerodynamic interferences, which demands that the aerodynamic interferences between the aircraft components should be predicted and analyzed accurately. Today's CFD techniques provide us powerful and efficient analysis tools to achieve this objective. In this paper, computational investigations of the interferences between transport aircraft components have been carried out by using a viscous flow solver based on mixed element type unstructured meshes. (author)

  12. Perturbed Motion of Airplane and Safe Store Separation

    S. C. Raisinghani; S. Rao

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented to predict the perturbed motion of an airplane following stores jettisoning. The mass, moment of inertia, forces, and moments acting on the airplane are suitable split into contributions from the stores and the rest of the airplane parts. The seperation of stores is assumed to result in a step change of mass, moment of intertai, forces, and moments contributed by stores. The resulting set of perturbed state equations of motion are solved for two illustrative airplane str...

  13. Modern thermodynamics

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  14. Modern electrodynamics

    Zangwill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

  15. 76 FR 77157 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2011-12-12

    ... airplane. A separated T/R piece could result in a rejected takeoff (RTO) and cause asymmetric thrust and... cause structural damage to the airplane, damage to other airplanes, or injury to people on the ground... be available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebel Nichols...

  16. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    2010-01-01

    ... Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane for eight hours or less during any 24... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes...

  17. 78 FR 70851 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-11-27

    ... (EICAS) message that displays ``ENG THRUST (L,R)'' (for Model 787-8 airplanes) or ``ENG (1, 2, 3, or 4... The Boeing Company Model 747-8 and 747-8F series airplanes and Model 787-8 airplanes powered by GEnx...: 202-493-2251. Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground...

  18. 76 FR 70042 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    2011-11-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Pacific Aerospace Limited Model FU24 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing... Schletzbaum, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  19. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains a...

  20. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent placards...

  1. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical miles...

  2. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot...

  3. Nonlinear analysis of a reactor building for airplane impact loadings

    Zimmermann, T.; Rodriguez, C.; Rebora, B.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose is to analyze the influence of material nonlinear behavior on the response of a reinforced concrete reactor building and on equipment response for airplane impact loadings. Two analyses are performed: first, the impact of a slow-flying commercial airplane (Boeing 707), then the impact of a fast flying military airplane (Phantom). (orig./HP)

  4. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type of...

  5. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported...

  6. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements...

  7. 77 FR 57529 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-09-18

    ... 737-600, -700, -700C, -800, -900, or -900ER series airplanes, a full-scale fatigue test article was... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...-800 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of early fatigue cracks at chem- mill...

  8. 77 FR 57539 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-09-18

    ... 737-600, -700, -700C, -800, -900, or -900ER series airplanes, a full-scale fatigue test article was... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...-900 and -900ER series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of early fatigue cracks at...

  9. 77 FR 57541 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-09-18

    ... 737-600, -700, -700C, -800, -900, or -900ER series airplanes, a full-scale fatigue test article was... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...-600 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of early fatigue cracks at chem- mill...

  10. 77 FR 57536 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-09-18

    ... -900ER series airplanes, a full-scale fatigue test article was inspected for skin cracks at similar... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...-700 and -700C series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of early fatigue cracks at...

  11. Evaluation method of longitudinal static stability of tailless airplane. Mubiyokuki no tate no seianteisei no hyokaho

    Ando, S; Kajita, H [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1992-01-05

    As for the tailless airplane which has the swept taper wing of linear leading and tailing edges, the longitudinal static stability was evaluated by using the modified strip or airfoil theory and the lifting surface theory (DLM method). The sectional lift coefficient of the whole wing, the pitching moment coefficient around the center of gravity, and the equation relating to the elevon were shown. It is thought as a weak point of any tailless airplane that the spanwise lift distribution may keep away from the optimal one because the wash-out is necessary to keep the longitudinal static stability. In order to evaluate this fact, the inductive drag was calculated by using the calculation soft for the induced drag based on the lift surface method to obtain the airplane efficiency factor. The Northrop XB-35 was used for the model of this calculation. Both theories agreed qualititatively. The allowable range of longitudinal center of gravity was 12.5% of the mean chord length. The structural twist is about 9{degree}, and this value gives hardly any adverse effect to the airplane efficiency factor for crusing configuration. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Insights into factors contributing to the observability of a submarine at periscope depth by modern radar, Part 2: EM simulation of mast RCS in a realistic sea surface environment

    Smit, JC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IEEE-APS Topical Conference on Antennas and Propagation in Wireless Communications (APWC), Cape Town 2-7 September 2012 Insights into factors contributing to the observability of a submarine at periscope depth by modern radar, Part 2: EM... simulation of mast RCS in a realistic sea surface environment Smit JC; Cilliers JE CSIR, Defence, Peace, Safety and Security. PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 Abstract Recently, a set of high resolution radar measurements were undertaken in South...

  13. 76 FR 36387 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes; Model A310 Series Airplanes; and...

    2011-06-22

    ... pieces unit with 3 welds (old design) as pictured in Appendix 1 of this [EASA] AD. The welding process of... pre-modification 02447.. Blue and Green. A300 airplanes post-modification 02447. Blue. A300-600 airplanes Blue. A310 airplanes Green. Table 2--Applicable service information Airbus mandatory service...

  14. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine or fewer passenger seats. 135.422 Section 135.422... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine...

  15. Atmospheric electron flux at airplane altitude

    Enomoto, R.; Chiba, J.; Ogawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Kifune, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Nishimura, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a new detector to systematically measure the cosmic-ray electron flux at airplane altitudes. We loaded a lead-glass-based electron telescope onto a commercial cargo airplane. The first experiment was carried out using the air route between Narita (Japan) and Sydney (Australia); during this flight we measured the electron flux at various altitudes and latitudes. The thresholds of the electron energies were 1, 2, and 4 GeV. The results agree with a simple estimation using one-dimensional shower theory. A comparison with a Monte Carlo calculation was made

  16. Revalidation of the NASA Ames 11-by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel with a Commercial Airplane Model

    Kmak, Frank J.; Hudgins, M.; Hergert, D.; George, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 11-By 11-Foot Transonic leg of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) was modernized to improve tunnel performance, capability, productivity, and reliability. Wind tunnel tests to demonstrate the readiness of the tunnel for a return to production operations included an Integrated Systems Test (IST), calibration tests, and airplane validation tests. One of the two validation tests was a 0.037-scale Boeing 777 model that was previously tested in the 11-By 11-Foot tunnel in 1991. The objective of the validation tests was to compare pre-modernization and post-modernization results from the same airplane model in order to substantiate the operational readiness of the facility. Evaluation of within-test, test-to-test, and tunnel-to-tunnel data repeatability were made to study the effects of the tunnel modifications. Tunnel productivity was also evaluated to determine the readiness of the facility for production operations. The operation of the facility, including model installation, tunnel operations, and the performance of tunnel systems, was observed and facility deficiency findings generated. The data repeatability studies and tunnel-to-tunnel comparisons demonstrated outstanding data repeatability and a high overall level of data quality. Despite some operational and facility problems, the validation test was successful in demonstrating the readiness of the facility to perform production airplane wind tunnel%, tests.

  17. Flight testing a propulsion-controlled aircraft emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system on an F-15 airplane have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane was flown with all flight control surfaces locked both in the manual throttles-only mode and in an augmented system mode. In the latter mode, pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to position the throttles. Flight evaluation results showed that the PCA system can be used to land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure safely. The PCA system was used to recover the F-15 airplane from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Pilots from NASA, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace evaluated the PCA system and were favorably impressed with its capability. Manual throttles-only approaches were unsuccessful. This paper describes the PCA system operation and testing. It also presents flight test results and pilot comments.

  18. Performance Comparison of the Optimized Inverted Joined Wing Airplane Concept and Classical Configuration Airplanes

    Sieradzki Adam; Dziubiński Adam; Galiński Cezary

    2016-01-01

    The joined wing concept is an unconventional airplane configuration, known since the mid-twenties of the last century. It has several possible advantages, like reduction of the induced drag and weight due to the closed wing concept. The inverted joined wing variant is its rarely considered version, with the front wing being situated above the aft wing. The following paper presents a performance prediction of the recently optimized configuration of this airplane. Flight characteristics obtaine...

  19. Modern Supersymmetry

    Kulish, Petr P

    2006-01-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the 'exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincare algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical characteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to 'duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad

  20. Performance Comparison of the Optimized Inverted Joined Wing Airplane Concept and Classical Configuration Airplanes

    Sieradzki Adam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The joined wing concept is an unconventional airplane configuration, known since the mid-twenties of the last century. It has several possible advantages, like reduction of the induced drag and weight due to the closed wing concept. The inverted joined wing variant is its rarely considered version, with the front wing being situated above the aft wing. The following paper presents a performance prediction of the recently optimized configuration of this airplane. Flight characteristics obtained numerically were compared with the performance of two classical configuration airplanes of similar category. Their computational fluid dynamics (CFD models were created basing on available documentation, photographs and some inverse engineering methods. The analysis included simulations performed for a scale of 3-meter wingspan inverted joined wing demonstrator and also for real-scale manned airplanes. Therefore, the results of CFD calculations allowed us to assess the competitiveness of the presented concept, as compared to the most technologically advanced airplanes designed and manufactured to date. At the end of the paper, the areas where the inverted joined wing is better than conventional airplane were predicted and new research possibilities were described.

  1. Modern fluid dynamics

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  2. 77 FR 62182 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-10-12

    ... Invited We invite you to send any written relevant data, views, or arguments about this proposed AD. Send... 7, 2001) requires certain type design (i.e., type certificate (TC) and supplemental type certificate... tanks. This requirement applies to type design holders for large turbine-powered transport airplanes and...

  3. 77 FR 58785 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-09-24

    ... condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: As a result of the Extended Service Goal 2 exercise... affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... this AD, as applicable. (1) For Model A300 B4-622R airplanes: Reinforce the door frame shells of...

  4. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  5. 76 FR 69168 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2011-11-08

    ...-1225; Directorate Identifier 2010-NM-269-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A300 B4-2C, B4-103..., contact Airbus SAS-EAW (Airworthiness Office), 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France...

  6. 78 FR 32347 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-05-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter, A330-200, A330-300, A340-200, A340- 300, A340-500, and A340-600 series... following service information: Airbus Mandatory Service Bulletin A330-56-3009, Revision 02, including...

  7. 77 FR 17327 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1087; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-032-AD; Amendment 39-16967; AD 2012-04-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes Correction In rule document 2012-5859 appearing on pages 14679-14681...

  8. 77 FR 66760 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-11-07

    ...-1162; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-002-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter, A330... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point...

  9. 78 FR 39190 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-07-01

    ...-0543; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-202-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  10. 77 FR 37829 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-06-25

    ...-0671; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-096-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Airbus Model... this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  11. 77 FR 73340 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-12-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... earlier proposed airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series..., contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France...

  12. 78 FR 23105 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-04-18

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model... Agency] has received a report via Airbus and Messier-Bugatti-Dowty Ltd, from a Maintenance repair...

  13. 77 FR 66764 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-11-07

    ...-1160; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-096-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus... +33 5 61 93 36 96; fax +33 5 61 93 45 80; email [email protected]airbus.com ; Internet http...

  14. 78 FR 29261 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-05-20

    ...-0424; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-014-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter, A330... this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  15. 77 FR 11793 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-02-28

    ...-0185; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-001-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A300 B4-103, B4-203... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  16. 77 FR 15636 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  17. 77 FR 60325 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-10-03

    ...-1253; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-079-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... directive (AD) that would supersede an existing AD for certain Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  18. 78 FR 59295 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-09-26

    ...-0829; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-085-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede airworthiness directive (AD) 2010-23- 12, which applies to certain Airbus... through Friday, except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD...

  19. 78 FR 18925 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-03-28

    ...-0212; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-116-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-223F, -223, -321...., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this...

  20. 77 FR 66762 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-11-07

    ...-1159; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-028-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A310-203, -204, -222... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--EAW (Airworthiness Office), 1 Rond Point...

  1. 76 FR 62673 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2011-10-11

    ...-1066; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-050-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD), for certain Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2K-3C... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  2. 77 FR 49386 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-08-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus..., except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  3. 76 FR 72350 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2011-11-23

    ...-1253; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-079-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A319, A320, and A321... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  4. 78 FR 51117 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-20

    ...-0698; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-136-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede airworthiness directive (AD) 2006-06- 14, that applies to certain Airbus... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice...

  5. 76 FR 68671 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2011-11-07

    ...-1170; Directorate Identifier 2010-NM-264-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and... Friday, except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD, contact...

  6. 76 FR 78524 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2011-12-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Airbus... an aeroplane from the Airbus production line, a fault message was triggered on FDU1 [fire detection...

  7. 78 FR 46306 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-07-31

    ...-0632; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-045-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  8. 78 FR 25902 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-05-03

    ...-0363; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-031-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200, -300 and -200... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  9. 77 FR 15644 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-16

    ...-0192; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-225-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 and -200... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point...

  10. 77 FR 51729 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-08-27

    ...-0810; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-195-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, A330-300... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  11. 78 FR 64159 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-10-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus SAS-- EAW (Airworthiness Office), 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France; telephone +33 5 61 93 36 96; fax +33 5 61 93 44 51; email [email protected]airbus.com ; Internet http...

  12. 78 FR 79333 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-12-30

    ...-1066; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-021-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede airworthiness directive (AD) 2000-12- 12, for certain Airbus Model A300, A300... this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAW, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  13. 78 FR 32345 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-05-30

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300... FedEx requested that copies of Airbus Service Bulletin A300-53- 6170, dated May 16, 2011, be provided...

  14. 78 FR 1723 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-01-09

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Airbus...

  15. 78 FR 29666 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-05-21

    ...-0422; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-097-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 and -300... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point...

  16. 77 FR 26996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-05-08

    ...-0427; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-202-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A320-214 and-232... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  17. 78 FR 37498 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-06-21

    ...-0463; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-165-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, -200... holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office...

  18. 77 FR 12989 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-05

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model.... Airbus carried out an investigation, demonstrating that the life limit of retraction brackets must be...

  19. 78 FR 76572 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-12-18

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus..., except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  20. 77 FR 59149 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-09-26

    ...-1002; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-052-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R...: Airbus: Docket No. FAA-2012-1002; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM- 052-AD. (a) Comments Due Date We must...

  1. 78 FR 9341 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-02-08

    ...-0088; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-233-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Airbus Model... this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  2. 77 FR 64765 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-10-23

    ...-1105; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-137-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  3. 77 FR 66772 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-11-07

    ...-1158; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-232-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Airbus Model... that AD, Airbus has revised certain ALI documents, which require more restrictive maintenance...

  4. 77 FR 65146 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-10-25

    ...-1106; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-084-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter, -200..., contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France...

  5. 77 FR 16492 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-03-21

    ...-0291; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-168-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A318-112, and -121... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  6. 78 FR 53635 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-08-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 and... Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-17-03 Airbus: Amendment 39...

  7. 77 FR 73343 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-12-10

    ...-1224; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-112-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and... holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS-EAW...

  8. 78 FR 14029 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2013-03-04

    ...-0096; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-143-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A318-112, A319-111... Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France; telephone...

  9. 77 FR 26998 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-05-08

    ...-0428; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-078-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-243, -243F, -342..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information...

  10. Airplane energy use and conservation strategies

    Pilati, D.A.

    1974-05-01

    Domestic commercial airplane fuel use is examined as a function of stage length. A fuel use model is developed using the eight most popular airplanes. Short flights are very fuel inefficient; a 100-mile flight consumes 2.5 times as much fuel per passenger-mile than a 1,000-mile flight. Half of today's flights are for distances under 260 miles. Fuel consumption for purposes other than flying directly between airports is examined. Over 10% of total fuel use is for those portions of the flight in which no enroute distance is achieved. Delays account for at least 4.2% of the fuel consumption and auxiliary power units use over 1%. Fuel requirements for attempting to recover lost time and for fuel ferrying are also discussed. Airplane fuel efficiency can be increased in the short term by operational changes, particularly by increasing the load factor. A load factor increase from 50 to 60% would reduce airplane fuel use by 16% for the same traffic. Other options include reducing cruise speeds, increasing cruise altitudes, and changing ground operations. Each of these strategies offer savings of 1 to 3%. Total transportation energy use can be reduced by shifting air passengers to ground modes, especially for the inefficient short-stage traffic. Net energy savings for diverting half the flights under 200 miles to buses or trains is equivalent to 6% of the fleet fuel use. (6 tables, 6 fig., 36 references)

  11. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  12. 77 FR 36125 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    2012-06-18

    ... FAA, call (816) 329-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA...; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a... information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301...

  13. 77 FR 1622 - Airworthiness Directives; Socata Airplanes

    2012-01-11

    ... the FAA, call (816) 329-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA...; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a.... Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901...

  14. 77 FR 14314 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    2012-03-09

    ... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...; email: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite you to send any... procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small...

  15. 77 FR 67263 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-11-09

    ... to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: During shop visit... first installed on an airplane: Before further flight, do the actions in Figure A-FBBAA-Sheet 03, Flow... Figure A-FBBAA-Sheet 02, Flow Chart, of Airbus Mandatory Service Bulletin A330-71-3025, excluding...

  16. 76 FR 79560 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2011-12-22

    ... off, a transient loss of elevator control associated with a temporary incorrect flight control law... airplane flight manual. We are proposing this AD to prevent movement of the elevators to zero position... reset does not occur thanks to the introduction of second electrical power supply to FCPC3 from 1PP bus...

  17. 77 FR 36211 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-06-18

    ... A310-204 and -304 airplanes, powered by General Electric (GE) CF6-80C2 series engines. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of two single-engine flame-out events during inclement weather. This proposed AD would require installing a shunt of the rotary selector (introducing an auto-relight function). We...

  18. Flying spin qualities testing of airplane

    Kostić Čedomir J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the theoretical analysis of origins and characteristics of spinning motion. There are precise explanation of every stage spin flight and basic meaning of notion. Personated equation of motion in spin and equitation of motion airplane in settled spin motion, analysis of them and general recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins. Introduced in valid military and civil specifications flight test demonstration requirements for departure resistance and flying stall and spin qualities testing of airplane. Special attention was given on predicting departure, stall and spin susceptibility and theoretical analysis in the name of magnify flight testing security. There are explanation of test equipment and methodology of flying qualities testing of airplanes. Like a support of this theme are described method and results of flight stall and spin qualities testing of airplane G-4(N-62 super see-gull with precise recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins, from TOC SLI VS (Technical testing center, department for fight testing Air Force of Serbia.

  19. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial...

  20. Airplane tire inspection by image processing techniques

    Jovancevic , Igor; Arafat , Al; Orteu , Jean-José; Sentenac , Thierry

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect and inspect airplane tires. We use normalized correlation based template matching to detect tires and GrabCut segmentation method to extract them from the background. We inspect the tires condition by investigating the tire treads. Ridge based intensity profiling gives satisfying inspection results.

  1. 77 FR 60658 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    2012-10-04

    ... proposed AD would require a high frequency eddy current (HFEC) inspection for any cracking on the left-hand...: Perform a high frequency eddy current (HFEC) inspection for any cracking on the left-hand and right-hand... A321-111 and -131 airplanes; certificated in any category; manufacturer serial numbers 0259, 0260, 0264...

  2. 14 CFR 135.393 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    2010-01-01

    ... category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight that— (1) Allowing for anticipated consumption of... assumed that— (1) The airplane passes directly over the intersection of the obstruction clearance plane...

  3. 76 FR 41041 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction of Systems...

    2011-07-13

    ... Conditions No. 25-439-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction... special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 airplane. This airplane...

  4. 14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.577 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished...

  5. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    Kuhl. Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface of Mars by using an airplane as the payload platform. ARES team first conducted a Phase-A study for a 2007 launch opportunity, which was completed in May 2003. Following this study, significant efforts were undertaken to reduce the risk of the atmospheric flight system, under the NASA Langley Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction Project. The concept was then proposed to the Mars Scout program in 2006 for a 2011 launch opportunity. This paper summarizes the design and development of the ARES airplane propulsion subsystem beginning with the inception of the ARES project in 2002 through the submittal of the Mars Scout proposal in July 2006.

  6. Multiple modernities, modern subjectivities and social order

    Jung, Dietrich; Sinclair, Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    to modern subjectivity formation. In combining conceptual tools from these strands of social theory, we argue that the emergence of multiple modernities should be understood as a historical result of idiosyncratic social constructions combining global social imaginaries with religious and other cultural......Taking its point of departure in the conceptual debate about modernities in the plural, this article presents a heuristic framework based on an interpretative approach to modernity. The article draws on theories of multiple modernities, successive modernities and poststructuralist approaches...... traditions. In the second part of the article we illustrate this argument with three short excursions into the history of Islamic reform in the 19th and 20th centuries. In this way we interpret the modern history of Muslim societies as based on cultural conflicts between different forms of social order...

  7. Passenger Spaceplanes and Airplanes that Have Variable Configuration for Sonic Boom Reduction

    Constantin SANDU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last time, the interest for passenger space plane, supersonic passenger aircraft and supersonic business jets is increasing. For reducing sonic boom effects at ground level, some companies proposed airplanes having fuselage with small traversal section or having curved fuselage. This paper presents a new practical method for exciting vibrations in the leading edge of wing, tail and airplane's nose surfaces in order to scatter the shock wave and to reduce the sonic boom impact at ground level. The leading edges of wing, tail and airplane nose are covered with thin elastic fairings made of carbon fiber composite material which are separated through small gaps by the adjacent surfaces of wing, tail and nose. When the aircraft flies over populated areas, compressed air bleed from the engine compressors excites the vibration of carbon fiber fairings. The air is released through calibrated nozzles and directly impinges on the fairing surface generating their vibration. Thus, the shock waves are scattered and the impact of sonic boom on ground is much reduced.

  8. 76 FR 35344 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Model P2006T Airplanes

    2011-06-17

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901.... Send information to Attn: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901...

  9. 76 FR 3854 - Airworthiness Directives; REIMS AVIATION S.A. Model F406 Airplanes

    2011-01-21

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301... Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  10. 75 FR 16660 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    2010-04-02

    ...., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small...: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City...

  11. Airplane impact on nuclear power plants

    Eibl, J.

    2003-01-01

    A short report on investigations of nuclear power plants under airplane attack is given. It concerns the modeling of planes with regard to mass and stiffness, the relevant plane velocity and finally the determination of load-time functions. The necessary analysis of the concrete containment structure is shortly addressed. Finally a proposal for a structure to keep planes from such building structures is discussed. (author)

  12. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  13. 78 FR 42720 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-07-17

    ... airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support the established... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chandraduth Ramdoss, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM... airplane structure. The last element of those initiatives is the requirement to establish a limit of...

  14. 78 FR 42900 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-07-18

    ... airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support the established... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Galib Abumeri, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM 120L... airplane structure. The last element of those initiatives is the requirement to establish a LOV of the...

  15. 78 FR 42895 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-07-18

    ... intended to support the airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Galib Abumeri, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120L, FAA, Los... support initiatives that will ensure the continued airworthiness of aging airplane structure. The last...

  16. 77 FR 20511 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-04-05

    ... language regarding certain ``specific airplane(s).'' We find these comments to be addressed to EASA... with thrust reverser part number (P/N) 315A2295-003 through 315A2295-154 inclusive: Do the actions...-155 through 315A2295-174 inclusive: Do the actions within 60 months after the effective date of this...

  17. 77 FR 60887 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    2012-10-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory... and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  18. 77 FR 44511 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    2012-07-30

    ... Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory... identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  19. 77 FR 2442 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-01-18

    ... bulletin to change the concurrent requirement and provide wiring changes and an alternative installation... installation of the new panel assemblies for airplanes that have the optional water system drain plumbing and changing the interconnecting wiring between the P141 panel and the P36 and P37 panels. For airplanes with a...

  20. 77 FR 64704 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-10-23

    ... consequent forced landing of the airplane. DATES: This AD is effective November 27, 2012. The Director of the... Labor cost product Cost on U.S. operators Operational Test 3 work hours x $85 per $255 $275,400 per..., inability to restart the engines, and consequent forced landing of the airplane. (f) Compliance Comply with...

  1. 78 FR 52838 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-08-27

    ... consequent forced landing of the airplane. DATES: This AD is effective October 1, 2013. The Director of the... to comply with this AD: Estimated Costs Cost per Cost on U.S. Action Labor cost product operators... consequent forced landing of the airplane. (f) Compliance Comply with this AD within the compliance times...

  2. 77 FR 61548 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-10-10

    ...-indicating and crew-alerting system (EICAS) messages ALT DISAGREE and IAS DISAGREE displayed. The flightcrew... Special Attention Service Bulletin 727-34-0245, dated June 4, 2008 (for Model airplanes); [[Page 61549... -200C series airplanes); and Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 747-34-2925, dated June 4, 2008...

  3. 77 FR 66417 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    2012-11-05

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 [[Page 66418...: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite you to send any written... Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  4. 77 FR 2238 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    2012-01-17

    ... attachment. If not corrected, this failure could result in loss of control of the airplane. We are issuing... the referenced service information at the FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Kansas City..., Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329-4059; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: [email protected

  5. 76 FR 53308 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2011-08-26

    ... bumper, and the attachment hardware with a rudder stop modification kit. This new AD requires a change to..., Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Kansas City, Missouri 64106. For information on the availability... acrobatic maneuvers in the airplane or replacement of the rudder stop, rudder stop bumper, and attachment...

  6. 77 FR 54854 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-09-06

    .... Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data... airplanes), except as specified in paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2) of this AD. (1) Steps 1 through 5 of Figure...

  7. 78 FR 33193 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-06-04

    ... modifications (such as the installation of felt on Model 767 airplanes per Figure 18 of Boeing Special Attention... information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE...

  8. 77 FR 47277 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-08-08

    ... Docket Operations office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The... airplanes, serial numbers 413, 443, 450 through 452 inclusive, 456, 458, 462 through 465 inclusive, 467 through 470 inclusive, and 473 through 588 inclusive. (2) Model DHC-8-400, -401, and -402 airplanes...

  9. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T, and PA-46-500TP airplanes. This... through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper...

  10. 78 FR 72554 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes

    2013-12-03

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Model GV and GV-SP airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of two... Aerospace Corporation, Technical Publications Dept., P.O. Box 2206, Savannah, GA 31402-2206; telephone 800...

  11. 78 FR 9781 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    2013-02-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for all Pacific Aerospace Limited Models FU24-954 and FU24A-954 airplanes. This AD results... Aerospace Limited, Hamilton Airport, Private Bag, 3027 Hamilton, New Zealand; telephone: +64 7 843 6144; fax...

  12. 77 FR 31483 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes

    2012-05-29

    ... Service Change (ASC) 229 and G-1159 (aka G-II) ASC 426 installs a new three-piece box fitting on the left... result of an improper structural modification. This records search also revealed that six other Model G... similar nonconforming condition was found on a total of six airplanes. Of those, one airplane does not...

  13. Variable-Structure Control of a Model Glider Airplane

    Waszak, Martin R.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    A variable-structure control system designed to enable a fuselage-heavy airplane to recover from spin has been demonstrated in a hand-launched, instrumented model glider airplane. Variable-structure control is a high-speed switching feedback control technique that has been developed for control of nonlinear dynamic systems.

  14. Prospect of atomic airplane and mini-reactor

    Shi Lei; Li Jinying; Ji Cunxing; Ma Huirou; Hou Yanli; Duan Zhihui

    2012-01-01

    History of R and D of atomic airplane was reviewed. inclusive of problem and actuality, principle and attaching. Prospect of R and D of atomic airplane in China is described extensively. Some suggestions to the government and establishments were made as well. (authors)

  15. Topological estimation of aerodynamic controlled airplane system functionality of quality

    С.В. Павлова

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  It is suggested to use topological methods for stage estimation of aerodynamic airplane control in widespread range of its conditions The estimation is based on normalized stage virtual non-isotropy of configurational airplane systems calculation.

  16. Transformation of Helicopter PinS Procedures for Airplanes

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibility to use existing helicopter Point in Space procedures with minor changes for airplanes. The basis is to find parts of PinS procedures that need to be changed, suggest these changes, and then determine whether the revised procedures could be usable and could bring the benefits for airplane operations.

  17. 77 FR 64695 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-10-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Model C90GTi (King Air) airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of... service information identified in this AD, contact Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, 10511 E. Central Ave...

  18. 78 FR 42724 - Airworthiness Directives; Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    2013-07-17

    ... Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... certain Beechcraft Corporation Models 1900, 1900C, and 1900D airplanes. AD 2011-27-51 currently requires... Corporation at P.O. Box 85, Wichita, Kansas 67201-0085; telephone: (800) 429-5372 or (316) 676-3140; Internet...

  19. 77 FR 29214 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-05-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Models 58 and G58 airplanes. This AD was prompted by installation of... this AD, contact Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, B091-A04, 10511 E. Central Ave., Wichita, Kansas 67206...

  20. 78 FR 52870 - Airworthiness Directives; Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    2013-08-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Beechcraft Corporation (type certificate previously held by Hawker Beechcraft Corporation) Models 1900, 1900C, and 1900D airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of cracking in...

  1. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-06-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for certain WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1, and 2T-1A-2 airplanes... information identified in this AD, contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport Rd., Battle...

  2. 77 FR 3585 - Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes

    2012-01-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Corporation (Cirrus) Model SR22T airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of partial loss of engine power.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Cirrus Design Corporation, 4515 Taylor...

  3. 77 FR 64693 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-10-23

    ... Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Beechcraft Corporation Model G58 airplanes. This AD was prompted by notification from Hawker Beechcraft Corporation that certain affected aircraft were produced with the incorrect gauge wiring installed. This AD...

  4. 77 FR 12757 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    2012-03-02

    ... Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Beechcraft Corporation Models 58 and G58 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by installation of... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, B091-A04, 10511 E. Central...

  5. 78 FR 47549 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... to certain The Boeing Company Model 737-200, -200C, -300, and -400 series airplanes. AD 2000-06-13 R1..., adds inspections and related investigative and corrective actions, revises certain inspection types...

  6. 76 FR 25229 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Dynamic Test Requirements...

    2011-05-04

    ... Memorandum ``Side-Facing Seats on Transport Category Airplanes'' and draft Issue Paper ``Dynamic Test...; Special Conditions No. 25-425-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane... are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) model G250 airplane. This airplane will have a novel...

  7. 14 CFR 121.1105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Improvements § 121.1105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all airplanes operated by a certificate holder under this part, except for those airplanes...

  8. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transport category civil airplane weight... civil airplane weight limitations. (a) No person may take off any transport category airplane (other than a turbine-engine-powered airplane certificated after September 30, 1958) unless— (1) The takeoff...

  9. The relationship between the ratio of strontium to calcium and sea-surface temperature in a modern Porites astreoides coral: Implications for using P. astreoides as a paleoclimate archive

    Tess E. Busch,; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Richey, Julie N.; Stathakopoulos, Anastasios

    2015-11-13

    An inverse relationship has been demonstrated between water temperature and the ratio of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) in coral aragonite for a number of Pacific species of the genus Porites. This empirically determined relationship has been used to reconstruct past sea-surface temperature (SST) from modern and Holocene age coral archives. A study was conducted to investigate this relationship for Porites astreoides to determine the potential for using these corals as a paleotemperature archive in the Caribbean and western tropical Atlantic Ocean. Skeletal aragonite from a P. astreoides colony growing offshore of the southeast coast of Florida was subsampled with a mean temporal resolution of 14 samples per year and analyzed for Sr/Ca. The resulting Sr/Ca time series yielded well-defined annual cycles that correspond to annual growth bands in the coral. Sr/Ca was regressed against a monthly SST record from C-MAN buoy station FWYF1 (located at Fowey Rocks, Florida), resulting in the following Sr/Ca-SST relationship: Sr/Ca = –0.040*SST + 10.128 (R = –0.77). A 10-year time series of Sr/Ca-derived SST yields annual cycles with a 10–12 degree Celsius seasonal amplitude, consistent with available local instrumental records. We conclude that Sr/Ca in Porites astreoides from the Caribbean/Atlantic region has high potential for developing subannually resolved modern and recent Holocene SST records.

  10. 78 FR 63847 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Airplane Electronic System Security...

    2013-10-25

    ... design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer... the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement can... architecture for the Embraer Model EMB-550 series of airplanes is composed of several connected networks. This...

  11. Role of Meteorology in Flights of a Solar-Powered Airplane

    Donohue, Casey

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, the Helios prototype solar-powered uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) [a lightweight, remotely piloted airplane] was deployed to the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), at Kauai, Hawaii, in an attempt to fly to altitudes above 100,000 ft (30.48 km). The goal of flying a UAV to such high altitudes has been designated a level-I milestone of the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. In support of this goal, meteorologists from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were sent to PMRF, as part of the flight crew, to provide current and forecast weather information to the pilots, mission directors, and planners. Information of this kind is needed to optimize flight conditions for peak aircraft performance and to enable avoidance of weather conditions that could adversely affect safety. In general, the primary weather data of concern for ground and flight operations are wind speeds (see Figure 1). Because of its long wing span [247 ft (.75 m)] and low weight [1,500 to 1,600 lb (about 680 to 726 kg)], the Helios airplane is sensitive to wind speeds exceeding 7 kn (3.6 m/s) at the surface. Also, clouds are of concern because they can block sunlight needed to energize an array of solar photovoltaic cells that provide power to the airplane. Vertical wind shear is very closely monitored in order to prevent damage or loss of control due to turbulence.

  12. Airplane noise and the taste of umami

    Spence, C; Michel, C; Smith, B

    2014-01-01

    Have you ever noticed how many people ask for a Bloody Mary or tomato juice from the drinks trolley on airplanes? The air stewards have, and when you ask the people who order, they will tell you that they rarely order such a drink at any other time. Could it be that umami-rich tomato provides one of the only basic tastes that is relatively unaffected by the loud background noise that one is exposed to while in flight? That is the research suggestion, or hypothesis, outlined in this opinion pi...

  13. Flying Airplanes: Realizing Circadian Effects (FARCE)

    David L. Dickinson; Todd McElroy

    2009-01-01

    People differ in their diurnal (time-of-day) preferences—some are morning-types and others are evening-types. These differences are explored in a unique experiment design in which subjects are randomly assigned to produce paper airplanes at either 8:00 a.m. or 10:00 p.m. Our results show that evening-types at their more optimal time-of-day (10:00 p.m.) produce planes that fly statistically significantly farther than those produced by morning-types at their more optimal time-of-day (8:00 a.m.)...

  14. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    2010-01-01

    ... in the Airplane Flight Manual, allows the airplane to fly from the point where the two engines are... the Airplane Flight Manual, allows the airplane to fly from the point where the two engines are... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine...

  15. Modern restoration products based on nanoparticles: The case of the Nano-Lime, interaction and compatibility with limestone and dolostones surfaces, advantages and limitations

    Gomez-Villalba, L. S.; López-Arce, P.; Zornoza-Indart, A.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    affect the stone surface such as relative humidity, exposure time, temperature changes, are some of the factors that may influence in their efficiency and performance at short or long terms. Differences in the carbonation process in nanoparticles are associated with several factors among which are the presence of CO2 in the environment and the presence of water (liquid or vapour phase) as an accelerator of the process, producing differences in the nucleation and growth of different calcium carbonate polymorphs. This behaviour affects the reactivity of minerals, their crystallinity, and the porosity and petrophysical properties of the stone surface to which nano lime has been applied.

  16. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  17. Simulation of Dynamics of a Flexible Miniature Airplane

    Waszak, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    A short report discusses selected aspects of the development of the University of Florida micro-aerial vehicle (UFMAV) basically, a miniature airplane that has a flexible wing and is representative of a new class of airplanes that would operate autonomously or under remote control and be used for surveillance and/or scientific observation. The flexibility of the wing is to be optimized such that passive deformation of the wing in the presence of aerodynamic disturbances would reduce the overall response of the airplane to disturbances, thereby rendering the airplane more stable as an observation platform. The aspect of the development emphasized in the report is that of computational simulation of dynamics of the UFMAV in flight, for the purpose of generating mathematical models for use in designing control systems for the airplane. The simulations are performed by use of data from a wind-tunnel test of the airplane in combination with commercial software, in which are codified a standard set of equations of motion of an airplane, and a set of mathematical routines to compute trim conditions and extract linear state space models.

  18. Er Rousseau moderne?

    Dupont, Søren

    1985-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme.......Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme....

  19. Late-Modern Symbolism

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  20. Balanced and servo control surfaces

    1930-01-01

    Many reports on various control systems are available, but the results cannot be generally applied since the effect of particular changes of surface-form and mounting are subject to variations depending upon airfoil section and influences of airplane layout. This report presents a simple analysis of several control systems in more general use. Elevators, ailerons, and rudders are all discussed.

  1. Indonesia - Procurement Modernization

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation seeks to establish evidence on the possible effects of an intervention designed to modernize public procurement: effects on cost savings, performance...

  2. Annals of Modern Education

    The Annals of Modern Education will be considered for publication publishes regular papers reporting ... Curriculum and Teaching, Students' Perspectives on Learning Environments, Environmental Education, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  4. Integrated optimization on aerodynamics-structure coupling and flight stability of a large airplane in preliminary design

    Xiaozhe WANG

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary phase is significant during the whole design process of a large airplane because of its enormous potential in enhancing the overall performance. However, classical sequential designs can hardly adapt to modern airplanes, due to their repeated iterations, long periods, and massive computational burdens. Multidisciplinary analysis and optimization demonstrates the capability to tackle such complex design issues. In this paper, an integrated optimization method for the preliminary design of a large airplane is proposed, accounting for aerodynamics, structure, and stability. Aeroelastic responses are computed by a rapid three-dimensional flight load analysis method combining the high-order panel method and the structural elasticity correction. The flow field is determined by the viscous/inviscid iteration method, and the cruise stability is evaluated by the linear small-disturbance theory. Parametric optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm to seek the minimal weight of a simplified plate-beam wing structure in the cruise trim condition subject to aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and stability constraints, and the optimal wing geometry shape, front/rear spar positions, and structural sizes are obtained simultaneously. To reduce the computational burden of the static aeroelasticity analysis in the optimization process, the Kriging method is employed to predict aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices of different aerodynamic shapes. The multidisciplinary analyses guarantee computational accuracy and efficiency, and the integrated optimization considers the coupling effect sufficiently between different disciplines to improve the overall performance, avoiding the limitations of sequential approaches utilized currently. Keywords: Aeroelasticity, Integrated optimization, Multidisciplinary analysis, Large airplane, Preliminary design

  5. 78 FR 44871 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-07-25

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... in Renton, Washington, on July 11, 2013. Jeffrey E. Duven, Acting Manager, Transport Airplane...

  6. 78 FR 27315 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-05-10

    .... Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New... pedal was loose. Another operator reported a fractured bolt during the airplane pushback. When the...

  7. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    Robertson, S

    2002-01-01

    ...), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S...

  8. 78 FR 43763 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-07-22

    ... holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the regulatory evaluation, any comments received, and other... Applicability UPS and Virgin Atlantic Airways (VIR) stated that airplane line numbers 1199 through 1419...

  9. 75 FR 13239 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    2010-03-19

    ... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane... procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to Attn: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small...

  10. 76 FR 4216 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    2011-01-25

    ..., call 816-329-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small... found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to Attn: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...

  11. 75 FR 52480 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    2010-08-26

    ... Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri... the procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer...

  12. 76 FR 30295 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    2011-05-25

    ... Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri... procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small...

  13. 75 FR 89 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    2010-01-04

    ... after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane... the procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer...

  14. 75 FR 71536 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    2010-11-24

    ... of this material at the FAA, call 816-329-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado... Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  15. 75 FR 30272 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    2010-06-01

    ...., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small... found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...

  16. 78 FR 4038 - Critical Parts for Airplane Propellers

    2013-01-18

    ... manufacturers are not required to provide information concerning propeller critical part design, manufacture, or... engineering, manufacturing, and service management processes should provide clear information for propeller... manufacture critical parts for airplane propellers update their manuals to record engineering, manufacture...

  17. 78 FR 70211 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-11-25

    ... Replacement figures of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 757- 57-0071, dated September 12, 2012. The... information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management... Operations, M-30, West Building [[Page 70212

  18. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome precipitated by airplane descent: Case report.

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Aotsuka, Yuya; Koide, Kyosuke; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by segmental vasospasm. Vasoactive agents and childbirth have been reported as precipitating factors for RCVS; however, RCVS induced by altitude change or air travel has rarely been reported. Case We present a case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with thunderclap headache during airplane descent. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated segmental vasoconstriction that improved 9 days after onset. Conclusion These findings indicate that airplane descent may be a trigger of RCVS. The time course of headache in the present case was similar to that of prolonged headache attributed to airplane travel, indicating that RCVS during air travel may have previously been overlooked and that some headache attributed to airplane travel cases may represent a milder form of RCVS.

  19. Childhood headache attributed to airplane travel: a case report.

    Rogers, Kirsty; Rafiq, Nadia; Prabhakar, Prab; Ahmed, Mas

    2015-05-01

    Headache attributed to airplane flights is a rare form of headache disorder. This case study describes an 11-year-old girl with recurrent, severe, frontal headaches occurring during airplane travel. The episodes were associated with dizziness and facial pallor but no additional symptoms and showed spontaneous resolution on landing. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. The present case fulfils the criteria for airplane headache recently included in the revised edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III Beta). Only a few cases of airplane headache have been reported in children. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss various proposed pathophysiological mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Airplane detection in remote sensing images using convolutional neural networks

    Ouyang, Chao; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Yifei

    2018-03-01

    Airplane detection in remote sensing images remains a challenging problem and has also been taking a great interest to researchers. In this paper we propose an effective method to detect airplanes in remote sensing images using convolutional neural networks. Deep learning methods show greater advantages than the traditional methods with the rise of deep neural networks in target detection, and we give an explanation why this happens. To improve the performance on detection of airplane, we combine a region proposal algorithm with convolutional neural networks. And in the training phase, we divide the background into multi classes rather than one class, which can reduce false alarms. Our experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and robust in detecting airplane.

  1. Airplane headache: a further case report of a young man.

    Domitrz, Izabela

    2010-12-01

    Headache with normal examinations and imaging, occurring during an airplane flight has been rarely reported. We present a young patient with a new type of headache that appeared during flights: take-off and landing of a plane and was not associated with other conditions. This airplane headache is rather rare in population and the pathophysiology of this type is not clear. Secondary causes must be ruled out before the diagnosis of a primary headache is made.

  2. STUDY OF THE AIR FLOWS AROUND AN AIRPLANE

    Diaconescu Olivian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This material presents a stage of the designing of an airplane capable to work with low capacity engines of 2.5 and 4 cmc namely the simulation of the air flow around the fuselage and the wings. The study proves the correctness of the choice made in the wing’s positioning and of the horizontal stabilizer of the airplane’s axis,for the chosen airplane type namely acrobat.

  3. STUDY OF THE AIR FLOWS AROUND AN AIRPLANE

    Diaconescu Olivian

    2013-01-01

    This material presents a stage of the designing of an airplane capable to work with low capacity engines of 2.5 and 4 cmc namely the simulation of the air flow around the fuselage and the wings. The study proves the correctness of the choice made in the wing’s positioning and of the horizontal stabilizer of the airplane’s axis,for the chosen airplane type namely acrobat.

  4. Measured Engine Installation Effects of Four Civil Transport Airplanes

    Senzig, David A.; Fleming, Gregg G.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2001-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Integrated Noise Model (INM) is one of the primary tools for land use planning around airports. The INM currently calculates airplane noise lateral attenuation using the methods contained in the Society of Automotive Engineer's Aerospace Information Report No. 1751 (SAE AIR 1751). Researchers have noted that improved lateral attenuation algorithms may improve airplane noise prediction. The authors of SAE AIR 1751 based existing methods on empirical data collected from flight tests using 1960s-technology airplanes with tail-mounted engines. To determine whether the SAE AIR 1751 methods are applicable for predicting the engine installation component of lateral attenuation for airplanes with wing-mounted engines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a series of flight tests during September 2000 at their Wallops Flight Facility. Four airplanes, a Boeing 767-400, a Douglas DC-9, a Dassault Falcon 2000, and a Beech KingAir, were flown through a 20 microphone array. The airplanes were flown through the array at various power settings, flap settings, and altitudes to simulate take-off and arrival configurations. This paper presents the preliminary findings of this study.

  5. Modern examples of extinctions

    Lövei, Gabor L

    2013-01-01

    No species lives forever, and extinction is the ultimate fate of all living species. The fossil record indicates that a recent extinction wave affecting terrestrial vertebrates was parallel with the arrival of modern humans to areas formerly uninhabited by them. These modern instances of extinction...

  6. Modern History of Tibet

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  7. Adult learning in modernity

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the conditions for the growth of adult education in modern societies. It is argued that in modern adult life individual biographical reflection plays an increasing role, not only for educational and occupational choice but also in the process of identity formation and emotional...

  8. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    Hansen, Claus D.

    In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under co...

  9. Understanding modern transparency

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  10. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  11. Mod den moderne skole

    Vindum, Kjeld; Birk Morgen, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    Gennemgang af fem skoler som eksemplificerer væsentlige udviklingstrin i overgangen fra det sene 1800 tals etageskolebygninger til det moderne skolebyggeris gennemsalg i 1930erne.......Gennemgang af fem skoler som eksemplificerer væsentlige udviklingstrin i overgangen fra det sene 1800 tals etageskolebygninger til det moderne skolebyggeris gennemsalg i 1930erne....

  12. Spotting modern Copenhagen

    Ovesen, Hans; Bøgelund, Helle; Darger, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i Københavns Rådhus og området omkring Banegårdspladsen analyseres Københavns indtræden i det moderne......Med udgangspunkt i Københavns Rådhus og området omkring Banegårdspladsen analyseres Københavns indtræden i det moderne...

  13. Productions, modern (Scandinavia)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Greek comedy has never been as popular on the modern Scandinavian scene as Greek tragedy, but one play stands out among them all as a modern classic, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, which has inspired many adaptations not only on the stage, but also in radio and cinema....

  14. Private Pilot Practical Test Standards for Airplane (SEL, MEL, SES, MES)

    1995-05-01

    The Private Pilot - Airplane Practical Test Standards book has been : published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish the : standards for the private pilot certification practical tests for the airplane : category and the single-e...

  15. 76 FR 36863 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Protection From...

    2011-06-23

    ... Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... for Gulfstream GVI airplanes. 1. The applicant must ensure electronic system security protection for... that effective electronic system security protection strategies are implemented to protect the airplane...

  16. 77 FR 38467 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP), Model Gulfstream G280 Airplane; Isolation or...

    2012-06-28

    ... Gulfstream G280 Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized... airplane systems and the passenger entertainment services. Applicability As discussed above, these special... Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection from Unauthorized Internal Access. The applicant must ensure...

  17. 78 FR 73993 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    2013-12-10

    ... design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer... vulnerabilities to the airplanes' systems. The proposed network architecture includes the following connectivity.... Operator business and administrative support systems, and 3. Passenger entertainment systems, and access by...

  18. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept that utilizes a rocket propelled airplane to take scientific measurements of atmospheric, surface, and subsurface phenomena. The liquid rocket propulsion system design has matured through several design cycles and trade studies since the inception of the ARES concept in 2002. This paper describes the process of selecting a bipropellant system over other propulsion system options, and provides details on the rocket system design, thrusters, propellant tank and PMD design, propellant isolation, and flow control hardware. The paper also summarizes computer model results of thruster plume interactions and simulated flight performance. The airplane has a 6.25 m wingspan with a total wet mass of 185 kg and has to ability to fly over 600 km through the atmosphere of Mars with 45 kg of MMH / MON3 propellant.

  19. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Summary

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Higgins, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-engine three-fan V/STOL airplane was designed to fulfill naval operational requirements. A multimission airplane was developed from study of specific point designs. Based on the multimission concept, airplanes were designed to demonstrate and develop the technology and operational procedures for this class of aircraft. Use of interconnected variable pitch fans led to a good balance between high thrust with responsive control and efficient thrust at cruise speeds. The airplanes and their characteristics are presented.

  20. Headache attributed to airplane travel ('airplane headache'): clinical profile based on a large case series.

    Mainardi, F; Lisotto, C; Maggioni, F; Zanchin, G

    2012-06-01

    The 'headache attributed to airplane travel', also named 'airplane headache' (AH), is a recently described headache disorder that appears exclusively in relation to airplane flights, in particular during the landing phase. Based on the stereotypical nature of the attacks in all reported cases, we proposed provisional diagnostic criteria for AH in a previously published paper. Up to now 37 cases have been described in the literature. After our paper was disseminated via the Internet, we received several email messages from subjects around the world who had experienced such a peculiar headache. Their cooperation, by completing a structured questionnaire and allowing the direct observation of three subjects, enabled us to carry out a study on a total of 75 patients suffering from AH. Our survey confirmed the stereotypical nature of the attacks, in particular with regard to the short duration of the pain (lasting less than 30 minutes in up to 95% of the cases), the clear relationship with the landing phase, the unilateral pain, the male preponderance, and the absence of accompanying signs and/or symptoms. It is conceivable to consider barotrauma as one of the main mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of AH. The observation that the pain appears inconstantly in the majority of cases, without any evident disorder affecting the paranasal sinuses, could be consistent with a multimodal pathogenesis underlying this condition, possibly resulting in the interaction between anatomic, environmental and temporary concurrent factors. This is by far the largest AH case series ever reported in the literature. The diagnostic criteria that we previously proposed proved to be valid when applied to a large number of patients suffering from this condition. We support its recognition as a new form of headache, to be included in the forthcoming update of the International Headache Society Classification, within '10. Headache attributed to disorder of homoeostasis'. Its formal

  1. Modern technologies in Endodontics

    Alfredo Iandolo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The positive results highlighted by these clinical cases demonstrate how the use of modern technologies are essential to avoid iatrogenic injury, and guarantee, on the other hand, safe and reproducible results.

  2. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  3. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS: MODERN COURSE

    T. L. Vinogradova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristic features of the modern course of infective endocarditis. Unresolved questions of classification of diseaseand drug therapy are discussed. Clearly defined indications for surgical treatment of endocarditis.

  4. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    “modernities” over the last 10 years, this paper wishes to address the analytical usefulness of this conceptual development. What is it about these concepts that make them useful as we try to capture the World today? Rather than providing any substantial definitions as to what those modernities are about (or...... what they are not about), anthropologists have used ethnographies to demonstrate how modernities are lived and constructed differently in different cultural contexts. To a very large extent, anthropologists intend these multiple modernities to refer to the interplay between local and global...... configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose...

  5. Genealogies of Modern Technology

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Does modern technology differ from ancient technology and does it have a unique essence? This twofold question opens one of Martin Heidegger's most influential philosophical inquiries, The Question Concerning Technology. The answer Heidegger offers has inspired various critiques and appraisals from...... a vast number of contemporary scholars of technology.1 Heidegger's answer is traditionally thought to suggest a great difference between ancient and modern technology. However, by re-examining Heidegger's text, it is possible to discover previously ignored or misunderstood lines of thoughts that affirm...... a multi-stable interpretation of the origin of modern technology. In what follows, we shall see how The Question Concerning Technology in fact supports three different genealogies of modern technology...

  6. Modern optimization with R

    Cortez, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this book is to gather in a single document the most relevant concepts related to modern optimization methods, showing how such concepts and methods can be addressed using the open source, multi-platform R tool. Modern optimization methods, also known as metaheuristics, are particularly useful for solving complex problems for which no specialized optimization algorithm has been developed. These methods often yield high quality solutions with a more reasonable use of computational resources (e.g. memory and processing effort). Examples of popular modern methods discussed in this book are: simulated annealing; tabu search; genetic algorithms; differential evolution; and particle swarm optimization. This book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Science, Information Technology, and related areas, as well as data analysts interested in exploring modern optimization methods using R.

  7. Modernizing Electricity Delivery

    Explains how modern grid, or smart grid, investments can enable grid operators to respond faster to changes in grid conditions and allow for two-way communication between utilities and electricity end-users.

  8. Concepts in modern parenting

    Dolenc, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of my dissertation represents changes in parenthood, which are a consequence of a wider specter of social changes. Besides, I am interested in modern trends of educational strategies and how parents deal with the demands of society and those of professional public for nothing less than a perfect parenthood. Theoretical cognitions are divided into three parts: in the first one, new forms of family and social changes which affected the development of the modern family are describ...

  9. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  10. Badges of modern slavery

    Paz-Fuchs, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding the 19th century formal abolition of slavery as legal ownership of people, modern slavery and forced labour have not been consigned to the past. In fact, their existence is more widespread, and made more difficult to tackle due to the lack of formal, legal criteria. This article suggests that reference to the past, historical institutions reveals seven ‘badges of slavery’ that are helpful in identifying occurrences of modern slavery and forced labour. These are: humiliation, o...

  11. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Unga, E [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  12. A Modern Education

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2015-01-01

    What is western modernity and how did education help to shape that modernity? Through an examination of schooling in elite British institutions, Alan Macfarlane tries to answer these question, particularly to explain the choices facing China and other emerging superpowers. One section looks at his English education; society and power, play and performance, head and heart, spirit and character. Another looks at education more widely: how it shaped the English world, English and Continental Eur...

  13. Modern mathematics made simple

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  14. 76 FR 36864 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Operation Without Normal Electric Power

    2011-06-23

    ... Normal Electric Power AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Standards Staff, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification... Model GVI airplane will be an all-new, two- engine jet transport airplane. The maximum takeoff weight...

  15. 76 FR 37684 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes...

    2011-06-28

    ... Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft Service... GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems: Docket No...

  16. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    2010-01-01

    ... operating nontransport category airplanes type certificated after December 31, 1964, to fly for 30 minutes...-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations. 121.643 Section 121.643 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes...

  17. 77 FR 59873 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes; Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis

    2012-10-01

    ... should be flown into known icing. However, the original certification basis for these airplanes did not... equipment these airplanes may be qualified to fly into known light or moderate icing condition under 14 CFR... significant alternative to prohibiting the affected airplanes from flying into known icing conditions. And...

  18. 14 CFR 125.375 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes.

    2010-01-01

    ...) Thereafter, to fly for 45 minutes at normal crusing fuel consumption. (b) If the airplane is released for any...-powered airplanes. 125.375 Section 125.375 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE...

  19. 75 FR 43878 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    2010-07-27

    ... Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G Airplanes.... Since that NPRM was issued, we have determined that Model FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G..., Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G airplanes, and Model MYSTERE-FALCON 20-C5...

  20. 75 FR 79952 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    2010-12-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON.... (1) DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 airplanes, Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E... airplanes Inspection threshold (whichever occurs later) Inspection interval Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET...

  1. 75 FR 80735 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence Protection

    2010-12-23

    ... Special Conditions No. 25-10-03-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; High Incidence... airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes associated with the use of high incidence protection... transport airplane with an executive cabin interior. The maximum takeoff weight will be 99,600 pounds, with...

  2. 76 FR 66660 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Operation Without Normal...

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1172: Notice No. 25-11-17-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane... Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature...

  3. 76 FR 71865 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane; Windshield Coating in...

    2011-11-21

    ...; Special Conditions No. 25-452-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane... Aerospace Corporation Model GVI airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s..., Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) applied for an FAA type certificate for its new Model GVI passenger...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications M... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. M Appendix M to Part 121—Airplane... airplanes operated under § 121.344(f) 0.5° A sampling rate of 0.25 is recommended. 7. Roll attitude 2 ±180...

  5. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.413: (1) A check airman (airplane) is a person who is qualified, and permitted...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor.... 3 For airplanes that can demonstrate the capability of deriving either the control input on control...

  7. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine or...

  8. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in...

  9. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators... Program § 121.409 Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing airplane simulators and other training devices may be included in the certificate holder...

  10. 11 CFR 100.93 - Travel by airplane or other means of transportation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel by airplane or other means of... (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.93 Travel by airplane or other means of... section applies to all campaign travelers who use: (i) An airplane not licensed by the Federal Aviation...

  11. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  12. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    2010-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is a...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. B Appendix B to Part 121—Airplane... airplanes that can demonstrate the capability of deriving either the control input on control movement (one...

  14. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training program: Approval of airplane... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Appendix E to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications The recorded values must meet the designated...

  17. GRAPHIC-ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CALCULATING THE GRAVITY CENTER OF A MODEL AIRPLANE

    DIACONESCU Olivian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a stage of the realization of an airplane capable to work with low capacity motors between 2.5 cmc and 4 cmc, as it presents the gravity center calculation. Firstly for an airplane to fly properly we must calculate the gravity center, the top speed which is necessary for picking the servomotors that equip the airplane.

  18. Modernization of credit relations

    S.V. Volosovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is essential to modernize credit relations in the conditions of global economy transformations. This is due to the influence of integration processes on credit relations and transformation of the risks inherent in the credit field. The purpose of this article is to develop measures that help to improve the efficiency of interaction of credit relations’ participants. Modernization of credit relations is based on the interaction of its main and indirect subjects who belong to the subsystems of loans granting, deposits attraction and provision of related services. Its goal is to pass from extensive to intensive model of interaction between the subjects of credit relations. Components of the credit relations modernization are the following: institutional modernization, which is based on the interaction of credit relations’ subjects, and ensures the development of competition in all credit market’s segments, the creation of its corresponding infrastructure, qualitative change in the approaches of regulation and supervision; technological modernization, which involves the formation of joint products on the credit market and the formation of an integrated informational and analytical system. In the result of the credit relations’ modernization it is expected to achieve synergies between the subjects of credit relations, that will lead to changes in the business architecture of the financial market.

  19. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  20. ON THE IMPACT OF FLIGHT SAFETY CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS ON THE AERODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY OF COMMERCIAL AIRPLANES

    Vladimir I. Shevyakov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of aerodynamics efficiency implementation taking into account certification requirements for flight safety. Aerodynamics efficiency means high aerodynamic performance (depending on the airplane size, aerodynamic performance in cruise flight, high aerodynamic performance at takeoff, as well as lift performance at landing.The author estimated the impact on aerodynamics efficiency of both the requirements for aerodynamics performance and requirements for aircraft systems, noncompliance with which may result in significant change of expected operating conditions. It was shown that the use of supercritical wing profiles may result in flight mode limitations due to failure of the required buffeting capacities. It does not allow engaging all the advantages of aerodynamics layout and requires special design solutions to prevent such cases.There were reviewed certification requirements for flight level pressure altitude accuracy and icing conditions warning sysytem. The research presented the methods of aerodynamic efficiency increase by meeting the requirements for reduced vertical separation minima flights and in icing conditions, including requirements for air data probes. Reduced vertical separation minima flight requirements are met by means of efficient air data probes location. Theoretical methods of flow calculation determine areas on the airplane skin surface where static probes minimize errors depending on angle-of-attack and sideslip. It was shown that if certification requirements are not met and in case of flight out of reduced vertical separation minima area, aerodynamics efficiency is significantly reduced and fuel consumption can be increased by 10% and higher. Suggested approaches implementation allows increasing commercial airplanes competitiveness.

  1. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash.

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum; Ha, Yoon

    2015-10-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings.

  2. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A.; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2015-01-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings. PMID:27169094

  3. Development of an aerodyanmic theory capable of predicting surface loads on slender wings with vortex flow

    Gloss, B. B.; Johnson, F. T.

    1976-01-01

    The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company developed an inviscid three-dimensional lifting surface method that shows promise in being able to accurately predict loads, subsonic and supersonic, on wings with leading-edge separation and reattachment.

  4. Experimental determination of airplane mass and inertial characteristics

    Wolowicz, C. H.; Yancey, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Current practices are evaluated for experimentally determining airplane center of gravity, moments of inertia, and products of inertia. The techniques discussed are applicable to bodies other than airplanes. In pitching- and rolling-moment-of-inertia investigations with the airplane mounted on and pivoted about knife edges, the nonlinear spring moments that occur at large amplitudes of oscillation can be eliminated by using the proper spring configuration. The single-point suspension double-pendulum technique for obtaining yawing moments of inertia, products of inertia, and the inclination of the principal axis provides accurate results from yaw-mode oscillation data, provided that the sway-mode effects are minimized by proper suspension rig design. Rocking-mode effects in the data can be isolated.

  5. Sensor equipment of the German earth scientific airplane program

    Seige, P.

    1975-01-01

    The German airplane program for earth scientific research supports the work of a vast staff of earth scientists from universities and federal agencies. Due to their fields of interest, which are in oceanography, hydrology, geology, ecology, and forestry, five test areas were selected which are spread all over Germany. The sensor package, which was designed in accordance with the requirements of this group of scientists, will be installed in a DO 28 D2 type airplane. The sensor equipment consists of a series of 70-mm cameras having different film/filter combinations, a photogrammetric camera, an infrared radiometer, an 11-channel multispectral line scanner, a LANDSAT-compatible radiometer, and a complex avionic system. Along with the airplane, a truck will be equipped with a set of radiometers and other sensor devices for extensive ground-truth measurement; this also includes a cherry picker.

  6. Response of equipment in nuclear power plants to airplane crash

    Schalk, M.; Woelfel, H.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Germany are to be designed against airplane crash. Two problems arise: first, the local problem of penetration as well as local destruction of the building and secondly the airplane induced vibrations of the whole building which cause loadings for secondary systems (equipment). This paper deals especially with the second problem. Floor response spectra due to airplane crash are presented for two different power plant buildings. The influence of various parameters (time history of excitation, direction and location of impact, mathematical model, soil, damping, etc.) are discussed. A comparison with the results of earthquake loading is given. Suggestions are made for developing suitable floor design spectra and using them to analyse multidegree-of-freedom systems. However, the paper gives only a partial answer to the questions arising because of some important restrictions which had to be made. Studies concerning these restrictions are still being conducted and will be presented in a separate paper. (Auth.)

  7. AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance A Titan Airplane Mission Concept

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; LeMouelic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments-2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector-AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel 'gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 $715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within

  8. Requirements of modernization strategies

    Heinbuch, R.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumentation and control contributed a major share to the current level of safety, economic efficiency, and availability of the German nuclear power plants. German NPPs occupy a top position in this respect at international level, but novel instrumentation and digital control technology alone will not guarantee further enhancements. Therefore, the owner/operators established carefully devised maintenance and modernization strategies in order to safeguard their NPPs top position in the long run. The German NPPs are the most thoroughly automated plants of the world. In addition to the sweeping modernization strategies recommended by the plant manufacturers, based on computer-supported control, alternative modernization strategies have been considered in the evaluation process. This approach provides for room for maneuvre, for manufacturers as well as managers responsible for risk and cost optimization, which is a major task in view of the changing regulatory framework in the electricity market. (orig./CB) [de

  9. Solar-Powered Airplane with Cameras and WLAN

    Higgins, Robert G.; Dunagan, Steve E.; Sullivan, Don; Slye, Robert; Brass, James; Leung, Joe G.; Gallmeyer, Bruce; Aoyagi, Michio; Wei, Mei Y.; Herwitz, Stanley R.; hide

    2004-01-01

    An experimental airborne remote sensing system includes a remotely controlled, lightweight, solar-powered airplane (see figure) that carries two digital-output electronic cameras and communicates with a nearby ground control and monitoring station via a wireless local-area network (WLAN). The speed of the airplane -- typically <50 km/h -- is low enough to enable loitering over farm fields, disaster scenes, or other areas of interest to collect high-resolution digital imagery that could be delivered to end users (e.g., farm managers or disaster-relief coordinators) in nearly real time.

  10. Liminality and the Modern

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    of the liquid structures of modern society. Shedding new light on a concept central to social thought, as well as its capacity for pushing social and political theory in new directions, this book will be of interest to scholars across the social sciences and philosophy working in fields such as social......-for-granted order of the world ceases to exist and novel forms emerge, often in unpredictable ways. Liminality and the Modern offers a comprehensive introduction to this concept, discussing its development and laying out a conceptual and experiential framework for thinking about change in terms of liminality...

  11. Introduction to modern physics

    Pfeffer, J.; Nir, S.

    1993-01-01

    The modern physics and its uses changed our world of concepts and ways of life. This book explains the basics of modern physics in a simple and extensive form. The main subjects included in the book are: The relativistic theory, quantum theory, the structure of the atom, the interaction of radiation with matter and nuclear physics. The book elaborates on some advanced subjects: The laser, Moessbauer effect, Nuclear magnetic Resonance and solids electric conductivity. The book is for natural sciences students, whose main subject is not physics. The book can be used also in high schools. (authors)

  12. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  13. Det sentimentalt moderne

    Thule Kristensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Romantikken er blevet afskrevet som en mørk epoke, hvor en hang til mystik og tvetydighed ikke passer til det moderne oplysningsprojekts mål om klarhed og orden. Afhendlingen viser imidlertid, hvordan dele af arkitekturen i det 20. århundrede er fyldt med romantisk tankegods, og hvordan romantisk...... nøglemotiver som f.eks. fragment, arabesk, krystal, symbol eller poesi kan bruges i en analyse - også af moderne arkitektur. det ses i bogens nyfortolkninger af værker og teorier hos arkitekterne Erik Gunnar Asplund, Josef Frank, Rudolf Schwarz, Aldo Rossi og Daniel Libeskind...

  14. Modern recording techniques

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  15. BARCELONA: URBANSCAPES OF MODERNITY

    Antoni Remesar

    2015-04-01

    The Do.Co.Mo.Mo’s. database, referring to Barcelona, lists 34 buildings that could be classified as rationalists and / or modern. According to other sources, we could reach fifty constructed buildings between the late 1920s and the end of the war in Spain. The article presents the results of a field work that, using different sources, has tried to to order and record the architectural production that can be considered modern / rationalist in Barcelona in the 1920s and 1930s

  16. Modern physics for engineers

    Singh, Jasprit

    1999-01-01

    Linking physics fundamentals to modern technology-a highly applied primer for students and engineersReminding us that modern inventions-new materials, information technologies, medical technological breakthroughs-are based on well-established fundamental principles of physics, Jasprit Singh integrates important topics from quantum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, and materials science, as well as the special theory of relativity. He then goes a step farther and applies these fundamentals to the workings of electronic devices-an essential leap for anyone interested in developing n

  17. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delays in large-airplane response

    Grantham, William D.; Bert T.?aetingas, Stephen A.dings with ran; Bert T.?aetingas, Stephen A.dings with ran

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation was performed to determine the permissible time delay and phase shift in the flight control system of a specific large transport-type airplane. The study was conducted with a six degree of freedom ground-based simulator and a math model similar to an advanced wide-body jet transport. Time delays in discrete and lagged form were incorporated into the longitudinal, lateral, and directional control systems of the airplane. Three experienced pilots flew simulated approaches and landings with random localizer and glide slope offsets during instrument tracking as their principal evaluation task. Results of the present study suggest a level 1 (satisfactory) handling qualities limit for the effective time delay of 0.15 sec in both the pitch and roll axes, as opposed to a 0.10-sec limit of the present specification (MIL-F-8785C) for both axes. Also, the present results suggest a level 2 (acceptable but unsatisfactory) handling qualities limit for an effective time delay of 0.82 sec and 0.57 sec for the pitch and roll axes, respectively, as opposed to 0.20 sec of the present specifications for both axes. In the area of phase shift between cockpit input and control surface deflection,the results of this study, flown in turbulent air, suggest less severe phase shift limitations for the approach and landing task-approximately 50 deg. in pitch and 40 deg. in roll - as opposed to 15 deg. of the present specifications for both axes.

  18. Flight Test of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Airplane

    Voracek, David

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of flight tests performed on the F/A active aeroelastic wing airplane is shown. The topics include: 1) F/A-18 AAW Airplane; 2) F/A-18 AAW Control Surfaces; 3) Flight Test Background; 4) Roll Control Effectiveness Regions; 5) AAW Design Test Points; 6) AAW Phase I Test Maneuvers; 7) OBES Pitch Doublets; 8) OBES Roll Doublets; 9) AAW Aileron Flexibility; 10) Phase I - Lessons Learned; 11) Control Law Development and Verification & Validation Testing; 12) AAW Phase II RFCS Envelopes; 13) AAW 1-g Phase II Flight Test; 14) Region I - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 15) Region I - Subsonic 1-g 360 Roll; 16) Region II - Supersonic 1-g Rolls; 17) Region II - Supersonic 1-g 360 Roll; 18) Region III - Subsonic 1-g Rolls; 19) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (open-loop); 20) Roll Axis HOS/LOS Comparison Region II - Supersonic (closed-loop); 21) AAW Phase II Elevated-g Flight Test; 22) Region I - Subsonic 4-g RPO; and 23) Phase II - Lessons Learned

  19. Performance of light sources and radiation sensors under low gravity realized by parabolic airplane flights

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro

    A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.

  20. 76 FR 28914 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    2011-05-19

    ... B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F Airplanes (Collectively... B4-605R and B4-622R airplanes; A300 F4-605R and F4-622R airplanes; A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes...

  1. Modern Fortran in practice

    Markus, A.

    2012-01-01

    From its earliest days, the Fortran programming language has been designed with computing efficiency in mind. The latest standard, Fortran 2008, incorporates a host of modern features, including object-orientation, array operations, user-defined types, and provisions for parallel computing. This

  2. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  3. Late-modern hipsters

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers...

  4. Dimensions of Modern Federalism.

    Williams, Robert F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates a series of brief essays exploring different aspects of modern federalism. Issues include further protection of individual rights extended through state constitutions and federalism and the world economy. Authors include Robert F. Williams, Earl H. Fry, and Daniel J. Elazar. (MJP)

  5. Landau and modern physics

    Pokrovsky, Valery L

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the history of the creation and further development of Landau's famous works on phase transitions, diamagnetism of electron gas (Landau levels), and quantum transitions at a level crossing (the Landau-Zener phenomenon), and its role in modern physics. (methodological notes)

  6. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  7. Modern vs. Traditional.

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  8. Den moderne bevidstheds katedral

    Ostenfeld Pedersen, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Interview med idéhistorikeren Dorthe Jørgensen der under overskriften ”Den moderne bevidstheds katedral” blotlægger hendes mangeårige arbejde med Hegel, og hvor hun giver en række relevante bud på en aktualiserende Hegel-læsning centreret omkring felter som metafysik, historiefilosofi og æstetik....

  9. Euripides in Modern Europe

    den Boer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Euripides is considered the most human, modern and existentialist of the famous Greek tragedians. Extremely popular after his death, he continued to be staged, read and much recited in Hellenistic and Roman times. As the Greek-speaking elite of the Roman Empire disappeared, the popularity of the

  10. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  11. Modern Reduction Methods

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  12. Modern programming language

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  13. Airplane Ice Detector Based on a Microwave Transmission Line

    Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. Dickey; Carl, James R.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic instrument that could detect the potentially dangerous buildup of ice on an airplane wing is undergoing development. The instrument is based on a microwave transmission line configured as a capacitance probe: at selected spots, the transmission-line conductors are partly exposed to allow any ice and/or liquid water present at those spots to act as predominantly capacitive electrical loads on the transmission line. These loads change the input impedance of the transmission line, as measured at a suitable excitation frequency. Thus, it should be possible to infer the presence of ice and/or liquid water from measurements of the input impedance and/or electrical parameters related to the input impedance. The sensory transmission line is of the microstrip type and thus thin enough to be placed on an airplane wing without unduly disturbing airflow in flight. The sensory spots are small areas from which the upper layer of the microstrip has been removed to allow any liquid water or ice on the surface to reach the transmission line. The sensory spots are spaced at nominal open-circuit points, which are at intervals of a half wavelength (in the transmission line, not in air) at the excitation frequency. The excitation frequency used in the experiments has been 1 GHz, for which a half wavelength in the transmission line is .4 in. (.10 cm). The figure depicts a laboratory prototype of the instrument. The impedance-related quantities chosen for use in this version of the instrument are the magnitude and phase of the scattering parameter S11 as manifested in the in-phase (I ) and quadrature (Q) outputs of the phase detector. By careful layout of the transmission line (including the half-wavelength sensor spacing), one can ensure that the amplitude and phase of the input to the phase detector keep shifting in the same direction as ice forms on one or more of the sensor areas. Although only one transmission-line sensor strip is used in the laboratory version, in a

  14. Flight Research using Radio-controlled Small Airplanes 5 -6 ...

    UAVs. aircraft. Two small airplanes, the Flying Test Bed (FTB) and the testing. .... It is useful to define non-dimensional coefficients as follows: C = L. L. '12 P U02 A ... will continue to be under the command of the remote pilot after the maneuver.

  15. 77 FR 5730 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-02-06

    ... necessary; and, for certain MLG shock strut assemblies, replacement or rework of the apex nut. Since we...) Replacement or Rework of the Apex Nut for Model CL-600-2C10 Airplanes For any MLG shock strut assembly... hours after May 18, 2011, replace or rework the apex nut, in accordance with Part B of the...

  16. 77 FR 60891 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-10-05

    ... bushings of the wing landing gear (WLG) beam outboard end fittings for corrosion, and rework if necessary... rework if necessary. This new AD adds airplanes and adds repetitive inspections of the outboard end... bushings of the wing landing gear (WLG) beam outboard end fittings for corrosion, and rework if necessary...

  17. 77 FR 30185 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-05-22

    ... corrective actions if necessary; and, for certain MLG shock strut assemblies, replacement or rework of the... Replacement or Rework of the Apex Nut for Model CL-600- 2C10 Airplanes This paragraph restates the... rework the apex nut, in accordance with Part B of the Accomplishment Instructions of Bombardier Service...

  18. 77 FR 61550 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-10-10

    ... fracture and failure of the skin panels of the fuselage, and consequent rapid decompression of the airplane..., Washington. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 425-227-1221. Examining the...) of this supplemental NPRM to allow this option. Request To Allow Use of Corrosion Inhibiting Compound...

  19. 77 FR 73897 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-12-12

    ... Company Model 757 airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of in-flight fracture of the right...., Renton, WA. For information on the availability of this material at the FAA, call 425-227-1221. Examining... called DC-3145 potting compound, would be acceptable to use in place of the missing cover. The procedure...

  20. 78 FR 42415 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-07-16

    ..., doing corrective actions if necessary, revising the maintenance program, and adding airplanes to the..., 2012. Do all applicable corrective actions before further flight. (h) Maintenance Program Revision... stencils and index markers of impact-resistant access doors, doing corrective actions if necessary...

  1. 78 FR 6251 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-01-30

    .... For all airplanes, this proposed AD would require a maintenance program revision, one-time inspections of the MLG truck beam, and related investigative and corrective actions (including configuration... ``corrective actions'' might be used in this proposed AD. ``Corrective actions'' are actions that correct or...

  2. 78 FR 9636 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2013-02-11

    ...)(ix) through (k)(3)(xiii) of this AD. (i) Open the battery door. (ii) Disconnect the main battery... warning tag that reads: ``WARNING: Do not connect the battery connector during the maintenance in progress... external power receptacle. (xii) Connect the battery and restore electrical power to the airplane. (xiii...

  3. 75 FR 61657 - Airworthiness Directives; Transport Category Airplanes

    2010-10-06

    ... proposed revision to the AD would continue to prevent possible fires that could result from smoking [[Page... prohibiting smoking in the lavatory and disposal of cigarettes in the lavatory waste receptacles; establishment of a procedure to announce to airplane occupants that smoking is prohibited in the lavatories...

  4. 77 FR 45981 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-08-02

    ... the affected parking brake hydraulic accumulator, and relocating the parking brake accumulator, on the... parking brake hydraulic accumulator, which could result in damage to the airplane's primary structures...-375-4000; fax 416-375- 4539; email [email protected] ; Internet http://www.bombardier...

  5. 78 FR 52875 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-08-27

    ... airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support the established... the wing structure to support the limit load condition, and consequent loss of structural integrity of... CONTACT: Galib Abumeri, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120L, FAA, Los Angeles Aircraft...

  6. 78 FR 49229 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-08-13

    ... add airplanes to the applicability of AD 2009-24-07. We are proposing this AD to prevent stress... invite you to send any written relevant data, views, or arguments about this proposed AD. Send your... prevent stress corrosion cracking of the forward trunnion pins, which could result in fracture of the pins...

  7. 77 FR 69747 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model Airplanes

    2012-11-21

    ... cycles after the effective date of this AD.'' The new language in paragraph (i)(1) of the NPRM states... language specified in paragraphs (l) through (n) of the NPRM from paragraph (o) of the NPRM. In the... inclusive. Boeing stated that the NPRM requirements do not differentiate for Model 737-200 series airplanes...

  8. 78 FR 31389 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-05-24

    ... ``New Inspections and Corrective Actions to Ensure Cross Beam Reinforcement,'' and suggested language... door. Boeing added that the current language in the NPRM and this service information leave open the...) of this AD. (i) For airplanes with line numbers 1 through 1231 inclusive: Install a cross beam repair...

  9. 75 FR 69745 - Aging Airplane Program: Widespread Fatigue Damage

    2010-11-15

    ... the rule, as proposed, should be deferred or withdrawn. Commenters included United Parcel Service... airplane's time in service. 2. Existing Programs Serve Purpose of Rule United Parcel Service, American... authority to issue rules on aviation safety is found in Title 49 of the United States Code. Subtitle I...

  10. 77 FR 21426 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-04-10

    ... each comment. Request to Withdraw the NPRM (76 FR 54405, September 1, 2011) United Parcel Service (UPS... Company Model 747 airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of fractured latch pins found in service... incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in the AD as of May 15, 2012. ADDRESSES: For service...

  11. 77 FR 5195 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-02-02

    ...). Support for Proposed Actions United Parcel Service Co. (UPS) supports mandating the Stage 2 inspections...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services...

  12. 77 FR 23420 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    2012-04-19

    ...-2010-24, dated August 3, 2010, does not require replacement of the reducer of the hydraulic system No... of the times specified in paragraph (n)(1) or (n)(2) of this AD: Replace the reducer of the hydraulic... requires revising certain sections of a certain airplane flight manual, deactivating certain hydraulic...

  13. 78 FR 36407 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-06-18

    ... the reducer of the hydraulic system No. 1 with a new reducer, in accordance with Part B of the... currently requires revising the airplane flight manual, deactivating and removing certain hydraulic... by reports of on-ground hydraulic accumulator screw cap/end cap failure. We are issuing this AD to...

  14. 77 FR 46943 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-08-07

    ... main equipment center (MEC). This AD requires installing aluminum gutter reinforcing brackets to the..., dated February 10, 2012, to inform operators of airplanes in groups 1, 2 and 3 of incorrect....S. Action Labor cost Parts cost Cost per product operators Install brackets 19 work-hours x Up to $2...

  15. 77 FR 65642 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-10-30

    ... the battery direct current (DC) bus. AAL added that the wing fuel pump relays and fuel cross-feed.... That NPRM proposed to require repetitive operational tests of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel... occurrences on Model 737-400 airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed...

  16. 78 FR 42411 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-07-16

    ... rear spar, and installation of a TFE sleeve if necessary. This new AD also adds airplanes to the... sources in the auxiliary (center) fuel tank, main fuel tanks, and surge tanks caused by a wiring short or... clamp location on the rear spar, and installation of a TFE sleeve if necessary. The NPRM also proposed...

  17. 78 FR 42727 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-07-17

    ...; installation of new circuit breakers, relays, relay connectors, and wiring; and replacement of certain circuit... cabin of various transport category airplanes, related to the wiring for the passenger cabin in-flight... panel, and making changes to the wiring and certain electrical load management system (ELMS) panels. We...

  18. 78 FR 27310 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-05-10

    ... wiring; installation of new circuit breakers, relays, relay connectors, and wiring; and replacement of... Installation of wiring and changing 36 work-hours x $85 per $2,503 $5,563 $328,217 ELMS panel wiring. hour = $3... flames in the passenger cabin of various transport category airplanes related to the wiring for the...

  19. 78 FR 65190 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    2013-10-31

    ... tubing from becoming blocked by water, which if not corrected, could lead to erroneous airspeed and... completely blocked by the water which didn't enter the drain bottle(s). This condition, if not corrected, may... drainage of the pitot- static tubing [and, for certain other airplanes, an inspection for, and replacement...

  20. 78 FR 21276 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-04-10

    .... Nut fractures could lead to additional nut or bolt fractures within that support rib, and these... corroded nuts on an outboard flap support rib. This proposed AD would require, for certain airplanes... ribs, related investigative and corrective actions if necessary, and replacement of all fasteners in...

  1. 78 FR 28729 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-05-16

    ... specifies a maximum compliance time limit that overrides the optional threshold formula results. This AD was... history, which includes numerous reports of fatigue cracking on certain strut and wing structure, indicated that fatigue cracking can occur on the primary strut structure before an airplane reaches its...

  2. Recursive subspace identification for in flight modal analysis of airplanes

    De Cock , Katrien; Mercère , Guillaume; De Moor , Bart

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper recursive subspace identification algorithms are applied to track the modal parameters of airplanes on-line during test flights. The ability to track changes in the damping ratios and the influence of the forgetting factor are studied through simulations.

  3. 75 FR 12667 - Airworthiness Directives; Learjet Inc. Model 45 Airplanes

    2010-03-17

    ... corroded and cracked. Three additional airplanes were discovered to contain similar corrosion on the ballnut sleeves. The root cause is galvanic corrosion due to an aluminum sleeve installed on a steel... Aerospace, Project Coordinator--Fielding Specialist, Customer Support Engineering, One Learjet Way, P.O. Box...

  4. 78 FR 73460 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-12-06

    ... America Code 29, Hydraulic Power. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of turbine wheel...-400ER series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of turbine wheel bursts in the air driven pump (ADP) turbine gearbox assembly (TGA), which resulted in the release of high energy fragments...

  5. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    2010-01-01

    .... For the purposes of this paragraph, each engine-driven source of energy must be on a different engine... airplane under IFR unless it has— (a) A vertical speed indicator; (b) A free-air temperature indicator; (c... two generators each of which is on a separate engine, or which any combination of one-half of the...

  6. 78 FR 9796 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2013-02-12

    ... (2) Model 172S, S/N l72S11074 through 172S11193. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  7. 78 FR 6254 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-01-30

    ... Association (ATA) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by... to require repetitive operational tests of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, and other... 737-400 airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of...

  8. 76 FR 70379 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    2011-11-14

    ...) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code Fuel, 28...-1245; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-033-AD; RIN 2120-AA64] Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 172R and 172S airplanes. The existing AD requires you to...

  9. 78 FR 45898 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-07-30

    ... Association (ATA) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by... airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel system... correct failure of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, which, in the event of total loss of...

  10. 78 FR 28128 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-05-14

    ...) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of... occurrences on Model 737-400 airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel system suction feed capability on one engine, and in-flight shutdown of the engine...

  11. 78 FR 52836 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-08-27

    ...) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of... airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel system... operational tests of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, and corrective actions if necessary. We...

  12. 78 FR 40065 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    2013-07-03

    ... electronic control units (HSECU); operating the airplane according to the limitations and procedures in the... incorporate repetitive operational tests of the electric motors reversion relays and trim emergency command of... electric motors reversion relays and trim emergency command of the HSTS, and repairs if necessary. We are...

  13. 77 FR 73282 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2012-12-10

    ... system for the angle of attack sensor, the total air temperature, and the pitot probes. We are issuing... angle of attack sensor, the total air temperature, and the pitot probes. Actions Since Issuance of NPRM... crew alerting for pitot heat malfunctions on Model 737 airplanes because that model incorporates ``CAPT...

  14. 78 FR 2910 - Airworthiness Directives; GROB-WERKE Airplanes

    2013-01-15

    ... arms on several Grob G 115 airplanes, which could result in failure of the part and consequent loss of...., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West... verbal contact we receive about this proposed AD. Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA...

  15. 77 FR 35304 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    2012-06-13

    ... available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace...) 329-4119; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments... found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...

  16. 78 FR 63907 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    2013-10-25

    ... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...; email: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite you to send any... using the procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer...

  17. 77 FR 49389 - Airworthiness Directives; Revo, Incorporated Airplanes

    2012-08-16

    ... attachment fitting and repetitive visual inspections of the fitting for any evidence of fretting, cracking... informed the FAA that while the drawing numbers are different, the attachment fittings on the Model..., Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust St., Kansas City, Missouri 64106. For information on the...

  18. 78 FR 27005 - Airworthiness Directives; Revo, Incorporated Airplanes

    2013-05-09

    .... That AD currently requires a one-time, dye-penetrant inspection of the horizontal stabilizer attachment... from Revo, Incorporated that, while the drawing numbers are different, the attachment fittings on the... FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust St., Kansas City, Missouri 64106. For information on the...

  19. 75 FR 32255 - Airworthiness Directives; Learjet Inc. Model 60 Airplanes

    2010-06-08

    ...) allows for recognition of an under-inflated tire before it reaches a point where the tire would need to... that we withdraw the NPRM. Cloud Nine Aviation states that the AFM requirement of a pre-flight pressure... to all business jets and other large airplanes and to those with high takeoff and landing speeds...

  20. 78 FR 57053 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    2013-09-17

    ... Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle, WA... Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor... frame from stringers 23 through 31 per Figure 5 or Figure 6 of the service bulletins specified in...